Schwartz, Aaron; Watson, Jonathan N; Hutchinson, Mark R
Patellar tendinopathy is a common condition. There are a wide variety of treatment options available, the majority of which are nonoperative. No consensus exists on the optimal method of treatment. PubMed spanning 1962-2014. Clinical review. Level 4. The majority of cases resolve with nonoperative therapy: rest, physical therapy with eccentric exercises, cryotherapy, anti-inflammatories, corticosteroid injections, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, glyceryl trinitrate, platelet-rich plasma injections, and ultrasound-guided sclerosis. Refractory cases may require either open or arthroscopic debridement of the patellar tendon. Corticosteroid injections provide short-term pain relief but increase risk of tendon rupture. Anti-inflammatories and injectable agents have shown mixed results. Surgical treatment is effective in many refractory cases unresponsive to nonoperative modalities. Physical therapy with an eccentric exercise program is the mainstay of treatment for patellar tendinopathy. Platelet-rich plasma has demonstrated mixed results; evidence-based recommendations on its efficacy cannot be made. In the event that nonoperative treatment fails, surgical intervention has produced good to excellent outcomes in the majority of patients. © 2015 The Author(s).
Schwartz, Aaron; Watson, Jonathan N.; Hutchinson, Mark R.
Context: Patellar tendinopathy is a common condition. There are a wide variety of treatment options available, the majority of which are nonoperative. No consensus exists on the optimal method of treatment. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed spanning 1962-2014. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: The majority of cases resolve with nonoperative therapy: rest, physical therapy with eccentric exercises, cryotherapy, anti-inflammatories, corticosteroid injections, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, glyceryl trinitrate, platelet-rich plasma injections, and ultrasound-guided sclerosis. Refractory cases may require either open or arthroscopic debridement of the patellar tendon. Corticosteroid injections provide short-term pain relief but increase risk of tendon rupture. Anti-inflammatories and injectable agents have shown mixed results. Surgical treatment is effective in many refractory cases unresponsive to nonoperative modalities. Conclusion: Physical therapy with an eccentric exercise program is the mainstay of treatment for patellar tendinopathy. Platelet-rich plasma has demonstrated mixed results; evidence-based recommendations on its efficacy cannot be made. In the event that nonoperative treatment fails, surgical intervention has produced good to excellent outcomes in the majority of patients. PMID:26502416
Figueroa, David; Figueroa, Francisco; Calvo, Rafael
Patellar tendinopathy is a common cause of pain in athletes' knees. Historically, it has been related to jumping sports, such as volleyball and basketball. Repetitive jumping generates a considerable load of energy in the extensor mechanism, leading to symptoms. The main pathophysiologic phenomenon in patellar tendinopathy is tendinosis, which is a degenerative disorder rather than an inflammatory disorder; therefore, the other popular term for this disease, tendinitis, is not appropriate. The nonsurgical treatment of patellar tendinopathy is focused on eccentric exercises and often has good results. Other experimental options, with variable levels of evidence, are available for recalcitrant cases. Surgical treatment is indicated for cases that are refractory to nonsurgical treatment. Open or arthroscopic surgery can be performed; the two methods are comparable, but arthroscopic surgery results in a faster recovery time.
Gill, Thomas J.; Carroll, Kaitlin M.; Hariri, Sonaz
Background: Patellar tendinopathy can be treated surgically for patients that have failed at least 1 year of nonoperative treatment who continue to have debilitating symptoms. Patellar tendinopathy can cause significant functional deficits, yet little has been reported about the operative treatment of patellar tendinopathy. Hypothesis: A combined arthroscopic and open surgical technique for the treatment of recalcitrant patellar tendinopathy results in an improvement in function and pain at a minimum 2-year follow-up. The purpose of this study was to present the indications, combined surgical technique, rehabilitation protocol, and the 2-year minimum follow-up results of the operative treatment of recalcitrant patellar tendinopathy. Study Design: Retrospective case series. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent a surgical primary patellar tendon debridement for recalcitrant patellar tendinopathy by a single surgeon between July 1999 and December 2005. Every patient failed at least 1 year of nonoperative treatment. Patients were excluded from the study if they had previous open knee surgery. Validated patient-reported outcome scores were used to assess function and pain levels pre- and postoperatively (Lysholm, International Knee Documentation Committee, Tegner activity, and visual analog pain score). Results: Thirty-four consecutive patients (37 consecutive cases) with mean follow-up 3.8 ± 1.6 years (range, 2-7.6 years) underwent the procedure with no complications. The mean age at surgery was 29 years (range, 14-51 years). Postoperatively, the visual analog score decreased by an mean of 6 points (range, 1 to −10, P < 0.001), and patients were able to return to their preinjury Tegner activity level. When asked if they were satisfied by the overall outcome of their surgery, 28 patients (82%) were completely or mostly satisfied with their surgical outcome on a particular knee; 6 (18%) were somewhat satisfied; and 2 (6%) were
O'Connell, Dennis; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Sizer, Phil; Apte, Gail; O'Connell, Janelle
Chronic tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal disorder that frequently affects athletes who train and compete at all levels. This Clinical Commentary presents a review of the etiology, incidence, and contributory factors related specifically to patellar tendinopathy. Examination and differential diagnosis considerations are provided, and an evidence-based, staged rehabilitation program is described. PMID:21589672
Patellar tendon pain is a significant problem in athletes who participate in jumping and running sports and can interfere with athletic participation. This clinical commentary reviews patellar tendon anatomy and histopathology, the language used to describe patellar tendon pathology, risk factors for patellar tendinopathy and common interventions used to address patellar tendon pain. Evidence is presented to guide clinicians in their decision-making regarding the treatment of athletes with patellar tendon pain. Level of Evidence 5 PMID:27904789
Christian, Robert A; Rossy, William H; Sherman, Orrin H
Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is a clinical and chronic overuse condition of unknown pathogenesis and etiology marked by anterior knee pain typically manifested at the inferior pole of the patella. PT has been referred to as "jumper's knee" since it is particularly common among populations of jumping athletes, such as basketball and volleyball players. Due to its common refractory response to conservative treatment, a variety of new treatments have emerged recently that include dry-needling, sclerosing injections, platelet-rich plasma therapy, arthroscopic surgical procedures, surgical resection of the inferior patellar pole, extracorporeal shock wave treatment, and hyperthermia thermotherapy. Since PT has an unknown pathogenesis and etiology, PT treatment is more a result of physician experience than evidence-based science. This review will summarize the current literature on this topic, identify current research efforts aimed to understand the pathological changes in abnormal tendons, provide exposure to the emerging treatment techniques, and provide suggested direction for future research.
Patellar tendinopathy which is a cause of pain in the inferior patellar region is a relatively common pathology among sports enthusiasts. This paper describes a new pain syndrome identified from clinical observations which is a differential diagnosis to patellar tendinopathy. The pattern is specific and recognizable among many individuals, and it should be considered as its own entity. The new syndrome is discussed in terms of the pain experienced, the diagnostic criteria, treatment and the rationale to explain it. As it is a differential diagnosis to patellar tendinopathy, many sports enthusiasts might benefit from this diagnosis. If identified correctly, treatment might be directed to the correct structures and with the appropriate modalities, ensuring the patients a fast return to their past occupations without pain and without unwarranted treatments.
Groot, H E; van der Worp, H; Nijenbanning, L; Diercks, R L; Zwerver, J; van den Akker-Scheek, I
Patellar tendinopathy is a highly prevalent overuse injury, and most treatments are only effective to some extent. This persistence of complaints could be linked to changed proprioception. One study showed diminished proprioception in athletes with lateral epicondylitis. Aim of this study was to determine differences in proprioception, by measuring threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM) between recreational athletes diagnosed with patellar tendinopathy and healthy controls. The TTDPM as measure of proprioception was determined in 22 recreational athletes with patellar tendinopathy and 22 healthy recreational athletes using a validated instrument. Amount of knee flexion and extension before the movement was noticed by the subject was determined. 80 measurements per athlete (left and right leg, towards extension and flexion and with two starting angles of 20° and 40° flexion) were performed. Mean TTDPM was compared between groups and among the injured recreational athletes between the affected and unaffected knee. No significant difference in TTDPM was found between recreational athletes with patellar tendinopathy and healthy controls. We did find a significant difference between the injured and non-injured knee in recreational athletes with patellar tendinopathy; mean TTDPM was 0.02° higher in the injured knee (p=0.044). No difference was found in proprioception between recreational athletes with patellar tendinopathy and healthy recreational athletes. It is unclear whether such a small difference in TTDPM between affected and unaffected knee is important in clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jeong, D U; Lee, C-R; Lee, J H; Pak, J; Kang, L-W; Jeong, B C; Lee, S H
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a blood derivative with high concentrations of platelets, has been found to have high levels of autologous growth factors (GFs), such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblastic growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). These GFs and other biological active proteins of PRP can promote tissue healing through the regulation of fibrosis and angiogenesis. Moreover, PRP is considered to be safe due to its autologous nature and long-term usage without any reported major complications. Therefore, PRP therapy could be an option in treating overused tendon damage such as chronic tendinopathy. Here, we present a systematic review highlighting the clinical effectiveness of PRP injection therapy in patellar tendinopathy, which is a major cause of athletes to retire from their respective careers.
Jeong, D. U.; Lee, C.-R.; Lee, J. H.; Pak, J.; Kang, L.-W.; Jeong, B. C.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a blood derivative with high concentrations of platelets, has been found to have high levels of autologous growth factors (GFs), such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblastic growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). These GFs and other biological active proteins of PRP can promote tissue healing through the regulation of fibrosis and angiogenesis. Moreover, PRP is considered to be safe due to its autologous nature and long-term usage without any reported major complications. Therefore, PRP therapy could be an option in treating overused tendon damage such as chronic tendinopathy. Here, we present a systematic review highlighting the clinical effectiveness of PRP injection therapy in patellar tendinopathy, which is a major cause of athletes to retire from their respective careers. PMID:25136568
Fairley, Jessica; Toppi, Jason; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wluka, Anita E; Giles, Graham G; Cook, Jill; O'Sullivan, Richard; Wang, Yuanyuan
Patellar tendinopathy is a common cause of activity-related anterior knee pain. Evidence is conflicting as to whether obesity is a risk factor for this condition. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between obesity and prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) defined patellar tendinopathy in community-based adults. 297 participants aged 50-79 years with no history of knee pain or injury were recruited from an existing community-based cohort. Measures of obesity included measured weight and body mass index (BMI), self-reported weight at age of 18-21 years and heaviest lifetime weight. Fat-free mass and fat mass were measured using bioelectrical impedance. Participants underwent MRI of the dominant knee. Patellar tendinopathy was defined on both T1- and T2-weighted images. The prevalence of MRI defined patellar tendinopathy was 28.3%. Current weight (OR per kg = 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.06, P = 0.002), BMI (OR per kg/m2 = 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.17, P = 0.002), heaviest lifetime weight (OR per kg = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05, P = 0.007) and weight at age of 18-21 years (OR per kg = 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.07, P = 0.05) were all positively associated with the prevalence of patellar tendinopathy. Neither fat mass nor fat-free mass was associated with patellar tendinopathy. MRI defined patellar tendinopathy is common in community-based adults and is associated with current and past history of obesity assessed by BMI or body weight, but not fat mass. The findings suggest a mechanical pathogenesis of patellar tendinopathy and patellar tendinopathy may be one mechanism for obesity related anterior knee pain.
Background Patellar tendinopathy is a common cause of activity-related anterior knee pain. Evidence is conflicting as to whether obesity is a risk factor for this condition. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between obesity and prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) defined patellar tendinopathy in community-based adults. Methods 297 participants aged 50–79 years with no history of knee pain or injury were recruited from an existing community-based cohort. Measures of obesity included measured weight and body mass index (BMI), self-reported weight at age of 18–21 years and heaviest lifetime weight. Fat-free mass and fat mass were measured using bioelectrical impedance. Participants underwent MRI of the dominant knee. Patellar tendinopathy was defined on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Results The prevalence of MRI defined patellar tendinopathy was 28.3%. Current weight (OR per kg = 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.06, P = 0.002), BMI (OR per kg/m2 = 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.17, P = 0.002), heaviest lifetime weight (OR per kg = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05, P = 0.007) and weight at age of 18–21 years (OR per kg = 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.07, P = 0.05) were all positively associated with the prevalence of patellar tendinopathy. Neither fat mass nor fat-free mass was associated with patellar tendinopathy. Conclusion MRI defined patellar tendinopathy is common in community-based adults and is associated with current and past history of obesity assessed by BMI or body weight, but not fat mass. The findings suggest a mechanical pathogenesis of patellar tendinopathy and patellar tendinopathy may be one mechanism for obesity related anterior knee pain. PMID:25098796
Lian, Øystein; Refsnes, Per-Egil; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald
Patellar tendinopathy is assumed to result from chronic tendon overload. There may be a relationship between tendon pain and jumping ability. There is no difference in performance characteristics between volleyball players with patellar tendinopathy and those without. Prospective cohort study. We examined the performance of the leg extensor apparatus in high-level male volleyball players with patellar tendinopathy (N = 24) compared with a control group (N = 23) without knee symptoms. The testing program consisted of different jump tests with and without added load, and a composite jump score was calculated to reflect overall performance. The groups were similar in age, height, and playing experience, but the patellar tendinopathy group did more specific strength training and had greater body weight. They scored significantly higher than the control group on the composite jump score (50.3 versus 39.2), and significant differences were also observed for work done in the drop-jump and average force and power in the standing jumps with half- and full-body weight loads. Greater body weight, more weight training, and better jumping performance may increase susceptibility to patellar tendinopathy in volleyball players.
Cenni, Marcos Henrique Frauendorf; Silva, Thiago Daniel Macedo; do Nascimento, Bruno Fajardo; de Andrade, Rodrigo Cristiano; Júnior, Lúcio Flávio Biondi Pinheiro; Nicolai, Oscar Pinheiro
Objective To evaluate the late-stage results from surgical treatment of patellar tendinopathy (PT), using the Visa score (Victorian Institute of Sport Tendon Study Group) and the Verheyden method. Methods This was a retrospective study in which the postoperative results from 12 patients (14 knees) who were operated between July 2002 and February 2011 were evaluated. The patients included in the study presented patellar tendinopathy that was refractory to conservative treatment, without any other concomitant lesions. Patients who were not properly followed up during the postoperative period were excluded. Results Using the Verheyden method, nine patients were considered to have very good results, two had good results and one had poor results. In relation to Visa, the mean was 92.4 points and only two patients had scores less than 70 points (66 and 55 points). Conclusion When surgical treatment for patellar tendinopathy is correctly indicated, it has good long-term results. PMID:26535202
Wearing, S C; Hooper, S L; Smeathers, J E; Pourcelot, P; Crevier-Denoix, N; Brauner, T
Measurement of loading patterns of the patellar tendon during activity is important in understanding tendon injury. We used transmission-mode ultrasonography to investigate patellar tendon loading during squatting in adults with and without tendinopathy. It was hypothesized that axial ultrasonic velocity, a surrogate measure of the elastic modulus of tendon, would be lower in tendinopathy. Ultrasound velocity was measured in both patellar tendons of adults with unilateral patellar tendinopathy (n = 9) and in healthy controls (n = 16) during a bilateral squat maneuver. Sagittal knee movement was measured simultaneously with an electrogoniometer. Statistical comparisons between healthy and injured tendons were made using two-way mixed-design ANOVAs. Axial ultrasound velocity in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patellar tendons in tendinopathy was approximately 15% higher than in healthy tendons at the commencement (F1,23 = 5.2, P < 0.05) and completion (F1,23 = 4.5, P < 0.05) of the squat. While peak velocity was ≈5% higher during both flexion (F1,23 = 5.4, P < 0.05) and extension (F1,23 = 5.3, P < 0.05) phases, there was no significant between-group difference at the midpoint of the movement. There were no significant differences in the rate and magnitude of knee movement between groups. Although further research is required, these findings suggest enhanced baseline muscle activity in patellar tendinopathy and highlight fresh avenues for its clinical management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Helland, Christian; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier R; Moltubakk, Marie M; Jakobsen, Vidar; Visnes, Håvard; Bahr, Roald
Although differences in mechanical properties between symptomatic and healthy tendons have been observed for the Achilles tendon, the impact of tendinopathy on patellar tendon mechanics is not fully documented. The aim of the present case-control study was to assess the mechanical properties of the tendon and jump performance in elite athletes with and without patellar tendinopathy. We identified 17 male volleyball players with patellar tendinopathy and 18 healthy matched controls from a 5-year prospective cohort study on junior elite volleyball players. Outcome variables included three measures of maximal vertical jump performance and ultrasound-based assessments of patellar tendon cross-sectional area, stiffness and Young's modulus. The proximal cross-sectional area of the patellar tendon was significantly larger in the tendinopathic group (133 ± 11 vs 112 ± 9 mm(2), respectively; p < 0.001). Pathological tendons presented lower stiffness (2254 ± 280 vs 2826 ± 603 N/mm, respectively; p = 0.006) and Young's modulus (0.99 ± 0.16 vs 1.17 ± 0.25 GPa, respectively; p = 0.04) than healthy tendons. However, the difference between the countermovement jump height and the squat jump height (3.4 ± 2.2 vs 1.2 ± 1.5 cm, p = 0.005) was significantly higher in the tendinopathic group compared with the control group. Patellar tendinopathy is associated with a decrease in the mechanical and material properties of the tendon in elite athletes subjected to a high volume of jumping activity. However, compared with their healthy counterparts, tendinopathic volleyball players have a better ability to utilise the stretch-shortening cycle when jumping.
Lian, Øystein; Bahr, Roald; Hart, David A.; Duronio, Vincent
Vascular function and angiogenesis are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF). The purpose of this preliminary study was to address the following questions: Is VEGF expression in the patellar tendon more prevalent in patients with patellar tendinopathy than in individuals with normal, pain-free patellar tendons? Which cell populations express VEGF in normal and tendinopathic tendon? Is there a difference in symptom duration between VEGF+ and VEGF− tendons? We collected patellar tendon tissue from 22 patients undergoing open débridement of the patellar tendon and from 10 patients undergoing intramedullary nailing of the tibia. VEGF expression was assessed immunohistochemically. Relevant inflammatory and repair cell types were immunolabeled. VEGF expression was absent from control tendons, but was present in a subset of patients with histopathological evidence of angiofibroblastic tendinosis. VEGF was expressed in the intimal layer of tendon vessels, but was absent in other cell types. Patients demonstrating VEGF expression in the patellar tendon had a shorter symptom duration (12 ± 7.8 months) than patients with no detectable VEGF (32.8 ± 23.5 months). VEGF may contribute to the vascular hyperplasia that is a cardinal feature of symptomatic tendinosis, particularly in cases with more recent onset. PMID:18459027
Hall, Mederic M; Rajasekaran, Sathish
Chronic patellar tendinopathy is a common complaint among athletes who repetitively stress the extensor mechanism of the knee. Multiple treatment options have been described, but evidence is lacking, specifically when eccentric loading has failed. Debate continues regarding the patho-etiology of chronic patellar tendon pain. There has been recent interest regarding the neurogenic influences involved in chronic tendinopathy, and interventions targeting neovessels and accompanying neonerves have shown promise. This is the first description of an ultrasound-guided technique in which the neovessels and accompanying neonerves in patellar tendinopathy were targeted using a needle scraping technique of the posterior surface of the patellar tendon.
Tendinopathy is of distinct interest as it describes a painful tendon disease with local tenderness, swelling and pain associated with sonographic features such as hypoechogenic texture and diameter enlargement. Recent research elucidated microcirculatory changes in tendinopathy using laser Doppler flowmetry and spectrophotometry such as at the Achilles tendon, the patellar tendon as well as at the elbow and the wrist level. Tendon capillary blood flow is increased at the point of pain. Tendon oxygen saturation as well as tendon postcapillary venous filling pressures, determined non-invasively using combined Laser Doppler flowmetry and spectrophotometry, can quantify, in real-time, how tendon microcirculation changes over with pathology or in response to a given therapy. Tendon oxygen saturation can be increased by repetitive, intermittent short-term ice applications in Achilles tendons; this corresponds to 'ischemic preconditioning', a method used to train tissue to sustain ischemic damage. On the other hand, decreasing tendon oxygenation may reflect local acidosis and deteriorating tendon metabolism. Painful eccentric training, a common therapy for Achilles, patellar, supraspinatus and wrist tendinopathy decreases abnormal capillary tendon flow without compromising local tendon oxygenation. Combining an Achilles pneumatic wrap with eccentric training changes tendon microcirculation in a different way than does eccentric training alone; both approaches reduce pain in Achilles tendinopathy. The microcirculatory effects of measures such as extracorporeal shock wave therapy as well as topical nitroglycerine application are to be studied in tendinopathy as well as the critical question of dosage and maintenance. Interestingly it seems that injection therapy using color Doppler for targeting the area of neovascularisation yields to good clinical results with polidocanol sclerosing therapy, but also with a combination of epinephrine and lidocaine.
Fietzer, Abbigail Lynn; Chang, Yu-Jen; Kulig, Kornelia
Dancers are exposed to the effects of repetitive jumping and leaping as are other athletes that tend to develop patellar tendinopathy. Greater vertical ground reaction forces occur during landing from a dance leap than during takeoff and during other common athletic activities. The purposes of this study were: (1) to compare the landing ground reaction force profiles of participants with and without clinically diagnosed patellar tendinopathy, and (2) to determine the strength of the relationship between landing angle, and braking impulse. Eighteen elite pre-professional dancers (12 healthy, 6 with patellar tendinopathy; both groups 50% male) performed sauts de chat for kinetic and kinematic analysis. Dancers with patellar tendinopathy demonstrated greater peak vertical ground reaction force and impulse (36% and 15% greater, respectively). Dancers with patellar tendinopathy demonstrated greater peak braking ground reaction force and impulse (82% and 126% greater, respectively). Landing angle explained 67% of the braking impulse. Dancers with patellar tendinopathy exhibited greater vertical and braking impulses than healthy dancers. Braking impulse was strongly correlated with landing angle. While there was no difference between groups in landing angle, dancers with patellar tendinopathy exhibited greater braking impulse than their non-tendinopathic counterparts, even at similar landing angles.
van Wilgen, Paul; van der Noord, Robert; Zwerver, Johannes
Patellar tendinopathy is a common and often difficult to treat overuse injury which is characterized by activity-related anterior knee and focal palpation tenderness of the patellar tendon. The clinical diagnosis is mainly based on clinical examination, in which the yardstick is a non-standardized manual palpation. To standardize this palpation procedure the use of an algometer seems applicable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and reliability of the algometer in patellar tendinopathy. A cross sectional study was carried out.The algometer was applied to the patellar tendon in 20 asymptomatic volleyball players to measure the 'normal' pressure pain threshold. The inter-rater reliability was analyzed in 54 athletes with symptomatic patellar tendinopathy, the intra-rater reliability was analyzed in 48 athletes with symptomatic patellar tendinopathy. During the procedure difficulties were described, the SEM, intra class correlations and limits of agreement were determined using the Bland and Altman method. The feasibility of the algometer is adequate. The PPT of asymptomatic athletes differs significantly (p<.001) from athletes with a diagnosis of patellar tendinopathy. The inter-rater (ICC 0.93) and intra-rater (ICC 0.60) reliability of the pain pressure threshold are adequate to moderate. Although further research is warranted PPT algometry seems to be a feasible, reliable and useful tool in the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of athletes with patellar tendinopathy.
Rosen, Adam B; Ko, Jupil; Simpson, Kathy J; Brown, Cathleen N
To determine if patellar tendon straps altered quadriceps' muscle activity during a drop-jump landing in males with and without patellar tendinopathy. Case-control. Biomechanics Research Laboratory. Twenty recreationally-active males participated: ten (age = 21.3 ± 2.4 years, height = 182.8 ± 5.3 cm, mass = 81.7 ± 8.6 kg) with patellar tendinopathy; ten (age = 22.0 ± 1.6 years, height = 185.7 ± 4.5 cm, mass = 82.2 ± 9.8 kg) were healthy with no history of tendinopathy. Electromyography (EMG) data for the vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles were collected. Five 2-legged 40 cm drop-jumps were performed wearing a patellar tendon strap and 5 with no-strap in a counterbalanced order. Root-mean square EMG (REMG) values of the VM, RF, and VL were averaged for a pre-landing and post-landing interval. Multiple mixed-model two-way ANOVAs were performed to determine the effect of tendinopathy and strapping condition on REMG values for each muscle. For the pre-landing interval, all participants displayed lesser VL EMG activation (0.44 ± 0.19%, 0.53 ± 0.27%, respectively; p = 0.007, d = 0.39) in the no-strap compared with the strap condition. When wearing a strap, all participants demonstrated lower VL activation prior to landing which may be helpful in reducing tensile stress at the tendon. These effects may be clinically important in modulating pain in those with patellar tendinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kulig, K; Landel, R; Chang, Y-J; Hannanvash, N; Reischl, S F; Song, P; Bashford, G R
Appropriate management of patellar tendinopathy requires distinguishing between inflammatory and degenerative conditions, often difficult because tendon thickening can be a normal or pathological adaptation, and micromorphology is not observable on clinical imaging. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine patellar tendon micro- and macromorphology in volleyball athletes and relate those findings to reported symptoms. Longitudinal ultrasound images of proximal and distal patellar tendons were acquired from 84 male elite volleyball athletes (44 symptomatic, 40 asymptomatic) and 10 asymptomatic nonathlete controls. Micromorphology was determined using two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform analysis providing a discriminating peak spatial frequency parameter (PSF). Macromorphology (patellar tendon thickness) was measured using Image J software. All athletes regardless of symptoms had thicker proximal tendons compared to nonathletes, suggesting a normal adaptation to training loads. However, symptomatic athletes demonstrated lower PSF than asymptomatic athletes and nonathletes at the proximal tendon, suggesting greater collagen disorganization, and tendon degeneration rather than inflammation. Only symptomatic athletes had thicker distal tendons than nonathletes, but there was no difference in PSF distally. Diagnostic ultrasound enhances the understanding of the micromorphology of patellar tendons, supporting the rationale for management that remodels the degenerated tendon instead of treating inflammation.
Bisseling, Rob W; Hof, At L; Bredeweg, Steef W; Zwerver, Johannes; Mulder, Theo
Objective The aetiology of patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee) remains unclear. To see whether landing strategy might be a risk factor for the development of this injury, this study examined whether landing dynamics from drop jumps differed among healthy volleyball players (CON) and volleyball players with a jumper's knee. The patients with jumper's knee were divided into an asymptomatic group with a previous jumper's knee (PJK) and a symptomatic group with a recent jumper's knee (RJK). Methods Inverse dynamics analyses were used to estimate lower extremity joint dynamics from 30, 50 and 70 cm drop jumps in the three groups (CON, n = 8; PJK, n = 7; RJK, n = 9). A univariate repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the different landing techniques. Results Data analysis of the landing dynamics revealed that PJK showed higher knee angular velocities (p<0.01), and higher ankle plantar flexion moment loading rate (p<0.01). Furthermore, strong tendencies of higher loading rate of vertical ground reaction force (p = 0.05) and higher knee extensor moment loading rate (p = 0.08) were found compared with CON. Higher values for peak knee moment, peak knee power and knee work (all p<0.01) were found for CON compared with RJK. The comparison of the two jumper's knee groups yielded higher knee angular velocities (p<0.01), together with higher ankle plantar flexion and knee extensor moment loading rate (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Conclusion Where RJK used a landing technique to avoid high patellar tendon loading, PJK used a stiffer landing strategy, which may be a risk factor in the development of patellar tendinopathy. PMID:17224437
de Vries, A; Zwerver, J; Diercks, R; Tak, I; van Berkel, S; van Cingel, R; van der Worp, H; van den Akker-Scheek, I
Numerous athletes with patellar tendinopathy (PT) use a patellar strap or sports tape during sports. This study's aim was to investigate the short-term effect of these orthoses on patellar tendon pain. Participants performed the single-leg decline squat, vertical jump test, and triple-hop test under four different conditions (patellar strap, sports tape, placebo, and control). Subsequently, participants practiced sports as usual for 2 weeks; during 1 week, they were assigned to one of the four conditions. Pain was measured with the visual analog scale (VAS). In total, 97 athletes with PT [61% male, age 27.0 (SD8.1), VISA-P 58.5 (SD12.7)] were analyzed. On the single-leg decline squat, the VAS pain score reduced significantly in the patellar strap (14 mm, P = 0.04) and the sports tape condition (13 mm, P = 0.04), compared with control, but not placebo. A significant decrease in VAS pain during sports was found in the sports tape (7 mm, P = 0.04) and placebo group (6 mm, P = 0.04). The VAS pain score two hours after sports decreased significantly in the patellar strap, sports tape and placebo group (8-mm, P < 0.001, 10 mm, P = 0.001 and 7 mm, P = 0.03, respectively). This study's findings indicate that an orthosis (including placebo tape) during sports can reduce pain in PT patients in the short term. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lee, W C; Zhang, Z J; Masci, L; Ng, G Y F; Fu, Siu Ngor
To compare tendon strain and stiffness between athletes with patellar tendinopathy and healthy controls, and explore whether the intensity of pain and dysfunction were related to the mechanical properties of the tendon. Thirty-four male athletes with patellar tendinopathy and 13 healthy controls matched by age and activity levels were recruited. The in vivo mechanical properties of the patellar tendon were examined by ultrasonography and dynamometry. In subjects with patellar tendinopathy, the intensities of self-perceived pain (maximal pain in the past 7 days and pain during a single-legged declined-squat test) using the visual analogue scale and the assessment of functional disability using the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-patellar questionnaire, were collected. In subjects with patellar tendinopathy, tendon strain was significantly reduced by 22% (8.9 ± 3.7 vs. 14.3 ± 4.7%, P = 0.005) when compared with healthy controls. There was no significant group difference in tendon stiffness (P = 0.27). Significant negative correlations between tendon strain and the maximal self-perceived pain over 7 days (r = -0.37, P = 0.03), and pain during a single-legged declined-squat test (r = -0.37, P = 0.03) were detected. A trend of significant positive correlation was found between tendon stiffness and pain during a single-legged declined-squat test (r = 0.30, P = 0.09). Our findings show that tendon strain is reduced in athletes with patellar tendinopathy, and a lower tendon strain is associated with a greater magnitude of pain perceived.
Malliaras, Peter; Cook, Jill; Purdam, Craig; Rio, Ebonie
Synopsis The hallmark features of patellar tendinopathy are (1) pain localized to the inferior pole of the patella and (2) load-related pain that increases with the demand on the knee extensors, notably in activities that store and release energy in the patellar tendon. While imaging may assist in differential diagnosis, the diagnosis of patellar tendinopathy remains clinical, as asymptomatic tendon pathology may exist in people who have pain from other anterior knee sources. A thorough examination is required to diagnose patellar tendinopathy and contributing factors. Management of patellar tendinopathy should focus on progressively developing load tolerance of the tendon, the musculoskeletal unit, and the kinetic chain, as well as addressing key biomechanical and other risk factors. Rehabilitation can be slow and sometimes frustrating. This review aims to assist clinicians with key concepts related to examination, diagnosis, and management of patellar tendinopathy. Difficult clinical presentations (eg, highly irritable tendon, systemic comorbidities) as well as common pitfalls, such as unrealistic rehabilitation time frames and overreliance on passive treatments, are also discussed. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(11):887-898. Epub 21 Sep 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5987.
Zwerver, Johannes; Kramer, Tamara; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge
Background The VISA-P questionnaire evaluates severity of symptoms, knee function and ability to play sports in athletes with patellar tendinopathy. This English-language self-administered brief patient outcome score was developed in Australia to monitor rehabilitation and to evaluate outcome of clinical studies. Aim of this study was to translate the questionnaire into Dutch and to study the reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the VISA-P. Methods The questionnaire was translated into Dutch according to internationally recommended guidelines. Test-retest reliability was determined in 99 students with a time interval of 2.5 weeks. To determine discriminative validity of the Dutch VISA-P, 18 healthy students, 15 competitive volleyball players (at-risk population), 14 patients with patellar tendinopathy, 6 patients who had surgery for patellar tendinopathy, 17 patients with knee injuries other than patellar tendinopathy, and 9 patients with symptoms unrelated to their knees completed the Dutch VISA-P. Results The Dutch VISA-P questionnaire showed satisfactory test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.74). The mean (± SD) VISA-P scores were 95 (± 9) for the healthy students, 89 (± 11) for the volleyball players, 58 (± 19) for patients with patellar tendinopathy, and 56 (± 21) for athletes who had surgery for patellar tendinopathy. Patients with other knee injuries or symptoms unrelated to the knee scored 62 (± 24) and 77 (± 24). Conclusion The translated Dutch version of the VISA-P questionnaire is equivalent to its original version, has satisfactory test-retest reliability and is a valid score to evaluate symptoms, knee function and ability to play sports of Dutch athletes with patellar tendinopathy. PMID:19671174
Kongsgaard, Mads; Qvortrup, Klaus; Larsen, Jytte; Aagaard, Per; Doessing, Simon; Hansen, Philip; Kjaer, Michael; Magnusson, S Peter
Patellar tendinopathy is characterized by pathologic abnormalities. Heavy slow resistance training (HSR) is effective in the management of patellar tendinopathy, but the underlying functional mechanisms remain elusive. To investigate fibril morphology and mechanical properties in patellar tendinopathy and the effect of HSR on these properties. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Eight male patients with patellar tendinopathy completed 12 weeks of HSR. Nine healthy subjects served as controls. Assessments were conducted at baseline and at 12 weeks. Patients assessed symptoms/function and maximal tendon pain during activity. Tendon biopsy samples were analyzed for fibril density, volume fraction, and mean fibril area. Tendon mechanical properties were assessed using force and ultrasonography samplings. Patients improved in symptoms/function (P = .02) and maximal tendon pain during activity (P = .008). Stiffness and modulus of control and tendinopathy tendons were similar at baseline. Stiffness remained unaffected in control tendons (3487 +/- 392 to 3157 +/- 327 N/mm, P = .57) but declined in tendinopathic tendons at 12 weeks (3185 +/- 187 to 2701 +/- 201 N/mm, P = .04). At baseline, fibril volume fraction was equal, fibril density smaller (P = .03), and mean fibril area tended to be higher in tendinopathy versus controls (P = .07). Fibril morphology remained unchanged in controls but fibril density increased (70% +/- 18%, P = .02) and fibril mean area decreased (-26% +/- 21%, P = .04) in tendinopathic tendons after HSR. Fibril morphology is abnormal in tendinopathy, but tendon mechanical properties are not. Clinical improvements after HSR were associated with changes in fibril morphology toward normal fibril density and mean fibril area. Heavy slow resistance training improved the clinical outcome of patellar tendinopathy, and these improvements were associated with normalization of fibril morphology, most likely due to a production of new fibrils.
Wearing, Scott C; Locke, Simon; Smeathers, James E; Hooper, Sue L
This research evaluated the effect of tendinopathy on the cumulative transverse strain response of the patellar tendon to a bout of resistive quadriceps exercise. Nine adults with unilateral patellar tendinopathy (age, 18.2 ± 0.7 yr; height, 1.92 ± 0.06 m; weight, 76.8 ± 6.8 kg) and 10 healthy adults free of knee pain (age, 17.8 ± 0.8 yr; height, 1.83 ± 0.05 m; weight, 73.2 ± 7.6 kg) underwent standardized sagittal sonograms (7.2-14 MHz linear array transducer) of both patellar tendons immediately before and after 45 repetitions of a double-leg decline squat exercise performed against a resistance of 145% body weight. Tendon thickness was determined 5 and 25 mm distal to the patellar pole. Transverse Hencky strain was calculated as the natural log of the ratio of post- to preexercise tendon thickness and expressed as percentage. Measures of tendon echogenicity were calculated within the superficial and deep aspects of each tendon site from grayscale profiles. Intratendinous microvessels were evaluated using power Doppler ultrasound. The cumulative transverse strain response to exercise in symptomatic tendinopathy was significantly lower than that in asymptomatic and healthy tendons (P < 0.05). There was also significant reduction (57%) in the area of microvascularity immediately after exercise (P = 0.05), which was positively correlated (r = 0.93, P < 0.05) with a Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment for patellar tendinopathy score. This study is the first to show that patellar tendinopathy is associated with altered morphological and mechanical response of the tendon to exercise, which is manifest by reduction in cumulative transverse strain and microvascularity, when present. Research directed toward identifying factors that influence the acute microvascular and transverse strain response of the patellar tendon to exercise in the various stages of tendinopathy is warranted.
Cassel, M; Baur, H; Hirschmüller, A; Carlsohn, A; Fröhlich, K; Mayer, F
Achilles (AT) and patellar tendons (PT) are commonly affected by tendinopathy in adult athletes but prevalence of symptoms and morphological changes in adolescents is unclear. The study aimed to determine prevalence of tendinopathy and intratendinous changes in ATs and PTs of adolescent athletes. A total of 760 adolescent athletes (13.0 ± 1.9 years; 160 ± 13 cm; 50 ± 14 kg) were examined. History, local clinical examination, and longitudinal Doppler ultrasound analysis for both ATs and PTs were performed including identification of intratendinous echoic changes and vascularization. Diagnosis of tendinopathy was complied clinically in case of positive history of tendon pain and tendon pain on palpation. Achilles tendinopathy was diagnosed in 1.8% and patellar tendinopathy in 5.8%. Vascularizations were visible in 3.0% of ATs and 11.4% of PTs, hypoechogenicities in 0.7% and 3.2% as well as hyperechogenicities in 0% and 0.3%, respectively. Vascularizations and hypoechogenicities were statistically significantly more often in males than in females (P ≤ 0.02). Subjects with patellar tendinopathy had higher prevalence of structural intratendinous changes than those without PT symptoms (P ≤ 0.001). In adolescent athletes, patellar tendinopathy is three times more frequent compared with Achilles tendinopathy. Longitudinal studies are necessary to investigate physiological or pathological origin of vascularizations and its predictive value in development of tendinopathy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Torres, Rui; Ferreira, João; Silva, Diogo; Rodrigues, Elisa; Bessa, Isabel M; Ribeiro, Fernando
To determine whether high-level athletes with patellar tendinopathy have diminished knee proprioceptive acuity. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory (institutional). Twenty-one basketball and volleyball players with patellar tendinopathy (13 men and 8 women; mean age 24.5 ± 3.6; body mass index = 22.5 ± 2.0 kg/m) and an equal number of athletes without symptoms of patellar tendinopathy injury were included in this study. Participants underwent knee proprioception assessments on a single day. Furthermore, age, sex, height, weight, VISA-P (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment) questionnaire sports participation, medical history, knee injuries, previous treatment, and medication were obtained. Knee proprioception was evaluated by assessing sense of resistance, using a weight discrimination protocol, and joint position sense (JPS). No significant differences were observed in JPS at 30 and 60 degrees of knee flexion between groups (P = 0.165 and 0.481, respectively). In regard to the ability to discriminate weight, significant differences between the 2 groups were found with the tendinopathy group showing a higher percentage of error (P = 0.009), namely when the set of incremental weights varied by 10% from the standard weight. Athletes with patellar tendinopathy have a diminished perception of force signals required for weight discrimination, whereas JPS remains unaffected in these athletes.
Couppé, C; Kongsgaard, M; Aagaard, P; Vinther, A; Boesen, M; Kjaer, M; Magnusson, S P
The aim of this study was to examine the structural and mechanical properties of the patellar tendon in elite male badminton players with and without patellar tendinopathy. Seven players with unilateral patellar tendinopathy (PT group) on the lead extremity (used for forward lunge) and nine players with no current or previous patellar tendinopathy (CT group) were included. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess distal patellar tendon dimensions. Patellar tendon mechanical properties were assessed using simultaneous tendon force and deformation measurements. Distal tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) normalized for body weight (mm(2) /kg(2/3) ) was lower in the PT group compared with the CT group on both the non-lead extremity (6.1 ± 0.3 vs 7.4 ± 0.2, P < 0.05) and the lead extremity (6.5 ± 0.6 vs 8.4 ± 0.3, P < 0.05). Distal tendon stress was higher in the PT group compared with the CT group for both the non-lead extremity (31 ± 1 vs 27 ± 1 MPa, P < 0.05) and the lead extremity (32 ± 3 vs 21 ± 3 MPa, P < 0.01). Conclusively, the PT group had smaller distal patellar tendon CSA on both the injured (lead extremity) and the uninjured side (non-lead extremity) compared with the CT group. Subsequently, the smaller CSA yielded a greater distal patellar tendon stress in the PT group. Therefore, a small tendon CSA may predispose to the development of tendinopathy.
Janssen, I; Steele, J R; Munro, B J; Brown, N A T
Patellar tendinopathy is the most common knee injury incurred in volleyball, with its prevalence in elite athletes more than three times that of their sub-elite counterparts. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patellar tendinopathy risk factors differed between elite and sub-elite male volleyball players. Nine elite and nine sub-elite male volleyball players performed a lateral stop-jump block movement. Maximum vertical jump, training history, muscle extensibility and strength, three-dimensional landing kinematics (250 Hz), along with lower limb neuromuscular activation patterns (1500 Hz), and patellar tendon loading were collected during each trial. Multivariate analyses of variance (P < 0.05) assessed for between-group differences in risk factors or patellar tendon loading. Significant interaction effects were further evaluated using post-hoc univariate analysis of variance tests. Landing kinematics, neuromuscular activation patterns, patellar tendon loading, and most of the previously identified risk factors did not differ between the elite and sub-elite players. However, elite players participated in a higher training volume and had less quadriceps extensibility than sub-elite players. Therefore, high training volume is likely the primary contributor to the injury discrepancy between elite and sub-elite volleyball players. Interventions designed to reduce landing frequency and improve quadriceps extensibility are recommended to reduce patellar tendinopathy prevalence in volleyball players.
Pearson, Stephen John; Hussain, Syed Robiul
Patellar tendinopathy is a common painful musculoskeletal disorder with a very high prevalence in the athletic population that can severely limit or even end an athletic career. To date, the underlying pathophysiology leading to the condition remains poorly understood, although reports suggesting that patellar tendinopathy most frequently concerns the proximal posterior region of the tendon has prompted some researchers to examine region-specific tendon properties for a better understanding of the etiology and potential risk factors associated with the condition. However, to date, research concerning the in vivo region-specific tendon properties in relation to patellar tendinopathy is very scarce, perhaps due to the lack of validated techniques that can determine such properties in vivo. In recent years, a technique has been developed involving an automated tendon-tracking program that appears to be very useful in the determination of region-specific tendon properties in vivo. In terms of regional variations in tendon properties, previous research has demonstrated differences in structural, mechanical, and biochemical properties between the discrete regions of the patellar tendon, but the extent to which these regional variations contribute to patellar tendinopathy remains elusive. In addition, with respect to treatment strategies for patellar tendinopathy, previous research has utilized a wide range of interventions, but the use of eccentric exercise (EE) and/or heavy-slow resistance (HSR) training appear to be most promising. However, the optimal program design variables of EE and HSR training that induce the most favorable effects are yet to be determined. This review article provides a detailed discussion of all of the above to allow a better understanding of the etiology and potential risk factors associated with the condition as well as the most effective treatment strategies. First, a comprehensive literature review is provided with respect to region
Richards, David P; Ajemian, Stanley V; Wiley, J Preston; Brunet, Jacques A; Zernicke, Ronald F
Ankle joint complex dynamics developed during volleyball spike jumps take-offs and landings were quantified to assess potential relations between these joint dynamics and patellar tendinopathy. Three-dimensional kinematic data provided information about movements of the lower limbs, while the kinetic data permitted analysis of ground reaction forces as players took-off and landed from full-speed spike jumps. Simulated volleyball court with net in a biomechanics research laboratory. 10 members of the Canadian Men's National Volleyball Team. From history and physical examination, 3 of the 10 players had patellar tendon pain associated with activity and were diagnosed with patellar tendinopathy at the time of the study. Investigators were blinded about the injury status of the players. None. Three-dimensional kinematics and joint moments of the ankle, knee, and hip joints. Our analysis revealed that maximal external tibial rotation occurred at or near maximal dorsiflexion while maximal internal tibial rotation coincided with maximal plantarflexion. The plantarflexion moment was 3 to 10 times greater than all the other moments measured, with the maximal plantarflexor moment being calculated at 0.4 BWm (360 Nm). In blinded logistic regression analyses, we found one of the dynamics variables (inversion moment during the landing of the spike jump) was a significant predictor of patellar tendinopathy. Coupling the results of the current analysis of ankle joint complex dynamics with previously reported results of knee joint dynamics related to patellar tendinopathy suggests that a cluster of variables linked to patellar tendinopathy includes: high ankle inversion-eversion moments, high external tibial rotation and plantarflexion moments, large vertical ground reaction forces, and high rate of knee extensor moment development.
Everhart, Joshua S; Cole, Devon; Sojka, John H; Higgins, John D; Magnussen, Robert A; Schmitt, Laura C; Flanigan, David C
To compare the efficacy of common invasive and noninvasive patellar tendinopathy (PT) treatment strategies. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, UptoDate, Cochrane Reviews, and SPORTDiscus. Fifteen studies met the following inclusion criteria: (1) therapeutic outcome trial for PT, and (2) Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment was used to assess symptom severity at follow-up. Methodological quality and reporting bias were evaluated with a modified Coleman score and Begg's and Egger's tests of bias, respectively. A total of 15 studies were included. Reporting quality was high (mean Coleman score 86.0, standard deviation 9.7), and there was no systematic evidence of reporting bias. Increased duration of symptoms resulted in poorer outcomes regardless of treatment (0.9% decrease in improvement per additional month of symptoms; P = .004). Eccentric training with or without core stabilization or stretching improved symptoms (61% improvement in the Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment score, 95% confidence interval [CI] 53% to 69%). Surgery in patients refractory to nonoperative treatment also improved symptoms (57%, 95% CI 52% to 62%) with similar outcomes among arthroscopic and open approaches. Results from shockwave (54%, 95% CI 22% to 87%) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) studies (55%, 95% CI 5% to 105%) varied widely though PRP may accelerate early recovery. Finally, steroid injection provided no benefit (20%, 95% CI -20% to 60%). Initial treatment of PT can consist of eccentric squat-based therapy, shockwave, or PRP as monotherapy or an adjunct to accelerate recovery. Surgery or shockwave can be considered for patients who fail to improve after 6 months of conservative treatment. Corticosteroid therapy should not be used in the treatment of PT. Level IV, systematic review of Level II-IV studies. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sorenson, Shawn C; Arya, Shruti; Souza, Richard B; Pollard, Christine D; Salem, George J; Kulig, Kornelia
Controlled laboratory study using a cross-sectional design. To evaluate knee joint dynamics in elite volleyball players with and without a history of patellar tendinopathy, focusing on mechanical energy absorption and generation. We hypothesized that tendinopathy would be associated withreduced net joint work and net joint power. Patellar tendinopathy is a common, debilitating injury affecting competitive volleyball players. Thirteen elite male players with and without a history of patellar tendinopathy (mean ± SD age, 27 ± 7 years) performed maximum-effort volleyball approach jumps. Sagittal plane knee joint kinematics, kinetics, and energetics were quantified in the lead limb, using data obtained from a force platform and an 8-camera motion analysis system. Vertical ground reaction forces and pelvis vertical velocity at takeoff were examined. Independent sample t tests were used to evaluate group differences (α = .05). The tendinopathy group, compared to controls, demonstrated significant reductions (approximately 30%) in net joint work and net joint power during the eccentric phase of the jump, with no differences in the concentric phase. Positive to-negative net joint work and net joint power ratios were significantly higher in the tendinopathy group, which had a net joint work ratio of 1.00 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.24) versus 0.76 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.88) for controls, and a net joint power ratio of 1.62 (95% CI: 1.15, 2.10) versus 1.00 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.21) for controls. There were no significant differences in net joint moment, angular velocity, or range of motion. Peak vertical ground reaction forces were lower for the tendinopathy group, while average vertical ground reaction forces and pelvis vertical velocity were similar. Patellar tendinopathy is associated with differences in sagittal plane mechanical energy absorption at the knee during maximum-effort volleyball approach jumps. Net joint work and net joint power may help define underlying mechanisms, adaptive
Van der Worp, H; de Poel, H J; Diercks, R L; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Zwerver, J
Patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee) is a common injury in sports that comprise jump actions. This article systematically reviews the literature examining the relation between patellar tendinopathy and take-off and landing kinematics in order to uncover risk factors and potential prevention strategies. A systematic search of the Pubmed, Embase and Amed databases was performed to identify studies that reported kinematics of sport specific jumps in relation to patellar tendinopathy. A quantitative analysis was performed on 4 indentified studies. Differences were found only between controls and asymptomatic subjects with patellar tendon abnormalities. Most differences were found during horizontal landing after forward acceleration. A synthesis of the literature suggests that horizontal landing poses the greatest threat for developing patellar tendinopathy. A stiff movement pattern with a small post-touchdown range of motion and short landing time is associated with the onset of patellar tendinopathy. Accordingly, employing a flexible landing pattern seems to be an expedient strategy for reducing the risk for (re-) developing patellar tendinopathy. Together, these findings indicate that improving kinetic chain functioning, performing eccentric exercises and changing landing patterns are potential tools for preventive and/or therapeutic purposes.
Di Matteo, B; Filardo, G; Kon, E; Marcacci, M
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been introduced in the clinical practice to treat a growing number of different musculoskeletal pathologies. It is currently applied in the treatment of Achilles and patellar tendinopathies, which are common sport-related injuries very challenging to manage. Aim of the present paper was to review systematically the available clinical evidence concerning the application of PRP in the treatment of patellar and Achilles tendinopathy. A systematic review of the literature was performed according to the following inclusion criteria for relevant articles: (1) clinical reports of any level of evidence, (2) written in the English language, (3) with no time limitation and (4) on the use of PRP to treat conservatively Achilles and patellar tendinopathy. Twenty-two studies were included and analyzed. Two studies on patellar tendinopathy were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), whereas just one RCT was published on Achilles tendon. All the papers concerning patellar tendon reported positive outcome for PRP, which proved to be superior to other traditional approaches such as shock-wave therapy and dry needling. In the case of Achilles tendon, despite the encouraging findings reported by case series, the only RCT available showed no significant clinical difference between PRP and saline solution. The main finding of this study was the paucity of high-level literature regarding the application of PRP in the management of patellar and Achilles tendinopathy. However, the clinical data currently available, although not univocal, suggest considering PRP as a therapeutic option for recalcitrant patellar and Achilles tendinopathies.
van der Worp, H; Zwerver, J; Kuijer, P P F M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; van den Akker-Scheek, I
Patellar tendinopathy is a common injury in jumping athletes. Little is known about work-related etiological factors for patellar tendinopathy and related work limitations. The aim of this study was to identify work-related etiological factors for patellar tendinopathy and to determine the relation between patellar tendinopathy and work limitations. Basketball and volleyball players between 18 and 35 years were invited to complete an online-questionnaire concerning knee complaints, etiological risk factors for patellar tendinopathy and related work limitations. A total of 1505 subjects were included in the analysis. Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy were gender and heavy physically demanding work. The odds for having patellar tendinopathy were significantly higher for heavy physically demanding occupations compared to mentally demanding occupations. 30% of subjects with patellar tendinopathy with a physically demanding job reported to be impaired in their work and 17% reported to be less productive. Basketball and volleyball players with heavy physically demanding work seem to have an increased risk for developing patellar tendinopathy. This finding has important clinical relevance in the treatment of this injury. Working activities should be adjusted in order to reduce the total load on the patellar tendon and help prevention and recovery.
Gemignani, Michele; Busoni, Francesco; Tonerini, Michele; Scaglione, Mariano
The purpose of this study is to determine in the athletes a sonographic grading of the patellar tendinopathy correlated to prognosis and therapy. The 298 patellar overuse tendinopathies were divided in four grades according to the extension of the injured area of the tendon in the axial sonograms. Grades 1, 2, and 3 were managed with medical and physical therapy. A surgical treatment was performed in grade 4 and in grades 1, 2, and 3 tendinopathies not responding to our conservative therapy. There were 21.8% injuries in grade 1 (100% responding; prognosis 20 days), 61.2% injuries in grade 2 (94.5% responding; prognosis 40 days), 16.4% injuries in grade 3 (85.7% responding; prognosis 90 days), and 0.6% injuries in grade 4. The sonographic study is fundamental to characterize adequately the patellar tendinopathy. The conservative therapy is the first option for grades 1, 2, and 3 as it determines a complete healing in most of cases.
Alaseirlis, Dimosthenis Artemis; Konstantinidis, George Athanasios; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Nakou, Lamprini Stefanos; Korompilias, Anastasios; Maffulli, Nicola
Summary To present the results of arthroscopic treatment of patellar tendinopathy in high-level competition athletes. Eleven high-level athletes presented chronic patellar tendinopathy which did not respond to long term conservative treatment. Average age of the patients was 24.8 ±3.4 years old. All patients received an arthroscopic procedure with osteoplasty of the distal patellar pole, debridement of the underlying Hoffa fat pad and of the degenerated areas of the proximal posterior patella tendon and cauterization of the visible neo-vessels. Mean duration of follow-up was 17.4±4 months. Patients showed a major improvement in the Lysholm score from 49.9±5.2 to 92.5±7 and in the VISA P score from 41.2±5.2 to 86.8±14.9 on tenth post-operative week. All patients had returned to sports activities by the twelfth postoperative week. Arthroscopic treatment of chronic patellar tendinopathy found to be a minimal invasive and safe technique which produced satisfactory results. PMID:23738308
Bode, Gerrit; Hammer, Thorsten; Karvouniaris, N; Feucht, M J; Konstantinidis, L; Südkamp, N P; Hirschmüller, A
The prevalence of patellar tendinopathy is elevated in elite soccer compared to less explosive sports. While the burden of training hours and load is comparably high in youth elite players (age < 23 years), little is known about the prevalence of patellar tendinopathy at this age. There is only little data available on the influence of age, the amount of training, the position on the field, as well as muscular strength, range of motion, or sonographical findings in this age group. The purpose of the present study was to examine the above-mentioned parameters in all age groups of a German youth elite soccer academy. One hundred nineteen male youth soccer players (age 15,97 ± 2,24 years, height 174, 60 ± 10,16 cm, BMI 21, 24 ± 2,65) of the U-13 to U-23 teams were part of the study. Data acquisition included sport specific parameters such as footwear, amount of training hours, leg dominance, history of tendon pathologies, and clinical examination for palpatory pain, indurations, muscular circumference, and range of motion. Subjective complaints were measured with the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment Patellar (VISA-P) Score. Furthermore, sonographical examinations (Aplio SSA-770A/80; Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan) with 12-MHz multifrequency linear transducers (8-14 MHz) of both patellar tendons were performed with special emphasis on hyper- and hypo echogenic areas, diameter and neovascularization. The prevalence of patellar tendinopathies was 13.4%. Seventy-five percent of the players complained of pain of their dominant leg with onset of pain at training in 87.5%. The injured players showed a medium amount of 10.34 ± 3.85 training hours and a medium duration of symptoms of 11.94 ± 18.75 weeks. Two thirds of players with patellar tendinopathy were at the age of 15-17 (Odds ratio 1.89) while no differences between players of the national or regional league were observed. In case of patellar tendinopathy, VISA-P was significantly lower in comparison
Zhang, Z J; Ng, G Y F; Lee, W C; Fu, S N
To investigate the passive muscle tension of the quadriceps muscle heads in male athletes clinically diagnosed with patellar tendinopathy (PT) with those of healthy controls and explore the interplay between passive muscle tension and patellar tendon stiffness. Between November 2012 and December 2013, 66 male athletes (mean age of 21.1 ± 4.4 years) were examined using supersonic shear wave imaging technology. The passive tension of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles and patellar tendon stiffness were assessed. The shear elastic modulus of the VL muscle was increased by 26.5% (P < 0.001) in the subjects with PT when compared with the controls. Greater passive tension in the VL was associated with higher patellar tendon stiffness (r = 0.38; P = 0.001). The vastus lateralis muscle of the quadriceps shows increase in passive muscle tension in jumping athletes with patellar tendinopathy. These findings suggest that increase in muscle tension is not similar in the individual muscles of the quadriceps muscle. Traditional stretching of the whole quadriceps muscle might not be targeted to the tight muscle heads.
McCreesh, Karen M; Riley, Sara J; Crotty, James M
This report describes the case of an amateur soccer player with chronic patellar tendinopathy who underwent ultrasound imaging before and after engaging in an 8-week programme of eccentric exercise. On initial assessment, greyscale ultrasound imaging demonstrated tendon thickening and reduced echogenicity, while Power Doppler imaging demonstrated a large amount of neovascularity. After 8 weeks of an eccentric loading programme, the patient reported significantly improved symptoms and functional scores, while follow-up imaging demonstrated improvement in the echo appearance of the tendon and complete resolution of the neovascularity. The association between neovascularity and symptoms in tendinopathy research is conflicting, with a paucity of research in the area of patellar tendinopathy. While further research is needed to clarify the significance of greyscale and Power Doppler ultrasound changes in relation to symptoms in patellar tendinopathy, ultrasound imaging was shown to be a useful adjunct to diagnosis and outcome assessment in this case.
Bahr, Roald; Fossan, Bjørn; Løken, Sverre; Engebretsen, Lars
Although the surgical treatment of patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee) is a common procedure, there have been no randomized, controlled trials comparing this treatment with forms of nonoperative treatment. The purpose of the present study was to compare the outcome of open patellar tenotomy with that of eccentric strength training in patients with patellar tendinopathy. Thirty-five patients (forty knees) who had been referred for the treatment of grade-IIIB patellar tendinopathy were randomized to surgical treatment (twenty knees) or eccentric strength training (twenty knees). The eccentric training group performed squats on a 25 degrees decline board as a home exercise program (with three sets of fifteen repetitions being performed twice daily) for a twelve-week intervention period. In the surgical treatment group, the abnormal tissue was removed by means of a wedge-shaped full-thickness excision, followed by a structured rehabilitation program with gradual progression to eccentric training. The primary outcome measure was the VISA (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment) score (possible range, 0 to 100), which was calculated on the basis of answers to a symptom-based questionnaire that was developed specifically for patellar tendinopathy. The patients were evaluated after three, six, and twelve months of follow-up. There was no difference between the groups with regard to the VISA score during the twelve-month follow-up period, but both groups had improvement (p < 0.001). The mean combined VISA score for the two groups increased from 30 (95% confidence interval, 25 to 35) before the start of treatment to 49 (95% confidence interval, 42 to 55) at three months, 58 (95% confidence interval, 51 to 65) at six months, and 70 (95% confidence interval, 62 to 78) at twelve months. In the surgical treatment group, five knees had no symptoms, twelve had improvement but were still symptomatic, two were unchanged, and one was worse after twelve months (p = 0.49 compared
Biernat, Ryszard; Trzaskoma, Zbigniew; Trzaskoma, Lukasz; Czaprowski, Dariusz
The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of rehabilitation protocol applied during competitive period for the treatment of patellar tendinopathy. A total of 28 male volleyball players were divided into two groups. Fifteen from experimental group (E) and 13 from control group (C) fulfilled the same tests 3 times: before the training program started (first measurement), after 12 weeks (second measurement) and after 24 weeks (third measurement). The above-mentioned protocol included the following: USG imagining with color Doppler function, clinical testing, pain intensity evaluation with VISA-P questionnaire, leg muscle strength and power and jumping ability measurements. The key element of the rehabilitation program was eccentric squat on decline board with additional unstable surface. The essential factor of the protocol was a set of preventive functional exercises, with focus on eccentric exercises of hamstrings. Patellar tendinopathy was observed in 18% of the tested young volleyball players. Implementation of the presented rehabilitation protocol with eccentric squat on decline board applied during sports season lowered the pain level of the young volleyball players. Presented rehabilitation protocol applied without interrupting the competitive period among young volleyball players together with functional exercises could be an effective method for the treatment of patellar tendinopathy.
Kulig, Kornelia; Noceti-DeWit, Lisa M; Reischl, Stephen F; Landel, Rob F
Patellar tendinopathy is highly prevalent in all ages and skill levels of volleyball athletes. To illustrate this, we discuss the clinical, biomechanical, and ultrasound imaging presentation and the intervention strategies of three volleyball athletes at different stages of their athletic career: youth, middle-aged, and collegiate. We present our examination strategies and interpret the data collected, including visual movement analysis and dynamics, relating these findings to the probable causes of their pain and dysfunction. Using the framework of the EdUReP concept, incorporating Education, Unloading, Reloading, and Prevention, we propose intervention strategies that target each athlete's specific issues in terms of education, rehabilitation, training, and return to sport. This framework can be generalized to manage patellar tendinopathy in other sports requiring jumping, from youth to middle age, and from recreational to elite competitive levels.
Kulig, Kornelia; Noceti-DeWit, Lisa M; Reischl, Stephen F; Landel, Rob F
Patellar tendinopathy is highly prevalent in all ages and skill levels of volleyball athletes. To illustrate this, we discuss the clinical, biomechanical, and ultrasound imaging presentation and the intervention strategies of three volleyball athletes at different stages of their athletic career: youth, middle-aged, and collegiate. We present our examination strategies and interpret the data collected, including visual movement analysis and dynamics, relating these findings to the probable causes of their pain and dysfunction. Using the framework of the EdUReP concept, incorporating Education, Unloading, Reloading, and Prevention, we propose intervention strategies that target each athlete's specific issues in terms of education, rehabilitation, training, and return to sport. This framework can be generalized to manage patellar tendinopathy in other sports requiring jumping, from youth to middle age, and from recreational to elite competitive levels.
Kulig, Kornelia; Noceti-DeWit, Lisa M.; Reischl, Stephen F.; Landel, Rob F.
Patellar tendinopathy is highly prevalent in all ages and skill levels of volleyball athletes. To illustrate this, we discuss the clinical, biomechanical, and ultrasound imaging presentation and the intervention strategies of three volleyball athletes at different stages of their athletic career: youth, middle-aged, and collegiate. We present our examination strategies and interpret the data collected, including visual movement analysis and dynamics, relating these findings to the probable causes of their pain and dysfunction. Using the framework of the EdUReP concept, incorporating Education, Unloading, Reloading, and Prevention, we propose intervention strategies that target each athlete's specific issues in terms of education, rehabilitation, training, and return to sport. This framework can be generalized to manage patellar tendinopathy in other sports requiring jumping, from youth to middle age, and from recreational to elite competitive levels. PMID:26537811
Tendinopathy is of distinct interest as it describes a painful tendon disease with local tenderness, swelling and pain associated with sonographic features such as hypoechogenic texture and diameter enlargement. Recent research elucidated microcirculatory changes in tendinopathy using laser Doppler flowmetry and spectrophotometry such as at the Achilles tendon, the patellar tendon as well as at the elbow and the wrist level. Tendon capillary blood flow is increased at the point of pain. Tendon oxygen saturation as well as tendon postcapillary venous filling pressures, determined non-invasively using combined Laser Doppler flowmetry and spectrophotometry, can quantify, in real-time, how tendon microcirculation changes over with pathology or in response to a given therapy. Tendon oxygen saturation can be increased by repetitive, intermittent short-term ice applications in Achilles tendons; this corresponds to 'ischemic preconditioning', a method used to train tissue to sustain ischemic damage. On the other hand, decreasing tendon oxygenation may reflect local acidosis and deteriorating tendon metabolism. Painful eccentric training, a common therapy for Achilles, patellar, supraspinatus and wrist tendinopathy decreases abnormal capillary tendon flow without compromising local tendon oxygenation. Combining an Achilles pneumatic wrap with eccentric training changes tendon microcirculation in a different way than does eccentric training alone; both approaches reduce pain in Achilles tendinopathy. The microcirculatory effects of measures such as extracorporeal shock wave therapy as well as topical nitroglycerine application are to be studied in tendinopathy as well as the critical question of dosage and maintenance. Interestingly it seems that injection therapy using color Doppler for targeting the area of neovascularisation yields to good clinical results with polidocanol sclerosing therapy, but also with a combination of epinephrine and lidocaine. PMID:18447938
Kregel, Jeroen; van Wilgen, Cornelis Paul; Zwerver, Johannes
Assessing pain in patellar tendinopathy (PT) is difficult to perform in a standardized way. With this study, we measured pain in athletes with PT by means of pain pressure threshold (PPT) algometry in a standardized manner. Subsequently, the goal of this study is to determine normative values for clinical use. Observational study. Patients and healthy subjects were recruited from an outpatient clinic of a university medical center and at different sports clubs in northern Netherlands. A total of 234 athletes, 114 diagnosed with PT and 120 healthy controls, were included. PPT, Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patellar tendinopathy questionnaire, and visual analog scale-pain. PPT scores of PT athletes with tendinopathy were significantly lower compared with healthy athletes (Mann-Whitney U-test; U = 293.5; P < 0.001). With a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the optimal cut-off point to distinguish between healthy athletes and PT athletes was calculated at 36.8 N. The area under the ROC curve was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-1.0). There was a positive predictive value of 96.5% that athletes with a PPT below 36.8 N. had PT. PPT algometry should be considered by clinicians as a pain assessment tool in patients with PT. The optimal cut-off point for the PPT to distinguish between PT athletes and healthy athletes was 36.8 N. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kulig, K; Joiner, D G; Chang, Y-J
The aims of this pilot study were to investigate how a novel sagittal plane kinematic measurement - the lower extremity contact angle (LECA) - relates to the landing dynamics of elite male volleyball athletes with and without patellar tendinopathy. The LECA was defined as the angle between the ground and the line connecting the center of pressure to the L5S1 marker. 18 athletes (9 with patellar tendinopathy and 9 with asymptomatic tendons) completed simulated spike jumps while instrumented for kinetic and kinematic analysis using a force platform and 3D motion analysis system. The patellar tendinopathic group demonstrated a significantly more acute LECA compared to the asymptomatic group (65.3°±2.2° vs. 69.1°±4.5°) and was the only kinematic or kinetic variable measured to discriminate between the 2 groups. The LECA further demonstrated less variability between trials than sagittal plane hip, knee, and ankle kinematics. Additionally, the LECA's - and not individual joints' - high correlation with the braking impulse ensures its predictive value for landing dynamics (r=- 0.890). The LECA has the potential to be a valuable tool to help assess jumping athletes in both injury prevention screening and as a variable that, if modified, could help alter the maladaptive behavior observed in symptomatic athletes.
Gual, Gabriel; Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara; Romero-Rodríguez, Daniel; Tesch, Per A
Gual, G, Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A, Romero-Rodríguez, D, and Tesch, PA. Effects of in-season inertial resistance training with eccentric overload in a sports population at risk for patellar tendinopathy. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1834-1842, 2016-Volleyball and basketball players can be considered as a population at risk for patellar tendinopathy. Given the paradox that eccentric training elicits therapeutic benefits yet might provoke such injury, we investigated the influence of a weekly bout of inertial squat resistance exercise offering eccentric overload on lower limb muscle power and patellar tendon complaints. Players of 8 (4 basketball and 4 volleyball) teams (38 women and 43 men) were randomly assigned to either the intervention (IG) or control (CG) group. Although IG and CG maintained scheduled in-season training routines over 24 weeks, IG, in addition, performed 1 weekly session of eccentric overload by 4 sets of 8 repetitions of the squat using flywheel inertial resistance. Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment patellar tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-p), vertical countermovement jump, and squat power, both concentric (Squat-Con) and eccentric (Squat-Ecc), tests were performed before (T1), during (T2), and after (T3) the 24 weeks of intervention. Neither group suffered from patellar tendinopathy during the study period. VISA-p displayed no differences across groups at any measurement period. Countermovement jump scores significantly (p ≤ 0.05) differed between groups in favor of the IG. Both Squat-Con and Squat-Ecc mean scores from the IG were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than the CG. Adding a weekly eccentric overload squat training bout to a regular basketball and volleyball exercise routine enhances lower limb muscle power without triggering patellar tendon complaints. Future studies, using the current exercise paradigm, aim to explore its efficacy to prevent or combat patellar tendinopathy in sports calling for frequent explosive jumps.
Patellar tendinopathy is a common and difficult-to-treat overuse injury of the patellar tendon with a very negative impact on the careers of many athletes. It appears to involve a failed healing process in the tendon--not inflammation--and has consequences for the treatment strategy. Rehabilitation programs are based on the principles of load reduction and an eccentric exercise program to improve muscle-tendon function and optimize the kinetic chain. Prolonged rehabilitation is necessary because of slow tendon recovery. Anti-inflammatory treatment is often unsuccessful. Surgery does not guarantee a quick symptom-free return to sport at the original level either. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy, ultrasound-guided sclerosing of new vessels and tendinous and peritendinous injections of aprotinin and autologous growth factors seem to be promising new treatment options.
Rowan, Tracy L.; Drouin, Jillian L.
Objective: Patellar tendinopathy affects a substantial proportion of athletes involved in jumping or kicking activities. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) injections may be a promising treatment used in conjunction with common traditional therapies. Clinical Features: Patellar tendinopathy is often the result of repetitive or excessive overload on the patellar tendon. Activity modification, cryotherapy, eccentric exercises, shockwave therapy, and PRP have been indicated as treatment options during various stages of this condition. Intervention and Outcome: A 23 year old female, elite track and field athlete was managed for patellar tendinopathy with a combination of traditional therapeutic interventions as well as a PRP injection. This athlete returned to pre-injury level of competition six months post-injection. Conclusion: Emerging literature on PRP appears to be promising for patellar tendinopathy, however, it remains unclear which patients may benefit most and whether the stage of the disorder has an impact on the clinical outcome. PMID:24302777
Toppi, Jason; Fairley, Jessica; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Cook, Jill; Davis, Susan R; Bell, Robin J; Hanna, Fahad; Wang, Yuanyuan
Patellar tendinopathy identified by imaging modalities has been reported in asymptomatic athletes and associated with tendon-related symptoms. However there is little data in community-based populations. The aim of this cohort study was to examine the prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) defined patellar tendinopathy, the factors associated with this condition, and whether it was associated with knee pain in community-based middle-aged women. One hundred seventy six women, aged 40-67 years, with no significant knee pain or injury underwent knee MRI. Patellar tendinopathy was defined on both T1- and T2-weighted fat-saturated MRIs. The cross-sectional area of vastus medialis was measured from MRI. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire. Knee pain was assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index. The prevalence of MRI defined patellar tendinopathy was 30.1%. Higher levels of physical activity (odds ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.09-2.51) and greater vastus medialis cross-sectional area (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.43) were associated with increased prevalence of patellar tendinopathy, independent of age and BMI. The persistence of patellar tendinopathy was associated with the worsening of knee pain over 2 years (odds ratio 10.65, 95% CI 1.14-99.77). In community-based middle-aged women MRI-diagnosed patellar tendinopathy is common, with higher levels of physical activity and greater vastus medialis size being risk factors suggesting a biomechanical effect. Persistent patellar tendinopathy is associated with worsening of knee pain. These findings suggest that further work is needed to determine the contribution of patellar tendinopathy on knee pain and function in older people.
Nanos, Katherine N; Malanga, Gerard A
Chronic proximal patellar tendinopathy is a common condition in sports medicine that may be refractory to nonoperative treatments, including activity modification, medications, and comprehensive rehabilitation. Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy is a recently developed technique designed to cut and debride tendinopathic tissue, thus promoting pain relief and functional recovery. We present a case of a collegiate athlete with chronic proximal patellar tendinopathy who was effectively treated with percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy after not responding to extensive nonoperative treatment, surgical debridement, and platelet-rich plasma injections. Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy can be considered as a treatment option in patients presenting with refractory proximal patellar tendinopathy, including those who do not respond to previous operative intervention.
McAuliffe, Seán; McCreesh, Karen; Culloty, Fiona; Purtill, Helen; O'Sullivan, Kieran
Ultrasound (US) imaging is commonly used to visualise tendon structure. It is not clear whether the presence of structural abnormalities in asymptomatic tendons predicts the development of future tendon symptoms in the Achilles or patellar tendon. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the ability of US imaging to predict future symptoms of patellar or Achilles tendinopathy. Prospective studies that performed US imaging of Achilles OR patellar tendon structure among asymptomatic patients at baseline and a clinical measure of pain and/or function at follow-up were included. Study quality was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool by two independent reviewers, and predictive ability of US was assessed using meta-analyses. The majority of participants in the review were from sporting populations. Meta-analysis revealed that tendon abnormalities on US are associated with future symptoms of both patellar and Achilles tendinopathy (RR=4.97, 95% CI 3.20 to 7.73). Subgroup analysis indicated that tendon abnormalities at baseline were associated with an increased risk of both Achilles (RR=7.33, 95% CI 2.95 to 18.24) and patellar (RR=4.35, 95% CI 2.62 to 7.23) tendinopathy. This systematic review and meta-analysis indicates that tendon abnormalities visualised using US in asymptomatic tendons are predictive of future tendinopathy and are associated with at least a fourfold increased risk. Identification of at-risk athletes using screening tools such as US may allow preventative programmes to be implemented. However, it is clear that other factors beyond tissue structure are involved in the development of lower limb tendinopathy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Giombini, A; Dragoni, S; Di Cesare, A; Di Cesare, M; Del Buono, A; Maffulli, N
Lower limb tendon changes detected at imaging are common among asymptomatic athletes. We aimed to prospectively assess the clinical status, tendon structure, and vascularity of lower limb tendons of elite fencers, and predict the risk of developing symptoms over time. Clinical examination, changes at ultrasonography (US), and Power Doppler (PD) flow of both the Achilles, patellar, and quadriceps tendon were assessed in 37 elite fencers in January 2007 and 3 years after. Two hundred and twenty-two tendons were examined. At the last appointment, patellar tendons diagnosed as abnormal at baseline were more likely to develop symptoms than those normal at baseline (P < 0.05, Fisher's exact test), while US and PD abnormalities on Achilles and quadriceps tendons were no predictive for development of symptoms over years. A very low percentage of tendons diagnosed as normal at baseline (1.45%) showed US abnormalities at 3-year follow-up. In asymptomatic elite fencers, structural changes are relatively common at US and PD assessment of Achilles, quadriceps, and patellar tendons. It seems unlikely that additional PD investigations provide further information or change prognosis in patients with US diagnosis of tendinopathy.
... for more than a few weeks, it's called tendinopathy. A combination of factors may contribute to the ... you may progress to the more serious patellar tendinopathy. If you have knee pain during or after ...
Zwerver, Johannes; Hartgens, Fred; Verhagen, Evert; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Diercks, Ron L
Patellar tendinopathy is a common overuse injury among jumping athletes. No evidence-based treatment guidelines exist. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) appears to be a promising treatment but its effectiveness has not been studied in athletes with patellar tendinopathy who have symptoms for 3 to 12 months and are still playing. The TOPGAME study was created to determine the effectiveness of ESWT on pain, symptoms, and function in athletes with early symptomatic patellar tendinopathy who are still in training and competition. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Athletes playing volleyball, basketball, or handball with patellar tendinopathy for 3 to 12 months were randomized into the ESWT or placebo group during the first half of the season. The ESWT group received 3 ESWT treatments while the placebo group received sham ESWT. In-season follow-up measurements were 1, 12, and 22 weeks after treatment. The primary outcome was severity of patellar tendinopathy determined with the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella (VISA-P) questionnaire. Secondary outcome measures were pain during activities of daily living and sports and after functional knee-loading tests rated on a visual analog scale and subjective improvement. Multilevel analyses were performed to determine differences between groups over time. Of the 127 symptomatic athletes invited to participate, 62 were eligible, gave consent, and were randomized into the ESWT (n = 31) or placebo group (n = 31). Mean VISA-P scores before and 1, 12, and 22 weeks after treatment were 59.4 (±11.7), 66.8 (±16.2), 66.7 (±17.5), and 70.5 (±18.9) for the ESWT group and 62.4 (±13.4), 66.3 (±19.0), 68.9 (±20.3), and 72.7 (±18.0) for the placebo group. For the VISA-P, there was a significant effect for time (P < .01) but no treatment × time interaction effect (P = .82). The same pattern was seen in visual analog scale pain scores. One week after final treatment, significantly more athletes in
Morton, Sarah; Chan, Otto; King, John; Perry, David; Crisp, Tom; Maffulli, Nicola; Morrissey, Dylan
Summary Background: the aim was to quantify the effect of a novel high volume-image guided injection (HVIGI) technique for recalcitrant patellar tendinopathy (PT). Methods: twenty patients (8 prospective; 12 retrospective) with ultrasonographically confirmed proximal PT were recruited. A HVIGI under ultra-sound guidance of 10 ml 0.5% Bupivacaine, 25 mg Hydrocortisone and 30 ml normal saline at the interface of the patellar tendon and Hoffa’s fat pad was administered. A standardised eccentric loading rehabilitation protocol was prescribed. Results: the VISA-P score improved from 45.0 to 64.0 (p<0.01) for all subjects, likely to be clinically significant. There was no statistically significant difference between the increase in the retrospective group of 19.9 (± 23.5) and the prospective of 16.4 (± 11.3) p = 0.7262.5% of prospective subjects agreed that they had significantly improved, with 37.5% returning to sport within 12 weeks. Conclusions: HVIGI should be considered in the management of recalcitrant PT. Randomised controlled trials are warranted. PMID:25332938
van Wilgen, C P; Konopka, K H; Keizer, D; Zwerver, J; Dekker, R
The prevalence of tendinopathies in sports is high. The etiology and pain mechanisms of tendinopathies are not completely understood. Currently, little is known whether, or to which degree, somatosensory changes within the nervous system may contribute to the pain in tendinopathies. We conducted a patient controlled study in which we used the standardized QST protocol developed by the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain. This protocol consists of seven different tests that measures 13 somatosensory parameters and can be seen as the gold standard to measure somatosensory function. Twelve athletes with clinically diagnosed chronic patellar tendinopathy (PT) mean duration 30 months (range 6-120) and 20 controls were included in the study. In two of the 13 QST parameters namely Mechanical Pain Threshold (P < 0.05) and Vibration Disappearance Threshold (P < 0.5) injured athletes were significantly more sensitive for the applied stimuli. None of the athletes had signs of Dynamic Mechanical Allodynia. Reduced mechanical pain thresholds or pinprick allodynia reflects the involvement of central sensitization upon the myelinated (Aδ-fibre) nociceptive input. From this explorative study, we conclude that sensitization may play a prominent role in the pain during and after sports activity in patella tendinopathy patients.
Rio, E; Kidgell, D; Moseley, G L; Cook, J
Anterior knee pain (AKP) is a frequent clinical presentation in jumping athletes and may be aggravated by sustained sitting, stair use, and loading of the quadriceps. Corticospinal activation of the quadriceps in athletes with AKP has not yet been investigated, but is important in guiding efficacious treatment. This cross-sectional study assessed corticospinal excitability (CSE) of the quadriceps in jumping athletes using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Groups consisted of Control (no knee pain); patellar tendinopathy (PT) [localized inferior pole pain on single-leg decline squat (SLDS)]; and other AKP (nonlocalized pain around the patella). SLDS (numerical score of pain 0-10), Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment Patellar tendon (VISA-P), maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), active motor threshold (AMT), CSE, and Mmax were tested. Twenty nine athletes participated; control n = 8, PT n = 11, AKP n = 10. There were no group differences in age (P = 0.23), body mass index (P = 0.16), MVIC (P = 0.38) or weekly activity (P = 0.22). PT had elevated CSE compared with controls and other AKP (P < 0.001), but no differences were detected between AKP and controls (P = 0.47). CSE appears to be greater in PT than controls and other AKP. An improved understanding of the corticospinal responses in different sources of knee pain may direct better treatment approaches. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Morton, Sarah; Williams, Sean; Valle, Xavier; Diaz-Cueli, David; Malliaras, Peter; Morrissey, Dylan
Numerous risk factors have been identified for patellar tendinopathy (PT), often in small population studies. The aim was to use an international online questionnaire to generate a large database and identify significant risk factors. Case-control study. Private practice and sporting teams recruited from England, Spain, and Italy with the questionnaire available in all 3 languages (equivalence between online and self-administration shown previously). All data were anonymized and password protected. Eight hundred twenty-five data sets collected between January 2012 and May 2014. A total of 23.4% of participants had clinically diagnosed PT. A comparison between these participants and participants without PT was made. Association between the presence of PT and risk factors. Eight risk factors were included in the analysis based on a purposeful selection procedure: sex, hours of training, hamstring flexibility, previous patellar tendon rupture, previous knee injury, current/previous back pain, family history, and age. Four were found to have statistically significant odds ratios: female sex [0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.49-1.00, P = 0.05], hours of training (>20 hours 8.94, 95% CI, 4.68-17.08, P < 0.01), previous knee injury (2.10, 95% CI, 1.45-3.04, P < 0.01), and flexible hamstrings (0.61, 95% CI, 0.38-0.97, P = 0.04). There was a trend toward association for back pain (1.45, 95% CI, 0.99-2.14, P = 0.06) and a family history of tendon problems (1.51, 95% CI, 0.96-2.37, P = 0.08). Risk factors have been identified that are potentially modifiable to inform prevention and rehabilitation programs; future research is required to establish causal relationships. Identified risk factors require mechanistic investigation as they are not currently recognized in the literature.
Yoshida, Mamoru; Funasaki, Hiroki; Marumo, Keishi
Summary Background An autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy has currently been applied for the tendinopathy; however, its efficacy and an optimal platelets concentration in PRP were uncertain. We analyzed them in an animal model prepared using a repetitive running exercise. Methods We made the tendinopathy rat model of patellar tendon using a rodent treadmill machine. Rats with tendinopathy were injected with leukocyte-reduced PRP at the platelets concentration of 1.0×106/μL (P10 group), PRP at the platelets concentration of 5.0×105/μL (P5 group) or normal saline (control group) into the space between the patellar tendon and the fat pad bilaterally or were multiply dry-needled at the tibial insertion site (MN group) at once. To assess the pain-reliving effect, the spontaneous locomotor activities at night (12 h) were measured every day. Histological sections of the patellar tendon stained with hematoxylineosin or prepared by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling were microscopically analyzed. Results The numbers of spontaneous locomotor activities in the P10 group were significantly larger than those in the P5, MN or control groups and they recovered up to a healthy level. On histologic examinations, the numbers of microtears, laminations, or apoptotic cells in the patellar tendons in the P10 or P5 groups were significantly lower than those in the MN or control groups, although no significant differences were observed between the P10 and P5 groups. Conclusions The injections of an autologous leukocyte-reduced PRP were effective for pain relief and for partial restoration of the patellar tendon in the tendinopathy rat model. The injections of a PRP at the platelets concentration of 1.0×106/μL completely relieved the pain and were more effective than those at the platelets concentration of 5.0×105/μL whereas there was no difference for the effect of histological restoration or apoptosis inhibition between them. PMID:27900294
van der Worp, H; van Ark, M; Zwerver, J; van den Akker-Scheek, I
Patellar tendinopathy (PT) has a multifactorial etiology, and many possible risk factors have been described in the literature. The findings are conflicting, though, and most research has been conducted on elite athletes. The aim of the current study is to determine the risk factors for PT in a large representative sample of basketball and volleyball players. Separate risk factors for men and women, basketball and volleyball players, and athletes with unilateral and bilateral PT were identified. All basketball and volleyball players between ages 18 and 35 from the Dutch Basketball Association and the Dutch Volleyball Association were invited to complete an online questionnaire on knee complaints and risk factors for PT. The logistic regression analyses included 2224 subjects. The risk factors for PT were age, playing at the national level, being male and playing volleyball (compared with playing basketball). The risk factors for men and women were comparable. Among volleyball players, outside hitters and middle blockers/hitters had an increased risk compared with setters. For basketball players, no risk factors could be identified. No differences in the risk factors were found between athletes with unilateral and bilateral PT. These findings should be taken into account for prevention and rehabilitation purposes.
Morton, S; Morrissey, D; Valle, X; Chan, O; Langberg, H; Malliaras, P
The VISA-P is a questionnaire for assessing the severity of patellar tendinopathy (PT). Our study aim was to evaluate the equivalence of self-administration of the VISA-P online with the addition of risk factor questions to develop a tool suitable for high-volume remote use. A crossover study design with 107 subjects was used to determine equivalence between online and clinician administration. Three population groups were used to ensure construct validity. Online vs clinician administration revealed an intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.79 [confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.86] for the VISA-P with a systematic significant difference of 4.99, which is not clinically meaningful. Poor ICCs were seen for questions 7 and 8 of the VISA-P (0.37 and 0.47, respectively) in comparison with earlier questions. There were statistically significant differences between population groups for the VISA-P. The ICC for risk factor questions was excellent at 0.89 (CI: 0.84-0.93) with no mean difference (P = 1.00). The online questionnaire enables equivalent collection of VISA-P data and risk factor information and may well improve further with the suggested modifications to the instructions for questions 7 and 8. There is potential to use this questionnaire electronically to generate large databases in future research.
Frohm, Anna; Saartok, Tönu; Halvorsen, Kjartan; Renström, Per
Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of two eccentric rehabilitation protocols for patients with symptomatic patellar tendinopathy. A new eccentric overload training device was compared with the present standard eccentric rehabilitation programme on a decline board. Design Prospective, randomised clinical trial. Setting Sports rehabilitation clinic, university sports laboratory, supplemented with home exercises. Patients 20 competitive and recreational athletes, all with clinical diagnosis of patellar tendinopathy, verified by MRI or ultrasound imaging. Interventions A 12‐week rehabilitation period, either with bilateral eccentric overload strength training using the Bromsman device twice a week or with unilateral eccentric body load training using a decline board twice a week, supplemented with daily home exercises. Outcome measures The primary outcome was pain and function, assessed by the Swedish Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment for Patella (VISA‐P) score. Secondary outcome measures were isokinetic muscle torque, dynamic function and muscle flexibility, as well as pain level estimations using visual analogue scale (VAS). Side effects were registered. Results Both treatment groups improved in the short term according to the VISA‐P scores during the 12‐week rehabilitation period. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of pain and function. After a 3‐month rehabilitation period, most patients could be regarded as improved enough to be able to return to training and sports. No serious side effects were detected in either group. Conclusion In patients with patellar tendinopathy pain, two‐legged eccentric overload training twice per week, using the new device (Bromsman), was as efficient and safe as the present standard daily eccentric one‐legged rehabilitation‐training regimen using a decline board. PMID:17289855
Visnes, Håvard; Bahr, Roald
Background and aim: Eccentric training has become a popular treatment for patellar tendinopathy. Our purpose was to review the evolution of eccentric strength training programmes for patellar tendinopathy with a focus on the exercise prescriptions used, to help clinicians make appropriate choices and identify areas needing further research. Methods: A computerised search of the entire MEDLINE database was performed on 1 September 2006 to identify prospective and randomised clinical trials with a focus on clinical outcome of eccentric training for patellar tendinopathy. Results: 7 articles with a total of 162 patients and in which eccentric training was one of the interventions, all published after 2000, were included. The results were positive, but study quality was variable, with small numbers or short follow‐up periods. The content of the different training programmes varied, but most were home‐based programmes with twice daily training for 12 weeks. A number of potentially significant differences were identified in the eccentric programmes used: drop squats or slow eccentric movement, squatting on a decline board or level ground, exercising into tendon pain or short of pain, loading the eccentric phase only or both phases, and progressing with speed then loading or simply loading. Conclusion: Most studies suggest that eccentric training may have a positive effect, but our ability to recommend a specific protocol is limited. The studies available indicate that the treatment programme should include a decline board and should be performed with some level of discomfort, and that athletes should be removed from sports activity. However, these aspects need further study. PMID:17261559
Zayni, Rachad; Thaunat, Mathieu; Fayard, Jean-Marie; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Carrillon, Yannick; Clechet, Julien; Gadea, François; Archbold, Pooler; Sonnery Cottet, Bertrand
Summary Background platelet-rich-plasma is increasingly used in chronic patellar tendinopathy. Ideal number of PRP injections needed is not yet established. This study compares the clinical outcomes of a single versus two consecutive PRP injections. Method between December 2009 and January 2012, 40 athletes with proximal patellar tendinopathy were treated by PRP injection. Patients received single (20 patients) or two PRP injections 2 weeks apart (20 patients). All patients underwent prospective clinical evaluation, including Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella (VISA-P) score, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, and Tegner scale before PRP and after a minimum of 2 year follow-up. Results 9 patients failed PRP treatment and needed surgery. 1 patient was lost to follow-up. For the remaining patients, the VISA-P, VAS, and Tegner scores all significantly improved from 35.2 to 78.5 (p = 0.0001), 6.6 to 2.4 (p = 0.0001), and 4.8 to 6.9 (p = 0.0003). Patients who received two injections had better scores than those who received single injection with VAS of 1.07 versus 3.7 (p = 0.0005), Tegner score of 8.1 versus 5.9 (p = 0.0003) and VISA-P of 93.2 versus 65.7 (p = 0.0001). Conclusions two consecutive PRP injections in chronic patellar tendinopathy showed better improvement in outcomes when compared to single injection. Level of evidence randomized prospective consecutive series, Level 2. PMID:26261787
Kim, Taegyu; Kim, Eunkuk; Park, Jongchul; Kang, Hyunyong
To investigate how mild symptomatic patellar tendinopathy (PT) affects quadriceps contractions and the Fente motion, this case-control study examined elite fencers who continue to train and play fully with mild tendon pains. Twenty-four elite fencers (10 women) with mild symptomatic PT and 24 controls (10 women) participated in the study. Concentric/eccentric isokinetic strength of the quadriceps was tested, and peak torque and total work were recorded. Kinematic data from the knee during the Fente motion were collected. The first analysis period (P1) was after heel contact to the maximal flexion of the knee, and the second (P2) was right after P1 to heel-off. Normalized peak torque and work of concentric/eccentric contractions were not significantly different. Affected fencers demonstrated significantly reduced angular velocities at P2 (p = 0.042). The male fencers did not demonstrate any differences. The affected female fencers demonstrated significantly weaker concentric peak torque at 60°·s-1 (p = 0. 009) and 180°·s-1 (p = 0.047) and less concentric work at 60°·s-1 (p = 0.020). They also demonstrated significantly reduced average angular velocities at P2 (p = 0.001). Therefore, mild symptomatic PT seems to have an effect on the isokinetic concentric contraction of the quadriceps and the angular velocity of the knee during the backward Fente motion in elite female fencers who are participating fully in training and competition. Key points It is likely that even mild symptomatic patellar tendinopathy could affect the athletic performances in elite fencers. Elite female fencers are more likely to be affected substantially by symptomatic patellar tendinopathy in their sporting ability than male fencers. Because weak concentric knee extensors may affect the performance in fencing, not only eccentric training for symptomatic patellar tendinopathy but also proper concentric training of the quadriceps may be helpful in a rehabilitation program of elite female
Rosen, Adam B.; Ko, Jupil; Simpson, Kathy J.; Kim, Seock-Ho; Brown, Cathleen N.
Background: Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is a common degenerative condition in physically active populations. Knowledge regarding the biomechanics of landing in populations with symptomatic PT is limited, but altered mechanics may play a role in the development or perpetuation of PT. Purpose: To identify whether study participants with PT exhibited different landing kinematics compared with healthy controls. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Sixty recreationally active participants took part in this study; 30 had current signs and symptoms of PT, including self-reported pain within the patellar tendon during loading activities for at least 3 months and ≤80 on the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment Scale–Patella (VISA-P). Thirty healthy participants with no history of PT or other knee joint pathology were matched by sex, age, height, and weight. Participants completed 5 trials of a 40-cm, 2-legged drop jump followed immediately by a 50% maximum vertical jump. Dependent variables of interest included hip, knee, and ankle joint angles at initial ground contact, peak angles, and maximum angular displacements during the landing phase in 3 planes. Independent-samples t tests (P ≤ .05) were utilized to compare the joint angles and angular displacements between PT and control participants. Results: Individuals with PT displayed significantly decreased peak hip (PT, 59.2° ± 14.6°; control, 67.2° ± 13.9°; P = .03) and knee flexion angles (PT, 74.8° ± 13.2°; control, 82.5° ± 9.0°; P = .01) compared with control subjects. The PT group displayed decreased maximum angular displacement in the sagittal plane at the hip (PT, 49.3° ± 10.8°; control, 55.2° ± 11.4°; P = .04) and knee (PT, 71.6° ± 8.4°; control, 79.7° ± 8.3°; P < .001) compared with the control group. Conclusion: Participants with PT displayed decreased maximum flexion and angular displacement in the sagittal plane, at both the knee and the hip. The altered movement
Gaida, J; Cook, J; Bass, S; Austen, S; Kiss, Z
Background: Overuse injury to the patellar tendon (patellar tendinopathy) is a major reason for interrupted training and competition for elite athletes. In both sexes, the prevalence of unilateral and bilateral tendinopathy has been shown to differ. It has been proposed that bilateral pathology may have a different aetiology from unilateral pathology. Investigation of risk factors that may be unique to unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy in female athletes may reveal insights into the aetiology of this condition. Objectives: To examine whether anthropometry, body composition, or muscle strength distinguished elite female basketball players with unilateral or bilateral patellar tendinopathy. Methods: Body composition, anthropometry, and muscle strength were compared in elite female basketball players with unilateral (n = 8), bilateral (n = 7), or no (n = 24) patellar tendinopathy. Body composition was analysed using a dual energy x ray absorptiometer. Anthropometric measures were assessed using standard techniques. Knee extensor strength was measured at 180°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer. z scores were calculated for the unilateral and bilateral groups (using the no tendinopathy group as controls). z scores were tested against zero. Results: The tibia length to stature ratio was approximately 1.3 (1.3) SDs above zero in both the affected and non-affected legs in the unilateral group (p<0.05). The waist to hip ratio was 0.66 (0.78) SD above zero in the unilateral group (p<0.05). In the unilateral group, leg lean to total lean ratio was 0.42 (0.55) SD above zero (p<0.07), the trunk lean to total lean ratio was 0.63 (0.68) SD below zero (p<0.05), and leg fat relative to total fat was 0.47 (0.65) SD below zero (p<0.09). In the unilateral group, the leg with pathology was 0.78 (1.03) SD weaker during eccentric contractions (p<0.07). Conclusions: Unilateral patellar tendinopathy has identifiable risk factors whereas bilateral patellar tendinopathy may not
Zwerver, Johannes; Verhagen, Evert; Hartgens, Fred; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Diercks, Ron L
Patellar tendinopathy is a major problem for many athletes, especially those involved in jumping activities. Despite its frequency and negative impact on athletic careers, no evidence-based guidelines for management of this overuse injury exist. Since functional outcomes of conservative and surgical treatments remain suboptimal, new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have to be developed and evaluated. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) appears to be a promising treatment in patients with chronic patellar tendinopathy. ESWT is most often applied after the known conservative treatments have failed. However, its effectiveness as primary therapy has not been studied in athletes who keep playing sports despite having patellar tendon pain. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of ESWT in athletes with patellar tendinopathy who are still in training and competition. The TOPGAME-study (Tendinopathy of Patella Groningen Amsterdam Maastricht ESWT) is a multicentre two-armed randomised controlled trial with blinded participants and outcome assessors, in which the effectiveness of patient-guided focussed ESWT treatment (compared to placebo ESWT) on pain reduction and recovery of function in athletes with patellar tendinopathy will be investigated. Participants are volleyball, handball and basketball players with symptoms of patellar tendinopathy for a minimum of 3 to a maximum duration of 12 months who are still able to train and compete. The intervention group receives three patient-guided focussed medium-energy density ESWT treatments without local anaesthesia at a weekly interval in the first half of the competition. The control group receives placebo treatment. The follow-up measurements take place 1, 12 and 22 weeks after the final ESWT or placebo treatment, when athletes are still in competition. Primary outcome measure is the VISA-P (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment - patella) score. Data with regard to pain during function tests (jump
Background Patellar tendinopathy is a major problem for many athletes, especially those involved in jumping activities. Despite its frequency and negative impact on athletic careers, no evidence-based guidelines for management of this overuse injury exist. Since functional outcomes of conservative and surgical treatments remain suboptimal, new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have to be developed and evaluated. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) appears to be a promising treatment in patients with chronic patellar tendinopathy. ESWT is most often applied after the known conservative treatments have failed. However, its effectiveness as primary therapy has not been studied in athletes who keep playing sports despite having patellar tendon pain. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of ESWT in athletes with patellar tendinopathy who are still in training and competition. Methods/design The TOPGAME-study (Tendinopathy of Patella Groningen Amsterdam Maastricht ESWT) is a multicentre two-armed randomised controlled trial with blinded participants and outcome assessors, in which the effectiveness of patient-guided focussed ESWT treatment (compared to placebo ESWT) on pain reduction and recovery of function in athletes with patellar tendinopathy will be investigated. Participants are volleyball, handball and basketball players with symptoms of patellar tendinopathy for a minimum of 3 to a maximum duration of 12 months who are still able to train and compete. The intervention group receives three patient-guided focussed medium-energy density ESWT treatments without local anaesthesia at a weekly interval in the first half of the competition. The control group receives placebo treatment. The follow-up measurements take place 1, 12 and 22 weeks after the final ESWT or placebo treatment, when athletes are still in competition. Primary outcome measure is the VISA-P (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment - patella) score. Data with regard to pain
Dragoo, Jason L; Wasterlain, Amy S; Braun, Hillary J; Nead, Kevin T
Previous studies have shown improvement in patellar tendinopathy symptoms after platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections, but no randomized controlled trial has compared PRP with dry needling (DN) for this condition. To compare clinical outcomes in patellar tendinopathy after a single ultrasound-guided, leukocyte-rich PRP injection versus DN. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 23 patients with patellar tendinopathy on examination and MRI who had failed nonoperative treatment were enrolled and randomized to receive ultrasound-guided DN alone (DN group; n = 13) or with injection of leukocyte-rich PRP (PRP group; n = 10), along with standardized eccentric exercises. Patients and the physician providing follow-up care were blinded. Participants completed patient-reported outcome surveys before and at 3, 6, 9, 12, and ≥26 weeks after treatment during follow-up visits. The primary outcome measure was the Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment (VISA) score for patellar tendinopathy at 12 weeks, and secondary measures included the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, Tegner activity scale, Lysholm knee scale, and Short Form (SF-12) questionnaire at 12 and ≥26 weeks. Results were analyzed using 2-tailed paired and unpaired t tests. Patients who were dissatisfied at 12 weeks were allowed to cross over into a separate unblinded arm. At 12 weeks after treatment, VISA scores improved by a mean ± standard deviation of 5.2 ± 12.5 points (P = .20) in the DN group (n = 12) and by 25.4 ± 23.2 points (P = .01) in the PRP group (n = 9); at ≥26 weeks, the scores improved by 33.2 ± 14.0 points (P = .001) in the DN group (n = 9) and by 28.9 ± 25.2 points (P = .01) in the PRP group (n = 7). The PRP group had improved significantly more than the DN group at 12 weeks (P = .02), but the difference between groups was not significant at ≥26 weeks (P = .66). Lysholm scores were not significantly different between groups at 12 weeks (P = .81), but the DN
The short-term effect after a single injection of high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid in patients with enthesopathies (lateral epicondylitis, patellar tendinopathy, insertional Achilles tendinopathy, and plantar fasciitis): a preliminary study.
Kumai, Tsukasa; Muneta, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Akihiro; Shiraishi, Masaharu; Ishizaki, Yoshitaka; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Samoto, Norihiro; Isomoto, Shinji; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Takakura, Yoshinori
Hyaluronic acid (HA) with a high molecular weight of 2700 kDa is approved in Japan to treat osteoarthritis of the knee, periarthritis scapulohumeralis, and knee pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the short-term efficacy, safety, and injectable volume of HA in the treatment of enthesopathies. A total of 61 patients (16 with lateral epicondylitis, 14 with patellar tendinopathy, 15 with insertional Achilles tendinopathy, and 16 with plantar fasciitis) were each administered a single injection of HA (up to 2.5 ml). Efficacy and safety were assessed by comparing the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and local symptoms before injection (baseline) and at 1 week after injection. We also investigated the injectable volume by means of the difference in syringe weight before and after injection and by the judgment of the administering investigator. The injection of HA resulted in a change in VAS (mean ± SD) of -2.20 ± 2.26 cm for the four sites overall and -2.55 ± 2.43 cm for lateral epicondylitis, -2.01 ± 2.16 cm for patellar tendinopathy, -1.80 ± 1.91 cm for insertional Achilles tendinopathy, and -2.38 ± 2.61 cm for plantar fasciitis. The injection of HA also improved local symptoms in each site. It was also determined that 2.5 ml of HA can be injected in each of the four sites. A single injection of HA resulted in similar improvements of pain in each of the four enthesopathies (lateral epicondylitis, patellar tendinopathy, insertional Achilles tendinopathy, and plantar fasciitis). These results suggest that HA could be clinically effective in the treatment of enthesopathies.
Zhang, Zhi Jie; Ng, Gabriel Yin-fat; Lee, Wai Chun; Fu, Siu Ngor
Background Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is one of the most common knee disorders among athletes. Changes in morphology and elasticity of the painful tendon and how these relate to the self-perceived pain and dysfunction remain unclear. Objectives To compare the morphology and elastic properties of patellar tendons between athlete with and without unilateral PT and to examine its association with self-perceived pain and dysfunction. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 33 male athletes (20 healthy and 13 with unilateral PT) were enrolled. The morphology and elastic properties of the patellar tendon were assessed by the grey and elastography mode of supersonic shear imaging (SSI) technique while the intensity of pressure pain, self-perceived pain and dysfunction were quantified with a 10-lb force to the most painful site and the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-patella (VISA-P) questionnaire, respectively. Results In athletes with unilateral PT, the painful tendons had higher shear elastic modulus (SEM) and larger tendon than the non-painful side (p<0.05) or the dominant side of the healthy athletes (p<0.05). Significant correlations were found between tendon SEM ratio (SEM of painful over non-painful tendon) and the intensity of pressure pain (rho = 0.62; p = 0.024), VISA-P scores (rho = −0.61; p = 0.026), and the sub-scores of the VISA-P scores on going down stairs, lunge, single leg hopping and squatting (rho ranged from −0.63 to −0.67; p<0.05). Conclusions Athletes with unilateral PT had stiffer and larger tendon on the painful side than the non-painful side and the dominant side of healthy athletes. No significant differences on the patellar tendon morphology and elastic properties were detected between the dominant and non-dominant knees of the healthy control. The ratio of the SEM of painful to non-painful sides was associated with pain and dysfunction among athletes with unilateral PT. PMID:25303466
de Vries, A J; van der Worp, H; Diercks, R L; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Zwerver, J
Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is a common overuse injury of the patellar tendon in jumping athletes. In a recent large cross-sectional study from 2008 several factors were identified that may be associated with the etiology of PT. However, because of the study design no conclusions could be drawn about causal relations. The primary aim of the current study is to investigate whether the factors identified in the previous 2008 study can also be prospectively recognized as predictors of symptomatic PT in 2011. Nine hundred twenty-six Dutch elite and non-elite basketball and volleyball players from the previous study were invited again to complete an online survey about knee complaints and risk factors for PT in 2011. The logistic regression included 385 athletes of which 51 (13%) developed PT since 2008. Male gender [odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.5] was found to be a risk factor for developing PT. No sports-related variables could be identified to increase the risk of developing PT, but some evidence was found for performing heavy physically demanding work, like being a nurse or a physical education teacher (OR 2.3, 95% CI 0.9-6.3). These findings indicate that, when considering preventive measures, it is important to take into account the total tendon load. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Young, M; Cook, J; Purdam, C; Kiss, Z; Alfredson, H
Background: Conservative treatment of patellar tendinopathy has been minimally investigated. Effective validated treatment protocols are required. Methods: This was a prospective randomised controlled trial of 17 elite volleyball players with clinically diagnosed and imaging confirmed patellar tendinopathy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: a decline group and a step group. The decline group were required to perform single leg squats on a 25° decline board, exercising into tendon pain and progressing their exercises with load. The step group performed single leg squats on a 10 cm step, exercising without tendon pain and progressing their exercises with speed then load. All participants completed a 12 week intervention programme during their preseason. Outcome measures used were the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment (VISA) score for knee function and 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) for tendon pain with activity. Measures were taken throughout the intervention period and at 12 months. Results: Both groups had improved significantly from baseline at 12 weeks and 12 months. Analysis of the likelihood of a 20 point improvement in VISA score at 12 months revealed a greater likelihood of clinical improvements in the decline group than the step group. VAS scores at 12 months did not differ between the groups. Conclusions: Both exercise protocols improved pain and sporting function in volleyball players over 12 months. This study indicates that the decline squat protocol offers greater clinical gains during a rehabilitation programme for patellar tendinopathy in athletes who continue to train and play with pain. PMID:15665207
Scattone Silva, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Ana Luisa G; Nakagawa, Theresa H; Santos, José E M; Serrão, Fábio V
Study Design Case report. Background Although eccentric exercises have been a cornerstone of the rehabilitation of athletes with patellar tendinopathy, the effectiveness of this intervention is sometimes less than ideal. Athletes with patellar tendinopathy have been shown to have different jump-landing patterns and lower hip extensor strength compared to asymptomatic athletes. To our knowledge, the effectiveness of an intervention addressing these impairments has not yet been investigated. Case Description The patient was a 21-year-old male volleyball athlete with a 9-month history of patellar tendon pain. Pain was measured with a visual analog scale. Disability was measured with the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-patella questionnaire. These assessments were conducted before and after an 8-week intervention, as well as at 6 months after the intervention. Hip and knee kinematics and kinetics during drop vertical jump and isometric strength were also measured before and after the 8-week intervention. The intervention consisted of hip extensor muscle strengthening and jump landing strategy modification training. The patient did not interrupt volleyball practice/competition during rehabilitation. Outcomes After the 8-week intervention and at 6 months postintervention, the athlete was completely asymptomatic during sports participation. This favorable clinical outcome was accompanied by a 50% increase in hip extensor moment, a 21% decrease in knee extensor moment, and a 26% decrease in patellar tendon force during jump landing measured at 8 weeks. Discussion This case report provides an example of how an 8-week intervention of hip muscle strengthening and jump-landing modification decreased pain and disability and improved jump-landing biomechanics in an athlete with patellar tendinopathy. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(11):899-909. Epub 21 Sep 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.6242.
Moura, Diogo Lino; Marques, José Pedro; Lucas, Francisco Manuel; Fonseca, Fernando Pereira
Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.
Randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of the ultrasound-guided galvanic electrolysis technique (USGET) versus conventional electro-physiotherapeutic treatment on patellar tendinopathy.
Abat, F; Sánchez-Sánchez, J L; Martín-Nogueras, A M; Calvo-Arenillas, J I; Yajeya, J; Méndez-Sánchez, R; Monllau, J C; Gelber, P E
Patellar tendinopathy has a high prevalence rate among athletes. Different therapeutic options can be found in the current literature, but none of them has been clearly established as the gold standard. The purpose of this study is to compare, in a randomized controlled trial, the clinical efficacy of eccentric exercise combined with either an ultrasound-guided galvanic electrolysis technique (USGET) or conventional electrophysiotherapy to treat patellar tendinopathy. Sixty patients diagnosed with patellar tendinopathy were randomized into two groups. Group 1 (n = 30) received electrophysiotherapy treatment consisting of ultrasound, laser and interferential current techniques. Group 2 (n = 30) received USGET. Both groups did the same standardized eccentric exercise program. Periodic assessments of the subjects were carried out with the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella (VISA-P) score. An analysis of means and a survival study were performed. There were statistically significant differences in the VISA-P between the baseline and final follow-up in each treatment group. Group 1 (conventional electrophysiotherapy) went from 52.5 ± 18.8 to 61.9 ± 13.7 (in VISA-P < 90 subgroup) and from 69.1 ± 9.1 to 95.2 ± 2.5 (in VISA-P > 90 subgroup). Group 2 (USGET) went from 51.4 ± 17.9 to 63.3 ± 14.3 (in VISA-P < 90 subgroup) and from 66.3 ± 13.1 to 97.1 ± 1.7 (in VISA-P > 90 subgroup). There were statistically significant correlations between the baseline and final score in the VISA-P > 90 subjects upon completing the study but no statistically significant correlations between subjects with VISA-P < 90. The mean number of sessions applied was 22.6 ± 2.5 in Group 1 and 3.2 ± 0.9 in Group 2. The success probability in Group 1 was 36.1% versus 72.4% in Group 2. The difference was statistically significant. The results obtained with the combination of USGET and eccentric exercise reported
Abat, Ferran; Diesel, Wayne-J; Gelber, Pablo-E; Polidori, Fernando; Monllau, Joan-Carles; Sanchez-Ibañez, Jose-Manuel
Summary Aim: to show the effect of Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis (EPI®) combined with eccentric programme in the treatment of patellar tendinopathy. Methods: prospective study of 33 athlete-patients consecutively treated for insertional tendinopathy with Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis (EPI®) and followed for 2 years. Functional assessment was performed at the first visit, at three months and two years with the Tegner scale and VISA-P. Results: an average improvement in the VISA-P of 35 points was obtained. The mean duration of treatment was 4.5 weeks. Some 78.8% of the patients returned to the same level of physical activity as before the injury by the end of treatment, reaching 100% at two years. Conclusions: intratissue percutaneous electrolysis (EPI®) combined with an eccentric-based rehab program offers excellent results in terms of the clinical and functional improvement of the patellar tendon with low morbidity in a short-term period. Level of Evidence: Therapy, level 4. PMID:25332934
Sharma, Vineet; Tsailas, Panagiotis G.; Maheshwari, Aditya V.; Ranawat, Chitranjan S.
Several proponents of minimally invasive surgery-total knee arthroplasty (MIS-TKA) have suggested patellar eversion during a standard exposure of the knee may cause shortening of the patellar tendon and poorer outcomes secondary to acquired patella baja. To explore this suggestion, we retrospectively reviewed 135 consecutive TKAs in 110 patients to ascertain the effect of TKA on the postoperative Insall-Salvati ratio. All surgeries were performed using standard TKA techniques with a midline incision, medial parapatellar arthrotomy, partial excision of the fat pad, and routine eversion of the patella. One patient developed a postoperative patella baja, defined as an Insall-Salvati ratio of less than 0.8. The Knee Society score for knee and function in this patient was 75 and 70, respectively. Five additional patients had a decrease in Insall-Salvati ratio by 10% or more but without patella baja. Mean Knee Society score for knee and function in these five patients was 94 (range, 73–99) and 96 (range, 90–100), respectively, as compared with 93 (range, 37–99) and 94 (range, 40–100) in the remaining 104 patients. Our data suggest the incidence of patella baja is low after TKA despite routine patellar eversion. Furthermore, a 10% or more decrease in the Insall-Salvati ratio without patella baja was not associated with a worse clinical outcome. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18568378
Gisslén, Karl; Gyulai, Csaba; Nordström, Peter; Alfredson, Håkan
Background Jumper's knee patellar tendinopathy is well known to be a common and difficult injury in volleyball. Knowledge about its aetiology and pathogenesis is sparse. Objective To prospectively follow clinical status, tendon structure and vascularity in elite junior volleyball players. Methods 22 volleyball players (44 patellar tendons) beginning their first grade at the Swedish National Centre for high school volleyball were continuously evaluated clinically and by ultrasonography (US) and power Doppler (PD) over the 3 school years. Results At inclusion, there were 44 tendons being assessed. Jumper's knee was diagnosed clinically in eight patellar tendons (seven of eight had structural changes and vascularity on US+PD). There were 27 normal (clinical and US+PD) tendons. At 3 years, there were 36 tendons still being assessed. Four individuals (eight tendons) had been excluded. Jumper's knee had developed in 2 of 25 (2 were excluded) tendons that were normal (clinical and US+PD) at inclusion. Jumper's knee (clinical and US+PD) was also present in six tendons. Conclusions Normal clinical tests and ultrasound findings at the start indicated a low risk for these elite junior volleyball players to sustain jumper's knee during three school years with intensive training and playing. PMID:17127723
Kaux, Jean-François; Delvaux, François; Oppong-Kyei, Julian; Beaudart, Charlotte; Buckinx, Fanny; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Bruyère, Olivier
Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella (VISA-P), originally developed in English, assesses the severity of patellar tendinopathy symptoms. To date, no French version of the questionnaire exists. Objectives The aim of our study was to translate the VISA-P into French and verify its psychometric properties. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation were performed according to international recommendations in 6 steps: initial translation, translation merging, back translation to the original language, use of an expert committee to reach a prefinal version, test of the prefinal version, and expert committee appraisal of a final version. Afterward, the psychometric properties of the final French version (VISA-PF) were assessed in 92 subjects, divided into 3 groups: pathological subjects (n = 28), asymptomatic subjects (n = 22), and sports-risk subjects (n = 42). Results All members of the expert committee agreed with the final version. On a scale ranging from 0 to 100, with 100 representing an asymptomatic subject, the average ± SD scores on the VISA-PF were 53 ± 17 for the pathological group, 99 ± 2 for the healthy group, and 86 ± 14 for the sports-risk group. The test-retest reliability of the VISA-PF was excellent, with good internal consistency. Correlations between the VISA-PF and divergent validity of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were low, and the correlation coefficient values measured between the VISA-PF scores and converged items of the SF-36 were higher. Conclusion The VISA-PF is understandable, valid, and suitable for French-speaking patients with patellar tendinopathy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):384-390. Epub 21 Mar 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.5937.
Bhabra, Gev; Wang, Allan; Ebert, Jay R.; Edwards, Peter; Zheng, Monica; Zheng, Ming H.
Lateral elbow tendinopathy, commonly known as tennis elbow, is a condition that can cause significant functional impairment in working-age patients. The term tendinopathy is used to describe chronic overuse tendon disorders encompassing a group of pathologies, a spectrum of disease. This review details the pathophysiology of tendinopathy and tendon healing as an introduction for a system grading the severity of tendinopathy, with each of the 4 grades displaying distinct histopathological features. Currently, there are a large number of nonoperative treatments available for lateral elbow tendinopathy, with little guidance as to when and how to use them. In fact, an appraisal of the clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses studying these treatment modalities reveals that no single treatment reliably achieves outstanding results. This may be due in part to the majority of clinical studies to date including all patients with chronic tendinopathy rather than attempting to categorize patients according to the severity of disease. We relate the pathophysiology of the different grades of tendinopathy to the basic science principles that underpin the mechanisms of action of the nonoperative treatments available to propose a treatment algorithm guiding the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy depending on severity. We believe that this system will be useful both in clinical practice and for the future investigation of the efficacy of treatments. PMID:27833925
Danielson, Patrik; Alfredson, Håkan; Forsgren, Sture
Changes in the patterns of production and in the effects of signal substances may be involved in the development of tendinosis, a chronic condition of pain in human tendons. There is no previous information concerning the patterns of sympathetic innervation in the human patellar tendon. In this study, biopsies of normal and tendinosis patellar tendons were investigated with immunohistochemical methods, including the use of antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuropeptide Y, and against alpha1-, alpha2A-, and beta1-adrenoreceptors. It was noticed that most of the sympathetic innervation was detected in the walls of the blood vessels entering the tendon through the paratendinous tissue, and that the tendon tissue proper of the normal and tendinosis tendons was very scarcely innervated. Immunoreactions for adrenergic receptors were noticed in nerve fascicles containing both sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers. High levels of these receptors were also detected in the blood vessel walls; alpha1-adrenoreceptor immunoreactions being clearly more pronounced in the tendinosis tendons than in the tendons of controls. Interestingly, immunoreactions for adrenergic receptors and TH were noted for the tendon cells (tenocytes), especially in tendinosis tendons. The findings give a morphological correlate for the occurrence of sympathetically mediated effects in the patellar tendon and autocrine/paracrine catecholamine mechanisms for the tenocytes, particularly, in tendinosis. The observation of adrenergic receptors on tenocytes is interesting, as stimulation of these receptors can lead to cell proliferation, degeneration, and apoptosis, events which are all known to occur in tendinosis. Furthermore, the results imply that a possible source of catecholamine production might be the tenocytes themselves
DeCarbo, William T; Bullock, Mark J
Noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy often responds to nonoperative treatment. When nonoperative treatment fails, the clinician must distinguish between paratendinopathy and noninsertional tendinopathy. In paratendinopathy, myofibroblasts synthesize collagen, causing adhesions, and the paratenon may be released or excised. If a core area of tendinopathy is identified on MRI, the area is excised longitudinally and repaired with a side-to-side suture. If greater than 50% of the tendon diameter is excised, the authors recommend a short flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer with an interference screw. A turndown flap of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis is also described with good results.
Camargo, Paula R; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Salvini, Tania F
Excessive mechanical loading is considered the major cause of rotator cuff tendinopathy. Although tendon problems are very common, they are not always easy to treat. Eccentric training has been proposed as an effective conservative treatment for the Achilles and patellar tendinopathies, but less evidence exists about its effectiveness for the rotator cuff tendinopathy. The mechanotransduction process associated with an adequate dose of mechanical load might explain the beneficial results of applying the eccentric training to the tendons. An adequate load increases healing and an inadequate (over or underuse) load can deteriorate the tendon structure. Different eccentric training protocols have been used in the few studies conducted for people with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Further, the effects of the eccentric training for rotator cuff tendinopathy were only evaluated on pain, function and strength. Future studies should assess the effects of the eccentric training also on shoulder kinematics and muscle activity. Individualization of the exercise prescription, comprehension and motivation of the patients, and the establishment of specific goals, practice and efforts should all be considered when prescribing the eccentric training. In conclusion, eccentric training should be used aiming improvement of the tendon degeneration, but more evidence is necessary to establish the adequate dose-response and to determine long-term follow-up effects. PMID:25405092
Camargo, Paula R; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Salvini, Tania F
Excessive mechanical loading is considered the major cause of rotator cuff tendinopathy. Although tendon problems are very common, they are not always easy to treat. Eccentric training has been proposed as an effective conservative treatment for the Achilles and patellar tendinopathies, but less evidence exists about its effectiveness for the rotator cuff tendinopathy. The mechanotransduction process associated with an adequate dose of mechanical load might explain the beneficial results of applying the eccentric training to the tendons. An adequate load increases healing and an inadequate (over or underuse) load can deteriorate the tendon structure. Different eccentric training protocols have been used in the few studies conducted for people with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Further, the effects of the eccentric training for rotator cuff tendinopathy were only evaluated on pain, function and strength. Future studies should assess the effects of the eccentric training also on shoulder kinematics and muscle activity. Individualization of the exercise prescription, comprehension and motivation of the patients, and the establishment of specific goals, practice and efforts should all be considered when prescribing the eccentric training. In conclusion, eccentric training should be used aiming improvement of the tendon degeneration, but more evidence is necessary to establish the adequate dose-response and to determine long-term follow-up effects.
Bustos, Aldo; Locaso, Fernando
Objectives: To perform a description of tendinopathies as an injury in volleyball high performance. Methods: An observational and prospective study was conducted from 2014-2016 in the senior Argentinian volleyball team. The same was held by two observers. Moreover, 78 athletes were evaluated. We support Dvorak’s claims that an injury is determined by the loss of at least one training session or a match. Results: 78 players were exposed to 21812 hours of training and matches. As a result 37 injuries were evaluated in 31 players. Taking into account tendinopathies, it can be said that 34 players consulted 412 times, showing a prevalence of 43.5% of the whole enquires but when we refer to the same pathology as injury the average lowers, presenting 8 lesions in 6 players and showing a prevalence of 7.6% as injuries. Incidence of tendon injuries is 0.32 per 1000 hours of exposure Tendon Injuries: 5 were patellar, 2 supraspinatus, 1 aquiles. 5 Slight, 2 moderate, 1 severe. Conclusion: Clearly, tendinopathy is a common problem in this sport but it is not a common cause of injury. This is demonstrated in prevalence rates whereas 43.5 % just consulted and 7,6 % suffer from real injuries. We think this might be due to several factors such as, advances in medical therapy, preventive protocols and increase in thresholds of pain that high-performance athletes can bear. In our experience this pathology was shown to be the third leading cause of injuries. In 2016 we did not deal with any case of injury for tendinopathy.
Ferrari, Marcio B; Sanchez, George; Chahla, Jorge; Moatshe, Gilbert; LaPrade, Robert F
Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is relatively prevalent, with the lateral facet of the patella being the most commonly affected portion. This pathology can be a result of a patellar maltracking syndrome, patella instability, or idiopathic degenerative changes. A thorough diagnostic work-up with a physical examination and imaging studies are mandatory for a proper diagnosis and to rule out other causes of patellofemoral knee pain. These patients are often treated nonoperatively with exercises for patella mobility, intra-articular injections, braces, patellar tracking, quadriceps balance and strength, and activity modification. Patients with lateral patellar pain that is refractory to nonoperative management, and who have a clear bony deformity on the patella overriding the lateral aspect of the trochlea, can benefit from surgical intervention. We recommend an arthroscopic lateral patellar facetectomy because the joint can be dynamically assessed, treated, and re-evaluated intraoperatively to ensure that normal bony contact has been restored.
Franceschi, Francesco; Papalia, Rocco; Franceschetti, Edoardo; Denaro, Vincenzo
Purpose. In the last few years, evidence has emerged to support the possible association between increased BMI and susceptibility to some musculoskeletal diseases. We systematically review the literature to clarify whether obesity is a risk factor for the onset of tendinopathy. Methods. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Central, and Embase Biomedical databases using the keywords “obesity,” “overweight,” and “body mass index” linked in different combinations with the terms “tendinopathy,” “tendinitis,” “tendinosis,” “rotator cuff,” “epicondylitis,” “wrist,” “patellar,” “quadriceps,” “Achilles,” “Plantar Fascia,” and “tendon.” Results. Fifteen studies were included. No level I study on this subject was available, and the results provided are ambiguous. However, all the 5 level II studies report the association between obesity measured in terms of BMI and tendon conditions, with OR ranging between 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1–2.2) and 5.6 (1.9–16.6). Conclusions. The best evidence available to date indicates that obesity is a risk factor for tendinopathy. Nevertheless, further studies should be performed to establish the real strength of the association for each type of tendinopathy, especially because the design of the published studies does not allow identifying a precise cause-effect relationship and the specific role of obesity independently of other metabolic conditions. PMID:25214839
Reed, M R; Farhan, M J; Chaudhuri, C
A case of patellar stress fracture after total knee arthroplasty in a man with gout and previous osteonecrosis of the tali is reported. The combination of fat pad excision and lateral release causing disruption to the patellar blood supply during primary total knee arthroplasty resulted in the development of a patellar fracture. Avascular necrosis, caused by gout, may form part of the pathogenesis.
Peck, Evan; Jelsing, Elena; Onishi, Kentaro
Tendinopathy is increasingly recognized as an important cause of musculoskeletal pain and disability. Tendinopathy is thought to be principally a degenerative process, rather than inflammatory as was traditionally believed. Consequently, traditional tendinopathy treatments focused solely on decreasing inflammation have often been ineffective or even harmful. The advancement of ultrasonography as for guidance of outpatient musculoskeletal procedures has facilitated the development of novel percutaneous procedures for the treatment of tendinopathy, mostly by using mechanical intervention to stimulate regeneration. Several of these techniques, including percutaneous needle tenotomy, percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy, high-volume injection, and percutaneous needle scraping, are reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vulcano, Ettore; Mani, Sriniwasan B; Mani, Sriniwasan; Do, Huong; Bohne, Walter H; Ellis, Scott J
Plantar spurs and Achilles tendinopathy are common causes of heel pain. In the authors' practice, it was anecdotally noted that patients with Achilles tendinopathy often presented with plantar spurs. Nonetheless, there is a shortage of studies investigating whether Achilles tendinopathy and plantar spurs exist concomitantly. A better understanding of the association between the 2 pathologies might help physicians recognize and treat both conditions, educate patients about Achilles tendinopathy and plantar spurs, and ultimately investigate possible underlying causes of both pathologies that could be addressed together. The authors examined the prevalence of plantar spurs in patients diagnosed with Achilles tendinopathy as well as demographic differences within the unilateral and bilateral Achilles tendinopathy populations. A total of 785 patient records were retrospectively reviewed. Mean patient age was 56.2±15.5 years (46.9% men and 53.1% women). Seventy-two (9.2%) patients were affected bilaterally by Achilles tendinopathy. Lateral radiographs were reviewed by an orthopedic surgeon to identify the presence of plantar spurs. A total of 329 (41.9%) patients with Achilles tendinopathy were found to have a concomitant plantar spur. Patients with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy and a plantar spur were more likely to be women (58.7% vs 49.8%, P=.020) and older (62.7 vs 51.7 years, P<.001). In the bilateral Achilles tendinopathy group, there were 46 (63.9%) patients with at least one foot presenting with a plantar spur. The study's findings suggest a significant association between Achilles tendinopathy and plantar spurs. Older women with Achilles tendinopathy are at greater risk of being affected by plantar spurs.
Crescibene, Antonio; Napolitano, Marcello; Sbano, Raffaella; Costabile, Enrico; Almolla, Hesham
Achilles tendinopathy and patellar tendinopathy are among the most frequent diagnoses in sports medicine. Therapeutic treatment of the disease is difficult, particularly in chronic cases. In literature, several studies suggest the employment of Platelet-Rich Plasma as a therapeutic alternative in tendinopathies. The choice of employing this method is based on the activity of growth factors contained in platelets which activate, amplify, and optimize the healing process. We selected 14 patients affected by Achilles tendinopathy and 7 patients affected by patellar tendinopathy, with a two-year final follow-up. These patients underwent a cycle of three tendinous infiltrations, after clinical and instrumental evaluation carried out by means of specific questionnaires and repeated ultrasound scans. Ultrasound scans of 18 patients showed signs of reduction in insertional irregularities. The result is confirmed by complete functional recovery of the patients, with painful symptomatology disappearing. The patients showed a clear pain reduction, along with an enhanced VISA score after the 24-month follow-up, equal to 84.2 points on a scale of 0 to 100. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence to suggest that PRP infiltration is a valid option to patients with chronic tendinopathy who did not benefit from other treatments. PMID:26171277
Peters, Janne A; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald L; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge
Tendinopathy, the most prevalent tendon disorder which is considered as the clinical diagnosis of pain and dysfunction, is common in sports and its prevalence is ever-increasing. Despite the lack of clarity about risk factors, various preventive interventions for tendinopathy have been investigated. The main objective of this study is to review current preventive interventions for tendinopathy in the major regions: ankle, knee, hip, groin, shoulder and elbow. A systematic literature search was conducted. The PubMed and Embase databases were explored to identify articles that met the inclusion criteria. The included studies were assessed on methodological quality and data was summarized. Ten articles were included that describe a wide variety of preventive interventions. These were divided into three categories: stretch and exercise interventions, shoe adaptations and other interventions. The methodological quality of the studies was moderate to high. Three out of ten studies showed a significant beneficial result. There is limited evidence that a long-term intervention including balance training is effective in the prevention of patellar and Achilles tendinopathy. Shoe adaptations in the form of shock absorbing insoles could have a preventive effect on Achilles tendinopathy. Hormone replacement therapy seems to reduce the risk for structural Achilles tendon changes in active post-menopausal women. No evidence was found for a positive effect of stretching exercises. Prophylactic eccentric training and stretching can increase the risk of injury in asymptomatic players with patellar tendon abnormalities. A limited amount of studies was available and more research is needed on (multifactorial) etiology, risk factors and preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bullock, Mark J; Mourelatos, Jan; Mar, Alice
Haglund's syndrome is impingement of the retrocalcaneal bursa and Achilles tendon caused by a prominence of the posterosuperior calcaneus. Radiographic measurements are not sensitive or specific for diagnosing Haglund's deformity. Localization of a bone deformity and tendinopathy in the same sagittal section of a magnetic resonance imaging scan can assist with the diagnosis in equivocal cases. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of Haglund's syndrome in patients presenting with Achilles tendinopathy and note any associated findings to determine the criteria for a diagnosis of Haglund's syndrome. We reviewed 40 magnetic resonance imaging scans with Achilles tendinopathy and 19 magnetic resonance imaging scans with Achilles high-grade tears and/or ruptures. Achilles tendinopathy was often in close proximity to the superior aspect of the calcaneal tuberosity, consistent with impingement (67.5%). Patients with Achilles impingement tendinopathy were more often female (p < .04) and were significantly heavier than patients presenting with noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy (p = .014) or Achilles tendon rupture (p = .010). Impingement tendinopathy occurred medially (8 of 20) and centrally (10 of 20) more often than laterally (2 of 20) and was associated with a posterior prominence or hyperconvexity with a loss of calcaneal recess more often than a superior projection (22 of 27 versus 8 of 27; p < .001). Haglund's deformity should be reserved for defining a posterior prominence or hyperconvexity with loss of calcaneal recess because this corresponds with impingement. Achilles impingement tendinopathy might be more appropriate terminology for Haglund's syndrome, because the bone deformity is often subtle. Of the 27 images with Achilles impingement tendinopathy, 10 (37.0%) extended to a location prone to Achilles tendon rupture. Given these findings, insertional and noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy are not mutually
Owens, Brett D.; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Seelig, Amber D.; Jacobson, Isabel G.; Boyko, Edward J.; Smith, Besa; Ryan, Margaret A.K.; Gackstetter, Gary D.; Smith, Tyler C.; Bagnell, Melissa
Background: Overuse injuries have a significant impact on United States military service members, but research to date has been limited in its ability to assess occupational and behavioral risk factors. Hypothesis/Purpose: To prospectively identify risk factors for the development of lower extremity tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis in United States military personnel. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Baseline data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a long-term observational cohort of military personnel, were utilized. Service members were enrolled in the cohort in 2001, 2004, and 2007. A total of 80,106 active-duty personnel were followed over 1 year for the development of patellar tendinopathy, Achilles tendinopathy, and plantar fasciitis. Regression analyses were used to estimate significant associations between each tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, and demographic, behavioral, and occupational characteristics. Results: Using medical records, 450 cases of Achilles tendinitis, 584 cases of patellar tendinopathy, and 1228 cases of plantar fasciitis were identified. Recent deployment was associated with an increased risk for developing plantar fasciitis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.56). Moderate weekly alcohol consumption was marginally associated with an increased risk for Achilles tendinopathy (AOR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00-1.76). Overweight or obese individuals were more likely to develop Achilles tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis. Conclusion: Lower extremity tendinopathies and plantar fasciitis are common among military service members, and this study identified several modifiable risk factors for their occurrence. These potential risk factors could serve as the focus for future preventive and intervention studies. PMID:26535232
Lewis, J S
A review was conducted to synthesise the available research literature on the pathogenesis of rotator cuff tendinopathy. Musculoskeletal disorders of the shoulder are extremely common, with reports of prevalence ranging from one in three people experiencing shoulder pain at some stage of their lives to approximately half the population experiencing at least one episode of shoulder pain annually. Pathology of the soft tissues of the shoulder, including the musculotendinous rotator cuff and subacromial bursa, is a principal cause of pain and suffering. The pathoaetiology of rotator cuff failure is multifactorial and results from a combination of intrinsic, extrinsic and environmental factors. The specialised morphology of the rotator cuff, together with the effects of stress shielding, may contribute to the development of rotator cuff tendinopathy. Profound changes within the subacromial bursa are strongly related to the pathology and resulting symptoms. A considerable body of research is necessary to more fully understand the aetiology and pathohistology of rotator cuff tendinopathy and its relationship with bursal pathology. Once this knowledge exists more effective management will become available.
van der Worp, Henk; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Diercks, Ron L
Patellar tendinopathy is a chronic overuse injury of the patellar tendon that is especially prevalent in people who are involved in jumping activities. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy is a relatively new treatment modality for tendinopathies. It seems to be a safe and promising part of the rehabilitation program for patellar tendinopathy. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy originally used focused shockwaves. Several years ago a new kind of shockwave therapy was introduced: radial shockwave therapy. Studies that investigate the effectiveness of radial shockwave therapy as treatment for patellar tendinopathy are scarce. Therefore the aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of focussed shockwave therapy and radial shockwave therapy as treatments for patellar tendinopathy. The TOPSHOCK study (Tendinopathy Of Patella SHOCKwave) is a two-armed randomised controlled trial in which the effectiveness of focussed shockwave therapy and radial shockwave therapy are directly compared. Outcome assessors and patients are blinded as to which treatment is given. Patients undergo three sessions of either focused shockwave therapy or radial shockwave therapy at 1-week intervals, both in combination with eccentric decline squat training. Follow-up measurements are scheduled just before treatments 2 and 3, and 1, 4, 7 and 12 weeks after the final treatment. The main outcome measure is the Dutch VISA-P questionnaire, which asks for pain, function and sports participation in subjects with patellar tendinopathy. Secondary outcome measures are pain determined with a VAS during ADL, sports and decline squats, rating of subjective improvement and overall satisfaction with the treatment. Patients will also record their sports activities, pain during and after these activities, and concurrent medical treatment on a weekly basis in a web-based diary. Results will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. The TOPSHOCK study is the first randomised controlled trial that
A, Devgan; R, Rohilla; A, Jain; H, Mehta; S, Singh
Locked vertical patellar dislocations are rare and pose a therapeutic challenge. This case is more unusual, as the patient was a known case of recurrent patellar dislocation and presented with an atraumatic locked and vertically rotated patellar dislocation. This type of presentation has never been reported in literature to the best of our knowledge. A 14-year-old healthy male child with previous history of recurrent lateral dislocation of patella presented to accident & emergency department with complaints of inability to walk or bear weight on his left lower limb after he spontaneously dislocated his patella while running on uneven ground. Radiographs revealed a laterally displaced and vertically rotated patella along its long axis with the medial patellar edge locked and dipping into the lateral gutter. Open reduction was performed along with lateral patellar retinacular release with medial patellar retinaculum plication, to achieve satisfactory patellar stability and patellofemoral tracking. We would recommend that in the settings of patella being vertically dislocated and locked, open reduction would be the management of choice, as these types of dislocations are difficult to relocate by closed reduction. Repeated attempts of closed reduction may cause osteochondral damage. Open reduction not only yields better outcomes but also allows the surgeon to perform patellar realignment procedures in order to prevent further patellar dislocations in cases of prior patellar instability.
Toumi, H; Higashiyama, I; Suzuki, D; Kumai, T; Bydder, G; McGonagle, D; Emery, P; Fairclough, J; Benjamin, M
Proximal patellar tendinopathy occurs as an overuse injury in sport and is also characteristic of ankylosing spondylitis patients. It particularly affects the posteromedial part of the patellar tendon enthesis, although the reason for this is unclear. We investigated whether there are regional differences in the trabecular architecture of the patella or in the histology of the patellar tendon enthesis that could suggest unequal force transmission from bone to tendon. Trabecular architecture was analysed from X-rays taken with a Faxitron radiography system of the patellae of dissecting room cadavers and in magnetic resonance images of the knees of living volunteers. Structural and fractal analyses were performed on the Faxitron digital images using MatLab software. Regional differences at the enthesis in the thickness of the uncalcified fibrocartilage and the subchondral plate were evaluated histologically in cadaveric material. The radiological studies showed that the quantity of bone and the apparent trabecular thickness in the patella were greatest medially, and that in the lateral part of the patella there were fewer trabeculae which were orientated either antero-posteriorly or superiorly inferiorly. The histological study showed that the uncalcified fibrocartilage was most prominent medially and that the subchondral plate was thinner laterally. Overall, the results indicate that mechanical stress at the proximal patellar tendon enthesis is asymmetrically distributed and greater on the medial than on the lateral side. Thus, we suggest that the functional anatomy of the knee is closely related to regional variations in force transmission, which in turn relates to the posteromedial site of pathology in proximal patellar tendinopathy. PMID:16420378
Goom, Thomas S H; Malliaras, Peter; Reiman, Michael P; Purdam, Craig R
Synopsis Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) typically manifests as deep buttock pain at the hamstring common origin. Both athletic and nonathletic populations are affected by PHT. Pain and dysfunction are often long-standing and limit sporting and daily functions. There is limited evidence regarding diagnosis, assessment, and management; for example, there are no randomized controlled trials investigating rehabilitation of PHT. Some of the principles of management established in, for example, Achilles and patellar tendinopathy would appear to apply to PHT but are not as well documented. This narrative review and commentary will highlight clinical aspects of assessment and management of PHT, drawing on the available evidence and current principles of managing painful tendinopathy. The management outline presented aims to guide clinicians as well as future research. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):483-493. Epub 15 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.5986.
Loppini, Mattia; Maffulli, Nicola
Summary Tendinopathy is one of the most frequent overuse injuries associated with sport. It is a failure of a chronic healing response associated with both chronic overloaded and unloaded states. Although several conservative therapeutic options have been proposed, very few of them are supported by randomized controlled trials. Eccentric exercises provide excellent clinical results both in athletic and sedentary patients, with no reported adverse effects. Combining eccentric loading and low-energy shock wave therapy produces higher success rates compared with eccentric training alone or shock wave therapy alone. High-volume injection of normal saline solution, corticosteroids, or anesthetics can reduce pain and improve long-term function in patients with Achilles or patellar tendinopathy. The use of injectable substances such as platelet-rich plasma, autologous blood, polidocanol, and corticosteroids in and around tendons is not support by strong clinical evidence. Further randomized controlled trials are necessary to define the best conservative management of tendinopathy. PMID:23738261
de Moraes, Frederico Barra; de Melo, Mariana Christino; Rocha, Allan Vieira; Dos Santos, Mauro Rodrigues
The aim was to report on a rare case of patellar osteochondroma. A 60-year-old man presented a tumor on his left patella that had developed over a 10-year period, which is a rare occurrence, considering the patient's age and the site at which the tumor appeared. The clinical condition comprised mild pain and the presence of a mass, without limitation of flexion-extension or any neurovascular deficit. The tumor dimensions were 8 cm longitudinally × 6 cm transversally × 3 cm anteroposteriorly. It was hardened and was adhering to the patellar bone plane. On radiographs and tomographic scans, we observed areas of greater density corresponding to bone and other less dense areas that could correspond to slow-growing cartilage, with irregularities on the patellofemoral joint surface. Simple resection of the tumor was performed, and the anatomopathological examination confirmed that it was a patellar osteochondroma. Osteochondroma, or osteocartilaginous exostosis, includes a large proportion of the benign bone tumors. It results from cell alterations that trigger unregulated production of spongy bone. It is basically treated by means of surgical removal of the tumor mass. This is not essential, but is recommended in order to avoid lesions caused by contiguity and the risk of malignant transformation.
Tendinopathies are one of the most common sports/musculoskeletal injury in modern western societies. Many physiotherapy approaches have been recommended in the literature for the management of tendinopathy. The most effective treatment in the management of tendinopathy is the eccentric training. Load, speed and frequency of contractions are the three principles of eccentric exercises, discussed in this report. However, eccentric training is not effective for all patients with tendinopathy and the effectiveness of this approach when applied as monotherapy is lower than it is applied as part of the rehabilitation process. For this reason, clinicians combine eccentric training with other physiotherapy techniques such as stretching, isometric and lumbar stability exercises, electrotherapy, manual therapy, soft tissue manipulation techniques, taping and acupuncture in the management of tendinopathies. Further research is needed to find out which treatment strategy combined with eccentric training will provide the best results in the rehabilitation of tendinopathy. PMID:26140271
Lui, Pauline Po Yee; Lee, Yuk Wa; Wong, Yin Mei; Zhang, Xiaoling; Dai, Kerong; Rolf, Christer Gustav
Tissue metaplasia is observed in both ossified failed healing animal model and clinical samples of tendinopathy. The Wnt signalling pathway plays a vital role in pathological calcification. We hypothesized that the Wnt signalling pathway might contribute to tissue metaplasia and failed healing in tendinopathy. This study aimed to examine the spatial-temporal expression of Wnt pathway mediators in an ossified failed tendon healing animal model and clinical samples of tendinopathy. The effect of Wnt3a on the osteogenic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) was also examined. Ossified failed tendon healing was induced by the injection of collagenase into the patellar tendon of rats. At various times the tendons were harvested for immunohistochemical staining of Wnt3a, β-catenin, Lrp5 and Tcf1. Patellar tendon samples were obtained from 13 patients with patellar tendinopathy (11 unossified and 2 ossified) and 10 controls. Immunohistochemical staining of Wnt3a, β-catenin, Lrp5 and Tcf1 was similarly performed. Rat patellar TDSCs were treated with Wnt3a. The osteogenic differentiation of TDSCs was examined by ALP activity, alizarin red S staining and mRNA expression of osteogenic markers. There was increased expression of Wnt3a, β-catenin, Lrp5 and Tcf1 in the healing fibroblast-like cells, chondrocyte-like cells and ossified deposits in the animal model and in some clinical samples of tendinopathy. Wnt3a increased ALP activity, calcium nodule formation and expression of osteogenic markers in TDSCs. Activation of the Wnt signalling pathway and its effect on TDSCs might contribute to tissue metaplasia and failed healing in some cases of tendinopathy.
To improve its mechanical advantage, the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) muscle uses, as if it was a pulley, the 6(th) extensor compartment, a dorsal fibro-osseous tunnel formed by the ulnar sulcus and the ECU tendon sub-sheath. Rupture or insufficiency of that sheath may allow anteromedial ECU tendon subluxation and subsequent destabilization of the distal radioulnar and ulnocarpal joints. Sometimes, it is not sheath problem, but excessive friction between the sheath and the tendon what causes a painful degeneration of the tendon (tendinosis) with or without tendon entrapment. The term "ECU tendinopathy" has been chosen to designate all painful ECU anomalies resulting from a dysfunctional 6(th) extensor compartment. ECU tendinopathies are frequent among sportsmen using bats, sticks or clubs. There are 2 major types of tendinopathy: 1) constrained tendinopathies, where there is entrapment of a thickened overused tendon, and 2) unconstrained tendinopathies, where a ruptured ECU sub-sheath allows the ECU to sublux in a volar direction, a position precluding all its stabilizing potential. In the first type, the goal of the treatment is to avoid further degeneration and subsequent rupture of the diseased tendon; in the second, to re-establish the normal connections between the ulna and the ECU tendon. This article reviews the management of the most frequent ECU tendinopathies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Khan, K M; Cook, J L; Bonar, F; Harcourt, P; Astrom, M
Tendon disorders are a major problem for participants in competitive and recreational sports. To try to determine whether the histopathology underlying these conditions explains why they often prove recalcitrant to treatment, we reviewed studies of the histopathology of sports-related, symptomatic Achilles, patellar, extensor carpi radialis brevis and rotator cuff tendons. The literature indicates that healthy tendons appear glistening white to the naked eye and microscopy reveals a hierarchical arrangement of tightly packed, parallel bundles of collagen fibres that have a characteristic reflectivity under polarised light. Stainable ground substance (extracellular matrix) is absent and vasculature is inconspicuous. Tenocytes are generally inconspicuous and fibroblasts and myofibroblasts absent. In stark contrast, symptomatic tendons in athletes appear grey and amorphous to the naked eye and microscopy reveals discontinuous and disorganised collagen fibres that lack reflectivity under polarised light. This is associated with an increase in the amount of mucoid ground substance, which is confirmed with Alcian blue stain. At sites of maximal mucoid change, tenocytes, when present, are plump and chondroid in appearance (exaggerated fibrocartilaginous metaplasia). These changes are accompanied by the increasingly conspicuous presence of cells within the tendon tissue, most of which have a fibroblastic or myofibroblastic appearance (smooth muscle actin is demonstrated using an avidin biotin technique). Maximal cellular proliferation is accompanied by prominent capillary proliferation and a tendency for discontinuity of collagen fibres in this area. Often, there is an abrupt discontinuity of both vascular and myofibroblastic proliferation immediately adjacent to the area of greatest abnormality. The most significant feature is the absence of inflammatory cells. These observations confirm that the histopathological findings in athletes with overuse tendinopathies are
Simpson, Michael R; Howard, Thomas M
Because our understanding of tendinopathy has evolved in recent years, the condition is now considered a degenerative process; this affects the approach to treatment. Initial therapy should always involve relative rest and modification of physical activity, use of rehabilitative exercises, and evaluation of intrinsic and extrinsic causes of injury. The posterior tibial tendon is a dynamic arch stabilizer; injury to this tendon can cause a painful flat-footed deformity with hindfoot valgus and midfoot abduction (characterized by the too many toes sign). Treatment of posterior tibial tendinopathy is determined by its severity and can include immobilization, orthotics, physical therapy, or subspecialty referral. Because peroneal tendinopathy is often misdiagnosed, it can lead to chronic lateral ankle pain and instability and should be suspected in a patient with either of these symptoms. Treatment involves physical therapy and close monitoring for surgical indications. Achilles tendinopathy is often caused by overtraining, use of inappropriate training surfaces, and poor flexibility. It is characterized by pain in the Achilles tendon 4 to 6 cm above the point of insertion into the calcaneus. Evidence from clinical trials shows that eccentric strengthening of the calf muscle can help patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Flexor hallucis longus tendinopathy is most common among ballet dancers. Patients may complain of an insidious onset of pain in the posteromedial aspect of the ankle; treatment involves correcting physical training errors, focusing on body mechanics, and strengthening the body's core. Anterior tibial tendinopathy is rare, but is typically seen in patients older than 45 years. It causes weakness in dorsiflexion of the ankle; treatment involves short-term immobilization and physical therapy.
Ooi, Chin Chin; Richards, Paula J; Maffulli, Nicola; Ede, David; Schneider, Michal E; Connell, David; Morrissey, Dylan; Malliaras, Peter
To investigate the diagnostic performance of grey scale Ultrasound (US), power Doppler (PD) and US elastography for diagnosing painful patellar tendinopathy, and to establish their relationship with Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella (VISA-P) scores in a group of volleyball players with and without symptoms of patellar tendinopathy. Cross-sectional study. Thirty-five volleyball players (70 patellar tendons) were recruited during a national university volleyball competition. Players were imaged with conventional US followed by elastography. The clinical findings of painful patellar tendons were used as the reference standard for diagnosing patellar tendinopathy. In addition, all participants completed the VISA-P questionnaires. Of the 70 patellar tendons, 40 (57.1%) were clinically painful. The diagnostic accuracy of grey scale US, PD and elastography were 60%, 50%, 62.9%, respectively, with sensitivity/specificity of 72.5%/43.3%, 12.5%/100%, and 70%/53.3%, respectively. Combined US elastography and grey scale imaging achieved 82.5% sensitivity, 33.3% specificity and 61.4% accuracy while routine combination technique of PD and grey scale imaging revealed 72.5% sensitivity, 43.3% specificity and 60.0% accuracy. Tendons in players categorized as soft on elastography had statistically significantly greater AP thickness (p<0.001) and lower VISA-P scores (p=0.004) than those categorized as hard. There was no significant association between grey scale US abnormalities (hypoechogenicities and/or fusiform swelling) and VISA-P scores (p=0.098). Soft tendon properties depicted by US elastography may be more related to patellar tendon symptoms compared to grey scale US abnormalities. The supplementation of US elastography to conventional US may enhance the sensitivity for diagnosing patellar tendinopathy in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kaux, Jean-François; Crielaard, Jean-Michel
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may represent a new therapeutic option for chronic tendinopathies. Platelets release various cytokines and growth factors which promote angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and wound healing. We made an extended literature review of the use of PRP in chronic tendinopathies: epicondylitis, rotator cuff, patellar and calcaneal tendinopathies, and plantar fasciitis. Medline, Embase and Google Scholar were used (until July 31, 2012). Clinical studies on PRP and tendinopathies published in English and French language peer-reviewed journals were included. Articles with a high level of evidence were given special consideration. Despite the proven efficacy of PRP on tissue regeneration in experimental studies, there is currently scanty tangible clinical evidence with respect to its efficacy in chronic tendon disorders. The few studies that have been performed appear unlikely to be comparable. Randomized controlled studies with appropriate placebo groups are needed to determine the real effectiveness of PRP for treating chronic musculoskeletal injuries.
Sandrey, Michelle A.
Reference: de Vos RJ, van Veldhoven PLJ, Moen MH, Weir A, Tol JL. Autologous growth factor injections in chronic tendinopathy: a systematic review. Br Med Bull. 2010;95:63–77. Clinical Question: The authors of this systematic review evaluated the literature to critically consider the effects of growth factors delivered through autologous whole-blood and platelet-rich–plasma (PRP) injections in managing wrist-flexor and -extensor tendinopathies, plantar fasciopathy, and patellar tendinopathy. The primary question was, according to the published literature, is there sufficient evidence to support the use of growth factors delivered through autologous whole-blood and PRP injections for chronic tendinopathy? Data Sources: The authors performed a comprehensive, systematic literature search in October 2009 using PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane library without time limits. The following key words were used in different combinations: tendinopathy, tendinosis, tendinitis, tendons, tennis elbow, plantar fasciitis, platelet rich plasma, platelet transfusion, and autologous blood or injection. The search was limited to human studies in English. All bibliographies from the initial literature search were also viewed to identify additional relevant studies. Study Selection: Studies were eligible based on the following criteria: (1) Articles were suitable (inclusion criteria) if the participants had been clinically diagnosed as having chronic tendinopathy; (2) the design had to be a prospective clinical study, randomized controlled trial, nonrandomized clinical trial, or prospective case series; (3) a well-described intervention in the form of a growth factor injection with either PRP or autologous whole blood was used; and (4) the outcome was reported in terms of pain or function (or both). Data Extraction: All titles and abstracts were assessed by 2 researchers, and all relevant articles were obtained. Two researchers independently read the full text of
Sandrey, Michelle A
de Vos RJ, van Veldhoven PLJ, Moen MH, Weir A, Tol JL. Autologous growth factor injections in chronic tendinopathy: a systematic review. Br Med Bull. 2010;95:63-77. The authors of this systematic review evaluated the literature to critically consider the effects of growth factors delivered through autologous whole-blood and platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) injections in managing wrist-flexor and -extensor tendinopathies, plantar fasciopathy, and patellar tendinopathy. The primary question was, according to the published literature, is there sufficient evidence to support the use of growth factors delivered through autologous whole-blood and PRP injections for chronic tendinopathy? The authors performed a comprehensive, systematic literature search in October 2009 using PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane library without time limits. The following key words were used in different combinations: tendinopathy, tendinosis, tendinitis, tendons, tennis elbow, plantar fasciitis, platelet rich plasma, platelet transfusion, and autologous blood or injection. The search was limited to human studies in English. All bibliographies from the initial literature search were also viewed to identify additional relevant studies. Studies were eligible based on the following criteria: (1) Articles were suitable (inclusion criteria) if the participants had been clinically diagnosed as having chronic tendinopathy; (2) the design had to be a prospective clinical study, randomized controlled trial, nonrandomized clinical trial, or prospective case series; (3) a well-described intervention in the form of a growth factor injection with either PRP or autologous whole blood was used; and (4) the outcome was reported in terms of pain or function (or both). All titles and abstracts were assessed by 2 researchers, and all relevant articles were obtained. Two researchers independently read the full text of each article to determine if it met the inclusion criteria. If opinions differed on
van Ark, M; Docking, S I; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Rudavsky, A; Rio, E; Zwerver, J; Cook, J L
Patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee) has a high prevalence in jumping athletes. Excessive load on the patellar tendon through high volumes of training and competition is an important risk factor. Structural changes in the tendon are related to a higher risk of developing patellar tendinopathy. The critical tendon load that affects tendon structure is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate patellar tendon structure on each day of a 5-day volleyball tournament in an adolescent population (16-18 years). The right patellar tendon of 41 players in the Australian Volleyball Schools Cup was scanned with ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) on every day of the tournament (Monday to Friday). UTC can quantify structure of a tendon into four echo types based on the stability of the echo pattern. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to test for change of echo type I and II over the tournament days. Participants played between eight and nine matches during the tournament. GEE analysis showed no significant change of echo type percentages of echo type I (Wald chi-square = 4.603, d.f. = 4, P = 0.331) and echo type II (Wald chi-square = 6.070, d.f. = 4, P = 0.194) over time. This study shows that patellar tendon structure of 16-18-year-old volleyball players is not affected during 5 days of cumulative loading during a volleyball tournament.
Lavagnino, Michael; Arnoczky, Steven P.; Dodds, Julie; Elvin, Niell
Background: The impetus for the use of patellar straps in the treatment of patellar tendinopathy has largely been based on empirical evidence and not on any mechanistic rationale. A computational model suggests that patellar tendinopathy may be a result of high localized tendon strains that occur at smaller patella–patellar tendon angles (PPTAs). Hypothesis: Infrapatellar straps will decrease the mean localized computational strain in the area of the patellar tendon commonly involved in jumper’s knee by increasing the PPTA. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Twenty adult males had lateral weightbearing and nonweightbearing radiographs of their knees taken with and without 1 of 2 infrapatellar straps at 60° of knee flexion. Morphologic measurements of PPTA and patellar tendon length with and without the straps were used as input data into a previously described computational model to calculate average and maximum strain at the common location of the jumper’s knee lesion during a simulated jump landing. Results: The infrapatellar bands decreased the predicted localized strain (average and maximum) in the majority of participants by increasing PPTA and/or decreasing patellar tendon length. When both PPTA and patellar tendon length were altered by the straps, there was a strong and significant correlation with the change in predicted average localized strain with both straps. Conclusion: Infrapatellar straps may limit excessive patella tendon strain at the site of the jumper’s knee lesion by increasing PPTA and decreasing patellar tendon length rather than by correcting some inherent anatomic or functional abnormality in the extensor apparatus. Clinical Relevance: The use of infrapatellar straps may help prevent excessive localized tendon strains at the site of the jumper’s knee lesion during a jump landing. PMID:23016021
Yoshida, Mamoru; Funasaki, Hiroki; Kubota, Makoto; Marumo, Keishi
Tendinopathy is the most common tendon disorder. The etiology is still uncertain, and the disorder poses many therapeutic problems. In a few clinical studies, analgesic effects of high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW HA) injections were observed, but the underlying mechanisms were not elucidated. In the present study, we analyzed the therapeutic effects of hyaluronan injections for tendinopathy in an animal model. We made the tendinopathy rat model using a rodent treadmill machine. Rats with tendinopathy were injected with HMW HA (HA group), normal saline (NS group), or nothing (control group) into the space between the patellar tendon and the fat pad bilaterally, or were injected with HMW HA into the right knees and with saline to the left knees (HA/NS group), 5 times every 4 days. To assess the pain-relieving effect of HA, the spontaneous locomotor activities at night (12 h) and weight bearing of hind paws were measured every day. Histological sections of the patellar tendon stained with hematoxylin-eosin or prepared by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling were microscopically analyzed. The number of spontaneous locomotor activities in the HA group was significantly larger than those in NS or control groups, and in the HA group they recovered up to a healthy level. The percent weight distribution of the right hind paws was significantly increased along with the number of injections. On histologic examinations, the numbers of microtears, laminations, or apoptotic cells in the patellar tendons in the HA group were significantly lower than those in the NS or the control groups. The injections of HMW HA were effective for pain relief and for partial restoration of the patellar tendon in our tendinopathy rat model, and thus may become an effective therapeutic modality for the disease.
Lui, Pauline Po Yee
Chronic tendinopathy is a frequent and disabling musculo-skeletal problem affecting the athletic and general populations. The affected tendon is presented with local tenderness, swelling, and pain which restrict the activity of the individual. Tendon degeneration reduces the mechanical strength and predisposes it to rupture. The pathogenic mechanisms of chronic tendinopathy are not fully understood and several major non-mutually exclusive hypotheses including activation of the hypoxia-apoptosis-pro-inflammatory cytokines cascade, neurovascular ingrowth, increased production of neuromediators, and erroneous stem cell differentiation have been proposed. Many intrinsic and extrinsic risk/causative factors can predispose to the development of tendinopathy. Among them, diabetes mellitus is an important risk/causative factor. This review aims to appraise the current literature on the epidemiology and pathology of tendinopathy in diabetic patients. Systematic reviews were done to summarize the literature on (a) the association between diabetes mellitus and tendinopathy/tendon tears, (b) the pathological changes in tendon under diabetic or hyperglycemic conditions, and (c) the effects of diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia on the outcomes of tendon healing. The potential mechanisms of diabetes mellitus in causing and exacerbating tendinopathy with reference to the major non-mutually exclusive hypotheses of the pathogenic mechanisms of chronic tendinopathy as reported in the literature are also discussed. Potential strategies for the management of tendinopathy in diabetic patients are presented.
Kaux, Jean-François; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Goff, Caroline Le; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis
Tendinopathy is characterized by pain in the tendon and impaired performance sometimes associated with swelling of the tendon. Its diagnosis is usually clinical but ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging can refine the diagnosis. Tendinopathy is highly prevalent and is one of the most frequently self reported musculoskeletal diseases in physical workers and sports people. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to carry out general epidemiologic studies on tendinopathy because of the varying sports cultures and sports habits in different countries. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be multi-factorial, involving intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The role of inflammation is still debated but the absence of inflammatory cells does not mean that inflammatory mediators are not implicated. Different theories have been advanced to explain pain and chronicity mechanisms, but these mechanisms remain largely unknown. “Conventional ”treatments are generally employed empirically to fight pain and inflammation but they do not modify the histological structure of the tendon. However, these treatments are not completely satisfactory and the recurrence of symptoms is common. Currently, eccentric training remains the treatment of choice for tendinopathy, even though some studies are contradictory. Moreover, many interesting new treatments are now being developed to treat tendinopathy, but there is little evidence to support their use in clinical practice. Key points The word “tendinopathy ”is the correct term for the clinical diagnosis of pain accompanied by impaired performance, and sometimes swelling in the tendon. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be a multi-factorial process, involving promoting factors that are intrinsic or extrinsic, working either alone or in combination. US (with color Doppler) and MRI are usually prescribed when tendinopathy is unresponsive to treatment and entails lingering symptoms. Eccentric training is currently considered to be the
A, Devgan; R, Rohilla; A, Jain; H, Mehta; S, Singh
Introduction: Locked vertical patellar dislocations are rare and pose a therapeutic challenge. This case is more unusual, as the patient was a known case of recurrent patellar dislocation and presented with an atraumatic locked and vertically rotated patellar dislocation. This type of presentation has never been reported in literature to the best of our knowledge. Case presentation: A 14-year-old healthy male child with previous history of recurrent lateral dislocation of patella presented to accident & emergency department with complaints of inability to walk or bear weight on his left lower limb after he spontaneously dislocated his patella while running on uneven ground. Radiographs revealed a laterally displaced and vertically rotated patella along its long axis with the medial patellar edge locked and dipping into the lateral gutter. Open reduction was performed along with lateral patellar retinacular release with medial patellar retinaculum plication, to achieve satisfactory patellar stability and patellofemoral tracking. Conclusion: We would recommend that in the settings of patella being vertically dislocated and locked, open reduction would be the management of choice, as these types of dislocations are difficult to relocate by closed reduction. Repeated attempts of closed reduction may cause osteochondral damage. Open reduction not only yields better outcomes but also allows the surgeon to perform patellar realignment procedures in order to prevent further patellar dislocations in cases of prior patellar instability. PMID:27703948
Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo
Tendon injuries can be acute or chronic, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors, either alone or in combination. Tendinopathies are a common cause of disability in occupational medicine and account for a substantial proportion of overuse injuries in sports. Tendinopathy is essentially a failed healing response, with haphazard proliferation of tenocytes, abnormalities in tenocytes, with disruption of collagen fibres and subsequent increase in noncollagenous matrix. The scientific evidence base for managing tendinopathies is limited. What may appear clinically as an “acute tendinopathy” is actually a well advanced failure of a chronic healing response in which there is neither histologic nor biochemical evidence of inflammation. In this review we report the new options for the management of tendinopathy, including eccentric exercises, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, injections (intratendinous injections of corticosteroids, aprotinin, polidocanol platelet-rich plasma, autologous blood injection, high-volume injections) and surgery. Open surgery aims to excise fibrotic adhesions, remove areas of failed healing and make multiple longitudinal incisions in the tendon to detect intratendinous lesions, and to restore vascularity and possibly stimulate the remaining viable cells to initiate cell matrix response and healing. New surgical techniques aim to disrupt the abnormal neoinnervation to interfere with the pain sensation caused by tendinopathy. These procedures are intrinsically different from the classical ones in present use, because they do not attempt to address directly the pathologic lesion, but act only to denervate them. They include endoscopy, electrocoagulation, and minimally invasive stripping. Further randomized controlled trials are necessary to clarify better the best therapeutic options for the management of tendinopathy. PMID:24198540
Dirks, R C; Warden, S J
Tendinopathy refers to the clinical presentation of activity-related pain, focal tendon tenderness, and intratendinous imaging changes. The underlying pathology was once thought to be due to inflammation ('tendinitis'), but is now considered to predominantly result from degeneration ('tendinosis'). While some progress has been made in understanding tendinosis, the condition remains poorly understood and a need exists for suitable exploratory preclinical models. It is unlikely that one suitable model exists because of the complexity of the underlying pathology and myriad of possible causes. This paper provides an overview of current models utilized in tendinopathy research. It progresses hierarchically from in vitro and ex vivo models to in vivo models. For each model, rationale for use, pertinent findings, and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. By improving on these models, new methods for the prevention and treatment of tendinopathy may be explored with the ultimate outcome being a reduction in the occurrence and effects of the condition in humans.
Jerome, J Terrence Jose; Varghese, M; Sankaran, B
Congenital patellar syndrome is bilateral isolated absence of patella. Congenital patellar aplasia or hypoplasia associated with genetic disorders belongs to a clinically diverse and genetically heterogeneous group of lower limb malformations. Absence of patella as an isolated anomaly is extremely rare and we discuss such a case in a 9-year-old boy.
CASTRO, Adham do Amaral e; SKARE, Thelma Larocca; NASSIF, Paulo Afonso Nunes; SAKUMA, Alexandre Kaue; BARROS, Wagner Haese
ABSTRACT Introduction: Tendinopathies and tendon tears account for over 30% of all musculoskeletal consultations. Obesity, which is becoming one of the world´s most prevalent public health issues, may be associated with this condition. Objective: To review the literature about tendinopathies and obesity association. Methods: This is a descriptive exploratory study using the portal Medline. Literature in English language from 2006 to 2014 were reviewed. Results: The pathogenesis of tendinopathies includes inflammatory, regenerative and degenerative processes that happen simultaneously from early to late phases of the disease. Mechanical stress upon tendons seems to be one of the most important factors to initiate the inflammatory response, but it´s not the only one that can deflagrate it: there are other extrinsic, genetic and metabolic factors that may be involved. Therefore, tendinopathies in obese patients can be due to tendon overload because of the excess of weight, but also because of increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators related to fat tissue such as adipokines. This pro-inflammatory state that obese people can suffer is known as adiposopathy, or sick fat syndrome. Weight loss is associated with decrease in adipokines and improvement of musculoskeletal symptoms. Conclusion: The relation of obesity and tendinopathies is supported by evidences of recent studies, exemplified in this review of literature. PMID:27683789
Background Patellar tendinopathy is a chronic overuse injury of the patellar tendon that is especially prevalent in people who are involved in jumping activities. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy is a relatively new treatment modality for tendinopathies. It seems to be a safe and promising part of the rehabilitation program for patellar tendinopathy. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy originally used focused shockwaves. Several years ago a new kind of shockwave therapy was introduced: radial shockwave therapy. Studies that investigate the effectiveness of radial shockwave therapy as treatment for patellar tendinopathy are scarce. Therefore the aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of focussed shockwave therapy and radial shockwave therapy as treatments for patellar tendinopathy. Methods/design The TOPSHOCK study (Tendinopathy Of Patella SHOCKwave) is a two-armed randomised controlled trial in which the effectiveness of focussed shockwave therapy and radial shockwave therapy are directly compared. Outcome assessors and patients are blinded as to which treatment is given. Patients undergo three sessions of either focused shockwave therapy or radial shockwave therapy at 1-week intervals, both in combination with eccentric decline squat training. Follow-up measurements are scheduled just before treatments 2 and 3, and 1, 4, 7 and 12 weeks after the final treatment. The main outcome measure is the Dutch VISA-P questionnaire, which asks for pain, function and sports participation in subjects with patellar tendinopathy. Secondary outcome measures are pain determined with a VAS during ADL, sports and decline squats, rating of subjective improvement and overall satisfaction with the treatment. Patients will also record their sports activities, pain during and after these activities, and concurrent medical treatment on a weekly basis in a web-based diary. Results will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion The TOPSHOCK study is the
de Groot, Reinier; Malliaras, Peter; Munteanu, Shannon; Payne, Craig; Morrissey, Dylan; Maffulli, Nicola
We hypothesized that individuals with a normal foot posture would be less likely to experience patellar tendon pain and pathology than those with a pronated or supinated foot. Observational study. Field-based study among competing athletes. Volleyball players competing in the Victorian State League, Australia. Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is common in sports involving running and jumping and can severely limit athletes' ability to compete. Several studies have investigated potential etiological factors for the development of PT, but little is known about the association between PT and foot posture. Static foot posture index (FPI), patellar tendon pain during single-leg decline squatting, and gray scale ultrasound imaging were measured in 78 recreational to elite volleyball players (48 men and 30 women). Men with patellar tendon pain were more likely to have a normal foot posture and men without pain were more likely to be pronated according to the FPI (P < 0.05). Women showed no association between FPI and pain or imaging (P > 0.05). Men with a normal foot posture were more likely to have PT compared to men with a pronated foot type.
Kaux, Jean-François; Drion, Pierre; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Crielaard, Jean-Michel
Objectives: The restorative properties of platelets, through the local release of growth factors, are used in various medical areas. This article reviews fundamental and clinical research relating to platelet-rich plasma applied to tendinous lesions. Materials and method: Articles in French and English, published between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014. dealing with PRP and tendons were searched for using the Medline and Scopus data bases. Results: Forty-seven articles were identified which addressed pre-clinical and clinical studies: 27 relating to in vitro and in vivo animal studies and 20 relating to human studies. Of these, five addressed lateral epicondylitis, two addressed rotator cuff tendinopathies, ten dealt with patellar tendinopathies and three looked at Achilles tendinopathies. Conclusions: The majority of pre-clinical studies show that PRP stimulates the tendon’s healing process. However, clinical series remain more controversial and level 1, controlled, randomised studies are still needed. PMID:26195890
Balasubramaniam, Umatheepan; Dissanayake, Ravi; Annabell, Lucas
Chronic tendinopathy has often been a management dilemma for general practitioners. With our understanding of the pathophysiology of tendinopathy evolving, so has our management, with the advent of newer strategies such as topical glycerol trinitrate, extracorporeal shock-wave therapy, as well as platelet-rich plasma (PRP). To systematically review the literature regarding PRP therapy in chronic tendinopathy. The databases used in our search include the Elton B. Stephens Co. (EBSCO) database, Medline, the Cochrane library, Ovid, and Embase (the Excerpta Medica database). A total of 389 articles were reviewed from Feb 2010 to April 2014, for possible inclusion. Of these articles, a total of 9 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met our inclusion criteria. Only 1 RCT was excluded due to previous surgery in both the trial and control groups. Each article was reviewed independently by 2 authors. Each article was analyzed using the Cochrane Criteria checklist. Where any discrepancy occurred in results, a third independent reviewer was consulted. Our review found that PRP was most effective in patellar and lateral epicondylar tendinopathy, with both RCTs in the patellar section of our study supporting the use of PRP in pain reduction at 3 and 12 months, whereas 2 of 4 studies in the lateral epicondylar section showed improvements in pain and disability at 6 and 12 months. There was a lack of evidence to support the use of PRP in Achilles and rotator cuff tendinopathy. Although the results of this review show promise for the use of PRP in chronic tendinopathy, the analysis highlighted the need for more controlled clinical trials comparing PRP with placebo.
Salles, José Inácio; Amaral, Marcus Vinícius; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro; Lira, Daisy Anne; Quinelato, Valquiria; Bonato, Letícia Ladeira; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite; Vieira, Alexandre Rezende; Casado, Priscila Ladeira
To investigate whether genetic variants can be correlated with tendinopathy in elite male volleyball athletes. Case-control study. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms within BMP4, FGF3, FGF10, FGFR1 genes were investigated in 138 elite volleyball athletes, aged between 18 and 35 years, who undergo 4-5h of training per day: 52 with tendinopathy and 86 with no history of pain suggestive of tendinopathy in patellar, Achilles, shoulder, and hip abductors tendons. The clinical diagnostic criterion was progressive pain during training, confirmed by magnetic resonance image. Genomic DNA was obtained from saliva samples. Genetic markers were genotyped using TaqMan real-time PCR. Chi-square test compared genotypes and haplotype differences between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyzed the significance of covariates and incidence of tendinopathy. Statistical analysis revealed participant age (p=0.005) and years of practice (p=0.004) were risk factors for tendinopathy. A significant association between BMP4 rs2761884 (p=0.03) and tendinopathy was observed. Athletes with a polymorphic genotype have 2.4 times more susceptibility to tendinopathy (OR=2.39; 95%CI=1.10-5.19). Also, association between disease and haplotype TTGGA in BMP4 (p=0.01) was observed. The FGF3 TGGTA haplotype showed a tendency of association with tendinopathy (p=0.05), and so did FGF10 rs900379. FGFR1 showed no association with disease. These findings indicate that haplotypes in BMP4 and FGF3 genes may contribute to the tendon disease process in elite volleyball athletes. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mallows, Adrian; Debenham, James; Walker, Tom; Littlewood, Chris
Fear, anxiety, depression, distress and catastrophisation are all factors known to affect pain and disability levels. To date, the association of such psychological factors has yet to be established in tendinopathy. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to determine if psychological variables are associated with tendinopathy and whether any such variables may be associated with pain and disability outcomes in conservative management of tendinopathy. A systematic review was undertaken and included studies were appraised for risk of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Owing to heterogeneity of studies, a qualitative synthesis was undertaken. An electronic search of MEDLINE, CiNAHL, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, EMBASE and PsycARTICLES was undertaken from their inception to April 2016. Any study design that incorporated psychological measures and clinical outcomes using participants with tendinopathy. Ten articles describing nine studies and 1108 participants were included. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the association of anxiety, depression and lateral epicondylalgia (LE). Strong evidence suggests LE is not associated with kinesiophobia. Moderate evidence links catastrophisation and distress with LE. Moderate evidence suggests distress is not associated with rotator cuff tendinopathy, but kinesiophobia and catastrophisation are. Limited evidence suggests patellar tendinopathy is not associated with anxiety or depression and kinesiophobia may be linked with suboptimal outcomes in Achilles tendinopathy. Tendinopathy requires an individualised approach to management. Clinicians should consider using validated screening tools for the presence of psychological variables as a part of their holistic management. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Taylor, Samuel A.; Hannafin, Jo A.
Context: Elbow tendinopathy is a common cause of pain and disability among patients presenting to orthopaedic surgeons, primary care physicians, physical therapists, and athletic trainers. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of these conditions facilitates a directed treatment regimen. A thorough understanding of the natural history of these injuries and treatment outcomes will enable the appropriate management of patients and their expectations. Evidence Acquisitions: The PubMed database was searched in December 2011 for English-language articles pertaining to elbow tendinopathy. Results: Epidemiologic data as well as multiple subjective and objective outcome measures were investigated to elucidate the incidence of medial epicondylitis, lateral epicondylitis, distal biceps and triceps ruptures, and the efficacy of various treatments. Conclusions: Medial and lateral epicondylitis are overuse injuries that respond well to nonoperative management. Their etiology is degenerative and related to repetitive overuse and underlying tendinopathy. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and localized corticosteroid injections yield moderate symptomatic relief in short term but do not demonstrate benefit on long-term follow-up. Platelet-rich plasma injections may be advantageous in cases of chronic lateral epicondylitis. If 6 to 12 months of nonoperative treatment fails, then surgical intervention can be undertaken. Distal biceps and triceps tendon ruptures, in contrast, have an acute traumatic etiology that may be superimposed on underlying tendinopathy. Prompt diagnosis and treatment improve outcomes. While partial ruptures confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging can be treated nonoperatively with immobilization, complete ruptures should be addressed with primary repair within 3 to 4 weeks of injury. PMID:23016111
Tsai, Wen-Chung; Yang, Yun-Ming
The fluoroquinolones (FQs) are used to treat a wide range of infections because of their excellent gastrointestinal absorption, superior tissue penetration and broad-spectrum activity. Recently, FQ-associated tendinopathy and tendon rupture have been reported, especially in the elderly and patients with diabetes and renal failure. However, these adverse effects do not appear to be widely known among physicians. Because of the frequent use of FQs in clinical practice, physicians should be aware of their potential for severe disability from tendon rupture. Achilles tendinopathy or rupture is among the most serious side effects associated with FQ use, with reports markedly increasing, especially with the use of ciprofloxacin. The histopathologic findings include degenerative lesions, fissures, interstitial edema without cellular infiltration, necrosis and neovascularization. There are possible molecular mechanisms accounting for FQ-associated tendinopathy. First, ciprofloxacin mediates inhibition of cell proliferation and G2/M cell cycle arrest in tendon cells by down-regulation of cyclin B and cyclin-dependent kinase 1. Second, ciprofloxacin inhibits the spead and migration of tenocytes by down-regulation of focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. Third, ciprofloxacin enhances the enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 with degradation of type I collagen. Management of FQ-associated tendinopathy includes immediate discontinuation of FQs, rest, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical modalities and eccentric strengthening exercise. Tendon rupture may require surgical intervention.
Donell, Simon T; Shepherd, Karen; Ali, Kham; McNamara, Iain
The purpose of the study was to define the frequency of an inferomedial patellar protuberance in patients presenting to a specialist Patella Clinic and to characterise the clinical and radiological features as well the association between the inferomedial patellar protuberance and the medial patellar ossicle. A cohort of 163 patients (166 knees) was reviewed from a prospectively collected clinical database and radiological imaging. This included a record of patellar tracking. An inferomedial patellar protuberance was found in 62 (37 %) knees. A medial patellar ossicle was noted in 56 (34 %) knees. In all, an inferomedial patellar protuberance or medial patellar ossicle or both was found in 90 (54 %) knees. The association between inferomedial patellar protuberance and significant trochlear dysplasia was highly significant (p = 0.01), but not for the medial patellar ossicle (n.s.). The presence of an inferomedial patellar protuberance was significantly less likely in patients with hypermobility syndrome (p = 0.001); however, there was no significant association between hypermobility syndrome and medial patellar ossicle (n.s.), or the presence of either or both an inferomedial patellar protuberance and medial patellar ossicle (n.s.). All patients with a clunk at 20°-30° flexion had significant trochlear dysplasia and an inferomedial patellar protuberance. Radiological changes consistent with an inferomedial patellar protuberance were found in about one-third of patients presenting to a specialist Patella Clinic. Patellar maltracking and a clunk at 20°-30° flexion are associated with significant trochlear dysplasia plus an inferomedial patellar protuberance. If undertaking an operative correction, both deformities should be considered in order to avoid joint incongruity. III.
Magnan, Bruno; Bondi, Manuel; Pierantoni, Silvia; Samaila, Elena
Achilles tendinopathy is a degenerative, not an inflammatory, condition. It is prevalent in athletes involved in running sports. A systematic literature review on Achilles tendon tendinopathy has been performed according to the intrinsic (age, sex, body weight, tendon temperature, systemic diseases, muscle strength, flexibility, previous injuries and anatomical variants, genetic predisposition and blood supply) and extrinsic risk factors (drugs and overuse), which can cause tendon suffering and degeneration. Different theories have been found: Neurogenic, Angiogenic, Impingement and "Iceberg" Hypotheses. Multiple databases were utilized for articles published between 1964 and 2013. The different hypothesis were analyzed, differently considering those concerning the pathogenesis of tendinopathy and those concerning the etiology of complaints in patients. This review of the literature demonstrates the heterogeneity of Achilles tendinopathy pathogenesis. Various risk factors have been identified and have shown an interaction between them such as genes, age, circulating and local cytokine production, sex, biomechanics and body composition.
Ackermann, Paul W.; Renström, Per
Context: Tendinopathy is increasing in prevalence and accounts for a substantial part of all sports injuries and occupational disorders. Despite the magnitude of the disorder, high-quality scientific data on etiology and available treatments have been limited. Evidence Acquisition: The authors conducted a MEDLINE search on tendinopathy, or “tendonitis” or “tendinosis” or “epicondylitis” or “jumpers knee” from 1980 to 2011. The emphasis was placed on updates on epidemiology, etiology, and recent patient-oriented Level 1 literature. Results: Repetitive exposure in combination with recently discovered intrinsic factors, such as genetic variants of matrix proteins, and metabolic disorders is a risk factor for the development of tendinopathy. Recent findings demonstrate that tendinosis is characterized by a fibrotic, failed healing response associated with pathological vessel and sensory nerve ingrowth. This aberrant sensory nerve sprouting may partly explain increased pain signaling and partly, by release of neuronal mediators, contribute to the fibrotic alterations observed in tendinopathy. The initial nonoperative treatment should involve eccentric exercise, which should be the cornerstone (basis) of treatment of tendinopathy. Eccentric training combined with extracorporeal shockwave treatment has in some reports shown higher success rates compared to any therapies alone. Injection therapies (cortisone, sclerosing agents, blood products including platelet-rich plasma) may have short-term effects but have no proven long-term treatment effects or meta-analyses to support them. For epicondylitis, cortisone injections have demonstrated poorer long-time results than conservative physiotherapy. Today surgery is less indicated because of successful conservative therapies. New minioperative procedures that, via the endoscope, remove pathologic tissue or abnormal neoinnervation demonstrate promising results but need confirmation by Level 1 studies. Conclusions
Shimatsu, Kaumakaokalani; Subramaniam, Somasundaram; Sim, Helen; Aronowitz, Paul
Fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy most commonly affects the Achilles tendon; however, involvement of several other tendons has been described. This is a case report of ciprofloxacin-induced tendinopathy of the gluteal tendons with MRI findings. An obese 25-year-old woman with no significant past medical history was diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis and was treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin. Shortly after her first dose of ciprofloxacin, she developed severe left hip pain and decreased range of motion. MRI of the hips showed bilateral tendinopathy of the gluteal muscle insertion. A diagnosis of ciprofloxacin-induced tendinopathy was made based on her MRI and a Naranjo score of 7. Ciprofloxacin was stopped and her pain quickly resolved. Fluoroquinolones cause tendinopathy in 0.14 % to 0.4 % of patients using these agents. Fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy is a serious adverse reaction that can affect many tendons and should be considered in any patient presenting with new musculoskeletal complaints and in whom there is a history of fluoroquinolone use within the preceding 6 months.
Yuan, Jun; Wang, Min-Xia; Murrell, George A C
Apoptosis and necrosis are presently recognized as the two major types of physiological and pathological cell death. Apoptosis is a tightly regulated cell deletion process that differs morphologically and biochemically from necrotic cell death. Tendinopathy is defined as a tendon injury that originates from intrinsic and extrinsic etiological factors. Excessive apoptosis has recently been described in degenerative tendon. The increased number of apoptotic tendon cells in degenerative tendon tissue could affect the rate of collagen synthesis and repair. Impaired or dysfunctional protein synthesis may lead to weaker tendon tissue and eventually increase the risk for tendon rupture. Clearly, there are many details to insert into this pathway, but there is hope that if the fine details of the pathway can be fleshed out, then strategies may be able to be developed to break the cycle at one or more points and prevent or treat tendinopathy more effectively.
Del Buono, Angelo; Oliva, Francesco; Osti, Leonardo; Maffulli, Nicola
Summary Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are involved in the development of tendinopathy. These potent enzymes completely degrade all components of the connective tissue, modify the extracellular matrix (ECM), and mediate the development of painful tendinopathy. To control the local activity of activated proteinases, the same cells produce tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP). These latter bind to the enzyme and prevent degradation. The balance between the activities of MMPs and TIMPs regulates tendon remodeling, whereas an imbalance produces a collagen dis-regulation and disturbances in tendons. ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) are cell membrane-linked enzymes with proteolytic and cell signaling functions. ADAMTSs (ADAM with thrombospondin motifs) are secreted into the circulation and constitute a heterogenous family of proteases with both anabolic and catabolic functions. Further studies are needed to better define the mechanism of action, and whether these new strategies are safe and effective in larger models. PMID:23885345
Del Buono, Angelo; Oliva, Francesco; Osti, Leonardo; Maffulli, Nicola
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are involved in the development of tendinopathy. These potent enzymes completely degrade all components of the connective tissue, modify the extracellular matrix (ECM), and mediate the development of painful tendinopathy. To control the local activity of activated proteinases, the same cells produce tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP). These latter bind to the enzyme and prevent degradation. The balance between the activities of MMPs and TIMPs regulates tendon remodeling, whereas an imbalance produces a collagen dis-regulation and disturbances in tendons. ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) are cell membrane-linked enzymes with proteolytic and cell signaling functions. ADAMTSs (ADAM with thrombospondin motifs) are secreted into the circulation and constitute a heterogenous family of proteases with both anabolic and catabolic functions. Further studies are needed to better define the mechanism of action, and whether these new strategies are safe and effective in larger models.
Ryu, J.; Saito, S.; Yamamoto, K.
OBJECTIVES—Patellar subluxation was experimentally induced in young rabbits and the resulting cartilaginous changes were observed over a prolonged period of time to determine histological changes in the subluxated patellar cartilage. METHODS—The tibial tuberosity in 12 week old rabbits was laterally displaced and fixed to the tibia with wire to induce lateral patellar subluxation. Pathological changes in patellar cartilage were examined for 120 weeks after surgery using computed tomography and stereoscopic microscopy. RESULTS—Eight weeks after surgery, changes in articular cartilage consisting of horizontal splitting of the matrix were observed in the intermediate zone and were presumed to have been caused by shearing stress applied to the patellar cartilage. The cartilaginous changes caused by patellar subluxation progressed very little over the 120 weeks. Very few rabbits presented with osteoarthritic changes in the patellofemoral joint, most probably because the stress resulting from the malalignment of the patellofemoral joint was mild enough to permit recovery. CONCLUSION—The mild, non-progressive pathological changes, in particular, basal degeneration, induced in this experiment in patellar cartilage were quite similar to the changes in articular cartilage seen in human chondromalacia patellae. PMID:9462171
Brockmeyer, Matthias; Diehl, Nora; Schmitt, Cornelia; Kohn, Dieter M; Lorbach, Olaf
To review the literature concerning surgical treatment options for chronic patellar tendinosis (jumper's knee), a common problem among athletes. When conservative treatment fails, surgical treatment is required. Systematic review of the literature concerning the results of current surgical treatment options for chronic patellar tendinosis. All articles of studies with an evidence level ≥IV from January 2000 until February 2015 presenting the surgical outcome after arthroscopic as well as open treatment of chronic patellar tendinosis were included. The literature research of the PubMed database was performed using the following key words: "patellar" and "tendinitis," "tendonitis," "tendinosis" or "tendinopathy"; "inferior patellar pole"; "jumper's knee"; "surgical treatment" and "open" or "arthroscopic patellar tenotomy." A systematic review of the literature was performed especially to point out the effectiveness of arthroscopic treatment of chronic patellar tendinosis. The results revealed good clinical results for arthroscopic as well as open treatment of chronic patellar tendinosis that is refractory to conservative treatment in athletes. An average success rate of 87% was found for the open treatment group and of 91% for the arthroscopic treatment group. However, after open surgery, the mean time of return to the preinjury level of activity is 8 to 12 months, with a certain number of patients/athletes who cannot return to the preinjury level of activity. Minimally invasive, arthroscopically assisted or all-arthroscopic procedures may lead to a significantly faster return to sporting activities and may, therefore, be the preferred method of surgical treatment. Level IV, systematic review of Level I-IV studies. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Redmond, John M.; Cregar, William M.; Gupta, Asheesh; Hammarstedt, Jon E.; Martin, Timothy J.; Domb, Benjamin G.
Lateral hip pain along with tenderness of the greater trochanter has been associated with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Radiographically, this has been associated with gluteus medius pathology on magnetic resonance imaging. This has led some surgeons to conclude that abductor pathology is a primary cause of lateral hip pain. Failure of conservative treatment in the setting of gluteus medius pathology may lead to surgical intervention. In some patients a focal tear of the gluteus medius cannot be visualized and likely represents more diffuse tendinopathy. In these patients we propose micropuncture of the greater trochanter. Similar procedures have shown effectiveness in the elbow and shoulder by eliciting a healing response. Our experience suggests that trochanteric micropuncture at the insertion of the gluteus medius tendon can be effectively performed endoscopically for gluteus medius tendinopathy. PMID:25973381
Ferrero, G.; Fabbro, E.; Orlandi, D.; Martini, C.; Lacelli, F.; Serafini, G.; Silvestri, E.; Sconfienza, L.M.
Purpose The efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment and healing of chronic tendinopathy through stimulation of cell proliferation and total collagen production has been demonstrated by both in vitro and in vivo studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided autologous PRP injections in patellar and Achilles tendinopathy. Materials and methods Autologous PRP was injected under US-guidance into the Achilles and patellar tendons (30 Achilles tendons, 28 patellar tendons) in 48 prospectively selected patients (30 males, 18 females, mean age 38 ± 16 years, range 20–61 years). All patients were previously evaluated according to the Victoria Institute of Sport Assessment (VISA) scale, which assessed pain and activity level, and they all underwent US of the tendon before treatment and at follow-up after 20 days and 6 months. Statistical analysis was performed with Chi-square and Wilcoxon tests. Results 20 days after PRP injection the patients presented a non-significant improvement of clinical symptoms. At the 6-month follow-up VISA score increased from a mean value of 57–75.5 (p < .01). US evaluation revealed a reduction of hypoechoic areas in 26 tendons (p < .01) associated with a widespread improvement of fibrillar echotexture of the tendon and reduced hypervascularity at power Doppler. Conclusion PRP injection in patellar and Achilles tendinopathy results in a significant and lasting improvement of clinical symptoms and leads to recovery of the tendon matrix potentially helping to prevent degenerative lesions. US-guidance allows PRP injection into the tendon with great accuracy. PMID:23730392
Kar, Maitreyee Nandi; Bhakta, Abhijit; Mondal, Gopal Chandra; Bandyopadhyay, Maitreyi; Kar, Chinmaya; Nandi, Sujit Narayan
Patellar height is one of the important parameter in patellar stability. Growth spurt or excessive physical strain can lead to high-riding patella or patella alta. But this is not yet proved. This study was mainly targeted at eliciting the influence of age on Insall-Salvati index, one of the important index to measure patellar height. As the present study is meant for measuring the patellar height separately in male and female, it is also to find out the effect of gender on patellar height if any. The study was been conducted in North Bengal Medical College and Hospital among 93 subjects covering both adult and adolescent age groups. Patellar height of respective subjects was measured radiologically using Insall-Salvati Index; results were extrapolated for statistical analysis. It revealed that value of Insall-Salvati index was higher in adult compared to adolescent group but the difference was not statistically significant. Statistical tests shows no significant difference in Insall-Salvati index according to sex. While screening the athletes patella alta must be kept in mind as this can be associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome, chondromalacia patellae, knees with apophysitis of tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schiatter disease). Not only that, significant cause of recurrent patellar dislocation can be associated with patella alta
Background Increased tendon production of the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been suggested to be a potential etiologic agent in the development of tendinopathy. Repeated injection of PGE2 into tendon has been proposed as a potential animal model for studying treatments for tendinopathy. In contrast, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which inhibit PGE2 production and are commonly prescribed in treating tendinopathy have been shown to impair the healing of tendon after acute injury in animal models. The contradictory literature suggests the need to better define the functional effects of PGE2 on tendon. Our objective was to characterize the effects of PGE2 injection on the biomechanical and biochemical properties of tendon and the activity of the animals. Our hypothesis was that weekly PGE2 injection to the rat patellar tendon would lead to inferior biomechanical properties. Methods Forty rats were divided equally into four groups. Three groups were followed for 4 weeks with the following peritendinous injection procedures: No injection (control), 4 weekly injections of saline (saline), 4 weekly injections of 800 ng PGE2 (PGE2-4 wks). The fourth group received 4 weekly injections of 800 ng PGE2 initially and was followed for a total of 8 weeks. All animals were injected bilaterally. The main outcome measurements included: the structural and material properties of the patellar tendon under tensile loading to failure, tendon collagen content, and weekly animal activity scores. Results The ultimate load of PGE2-4 wks tendons at 4 weeks was significantly greater than control or saline group tendons. The stiffness and elastic modulus of the PGE2 injected tendons at 8 weeks was significantly greater than the control or saline tendons. No differences in animal activity, collagen content, or mean fibril diameter were observed between groups. Conclusions Four weekly peritendinous injections of PGE2 to the rat patellar tendon were not found to
Scott, Alexander; Bahr, Roald
Tendinopathy is a clinical syndrome of pain, tendon thickening, and increased blood flow. The current review highlights evidence supporting an underlying role of neuropeptides in the etiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of painful overuse tendinopathy. Painful tendons demonstrate an increased presence of Substance P-containing nerves which are strongly implicated as a potential source of pain, but which also play important roles in the tendon’s attempt to self-repair. Recent findings have identified potential roles of additional sensory and autonomic neuropeptides which regulate pain, tissue remodeling, and vascular flow, including acetylcholine, noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y. Neuropeptide production within tendons is stimulated by mechanical load and exercise, and both direct and indirect neuropeptide effects may be responsible for the potential benefits of heavy-load eccentric loading. A model is presented which delineates the physiologic basis for signalling pathways between tenocytes, mast cells and sensory and autonomic nerves, with implications for understanding the mechanisms of traditional as well as emerging treatment strategies including sclerosing therapy and nitric oxide. PMID:19273194
Galletti, Stefano; Oliva, Francesco; Masiero, Stefano; Frizziero, Antonio; Galletti, Riccardo; Schiavone, Cosima; Salini, Vincenzo; Abate, Michele
Summary Background sonoelastography helps in the detection of abnormalities not yet evident on B-mode exam. Methods in this observational study, we report a collection of cases of symptomatic patients without alterations at ultrasound imaging but with evidence of pathological findings at sonoelastography. Patients, with clinical history suggestive for tendinopathies or surgically treated, and negative at the ultrasound exam, were submitted to sonoelastography. Out of 846, 632 patients with positive ultrasound exam were excluded. Sonoelastography was therefore performed in the remaining 214. Results the examination was positive in 168 cases: 78 patients were affected with shoulder diseases, while elbow pathology was observed in 31 subjects; patellar, Achilles and plantar fascia disorders were reported in 19, 27, and 13 patients, respectively. Conclusion sonoelastography can reveal tendon abnormalities of clinical relevance in a high percentage of cases, where the ultrasound exam was negative, making the method a complementary tool to ultrasound evaluation. PMID:26958544
Castro, Adham do Amaral E; Skare, Thelma Larocca; Nassif, Paulo Afonso Nunes; Sakuma, Alexandre Kaue; Barros, Wagner Haese
Tendinopathies and tendon tears account for over 30% of all musculoskeletal consultations. Obesity, which is becoming one of the world´s most prevalent public health issues, may be associated with this condition. To review the literature about tendinopathies and obesity association. This is a descriptive exploratory study using the portal Medline. Literature in English language from 2006 to 2014 were reviewed. The pathogenesis of tendinopathies includes inflammatory, regenerative and degenerative processes that happen simultaneously from early to late phases of the disease. Mechanical stress upon tendons seems to be one of the most important factors to initiate the inflammatory response, but it´s not the only one that can deflagrate it: there are other extrinsic, genetic and metabolic factors that may be involved. Therefore, tendinopathies in obese patients can be due to tendon overload because of the excess of weight, but also because of increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators related to fat tissue such as adipokines. This pro-inflammatory state that obese people can suffer is known as adiposopathy, or sick fat syndrome. Weight loss is associated with decrease in adipokines and improvement of musculoskeletal symptoms. The relation of obesity and tendinopathies is supported by evidences of recent studies, exemplified in this review of literature. As tendinopatias e as fissuras em tendões respondem por 30% de todas as consultas médicas. A obesidade, que está se tornando um dos problemas de saúde pública mais prevalentes no mundo, pode estar associada com esta condição. Revisar a literatura acerca da associação entre obesidade e tendinopatias. Este é um estudo exploratório e descritivo utilizando artigos em língua inglesa do portal médico Medline, do período de 2006 a 2014. Na patogênese das tendinopatias incluem-se elementos inflamatórios, regenerativos e degenerativos que aparecem de maneira simultânea em todos os estágios da doen
Sreenivasan, Ravi; Haq, Rehan Ul
A 30-year-old woman presented to our outpatient department with complaints of pain and swelling in bilateral infrapatellar regions and a discharging sinus in the right knee over the duration of one year. Radiographs showed lytic regions in bilateral patellae. Samples sent from material curetted from sinus yielded no organism but histopathology reported granulomatous inflammation. Following a fresh magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan that revealed the infrapatellar pad of fat communicating with the patellar lesions, an exploration and evacuation was done. Material sent revealed epithelioid cell granulomas with caseous necrosis consistent with tuberculosis (TB). The patient was put on first line anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) and has responded favourably with healing of sinus and patellar lesions. Bilateral infrapatellar bursitis is not rare. However patellar TB as a cause for OMIT is not a common diagnosis. A bilateral patellar involvement has not been reported in literature to the best of our knowledge.
Lind, Martin; Faunø, Peter; Sørensen, Ole Gade; Mygind-Klavsen, Bjarne
First-time patellar luxation appears typically in teenagers and young adults below the age of 16 years, with a prevalence of 45/100,000/year. This luxation is treated with brief limited mobility in a bandage, and with a complementary physiotherapy if the mobility is influenced afterwards. Risk factors for patellar instability are patellofemoral dysplasia, hyperlaxity, patella alta and valgus malalignment in the knee joint. In case of repeated luxation the treatment is surgical, i.e. reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament recreating the medial patella-stabilizing structures. If the dysplasia is severe, tuberositas tibiae-osteotomy and trochlea plastic can correct a lateral tracking of the knee joint. Generally, patella-stabilizing surgery is successful with a reluxation rate of only a few per cent.
Nicholson, Luke T.; DiSegna, Steven; Newman, Joel S.; Miller, Suzanne L.
Background: Proximal hamstring tendinopathy is an uncommon but debilitating cause of posterior thigh pain in athletes subjected to repetitive eccentric hamstring contraction, such as runners. Minimal data exist evaluating treatment options for proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Purpose: This retrospective study evaluates the effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided corticosteroid injections in treating proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Eighteen athletes with 22 cases of magnetic resonance imaging–confirmed proximal hamstring tendinopathy were treated with corticosteroid injection and later contacted to evaluate the efficacy of the injection with the use of a questionnaire. Results: The visual analog score decreased from 7.22 preinjection to 3.94 postinjection (P < .001), level of athletic participation increased from 28.76% to 68.82% (P < .001) at a mean follow-up of 21 months, and 38.8% of patients experienced complete resolution at a mean follow-up of 24.8 months. The mean lower extremity function score at the time of follow-up was 60. Conclusion: A trial of fluoroscopically guided corticosteroid injection is warranted in patients presenting with symptoms of proximal hamstring tendinopathy refractory to conservative therapy. PMID:26535310
Pearce, Christopher J.; Tan, Audrey
Non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy is a degenerative condition characterised by pain on activity. Eccentric stretching is the most effective treatment. Surgical treatment is reserved for recalcitrant cases. Minimally-invasive and tendinoscopic treatments are showing promising results. Cite this article: Pearce CJ, Tan A. Non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:383-390. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.160024. PMID:28461917
Mani-Babu, Sethu; Morrissey, Dylan; Waugh, Charlotte; Screen, Hazel; Barton, Christian
There is accumulating evidence for the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) when treating lower limb tendinopathies including greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), patellar tendinopathy (PT), and Achilles tendinopathy (AT). To evaluate the effectiveness of ESWT for lower limb tendinopathies. Systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed (Medline), Embase, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and CINAHL were searched from inception to February 2013 for studies of any design investigating the effectiveness of ESWT in GTPS, PT, and AT. Citation tracking was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Animal and non-English language studies were excluded. A quality assessment was performed by 2 independent reviewers, and effect size calculations were computed when sufficient data were provided. A total of 20 studies were identified, with 13 providing sufficient data to compute effect size calculations. The energy level, number of impulses, number of sessions, and use of a local anesthetic varied between studies. Additionally, current evidence is limited by low participant numbers and a number of methodological weaknesses including inadequate randomization. Moderate evidence indicates that ESWT is more effective than home training and corticosteroid injection in the short (<12 months) and long (>12 months) term for GTPS. Limited evidence indicates that ESWT is more effective than alternative nonoperative treatments including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, and an exercise program and equal to patellar tenotomy surgery in the long term for PT. Moderate evidence indicates that ESWT is more effective than eccentric loading for insertional AT and equal to eccentric loading for midportion AT in the short term. Additionally, there is moderate evidence that combining ESWT and eccentric loading in midportion AT may produce superior outcomes to eccentric loading alone. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy is an effective intervention and should
Scott, Alex; Backman, Ludvig J; Speed, Cathy
Synopsis Tendinopathy has become the accepted term to describe a spectrum of changes that occur in damaged and/or diseased tendons. Over the past 2 decades, there have been new insights into tendon pathophysiology of relevance to clinicians, including (1) better characterization of the overuse injury process and the resultant structural and functional disruption in chronically painful tendons, (2) improved understanding of the pathomechanics associated with chronic tendon injury, and (3) greater knowledge about the influence of lifestyle factors and drugs on tendon pathology. The implications of these new insights are discussed. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(11):833-841. Epub 21 Sep 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5884.
Horstmann, H; Clausen, J D; Krettek, C; Weber-Spickschen, T S
Tendinopathy in the region of the knee joint is a common pathological disorder. People active in sports, in particular, have a high probability of suffering from tendinopathy. Despite its high clinical relevance, the level of evidence of therapy options for tendinopathy in the knee region differs greatly. This review gives an overview of current evidence levels for therapy options in tendinopathy of the quadriceps, patellar and pes anserinus insertion tendons as well as of the distal iliotibial tract tendon. The treatment with platelet-rich plasma showed a significantly better outcome when used correctly and treatment with shock waves, operative treatment and sclerotherapy have also shown positive effects. Treatment with corticosteroid injections and with oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) showed positive short-term effects (follow-up ±4 weeks). No reasonable data are available for the treatment of tendinopathy in the knee region by acupuncture, fascial therapy or cryotherapy. The use of kinesio taping showed no significant relief from complaints compared with standard conservative treatment. The use of multimodal therapy without evidence is, therefore, particularly common in elite athletes.
Heyse, Thomas J; Chong, Le Roy; Davis, Jack; Haas, Steven B; Figgie, Mark P; Potter, Hollis G
Patellar Clunk Syndrome is a painful condition associated with a mechanical catching or clunking during active extension following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The syndrome is caused by growth of interposing soft tissue usually at the superior pole of the patella. This interposed soft tissue cannot be visualized on plain radiographs. The aim was to ascertain if magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would prove helpful in confirming the clinical diagnosis of patellar clunk by visualizing the interposed soft tissues adjacent to the patella and that the recognition of this tissue would be highly reproducible. MRI scans of 12 patients with clinical suspicion or related symptoms of a patellar clunk syndrome following primary TKA were retrospectively evaluated. Size of soft tissue masses proximal to the patella were determined in sagittal and axial MRI views. Largest diameters were recorded in two dimensions by two independent observers, and interobserver reliability was determined by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Nine patients (75%) showed obvious MRI findings consistent with a patellar clunk lesion with high interobserver reliability (ICC values >0.75). In eight patients, this lead to operative treatment with arthroscopic debridement. MRI helps confirm the clinical diagnosis of patellar clunk. The data indicate that MRI is effective in defining the soft tissue lesion that is implicated in clinically evident patellar clunk syndrome after TKA.
Visnes, H; Tegnander, A; Bahr, R
Tendons adapt in response to sports-specific loading, but sometimes develop tendinopathy. If the presence of ultrasound changes like hypoechoic areas and neovascularization in asymptomatic tendons precede (and predict) future tendon problems is unknown. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between the development of ultrasound changes in the patellar and quadriceps tendons and symptoms of jumper's knee, as well to examine the medium-term effects of intensive training on tendon thickness among adolescent athletes. Elite junior volleyball athletes were followed with semi-annual ultrasound and clinical examinations (average follow-up: 1.7 years). Of the 141 asymptomatic athletes included, 22 athletes (35 patellar tendons) developed jumper's knee. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, a baseline finding of a hypoechoic tendon area (odds ratio 3.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 9.2) increased the risk of developing symptoms of jumper's knee. Patellar tendon thickness among healthy athletes did not change (Wilk's lambda, P = 0.07) while quadriceps tendon thickness increased (P = 0.001). In conclusion, ultrasound changes at baseline were risk factors for developing symptoms of jumper's knee. Also, among healthy athletes, we observed a 7-11% increase in quadriceps tendon thickness, while there was no increase in patellar tendon thickness.
Papalia, R; Moro, L; Franceschi, F; Albo, E; D'Adamio, S; Di Martino, A; Vadalà, G; Faldini, C; Denaro, V
Symptomatic tendon tears are one of the most important causes of pain and joint dysfunction. Among the intrinsic causes, vascularization recently gained a major role. Endothelial function is indeed a key factor, as well as vascular tone and thrombotic factors, in the regulation of vascular homeostasis and the composition of vascular wall. In this review, we studied systematically whether there is a relationship between endothelial dysfunction and tendinopathy. A literature search was performed using the isolated or combined keywords endothelial dysfunction and tendon,' 'nitric oxide (NO) and tendinopathy,' and 'endothelial dysfunction in tendon healing.' We identified 21 published studies. Of the selected studies, 9 were in vivo studies, 2 focusing on animals and 7 on humans, while 12 reported about in vitro evaluations, where 7 were carried out on humans and 5 on animals. The evidence about a direct relationship between tendinopathy and endothelial dysfunction is still poor. As recent studies have shown, there is no significant improvement in clinical and functional assessments after treatment with NO in patients suffering from tendinopathy in different locations. No significant differences were identified in the outcomes reported for experiment group when compared with controls treated with conventional surgical procedures or rehabilitation programs. Nitric oxide could be a marker to quantify the response of the endothelium to mechanical stress or hypoxia indicating the final balance between vasodilatating and vasoconstricting factors and their effects, but more ad stronger evidence is still needed to fully support this practice.
Tendinopathy is a common clinical problem with athletes and in many occupational settings. Tendinopathy can occur in any tendon, often near its insertion or enthesis where there is an area of stress concentration, and is directly related to the volume of repetitive load to which the tendon is exposed. Recent studies indicate tendinopathy is more likely to occur in situations that increase the “dose” of load to the tendon enthesis – including increased activity, weight, advancing age, and genetic factors. The cells in tendinopathic tendon are rounder, more numerous, and show evidence of oxidative damage and more apoptosis. These cells also produce a matrix that is thicker and weaker with more water, more immature and cartilage-like matrix proteins, and less organization. There is now evidence of a population of regenerating stem cells within tendon. These studies suggest prevention of tendinopathy should be directed at reducing the volume of repetitive loads to below that which induces oxidative-induced apoptosis and cartilage-like genes. The management strategies might involve agents or cells that induce tendon stem cell proliferation, repair and restoration of matrix integrity. PMID:18478310
Ali, Abdulemir; Lindstrand, Anders; Nilsdotter, Anna; Sundberg, Martin
Background and purpose Knee pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is not uncommon. Patellar retention in TKA is one cause of postoperative knee pain, and may lead to secondary addition of a patellar component. Patellar resurfacing in TKA is controversial. Its use ranges from 2% to 90% worldwide. In this randomized study, we compared the outcome after patellar resurfacing and after no resurfacing. Patients and methods We performed a prospective, randomized study of 74 patients with primary osteoarthritis who underwent a Triathlon CR TKA. The patients were randomized to either patellar resurfacing or no resurfacing. They filled out the VAS pain score and KOOS questionnaires preoperatively, and VAS pain, KOOS, and patient satisfaction 3, 12, and 72 months postoperatively. Physical performance tests were performed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Results We found similar scores for VAS pain, patient satisfaction, and KOOS 5 subscales at 3, 12, and 72 months postoperatively in the 2 groups. Physical performance tests 3 months postoperatively were also similar in the 2 groups. No secondary resurfacing was performed in the group with no resurfacing during the first 72 months Interpretation Patellar resurfacing in primary Triathlon CR TKA is of no advantage regarding pain, physical performance, KOOS 5 subscales, or patient satisfaction compared to no resurfacing. None of the patients were reoperated with secondary addition of a patellar component within 6 years. According to these results, routine patellar resurfacing in primary Triathlon TKA appears to be unnecessary. PMID:27212102
Leopold, Seth S; Silverton, Craig D; Barden, Regina M; Rosenberg, Aaron G
Problems with the patellofemoral articulation are the most common causes of failure after total knee arthroplasty. However, there are few reports describing outcomes following isolated revision of the patellar component. Forty knees with a Miller-Galante I prosthesis underwent isolated patellar revision (with or without lateral retinacular release). The Hospital for Special Surgery knee scores were collected prospectively, and radiographs made preoperatively and at the time of the final follow-up were analyzed with respect to alignment, component position, and patellar tracking. Particular attention was given to patients who had a reoperation or repeat revision and who had clinical or radiographic evidence of failure of the patellar revision. At a mean follow-up of sixty-two months, fifteen (38%) of the forty knees that had had an isolated revision of the patellar component failed a second time. Eight of them required a total of twelve additional operations at a mean of forty-nine months after the patellar revision. Three of the failures were severe enough to require revision of two or more of the components. Of the twenty-five knees that had not failed, the average Hospital for Special Surgery knee score at the time of the final follow-up was 87 points. Of the seven knees that did not undergo reoperation but were deemed to be failures on the basis of the patients' symptoms, the average Hospital for Special Surgery knee score at the time of the final follow-up was 72 points. Isolated patellar revision, with or without concurrent lateral retinacular release, was associated with a high rate of reoperation and a relatively low rate of success. Elements of the implant design and component alignment contributed to the patellar component failure; both should be scrutinized carefully in patients who are seen with this problem, prior to proceeding with isolated revision of the patellar component of a total knee arthroplasty. Therapeutic study, Level IV (case series [no, or
Hunter, David J.; Harvey, William F.; McCree, Paula; Hirko, Kelly A.; Felson, David T.; Wilson, David R.
Objective Patellar bracing is a mechanical treatment strategy for patellofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) that aims to unload the lateral compartment of the joint by translating the patella medially. Our objective was to determine whether a patellar brace can correct patellar kinematics in patients with patellofemoral OA. Design We assessed the effect of a patellar brace on three-dimensional patellar kinematics (flexion, spin and tilt; proximal, lateral and anterior translation) at sequential, static knee postures, using a validated MRI-based method, in 19 patients with radiographic lateral patellofemoral OA. Differences in kinematics between un-braced and braced conditions were assessed in the unloaded and loaded knee (15% bodyweight load) using hierarchical linear random-effects models. Random slope and quadratic terms were included in the model when significant (p<0.05). Results Bracing with load caused the patellae to translate 0.46 mm medially (p<0.001), tilt 1.17° medially (p<0.001), spin 0.62° externally (p=0.012) and translate 1.09 mm distally (p<0.001) and 0.47 mm anteriorly (p<0.001) over the range of knee flexion angles studied. Bracing also caused the patellae to extend in early angles of knee flexion (p<0.001). The brace caused similar trends for the unloaded condition, though magnitudes of the changes varied. Conclusion Bracing changed patellar kinematics, but these changes did not appear large enough to be clinically meaningful because no reduction in pain was observed in the parent study. PMID:21397707
Wu, Yen-Ting; Wu, Po-Ting; Jou, I-Ming
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of elastase on tendinopathy, as well as to evaluate the potential for peritendinous injections of elastase into rats to cause tendinopathy. We first investigated the expression of elastase in the tendons of patients with tendinopathy, and then established the effects of elastase injection on the Achilles tendons of rats. Ultrasonographic and incapacitance testing was used to conduct tests for 8 weeks. Tendon tissues were collected for histological observation and protein levels of collagen type I and type III were detected using Western blotting. The percentage of elastase-positive cells increased in human specimens with grades II and III tendinopathy. The rat model demonstrated that the thickness of the tendon increased after elastase injection during Week 2-8. Hypercellularity and focal lesions were detected after Week 2. The expression of elastase was increased and elastin was decreased in Week 8. Collagen type I expression was decreased, but type III was increased in Week 4. These results suggested that elastase may be involved in the development of chronic tendinopathy, and that peritendinous injection of elastase may result in tendinopathy in rats. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tendons transmit force between muscles and bones and, when stretched, store elastic energy that contributes to movement.(1) The tendinous portion of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles merge to form the Achilles tendon, which is the largest and strongest in the body, but one of the most frequently injured.(2,3) Conservative management options for chronic Achilles tendinopathy include eccentric (lengthening) exercises, extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT), topical nitroglycerin, low level laser therapy, orthoses, splints or injections (e.g. corticosteroids, hyperosmolar dextrose, polidocanol, platelet-rich plasma), while a minority of patients require surgery (using open, percutaneous or endoscopic methods).(4-8) Here we assess the management options for patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy (lasting over 6 weeks).
Xu, Yinghua; Bonar, Fiona; Murrell, George A C
The aim of this study was to determine whether there are more nerves in tendinopathic human tendon, and if so, where are they located. Tendon biopsies were collected from normal, tendinopathic, and torn human rotator cuff tendons and then analyzed using immunohistochemistry and antibodies against a general nerve marker (protein gene product 9.5, PGP9.5), a nerve regeneration marker (growth-associated protein 43, GAP43), and an endothelial cell marker (CD34). Nerve fibers exhibiting PGP9.5 or GAP43 immunoreactivity were often observed intimately in association with tiny blood vessels in the endotendineum of tendinopathic tendons. The expression of PGP9.5 and GAP43 were significantly higher in tendinopathic tendon compared with control tendon and torn tendon. These data support the hypothesis that early tendinopathy is associated with increases of newly grown nerve fibers and blood vessels inside and around tendinopathic tendon, and these may be the source of pain in tendinopathy.
Kraeutler, Matthew J.; Garabekyan, Tigran; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Mei-Dan, Omer
Summary Background The ligamentum teres (LT) consists of two bands that originate on the ischial and pubic sides of the acetabular notch and insert on the fovea capitis of the femoral head. Recent studies have established the LT as an important hip stabilizer in a squatting position, particularly in patients with osseous instability. Purpose This review aims to concisely present the literature on LT tendinopathy and tears in order to guide health care professionals in the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. Methods We reviewed the literature on the diagnosis and surgical management of ligamentum teres tendinopathy and tears. Conclusions The ligamentum teres is an important stabilizer to the hip joint, particularly with hip flexion and external rotation. Older age and acetabular bony pathomorphology are two of the known risk factors for LT tears. Symptoms of LT tendinopathy are largely non-specific, mimicking a wide range of other hip disorders including impingement and instability. Debridement of LT tears or reactive tissue has been reported with good outcomes, with more recent studies describing reconstruction of a completely torn, nonfunctional, or absent LT using various graft sources including synthetic grafts, autografts, and allografts. Level of evidence II. PMID:28066738
Bley, Bradley; Abid, Waqas
Imaging plays an important role in the clinical evaluation of patients with musculoskeletal-related pain, but its utility for the management of tendinopathy is debatable. Findings on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging may not correlate with clinical symptoms, and it is not uncommon to find anatomical changes associated with tendinopathy in tendons of asymptomatic individuals. Likewise, patients with clinical symptoms of tendinopathy can present with normal imaging evaluation. The use of diagnostic and interventional ultrasound has significantly increased over the past decade in a bid for better treatments of tendinopathy. Despite the limitations of traditional imaging in the diagnosis and management of tendinopathy, interventional procedures that utilize ultrasound hold promise. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(11):826-828. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.0113.
Donaldson, Oliver; Vannet, Nicola; Gosens, Taco; Kulkarni, Rohit
In the second part of this review article the management of medial elbow tendinopathy, distal biceps and distal triceps tendinopathy will be discussed. There is a scarcity of publications concerning any of these tendinopathies. This review will summarise the current best available evidence in their management. Medial elbow tendinopathy, also known as Golfer's elbow, is up to 6 times less common than lateral elbow tendinopathy. The tendinopathy occurs in the insertion of pronator teres and flexor carpi radialis. Diagnosis is usually apparent through a detailed history and examination but care must be made to exclude other conditions affecting the ulnar nerve or less commonly the ulnar collateral ligament complex. If doubt exists then MRI/US and electrophysiology can be used. Treatment follows a similar pattern to that of lateral elbow tendinopathy. Acute management is with activity modification and topical NSAIDs. Injection therapy and surgical excision are utilised for recalcitrant cases. Distal biceps and triceps tendinopathies are very rare and there is limited evidence published. Sequelae of tendinopathy include tendon rupture and so it is vital to manage these tendinopathies appropriately in order to minimise this significant complication. Their management and that of partial tears will be considered.
Scott, A; Lian, Ø; Roberts, CR; Cook, JL; Handley, CJ; Bahr, R; Samiric, T; Ilic, MZ; Parkinson, J; Hart, DA; Duronio, V; Khan, KM
Expansion of the extracellular matrix is a prominent but poorly characterized feature of tendinosis. The present study aimed to characterize the extent and distribution of the large aggregating proteoglycan versican in patients with patellar tendinosis. We obtained tendon from tendinopathy patients undergoing debridement of the patellar tendon and from controls undergoing intramedullary tibial nailing. Versican content was investigated by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Microvessel thickness and density were determined using computer-assisted image analysis. Markers for smooth muscle (α-SMA), endothelial cells (CD31) and proliferating cells (Ki67) were examined immunohistochemically. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining revealed elevated versican content in the proximal patellar tendon of tendinosis patients (p=0.042). Versican content was enriched in regions of fibrocartilage metaplasia and fibroblast proliferation, as well as in the perivascular matrix of proliferating microvessels and within the media and intima of arterioles. Microvessel density was higher in tendinosis tissue compared to control tissue. Versican deposition is a prominent feature of patellar tendinosis. Because this molecule is not only a component of normal fibrocartilagenous matrices, but is also implicated in a variety of soft tissue pathologies, future studies should further detail both pathological and adaptive roles of versican in tendons. PMID:18067512
Scott, A; Lian, Ø; Roberts, C R; Cook, J L; Handley, C J; Bahr, R; Samiric, T; Ilic, M Z; Parkinson, J; Hart, D A; Duronio, V; Khan, K M
Expansion of the extracellular matrix is a prominent but poorly characterized feature of tendinosis. The present study aimed to characterize the extent and distribution of the large aggregating proteoglycan versican in patients with patellar tendinosis. We obtained tendon from tendinopathy patients undergoing debridement of the patellar tendon and from controls undergoing intramedullary tibial nailing. Versican content was investigated by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Microvessel thickness and density were determined using computer-assisted image analysis. Markers for smooth muscle actin, endothelial cells (CD31) and proliferating cells (Ki67) were examined immunohistochemically. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining revealed elevated versican content in the proximal patellar tendon of tendinosis patients (P=0.042). Versican content was enriched in regions of fibrocartilage metaplasia and fibroblast proliferation, as well as in the perivascular matrix of proliferating microvessels and within the media and intima of arterioles. Microvessel density was higher in tendinosis tissue compared with control tissue. Versican deposition is a prominent feature of patellar tendinosis. Because this molecule is not only a component of normal fibrocartilagenous matrices but also implicated in a variety of soft tissue pathologies, future studies should further detail both pathological and adaptive roles of versican in tendons.
Sejersen, Maria Hee Jung; Frost, Poul; Hansen, Torben Bæk; Deutch, Søren Rasmussen; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff
Rotator cuff tendinopathy including tears is a cause of significant morbidity. The molecular pathogenesis of the disorder is largely unknown. This review aimed to present an overview of the literature on gene expression and protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies, and to evaluate perspectives of proteomics--the comprehensive study of protein composition--in tendon research. We conducted a systematic search of the literature published between 1 January 1990 and 18 December 2012 in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. We included studies on objectively quantified differential gene expression and/or protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies as compared to control tissue. We identified 2199 studies, of which 54 were included; 25 studies focussed on rotator cuff or biceps tendinopathy. Most of the included studies quantified prespecified mRNA molecules and proteins using polymerase chain reactions and immunoassays, respectively. There was a tendency towards an increase of collagen I (11 of 15 studies) and III (13 of 14), metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 (6 of 12), -9 (7 of 7), -13 (4 of 7), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 (4 of 7), and vascular endothelial growth factor (4 of 7), and a decrease in MMP-3 (10 of 12). Fourteen proteomics studies of tendon tissues/cells failed inclusion, mostly because they were conducted in animals or in vitro. Based on methods, which only allowed simultaneous quantification of a limited number of prespecified mRNA molecules or proteins, several proteins appeared to be differentially expressed/represented in rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies. No proteomics studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria, although proteomics technologies may be a way to identify protein profiles (including non-prespecified proteins) that characterise specific tendon disorders or stages of tendinopathy. Thus, our results suggested an untapped potential for
Sejersen, Maria Hee Jung; Frost, Poul; Hansen, Torben Bæk; Deutch, Søren Rasmussen; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff
Background Rotator cuff tendinopathy including tears is a cause of significant morbidity. The molecular pathogenesis of the disorder is largely unknown. This review aimed to present an overview of the literature on gene expression and protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies, and to evaluate perspectives of proteomics – the comprehensive study of protein composition - in tendon research. Materials and Methods We conducted a systematic search of the literature published between 1 January 1990 and 18 December 2012 in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. We included studies on objectively quantified differential gene expression and/or protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies as compared to control tissue. Results We identified 2199 studies, of which 54 were included; 25 studies focussed on rotator cuff or biceps tendinopathy. Most of the included studies quantified prespecified mRNA molecules and proteins using polymerase chain reactions and immunoassays, respectively. There was a tendency towards an increase of collagen I (11 of 15 studies) and III (13 of 14), metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 (6 of 12), -9 (7 of 7), -13 (4 of 7), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 (4 of 7), and vascular endothelial growth factor (4 of 7), and a decrease in MMP-3 (10 of 12). Fourteen proteomics studies of tendon tissues/cells failed inclusion, mostly because they were conducted in animals or in vitro. Conclusions Based on methods, which only allowed simultaneous quantification of a limited number of prespecified mRNA molecules or proteins, several proteins appeared to be differentially expressed/represented in rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies. No proteomics studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria, although proteomics technologies may be a way to identify protein profiles (including non-prespecified proteins) that characterise specific tendon disorders or stages of tendinopathy. Thus
Raney, Elise B; Thankam, Finosh G; Dilisio, Matthew F; Agrawal, Devendra K
Biceps tendinopathy is a relatively common ailment that typically presents as pain, tenderness, and weakness in the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii. Though it is often associated with degenerative processes of the rotator cuff and the joint, this is not always the case, thus, the etiology remains considerably unknown. There has been recent interest in elucidating the pathogenesis of tendinopathy, since it can be an agent of chronic pain, and is difficult to manage. The purpose of this article is to critically evaluate relevant published research that reflects the current understanding of pain and how it relates to biceps tendinopathy. A review of the literature was conducted to create an organized picture of how pain arises and manifests itself, and how the mechanism behind biceps tendinopathy possibly results in pain. Chronic pain is thought to arise from neurogenic inflammation, central pain sensitization, excitatory nerve augmentation, inhibitory nerve loss, and/or dysregulation of supraspinal structures; thus, the connections of these theories to the ones regarding the generation of biceps tendinopathy, particularly the neural theory, are discussed. Pain mediators such as tachykinins, CGRP, and alarmins, in addition to nervous system ion channels, are highlighted as possible avenues for research in tendinopathy pain. Recognition of the nociceptive mechanisms and molecular of biceps tendinopathy might aid in the development of novel treatment strategies for managing anterior shoulder pain due to a symptomatic biceps tendon. PMID:28670360
Nourissat, Geoffroy; Ornetti, Paul; Berenbaum, Francis; Sellam, Jérémie; Richette, Pascal; Chevalier, Xavier
Although tendinopathies constitute a heterogeneous group of conditions, they are often treated by similar combinations of local and systemic symptomatic interventions. The vast number of causes, pathophysiological mechanisms, and histological changes that characterizes tendinopathies may explain that the standard treatment fails in some patients. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which contains a host of soluble mediators including growth factors, has been suggested as a second-line treatment for refractory tendinopathy, with the goal of expediting tendon healing or remodeling. Here, we report a systematic literature review of basic research data from humans and animals that support the clinical use of PRP in tendinopathies and of clinical studies in the most common tendinopathies (elbow, knee, shoulder, and Achilles tendon). Our objective is to clarify the role for this new injectable treatment, which is garnering increasing attention. The level of evidence remains low, as few well-designed randomized controlled trials have been published. The available scientific evidence does not warrant the use of PRP for the first-line treatment of tendinopathy. PRP therapy may deserve consideration in specific tendinopathy subtypes, after failure of ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injections. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to define these potential indications and the optimal treatment protocols. A key point is that the complexity of the tendon healing process cannot be replicated simply by injecting a subset of growth factors, whose effects may occur in opposite directions over time. Topics not discussed in this review are the regulatory framework for PRP therapy, PRP nomenclature, and precautions for use, which are described in a previous article (Does platelet-rich plasma have a role in the treatment of osteoarthritis, Ornetti P, et al. ). Copyright © 2015 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Debenham, James; Butler, Prue; Mallows, Adrian; Wand, Benedict M
Study Design Controlled laboratory study, preliminary case-control design. Background The mechanisms that contribute to Achilles tendinopathy remain poorly understood. The disparity between pain experience and peripheral pathology demonstrated in patients with Achilles tendinopathy suggests that changes in central nervous system function may be involved. Objectives To investigate whether lower-limb tactile acuity is impaired in people with nonacute Achilles tendinopathy. Methods Thirteen consecutive participants with nonacute midportion Achilles tendinopathy and 13 healthy controls were enrolled. Two-point discrimination thresholds over the affected Achilles tendon, unaffected tendon, and tendon of healthy controls were evaluated. Independent and dependent t tests were used to compare group means. Results Two-point discrimination distance over the affected limb in participants with Achilles tendinopathy was significantly increased when compared to the unaffected limb (mean difference, 11.7 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9, 21.5; P = .02) and to healthy controls (mean difference, 13.1 mm; 95% CI: 1.6, 24.6; P = .03). There was no significant difference between the healthy controls and the unaffected side in people with Achilles tendinopathy (mean difference, 1.4 mm; 95% CI: -7.9, 5.1; P = .66). Conclusion These data provide the first evidence of reduced 2-point discrimination over the affected tendon in patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Further research is needed to determine the cause for the change in tactile acuity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(12):1061-1064. Epub 30 Oct 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6514.
Bidell, Monique R; Lodise, Thomas P
Fluoroquinolone antibiotics recently have gained increased national attention due to safety concerns. A well-described and serious adverse event associated with receipt of fluoroquinolones is tendinitis and tendon rupture. These tendon injuries can result in long-term sequelae, including chronic pain and mobility restrictions, and may warrant surgery. Due to the severity of these adverse events, a black box warning is included in the product labeling of all fluoroquinolones. In light of the mounting concerns surrounding fluoroquinolone-associated toxicities, the purpose of this clinical review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the risk of tendinopathy associated with levofloxacin, one of the most widely prescribed antibiotics in the United States, across in vitro, animal, and clinical studies, relative to other antibiotics. As part of this review, clinical presentation and onset, proposed mechanisms, patient-specific risk factors, and management of fluoroquinolone-induced tendon injury are summarized. Data were obtained from a comprehensive PubMed literature search and a review of U.S. Food and Drug Administration documents. Although tendinopathy is considered a fluoroquinolone class-wide toxicity, data from in vitro studies, animal studies, patient-level analyses, and large national and international surveillance reports suggest that levofloxacin, as well as its parent compound ofloxacin, possess higher propensities to cause tendon damage relative to other fluoroquinolones. Risk with ofloxacin and levofloxacin appears to be exposure dependent, with higher doses and longer durations being most commonly associated with tendinopathy. Other well-described patient risk factors for fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy include older age (older than 60 yrs), receipt of concomitant corticosteroid therapy, presence of renal dysfunction, and history of solid organ transplantation. Given widespread use of levofloxacin across patient care settings, knowledge of both
Sharma, Pankaj; Maffulli, Nicola
Tendon disorders are frequent and are responsible for substantial morbidity both in sports and in the workplace. Tendinopathy, as opposed to tendinitis or tendinosis, is the best generic descriptive term for the clinical conditions in and around tendons arising from overuse. Tendinopathy is a difficult problem requiring lengthy management, and patients often respond poorly to treatment. Preexisting degeneration has been implicated as a risk factor for acute tendon rupture. Several physical modalities have been developed to treat tendinopathy. There is limited and mixed high-level evidence to support the, albeit common, clinical use of these modalities. Further research and scientific evaluation are required before biological solutions become realistic options.
Lin, Fang; Wilson, Nicole A.; Makhsous, Mohsen; Press, Joel M.; Koh, Jason L.; Nuber, Gordon W.; Zhang, Li-Qun
Patellofemoral pain is a common knee disorders with a multi-factorial etiology related to abnormal patellar tracking. Our hypothesis was that the pattern of 3-dimensional rotation and translation of the patella induced by selective activation of individual quadriceps components would differ between subjects with patellofemoral pain and healthy subjects. Nine female subjects with patellofemoral pain and seven healthy female subjects underwent electrical stimulation to selectively activate individual quadriceps components (vastus medialis obliquus, VMO; vastus medialis lateralis, VML; vastus lateralis, VL) with the knee at 0° and 20° flexion, while three-dimensional patellar tracking was recorded. Normalized direction of rotation and direction of translation characterized the relative amplitudes of each component of patellar movement. VMO activation in patellofemoral pain caused greater medial patellar rotation (distal patellar pole rotates medially in frontal plane) at both knee positions (p<0.01), and both VMO and VML activation caused increased anterior patellar translation (p<0.001) in patellofemoral pain compared to healthy subjects at 20° knee flexion. VL activation caused more lateral patellar translation (p<0.001) in patellofemoral pain compared to healthy subjects. In healthy subjects the 3-D mechanical action of the VMO is actively modulated with knee flexion angle while such modulation was not observed in PFP subjects. This could be due to anatomical differences in the VMO insertion on the patella and medial quadriceps weakness. Quantitative evaluation of the influence of individual quadriceps components on patellar tracking will aid understanding of the knee extensor mechanism and provide insight into the etiology of patellofemoral pain. PMID:19878947
Lin, Fang; Wilson, Nicole A; Makhsous, Mohsen; Press, Joel M; Koh, Jason L; Nuber, Gordon W; Zhang, Li-Qun
Patellofemoral pain is a common knee disorder with a multi-factorial etiology related to abnormal patellar tracking. Our hypothesis was that the pattern of three-dimensional rotation and translation of the patella induced by selective activation of individual quadriceps components would differ between subjects with patellofemoral pain and healthy subjects. Nine female subjects with patellofemoral pain and seven healthy female subjects underwent electrical stimulation to selectively activate individual quadriceps components (vastus medialis obliquus, VMO; vastus medialis lateralis, VML; vastus lateralis, VL) with the knee at 0 degrees and 20 degrees flexion, while three-dimensional patellar tracking was recorded. Normalized direction of rotation and direction of translation characterized the relative amplitudes of each component of patellar movement. VMO activation in patellofemoral pain caused greater medial patellar rotation (distal patellar pole rotates medially in frontal plane) at both knee positions (p<0.01), and both VMO and VML activation caused increased anterior patellar translation (p<0.001) in patellofemoral pain compared to healthy subjects at 20 degrees knee flexion. VL activation caused more lateral patellar translation (p<0.001) in patellofemoral pain compared to healthy subjects. In healthy subjects the 3-D mechanical action of the VMO is actively modulated with knee flexion angle while such modulation was not observed in PFP subjects. This could be due to anatomical differences in the VMO insertion on the patella and medial quadriceps weakness. Quantitative evaluation of the influence of individual quadriceps components on patellar tracking will aid understanding of the knee extensor mechanism and provide insight into the etiology of patellofemoral pain. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Chronic tendon injuries, also known as tendinopathies, are common among professional and recreational athletes. These injuries result in a significant amount of morbidity and health care expenditure, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms leading to tendinopathy. Methods We have used histological evaluation and molecular profiling to determine gene expression changes in 23 human patients undergoing surgical procedures for the treatment of chronic tendinopathy. Results Diseased tendons exhibit altered extracellular matrix, fiber disorientation, increased cellular content and vasculature, and the absence of inflammatory cells. Global gene expression profiling identified 983 transcripts with significantly different expression patterns in the diseased tendons. Global pathway analysis further suggested altered expression of extracellular matrix proteins and the lack of an appreciable inflammatory response. Conclusions Identification of the pathways and genes that are differentially regulated in tendinopathy samples will contribute to our understanding of the disease and the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:21539748
Pal, Saikat; Draper, Christine E; Fredericson, Michael; Gold, Garry E; Delp, Scott L; Beaupre, Gary S; Besier, Thor F
Delayed onset of vastus medialis (VM) activity compared with vastus lateralis activity is a reported cause for patellofemoral pain. The delayed onset of VM activity in patellofemoral pain patients likely causes an imbalance in muscle forces and lateral maltracking of the patella; however, evidence relating VM activation delay to patellar maltracking is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between VM activation delay and patellar maltracking measures in pain-free controls and patellofemoral pain patients. Patellar tilt and bisect offset, measures of patellar tracking, correlate with VM activation delay in patellofemoral pain patients classified as maltrackers. Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. Vasti muscle activations were recorded in pain-free (n = 15) and patellofemoral pain (n = 40) participants during walking and jogging. All participants were scanned in an open-configuration magnetic resonance scanner in an upright weightbearing position to acquire the position of the patella with respect to the femur. Patellar tilt and bisect offset were measured, and patellofemoral pain participants were classified into normal tracking and maltracking groups. Correlations between VM activation delay and patellar maltracking measures were statistically significant in only the patellofemoral pain participants classified as maltrackers with both abnormal tilt and abnormal bisect offset (R(2) = .89, P < .001, with patellar tilt during walking; R(2) = .75, P = .012, with bisect offset during jogging). There were no differences between the means of activation delays in pain-free and all patellofemoral pain participants during walking (P = .516) or jogging (P = .731). There was a relationship between VM activation delay and patellar maltracking in the subgroup of patellofemoral pain participants classified as maltrackers with both abnormal tilt and abnormal bisect offset. A clinical intervention such as VM retraining may be effective in only a
Leeman, J J; Shaw, K K; Mison, M B; Perry, J A; Carr, A; Shultz, R
Supraspinatus tendinopathy (ST) and biceps tendinopathy (BT) are common causes of forelimb lameness in large-breed dogs and have historically been treated with conservative management or surgery. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) and therapeutic exercise (TE) are thought to be treatment options for these conditions. The objectives of this study were to report the clinical presentations of dogs treated with ESWT for shoulder tendinopathies, to determine the association between shoulder lesion severity identified on ultrasonography or MRI and outcome, and to compare the outcomes of dogs treated with ESWT with and without TE. Medical records of 29 dogs diagnosed with shoulder tendinopathies and treated with ESWT were reviewed, and 24 dogs were diagnosed with either unilateral BT or BT and ST. None were found to have unilateral ST. Five dogs were diagnosed with bilateral disease. Eighty-five per cent of dogs had good or excellent outcomes determined by owner assessment 11-220 weeks after therapy. Outcomes were found to be better as tendon lesion severity increased (P=0.0497), regardless if ESWT was performed with or without TE (P=0.92). ESWT should be considered a safe primary therapeutic option for canine shoulder tendinopathies. Larger controlled prospective studies are needed to adequately assess these findings.
Alvarez-Nemegyei, Jose; Canoso, Juan J
Lateral and medial epicondylitis represent overuse tendinopathies of wrist extensor and wrist flexor muscles, respectively. In lateral epicondylitis, a short-term therapeutic efficacy of glucocorticoid injection and limited evidence on the efficacy of acupuncture has been shown. De Quervain tendinopathy is caused by tendinous impingement by a thickened retinaculum. There is limited evidence on the efficacy of glucocorticoid injection in this condition.Trigger finger usually results from tendon entrapment beneath a thickened A1 flexor pulley. An association with hand tool use and diabetes has been shown in this condition, and there is evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of glucocorticoid injection. No other therapeutic modality has shown efficacy or has been assessed in a placebo-controlled clinical trial in these conditions.It can be concluded that epicondylitis and stenosing tendinopathy are readily diagnosed, and most patients recover with current therapies. However, still unsolved issues preclude a purely evidence-based approach to these entities.
Pal, Saikat; Besier, Thor F; Draper, Christine E; Fredericson, Michael; Gold, Garry E; Beaupre, Gary S; Delp, Scott L
Patellofemoral (PF) pain is a common ailment of the lower extremity. A theorized cause for pain is patellar maltracking due to vasti muscle activation imbalance, represented as large vastus lateralis:vastus medialis (VL:VM) activation ratios. However, evidence relating vasti muscle activation imbalance to patellar maltracking is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VL:VM activation ratio and patellar tracking measures, patellar tilt and bisect offset, in PF pain subjects and pain-free controls. We evaluated VL:VM activation ratio and VM activation delay relative to VL activation in 39 PF pain subjects and 15 pain-free controls during walking. We classified the PF pain subjects into normal tracking and maltracking groups based on patellar tilt and bisect offset measured from weight-bearing magnetic resonance imaging. Patellar tilt correlated with VL:VM activation ratio only in PF pain subjects classified as maltrackers. This suggests that a clinical intervention targeting vasti muscle activation imbalance may be effective only in PF pain subjects classified as maltrackers. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.
Acute patellar dislocations are a common injury occurring in adolescents involved in sports and dancing activities. This injury usually occurs when the knee is in full extension and sustains a valgus stress on the knee. The medial patellofemoral ligament is the medial restraint that assists in stabilizing the patella from lateral dislocations. The patella usually dislocates laterally and is usually not difficult to reduce after patient evaluation and prereduction radiographs. After postreduction radiographs confirm proper position of the patella postreduction and the absence of fractures, the patient is usually treated conservatively with initial immobilization, orthopedic referral, and physical therapy.
Abat, F; Valles, S L; Gelber, P E; Polidori, F; Stitik, T P; García-Herreros, S; Monllau, J C; Sanchez-Ibánez, J M
To investigate the molecular mechanisms of tissue response after treatment with the Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis (EPI(®)) technique in collagenase-induced tendinopathy in Sprague-Dawley rats. Tendinopathy was induced by injecting 50 μg of type i collagenase into the patellar tendon of 24 Sprague Dawley rats of 7 months of age and weighting 300 g. The sample was divided into 4 groups: the control group, collagenase group, and two EPI(®) technique treatment groups of 3 and 6 mA, respectively. An EPI(®) treatment session was applied, and after 3 days, the tendons were analysed using immunoblotting and electrophoresis techniques. An analysis was also made of cytochrome C protein, Smac/Diablo, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor 2, as well as the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. A statistically significant increase, compared to the control group, was observed in the expression of cytochrome C, Smac/Diablo, vascular endothelial growth factor, its receptor 2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in the groups in which the EPI(®) technique was applied. EPI(®) technique produces an increase in anti-inflammatory and angiogenic molecular mechanisms in collagenase-induced tendon injury in rats. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Campbell, Abigail L.; Smith, Nicola C.; Reilly, James H.; Kerr, Shauna C.; Leach, William J.; Fazzi, Umberto G.; Rooney, Brian P.; Murrell, George A. C.; Millar, Neal L.
The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tendinopathy remain unclear, with much debate as to whether inflammation or degradation has the prominent role. Increasing evidence points toward an early inflammatory infiltrate and associated inflammatory cytokine production in human and animal models of tendon disease. The IL-21/IL-21R axis is a proinflammatory cytokine complex that has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This project aimed to investigate the role and expression of the cytokine/receptor pair IL-21/IL-21R in human tendinopathy. We found significantly elevated expression of IL-21 receptor message and protein in human tendon samples but found no convincing evidence of the presence of IL-21 at message or protein level. The level of expression of IL-21R message/protein in human tenocytes was significantly upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα/IL-1β) in vitro. These findings demonstrate that IL-21R is present in early human tendinopathy mainly expressed by tenocytes and macrophages. Despite a lack of IL-21 expression, these data again suggest that early tendinopathy has an inflammatory/cytokine phenotype, which may provide novel translational targets in the treatment of tendinopathy. PMID:24757284
Warden, S J
Tendinopathy is a common and significant clinical problem characterised by activity-related pain, focal tendon tenderness and intratendinous imaging changes. Recent histopathological studies have indicated the underlying pathology to be one of tendinosis (degeneration) as opposed to tendinitis (inflammation). Relatively little is known about tendinosis and its pathogenesis. Contributing to this is an absence of validated animal models of the pathology. Animal models of tendinosis represent potential efficient and effective means of furthering our understanding of human tendinopathy and its underlying pathology. By selecting an appropriate species and introducing known risk factors for tendinopathy in humans, it is possible to develop tendon changes in animal models that are consistent with the human condition. This paper overviews the role of animal models in tendinopathy research by discussing the benefits and development of animal models of tendinosis, highlighting potential outcome measures that may be used in animal tendon research, and reviewing current animal models of tendinosis. It is hoped that with further development of animal models of tendinosis, new strategies for the prevention and treatment of tendinopathy in humans will be generated.
Warden, S J
Tendinopathy is a common and significant clinical problem characterised by activity‐related pain, focal tendon tenderness and intratendinous imaging changes. Recent histopathological studies have indicated the underlying pathology to be one of tendinosis (degeneration) as opposed to tendinitis (inflammation). Relatively little is known about tendinosis and its pathogenesis. Contributing to this is an absence of validated animal models of the pathology. Animal models of tendinosis represent potential efficient and effective means of furthering our understanding of human tendinopathy and its underlying pathology. By selecting an appropriate species and introducing known risk factors for tendinopathy in humans, it is possible to develop tendon changes in animal models that are consistent with the human condition. This paper overviews the role of animal models in tendinopathy research by discussing the benefits and development of animal models of tendinosis, highlighting potential outcome measures that may be used in animal tendon research, and reviewing current animal models of tendinosis. It is hoped that with further development of animal models of tendinosis, new strategies for the prevention and treatment of tendinopathy in humans will be generated. PMID:17127722
Zwiers, Ruben; Wiegerinck, Johannes I; van Dijk, C Niek
In Achilles tendinopathy, differentiation should be made between paratendinopathy, insertional- and midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Midportion Achilles tendinopathy is clinically characterized by a combination of pain and swelling at the affected site, with impaired performance as an important consequence. The treatment of midportion Achilles tendinopathy contains both non-surgical and surgical options. Eccentric exercise has shown to be an effective treatment modality. Promising results are demonstrated for extracorporeal shockwave therapy. In terms of the surgical treatment of midportion Achilles tendinopathy, no definite recommendations can be made. IV.
Previous research into the effect of patellar taping has found conflicting results and when studies have found positive findings these effects appear to be negated by exercise. The purpose of this study was to re-examine the effect of patellar taping on patellar position using ultrasound scanning. Twelve asymptomatic subjects (six males and six females (age 20.4+/-1.2 years)) had their patellar position examined, prior to and following the application of tape, and also following exercise (25 step ups). Mean patellar position (distance border patella to edge lateral femoral condyle) prior to application of tape was 6.2+/-1.3 mm following the application of tape mean patellar position was 7.9+/-1.7 mm, this was a statistically significant change in position (p=0.003). Following exercise mean patellar position was 7.6+/-1.7 mm this was a significant reduction compared to the taped position prior to exercise (p=0.001). This value was though still significantly greater than prior to the application of tape (p=0.006). This study found that patellar position was significantly changed following the application of tape. Furthermore, the study found that though low intensity exercise resulted in a significant change in the patellar position compared to the taped position prior to exercise, that change was most likely to have occurred due to random chance or measurement error. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lui, Pauline Po Yee
The pathogenesis of tendinopathy remains unclear. Chondro-osteogenic BMPs such as BMP-2, BMP-4 and BMP-7 have been reported in clinical samples and animal models of tendinopathy. As chondrocyte-like cells and ossified deposits have been observed in both clinical samples and animal models of failed tendon healing tendinopathy, chondro-osteogenic BMPs might contribute to tissue metaplasia and other histopathological changes in tendinopathy. In this review I have summarized the current evidence supporting the roles of chondro-osteogenic BMPs in the histopathological changes of tendinopathy. The potential targets, effects and sources of these BMPs are discussed. I have also provided directions for future studies about the potential roles of BMPs in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. Better understanding of the roles of these BMPs in the histopathological changes of tendinopathy could provide new options for the prevention and treatment of this disabling tendon disorder.
Park, Joo-Hee; Kang, Sun-Young; Choung, Sung-Dae; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Kwon, Oh-Yun
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tibial position on ITB flexibility and patellar position. A total of 31 asymptomatic subjects (21 males, 10 females) were recruited for this investigation. Adduction angle was measured by Ober's test, and PCD was measured by ultrasonography in three different tibial rotation conditions: N, IR, and ER. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference in adduction angle and PCD among three different tibial positions (P<0.05). Adduction angle was significantly greater in the N tibial position than in ER (P<0.05). The PCD was significantly greater in N position than in IR (P<0.05). However, the PCD was significantly smaller in IR compared with the N position (P<0.05). These findings support that tibial rotation influences the flexibility of ITB and patellar positions. Therefore, excessive tibial rotation can cause inappropriate patellar positions that eventually lead to knee injury. Therapists should consider tibial rotation when measuring adduction angles because tibial rotation can change Ober's test results and contribute to the consistency of ITB length measurements. Level IV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lewis, Trevor; Cook, Jill
Context: Fluoroquinolone antibiotics have been used for several decades and are effective antimicrobials. Despite their usefulness as antibiotics, a growing body of evidence has accumulated in the peer-reviewed literature that shows fluoroquinolones can cause pathologic lesions in tendon tissue (tendinopathy). These adverse effects can occur within hours of commencing treatment and months after discontinuing the use of these drugs. In some cases, fluoroquinolone usage can lead to complete rupture of the tendon and substantial subsequent disability. Objective: To discuss the cause, pharmacology, symptoms, and epidemiology of fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy and to discuss the clinical implications with respect to athletes and their subsequent physiotherapy. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), and SPORTDiscus databases for available reports of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy (tendinitis, tendon pain, or rupture) published from 1966 to 2012. Search terms were fluoroquinolones or quinolones and tendinopathy, adverse effects, and tendon rupture. Included studies were written in or translated into English. Non—English–language and non-English translations of abstracts from reports were not included (n = 1). Study Selection: Eligible studies were any available reports of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy (tendinitis, tendon pain, or rupture). Both animal and human histologic studies were included. Any papers not focusing on the tendon-related side effects of fluoroquinolones were excluded (n = 71). Data Extraction: Data collected included any cases of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy, the particular tendon affected, type of fluoroquinolone, dosage, and concomitant risk factors. Any data outlining the adverse histologic effects of fluoroquinolones also were collected. Data Synthesis: A total of 175 papers, including 89 case reports and 8
Lewis, Trevor; Cook, Jill
Fluoroquinolone antibiotics have been used for several decades and are effective antimicrobials. Despite their usefulness as antibiotics, a growing body of evidence has accumulated in the peer-reviewed literature that shows fluoroquinolones can cause pathologic lesions in tendon tissue (tendinopathy). These adverse effects can occur within hours of commencing treatment and months after discontinuing the use of these drugs. In some cases, fluoroquinolone usage can lead to complete rupture of the tendon and substantial subsequent disability. To discuss the cause, pharmacology, symptoms, and epidemiology of fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy and to discuss the clinical implications with respect to athletes and their subsequent physiotherapy. We searched MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), and SPORTDiscus databases for available reports of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy (tendinitis, tendon pain, or rupture) published from 1966 to 2012. Search terms were fluoroquinolones or quinolones and tendinopathy, adverse effects, and tendon rupture. Included studies were written in or translated into English. Non-English-language and non-English translations of abstracts from reports were not included (n = 1). Eligible studies were any available reports of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy (tendinitis, tendon pain, or rupture). Both animal and human histologic studies were included. Any papers not focusing on the tendon-related side effects of fluoroquinolones were excluded (n = 71). Data collected included any cases of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy, the particular tendon affected, type of fluoroquinolone, dosage, and concomitant risk factors. Any data outlining the adverse histologic effects of fluoroquinolones also were collected. A total of 175 papers, including 89 case reports and 8 literature reviews, were identified. Fluoroquinolone tendinopathy may not respond well to the
Woodley, Brett L; Newsham‐West, Richard J; Baxter, G David
Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of eccentric exercise (EE) programmes in the treatment of common tendinopathies. Data sources: Relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were sourced using the OVID website databases: MEDLINE (1966–Jan 2006), CINAHL (1982–Jan 2006), AMED (1985–Jan 2006), EMBASE (1988–Jan 2006), and all EBM reviews – Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, and CCTR (Jan 2006). The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) was also searched using the keyword: eccentric. Review methods: The PEDro and van Tulder scales were employed to assess methodological quality. Levels of evidence were then obtained according to predefined thresholds: Strong–consistent findings among multiple high‐quality RCTs. Moderate–consistent findings among multiple low‐quality RCTs and/or clinically controlled trials (CCTs) and/or one high‐quality RCT. Limited–one low‐quality RCT and/or CCT. Conflicting–inconsistent findings among multiple trials (RCTs and/or CCTs). No evidence–no RCTs or CCTs. Results: Twenty relevant studies were sourced, 11 of which met the inclusion criteria. These included studies of Achilles tendinopathy (AT), patella tendinopathy (PT) and tendinopathy of the common wrist extensor tendon of the lateral elbow (LET). Limited levels of evidence exist to suggest that EE has a positive effect on clinical outcomes such as pain, function and patient satisfaction/return to work when compared to various control interventions such as concentric exercise (CE), stretching, splinting, frictions and ultrasound. Levels of evidence were found to be variable across the tendinopathies investigated. Conclusions: This review demonstrates the dearth of high‐quality research in support of the clinical effectiveness of EE over other treatments in the management of tendinopathies. Further adequately powered studies that include appropriate randomisation procedures, standardised outcome measures and long‐term follow‐up are required
Abate, Michele; Gravare-Silbernagel, Karin; Siljeholm, Carl; Di Iorio, Angelo; De Amicis, Daniele; Salini, Vincenzo; Werner, Suzanne; Paganelli, Roberto
The intrinsic pathogenetic mechanisms of tendinopathies are largely unknown and whether inflammation or degeneration has the prominent role is still a matter of debate. Assuming that there is a continuum from physiology to pathology, overuse may be considered as the initial disease factor; in this context, microruptures of tendon fibers occur and several molecules are expressed, some of which promote the healing process, while others, including inflammatory cytokines, act as disease mediators. Neural in-growth that accompanies the neovessels explains the occurrence of pain and triggers neurogenic-mediated inflammation. It is conceivable that inflammation and degeneration are not mutually exclusive, but work together in the pathogenesis of tendinopathies. PMID:19591655
Merican, Azhar M; Ghosh, Kanishka M; Baena, Ferdinando Rodriguez Y; Deehan, David J; Amis, Andrew A
To study the effect of increasing patellar thickness (overstuffing) on patellofemoral kinematics in total knee arthroplasty and whether subsequent lateral retinacular release would restore the change in kinematics. The quadriceps of eight fresh-frozen knees were loaded on a custom-made jig. Kinematic data were recorded using an optical tracking device for the native knee, following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), then with patellar thicknesses from -2 to +4 mm, during knee extension motion. Staged lateral retinacular releases were performed to examine the restoration of normal patellar kinematics. Compared to the native knee, TKA led to significant changes in patellofemoral kinematics, with significant increases in lateral shift, tilt and rotation. When patellar composite thickness was increased, the patella tilted further laterally. Lateral release partly corrected this lateral tilt but caused abnormal tibial external rotation. With complete release of the lateral retinaculum and capsule, the patella with an increased thickness of 4 mm remained more laterally tilted compared to the TKA with normal patellar thickness between 45° and 55° knee flexion and from 75° onwards. This was on average by 2.4° ± 2.9° (p < 0.05) and 2.°9 ± 3.0° (p < 0.01), respectively. Before the release, for those flexion ranges, the patella was tilted laterally by 4.7° ± 3.2° and 5.4° ± 2.7° more than in the TKA with matched patellar thickness. Patellar thickness affects patellofemoral kinematics after TKA. Although lateral tilt was partly corrected by lateral retinacular release, this affected the tibiofemoral kinematics. IV.
Kang, Sun-Young; Choung, Sung-Dae; Park, Joo-Hee; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Kwon, Oh-Yun
Tightness of the iliotibial band (ITB) has been documented as a major factor in lateral patellar translation because the ITB inserts into the lateral border of the patella through the iliopatellar band. The aim of this study was to compare the patella-condyle distance (PCD) between subjects with and without ITB tightness. We also investigated the relationship between ITB length and lateral patellar translation in hip adduction. In 40 healthy volunteers, we measured the ITB length with Ober's test and the PCD at two hip positions (neutral and 20° adduction) using ultrasonography. Lateral patellar translation in hip adduction was calculated by subtracting the PCD at the adduction position from the hip neutral position. Twenty-three of the 40 subjects had ITB tightness; these subjects had a significantly laterally positioned patella at 20° adduction of the hip (p=0.044). Patients with ITB tightness also had greater lateral patellar translation in hip adduction than patients without tightness (p=0.000). The ITB length was moderately correlated with the PCD at 20° adduction of the hip (r=0.427, p=0.042) and strongly negatively correlated with lateral patellar translation (r=-0.717, p<0.000). These findings support the hypothesis that increasing ITB tension has a significant effect on the position of the patella and therefore affects translation of the patella. However, these findings do not indicate that ITB length is the only cause of lateral patellar translation; further studies are needed to assess the relative importance of different factors that could affect patellar position. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Antholz, Casey R; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Elmallah, Randa K; Jauregui, Julio J; Pierce, Todd P; Mont, Micael A
Whether to resurface the patella during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains a controversial topic among orthopaedic surgeons, and we are still no closer to identifying which technique provides the best outcomes. Advocates for patellar resurfacing have adopted this technique in order to avoid the potential for post-operative anterior knee pain that may be associated with the need for future reoperations. However, reports have indicated that patellar resurfacing may be associated with increased complications such as patellar implant loosening, fracture, osteonecrosis, tendon injury, wear, and instability. More recently, studies have highlighted possible patient-specific and surgical factors, such as weight, body mass index, degree of chondromalacia, and patellar alignment, which may influence functional outcomes, and thus surgical decision making. However, currently there are minimal clear guidelines to help surgeons decide whether or not to resurface the patella. Our aim was to assess the current literature and present the evidence for and against patellar resurfacing, as well as to assess factors that may aid in deciding which procedure is more suitable for the specific patient. Ultimately, we believe there is a need for further research to identify the most appropriate candidates for patellar resurfacing.
Zhang, Xin; Lin, Yu-cheng; Rui, Yun-feng; Xu, Hong-liang; Chen, Hui; Wang, Chen; Teng, Gao-jun
Tendinopathy is a tendon disorder characterized by activity-related pain, local edema, focal tenderness to palpation, and decreased strength in the affected area. Tendinopathy is prevalent in both athletes and the general population, highlighting the need to elucidate the pathogenesis of this disorder. Current treatments of tendinopathy are both conservative and symptomatic. The discovery of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) and erroneous differentiation of TSPCs have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. In this review, we firstly present the histopathological characteristics of tendinopathy and explore the cellular and molecular cues in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. Current evidence of the depletion of the stem cell pool and altered TSPCs fate in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy has been presented. The potential regulatory factors for either tenogenic or nontenogenic differentiation of TSPCs are also summarized. The regulation of endogenous TSPCs or supplementation with exogenous TSPCs as therapeutic targets for the treatment of tendinopathy is proposed. Therefore, inhibiting the erroneous differentiation of TSPCs and regulating the differentiation of TSPCs into tendon cells might be important areas of future research and could provide new clinical treatments for tendinopathy. The current evidence suggests that TSPCs are promising therapeutic targets for the management of tendinopathy. PMID:27195010
Bell, Simon N; Connell, David; Coghlan, Jennifer A
Background Distal biceps tendinopathy is an uncommon cause of elbow pain. The optimum treatment for cases refractory to conservative treatment is unclear. Platelet-rich plasma has been used successfully for other tendinopathies around the elbow. Methods Six patients with clinical and radiological evidence of distal biceps tendinopathy underwent ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection. Clinical examination findings, visual analogue score (VAS) for pain and Mayo Elbow Performance scores were recorded. Results The Mayo Elbow Performance Score improved from 68.3 (range 65 to 85) (fair function) to 95 (range 85 to 100) (excellent function). The VAS at rest improved from a mean of 2.25 (range 2 to 5) pre-injection to 0. The VAS with movement improved from a mean of 7.25 (range 5 to 8) pre-injection to 1.3 (range 0 to 2). No complications were noted. Discussion Ultrasound-guided PRP injection appears to be a safe and effective treatment for recalcitrant cases of distal biceps tendinopathy. Further investigation with a randomized controlled trial is needed to fully assess its efficacy. PMID:27582965
Anglin, C; Brimacombe, J M; Hodgson, A J; Masri, B A; Greidanus, N V; Tonetti, J; Wilson, D R
Optimizing patellar tracking in total knee arthroplasty is a surgical priority. Despite this, a comparison of the effects of different component placements on patellar tracking is not available; the biomechanical impact of the patellar resection angle has not been studied; and the similarity between intraoperative and postoperative effects, fundamental to improving patellar tracking, is unknown. Our objective was to compare the impact of the major controllable femoral, tibial and patellar component positions on patellar kinematics during both passive and loaded flexion. We tested eight cadaveric knee specimens in two rigs, simulating intraoperative and weightbearing flexion. Optoelectronic marker arrays were attached to the femur, tibia and patella to record kinematics throughout the range of motion. We modified posterior-stabilized fixed-bearing knee components to allow for five types of variations in component placement in addition to the neutral position: femoral component rotation, tibial component rotation, patellar resection angle, patellar component medialization and additional patellar thickness, for a total of 11 individual variations. The major determinants of patellar tilt and shift were patellar component medialization, patellar resection angle and femoral component rotation. The relative order of these variables depended on the structure (bone or component), kinematic parameter (tilt or shift) and flexion angle (early or late flexion). Effects of component changes were consistent between the intraoperative and weightbearing rigs. To improve patellar tracking, and thereby the clinical outcome, surgeons should focus on patellar component medialization, patellar resection angle and femoral component rotation. These have been linked with anterior knee pain as well. Neither tibial component rotation nor patellar thickness should be adjusted to improve patellar tracking.
Bhatia, Deepak N; de Beer, Joe F; van Rooyen, Karin S; Lam, Francis; du Toit, Donald F
Tendinopathies of the rotator cuff muscles, biceps tendon and pectoralis major muscle are common causes of shoulder pain in athletes. Overuse insertional tendinopathy of pectoralis minor is a previously undescribed cause of shoulder pain in weightlifters/sportsmen. To describe the clinical features, diagnostic tests and results of an overuse insertional tendinopathy of the pectoralis minor muscle. To also present a new technique of ultrasonographic evaluation and injection of the pectoralis minor muscle/tendon based on use of standard anatomical landmarks (subscapularis, coracoid process and axillary artery) as stepwise reference points for ultrasonographic orientation. Between 2005 and 2006, seven sportsmen presenting with this condition were diagnosed and treated at the Cape Shoulder Institute, Cape Town, South Africa. In five patients, the initiating and aggravating factor was performance of the bench-press exercise (hence the term "bench-presser's shoulder"). Medial juxta-coracoid tenderness, a painful active-contraction test and bench-press manoeuvre, and decrease in pain after ultrasound-guided injection of a local anaesthetic agent into the enthesis, in the absence of any other clinically/radiologically apparent pathology, were diagnostic of pectoralis minor insertional tendinopathy. All seven patients were successfully treated with a single ultrasound-guided injection of a corticosteroid into the enthesis of pectoralis minor followed by a period of rest and stretching exercises. This study describes the clinical features and management of pectoralis minor insertional tendinopathy, secondary to the bench-press type of weightlifting. A new pain site-based classification of shoulder pathology in weightlifters is suggested.
Factor, David; Dale, Barry
Tendinopathies are a broad topic that can be examined from the lab to their impact upon function. Improved understanding will serve to bring this pathology to the forefront of discussion, whether in the clinic or the classroom. The purpose of this current concepts clinical commentary is to explore intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy in order to improve clinical and research understanding. Pubmed, Medline, Cinahl, PEDro, and Cochrane databases were searched, limiting results to those published in the English language, between the years of 2005 and 2012. The key search terms utilized were intrinsic mechanisms, tendinopathy, stem cells, biologics, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), healing, rotator cuff tears, full-thickness tears, tests, impingement, imaging, ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), radiograph, shoulder advances, treatment, diagnoses, tendon disorders, pathogenesis, matrix metalloproteinase, injections, and RC repair. Over 150 abstracts were reviewed and 43 articles were analyzed for quality and relevance using the University of Alberta Evidence Based Medicine Toolkit. Current evidence suggests that tendinopathies arise from a multivariate etiology.It is increasingly evident that intrinsic mechanisms play a greater role than extrinsic mechanisms in this process. Emphasis should be placed on patient information (i.e. background information and personal description of symptoms) and imaging/ injection techniques in order to aid in diagnosis. Future treatment technologies such as cell therapy and biological engineering offer the hope of improving patient outcomes and quality of life. Level 5 - Clinical Commentary Related to a Review of Literature.
Millar, Neal L; Murrell, George A C; McInnes, Iain B
Tendinopathy is a multifactorial spectrum of tendon disorders that affects different anatomical sites and is characterized by activity-related tendon pain. These disorders are common, account for a high proportion (∼30%) of referrals to musculoskeletal practitioners and confer a large socioeconomic burden of disease. Our incomplete understanding of the mechanisms underpinning tendon pathophysiology continues to hamper the development of targeted therapies, which have been successful in other areas of musculoskeletal medicine. Debate remains among clinicians about the role of an inflammatory process in tendinopathy owing to a lack of clinical correlation. The advent of modern molecular techniques has highlighted the presence of immune cells and inflammatory mechanisms throughout the spectrum of tendinopathy in both animal and human models of disease. Key inflammatory mediators - such as cytokines, nitric oxide, prostaglandins and lipoxins - play crucial parts in modulating changes in the extracellular matrix within tendinopathy. Understanding the links between inflammatory mechanisms, tendon homeostasis and resolution of tendon damage will be crucial in developing novel therapeutics for human tendon disease.
Three Months of Progressive High-Load Versus Traditional Low-Load Strength Training Among Patients With Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy: Primary Results From the Double-Blind Randomized Controlled RoCTEx Trial
Ingwersen, Kim Gordon; Jensen, Steen Lund; Sørensen, Lilli; Jørgensen, Hans Ri; Christensen, Robin; Søgaard, Karen; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit
Background: Progressive high-load exercise (PHLE) has led to positive clinical results in patients with patellar and Achilles tendinopathy. However, its effects on rotator cuff tendinopathy still need to be investigated. Purpose: To assess the clinical effects of PHLE versus low-load exercise (LLE) among patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: Patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy were recruited and randomized to 12 weeks of PHLE or LLE, stratified for concomitant administration of corticosteroid injection. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline to 12 weeks in the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Results: A total of 100 patients were randomized to PHLE (n = 49) or LLE (n = 51). Mean changes in the DASH questionnaire were 7.11 points (95% CI, 3.07-11.16) and 8.39 points (95% CI, 4.35-12.44) in the PHLE and LLE groups, respectively; this corresponded to a statistically nonsignificant adjusted mean group difference of −1.37 points (95% CI, −6.72 to 3.99; P = .61). Similar nonsignificant results were seen for pain, range of motion, and strength. However, a significant interaction effect was found between the 2 groups and concomitant corticosteroid use (P = .028), with the largest positive change in DASH in favor of PHLE for the group receiving concomitant corticosteroid. Conclusion: The study results showed no superior benefit from PHLE over traditional LLE among patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Further investigation of the possible interaction between exercise type and corticosteroid injection is needed to establish optimal and potentially synergistic combinations of these 2 factors. Registration: NCT01984203 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier): Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy Exercise Trial (RoCTEx).
Junqueira, Jader Joel Machado; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Pécora, Jose Ricardo; Demange, Marco Kawamura
Chronic lateral dislocation of the patella is a rare condition and acquired causes are usually secondary to knee trauma. The neglected chronic dislocation leads to progressive genu valgum and external tibial torsion deformities with subsequent gonarthrosis, which becomes painful and debilitating. There is no consensus regarding treatment of these patients, but total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a useful therapy in cases of painful symptomatic gonarthrosis. Few reports have shown that subvastus approach and lateral release may be a valid option for TKA, since it allows the correction of valgus deformity and patellar tracking without interrupting vascular blood supply of patella. This article reports a case of TKA and extensor mechanism realignment without patellar resurfacing in a patient with genu valgum and chronic post-traumatic patellar dislocation with satisfactory results after two years of follow-up.
Goldin, Michael; Malanga, Gerard A
The understanding of tendinopathy has evolved over the past several decades. Initially thought to be a primarily inflammatory process, histologic evaluation has revealed that there is an absence of inflammatory cells, and rather, tendinopathy is more of a degenerative process. Various types of medications, rehabilitation, modalities, injections, and minimally invasive procedures have been described as treatment for this condition. The purpose of our article is to describe the pathophysiology of tendinopathy as currently understood and the evidence for the various available treatments. We performed a literature search to determine the types of reviews that have been performed previously regarding treatment for tendinopathy, and summarized these reviews. We then performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials for treating patients with tendinopathy. It is our hope that our review of trial data will help providers to determine optimal management for their patients with tendinopathy.
Naal, Florian D; Dalla Riva, Francesco; Wuerz, Thomas H; Dubs, Beat; Leunig, Michael
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a common debilitating condition that is associated with groin pain and limitation in young and active patients. Besides FAI, various disorders such as hernias, adductor tendinopathy, athletic pubalgia, lumbar spine affections, and others can cause similar symptoms. To determine the prevalence of inguinal and/or femoral herniation and adductor insertion tendinopathy using dynamic ultrasound in a cohort of patients with radiographic evidence of FAI. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. This retrospective study consisted of 74 patients (36 female and 38 male; mean age, 29 years; 83 symptomatic hips) with groin pain and radiographic evidence of FAI. In addition to the usual diagnostic algorithm, all patients underwent a dynamic ultrasound examination for signs of groin herniation and tendinopathy of the proximal insertion of the adductors. Evidence of groin herniation was found in 34 hips (41%). There were 27 inguinal (6 female, 21 male) and 10 femoral (9 female, 1 male) hernias. In 3 cases, inguinal and femoral herniation was coexistent. Overall, 5 patients underwent subsequent hernia repair. Patients with groin herniation were significantly older than those without (33 vs 27 years, respectively; P = .01). There were no significant differences for any of the radiographic or clinical parameters. Tendinopathy of the proximal adductor insertion was detected in 19 cases (23%; 11 female, 8 male). Tendinopathy was coexistent with groin herniation in 8 of the 19 cases. There were no significant differences for any of the radiographic or clinical parameters between patients with or without tendinopathy. Patients with a negative diagnostic hip injection result were more likely to have a concomitant groin hernia than those with a positive injection result (80% vs 27%, respectively). Overall, 38 hips underwent FAI surgery with satisfactory outcomes in terms of score values and subjective improvement. The results demonstrate that groin
Sobhani, Sobhan; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Postema, Klaas; Dekker, Rienk; Hijmans, Juha M
Relative rest and pain relief play an important role in the management of Achilles tendinopathy, and might be achieved by reducing the load on the Achilles tendon. Previous studies have provided evidence that rocker shoes are able to decrease the ankle internal plantar flexion moment in healthy runners during walking and running. Since plantar flexion moment is related to the Achilles tendon loading, rocker shoes might be considered in the conservative management of Achilles tendinopathy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of running and walking in a group of patients with Achilles tendinopathy wearing standard shoes versus rocker shoes. Cross-over. Thirteen Achilles tendinopathy patients (mean age 48 ± 14.5 years) underwent three-dimensional gait analysis wearing standard running shoes and rocker shoes during running and walking. Surface electromyography of triceps surae and tibialis anterior was recorded simultaneously. Patients had symptoms for an average of 22.5 months (median 11.5 months) and VISA-A scores were 54 ± 16. With the rocker shoes, the peak plantar flexion moment was reduced by 13% in both running (0.28 N m/kg, p<0.001) and walking (0.20 N m/kg, p<0.001). The peak activity of tibialis anterior was increased by 35% (p=0.015) for the rocker shoes in walking. There was no difference between electromyography peak amplitudes of triceps surae between two shoe sessions in both activities. When used by patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy, rocker shoes cause a significant reduction in plantar flexion moment in the late stance phase of running and walking without substantial adaptations in triceps surae muscular activity. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pagenstert, Geert; Seelhoff, Juliane; Henninger, Heath B; Wirtz, Dieter C; Valderrabano, Victor; Barg, Alexej
We analyzed clinical outcomes of partial lateral patellar facetectomy and medial reefing in patients with lateral patellar facet syndrome with painful patellar-retaining total knee arthroplasty. 34 patients were followed for a mean of 40 months. All 34 patients were matched with those having secondary patellar resurfacing without facetectomy. Both groups experienced significant pain relief and range of motion improvement. The facetectomy group had higher Kujala scores than those in patellar resurfacing group. Patients with facetectomy had significantly less pain postoperatively. There were significant differences in postoperative lateral patellar tilt and congruency angle in both groups. The mid-term results for LPF with medial reefing are promising to resolve pain in patients with lateral patellar facet syndrome in patellar-retaining TKA. Therapeutic level III (retrospective comparative study). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rorabeck, Cecil H; Mehin, Ramin; Barrack, Robert L
There are numerous options that need to be considered by the surgeon at the time of revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). One needs to consider the reason for the revision, the type of patella in place, and the length of time the patella has been in place. The surgeon also needs to consider the status of the patellar bone stock, the stability of the patellar component (well-fixed or loose), and the component type (cemented or metal-backed). Assuming that the existing prosthesis is not metal-backed and has minimal PE wear, then it is preferable to retain a well-fixed all-PE cemented patellar button. However, if the button is metal-backed, then it probably is best to remove the button and replace it with an all-PE domed patellar component. Assuming more than 8 mm of patellar bone stock is remaining, it usually is best to cement an all-PE dome-shaped patella. However, if less than 8 mm is remaining, then that patient can be left with a patelloplasty, recognizing that this individual is going to continue with a high likelihood of anterior knee pain, subluxation, and poor functional results. In that situation, it may be preferable to consider a bone stock augmentation.
Touraine, Sébastien; Lagadec, Matthieu; Petrover, David; Genah, Idan; Parlier-Cuau, Caroline; Bousson, Valérie; Laredo, Jean-Denis
Intratendinous ganglia are rare. We report the case of a sedentary woman with chronic mechanical anterolateral pain of the knee and an extensive ganglion of the patellar tendon as indicated on magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) examinations. There was evidence of a high-riding patella, patellar malalignment and patellar tendon-lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome with significantly close contact between the patellar tendon and the lateral facet of the femoral trochlea. The ultrasound-guided aspiration of the ganglion enabled a localized injection of an anti-inflammatory drug (cortivazol) and the cytopathological examination of the fluid, which confirmed the diagnosis. Clinical improvement was maintained with knee rehabilitation and was satisfactory at follow-up after 1 year. To our knowledge, we report the first case of a ganglion of the patellar tendon subsequent to patellar tendon-lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome. We found that this case was illustrative of mucoid degeneration in connective tissue due to chronic repetitive microtraumas. Additionally, this case provided the opportunity to discuss the management of this condition in a sedentary individual with a high-riding patella and patellar malalignment.
Doucette, S A; Goble, E M
The influence of a physical therapy program on pain and patellar tracking was investigated clinically and radiologically with tangential views in 51 knees with lateral patellar compression syndrome. A pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate physical measurements of patellar alignment in subjects who had had patellofemoral pain for a minimum of 6 weeks. Eighty-four percent of the subjects were pain-free after an average of 8 weeks of rehabilitation or 11 physical therapy visits, with a mean quadriceps strength to total body weight ratio of 61% in women and 86% in men. The pretest-posttest difference in Merchant's congruence angle was significant at a probability of 0.0066 in the patients who were pain-free after exercise, demonstrating less lateral patellar tracking. The pretest-posttest difference in iliotibial band flexibility was significant at a probability of 0.0017, with the patients who were pain-free after exercise becoming more flexible. No significant differences were observed from before to after exercise in the patellofemoral index, Q angle, hamstring flexibility, thigh measurement, sclerotic subchondral bone, or sulcus angle. We were unable to predict which subjects would become pain-free with exercise by patellar position because the group that improved began more laterally tilted. The results of this study indicate that patellar tracking is improved with vastus medialis oblique strengthening, iliotibial band stretching, and joint mobility exercise in the majority of subjects with lateral patellar compression syndrome.
Prakash, Jatin; Seon, Jong-Keun; Woo, Seong-Hwan; Jin, Cheng; Song, Eun-Kyoo
Patellofemoral instability is a common cause of anterior knee pain in adolescents and young adults. Most normal and pathological values for diagnosing patellofemoral instability are based on Western literature. We conducted this radiological study to determine normal values for different patellofemoral parameters in a Korean population and to evaluate their usefulness in diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed the rotational profile computerized tomography (CT) scans of the patellar dislocation and control groups. Trochlear, patellar, rotational profile, and trochleo-patellar alignment parameters were compared between the groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn for significant parameters, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the cut-off values. There were 48 patients in the patellar dislocation group and 87 patients in the control group. In the control group and patellar dislocation group, the mean sulcus angle was 132.5° and 143.3°, respectively, trochlear depth was 6.04 mm and 3.6 mm, bisect offset was 56.4% and 99.9%, lateral patellar tilting was 9.8° and 19.2°, patellar facet asymmetry was 63.5% and 45.16%, and the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance was 10.91 mm and 27.16 mm, respectively. The trochlear depth, bisect offset, patella tilting, and TT-TG distance were parameters that significantly contributed to patellar instability. Rotational profile CT can be considered a good diagnostic tool to assess all these parameters that help to identify anatomical aberration resulting in patellofemoral instability, thereby helping in formulating the most effective treatment plan.
Prakash, Jatin; Seon, Jong-Keun; Woo, Seong-Hwan; Jin, Cheng; Song, Eun-Kyoo
Purpose Patellofemoral instability is a common cause of anterior knee pain in adolescents and young adults. Most normal and pathological values for diagnosing patellofemoral instability are based on Western literature. We conducted this radiological study to determine normal values for different patellofemoral parameters in a Korean population and to evaluate their usefulness in diagnosis. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the rotational profile computerized tomography (CT) scans of the patellar dislocation and control groups. Trochlear, patellar, rotational profile, and trochleo-patellar alignment parameters were compared between the groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn for significant parameters, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the cut-off values. Results There were 48 patients in the patellar dislocation group and 87 patients in the control group. In the control group and patellar dislocation group, the mean sulcus angle was 132.5° and 143.3°, respectively, trochlear depth was 6.04 mm and 3.6 mm, bisect offset was 56.4% and 99.9%, lateral patellar tilting was 9.8° and 19.2°, patellar facet asymmetry was 63.5% and 45.16%, and the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance was 10.91 mm and 27.16 mm, respectively. Conclusions The trochlear depth, bisect offset, patella tilting, and TT-TG distance were parameters that significantly contributed to patellar instability. Rotational profile CT can be considered a good diagnostic tool to assess all these parameters that help to identify anatomical aberration resulting in patellofemoral instability, thereby helping in formulating the most effective treatment plan. PMID:27894178
Allison, Kim; Wrigley, Tim V; Vicenzino, Bill; Bennell, Kim L; Grimaldi, Alison; Hodges, Paul W
Lateral hip pain during walking is a feature of gluteal tendinopathy but little is known how walking biomechanics differ in individuals with gluteal tendinopathy. This study aimed to compare walking kinematics and kinetics between individuals with and without gluteal tendinopathy. Three-dimensional walking-gait analysis was conducted on 40 individuals aged 35 to 70 years with unilateral gluteal tendinopathy and 40 pain-free controls. An analysis of covariance was used to compare kinematic and kinetic variables between groups. Linear regression was performed to investigate the relationship between kinematics and external hip adduction moment in the gluteal tendinopathy group. Individuals with gluteal tendinopathy demonstrated a greater hip adduction moment throughout stance than controls (standardized mean difference ranging from 0.60 (first peak moment) to 0.90 (second peak moment)). Contralateral trunk lean at the time of the first peak hip adduction moment was 1.2 degrees greater (P=0.04), and pelvic drop at the second peak hip adduction moment 1.4 degrees greater (P=0.04), in individuals with gluteal tendinopathy. Two opposite trunk and pelvic strategies were also identified within the gluteal tendinopathy group. Contralateral pelvic drop was significantly correlated with the first (R=0.35) and second peak (R=0.57) hip adduction moment, and hip adduction angle with the second peak hip adduction moment (R=-0.36) in those with gluteal tendinopathy. Individuals with gluteal tendinopathy exhibit greater hip adduction moments and alterations in trunk and pelvic kinematics during walking. Findings provide a basis to consider frontal plane pelvic control in the management of gluteal tendinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ezirmik, Naci; Yildiz, Kadri; Can, Cahit Emre
Multiple pterygium syndrome (MPS) is a syndrome that is characterized abnormal face, short length and skin pterygiums on some body legions (servical, antecubital, popliteal, interdigital and on neck). It is also called as Pterygium Colli syndrome, Escobar syndrome or Pterygium syndrome. Escobar (multyple pterygium) syndrome is a rare syndrome. Intrauterin growth reterdation, abnormal face, wide-spead pterygiums that resulted in joint contractures, ptosis, chryptoorchidism, patellar dysplasia and foot deformities are seen on this syndrome. Primarly autosomal resesive crossing are observed; also autosomal dominant and X-linked crossing. This case were presented as it has components of Escobar syndrome and Isolated Patellar Aplasia syndrome in same time.
McClinton, Shane; Luedke, Lace; Clewley, Derek
Midsubstance Achilles tendinopathy is one of the most common lower leg conditions. Most patients can recover with nonsurgical treatment that focuses on tendon loading exercises and, when necessary, symptom modulating treatments such as topical, oral, or injected medication, ice, shoe inserts, manual therapy, stretching, taping, or low-level laser. If unresponsive to initial management, a small percentage of patients may consider shockwave or sclerosing treatment and possibly surgery.
Adams, Julie E; Habbu, Rohan
Tendinopathies involving the hand and wrist are common. Many are diagnosed easily, and in many cases, the management is straightforward, provided the pathology and principles are understood. Common conditions involving the tendons of the hand and wrist include trigger finger, tenosynovitis of the first through sixth dorsal extensor compartments, and flexor carpi radialis tendonitis. Management strategies include nonsurgical treatments, such as splinting, injection, or therapy, and surgical techniques such as tendon release. Copyright 2015 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
Becciolini, Marco; Bonacchi, Giovanni; Galletti, Stefano
Calcific tendinopathy of the shoulder is a common condition caused by calcium hydroxyapatite crystals, affecting the tendons of the rotator cuff. Among uncommon complication, one is the migration of the calcium in the subacromion-subdeltoid bursa. More rare is the intraosseous migration. We present four cases of an even more rare condition, not well described in literature yet, the intramuscular migration of calcium.
Frizziero, Antonio; Vittadini, Filippo; Pignataro, Andrea; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Biz, Carlo; Ruggieri, Pietro; Masiero, Stefano
Summary Background The anatomy of hip is widely complex and several anatomical structures interact and contribute to its functioning. For position and role, hip and the surrounding tendons, which have their insertion around, are overstressed and often overloaded, especially in athletes. This could lead to the developing of several tendinopathies, among which the differential diagnosis is often complicated. Many conservative treatments are used in clinical practice, while actually, no defined conservative protocol is recommended. Methods This is a review article. The aim of this manuscript is to evaluate the current evidences about the effectiveness of conservative management in hip tendinopathies. Conclusion Conservative treatment is effective in the management of hip tendinopathies and may be considered the first-line approach for patients affected. However, there is lack of evidences about which is the most effective treatment. Exercise therapy seems to provide long-term pain relief, but the literature is still lacking about the correct type, dose, posology, intensity of exercise prescribed. Further studies about different local approaches, as PRP or hyaluronic acid injections, may be encouraged. Level of evidence I. PMID:28066732
Daems, R; Janssens, L A; Béosier, Y M
One hundred and forty-five stifles of client-owned dogs that underwent corrective surgery for congenital medial patellar luxation were inspected for cartilage erosion on the articular surface of the patella. The lesions were mapped in surface percentage ranges of 20% and by location. Two-thirds of the patellae had cartilage erosion. Cartilage erosion varied between 0 and 100% of the total patellar articular surface and was localised mainly on the medial and distal side of the patella. Dogs with Grade IV patellar luxations and heavier dogs were more affected. The majority of dogs in our study with congenital medial patellar luxation had grossly apparent cartilage erosion on the articular surface of the patella, which may help to explain why certain patients do not function well clinically after technically successful corrective surgery.
Resteghini, Peter; Khanbhai, Tamim A; Mughal, Shabaaz; Sivardeen, Ziali
To assess the efficacy of autologous blood injections (ABIs) against saline in patients with chronic recalcitrant patella tendinopathy (PT). Double-blind randomized controlled study. Homerton Hospital Sports Medicine department. Those with a diagnosis of refractory patellar tendinopathy were recruited between March 2010 and March 2012. Using 2 practitioners, patients were randomized to either receive ABIs or saline injections. All patients completed the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), a visual analog scale (VAS), and a Victoria Institute of Sport Assessment for Patella Tendinopathy scale over a 12-month period. Twenty-two patients completed the final review at 12 months and were included in the study. Subjects ranged in age from 22 and 61 years and were randomized to 11 in each ABI and saline groups. Autologous blood injection group had a mean duration of symptoms of 16.7 months, whereas that of the saline group was 19.2 months. The saline group mean VAS score was reduced from 7.9 to 4.5 at 1 month (P = 0.003) and 3.3 (P = 0.005) at 1 year. With ABI, the score was reduced from 7.5 to 4.5 (P = 0.005) at 1 month and 3.1 (P = 0.003) at 1 year. Victoria Institute of Sport Assessment for Patella Tendinopathy, MPQ, and VAS scores improved significantly in both groups. This study demonstrated that both the ABI and saline groups experienced a significant improvement in symptoms. However, when the results were compared, there was no statistical difference between the 2 groups. This research showed that tendon fenestration is an alternative cost-effective treatment for recalcitrant PT.
Wilder, Robert P; Sethi, Shikha
Approximately 50% of all sports injuries are secondary to overuse and result from repetitive microtrauma that causes local tissue damage. Injuries are most likely with changes in mode, intensity, or duration of training and can accumulate before symptoms appear. Intrinsic factors contributing to injuries are individual bio-mechanical abnormalities such as malalignments, muscle imbalance, inflexibility, weakness, and instability. Contributing extrinsic (avoidable) factors include poor technique, improper equipment, and improper changes in duration or frequency of activity. Injuries are often related to biomechanical abnormalities removed from the specific injury site, requiring evaluation of the entire kinetic chain. This article discusses common overuse injuries of the lower leg, ankle, and foot: tendinopathies, stress fractures, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, and shin splints.
Snyder, Garrett M; Mair, Scott D; Lattermann, Christian
Tendinopathy of the long head of the biceps is a common cause of anterior shoulder pain. As such, the anatomy and function of the tendon as well as its pathophysiology and different treatment methods have been studied extensively. The pathophysiology is a spectrum beginning with inflammation and leading to tendon degeneration. Different clinical tests and imaging modalities may all be employed to help aid in diagnosis. Conservative management is the first-line treatment, but surgical intervention may be warranted. In general, tenotomy or tenodesis is performed depending, among other things, on the age and activity level of the patient. There are several different methods for tenodesis, each with certain advantages and disadvantages. Patient factors must be considered when choosing the optimal treatment.
Waugh, C M; Morrissey, D; Jones, E; Riley, G P; Langberg, H; Screen, H R C
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a non-invasive treatment for chronic tendinopathies, however little is known about the in-vivo biological mechanisms of ESWT. Using microdialysis, we examined the real-time biological response of healthy and pathological tendons to ESWT. A single session of ESWT was administered to the mid-portion of the Achilles tendon in thirteen healthy individuals (aged 25.7 ± 7.0 years) and patellar or Achilles tendon of six patients with tendinopathies (aged 39.0 ± 14.9 years). Dialysate samples from the surrounding peri-tendon were collected before and immediately after ESWT. Interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A, vascular endothelial growth factor and interferon-γ were quantified using a cytometric bead array while gelatinase activity (MMP-2 and -9) was examined using zymography. There were no statistical differences between the biological tissue response to ESWT in healthy and pathological tendons. IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 were the cytokines predominantly detected in the tendon dialysate. IL-1β and IL-2 did not change significantly with ESWT. IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations were elevated immediately after ESWT and remained significantly elevated for four hours post-ESWT (p < 0.001). Pro-forms of MMP-2 and -9 also increased after ESWT (p < 0.003), whereas there were no significant changes in active MMP forms. In addition, the biological response to ESWT treatment could be differentiated between possible responders and non-responders based on a minimum 5-fold increase in any inflammatory marker or MMP from pre- to post-ESWT. Our findings provide novel evidence of the biological mechanisms underpinning ESWT in humans in vivo. They suggest that the mechanical stimulus provided by ESWT might aid tendon remodelling in tendinopathy by promoting the inflammatory and catabolic processes that are associated with removing damaged matrix constituents. The non-response of some individuals may help to
Kohl, Sandro; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios S; Hartel, Maximilian; Kohlhof, Hendrik; Roeder, Christoph; Eggli, Stefan
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) disturbs patellar blood flow, an unintended accompaniment to TKA that may be a cause of postoperative anterior knee pain. We examine whether disrupted patellar blood flow correlates with anterior knee pain following TKA. In 50 patients (21 men, 29 women) undergoing TKA, we compared patellar blood flow at flexions 0° to 30°, 60°, 90°, and 110° before and after medial parapatellar arthrotomy to pre- and postoperative anterior knee pain scores by means of a laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF) probe. Anterior knee pain was assessed using the pain intensity numeric rating scale (NRS) of 0-10 (0-no, 10-worst pain). Based on the NRS pain values, patients were divided into two main groups: group A (n = 34) with no pain or discomfort (NRS range 0-4) and group B (n = 16) with anterior knee pain (NRS range 5-10). Patients of group B demonstrated a significant decrease in blood flow before arthrotomy at flexions from 0° to 90°, and 110° and from 0° to 60°, 90°, and 110° after arthrotomy. For group A, a significant decrease in blood flow was detected at flexions from 0° to 90°, and 110° before and after arthrotomy. For both groups, medial arthrotomy did not have a statistically significant influence on patellar blood flow (margin of significance P < 0.05). Prior to TKA, 16 of the 50 patients of group B (32%) complained of anterior knee pain (mean NRS 7.1 ± 1.7). At 2-year follow-up, pain significantly decreased (NRS 3.1 ± 2.1) and only 4 of the 16 patients (25%) complained of moderate anterior pain (average NRS 5.7 ± 0.5), while 8 of 16 (50%) patients reported discomfort (mean NRS 3.5 ± 1.8) around the patella. Patients in group A also demonstrated a significant decrease in pain intensity (from NRS 1.5 ± 1.4 preoperatively to NRS 0.4 ± 1.5 at 2-year follow-up). Statistical analysis demonstrated no statistically significant correlation between pre-arthrotomy/post-arthrotomy patellar blood flow and the presence of preoperative and
Sumanont, Sermsak; Boonard, Manusak; Boonrod, Arunnit
Superior dislocation of the patella with intact patellar tendon is a rare condition. Most cases in literatures were diagnosed by clinical examination and plain radiography; however there are many cases that were misdiagnosed as patellar tendon rupture. In this case, we demonstrate the use of ultrasound for diagnosis of superior dislocation of the patella in the emergency department. We also include a literature review of similar cases and discuss the advantages of different types of imaging for diagnosis in this condition. PMID:28101389
Huang, Rongying; Liu, Yanqiang; Zhu, Jun
Knee injury is a common medical issue. A full understanding of the kinematics and mechanical properties of knees following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) repair utilizing patellar replacement (only the base of the patella is replaced) versus patellar retaining surgical techniques is still lacking. In the current paper, we investigated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data from knees repaired by these two methods and evaluated total knee models created using imaging reconstruction technology that simulated gait conditions. Results revealed that patellar replacement had little influence on tibiofemoral kinematics, although the tibia-surface equivalent stress increased slightly. By contrast, patellar replacement had a significant influence on the patellofemoral joint; patellar internal rotation, external rotation, and medial-lateral translation were all increased. Moreover, the stress distribution on patellar prostheses was altered, resulting in an increased surface maximal equivalent stress on the corresponding area. Moreover, during the gait cycle, we found that the area with maximal equivalent stress shifted its position. Finally, the patellofemoral joint showed decreased motion stability. From the view of kinematics and mechanics, this paper suggests that patella should be retained during TKA if it is possible. The present study presented approaches and technologies for evaluating kinematics and mechanical properties of total knee joint after TKA under gait loads. PMID:27057134
Patellofemoral pain syndrome is one of the most common orthopaedic complaints presenting to physical therapists. Although its etiology is uncertain, the cause is most often considered to be malalignment or lateral tracking of the patella. Consequently, measurement of patellar alignment has come to be accepted as an integral part of the examination of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Various measurement techniques exist, both clinical and radiological, and these have been frequently used in the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. As a corollary, the widespread use of such measurements has also lent weight to the theory that patellar malalignment is one of the primary causes of patellofemorai pain syndrome. However, an analysis of the literature reveals that the vast majority of these measurement procedures lack the appropriate scientific qualities to be considered acceptable measurement tools, including questionable reliability and validity, and an absence of appropriate normative data and a gold standard. This paper assesses the evidence for the usefulness of the most commonly used measures of patellar alignment and concludes that many of the beliefs of the clinical community with regard to the existence and measurement of patellar malalignment in patellofemoral pain syndrome may be based largely on assumptions and not on evidence.
Mellor, Rebecca; Grimaldi, Alison; Wajswelner, Henry; Hodges, Paul; Abbott, J Haxby; Bennell, Kim; Vicenzino, Bill
Lateral hip pain is common, particularly in females aged 40-60 years. The pain can affect sleep and daily activities, and is frequently recalcitrant. The condition is often diagnosed as trochanteric bursitis, however radiological and surgical studies have revealed that the most common pathology is gluteus medius/minimus tendinopathy. Patients are usually offered three treatment options: (a) corticosteroid injection (CSI), (b) physiotherapy, or (c) reassurance and observation. Research on Achilles and patellar tendons has shown that load modification and exercise appears to be more effective than other treatments for managing tendinopathy, however, it is unclear whether a CSI, or a load modification and exercise-based physiotherapy approach is more effective in gluteal tendinopathy. This randomised controlled trial aims to compare the efficacy on pain and function of a load modification and exercise-based programme with a CSI and a 'wait and see' approach for gluteal tendinopathy. Two hundred one people with gluteal tendinopathy will be randomly allocated into one of three groups: (i) CSI; (ii) physiotherapist-administered load modification and exercise intervention; and (iii) wait and see approach. The CSI therapy will consist of one ultrasound (US) guided CSI around the affected tendons and advice on tendon care. Education about load modification will be delivered in physiotherapy clinics and the exercise programme will be both home-based and supervised. The group allocated the wait and see approach will receive basic tendon care advice and reassurance in a single session by a trial physiotherapist. Outcomes will be evaluated at baseline, 4, 8, 12, 26 and 52 weeks using validated global rating of change, pain and physical function scales, psychological measures, quality of life and physical activity levels. Hip abductor muscle strength will be measured at baseline and 8 weeks. Economic evaluation will be performed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of the
Hansen, Philip; Haraldsson, Bjarki Thor; Aagaard, Per; Kovanen, Vuokko; Avery, Nicholas C; Qvortrup, Klaus; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Krogsgaard, Michael; Kjaer, Michael; Peter Magnusson, S
The human patellar tendon is frequently affected by tendinopathy, but the etiology of the condition is not established, although differential loading of the anterior and posterior tendon may be associated with the condition. We hypothesized that changes in fibril morphology and collagen cross-linking would parallel differences in material strength between the anterior and posterior tendon. Tendon fascicles were obtained from elective ACL surgery patients and tested micromechanically. Transmission electron microscopy was used to assess fibril morphology, and collagen cross-linking was determined by HPLC and calorimetry. Anterior fascicles were markedly stronger (peak stress: 54.3 +/- 21.2 vs. 39.7 +/- 21.3 MPa; P < 0.05) and stiffer (624 +/- 232 vs. 362 +/- 170 MPa; P < 0.01) than posterior fascicles. Notably, mature pyridinium type cross-links were less abundant in anterior fascicles (hydroxylysylpyridinoline: 0.859 +/- 0.197 vs. 1.416 +/- 0.250 mol/mol, P = 0.001; lysylpyridinoline: 0.023 +/- 0.006 vs. 0.035 +/- 0.006 mol/mol, P < 0.01), whereas pentosidine and pyrrole concentrations showed no regional differences. Fibril diameters tended to be larger in anterior fascicles (7.819 +/- 2.168 vs. 4.897 +/- 1.434 nm(2); P = 0.10). Material properties did not appear closely related to cross-linking or fibril morphology. These findings suggest region-specific differences in mechanical, structural, and biochemical properties of the human patellar tendon.
Moatshe, Gilbert; Cram, Tyler R.; Chahla, Jorge; Cinque, Mark E.; Godin, Jonathan A.; LaPrade, Robert F.
Background: Historically, a lateral retinacular release was one of the primary surgical interventions used to treat lateral patellar instability. However, disruption of the lateral structures during this procedure has been associated with medial instability of the patella. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that good to excellent outcomes can be achieved at midterm follow-up after lateral patellotibial ligament reconstruction. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Thirteen patients were treated for medial patellar instability with a lateral patellotibial ligament reconstruction between May 2011 and December 2013 by a single surgeon. All patients had previously undergone a lateral release procedure and had symptomatic medial patellar instability. Patients were evaluated using patient-reported outcome scores at a minimum of 2 years postsurgery. Results: The mean Lysholm score improved from 45.6 (range, 11-76) to 71.9 (range, 30-91). The median preoperative Tegner activity scale score was 3 (range, 1-7), while the median postoperative score was 4 (range, 1-9). The median Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) total score improved from 38 (range, 1-57) preoperatively to 6 postoperatively (range, 0-52). The mean patient satisfaction postoperatively was 8.2 (range, 5-10). Conclusion: Significantly improved outcomes can be achieved at midterm follow-up with a low rate of complications when reconstructing the lateral patellotibial ligament in the setting of iatrogenic medial patellar instability. PMID:28451613
Zhang, Z J; Ng, G Y F; Fu, S N
Tendon mechanical properties are linked to sports performance and tendon-related injuries, such as tendinopathy. Whether habitual loading, such as participation in regular jumping activities, would induce adaptation on tendon mechanical properties remains unclear. Forty healthy subjects (10 sedentary, 15 volleyball players, and 15 basketball players) aged between 18 and 35 years were recruited. Supersonic shearwave imaging was used to measure the shear elastic modulus and thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the proximal patellar tendons of both knees at 30° of flexion. Significant group differences in tendon shear elastic modulus were found among the three groups. In the dominant leg, reduction in tendon shear elastic modulus by 18.9 % (p = 0.018) and 48.7 % (p = 0.000) were observed in the basketball and volleyball players, respectively, when compared with sedentary subjects. In the non-dominant leg, reduction in tendon shear elastic modulus were 27.3 % (p = 0.034) and 47.1 % (p = 0.02) in the basketball and volleyball players, respectively. The athlete groups were found to have larger CSA but with similar tendon thickness than sedentary group. The CSA were larger by 24-29 % and by 22-24 % in the basketball players and volleyball players, for the dominant and non-dominant legs, respectively (all p < 0.05). Age and body mass are related to tendon stiffness and CSA, particularly in the sedentary subjects. The proximal patellar tendon can undergo substantial adaptation on tendon mechanical and morphological properties when exposed in jumping sports. Intrinsic factors such as age and body mass could influence tendon properties.
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Marineo, Gianluca; Khan, Wasim S; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
Pathologies of tendon of the long head of the biceps (LHB) are an important cause of shoulder pain. They include tendinopathy, rupture, superior labrum anterior and posterior lesions, pulley tears, and tendon instability. Conservative management of symptomatic LHB tendinopathy is commonly accepted as the first-line treatment. It consists of rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injections, and physical therapy. Biceps tenotomy and tenodesis are the most common surgical procedures to manage both isolated LHB pathology and biceps-glenoid complex tears combined with rotator cuff tears. However, controversy persists about the superiority of one of them because there is no evidence of significant differences in functional scores or patient satisfaction between the 2 techniques. This article provides an overview on biomechanical function of the LHB and current strategies for treatment of LHB disorders.
van Linschoten, R; den Hoed, P T; de Jongh, A C
--Chronic Achilles tendinopathy in sports often leads to various therapeutic strategies, medical shopping and frequently to inability to perform at the desired level. --Although it is clear that this chronic tendinopathy is not an inflammatory disease of the tendon, the cause of the degeneration of the tendon fibres is not understood. --The main therapeutic measure--based on scientific evidence--is eccentric calf-muscle training for at least 3 months. --Recent therapies such as sclerotherapy ofneovascularizations in and around the Achilles tendon appear to be promising, but more studies are required. --About 20% of the patients tend to be refractive to conservative measures. --In selected cases surgery can be undertaken, with percutaneous longitudinal tenotomy proving effective in 75-80% of the cases.
Jose, Jean; O'Donnell, Kevin; Lesniak, Bryson
Ganglion cysts have been previously described throughout the body, most commonly about the wrist, hand, knee, ankle, and feet. When symptomatic, they may interfere with joint mechanics, resulting in snapping, catching, and locking. Intratendinous ganglion cysts lack a synovial epithelial lining and are thought to develop from the mucoid degeneration of connective tissue caused by chronic irritation, chronic repetitive injury, and chronic ischemia. On magnetic resonance imaging, ganglion cysts originating from tendons, ligaments, tendon sheaths, menisci, or joint capsules appear as well-defined lobulated masses that follow simple or complex fluid signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with enhancing walls and internal septations on post-contrast images. There may be appreciable degeneration and partial tearing of the structure of origin, particularly if associated with tendons. On ultrasonography, they present as hypoechoic masses, with internal septations and lobulations of varying sizes, without significant vascularity on power or color Doppler sampling. A thin fluid neck extending from the structure of origin (tail sign), when present, is a reliable sign of a ganglion cyst. This article describes a sonographically guided technique to treat symptomatic ganglion cysts within the patellar tendon. Complete evacuation of the ganglion cyst, with disappearance of the tail sign, is considered the determining factor for a successful procedure. A similar technique can be used for the treatment of other symptomatic intratendinous ganglion cysts elsewhere in the body. To our knowledge, symptomatic intratendinous ganglion cysts within the patellar tendon and their treatment have not been previously reported.
Schueda, Marco Antonio; Astur, Diego Costa; Bier, Rodrigo Schueda; Bier, Debora Schueda; Astur, Nelson; Cohen, Moisés
The purpose of this research was to identify reliable tomographic measurements that can detect patellofemoral abnormality and allow quantification of the risk of patellar dislocation in patients with potential patellar instability. A cross-sectional study in 921 patients with anterior pain or knee instability of at least 6 months’ duration was conducted from July 2001 to December 2009. All subjects were clinically evaluated and underwent radiography and computed tomography of their knees. According to their degree of dislocating patellar dysplasia, the subjects were classified into groups for statistical comparison. There was a statistically significant difference in all measurements when the groups were compared, except for external tibial torsion angle. The most sensitive and specific measurements for determining patellar instability were the trochlear groove angle, tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance, average patellar tilt, and average patellar height. Patients with potential patellar instability, increased tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance, and patellar height, tilt, and deviation measurements had a greater risk for patellar dislocation. The clinical relevance of this study is to determine measurements that are able to tell us about patellar dislocation risk. PMID:25784822
Schueda, Marco Antonio; Astur, Diego Costa; Bier, Rodrigo Schueda; Bier, Debora Schueda; Astur, Nelson; Cohen, Moisés
The purpose of this research was to identify reliable tomographic measurements that can detect patellofemoral abnormality and allow quantification of the risk of patellar dislocation in patients with potential patellar instability. A cross-sectional study in 921 patients with anterior pain or knee instability of at least 6 months' duration was conducted from July 2001 to December 2009. All subjects were clinically evaluated and underwent radiography and computed tomography of their knees. According to their degree of dislocating patellar dysplasia, the subjects were classified into groups for statistical comparison. There was a statistically significant difference in all measurements when the groups were compared, except for external tibial torsion angle. The most sensitive and specific measurements for determining patellar instability were the trochlear groove angle, tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance, average patellar tilt, and average patellar height. Patients with potential patellar instability, increased tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance, and patellar height, tilt, and deviation measurements had a greater risk for patellar dislocation. The clinical relevance of this study is to determine measurements that are able to tell us about patellar dislocation risk.
Kim, Abraham D; Shah, Vivek M; Scott, Richard D
We evaluated the intraoperative effect of patellar thickness on intraoperative passive knee flexion and patellar tracking during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with preoperative arthrofibrosis and compared them to patients with normal preoperative range of motion (ROM) documented in a prior study. Routine posterior cruciate ligament-retaining TKA was performed in a total of 34 knees, 23 with normal ROM and 11 with arthrofibrosis, defined as ≤100° of passive knee flexion against gravity under anesthesia. Once clinical balance and congruent patellar tracking were established, custom trial patellar components thicker than the standard trial by 2-mm increments (2-8 mm) were sequentially placed and trialed. Passive flexion against gravity was recorded using digital photograph goniometry. Gross mechanics of patellofemoral tracking were visually assessed. On average, passive knee flexion decreased 2° for every 2-mm increment of patellar thickness (P < .0001), which was similar to patients with normal preoperative ROM. In addition, increased patellar thickness had no gross effect on patellar subluxation and tilt in patients with arthrofibrosis as well as those with normal ROM. Patellar thickness had a modest effect on intraoperative passive flexion and no effect on patellar tracking in patients with arthrofibrosis undergoing TKA. There was no marked difference in intraoperative flexion and patellar tracking between patients with arthrofibrosis and patients with normal preoperative ROM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McKie, Shane; Richardson, Paul; Oldham, Jacqueline A.
Background Patellar taping is a common treatment modality for physical therapists managing patellofemoral pain. However, the mechanisms of action remain unclear, with much debate as to whether its efficacy is due to a change in patellar alignment or an alteration in sensory input. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the sensory input hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging when taping was applied to the knee joint during a proprioception task. Design This was an observational study with patellar taping intervention. Methods Eight male volunteers who were healthy and right-leg dominant participated in a motor block design study. Each participant performed 2 right knee extension repetitive movement tasks: one simple and one proprioceptive. These tasks were performed with and without patellar taping and were auditorally paced for 400 seconds at 72 beats/min (1.2 Hz). Results The proprioception task without patellar taping caused a positive blood oxygenation level–dependant (BOLD) response bilaterally in the medial supplementary motor area, the cingulate motor area, the basal ganglion, and the thalamus and medial primary sensory motor cortex. For the proprioception task with patellar taping, there was a decreased BOLD response in these regions. In the lateral primary sensory cortex, there was a negative BOLD response with less activity for the proprioception task with taping. Limitations This study may have been limited by the small sample size, a possible learning effect due to a nonrandom order of tasks, and use of a single-joint knee extension task. Conclusions This study demonstrated that patellar taping modulates brain activity in several areas of the brain during a proprioception knee movement task. PMID:22282771
Yau, Wai-Pan; Wong, Jimmy W K; Chiu, Kwong-Yuen; Ng, Tze-Pui; Tang, Wai-Man
Two hundred thirty-six posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) were performed consecutively. Twenty-seven patellar clunk syndromes were identified in 25 patients. Insall-Salvati ratio, position of joint line, postoperative patellar height, and anterior-posterior position of tibial tray were measured. It was found that postoperative low-lying patella (P<.001) and anterior placement of tibial tray (P=.011) was associated with patellar clunk syndrome. Thirteen patients had bilateral TKAs of the same prosthesis (5 bilateral AMK knees and 8 bilateral Insall Burstein knees) but unilateral patellar clunk syndrome. The nonclunk sides were used as control for comparison with the clunk sides. The congruency and tilting of the patellar button in the skyline view were documented. It was observed that the congruency of the patellar button was less satisfactory in the clunk side (P=.019).
Dierckman, Brian D; Shah, Nirav R; Larose, Connor R; Gerbrandt, Stacey; Getelman, Mark H
(1) Describe a previously unreported finding involving the intra-articular portion of the subscapularis, the Conrad lesion. (2) Describe a novel classification system for the spectrum of non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis. (3) Report the outcomes of surgical treatment of this spectrum of pathology. Outcomes of 34 patients (23 males and 11 females, mean age 60.5 ± 7.5) with non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis treated arthroscopically were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had anterior shoulder pain with no weakness during belly-press testing and no subscapularis footprint involvement on magnetic resonance imaging. All patients were managed with subscapularis tendon debridement and side-to-side repair along with treatment of concomitant pathology. Seven patients had a Type I lesion (so-called Conrad lesion) - a nodule on the leading edge of the subscapularis. Eighteen patients had a Type II lesion - a visible split tear with degeneration in the upper ½ of the intra-articular tendon. Nine patients had a Type III lesion - more extensive splitting in the tendon with advanced tendon degeneration. At a mean follow-up of 24 months, 97% of patients were completely satisfied. Significant improvements were seen in forward elevation (152 ± 12° to 172 ± 5°, P < 0.001) and visual analog scale pain scores (5.9 ± 1.7-0.6 ± 1.0, P < 0.001). Internal rotation strength and external rotation motion at the side were maintained. ASES scores averaged 95.4 ± 7.4, disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand scores averaged 6.19 ± 9.8, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff scores averaged 91.7 ± 9.3 and the average University of California at Los Angeles score was 33.1 ± 2.4. We present a previously unreported finding of the subscapularis, the Conrad lesion, along with a novel classification system for non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis. Arthroscopic treatment of this spectrum of tendinopathy along with concomitant shoulder pathology eliminated
Oliva, Francesco; Via, Alessio Giai; Maffulli, Nicola
Calcific tendinopathy (CT) of the tendons of the rotator cuff is common in white populations, with a reported prevalence varying from 2.7% to 22%, mostly affecting women between 30 and 50 years. Although CT shows a strong tendency toward self-healing by spontaneous resorption of the deposits, it does not always follow this typical pattern. The etiopathogenesis of CT is still unknown. Many pathogenetic theories have been proposed, and clinical associations between CT and diabetes and thyroid disorders have been reported. The choice of therapeutic approach should depend on the evolution of the condition.
Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) is a common musculoskeletal/sports injury. A plethora of physiotherapy techniques has been proposed in the management of LET. The exercise programme is the most common treatment in the management of LET. The optimal protocol of exercise programme is still unknown. The effectiveness of the exercise programme is low when it is applied as monotherapy. Therefore, exercise programme is combined with other physiotherapy modalities such as soft tissue techniques, external support, acupuncture, manual therapy and electrotherapy, in the treatment of LET. Future research is needed to determine which treatment strategy combined with exercise programme will provide the best results in LET rehabilitation. PMID:27622145
Alfredson, Håkan; Cook, J
Achilles tendinopathy affects athletes, recreational exercisers and even inactive people. The pathology is not inflammatory; it is a failed healing response. The source of pain in tendinopathy could be related to the neurovascular ingrowth seen in the tendon's response to injury. The treatment of Achilles tendinopathy is primarily conservative with an array of effective treatment options now available to the primary care practitioner. If conservative treatment is not successful, then surgery relieves pain in the majority of cases. Directing a patient through the algorithm presented here will maximise positive treatment outcomes. PMID:17311806
Sant'Anna, M M S; Apfel, M I R
The purpose of this study was to describe morphologically and quantify the changes of the articular cartilage in chondromalacia, concerning both the chondrocytes and extracellular matrix. Eight rabbits were submitted daily to patellar subluxation, causing chondromalacia after two weeks. The knee fragments obtained were processed by the standard methods. These experimental conditions caused degenerative alterations of the articular cartilage, varying from a slight decrease of proteoglycans, to fibrillations, clefts, and horizontal splitting. The results showed a significantly increase number of chondrocytes (p < 0,000139), although smaller in size (p < 0,000109). The immobilization for 2 weeks and the intermittent passive daily motion afterwards for a period of 2 weeks, was effective to cause patellar chrondomalacia in rabbits.
Basu, Sandip Kanti; Bain, Jayanta; Majumdar, Bijay Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Baitalik, Debasis; Dewangan, Yatindra Kumar; Bhattacharya, Debtanu; Rakshit, Pritha; Gupta, Vivek; Kumar, Ashwani; Haldar, Rathindra Nath
Electrical burn injury causing bilateral patellar ligament destruction leading to complete loss of knee extension is a very rare injury. In such situation, surgical repair or reconstruction of the patellar ligament becomes necessary to restore knee functions. Here, we present such a case of an 8-year-old boy, whose both patellar ligaments were destroyed throughout its length due to high-voltage electrical injury. His left knee joint cavity was exposed and grossly infected, but the right knee joint cavity was apparently intact. The right-sided patellar ligament was reconstructed with an ipsilateral and looped semitendinosus tendon graft and covered with a medial gastrocnemius musculocutaneous flap. The patient had an uneventful recovery, and full range of motion in the right knee joint along with good bipedal locomotion was achieved successfully. PMID:28615820
Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Bashir Shah, Adil; Kamal, Younis
Introduction Patellar dislocation is an emergency. Vertical patellar dislocation is rare, often seen in adolescents and mostly due to sports injuries or high-velocity trauma. Few cases have been reported in the literature. Closed or open reduction under general anesthesia is often needed. We report a case of vertical locked patellar dislocation in a 26-year-old male, which was reduced by a simple closed method under spinal anaesthesia. A literature review regarding the various methods of treatment is also discussed. Case Presentation A 26-year-old male experienced a trivial accident while descending stairs, sustaining patellar dislocation. The closed method of reduction was attempted, using a simple technique. Reduction was confirmed and postoperative rehabilitation was started. Follow-up was uneventful. Conclusions Vertical patellar dislocations are encountered rarely in the emergency department. Adolescents are not the only victims, and high-velocity trauma is not the essential cause. Unnecessary manipulation should be avoided. The closed reduction method is simple, but the surgeon should be prepared for open reduction. PMID:28184358
Penteado, Fernando Travaglini; Faloppa, Flávio; Giusti, Guilherme; Moraes, Vinícius Ynoe; Belloti, João Carlos; dos Santos, João Baptista Gomes
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of high-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy on tendon angiogenesis in the patellar tendons of rabbits. We sought to investigate whether different voltage and number pulses modify the angiogenesis pattern. INTRODUCTION: High-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy is an option in the treatment of orthopedic diseases such as chronic tendonitis. Despite its potential clinical applicability, there have been few studies on this technique that examine both its clinical effectiveness and its effect on angiogenesis. METHODS: High-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy was applied at the tibial insertion of the left patellar ligament in 30 rabbits that were separated into six groups that differed in terms of the voltage and number of pulses that were applied by high-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy. The tibial insertion in the right legs of the animals was used as the control. After six weeks, we performed histological analysis on the region and quantified the number of blood vessels. RESULTS: No significant differences in the number of blood vessels between the left and right patellar tendons were found within groups. Additionally, no significant differences in the number of blood vessels in the left patellar tendons were found between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The application of high-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy did not cause a change in vascularization in the patellar tendon in rabbits. PMID:22179168
Ahn, Jungtae; Kim, Sehun; Lee, Jung-Soo; Woo, Kyungjei; Sung, Ki-Sun
Posterior antiglide plating is widely used to treat lateral malleolar fractures caused by supination-external rotation injuries. Despite its widespread use, this technique can be associated with postoperative peroneal tendinopathy. The purpose of the present observational review was to report the incidence of peroneal tendinopathy after the use of posterior antiglide plating to treat lateral malleolar fractures caused by a supination-external rotation injury. A total of 70 patients were followed up for a minimum of 12 (mean 55, range 12 to 109) months. Bony union was obtained in all cases after a mean of 57 (range 37 to 81) days. The median number of screw holes in the plate was 4.9 (range 4 to 7), and the median number of screws used to fixate the fibula was 6.58 (range 5 to 10). The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot-ankle score at the final follow-up examination was 90.8 (range 55 to 100). Clinically, 3 (4.29%) of the 70 patients had lateral or posterolateral ankle pain indicative of peroneal tendinopathy after the index surgery, without any objective evidence. Of the 70 patients, 41 (58.57%) underwent surgical removal of the fibular hardware, 2 (4.87%) because of lateral ankle discomfort. At removal, inspection of the peroneal tendon sheath and/or tendons showed no gross evidence of tendinopathy in any of the patients. We concluded that the incidence of clinically evident peroneal tendon symptoms associated with posterior antiglide plating is low (4.3%), and direct operative inspection revealed no gross evidence of tendinopathy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oliva, Francesco; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Berardi, Anna C; Frizziero, Antonio; Tarantino, Umberto; Maffulli, Nicola
Tendinopathies negatively affect the quality of life of millions of people, but we still do not know the factors involved in the development of tendon conditions. Published articles in English in PubMed and Google Scholar up to June 2015 about hormonal influence on tendinopathies onset. One hundred and two papers were included following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In vitro and in vivo, tenocytes showed changes in their morphology and in their functional properties according to hormonal imbalances. Genetic pattern, sex, age and comorbidities can influence the hormonal effect on tendons. The increasing prevalence of metabolic disorders prompts to investigate the possible connection between metabolic problems and musculoskeletal diseases. The influence of hormones on tendon structure and metabolism needs to be further investigated. If found to be significant, multidisciplinary preventive and therapeutic strategies should then be developed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Hermer, J V; Bush, M A; Whiting, C; Langley-Hobbs, S J
Two kittens aged between four and five months were presented having sustained patellar fractures. In both cases, healing was subsequently documented radiographically; this has not been reported previously in the literature. One kitten had bilateral patellar fractures - the symptomatic right stifle was treated with a pin and tension-band-wire which later failed, at which point partial patellectomy was performed. The fracture of the left patella was minimally displaced and was treated conservatively. A radiograph of the left patella taken eleven months after initial presentation showed complete healing of the fracture. The second case was treated surgically with a circumferential wire; healing of the fracture was demonstrated radiographically at twelve weeks postoperatively. Radiographic images taken five weeks postoperatively had shown some narrowing of the fracture gap. These two cases demonstrate that bony union of patellar fractures can be documented, given a long enough duration of radiographic follow-up; circumferential wire was an effective treatment in a displaced fracture, and conservative treatment resulted in complete healing of a minimally displaced fracture.
Gluteal tendinopathies have become significantly better understood over the past few years, primarily due to the work of Alison Grimaldi and her research associates. This brief summary highlights some key points of their work and some exercise suggestions for treatment.
Rineer, Craig A; Ruch, David S
Lateral and medial epicondylitis are common causes of elbow pain in the general population, with the lateral variety being more common than the medial by a ratio reportedly ranging from 4:1 to 7:1. Initially thought to be an inflammatory condition, epicondylitis has ultimately been shown to result from tendinous microtearing followed by an incomplete reparative response. Numerous nonoperative and operative treatment options have been employed in the treatment of epicondylitis, without the emergence of a single, consistent, universally accepted treatment protocol. Tendon ruptures about the elbow are much less frequent, but result in more significant disability and loss of function. Distal biceps tendon ruptures typically occur in middle-aged males as a result of an event that causes a sudden, eccentric contraction of the biceps. Triceps tendon ruptures are exceedingly rare but usually have a similar etiology with a forceful eccentric contraction of the triceps that causes avulsion of the tendon from the olecranon. The diagnosis of these injuries is not always readily made. Complete ruptures of the biceps or triceps tendons have traditionally been treated surgically with good results. With regard to biceps ruptures, there continues to be debate about the best surgical approach, as well as the best method of fixation of tendon to bone. This article is not meant to be an exhaustive review of the broad topics of elbow tendinopathy and tendon ruptures, but rather is a review of recently published information on the topics that will assist the clinician in diagnosis and management of these conditions.
Ruiz Santiago, Fernando; Pozuelo Calvo, Rocío; Almansa López, Julio; Guzmán Álvarez, Luis; Castellano García, María Del Mar
To study the correlation between the T2 relaxation times of the patellar cartilage and morphological MRI findings of chondromalacia. This prospective study comprises 50 patients, 27 men and 23 women suffering of anterior knee pain (mean age: 29.7, SD 8.3 years; range: 16-45 years). MRI of 97 knees were performed in these patients at 1.5T magnet including sagittal T1, coronal intermediate, axial intermediate fat sat and T2 mapping. Chondromalacia was assessed using a modified version of Noyes classification. The relaxation time, T2, was studied segmenting the full thickness of the patellar cartilage in 12 areas: 4 proximal (external facet-proximal-lateral (EPL), external facet-proximal-central (EPC), internal facet-proximal-central (IPC), internal facet-proximal-medial (IPM), 4 in the middle section (external facet-middle-lateral (EML), external facet-middle-central (EMC), internal facet-middle-central (IMC), internal facet-middle-medial (IMM) and 4 distal (external facet-distal-lateral (EDL), external facet-distal-central (EDC), internal facet-distal-central (IDC), internal facet-distal-medial (IDM). T2 values showed a significant increase in mild chondromalacia regarding normal cartilage in most of the cartilage areas (p<0.05), except in the internal distal facet (IDC and IDM), EPC, EDL, and IMM. Severe chondromalacia was characterized by a fall of T2 relaxation times with loss of statistical significant differences in comparison with normal cartilage, except in EMC and IMC, where similar values as mild chondromalacia were maintained (p<0.05). Steepest increase in T2 values of patellar cartilage occurs in early stages of patellar cartilage degeneration. Progression of morphologic changes of chondromalacia to more severe degrees is associated to a new drop of T2 relaxation times approaching basal values in most of the areas of the patellar cartilage, except in the central area of the middle section, where T2 values remain increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier
Tompra, Nefeli; van Dieën, Jaap H; Coppieters, Michel W
Tendinopathy is often a chronic condition. The mechanisms behind persistent tendon pain are not yet fully understood. It is unknown whether, similar to other persistent pain states, central pain mechanisms contribute to ongoing tendon pain. We investigated the presence of altered central pain processing in Achilles tendinopathy by assessing the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) effect in people with and without Achilles tendinopathy. 20 people with Achilles tendinopathy and 23 healthy volunteers participated in this cross-sectional study. CPM was assessed by the cold pressor test. The pressure pain threshold (PPT) was recorded over the Achilles tendon before and during immersion of the participant's hand into cold water. The CPM effect was quantified as the absolute difference in PPT before and during the cold pressor test. An increase in PPT was observed in the Achilles tendinopathy and control group during the cold pressor test (p<0.001). However, the CPM effect was stronger in the control group (mean difference=160.5 kPa, SD=84.9 kPa) compared to the Achilles tendinopathy group (mean difference=36.4 kPa, SD=68.1 kPa; p<0.001). We report a reduced conditioned pain modulation effect in people with Achilles tendinopathy compared to people without Achilles tendinopathy. A reduced conditioned pain modulation effect reflects altered central pain processing which is believed to contribute to the persistence of pain in other conditions. Altered central pain processing may also be an important factor in persistent tendon pain that has traditionally been regarded to be dominated by peripheral mechanisms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Kaleagasioglu, Ferda; Olcay, Ercan
Tendinopathy is a serious health problem and its etiology is not fully elucidated. Among intrinsic and extrinsic predisposing factors of tendinopathy, the impact of therapeutic agents, especially fluoroquinolone (FQ) group antibiotics, is recently being recognized. FQs are potent bactericidal agents widely used in various infectious diseases, including community acquired pneumonia and bronchitis, chronic osteomyelitis, traveler's diarrhea, typhoid fever, shigellosis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea and prophylaxis of anthrax. FQs have an acceptable tolerability range. However, many lines of evidence for developing tendinitis and tendon rupture during FQ use have resulted in the addition of a warning in patient information leaflets. FQ-induced tendinopathy presents a challenge for the clinician because healing response is poor due to low metabolic rate in mature tendon tissue and tendinopathy is more likely to develop in patients who are already at high risk, such as elderly, solid organ transplant recipients and concomitant corticosteroid users. FQs become photo-activated under exposure to ultraviolet light, and this process results in formation and accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The subsequent FQ-related oxidative stress disturbs mitochondrial functions, leading to apoptosis. ROS overproduction also has direct cytotoxic effects on extracellular matrix components. Understanding the mechanisms of the FQ-associated tendinopathy may enable designing safer therapeutic strategies, hence optimization of clinical response. In this review, we evaluate multi-factorial etiology of the FQ-induced tendinopathy and discuss proposed preventive measures such as antioxidant use and protection from natural sunlight and artificial ultraviolet exposure.
Sringari, T; Maheswaran, S S
Patellar clunk syndrome is characterised by the formation of a fibrous nodule at the articular side of junction of superior pole of patella and the quadriceps tendon. Until now, it is only described in posterior cruciate substituting total knee replacements. We report the patellar clunk syndrome in a lady with patellofemoral joint replacement.
Kurtul Yildiz, Hülya; Ekin, Elif Evrim
The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFLL)/lateral patellar retinaculum (LPR) ratio were assessed in knees as a means to detect patellar malalignment. We also aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the various types of trochlear dysplasia in patients with patellar malalignment. After approval of our institutional ethics committee, we conducted a retrospective study that included 450 consecutive patients to evaluate them for the presence of patellar malalignment. Parameters investigated were the trochlear type, sulcus angle, presence of a supratrochlear spur, MPFLL, LPR, patella alta, and patella baja by means of 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Overall, 133 patients were excluded because of the presence of major trauma, multiple ligament injuries, bipartite patella, and/or previous knee surgery. The Dejour classification was used to assess trochlear dysplasia. Two experienced radiologists (HKY, EEE) evaluated the images. Their concordance was assessed using the kappa (κ) test. The frequencies of patellar malalignment and trochlear dysplasia were 34.7 and 63.7 %, respectively. The frequency of trochlear dysplasia associated with patellar malalignment was 97.2 %. An MPFLL/LPR ratio of 1.033-1.041 had high sensitivity and specificity for malalignment. The researchers' concordance was good (κ = 0.89, SE = 0.034, P < 0.001). Trochlear dysplasia is frequently associated with patellar malalignment. An increased MPFLL/LPR ratio is useful for detecting patellar malalignment on knee MRI, which is a novel quantitative method based on ligament length.
Kim, SungJoong; Yu, JaeHo
This study aimed to clarify the mechanical gait changes caused by achilles tendinopathy by comparing gait parameters and changes in hip, knee, and ankle moments between an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). Twenty runners with achilles tendinopathy were included in the EG (male/female: 10/10, age: 27.00 ± 4.63), and 20 CG (male/female: 10/10, age: 27.25 ± 4.33) participants were recruited. Subjects walked a 13-m distance at their normal walking speed 5 times to obtain motion analysis and joint moment data. Gait parameter analysis showed significant differences in double-limb support (EG: 22.65 ± 4.26%, CG: 20.37 ± 4.46%), step length (EG: 0.58 ± 0.0 7m, CG: 0.64 ± 0.08 m), step width (EG: 0.16 ± 0.04 m, CG: 0.14 ± 0.05 m), stride time (EG: 1.09 ± 0.10 second, CG: 1.05 ± 0.08 second), and walking speed (EG: 1.09±0.18 m·s-1, CG: 1.23 ± 0.17 m·s-1) between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). Significant differences were found in hip joint moment for initial contact, mid-stance, terminal stance, and pre-swing phases; knee joint moment for initial contact and pre-swing phases; and ankle joint moment for pre-swing and terminal swing phases (p < 0.05). Gait parameters and hip, knee, and ankle moments were altered in runners with achilles tendinopathy. Thus, clinical features of gait changes should be understood for optimal treatment of achilles tendinopathy; further research is required in this field. Key points A reduction in gait parameters, namely, step length, stride length, and walking speed, and an increase in double-limb support occurs in runners with achilles tendinopathy. A reduction in the hip extension moment occurs during the initial contact, as well as a reduction in the knee flexion moment from the mid-stance to pre-swing phases, a continuous decrease in the knee flexion moment from the early stance phase, and a reduction in the extension moment during the terminal stance phase. A reduction in the ankle plantar flexion moment occurs from
Bucher, Thomas A.; Ebert, Jay R.; Smith, Anne; Breidahl, William; Fallon, Michael; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Ming-Hao; Janes, Gregory C.
Background: Gluteal tendinopathy is a common cause of lateral hip pain, and existing conservative treatment modalities demonstrate high symptom recurrence rates. Autologous tenocyte injection (ATI) is a promising cell therapy that may be useful for the treatment of gluteal tendinopathy. Purpose: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of ATI, specifically in patients with chronic recalcitrant gluteal tendinopathy. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Twelve female patients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of gluteal tendinopathy were recruited. Patients demonstrated a mean duration of symptoms of 33 months (range, 6-144 months), had undergone a mean 3.2 prior corticosteroid injections (range, 2-5), and had failed to respond to existing conservative treatments including physiotherapy and injections. In an initial procedure, tendon cells were harvested from a needle biopsy of the patella tendon and propagated in a certified Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratory. In a secondary procedure, a single injection of 2 mL autologous tenocytes (2-5 × 106 cells/mL) suspended in patient serum was injected into the site of the pathological gluteal tendons under ultrasound guidance. Patients were assessed pre- and postinjection (3, 6, 12, and 24 months) using the Oxford Hip Score (OHS), a visual analog pain scale (VAS), the Short Form–36 (SF-36), and a satisfaction scale. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken at 8.7 months (range, 6-12 months) postinjection. Results: Molecular characterization of autologous tendon cells showed a profile of growth factor production in all cases, including platelet-derived growth factor α, fibroblast growth factor β, and transforming growth factor β. The OHS (mean, 24.0 preinjection to 38.9 at 12 months [14.9-point improvement]; 95% CI, 10.6-19.2; P < .001), VAS (mean, 7.2 preinjection to 3.1 at 12 months [4.1-point improvement]; 95% CI, 2.6-5.6; P < .001), and SF-36 (mean, 28.1 preinjection
Anglin, Carolyn; Brimacombe, Jill M; Wilson, David R; Masri, Bassam A; Greidanus, Nelson V; Tonetti, Jérôme; Hodgson, Antony J
The optimal amount of patellar component medialization in knee arthroplasty is unknown. We measured the impact, on patellofemoral kinematics and contact force distribution, of 0.0-, 2.5-, and 5.0-mm patellar component medialization in 7 cadaveric specimens implanted with knee arthroplasty components. The knees were flexed dynamically in a weight-bearing rig. Medialization led to lateral shift of the patellar bone, slight medial shift of the patellar component in the femoral groove, lateral tilt of the patella, reduced patellofemoral contact force in later flexion, and lateral shift of the center of pressure in early flexion. Effects on shift and tilt were proportional to the amount of medialization. As a result of this investigation, we recommend medializing the patellar component slightly-on the order of 2.5 mm. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grelsamer, Ronald P; Weinstein, Craig H; Gould, Jason; Dubey, Ashok
Patella malalignment is a recognized cause of knee pain, tilt being one of its more common forms. Although patellar tilt has been described both on the physical examination and on computerized imaging, to date the correlation between the two has not been established. A strong correlation would strengthen the value of each. Moreover, in situations where tilt cannot be clinically assessed (e.g. obesity), CT or MR imaging could be an adequate substitute for the clinical determination of tilt. We propose to correlate the physical examination with the magnetic resonance examination by way of an MR Tilt Angle. This angle is measured in a manner similar to the assessment of tilt on the physical examination, in that a line is drawn across the medial and lateral borders of the patella and referenced off the posterior femoral condyles. Most tilt angles use the slope of the lateral facet as a measure of tilt. These tilt angles paradoxically diminish as patellar tilt increases, a potential source of confusion. In this study, we use an MRI tilt angle that increases in the same direction as the actual tilt, which is more intuitive. We examined 30 patients with tilt and 51 patients without tilt. Patients with significant tilt on the physical examination can be expected to have an MRI Tilt Angle that is 10 degrees or greater whereas an angle of less than 10 degrees is associated with the absence of significant tilt on the physical examination. This MRI Tilt Angle fills the need for an easy, objective, intuitive measure of tilt and is an excellent adjunct to the physical examination.
Carlson, Victor R.; Boden, Barry P.; Shen, Aricia; Jackson, Jennifer N.; Alter, Katharine E.; Sheehan, Frances T.
Background: Patellofemoral pain is one of the most common conditions seen in sports medicine practices, particularly among adolescent females. However, the natural history of the underlying pathology in patellofemoral pain during puberty remains poorly understood. Purpose: The purpose of this longitudinal study is to assess changes in patellar maltracking patterns in subjects with patellofemoral pain as they mature from mid- to late adolescence. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Three-dimensional patellofemoral kinematic data were acquired during active knee extension-flexion using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in 6 girls (10 knees; mean age, 14.0 years) with clinically diagnosed patellofemoral pain. The subjects then returned as late adolescents (mean age, 18.5 years) for follow-up scanning. Three-dimensional patellofemoral kinematic parameters were evaluated across the range of motion, but comparison between time points was restricted to 10° of flexion. Participation in impact and nonimpact physical activities, pain score based on the visual analog scale, and the anterior knee pain score were also compared across initial and follow-up visits. Results: All subjects reported improved patellofemoral pain symptoms at follow-up, and one subject reported complete resolution. However, relative to the initial visit, no differences were found in patellar maltracking. There was a decrease in hours engaged in impact physical activities for all subjects at follow-up. Conclusion: This study provides insight into the natural history of patellofemoral pain in adolescent females. The relatively unchanged patellofemoral maltracking across subjects suggests that potential anatomic and kinematic abnormalities contributing to patellofemoral pain during mid-adolescence persist during skeletal maturation. Symptom improvement for these subjects did not result from a change in patellofemoral tracking, but rather from other causes. PMID:28210658
Doucette, S A; Child, D D
There are numerous rehabilitation protocols for patellofemoral problems, but there is little objective data to determine the most effective exercise program to conservatively treat this disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of open and closed chain exercise and knee joint position on patellar tracking in lateral patellar compression syndrome. Computed tomography scans of the patellofemoral joint were performed with the leg in three muscle conditions and at five knee angles in 16 subjects with lateral patellar compression syndrome. Patellar tracking was evaluated by measuring congruence angle. Relaxed and closed chain conditions demonstrated improved congruence as compared with the open chain condition at 0, 10, and 20 degrees of knee flexion (p < .0001). Open chain strengthening techniques appear to be most appropriate after 30 degrees of knee flexion. The three muscle conditions demonstrated progressively improved patellar congruence from 0 to 40 degrees of knee flexion.
Cerciello, Simone; Vasso, Michele; Corona, Katia; Del Regno, Chiara; Panni, Alfredo Schiavone
The efficacy of medial capsule reefing in the treatment of patellar instability is well documented. Aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the outcomes of an all-arthroscopic medial capsule reefing technique in young patients with painful patella syndrome and potential patellar instability. Thirty patients with painful patellar syndrome and potential patellar instability having undergone a minimum of 6 months of intensive rehabilitation were enrolled in the present study. All subjects were evaluated with physical examination, clinical and functional outcomes and complete imaging study. All patients were reviewed at an intermediate follow-up of 72 months. Average Kujala score improved from 72.9±15.0 to 88.4±7.6 (p<0.0001), average Larsen score from 15.0±2.5 to 17.2±2.2 (p<0.002), average Lysholm from 63.8±16.7 to 87.9±11.7 (p<0.0001) and average Fulkerson score from 69.5±21.5 to 90.8±9.8 (p<0.0001). No intraoperative or postoperative complications were recorded. Ninety per cent of patients were very satisfied or satisfied with their functional result. Twenty-eight patients were reviewed at the final follow-up, 120 months after surgery. Average Kujala was 87.7±8.8 (p<0.0001), average Larsen was 16.8±2.7 (p<0.01), average Lysholm was 87.6±14.3 (p<0.0001), and average Fulkerson was 87.2±13.9 (p<0.0001). Almost 86% of patients were very satisfied or satisfied with their result. However, slight deterioration of the outcomes over time was observed. At the final follow-up, the outcomes of all-arthroscopic technique were significantly improved from preoperative values; however, they were slightly inferior at the 72 months follow-up. This slight deterioration of the outcomes may be the consequence of the reduction in physical activities. Case series, Level IV.
Zajonz, D; Schumann, E; Wojan, M; Moche, M; Heyde, C-E
This article presents the rare case of a boy who was born in our hospital with valgus deformity and external rotation of the right lower leg because of congenital patellar dislocation. In the case presented a stable repositioning of the patella could be achieved by redressment with a plaster cast and leg brace. During a 4-year follow-up there were no tendencies towards dislocation during the clinical examination and no dislocation events were documented. In selected cases an attempt at conservative repositioning and retention treatment appears to be worthwhile before surgical treatment is indicated.
Lempainen, Lasse; Johansson, Kristian; Banke, Ingo J.; Ranne, Juha; Mäkelä, Keijo; Sarimo, Janne; Niemi, Pekka; Orava, Sakari
Summary Background: proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) is a disabilitating disease often causing underperformance in the athletically demanding patients. The main symptom of PHT is lower gluteal pain especially during running or while prolonged sitting. Mainly affecting athletically active individuals, PHT is a considerable challenge for treating health care professionals. Purpose: this paper aims to concisely present the literature on PHT to guide health care professionals treating these patients and doing research on the subject. Methods: we reviewed the literature on PHT through literature search of scientific journal databases. Conclusions: as a tendinopathic pathology, it is a rather recently discovered exertion injury. As with other chronic tendon overuse injuries, current treatment strategies are unspecific with uncertain outcomes due to the unknown etiology of the tendon degeneration. Diagnostic features as well as both operative and non-operative treatments are evaluated from a clinical perspective, providing up to date information for clinicians and sports medicine therapists dealing with hamstring problems. Level of evidence: V. PMID:25878983
Keshmiri, Armin; Maderbacher, Günther; Baier, Clemens; Müller, Werner; Grifka, Joachim; Springorum, Hans Robert
Despite different surgical patellar interventions, the decision how to treat the patella during TKA remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of different reconstructive patellar interventions on patellar kinematics during TKA using optical computer navigation. We implanted ten navigated TKAs in full body specimens. During passive motion, the effect of different surgical patellar interventions on patellar kinematics was analysed. A contrarily tilt behaviour was observed in the TKA group without patellar intervention compared to the natural knee. Lateral release led to similar tilt values (P < 0.05). All surgical interventions led to a 3 to 5mm medial shift of the patella (P < 0.05). None of the analysed surgical patellar interventions could restore natural patellar kinematics after TKA.
Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Sereysky, Jedd B; Sun, Hui B; Jepsen, Karl J; Flatow, Evan L
Accumulation of sub-rupture fatigue damage has been implicated in the development of tendinopathy. We previously developed an in vivo model of damage accumulation using the rat patellar tendon. Our model allows us to control the input loading parameters to induce fatigue damage in the tendon. Despite this precise control, the resulting induced damage could vary among animals because of differences in size or strength among their patellar tendons. In this study, we used number of applied cycles and initial (day-0) parameters that are indicative of induced damage to assess the molecular response 7 days after fatigue loading. We hypothesized that day-0 hysteresis, elongation, and stiffness of the loading and unloading load-displacement curves would be predictive of the 7-day molecular response. Results showed correlations between the 7-day molecular response and both day-0 elongation and unloading stiffness. Additionally, loading resulted in upregulation of several extracellular matrix genes that suggest adaptation; however, several of these genes (Col-I, -XII, MMP 2, and TIMP 3) shut down after a high level of damage was induced. We showed that evaluating the 7-day molecular profile in light of day-0 elongation provides important insight that is lost from comparing number of fatigue loading cycles only. Our data showed that loading generally results in an adaptive response. However, the tendon's ability to effectively respond deteriorates as greater damage is induced.
Tham, Lai Kuan; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Lim, Kheng Seang
Reflex assessment, an essential element in the investigation of the motor system, is currently assessed through qualitative description, which lacks of normal values in the healthy population. This study quantified the amplitude and latency of patellar tendon reflex in normal subjects using motion analysis to determine the factors affecting the reflex amplitude. 100 healthy volunteers were recruited for patellar tendon reflex assessments which were recorded using a motion analysis system. Different levels of input strength were exerted during the experiments. A linear relationship was found between reflex input and reflex amplitude (r = 0.50, P <0.001). The left knee was found to exhibit 26.3% higher reflex amplitude than the right (P <0.001). The Jendrassik manoeuvre significantly increased reflex amplitude by 34.3% (P = 0.001); the effect was especially prominent in subjects with weak reflex response. Reflex latency normality data were established, which showed a gradual reduction with increasing input strength. The quantitative normality data and findings showed that the present method has great potential to objectively quantify deep tendon reflexes. Analyse du mouvement du réflexe rotulien normal.
Hawks, Matthew Kendall
Background: Achilles tendinopathy is a common injury for active patient populations and is challenging to treat. Acupuncture tendon-based therapy was first described in the Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine. In modern times, specific techniques have been described poorly in the literature. The aim of this case report is to describe a new technique of acupuncture for the treatment of Achilles tendinopathy and provide 2 illustrative cases. Cases: Treatments for the 2 patients were performed in a deployed military treatment facility. SERIN® 0.25 mm × 40 mm needles placed at BL 60, BL 61, KI 3, and KI 4, with needles directed into the Achilles tendon of each patient. Needles were inserted until a firm catch of the needle entering the tendon was discerned. Energy was placed from KI 3(-) → KI 4(+) and BL61 (-) → BL 60(+) at 30 Hz for 15 minutes. Results: Both patients reported symptomatic reduction in Achilles tendinopathy pain and functional improvement following the described treatments. Conclusions: This case series describes two cases of successful Achilles tendinopathy therapy using direct tendon needle insertion with electrostimulation. This novel technique may provide an effective adjunct to traditional therapies in the treatment of Achilles tendinopathy.
Abstract Background: Achilles tendinopathy is a common injury for active patient populations and is challenging to treat. Acupuncture tendon–based therapy was first described in the Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine. In modern times, specific techniques have been described poorly in the literature. The aim of this case report is to describe a new technique of acupuncture for the treatment of Achilles tendinopathy and provide 2 illustrative cases. Cases: Treatments for the 2 patients were performed in a deployed military treatment facility. SERIN® 0.25 mm × 40 mm needles placed at BL 60, BL 61, KI 3, and KI 4, with needles directed into the Achilles tendon of each patient. Needles were inserted until a firm catch of the needle entering the tendon was discerned. Energy was placed from KI 3(–) → KI 4(+) and BL61 (–) → BL 60(+) at 30 Hz for 15 minutes. Results: Both patients reported symptomatic reduction in Achilles tendinopathy pain and functional improvement following the described treatments. Conclusions: This case series describes two cases of successful Achilles tendinopathy therapy using direct tendon needle insertion with electrostimulation. This novel technique may provide an effective adjunct to traditional therapies in the treatment of Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:28736593
Our understanding of the pathogenesis of "tendinopathy" is based on fragmented evidences like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. We propose a "failed healing theory" to knit these fragments together, which can explain previous observations. We also propose that albeit "overuse injury" and other insidious "micro trauma" may well be primary triggers of the process, "tendinopathy" is not an "overuse injury" per se. The typical clinical, histological and biochemical presentation relates to a localized chronic pain condition which may lead to tendon rupture, the latter attributed to mechanical weakness. Characterization of pathological "tendinotic" tissues revealed coexistence of collagenolytic injuries and an active healing process, focal hypervascularity and tissue metaplasia. These observations suggest a failed healing process as response to a triggering injury. The pathogenesis of tendinopathy can be described as a three stage process: injury, failed healing and clinical presentation. It is likely that some of these "initial injuries" heal well and we speculate that predisposing intrinsic or extrinsic factors may be involved. The injury stage involves a progressive collagenolytic tendon injury. The failed healing stage mainly refers to prolonged activation and failed resolution of the normal healing process. Finally, the matrix disturbances, increased focal vascularity and abnormal cytokine profiles contribute to the clinical presentations of chronic tendon pain or rupture. With this integrative pathogenesis theory, we can relate the known manifestations of tendinopathy and point to the "missing links". This model may guide future research on tendinopathy, until we could ultimately decipher the complete pathogenesis process and provide better treatments. PMID:21144004
Introduction We have previously found an increased mast cell density in tendon biopsies from patients with patellar tendinopathy compared to controls. This study examined the influence of mast cells on basic tenocyte functions, including production of the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), extracellular matrix remodeling and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene transcription, and collagen synthesis. Methods Primary human tenocytes were stimulated with an established human mast cell line (HMC-1). Extracellular matrix remodeling was studied by culturing tenocytes in a three-dimensional collagen lattice. Survival/proliferation was assessed with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium salt (MTS) assay. Levels of mRNA for COX-2, COL1A1, MMP1, and MMP7 were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Cox-2 protein level was assessed by Western blot analysis and type I procollagen was detected by immunofluorescent staining. PGE2 levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Mast cells stimulated tenocytes to produce increased levels of COX-2 and the pro-inflammatory mediator PGE2, which in turn decreased COL1A1 mRNA expression. Additionally, mast cells reduced the type I procollagen protein levels produced by tenocytes. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was responsible for the induction of Cox-2 and PGE2 by tenocytes. Mast cells increased MMP1 and MMP7 transcription and increased the contraction of a three-dimensional collagen lattice by tenocytes, a phenomenon which was blocked by a pan-MMP inhibitor (Batimastat). Conclusion Our data demonstrate that mast cell-derived PGE2 reduces collagen synthesis and enhances expression and activities of MMPs in human tenocytes. PMID:24517261
Abramov, Michael; Stock, Harlan
Lateral patellar dislocation is a common injury occurring in young active adults. The mechanism is that of twisting injury to the knee on a planted foot with valgus stress. Several predisposing factors, including femoral trochlear dysplasia, patella alta, and lateralization of the tibial tuberosity, contribute to patellar instability and lateral patellar dislocation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the knee is the modality of choice to evaluate underlying bone contusion patterns, associated soft-tissue injuries, and additional complex ligamentous and osteochondral injuries, many of which are not apparent on conventional radiographs.
Pretz, Rachelle; Brown, Cora; Hughes, William B; Altschuler, Eric L
Injury to the foot and ankle without involvement of the knee, requiring a patient to become non-weight-bearing or even needing amputation, is a common problem resulting from diverse causes, including diabetic foot ulcers and trauma. The patellar tendon bearing orthosis may be a good option for patients who would functionally deteriorate, attempting to live their lives without the use of a leg. This brace was introduced 58 years ago; however, it is under-utilized clinically and under-represented in the literature. A 25-year-old man with severe electrical burn injuries resulting in an unstable ankle who, through the use of patellar tendon bearing orthosis and therapeutic rehabilitation, was able to walk at a supervision level without additional assistive devices. The patellar tendon bearing orthosis is recommended, not only for other burn patients who are unable to weight-bear through their ankle-foot complex, but for other patients, such as trauma patients, to allow for ambulation.
Xue, Zichao; Qin, Hui; Ding, Haoliang; Xu, Haitao; An, Zhiquan
Background Failed patellar fracture fixation is rare, and is usually attributed to technical errors. There are no specific details available on how to address this problem. We present our two-tension-band technique for fixing patellar fractures. Material/Methods Between March 2010 and March 2013, 4 men and 2 women with failed fixation patellar fractures were treated in our department. Their average age was 34 years (range 23–49 years). The initial fracture type was C1 in 3, C2 in 1, and C3 in 2, according to the AO classification. The initial fracture patterns included 3 transverse and 3 comminuted fractures. There were no open fractures. All patients underwent internal fixation with a modified anterior tension band (MATB) supplemented with cerclage wiring. All failures were caused by tension bands sliding past the tip of the Kirschner wires. The mean time between the primary and revision operations was 16.2 months (range 2–63 months). We revised the fractures by two-separate-tension-band technique. Results The mean follow-up was 52 months (range 31–67 months). All patients healed radiographically without complications at an average of 14.7 weeks (range 8–20 weeks). The Bostman knee score was excellent in 3 and good in 3. All patients regained full extension and the mean range of flexion was 147.5° (135–155°). Conclusions Use of this two-tension-band technique can avoid technical errors and provide more secure fixation. We recommend it for both primary and revision surgery of patellar fractures. PMID:27485104
Munteanu, Shannon E; Landorf, Karl B; Menz, Hylton B; Cook, Jill L; Pizzari, Tania; Scott, Lisa A
Background Achilles tendinopathy is a common condition that can cause marked pain and disability. Numerous non-surgical treatments have been proposed for the treatment of this condition, but many of these treatments have a poor or non-existent evidence base. The exception to this is eccentric calf muscle exercises, which have become a standard non-surgical intervention for Achilles tendinopathy. Foot orthoses have also been advocated as a treatment for Achilles tendinopathy, but the long-term efficacy of foot orthoses for this condition is unknown. This manuscript describes the design of a randomised trial to evaluate the efficacy of customised foot orthoses to reduce pain and improve function in people with Achilles tendinopathy. Methods One hundred and forty community-dwelling men and women aged 18 to 55 years with Achilles tendinopathy (who satisfy inclusion and exclusion criteria) will be recruited. Participants will be randomised, using a computer-generated random number sequence, to either a control group (sham foot orthoses made from compressible ethylene vinyl acetate foam) or an experimental group (customised foot orthoses made from semi-rigid polypropylene). Both groups will be prescribed a calf muscle eccentric exercise program, however, the primary difference between the groups will be that the experimental group receive customised foot orthoses, while the control group receive sham foot orthoses. The participants will be instructed to perform eccentric exercises 2 times per day, 7 days per week, for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure will be the total score of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment - Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire. The secondary outcome measures will be participant perception of treatment effect, comfort of the foot orthoses, use of co-interventions, frequency and severity of adverse events, level of physical activity and health-related quality of life (assessed using the Short-Form-36 questionnaire - Version two). Data will
Jones, Kristofer J.; Lazaro, Lionel E.; Taylor, Samuel; Pardee, Nadine C.; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Hannafin, Jo A.; Warren, Russell F.; Lorich, Dean G.
Objectives: Bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft remains a favored graft source for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction despite problems related to donor-site morbidity. Patellar devascularization has been proposed as a source of anterior knee pain following vascular disruption from traumatic injury (fracture) or surgical procedures involving the patella (total knee arthroplasty); however, no study has investigated the effect of BPTB harvest on patellar vascularity. Recent anatomic studies have suggested that the dominant arterial supply enters the patella through the inferior pole. We hypothesized that BPTB harvest can significantly diminish patellar vascularity following graft harvest. Methods: Nine matched pair cadaveric knee specimens (mean age 47.4 years) were dissected and cannulated at the superficial femoral, anterior tibialis, and posterior tibialis arteries. A single knee was randomly selected to undergo bone graft harvest. The contralateral knee was left intact to serve as a control. Gadolinium (Gd-DPTA) was injected into each knee and MRI signal enhancement was quantified to determine differences in osseous uptake between the two knees. Following MRI assessment, each matched pair was injected with a urethane polymer compound and dissected to correlate vessel disruption with MRI findings. Results: Graft harvest resulted in a mean 31% (range, 7.1-69.5%) decrease in signal enhancement when compared to the matched control. MRI assessment revealed two predominant patterns of vessel entry for the dominant inferior arterial supply. In one pattern, the vessel entered the inferomedial aspect (∼7 o’clock) of the distal patellar pole and was disrupted by bone graft harvest in two matched pairs (2/9, 22%). In the second pattern, the predominant vessel entered further medial (∼8 o’clock) and was not disrupted in 7 matched pairs. The mean decrease in gadolinium uptake following disruption of the predominant vessel measured 56% (range, 42
Munch, Jacqueline L; Sullivan, Jaron P; Nguyen, Joseph T; Mintz, Douglas; Green, Daniel W; Shubin Stein, Beth E; Strickland, Sabrina
Patella alta describes an abnormally high-riding patella in relationship to the femur and has been shown to correlate with patellofemoral pain, instability, chondromalacia, and arthrosis. Conventional measurements of patella alta involve multiple measurements and are often not defined on cross-sectional imaging as related to radiographs. Patellar articular overlap on sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will correlate well with conventional measurements of patella alta as measured by a standardized technique defined by our group. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. MRIs of 239 knees were reviewed by 3 attending surgeons with practices focusing on patellofemoral disease, as well as 2 sports medicine fellows and 1 musculoskeletal radiologist. Measurements included articular overlap, percentage of articular coverage, Caton-Deschamps index, Blackburne-Peel index, and modified Insall-Salvati index. Interrater reliability was high for Caton-Deschamps, Blackburne-Peel, and modified Insall-Salvati indices (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.877, 0.828, and 0.787, respectively). Articular overlap and percentage articular coverage correlated well with each other (ICC, 0.961; P < .001) and with the Caton-Deschamps (overlap r = -0.271, P < .001; coverage r = -0.131, P = .037) and Blackburne-Peel (overlap r = 0.343, P < .001; coverage r = -0.238, P < .001) indices. Articular overlap and percentage coverage failed to correlate with the modified Insall-Salvati index (overlap r = -0.117, P = .091; coverage r = 0.007, P = .918). Patellar articular overlap and percentage of patellar articular coverage show promise as a simpler alternative to conventional, ratio-based measurements of patellar height. Future studies are needed to evaluate the range of normal and the relationship to our traditionally used measurements.
Munch, Jacqueline L.; Sullivan, Jaron P.; Nguyen, Joseph T.; Mintz, Douglas; Green, Daniel W.; Shubin Stein, Beth E.; Strickland, Sabrina
Background: Patella alta describes an abnormally high-riding patella in relationship to the femur and has been shown to correlate with patellofemoral pain, instability, chondromalacia, and arthrosis. Conventional measurements of patella alta involve multiple measurements and are often not defined on cross-sectional imaging as related to radiographs. Hypothesis: Patellar articular overlap on sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will correlate well with conventional measurements of patella alta as measured by a standardized technique defined by our group. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: MRIs of 239 knees were reviewed by 3 attending surgeons with practices focusing on patellofemoral disease, as well as 2 sports medicine fellows and 1 musculoskeletal radiologist. Measurements included articular overlap, percentage of articular coverage, Caton-Deschamps index, Blackburne-Peel index, and modified Insall-Salvati index. Results: Interrater reliability was high for Caton-Deschamps, Blackburne-Peel, and modified Insall-Salvati indices (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.877, 0.828, and 0.787, respectively). Articular overlap and percentage articular coverage correlated well with each other (ICC, 0.961; P < .001) and with the Caton-Deschamps (overlap r = –0.271, P < .001; coverage r = –0.131, P = .037) and Blackburne-Peel (overlap r = 0.343, P < .001; coverage r = –0.238, P < .001) indices. Articular overlap and percentage coverage failed to correlate with the modified Insall-Salvati index (overlap r = –0.117, P = .091; coverage r = 0.007, P = .918). Conclusion: Patellar articular overlap and percentage of patellar articular coverage show promise as a simpler alternative to conventional, ratio-based measurements of patellar height. Future studies are needed to evaluate the range of normal and the relationship to our traditionally used measurements. PMID:27482530
Objective The purpose of this case study is to describe the treatment of a patient with tendinopathy using sonographically guided dry needling. Tendinopathies are a highly prevalent problem in musculoskeletal medicine, and no one form of treatment has gained universal acceptance as being superior to another. Clinical Features A 30-year-old woman with a 4-month history of anterolateral right shoulder pain was diagnosed with supraspinatus tendinopathy upon physical examination, which was confirmed with diagnostic sonography. Intervention and Outcome Sonography was used to guide an acupuncture needle into the pathologic tissue to induce a humoral healing response. Therapeutic exercise was also prescribed. At 10-day follow-up, increased echogenicity was found in the previously heterogenous hypoechoic areas. The patient also experienced a subjective resolution of her shoulder pain, which did not return with increased physical activity. Conclusions Sonographically guided dry needling was shown to be beneficial for this patient as evident by sonographic changes pre- and postprocedure. PMID:23997721
Grimaldi, Alison; Fearon, Angela
Synopsis Gluteal tendinopathy is now believed to be the primary local source of lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, previously referred to as trochanteric bursitis. This condition is prevalent, particularly among postmenopausal women, and has a considerable negative influence on quality of life. Improved prognosis and outcomes in the future for those with gluteal tendinopathy will be underpinned by advances in diagnostic testing, a clearer understanding of risk factors and comorbidities, and evidence-based management programs. High-quality studies that meet these requirements are still lacking. This clinical commentary provides direction to assist the clinician with assessment and management of the patient with gluteal tendinopathy, based on currently limited available evidence on this condition and the wider tendon literature and on the combined clinical experience of the authors. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(11):910-922. Epub 17 Sep 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5829.
Sereysky, Jedd B; Flatow, Evan L; Andarawis-Puri, Nelly
Tendinopathies are common muskoloskeletal injuries that lead to pain and disability. Development and pathogenesis of tendinopathy is attributed to progressive pathological changes to the structure, function, and biology of tendon. The nature of this disease state, whether acquired by acute or chronic injury, is being actively investigated. Scarring, disorganized tissue, and loss of function characterize adult tendon healing. Recent work from animal models has begun to reveal the potential for adult mammalian tendon regeneration, the replacement of diseased with innate tissue. This review discusses what is known about musculoskeletal regeneration from a molecular perspective and how these findings can be applied to tendinopathy. Non-mammalian and mammalian models are discussed with emphasis on the potential of Murphy Roths Large mice to serve as a model of adult tendon regeneration. Comparison of regeneration in non-mammals, foetal mammals and adult mammals emphasizes distinctly different contributing factors to effective regeneration.
Sereysky, Jedd B; Flatow, Evan L; Andarawis-Puri, Nelly
Tendinopathies are common muskoloskeletal injuries that lead to pain and disability. Development and pathogenesis of tendinopathy is attributed to progressive pathological changes to the structure, function, and biology of tendon. The nature of this disease state, whether acquired by acute or chronic injury, is being actively investigated. Scarring, disorganized tissue, and loss of function characterize adult tendon healing. Recent work from animal models has begun to reveal the potential for adult mammalian tendon regeneration, the replacement of diseased with innate tissue. This review discusses what is known about musculoskeletal regeneration from a molecular perspective and how these findings can be applied to tendinopathy. Non-mammalian and mammalian models are discussed with emphasis on the potential of Murphy Roths Large mice to serve as a model of adult tendon regeneration. Comparison of regeneration in non-mammals, foetal mammals and adult mammals emphasizes distinctly different contributing factors to effective regeneration. PMID:23772908
Sansone, Valerio C; Meroni, Roberto; Boria, Paola; Pisani, Salvatore; Maiorano, Emanuele
Calcifying tendinopathy (CT) of the shoulder is a common painful disorder, although the etiology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Recent theories about the role of excessive mechanical load in the genesis of CT have been proposed. Driven by the interest for these new theories, we investigated the hypothesis of a relationship between work-related repetitive movements of the upper arm, considered a potential cause of shoulder overload, and the presence of shoulder CT. A secondary aim was to obtain data on CT prevalence in a female sample from the working-age general population, as little data currently exist. 199 supermarket cashiers and 304 female volunteers recruited from the general population underwent a high-resolution ultrasonography of the rotator cuffs of both shoulders, and the presence of tendinopathies, with or without calcification, was recorded. The prevalence of calcific tendinopathy was 22.6 % in the cashiers group and 24.4 % in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of calcifications between the two groups (p = 0.585), either for the dominant shoulder [OR = 0.841 (95 % CI 0.534-1.326)] or for the non-dominant shoulder [OR = 0.988 (95 % CI 0.582-1.326)]. We observed bilateral calcifications in 8.5 % of cashiers, and 9.6 % of controls, and an increase in prevalence of CT with age in both groups. Work-related repetitive movements of the upper arm did not induce a higher prevalence of shoulder CT compared with the female sample from the general population. If CT etiopathogenesis is related to mechanical load, CT onset may be influenced not only by loading history, but also by individual factors. Level of evidence Prognosis study, Level II.
Tumilty, Steve; Munn, Joanne; David Baxter, G.; McDonough, Suzanne; Hurley, Deirdre A.; Basford, Jeffrey R.
Background: Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is used in the treatment of tendon injuries. However, the clinical effectiveness of this modality remains controversial with limited agreement on the most efficacious dosage and parameter choices. Purpose: To assess the clinical effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of tendinopathy and the validity of current dosage recommendations for treatment. Method: Medical databases were searched from inception to 1st August 2008. Controlled clinical trials evaluating LLLT as a primary intervention for any tendinopathy were included in the review. Methodological quality was classified using the PEDro scale. Appropriateness of treatment parameters were assessed using established guidelines. Results: Twenty five trials met the inclusion criteria. There was conflicting findings from multiple trials: 12 showed positive effects and 13 were inconclusive or showed no effect. Dosages used in the 12 positive studies support the existence of an effective dosage window that closely resembled current guidelines. Where pooling of data was possible, LLLT showed a positive effect size; in high quality studies of lateral epicondylitis, participants' grip strength was 9.59 Kg higher than the control group; for participants with Achilles tendinopathy, the effect was 13.6 mm less pain on a 100 mm visual analogue scale. Conclusion: This study found conflicting evidence as to the effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of tendinopathy. However, an effective dosage window emerged showing benefit in the treatment of tendinopathy. Strong evidence exists from the 12 positive studies that positive outcomes are associated with the use of current dosage recommendations for the treatment of tendinopathy.
Tumilty, Steve; Munn, Joanne; McDonough, Suzanne; Hurley, Deirdre A.; Basford, Jeffrey R.; David Baxter, G.
Background: Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is used in the treatment of tendon injuries. However, the clinical effectiveness of this modality remains controversial with limited agreement on the most efficacious dosage and parameter choices. Purpose: To assess the clinical effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of tendinopathy and the validity of current dosage recommendations for treatment. Method: Medical databases were searched from inception to 1st August 2008. Controlled clinical trials evaluating LLLT as a primary intervention for any tendinopathy were included in the review. Methodological quality was classified using the PEDro scale. Appropriateness of treatment parameters were assessed using established guidelines. Results: Twenty five trials met the inclusion criteria. There was conflicting findings from multiple trials: 12 showed positive effects and 13 were inconclusive or showed no effect. Dosages used in the 12 positive studies support the existence of an effective dosage window that closely resembled current guidelines. Where pooling of data was possible, LLLT showed a positive effect size; in high quality studies of lateral epicondylitis, participants' grip strength was 9.59 Kg higher than the control group; for participants with Achilles tendinopathy, the effect was 13.6 mm less pain on a 100 mm visual analogue scale. Conclusion: This study found conflicting evidence as to the effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of tendinopathy. However, an effective dosage window emerged showing benefit in the treatment of tendinopathy. Strong evidence exists from the 12 positive studies that positive outcomes are associated with the use of current dosage recommendations for the treatment of tendinopathy.
Grigg, Nicole L; Wearing, Scott C; O'Toole, John M; Smeathers, James E
Previous research has demonstrated that ground reaction force (GRF) recorded during eccentric ankle exercise is characterized by greater power in the 8- to 12-Hz bandwidth when compared with that recorded during concentric ankle exercise. Subsequently, it was suggested that vibrations in this bandwidth may underpin the beneficial effect of eccentric loading in tendon repair. However, this observation has been made only in individuals without Achilles tendinopathy. This research compared the force frequency characteristics of eccentric and concentric exercises in individuals with and without Achilles tendinopathy. Eleven male adults with unilateral midportion Achilles tendinopathy and nine control male adults without tendinopathy participated in the research. Kinematics and GRF were recorded while the participants performed a common eccentric rehabilitation exercise protocol and a concentric equivalent. Ankle joint kinematics and the frequency power spectrum of the resultant GRF were calculated. Eccentric exercise was characterized by a significantly greater proportion of spectral power between 4.5 and 11.5 Hz when compared with concentric exercise. There were no significant differences between limbs in the force frequency characteristics of concentric exercise. Eccentric exercise, in contrast, was defined by a shift in the power spectrum of the symptomatic limb, resulting in a second spectral peak at 9 Hz, rather than 10 Hz in the control limb. Compared with healthy tendon, Achilles tendinopathy was characterized by lower frequency vibrations during eccentric rehabilitation exercises. This finding may be associated with changes in neuromuscular activation and tendon stiffness that have been shown to occur with tendinopathy and provides a possible rationale for the previous observation of a different biochemical response to eccentric exercise in healthy and injured Achilles tendons.
Lewis, Jeremy; McCreesh, Karen; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Ginn, Karen
Synopsis The hallmark characteristics of rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy are pain and weakness, experienced most commonly during shoulder external rotation and elevation. Assessment is complicated by nonspecific clinical tests and the poor correlation between structural failure and symptoms. As such, diagnosis is best reached by exclusion of other potential sources of symptoms. Symptomatic incidence and prevalence data currently cannot be determined with confidence, primarily as a consequence of a lack of diagnostic accuracy, as well as the uncertainty as to the location of symptoms. People with symptoms of RC tendinopathy should derive considerable comfort from research that consistently demonstrates improvement in symptoms with a well-structured and graduated exercise program. This improvement is equivalent to outcomes reported in surgical trials, with the additional generalized benefits of exercise, less sick leave, a faster return to work, and reduced costs to the health care system. This evidence covers the spectrum of conditions that include symptomatic RC tendinopathy and atraumatic partial- and full-thickness RC tears. The principles guiding exercise treatment for RC tendinopathy include relative rest, modification of painful activities, an exercise strategy that initially does not exacerbate pain, controlled reloading, and gradual progression from simple to complex shoulder movements. Evidence also exists for a specific exercise program being beneficial for people with massive inoperable tears of the RC. Education is an essential component of rehabilitation, and attention to lifestyle factors (smoking cessation, nutrition, stress, and sleep management) may enhance outcomes. Outcomes may also be enhanced by subgrouping RC tendinopathy presentations and directing treatment strategies according to the clinical presentation and the patient's response to shoulder symptom modification procedures outlined herein. There are substantial deficits in our knowledge
Moulton, Kyle M; Aly, Abdel-Rahman; Rajasekaran, Sathish; Shepel, Michael; Obaid, Haron
Gluteal tendinopathy and greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) remain incompletely understood despite their pervasiveness in clinical practice. To date, no study has analyzed the morphometric characteristics of the hip on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that may predispose to gluteal tendinopathy. This study aimed to evaluate whether acetabular anteversion (AA), femoral neck anteversion (FNA), and femoral neck-shaft angle (FNSA) are associated with MRI features of gluteal tendinopathy. A total of 203 MRI examinations of the hip met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. A single blinded investigator measured AA, FNA, and FNSA according to validated MRI techniques. Two blinded subspecialty-trained musculoskeletal radiologists then independently evaluated the presence of gluteal tendinosis, trochanteric bursitis, and subgluteal bursitis. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA; post-hoc Tukey's range test). At MRI, 57 patients had gluteal tendinosis with or without bursitis, 26 had isolated trochanteric bursitis, and 11 had isolated subgluteal bursitis. AA was significantly (p = 0.01) increased in patients with MRI evidence of gluteal tendinosis with or without bursitis [mean: 18.4°, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 17.2°-19.6°] compared with normal controls (mean: 15.7°, 95 % CI: 14.7°-16.8°). Similarly, AA was significantly (p = 0.04) increased in patients with isolated trochanteric bursitis (mean: 18.8°, 95 % CI: 16.2°-21.6°). No association was found between FNA or FNSA and the presence of gluteal tendinopathy. Interobserver agreement for the presence and categorization of gluteal tendinopathy was very good (kappa = 0.859, 95 % CI: 0.815-0.903). Our MRI study suggests that there is an association between increased AA and gluteal tendinopathy, which supports a growing body of evidence implicating abnormal biomechanics in the development of this condition.
Takata, Yasushi; Nakase, Junsuke; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki
Disruption of the knee extensor mechanism is a serious disorder that requires prompt treatment. It often occurs in the form of a patellar tendon rupture. It may occur in association with systemic disease or after administration of corticosteroids or fluoroquinolones. These conditions can cause tendon weakness, and consequent ruptures usually require both repair and augmentation. This paper reports on repair and augmentation for treating patellar tendon rupture in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). We report a patellar tendon rupture in a 27-year-old man with EDS, which occurred in the midsubstance of the patella. As the patient has tendon weakness, extensive repair will increase the risk of patella baja, and the use of end-to-end suturing technique alone will not be enough to prevent a rupture recurring; however, augmentation could be used to address the tendon weakness. Repair of the rupture and augmentation with hamstring tendon was performed. One year after the surgery, the patient was able to move his knee joint without pain and had an active range of motion of 0° (passive 20°)-145°. He was able to perform a straight leg raise without an extension lag. Repair and augmentation with hamstring tendon was an effective treatment option for patellar tendon rupture in a patient with EDS.
Saper, Michael G; Shneider, David A
Chronic anterior knee pain with a stable patella is often associated with overload and increased pressure on the lateral facet due to pathologic lateral soft-tissue restraints. "Lateral pressure in flexion" is a term describing the pathologic process of increasing contact pressure over the lateral patellar facet as knee flexion progresses. This report describes a surgical technique developed in response to lateral pressure in flexion and the shortcomings of traditional arthroscopic lateral release procedures. The technique is performed open with the knee in flexion, and the lateral release is repaired with a rotation flap of iliotibial band to close the defect and prevent patellar subluxation. The technique effectively decreases lateral patellar pressure and centers the patella correctly in the trochlear groove with minimal risk of iatrogenic patellar instability.
Orava, S; Osterback, L; Hurme, M
A series of surgically treated patellar tendon lesions among athletes is presented. The material was collected during 5 years from three sports injury clinics and from two hospitals. During this period the authors treated about 150 cases of jumper's knee, of which 34 cases were treated by operation. The athletes were mostly volley ball players, jumpers or runners. The operation revealed a necrotic focus of the patellar tendon in 21 cases, the retinaculum was thick and adherent in 16 patients and an exostosis of the patellar insertion was seen in two cases. The necrotic areas were excised, the thick and adherent retinaculum was divided and the exostoses were excised and drilled. Surgical treatment of chronic patellar tendon pains may give good results in selected cases.
Orava, S; Osterback, L; Hurme, M
A series of surgically treated patellar tendon lesions among athletes is presented. The material was collected during 5 years from three sports injury clinics and from two hospitals. During this period the authors treated about 150 cases of jumper's knee, of which 34 cases were treated by operation. The athletes were mostly volley ball players, jumpers or runners. The operation revealed a necrotic focus of the patellar tendon in 21 cases, the retinaculum was thick and adherent in 16 patients and an exostosis of the patellar insertion was seen in two cases. The necrotic areas were excised, the thick and adherent retinaculum was divided and the exostoses were excised and drilled. Surgical treatment of chronic patellar tendon pains may give good results in selected cases. PMID:3814988
Patellar instability is a common problem seen by physical therapists, athletic trainers and orthopedic surgeons. Although following an acute dislocation, conservative rehabilitation is usually the first line of defense; refractory cases exist that may require surgical intervention. Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and its role as the primary stabilizer to lateral patellar displacement. Medial patellofemoral ligament disruption is now considered to be the essential lesion following acute patellar dislocation due to significantly high numbers of ruptures following this injury. Evidence is now mounting that demonstrates the benefits of early reconstruction with a variety of techniques. Recently rehabilitation has become more robust and progressive due to our better understanding of soft tissue reconstruction and repair techniques. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the etiology of patellar instability, the anatomy and biomechanics and examination of patellofemoral instability, and to describe surgical intervention and rehabilitation following MPFL rupture. Level of Evidence 5 PMID:28593102
Cresswell, F V; Tomlins, J; Churchill, D R; Walker-Bone, K; Richardson, D
A multitude of rheumatologic manifestations have been associated with HIV infection and protease inhibitors use. We describe two cases that display a temporal relationship between initiating Kaletra and developing Achilles tendinopathy. Immediate and dramatic resolution of symptoms occurred on switching from Kaletra to an alternative agent. Clinicians may want to consider a trial of an alternative agent in individuals on Kaletra who experience Achilles tendinopathy. Adverse events must be formally reported so that our understanding of antiretrovirals may continually evolve and aid decisions about antiretroviral prescribing. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Carr, Ryan M; Shishani, Yousef; Gobezie, Reuben
Biceps tendon pain is frequently called biceps "tendinitis," or inflammation of the biceps tendon. Histologic analysis of biceps tendon biopsies demonstrates changes in tenocyte size, ground substance, collagen organization, and vascularity observed with many different tendinopathies. There are distinct symptoms of biceps tendinopathy and a few provocative maneuvers can help make the diagnosis. Imaging studies (eg, MRI) can show changes in signal sequence or tears. However, MRI has a low sensitivity and frequently results in missed or misdiagnosed biceps pathology. Clinical decision making is best guided by a strong clinical suspicion based on patient history, physical examination, and MRI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baombe, Janos P; Ford, Rebecca
A shortcut review of the literature was carried out to establish whether the use of fluoroquinolones was associated with an increased risk of tendinopathy in adult patients. 10 trials were found to be directly relevant to the three-part question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. The clinical bottom line is that there is an association between the use of fluoroquinolones and a broad range of tendinopathies.
Greis, Ari C; Derrington, Stephen M; McAuliffe, Matthew
Rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy is a common finding that accounts for about 7% of patients with shoulder pain. There are numerous theories on the pathogenesis of rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy. The diagnosis is confirmed with radiography, MRI or ultrasound. There are numerous conservative treatment options available and most patients can be managed successfully without surgical intervention. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and multiple modalities are often used to manage pain and inflammation; physical therapy can help improve scapular mechanics and decrease dynamic impingement; ultrasound-guided needle aspiration and lavage techniques can provide long-term improvement in pain and function in these patients.
Mautner, Ken; Kneer, Lee
Pain and dysfunction related to tendinopathy are often refractory to traditional treatments and offer a unique challenge to physicians, because no gold standard treatment exists. Injectable biologics may represent a new modality in conjunction with a multifaceted treatment approach. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections are not associated with the systemic or tendon degradation risks of corticosteroids or the inherent risks of surgery. Studies are promising but have not been replicated with high-powered evidence at the clinical level. Further evidence to expand understanding of the role of PRP in the treatment of tendinopathy is needed.
Kumar, Nishikant; Yadav, Chandrashekhar; Kumar, Ashok
Complications involving the extensor mechanism after TKA are potentially disastrous. We are reporting a case of patellar tendon rupture from tibial tuberosity following total knee arthroplasty. We managed it by direct repair with fiberwire using Krackow suture technique without augmentation. Our long term result has been very encouraging. Our method is a safe and better method of management of patellar tendon avulsion following TKA when it happens without any tissue loss. PMID:25632362
Wong, Yiu-ming; Chan, Suk-tak; Tang, Kwok-wing; Ng, Gabriel Y.F
Context: Underconditioned patellar stabilizing muscles could be a predisposing factor for patellar instability. Objective: To examine the effect of 2 modes of weight training on the size of the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO), the resting position and passive mobility of the patella, and the strength of the knee extensor muscles. Design: Prospective intervention, repeated measures in 3 groups. Setting: Orthopaedic and sports sciences research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: 48 healthy adults free from back and lower extremity injuries. Intervention(s): Participants were randomly assigned to muscle hypertrophy training, muscle strength training, or the control group. Those in the training groups pursued training 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Main Outcome Measure(s): Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound cross-sectional area of the VMO, patellar tilt angle on magnetic resonance imaging, instrumented passive patellar mobility, and isometric knee extension torque of the dominant leg. Results: Participants in both training groups had comparable gains in VMO size, passive patellar stability, and knee extension force, all of which were greater than for the control group (P < .05). Conclusions: Both short-term muscle hypertrophy and strength training programs can reinforce the patellar stabilizers in previously untrained volunteers. PMID:19478844
Mendonça, Luciana De Michelis; Ocarino, Juliana Melo; Bittencourt, Natália Franco Netto; Santos, Thiago Ribeiro Teles; Barreto, Rafael Almeida; Fonseca, Sérgio Teixeira
The objective of this study was to provide normative data of frontal plane patellar alignment according to McConnell and Arno angles, verify the association between theses angles and identify the presence of patellar rotation in different sports. Cross-sectional. Nine participants (18 knees) were assessed in a preliminary study to verify the intra and inter-examiner reliabilities of the patellar alignment measures. In the main study, 230 volleyball, basketball, gymnastics and soccer athletes (460 knees) were evaluated in order to obtain normative data of patellar alignment. Frontal plane patellar alignment (McConnell and Arno angles) measured in standing position by means of photogrammetry. The standardized method demonstrated intra and inter-examiner reliability coefficients varying from .85 to .98. The mean McConnell and Arno angles were 2.05° (±5.9) and 2.89° (±7.57), respectively. A low association was observed (r = .189, p < .0001) between these angles. There was a difference in distribution of medial and lateral rotations, according to the McConnell angle, between different sports (p < .014). The proposed procedure for measuring patellar alignment according to McConnell and Arno angles proved to be highly reliable. This made possible the establishment of normative data in a large sample of healthy athletes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vidal, C; Guingand, O; de Thomasson, E; Conso, C; Terracher, R; Balabaud, L; Mazel, C
Reconstructive surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee in young active patients is a routine procedure, but with certain risks that need to be taken into account. Peroperative patellar fracture after bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft harvesting is a rare complication, which can significantly impair the functional outcome of ACL single-bundle reconstruction. We report the case of a patient presenting with disabling patellofemoral syndrome 3 years after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction by bone-tendon-bone autograft, revealing unnoticed mal-union of a iatrogenic sagittal patellar fracture. Patellar osteotomy corrected this painful iatrogenic patellar instability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Wynter Bee, W; Ubhi, J; Kumar, B
To evaluate the association between tendon structure and clinical severity. Looking specifically at location of pathology, comparing ventral versus dorsal tendinopathy. Patients were recruited from a tertiary tendinopathy center between Jan 2015 - June 2016. Inclusion criteria included patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy, aged between 1870. Patients with insertional Achilles tendinopathy or other suspected etiology were excluded. Patients were assessed using ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) scanning. UTC software was used to analyse a 2 cm block 24 cm from the calcaneum for percentage of echo type I, II, III and IV. With percentage echo type I+II used as the primary outcome. A doctor also categorised patients into predominately dorsal or ventral pathology based on UTC imaging. VISAA and VAS scores were used for clinical outcome measures. Statistics were undertaken using SPSS, data was not normally distributed RESULTS: Overall 33 tendons with mid portion Achilles tendinopathy were analysed, the overall percentage echo type I+II showed no correlation to either VISAA (p=0.745, r=0.0600) or VAS (p=0.157, r=0.248). When divided into dorsal and ventral Achilles tendinopathy there was a significant difference between baseline VISAA scores with a lower VISAA score 35 (SD±19) in dorsal group compared with the ventral group 60 (SD±17.1) (p=0.009). There was also a higher VAS score in the dorsal group (mean = 6, SD±2.28) at baseline compared with ventral (mean = 5, SD±3.07), although this was not significant (p=0.416). This highlights the possibility of using UTC to subcategories patients into ventral and dorsal which seems to correlate to increased clinical severity in the dorsal group. This is perhaps due to increased tension and stretching acting through this part of the tendon on loading and thus more nociceptive stimulation and greater dysfunction of the tendon. This could be used to help determine differing rehabilitation interventions in future
Zha, Guo-Chun; Sun, Jun-Ying; Dong, Sheng-Jie
Anterior knee pain is a major cause of complaint in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) without patellar resurfacing. The concept of improved patellar tracking and decreased retropatellar contact pressure for lateral retinacular release theoretically suggests that patients with lateral retinacular release in TKA would achieve a lower incidence of anterior knee pain when compared without lateral retinacular release. We sought to determine (1) whether those patients who received a routine lateral retinacular release in TKA would attain lower incidence of anterior knee pain as compared to patients who received TKA without lateral retinacular release and (2) whether lateral retinacular release would increase the lateral retinacular release-related complications. A total of 148 patients who underwent TKA with the use of the Gemini MK II mobile bearing were randomized to receive either routine lateral retinacular release (intervention group) or not (control group). Patients were assessed by the visual analogue scale for anterior knee pain, the Knee Society clinical scoring system of knee score and function score, and patellar score for clinical function. Patients' satisfaction and lateral retinacular release-related complications were also evaluated. The overall incidence of anterior knee pain in the intervention group at 18 months follow-up was 5.6%, while that of the control group was 20.6% (p = 0.009). No statistical difference was detected between the two groups in terms of lateral retinacular release-related complications (n.s.), patients' satisfaction (n.s.), knee score (n.s.), function score (n.s.), and patellar score (n.s.) at 18 months follow-up. The present study suggests that routine lateral retinacular release can reduce anterior knee pain and does not increase lateral retinacular release-related complications, in TKA with the use of the Gemini MK II mobile bearing without patellar resurfacing. Therapeutic, Level I.
Seitz, Amee L; McClure, Philip W; Finucane, Sheryl; Boardman, N Douglas; Michener, Lori A
The etiology of rotator cuff tendinopathy is multi-factorial, and has been attributed to both extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms. Extrinsic factors that encroach upon the subacromial space and contribute to bursal side compression of the rotator cuff tendons include anatomical variants of the acromion, alterations in scapular or humeral kinematics, postural abnormalities, rotator cuff and scapular muscle performance deficits, and decreased extensibility of pectoralis minor or posterior shoulder. A unique extrinsic mechanism, internal impingement, is attributed to compression of the posterior articular surface of the tendons between the humeral head and glenoid and is not related to subacromial space narrowing. Intrinsic factors that contribute to rotator cuff tendon degradation with tensile/shear overload include alterations in biology, mechanical properties, morphology, and vascularity. The varied nature of these mechanisms indicates that rotator cuff tendinopathy is not a homogenous entity, and thus may require different treatment interventions. Treatment aimed at addressing mechanistic factors appears to be beneficial for patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy, however, not for all patients. Classification of rotator cuff tendinopathy into subgroups based on underlying mechanism may improve treatment outcomes. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rabago, David; Nourani, Bobby
Osteoarthritis and overuse tendinopathy are common chronic conditions of high societal and patient burden. The precise etiology of pain and disability in both conditions is multifactorial and not well understood. Patients are often refractory to conservative therapy. The development of new therapeutic options in both conditions is a public health priority. Prolotherapy is an injection-based outpatient regenerative therapy for chronic musculoskeletal conditions, including osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. The authors reviewed the basic science and clinical literature associated with prolotherapy for these conditions. Systematic review, including meta-analysis, and randomized controlled trials suggest that prolotherapy may be associated with symptom improvement in mild to moderate symptomatic knee osteoarthritis and overuse tendinopathy. Although the mechanism of action is not well understood and is likely multifactorial, a growing body of literature suggests that prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis may be appropriate for the treatment of symptoms associated with knee osteoarthritis in carefully selected patients who are refractory to conservative therapy and deserves further basic and clinical science investigation for the treatment of osteoarthritis and tendinopathy.
Kirchgesner, Thomas; Larbi, Ahmed; Omoumi, Patrick; Malghem, Jacques; Zamali, Nadia; Manelfe, Julien; Lecouvet, Frédéric; Vande Berg, Bruno; Djebbar, Sahlya; Dallaudière, Benjamin
Drug-induced tendon toxicity is rare but often underestimated. To date, four main drug classes have been incriminated in tendinopathies. Quinolones and long-term glucocorticoids are the most widely known, but statins and aromatase inhibitors can also induce tendon damage. The specific pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for drug-induced tendinopathies remain unknown. Proven risk factors have been identified, such as age older than 60 years, pre-existing tendinopathy, and potentiation of toxic effects when several drug classes are used in combination. Mean time to symptom onset varies from a few days with quinolones to several months with statins and several years for long-term glucocorticoid therapy. The most common sites of involvement are the lower limb tendons, most notably the body of the Achilles tendon. The first part of this review discusses tendon anatomy and the pathophysiology and radiological manifestations of tendinopathies. The second part provides details on the main characteristics of each of the drugs classes associated with tendon toxicity.
Counsel, Peter; Comin, Jules; Davenport, Marcus; Connell, David
The Achilles tendon is composed of fascicles from the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, which are identifiable as discrete components at anatomical dissection. The pattern of fascicular involvement in Achilles tendinopathy may be characterized at ultrasound, and this characterization is reliable between different observers. Cross-sectional diagnostic study. Level 3. One hundred cases of Achilles tendinopathy were retrospectively evaluated by 2 blinded musculoskeletal radiologists. Using a short-axis anatomical map, each case was categorized as involving the fascicular territories of the medial head of gastrocnemius, lateral head of gastrocnemius, soleus, or combinations of these, or as indeterminate. Both radiologists agreed on the fascicular involvement pattern in 93 of 100 cases; 20 involved only medial gastrocnemius territories, 8 lateral gastrocnemius, 15 soleus, 3 medial and lateral gastrocnemius, 21 medial gastrocnemius and soleus, 9 soleus and lateral gastrocnemius, and 16 the entire tendon, and 1 case was classified as indeterminate. In 7 cases, the interpretations were discordant. The kappa value was calculated as 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86-0.98) in keeping with a high level of interobserver agreement. As assessed at ultrasound, most cases of Achilles tendinopathy involve the medial head of gastrocnemius and/or soleus fascicles. The provided observational data will increase understanding of patterns of Achilles tendinopathy. © 2015 The Author(s).
Oliva, F; Barisani, D; Grasso, A; Maffulli, N
We evaluated the expression of several genes involved in tissue remodelling and bone development in patients with calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. Biopsies from calcified and non-calcified areas were obtained from 10 patients (8 women and 2 men; average age: 55 years; range: 40-68) with calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. To evaluate the expression of selected genes, RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed. A significantly increased expression of tissue transglutaminase (tTG)2 and its substrate, osteopontin, was detected in the calcific areas compared to the levels observed in the normal tissue from the same subject with calcific tendinopathy, whereas a modest increase was observed for catepsin K. There was also a significant decrease in mRNA expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)4 and BMP6 in the calcific area. BMP-2, collagen V and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) did not show significant differences. Collagen X and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were not detectable. A variation in expression of these genes could be characteristic of this form tendinopathy, since an increased level of these genes has not been detected in other forms of tendon lesions.
Counsel, Peter; Comin, Jules; Davenport, Marcus; Connell, David
Background: The Achilles tendon is composed of fascicles from the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, which are identifiable as discrete components at anatomical dissection. Hypothesis: The pattern of fascicular involvement in Achilles tendinopathy may be characterized at ultrasound, and this characterization is reliable between different observers. Study Design: Cross-sectional diagnostic study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: One hundred cases of Achilles tendinopathy were retrospectively evaluated by 2 blinded musculoskeletal radiologists. Using a short-axis anatomical map, each case was categorized as involving the fascicular territories of the medial head of gastrocnemius, lateral head of gastrocnemius, soleus, or combinations of these, or as indeterminate. Results: Both radiologists agreed on the fascicular involvement pattern in 93 of 100 cases; 20 involved only medial gastrocnemius territories, 8 lateral gastrocnemius, 15 soleus, 3 medial and lateral gastrocnemius, 21 medial gastrocnemius and soleus, 9 soleus and lateral gastrocnemius, and 16 the entire tendon, and 1 case was classified as indeterminate. In 7 cases, the interpretations were discordant. The kappa value was calculated as 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86-0.98) in keeping with a high level of interobserver agreement. Conclusion: As assessed at ultrasound, most cases of Achilles tendinopathy involve the medial head of gastrocnemius and/or soleus fascicles. Clinical Relevance: The provided observational data will increase understanding of patterns of Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:26502418
Ejnisman, Benno; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Monteiro, Gustavo Cará; Pocchini, Alberto de Castro; Cohen, Carina; Tortato, Simone; Franklin, Marcelo Marques Khede; Machado, Arthur Beber; Cohen, Moisés
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between cases of calcifying tendinopathy of the shoulder and symptomatic metabolic diseases such as kidney stones, gallstones and gout. Methods: Calcifying tendinopathy of the shoulder was diagnosed in 63 patients between May 2007 and September 2011. All the patients were treated by the same orthopedic surgeon and were interviewed to gather the following data: age at diagnosis, sex, affected side, dominant side, body mass index (BMI), smoking status and previous histories of kidney stones, gallstones or gout. For statistical analysis, a control group of 63 patients with similar demographic characteristics was used. Results: Among the 63 patients with calcifying tendinopathy of the shoulder, 35 (56%) were male. The right side was affected in 38 patients (60%) and the average age was 48.2 years. Thirty-one patients (49%) had histories involving some of the metabolic diseases investigated: 20 patients (32%) reported kidney stones, six (9.5%) gallstones, four (6.3%) gout and one (2%) concurrent diagnoses of kidney stones and gout. In the control group, eleven patients (17%) had histories involving some of the metabolic diseases investigated: six patients (9.5%) reported kidney stones, four (6.3%) gallstones and one (1.6 %) gout. Conclusions: The high frequency of nephrolithiasis in patients with calcifying tendinopathy of the shoulder in our study suggests that there are common mechanisms in the pathophysiology of these disorders. Better understanding of these diseases may enable improvement of diagnostics and treatments. PMID:27047854
Krey, David; Borchers, James; McCamey, Kendra
To summarize the best available evidence to determine if tendon needling is an effective treatment for tendinopathy. Data source. Medline and Cochrane Databases through November 2013. Utilizing the search terms tendinopathy, needle, needling, tenotomy, dry needling, needling tendon, needle fenestration, and tendon fenestration, 17 articles were identified through our systematic literature search. Of these, 4 studies met the inclusion criteria. Four independent reviewers reviewed the articles. The study results and generated conclusions were agreed upon. The studies that were included in this review suggest that tendon needling improves patient reported outcomes in patients with tendinopathy. In 2 studies evaluating tendon needling in lateral epicondylosis, one showed an improvement in a subjective visual analogue scale score of 34% (significant change > 25%) from baseline at 6 months. The other showed an improvement of 56.1% in a visual analogue scale score from baseline. In 1 study evaluating tendon needling in addition to eccentric therapy for Achilles tendinosis, the subjective Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) score improved by 19.9 (significant change > 10) (95% CI, 13.6-26.2) from baseline. In 1 study evaluating tendon needling in rotator cuff tendinosis, the subjective shoulder pain and disability index showed statistical significant improvement from baseline at 6 months (P < 0.05). The evidence suggests that tendon needling improves patient-reported outcome measures in patients with tendinopathy. There is a trend that shows that the addition of autologous blood products may further improve theses outcomes.
... degenerative and posttraumatic patellar arthritis. (2) Class III when intended for uses other than treatment of degenerative and posttraumatic patellar arthritis. (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A...
... degenerative and posttraumatic patellar arthritis. (2) Class III when intended for uses other than treatment of degenerative and posttraumatic patellar arthritis. (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A...
Dai, Zhu; You, Di; Liao, Ying; Chen, Zhiwei; Peng, Jiabin
To explore the treatment methed of recurrent patellar dislocation associated with old osteochondral fracture and to evaluate its effectiveness. Between August 2010 and August 2014, 12 cases of recurrent patellar dislocation with old osteochondral fracture were treated. There were 4 males and 8 females with an average age of 18.3 years (range, 15-24 years). The left knee was involved in 7 cases and the right knee in 5 cases. All the patients had a history of patellar dislocation, the average interval from injury to first hospitalization was 7.6 months (range, 6-13 months). At preoperation, the range of motion (ROM) of the injured knee was (89.17 ± 13.11)degrees; the Lysholm score was 56.67 ± 18.91; the Q-angle was (17.50 ± 5.28)degrees; and tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance was (18.33 ± 4.03) mm. The Q-angle was more than 20 degrees and TT-TG distance was more than 20 mm in 6 of 12 cases. There were 6 cases of patellar osteochondral fracture, 5 cases of lateral femoral condylar osteochondral fracture, and 1 case of patellar osteochondral fracture combined with lateral femoral condylar osteochondral fracture. After osteochondral fracture fragments were removed under arthroscope, lateral patellar retinaculum releasing and medial patellar retinaculum reefing was performed in 2 cases, medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction combined with both lateral patellar retinaculum releasing and medial patellar retinaculum reefing in 4 cases, and MPFL reconstruction, lateral patellar retinaculum releasing, medial patellar retinaculum reefing, and tibial tubercle transfer in 6 cases. Results All wounds healed by first intention with no complication of infection, haematoma, skin necrosis, or bone nonunion. All patients were followed up 12-60 months with an average of 24.2 months. At 3 months after operation, all patellar dislocations were corrected; the Q-angle was (13.33 ± 1.37)degrees and the TT-TG distance was (12.17 ± 1.17) mm in 6 patients
Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Pérez-Ramírez, Luis Enrique
Rotator cuff tears are the leading cause of pain and functional disability of the shoulder. Conservative treatment is an essential part of their management. Despite the limited evidence, rehabilitation is the mainstay of the treatment for rotator cuff tears associated to impingement syndrome. There are current reports on the utility of strengthening with resistance, particularly by eccentric exercise. This report aims to present an overview of the efficacy of eccentric exercises in tendinopathies and current evidence of its benefit in rotator cuff tears. We describe the information available in tendinopathy and analyzed four studies published on eccentric strengthening for rotator cuff tears. There is theoretical evidence about its usefulness in this pathology, but only a controlled clinical trial has been published with data on improvement in strength but not in pain or functionality. More studies are needed with better methodological designs in order to generate evidence of their utility and recommendation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.
Wu, Yen-Ting; Su, Wei-Ren; Wu, Po-Ting; Shen, Po-Chuan; Jou, I-Ming
Tendinopathy of the long head of the biceps (TLHB) involves various types of extracellular matrix degeneration, but previous studies have not evaluated elastic fibers. The purpose of this study was to investigate elastic fiber distribution in long head of the biceps (LHB). The TLHB tendons of 16 consecutive patients (eight men and eight women; average age of 55.75 years; age range of 40-71 years) were transected and harvested. Three cadaveric LHB tendons were used as the control group. The expression of collagen type I was decreased, but type III was increased in TLHB. Disruption of elastic fibers was particularly observed in grade II specimens where the level of elastase-positive staining was significantly higher than in grade I specimens. Elastic fibers were not observed in the grade III area, implying a higher expression of elastase than in the grade I area. Results of Western blotting showed that the expression of elastin was higher in the control group and the levels of elastin significantly decreased in grades II and III of TLHB. Levels of osteopontin and elastase were increased in primary culture of human tenocytes after experiencing elastic derived peptide treatment. These results suggested that elastase may be caused by the disruption of elastic fibers in the development of chronic tendinopathy and that elastic derived peptide may enhance elastase and osteopontin expression. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.
Dejour, H; Walch, G; Nove-Josserand, L; Guier, C
We analyzed the radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans of 143 knees operated on for symptomatic patellar instability and 67 contralateral asymptomatic knees, together with 190 control knee radiographs and 27 control knee scans, to determine the factors affecting patellar instability. Four factors were relevant in knees with symptomatic patellar instability: (1) Trochlear dysplasia (85%), as defined by the crossing sign (96%) and quantitatively expressed by the trochlear bump, pathological above 3 mm or more (66%), and the trochlear depth, pathologic at 4 mm or less. (2) Quadriceps dysplasia (83%), defined a present when the patellar tilt in extension is more than 20% on the CT scans. (3) Patella alta (Caton-Deschamps) index greater than or equal to 1.2 (24%). (4) Tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove, pathological when greater than or equal to 20 mm (56%). The factors appeared in only 3%-6.5% of the control knees. The etiology of patellar instability is multifactorial. Determination of the factors permits an effective elective therapeutic plan which aims at correcting the anomalies present.
The degrees of mediolateral asymmetry of the patellar articular facet, as well as the median and lateral articular angles of the facet, were compared across samples of recent humans and of Pleistocene archaic and modern fossil humans. All samples exhibit considerable variability in these patellar proportions. The articular angles are similar across the different samples, but there is a trend towards decreasing lateral angles with decreasing robusticity. The archaic humans exhibit significantly more symmetry of the medial and lateral facets than do any of the recent human samples. However, given the variability in medial versus lateral patellofemoral contact forces documented for extant humans and the roles of the distal oblique portions of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis in patellar stabilisation, it is unclear to what extent this variation in patellar articular proportions may affect knee kinesiology. The contrasts may be related to different levels of patellar stability and/or musculoskeletal hypertrophy, but they appear unlikely to have affected primary knee function. PMID:10853969
Gililland, Jeremy M.; Webber, Nicholas P.; Jones, Kevin B.; Randall, R. Lor; Aoki, Stephen K.
Patellar tendon-related pain is common in the athletic patient. When it occurs in skeletally mature patients participating in running, jumping, or kicking sports, the diagnosis of jumper’s knee patellar tendonitis is usually made. If patellar tendon pain is associated with a mass, the differential diagnosis should be broadened to include crystalline arthropathy. This article presents a case of a highly athletic 45-year-old man with a history of gout, anterior knee pain, and an enlarging mass in the region of the patellar tendon. Conservative management failed, and an excisional biopsy found it to be an intra-tendinous gouty tophus. To our knowledge, only 1 report exists documenting a patellar tendon mass secondary to gout, and no case report exists documenting this problem in an athlete. The interplay between athletics and gout has not been well described. Despite the long-term protective nature of fitness, transient elevations in uric acid associated with athletic endeavors may contribute acutely to manifestations of gout in some athletes. Resultant intra- or extra-articular pathology may present as, and easily be mistaken for, a sports-related injury. Without appropriate medical management, tophaceous deposition may continue to occur and treatment of the resultant mass may require surgical intervention. PMID:21410111
Seidl, Adam; Baldini, Todd; Krughoff, Kevin; Shapiro, Joshua A; Lindeque, Bennie; Rhodes, Jason; Carollo, James
Crouch gait deformity is common in children with cerebral palsy and often is associated with patella alta. Patellar tendon advancement typically is used to correct patella alta and restore normal knee mechanics. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanical strength of surgical constructs used for fixation during patellar advancement procedures. This study used a cadaveric model to determine which of 3 surgical techniques is biomechanically optimal for patellar tendon advancement in treating patella alta. Twenty-four human cadaveric knees (8 per group) were prepared using 1 of 3 different common surgical techniques: tibial tubercle osteotomy, patellar tendon partial resection and repair at the distal patella, and patellar tendon imbrication. The patella was loaded from 25 to 250 N at 1 Hz for 1000 cycles. A significant difference in patella displacement under cyclical loading was found between surgical techniques. Tibial tubercle osteotomy exhibited significantly less displacement under cyclical loading than distal patella excision and repair (P<.0001) or imbrication (P=.0088). Imbrication exhibited significantly less displacement than distal patella excision and repair (P=.0006). Tibial tubercle osteotomy survived longest. Based on failure criteria of 5 mm of displacement, tibial tubercle osteotomy lasted between 250 and 500 cycles. The other 2 techniques failed by 25 cycles. This study offers quantitative evidence regarding the relative mechanical strength of each construct and may influence choice of surgical technique. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e492-e497.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Macdermid, Joy C; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare
Synopsis Clinical measurement studies that address outcome evaluation for patients with tendinopathy should consider conceptual, clinical, practical, and measurement issues to guide the selection of valid measures. Clinical outcomes reported in research studies can provide benchmarks that assist with interpretation of scores during clinical decision making. Given the pathophysiology and functional impacts of tendinopathy, there is a need for outcome measures that assess physical impairments, activity performance, and patient-reported symptoms and function. Tendinopathy-specific patient-reported outcome measures have been shown to be superior to more generic tools for some conditions, such as lateral epicondyle tendinopathy (Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation) and Achilles tendinopathy (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles), whereas both generic shoulder outcome measures and disease-specific measures perform similarly in individuals with rotator cuff tendinopathy. A patient-reported outcome measure that captures pain and limitation in function should be fundamental to outcome evaluation in patients with tendinopathy. The current measurement literature does not yet provide comprehensive empirical data to define optimal outcome measures for all types of tendinopathy. This article reviews concepts, instruments, and measurement properties that should provide clinicians with a foundation for assessment of condition severity and treatment outcomes in patients with tendinopathy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(11):950-964. Epub 15 Oct 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.6054.
Draper, Christine E.; Besier, Thor F.; Santos, Juan M.; Jennings, Fabio; Fredericson, Michael; Gold, Garry E.; Beaupre, Gary S.; Delp, Scott L.
Abnormal patellofemoral joint motion is a possible cause of patellofemoral pain, and patellar braces are thought to alleviate pain by restoring normal joint kinematics. We evaluated whether females with patellofemoral pain exhibit abnormal patellofemoral joint kinematics during dynamic, weight-bearing knee extension and assessed the effects of knee braces on patellofemoral motion. Real-time magnetic resonance (MR) images of the patellofemoral joints of 36 female volunteers (13 pain-free controls, 23 patellofemoral pain) were acquired during weight-bearing knee extension. Pain subjects were also imaged while wearing a patellar-stabilizing brace and a patellar sleeve. We measured axial-plane kinematics from the images. Females with patellofemoral pain exhibited increased lateral translation of the patella for knee flexion angles between 0° and 50° (p = 0.03), and increased lateral tilt for knee flexion angles between 0° and 20° (p = 0.04). The brace and sleeve reduced the lateral translation of the patella; however, the brace reduced lateral displacement more than the sleeve (p = 0.006). The brace reduced patellar tilt near full extension (p = 0.001), while the sleeve had no effect on patellar tilt. Our results indicate that some subjects with patellofemoral pain exhibit abnormal weight-bearing joint kinematics and that braces may be effective in reducing patellar maltracking in these subjects. PMID:18985690
Kelly, John D
This article examines the results of arthroscopic tendon debridement with excision of the distal pole of the patella for refractory patellar tendinitis. Nine patients failed at least 3 months of conservative therapy and underwent arthroscopic excision of the distal patellar pole with debridement of the deep proximal patella tendon. At least 3 months postoperatively (range, 3 months-5 years), 8 patients reported no distal patellar pole tenderness (Bassett sign), and 1 patient reported only mild tenderness. Arthroscopic excision of the distal patellar pole with tendon debridement holds promise for the treatment of refractory patellar tendinitis.
Lui, Tun Hing
Tophaceous deposition of tendon can result in spontaneous patellar tendon rupture. Surgical therapy may be needed to control symptoms and prevent tendon rupture. Open debridement of the lesion requires a lengthy incision over the lesion; this may result in symptomatic scar adhesion of the patellar tendon or an unhealed wound with persistent tophaceous discharge. Moreover, the other part of the patellar tendon cannot be examined through the incision. We describe a technique for endoscopic resection of a gouty tophus of the patellar tendon. It has the advantage of small incisions away from the lesion and tendon and minimizes wound problems. The whole patellar tendon can be examined endoscopically.
Dona, F. Di; Valle, G. Della; Balestriere, C.; Lamagna, B.; Meomartino, L.; Napoleone, G.; Lamagna, F.; Fatone, G.
The objective of this paper was to describe the clinical features, the management and the outcome of nine small breed dogs affected with lateral patella luxation referred during the period between January 2010 and December 2014. Patellar luxations were classified according to: breed, age, sex, weight, and grade of patellar luxation, as well as if unilateral or bilateral, and concurrent cranial cruciate ligament lesion. In affected dogs, surgical correction consisted in the combination of tibial tuberosity transposition and soft tissue procedure. Adjunctive condroplasty or trochleoplasty was performed as needing. The outcome was found positive after surgical management with low complication rate and complications have been easily managed with high success rate. PMID:28116250
Geannette, Christian; Miller, Theodore; Saboeiro, Gregory; Parks, Michael
Patellar clunk syndrome is a painful mechanical phenomenon that may develop following total knee arthroplasty. The diagnosis is usually made clinically, but cross-sectional imaging may be needed to confirm the clinical suspicion. Sonographic confirmation of patellar clunk syndrome can be obtained by directly visualizing the soft tissue proliferation deep to the distal quadriceps tendon and by dynamically demonstrating the clunking tissue during flexion and extension of the knee. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:105-107, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Arshi, Armin; Cohen, Jeremiah R.; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Hame, Sharon L.; McAllister, David R.; Jones, Kristofer J.
Background: Treatment of patellofemoral instability has evolved as our understanding of the relevant pathoanatomy has improved. In light of these developments, current practice patterns and management trends have likely changed to reflect these advancements; however, this has not been evaluated in a formal study. Purpose: To determine nationwide patient demographics, surgical trends, and postoperative complications associated with the operative management of patellar instability surgery. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A large private-payer database (PearlDiver) comprising patients covered by Humana and United Healthcare insurance policies was retrospectively reviewed using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes to identify patients who underwent surgery for patellar instability. The study cohort was established by querying for patients billed under CPT codes 27420, 27422, or 27427 while satisfying the diagnostic requirement of patellar instability (International Classification of Diseases–9th Revision codes 718.36, 718.86, or 836.3). Patient demographics, surgical trends, concomitant procedures, and postoperative complications were determined. Results: A total of 6190 patients underwent surgical management for patellar instability. Adolescents (age range, 10-19 years) represented 51.5% of cases, and 59.6% were female. The number of patellar instability procedures increased annually over the study period in both the Humana (P = .004, R 2 = 0.76) and United Healthcare (P = .097, R 2 = 0.54) cohorts. The most common concomitant procedures were lateral retinacular release (43.7%), chondroplasty (31.1%), tibial tubercle osteotomy (13.1%), removal of loose bodies (10.5%), osteochondral grafting (9.5%), and microfracture surgery (9.5%). Manipulation under anesthesia was required in 4.6% of patients within 1 year. Patellar fracture within 1 year and infection within 30 days occurred in 2.1% and 1.2% of patients, respectively. Conclusion
Kardouni, Joseph R; Seitz, Amee L; Walsworth, Matthew K; Michener, Lori A
A high prevalence of neovascularity in lower extremity tendinopathies has been reported. Neovascularity in those with rotator cuff tendinopathy exclusively has not been examined. The objective was to determine the prevalence of neovascularization in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy compared with asymptomatic controls. Single-blind cross-sectional study. Research laboratory. Participants (n = 40; age = 44.9 years, 23-62 years; 20 females) with rotator cuff tendinopathy (n = 20) but without full-thickness rotator cuff tears, and asymptomatic controls that were age, gender, and hand dominance matched (n = 20) to the patients. The participants laying in supine had their shoulder positioned in internal rotation and extension. Ultrasound images were collected of the supraspinatus tendon and subacromial bursae in the transverse and longitudinal planes using a linear transducer in color Doppler mode. Images were assessed for neovascularization by 2 trained raters who were blinded to group (rotator cuff tendinopathy or asymptomatic group). No statistically significant difference in neovascularization was identified between participants with and without rotator cuff tendinopathy (χ = 0.13, df = 1, P = 0.72). Neovascularization was identified in 6 of 20 patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy (30%) and 5 of 20 asymptomatic control participants (25%). The authors found no differences in neovascularization rate in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy (30%) and asymptomatic controls (25%). The study indicates that neovascularization is not related to presence of symptomatic tendinopathy in those with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Neovascularization may not be a relevant sonographic finding to aid the clinical assessment of those with rotator cuff tendinopathy.
Millar, Neal L.; Murrell, George A. C.
Tendon disorders—tendinopathies—are the primary reason for musculoskeletal consultation in primary care and account for up to 30% of rheumatological consultations. Whilst the molecular pathophysiology of tendinopathy remains difficult to interpret the disease process involving repetitive stress, and cellular load provides important mechanistic insight into the area of heat shock proteins which spans many disease processes in the autoimmune community. Heat shock proteins, also called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are rapidly released following nonprogrammed cell death, are key effectors of the innate immune system, and critically restore homeostasis by promoting the reconstruction of the effected tissue. Our investigations have highlighted a key role for HSPs in tendion disease which may ultimately affect tissue rescue mechanisms in tendon pathology. This paper aims to provide an overview of the biology of heat shock proteins in soft tissue and how these mediators may be important regulators of inflammatory mediators and matrix regulation in tendinopathy. PMID:23258952
Roche, A J; Calder, J D F
The two main categories of Achilles tendon disorder are broadly classified by anatomical location to include non-insertional and insertional conditions. Non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy is often managed conservatively, and many rehabilitation protocols have been adapted and modified, with excellent clinical results. Emerging and popular alternative therapies, including a variety of injections and extracorporeal shockwave therapy, are often combined with rehabilitation protocols. Surgical approaches have developed, with minimally invasive procedures proving popular. The management of insertional Achilles tendinopathy is improved by recognising coexisting pathologies around the insertion. Conservative rehabilitation protocols as used in non-insertional disorders are thought to prove less successful, but such methods are being modified, with improving results. Treatment such as shockwave therapy is also proving successful. Surgical approaches specific to the diagnosis are constantly evolving, and good results have been achieved.
Grimaldi, Alison; Mellor, Rebecca; Hodges, Paul; Bennell, Kim; Wajswelner, Henry; Vicenzino, Bill
Tendinopathy of the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus tendons is now recognized as a primary local source of lateral hip pain. The condition mostly occurs in mid-life both in athletes and in subjects who do not regularly exercise. Females are afflicted more than males. This condition interferes with sleep (side lying) and common weight-bearing tasks, which makes it a debilitating musculoskeletal condition with a significant impact. Mechanical loading drives the biological processes within a tendon and determines its structural form and load-bearing capacity. The combination of excessive compression and high tensile loads within tendons are thought to be most damaging. The available evidence suggests that joint position (particularly excessive hip adduction), together with muscle and bone elements, are key factors in gluteal tendinopathy. These factors provide a basis for a clinical reasoning process in the assessment and management of a patient presenting with localized lateral hip pain from gluteal tendinopathy. Currently, there is a lack of consensus as to which clinical examination tests provide best diagnostic utility. On the basis of the few diagnostic utility studies and the current understanding of the pathomechanics of gluteal tendinopathy, we propose that a battery of clinical tests utilizing a combination of provocative compressive and tensile loads is currently best practice in its assessment. Management of this condition commonly involves corticosteroid injection, exercise or shock wave therapy, with surgery reserved for recalcitrant cases. There is a dearth of evidence for any treatments, so the approach we recommend involves managing the load on the tendons through exercise and education on the underlying pathomechanics.
Docking, Sean I; Ooi, Chin Chin; Connell, David
Synopsis Tendinopathy is frequently associated with structural disorganization within the tendon. As such, the clinical use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for tendinopathy has been the focus of numerous academic studies and clinical discussions. However, similar to other musculoskeletal conditions (osteoarthritis and intervertebral disc degeneration), there is no direct link between tendon structural disorganization and clinical symptoms, with findings on imaging potentially creating a confusing clinical picture. While imaging shows the presence and extent of structural changes within the tendon, the clinical interpretation of the images requires context in regard to the features of pain and the aggravating loads. This review will critically evaluate studies that have investigated the accuracy and sensitivity of imaging in the detection of clinical tendinopathy and the methodological issues associated with these studies (subject selection, lack of a robust gold standard, reliance on subjective measures). The advent of new imaging modalities allowing for the quantification of tendon structure or mechanical properties has allowed new critical insight into tendon pathology. A strength of these novel modalities is the ability to quantify properties of the tendon. Research utilizing ultrasound tissue characterization and sonoelastography will be discussed. This narrative review will also attempt to synthesize current research on whether imaging can predict the onset of pain or clinical outcome, the role of monitoring tendon structure during rehabilitation (ie, does tendon structure need to improve to get a positive clinical outcome?), and future directions for research, and to propose the clinical role of imaging in tendinopathy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(11):842-852. Epub 21 Sep 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5880.
Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Nording, Malin L.; Gaida, Jamie E.; Forsgren, Sture; Alfredson, Håkan; Fowler, Christopher J.
Background Linoleic acid-derived oxidation products are found in experimental pain models. However, little is known about the levels of such oxylipins in human pain. In consequence, in the present study, we have undertaken a lipidomic profiling of oxylipins in blood serum from patients with Achilles tendinopathy and controls. Methodology/Principal findings A total of 34 oxylipins were analysed in the serum samples. At a significance level of P<0.00147 (<0.05/34), two linoleic acid-derived oxylipins, 13-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic (13-HODE) and 12(13)-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DiHOME) were present at significantly higher levels in the Achilles tendinopathy samples. This difference remained significant when the dataset was controlled for age, gender and body-mass index. In contrast, 0/21 of the arachidonic acid- and 0/4 of the dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahenaenoic acid-derived oxylipins were higher in the patient samples at this level of significance. The area under the Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve for 12,13-DiHOME was 0.91 (P<0.0001). Levels of four N-acylethanolamines were also analysed and found not to be significantly different between the controls and the patients at the level of P<0.0125 (<0.05/4). Conclusions/Significance It is concluded from this exploratory study that abnormal levels of linoleic acid-derived oxylipins are seen in blood serum from patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Given the ability of two of these, 9- and 13-HODE to activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, it is possible that these changes may contribute to the symptoms seen in Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:25875933
Notarnicola, A; Maccagnano, G; Tafuri, S; Fiore, A; Margiotta, C; Pesce, V; Moretti, B
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy is very widely used for the management of tendinopathies and plantar fasciitis. The aim of the study is to determine whether there are prognostic factors that may influence the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for these diseases. Three hundred fifty-five patients were analyzed 2 months after shock wave treatment for rotator cuff tendinitis, epicondylitis, Achilles tendinopathy, trocanteritis, jumper's knee or plantar fasciitis. We recorded the epidemiological, clinical and treatment protocol, and these data were correlated with treatment outcome. Clinical improvement was achieved in 45.9 % of these patients. We discovered that laterality different to the dominant limb (p < 0.0001) and repeated shock wave treatments (p = 0.004) are prognostic factors in an unsuccessful therapy, while being male (p = 0.015) and a high body mass index (p = 0.004) are factors for success. We found no differences in relation to age, diet, blood type, work or sport activity, presence of co-morbidities, drugs, type of tendinopathy, density of energy delivered and other physiotherapy treatment. Knowledge of these prognostic factors may lead to improved insight for physicians and physiotherapists to predict the extent of the recovery and adjust rehabilitation and patient expectations accordingly.
Littlewood, Chris; Ashton, Jon; Chance-Larsen, Ken; May, Stephen; Sturrock, Ben
Shoulder pain due to rotator cuff tendinopathy is a common problem. Exercise is one intervention used to address this problem but conclusions from previous reviews have been mixed. To systematically review the effectiveness of exercise, incorporating loaded exercise (against gravity or resistance), for rotator cuff tendinopathy. An electronic search of AMED, CiNAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PEDro and SPORTDiscus was undertaken from their inception to November 2010 and supplemented by hand searching related articles and contact with topic experts. Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of exercise, incorporating loaded exercise, in participants with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Included studies were appraised for risk of bias using the tool developed by the Cochrane Back review Group. Due to heterogeneity of studies, a narrative synthesis was undertaken based upon levels of evidence. Five articles detailing four studies were included, all of which were regarded as presenting a low risk of bias. Overall, the literature was supportive of the use of exercise in terms of pain and functional disability. The results should be regarded with some degree of caution due to limitations associated with the studies including lack of blinding, no intervention control groups and limitations of the outcome measures used. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS: The available literature is supportive of the use of exercise but due to the paucity of research and associated limitations further study is indicated. Copyright © 2011 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kachooei, Amir Reza; Nota, Sjoerd P.F.T; Menendez, Mariano E; Dyer, George S.M.; Ring, David
Background: Geographic and doctor-to-doctor variations in care are a focus of quality and safety efforts in medicine. This study addresses factors associated with variation in the rate of operative treatment of de Quervain tendinopathy. Methods: We used a database including all patient encounters at 2 large medical centers, to study the experience of 10 hand surgeons and 1 physiatrist working in a hand surgery office in the treatment of 2,513 patients with de Quervain tendinopathy over a 12-year period. Survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare surgery rates and time to surgery. Cox multivariable regression analysis was applied to identify factors associated with operative treatment. Results: One hundred ninety nine (7.9%) patients had surgery. The odds of operative treatment were 1.7 times greater after corticosteroid injection and varied more than 10-fold among providers. There was substantial variation in the overall rate of surgery by provider. Corticosteroid injection delayed surgery slightly, but was associated with a higher rate of surgery. Conclusion: Providers have substantial influence on treatment of de Quervain tendinopathy. The use of decision aids and other methods that help involve the patient in decision-making merit investigation as interventions to help reduce doctor-to-doctor variation. PMID:26213704
Abate, Michele; Guelfi, Matteo; Pantalone, Andrea; Vanni, Daniele; Schiavone, Cosima; Andia, Isabel; Salini, Vincenzo
Summary Background Hormones can modify tendon homeostasis, some of them leading to tendon damage, while others are essentials for healing. This narrative review summarizes the current knowledge on the topic, focusing on the hormones normally secreted by endocrine glands. Methods A search in PubMed, Web of Knowledge and EMBASE, using the terms tendinopathy or tendon, combined with estrogens, testosterone, thyroid and parathyroid hormones, glucocorticoids and growth hormone, independently, was performed. Relevant articles focusing on the correlation between hormones and tendons, and their therapeutic use in tendinopathies, were selected. Results Tendon abnormalities observed in subjects with hyperparathyroidism, hypercortisolism and acromegaly are described. At present, experimental studies and preliminary observations in humans suggest that parathyroid and growth hormones, locally administered, are promising therapeutic tools in specific tendon disorders. Local injections of glucocorticoids are useful in several tendinopathies, exploiting their anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties, but carry the risk of further tendon degeneration and ruptures, due to the detrimental direct effect of glucocorticoids on the tendon structure. Conclusion Because tendons injuries are frequent, often with long lasting sequels, it is important to improve our understanding concerning the therapeutic potential of hormones on healing. Level of evidence IV. PMID:28217565
Kachooei, Amir Reza; Nota, Sjoerd P F T; Menendez, Mariano E; Dyer, George S M; Ring, David
Geographic and doctor-to-doctor variations in care are a focus of quality and safety efforts in medicine. This study addresses factors associated with variation in the rate of operative treatment of de Quervain tendinopathy. We used a database including all patient encounters at 2 large medical centers, to study the experience of 10 hand surgeons and 1 physiatrist working in a hand surgery office in the treatment of 2,513 patients with de Quervain tendinopathy over a 12-year period. Survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare surgery rates and time to surgery. Cox multivariable regression analysis was applied to identify factors associated with operative treatment. One hundred ninety nine (7.9%) patients had surgery. The odds of operative treatment were 1.7 times greater after corticosteroid injection and varied more than 10-fold among providers. There was substantial variation in the overall rate of surgery by provider. Corticosteroid injection delayed surgery slightly, but was associated with a higher rate of surgery. Providers have substantial influence on treatment of de Quervain tendinopathy. The use of decision aids and other methods that help involve the patient in decision-making merit investigation as interventions to help reduce doctor-to-doctor variation.
Mooney, Brianne; Vitale, Ashley; Apergis, Demitra; Wirth, Stephen; Grossman, Mark G.
ABSTRACT Background The incidence of patellar subluxation or dislocation has been documented up to 43/100,000 with females more prevalent then males. There are many contributing factors involving the hip, knee, and ankle that lead to patellar subluxation. A patellar position of lateral tilt with lateral glide may indicate weakness of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and adductors, increased tightness in the iliotibial band, and overpowering of the vastus lateralis. Patella alta can predispose an individual to lateral dislocation due to the patella placement outside of the femoral trochlear groove with a disadvantage of boney stability. Other factors that may cause the patella to laterally sublux or dislocate during a functional activity or sporting activity include a position of femoral external rotation, tibial internal rotation, and excessive contraction of the vastus lateralis. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) aids in the prevention of a lateral patellar subluxation or dislocation. In cases where there is recurrent subluxation/dislocation and Magnetic Resonance Imaging confirms a MPFL tear, a reconstruction may be the treatment of choice. Purpose The purpose of this case series is to describe the post-surgical physical therapy management of MPFL reconstructions, outcomes using the Modified Cincinnati Knee Outcome Measure (MCKOM) and to propose staged physical therapy interventions for this pathology in the form of a treatment progression. Methods Post-operative management data and outcomes were retrospectively collected using a detailed chart review methodology from seven subjects who underwent MPFL reconstruction. Findings The Modified Cincinnati Knee Outcome Measure (MCKOM) was analyzed for each participant in four sections that were most important to the return and maintenance of participation in sport. At follow-up the mean scores for the seven subjects in Section 3 (instability) was 19.3/20, Section 4 (overall activity level) was 17.3/20, Section
Carmont, Michael R; Maffulli, Nicola
Achilles tendinopathy is understood to be a failed healing response. Operative management is utilised following the failure of non-operative methods. We present a case of Achilles tendon rupture, sustained whilst isometrically loading the Achilles tendon during an eccentric loading exercise programme. Bilateral surgical exploration and debridement had previously been performed after conservative management of bilateral Achilles tendinopathy had been unsuccessful.
Han, Soo-Hong; Choi, Wonchul; Song, Jiye; Kim, Jaehee; Lee, Seungyong; Choi, Youngrak; Byun, Seong-Eun; Ahn, Taekeun; Ahn, Heejung; Ding, Catherine; Baik, Lloyd; Ward, Spencer; Ting, Kang; Lee, Soonchul
It was reported that substance P had beneficial effects in the healing of acute tendon injury. However, the relationship between substance P and degenerative tendinopathy development remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of substance P in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. Healthy and tendinopathy tendon were harvested from human and tenocytes were cultured individually. The expression levels of genes associated with tendinopathy were compared. Next, substance P was exogenously administered to the healthy tenocyte and the effect was evaluated. The results showed that tendinopathy tenocytes had higher levels of COL3A1, MMP1, COX2, SCX, ACTA2, and substance P gene expression compared to healthy tenocytes. Next, substance P treatment on the healthy tenocyte displayed similar changes to that of the tendinopathy tenocytes. These differences between the two groups were also determined by Western blot. Additionally, cells with substance P had the tendinopathy change morphologically although cellular proliferation was significantly higher compared to that of the control group. In conclusion, substance P enhanced cellular proliferation, but concomitantly increased immature collagen (type 3 collagen). Substance P plays a crucial role in tendinopathy development and could be a future therapeutic target for treatment.
Han, Soo-Hong; Choi, Wonchul; Song, Jiye; Kim, Jaehee; Lee, Seungyong; Choi, Youngrak; Byun, Seong-Eun; Ahn, Taekeun; Ahn, Heejung; Ding, Catherine; Baik, Lloyd; Ward, Spencer; Ting, Kang; Lee, Soonchul
It was reported that substance P had beneficial effects in the healing of acute tendon injury. However, the relationship between substance P and degenerative tendinopathy development remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of substance P in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. Healthy and tendinopathy tendon were harvested from human and tenocytes were cultured individually. The expression levels of genes associated with tendinopathy were compared. Next, substance P was exogenously administered to the healthy tenocyte and the effect was evaluated. The results showed that tendinopathy tenocytes had higher levels of COL3A1, MMP1, COX2, SCX, ACTA2, and substance P gene expression compared to healthy tenocytes. Next, substance P treatment on the healthy tenocyte displayed similar changes to that of the tendinopathy tenocytes. These differences between the two groups were also determined by Western blot. Additionally, cells with substance P had the tendinopathy change morphologically although cellular proliferation was significantly higher compared to that of the control group. In conclusion, substance P enhanced cellular proliferation, but concomitantly increased immature collagen (type 3 collagen). Substance P plays a crucial role in tendinopathy development and could be a future therapeutic target for treatment. PMID:28598390
Toliopoulos, Panagiota; Desmeules, François; Boudreault, Jennifer; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Frémont, Pierre; MacDermid, Joy C; Dionne, Clermont E
The objective of this study is to review randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of surgery for the treatment of rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy. Studies up to August 2013 were located in the PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PEDro databases using relevant keywords. Studies were included if: (1) participants had rotator cuff tendinopathy, (2) the trials were conducted on an adult population (≥18 years old), (3) at least one of the interventions studied was a surgical procedure, (4) study design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT), and (5) the article was written in English or French. Characteristics of the included studies were extracted using a standardized form. Two independent raters reviewed the methodological quality of the studies using the Risk of Bias Assessment tool developed by the Cochrane Collaboration Group. Differences were resolved by consensus. Fifteen trials met our inclusion criteria. After consensus, the mean methodological quality for all studies was 58.9 ± 10.8 %. In three out of four RCTs of moderate or low methodological quality, no significant difference in treatment effectiveness was observed between open or arthroscopic acromioplasty compared to exercises in the treatment of RC tendinopathy. Based on two studies of low or moderate methodological quality, no difference in treatment effectiveness was observed between arthroscopic and open acromioplasty. Two other RCTs of low to moderate quality, however, found that arthroscopic acromioplasty yielded better results in the short-term for shoulder range of motion in flexion but that both procedures were comparable in the long-term. One additional study favored open acromioplasty over arthroscopic acromioplasty for the treatment of RC tendinopathy. Based on low- to moderate-quality evidence, acromioplasty, be it open or arthroscopic, is no more effective than exercises for the treatment of RC tendinopathy. Low-grade evidence also suggests that arthroscopic acromioplasty may
Chandrasekhar, Annapoorna; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Tham, Lai Kuan; Lim, Kheng Seang; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar
Background A clinical parameter commonly used to assess the neurological status of an individual is the tendon reflex response. However, the clinical method of evaluation often leads to subjective conclusions that may differ between examiners. Moreover, attempts to quantify the reflex response, especially in older age groups, have produced inconsistent results. This study aims to examine the influence of age on the magnitude of the patellar tendon reflex response. Methodology/Principal Findings This study was conducted using the motion analysis technique with the reflex responses measured in terms of knee angles. Forty healthy subjects were selected and categorized into three different age groups. Patellar reflexes were elicited from both the left and right patellar tendons of each subject at three different tapping angles and using the Jendrassik maneuver. The findings suggested that age has a significant effect on the magnitude of the reflex response. An angle of 45° may be the ideal tapping angle at which the reflex can be elicited to detect age-related differences in reflex response. The reflex responses were also not influenced by gender and were observed to be fairly symmetrical. Conclusions/Significance Neurologically normal individuals will experience an age-dependent decline in patellar reflex response. PMID:24260483
Tataroglu, Cengiz; Deneri, Ersin; Ozkul, Ayca; Sair, Ahmet; Yaycioglu, Soner
The adductor reflex (AR) is a tendon reflex that has various features that differ from other tendon reflexes. This reflex was tested in different disorders presenting with diminished patellar reflexes such as diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (DLRPN), L2-L4 radiculopathy, and distal symmetric diabetic neuropathy (diabetic PNP). The AR and crossed-AR (elicited by tapping the contralateral patellar tendon) were recorded using concentric needle electrodes. Additionally, the patellar T reflex (vm-TR) and vastus medialis H reflex (vm-HR) were recorded using surface electrodes. AR was recorded in only one out of eight patients with DLRPN, but it was recorded in 21 out of 22 patients with L2-L4 radiculopathy (95.5%). Of these reflexes, only AR showed prolonged latency in the L2-L4 radiculopathy group. The latencies of AR, vm-TR, and vm-HR were prolonged in patients with diabetic PNP. We conclude that AR can be useful in the differential diagnosis of some lower motor neuron disorders that present with patellar reflex disturbance. Muscle Nerve 40: 264-270, 2009.
Bhatt, Jay; Montalban, Antonio Santa Cruz; Wang, Kook Hyun; Lee, Hee Du; Nha, Kyung Wook
Chondral fractures of the patella are associated with acute dislocation of the patella. Osteochondral fracture in patellar dislocation is located in the medial facet of the patella. This article presents a case of a 15-year-old female ballerina with isolated displaced osteochondral fracture of the patella without patellar dislocation. She had no history of trauma. A Merchant's view of both knees showed mild subluxation of the patella, a small fragment on the lateral aspect of the knee, and a small defect of the centromedial patella. Axial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an osteochondral fragment measuring 13 mm medial to the patella. However, the medial patellofemoral ligament and medial retinaculum were intact. An effusion on the medial side of the patella consistent with hemarthrosis was observed. An absence of a contusion or bone bruise on the lateral femoral condyle was shown. The loose body was removed arthroscopically. Intraoperative findings included a 1.5×2 cm osteochondral fragment. It is unusual that the osteochondral patellar defect site in this patient was in the inferior and central areas of the patella. Patellar chondral fractures without dislocation or patella fracture are rare. Therefore, the possibility of a trivial trauma leading to an osteochondral fracture should be kept in mind in adolescent and young adults who present with knee pain and hemarthrosis. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Griffiths, G P; Selesnick, F H
Patellar tendinitis is a well-described clinical entity that usually responds well to conservative treatment. However, a subset of patients continue with symptoms despite exhaustive nonoperative means. The objective of the study was to review the treatment course and operative results of seven patients (eight knees) with chronic patellar tendinitis treated surgically. Five (70%) of these patients were either professional or collegiate athletes. The average age was 30 years (range, 20 to 45 years). Duration of symptoms averaged 1.4 years (range, 3 months to 4 years) before surgical correction. Operative treatment included knee arthroscopy and open repair consisting of excision of degenerated tissue and stimulation of a healing response of the patellar tendon pathology. Operative findings and pathology reports consistently showed marked fibrotendinous degeneration. Follow-up averaged 3.6 years (range, 4 months to 8.5 years). Outcomes were measured subjectively with SF36 results and objectively with Biodex testing (Biodex, Shirley, NY) and return to previous level of competition. Overall, 86% of patients achieved an excellent result and 14% had a fair result. We recommend operative intervention in a patient with chronic patellar tendinitis who does not improve with well-supervised, comprehensive conservative treatment.
Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Sereysky, Jedd B; Jepsen, Karl J; Flatow, Evan L
Damage accumulation underlies tendinopathy. Animal models of overuse injuries do not typically control loads applied to the tendon. Our in vivo model in the rat patellar tendon allows direct control of the loading applied to the tendon. Despite this advantage, natural variation among tendons results in different amounts of damage induced by the same loading protocol. Our objectives were to (1) assess changes in the initial mechanical parameters (hysteresis, stiffness of the loading and unloading load-displacement curves, and elongation) after fatigue loading to identify parameters that are indicative of the induced damage, and (2) evaluate the relationships between these identified initial damage indices with the stiffness 7 day after loading. Left patellar tendons of adult, female retired breeder, Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 68) were fatigue loaded per our previously published in vivo fatigue loading protocol. To induce a range of damage, fatigue loading consisted of either 5, 100, 500 or 7200 cycles that ranged from 1 N to 40 N. Diagnostic tests were applied before and immediately after fatigue loading, and after 45 min of recovery to deduce recoverable and non-recoverable changes in initial damage indices. Relationships between these initial damage indices and the 7-day stiffness (at sacrifice) were determined. Day-0 hysteresis, loading and unloading stiffness exhibited cycle-dependent changes. Initial hysteresis loss correlated with the 7-day stiffness. k-means cluster analysis demonstrated a relationship between 7-day stiffness and day-0 hysteresis and unloading stiffness. This analysis also separated samples that exhibited low from high damage in response to both high or low number of cycles; a key delineation for interpretation of the biological response in future studies. Identifying initial parameters that reflect the induced damage is critical since the ability of the tendon to repair depends on the damage induced and the number of applied loading cycles.
Gerdesmeyer, Ludger; Mittermayr, Rainer; Fuerst, Martin; Al Muderis, Munjed; Thiele, Richard; Saxena, Amol; Gollwitzer, Hans
Chronic Achilles tendinopathy has been described as the most common overuse injury in sports medicine. Several treatment modalities such as activity modification, heel lifts, arch supports, stretching exercises, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and eccentric loading are known as standard treatment mostly without proven evidence. After failed conservative therapy, invasive treatment may be considered. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been successfully used in soft-tissue pathologies like lateral epicondylitis, plantar fasciitis, tendinopathy of the shoulder and also in bone and skin disorders. Conclusive evidence recommending ESWT as a treatment for Achilles tendinopathy is still lacking. In plantar fasciitis as well as in calcific shoulder tendinopathy shock wave therapy is recently the best evaluated treatment option. This article analysis the evidence based literature of ESWT in chronic Achilles tendinopathy. Recently published data have shown the efficacy of focused and radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. All rights reserved.
Olimpo, Matteo; Piras, Lisa Adele; Peirone, Bruno
Small breed dogs are 12 times more likely to develop medial patellar luxation (MPL) than large breed dogs and breed predisposition has been reported. Many surgical techniques are available for correction of patellar luxation in dogs. However, recent studies reported an 8% incidence of reluxation when traditional techniques are used. The relatively high frequency of major complications and patellar reluxation may be partially caused by inadequate appreciation of the underlying skeletal deformity and subsequent incorrect selection and application of traditional techniques. The aims of this study were to report the normal values of the anatomic and mechanical joint angles of the femur and tibia in small breed dogs and to compare these data to a population of small breed dogs affected by different degrees of MPL. Normal values of the anatomic and mechanical angles of the femur are similar to the ones reported in literature in Pomeranian dogs. Normal values of the anatomic and mechanical angles of the tibia have been described for the first time. Significant differences were found between normal population and dogs affected by grade 4 MPL in relation to anatomical Lateral Distal Femoral Angle (aLDFA), mechanical Medial Proximal Tibial Angle (mMPTA), and mechanical Caudal Proximal Tibial Angle (mCaPTA).
Ode, Gabriella E; Piasecki, Dana P; Habet, Nahir A; Peindl, Richard D
Patellar tendon ruptures require surgical repair to optimize outcomes, but no consensus exists regarding the ideal repair technique. Cortical button fixation is a secure method for tendon repair that has not been studied in patellar tendons. Cortical button repair is biomechanically superior to the standard transpatellar repair and biomechanically equivalent to suture anchor repair. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-three fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were used to compare 3 techniques of patellar tendon repair after a simulated rupture at the inferior pole of the patella. Repairs were performed at 45° of flexion using a standard transpatellar suture repair (n = 7), polyetheretherketone (PEEK) suture anchor repair (n = 8), or cortical button repair (n = 8). All specimens were tested on a custom apparatus to simulate cyclic open kinetic chain quadriceps contraction from extension to 90(o) of flexion. Outcomes of gap formation up to 250 cycles, maximum load to failure, and mode of failure were evaluated. Cortical button repair had significantly less gap formation than anchor repair after 1 cycle (P < .001) and 20 cycles (P < .01) and significantly less gap formation than suture repair from 1 to 250 cycles (P < .05). Cortical button repair sustained significantly higher loads to failure than anchor repair and suture repair (P < .001). All suture repairs failed through the suture. Anchor repairs failed at the suture-anchor eyelet interface (n = 4) or by anchor pullout (n = 3). Cortical button repairs either failed through the suture (n = 5), secondary failure of the patellar tendon (n = 2), or subsidence of the button through the anterior cortex of the patella (n = 1). Patellar tendon repair using cortical button fixation demonstrated mechanical advantages over suture repair and anchor repair in cadaveric specimens. Cortical button fixation showed less cyclic gap formation and withstood at least twice the load to failure of the construct. The biomechanical superiority
Shimozono, Yoshiharu; Kawano, Hirotaka
Introduction. Disorders of the Achilles tendon can be broadly classified into acute and chronic entities. Few studies have established chronic Achilles tendinopathy as a precursor to acute Achilles ruptures. In this study, we assessed the relationship between Achilles tendinopathy and rupture, clarifying the incidence of rupture in the setting of underlying tendinopathy. Methods. The United Healthcare Orthopedic Dataset from the PearlDiver Patient Record Database was used to identify patients with ICD-9 codes for Achilles rupture and/or Achilles tendinopathy. The number of patients with acute rupture, chronic tendinopathy, and rupture following a prior diagnosis of tendinopathy was assessed. Results. Four percent of patients with an underlying diagnosis of Achilles tendinopathy went on to sustain a rupture (7,232 patients). Older patients with tendinopathy were most vulnerable to subsequent rupture. Conclusions. The current study demonstrates that 4.0% of patients who were previously diagnosed with Achilles tendinopathy sustained an Achilles tendon rupture. Additionally, older patients with Achilles tendinopathy were most vulnerable. These findings are important as they can help clinicians more objectively council patients with Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:28540301
Achilles tendinitis , 584 cases of patellar tendinitis , and 1228 cases plantar fasciitis were identified. Recent deployment was associated with an...consumption was marginally associated with an increased risk for Achilles tendinitis (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.76). Overweight or obese individuals...were more likely to develop both Achilles tendinitis and plantar fasciitis. Specific occupations, including health care workers, were at
Scott, Alexander; Alfredson, Håkan; Forsgren, Sture
SUMMARY BACKGROUND The pathogenesis of chronic tendinopathy is unclear. We have previously measured high intratendinous levels of glutamate in patients with tendinosis, suggesting potential roles of glutamate in the modulation of pain, vascular function, and degenerative changes including apoptosis of tenocytes. However, the origin of free glutamate found in tendon tissue is completely unknown. METHODS Surgical biopsies of pain-free normal tendons and tendinosis tendons (Achilles and patellar) were examined immunohistochemically using antibodies against vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluT1 and VGluT2), as indirect markers of glutamate release. In situ hybridization for VGluT2 mRNA was also conducted. RESULTS Specific immunoreactions for VGluT2, but not VGluT1, could be consistently detected in tenocytes. However, there were interindividual variations in the levels of immunoreactivity. The level of immunoreaction for VGluT2 was higher in tendinosis tendons compared to normal tendon (p<0.05). In situ hybridization of VGluT2 demonstrated that mRNA was localized in a similar pattern as the protein, with marked expression by certain tenocytes, particularly those showing abnormal appearances. Reactivity for VGluT1 and -2 was absent from nerves and vessel structures in both normal and painful tendons. CONCLUSIONS The current data demonstrate that tenocytes may be involved in the regulation of extracellular glutamate levels in tendons. Specifically, the observations suggest that free glutamate may be locally produced and released by tenocytes, rather than by peripheral neurons. Excessive free glutamate is expected to impact a variety of autocrine and paracrine functions important in the development of tendinosis, including tenocyte proliferation and apoptosis, extracellular matrix metabolism, nociception and blood flow. PMID:18050306
Le Corroller, Thomas; Dediu, Melania; Champsaur, Pierre
Medial dislocation of the patella is an unusual entity. It is usually an iatrogenic complication of surgical lateral retinacular release. We describe the clinical, ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of a transient medial patellar dislocation in a 19-year-old patient with trochlear groove dysplasia presenting no surgical history. US showed acute injury to the lateral patellar retinaculum with complete avulsion at its patellar insertion. MR imaging confirmed the complete tear of the lateral patellar retinaculum and disclosed contusion of the anteromedial portion of the medial femoral condyle and lateral patella. This case is noteworthy because the injury patterns of patellar soft tissue restraints differ markedly from the classical features of lateral patellar dislocation.
Felicio, Lilian Ramiro; Camargo, Ana Claudia Spechoto; Baffa, Augusto do Prado; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora
To evaluate the patellar height of volunteers with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome (PPS) during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) in open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercises. Twenty healthy women, and nineteen women with patellofemoral pain syndrome were evaluated and subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance imaging during rest and MVIC in OKC and CKC at 15°, 30°, and 45° knee flexion. The patellar height was assessed by the K-Pacs program,using the Insall-Salvati index. For each exercise and knee position, patellar height was measured three times and the procedure was repeated after seven days. These data did not confirm our hypothesis that OKC exercises promote increased patellar height. Patellar height is not associated with PPS and suggests that CKC exercises lead an increased patellar height during knee position at 15º and 45º flexion for the PPS group. Level of Evidence II, Comparative Prospective.
Agarwala, Sanjay R; Mohrir, Ganesh S; Patel, Aashish G
This retrospective study of 208 (204 patients) total knee arthroplasties evaluated the incidence of patellar clunk syndrome for two high-flex posterior stabilized knee prostheses; a high-flex fixed bearing prosthesis and a high-flex mobile bearing prosthesis. Patients were followed for up to two years and were evaluated for patellar clunk and component position. Knees receiving the mobile bearing had a significantly higher (p < 0.001) incidence of patellar clunk (15%) than knees receiving the fixed bearing (0%). There was a significantly higher incidence of patellar clunk in males (34.1%; p < 0.01) compared to females (8.6%). Fibrous nodules were treated surgically in 11 of the knees with patellar clunk. The design of this particular mobile bearing knee seems to contribute to patellar clunk syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khormaee, Sariah; Kramer, Dennis E.; Yen, Yi-Meng; Heyworth, Benton E.
Context: The rising popularity and intensity of youth sports has increased the incidence of patellar dislocation. These sports-related injuries may be associated with significant morbidity in the pediatric population. Treatment requires understanding and attention to the unique challenges in the skeletally immature patient. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed searches spanning 1970-2013. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Although nonoperative approaches are most often suitable for first-time patellar dislocations, surgical treatment is recommended for acute fixation of displaced osteochondral fractures sustained during primary instability and for patellar realignment in the setting of recurrent instability. While a variety of procedures can prevent recurrence, the risk of complications is not minimal. Conclusion: Patellar stabilization and realignment procedures in skeletally immature patients with recurrent patellar dislocation can effectively treat patellar instability without untoward effects on growth if careful surgical planning incorporates protection of growth parameters in the skeletally immature athlete. PMID:25984256
Keshmiri, Armin; Springorum, Hans Robert; Baier, Clemens; Zeman, Florian; Grifka, Joachim; Maderbacher, Günther
Patellar maltracking due to incorrect component alignment is considered as a main reason for anterior knee pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In contrast to coronal and axial component placement, the influence of sagittal component alignment on patellar kinematics has not been investigated so far. In ten lower cadaveric limbs, TKAs were implanted using a commercial computer navigation system. In six knees, the femoral component was aligned in 5° and in four knees in 0° of flexion, respectively. Patellar kinematics were registered by means of a computer navigation system using an additional patella tracking array and correlated with femoral and tibial sagittal component alignment. Sagittal component alignment significantly altered patellar mediolateral shift (p < 0.05). In contrast, patellar epicondylar distance, rotation and tilt were not significantly influenced. Sagittal component alignment in TKA has a major impact on patellar kinematics and should therefore be considered while addressing tibiofemoral kinematics intraoperatively.
Lewis, Jeremy S; Raza, Syed A; Pilcher, James; Heron, Christine; Poloniecki, Jan D
Shoulder dysfunction is common and pathology of the rotator cuff tendons and subacromial bursa are considered to be a major cause of pain and morbidity. Although many hypotheses exist there is no definitive understanding as to the origin of the pain arising from these structures. Research investigations from other tendons have placed intra-tendinous neovascularity as a potential mechanism of pain production. The prevalence of neovascularity in patients with a clinical diagnosis of rotator cuff tendinopathy is unknown. As such the primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate if neovascularity could be identified and to determine the prevalence of neovascularity in the rotator cuff tendons and subacromial bursa in subjects with unilateral shoulder pain clinically assessed to be rotator cuff tendinopathy. The secondary aims were to investigate the association between the presence of neovascularity and pain, duration of symptoms, and, neovascularity and shoulder function. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of unilateral rotator cuff tendinopathy referred for a routine diagnostic ultrasound (US) scan in a major London teaching hospital formed the study population. At referral patients were provided with an information document. On the day of the scan (on average, at least one week later) the patients agreeing to participate were taken through the consent process and underwent an additional clinical examination prior to undergoing a bilateral grey scale and colour Doppler US examination (symptomatic and asymptomatic shoulder) using a Philips HDI 5000 Sono CT US machine. The ultrasound scans were performed by one of two radiologists who recorded their findings and the final assessment was made by a third radiologist blinded both to the clinical examination and the ultrasound examination. The findings of the radiologists who performed the scans and the blinded radiologist were compared and any disagreements were resolved by consensus. Twenty-six patients agreed to
Streit, Jonathan J; Shishani, Yousef; Rodgers, Mark; Gobezie, Reuben
Bicipital tendinitis is a common cause of anterior shoulder pain, but there is no evidence that acute inflammation of the extra-articular long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon is the root cause of this condition. We evaluated the histologic findings of the extra-articular portion of the LHB tendon and synovial sheath in order to compare those findings to known histologic changes seen in other tendinopathies. Twenty-six consecutive patients (mean age 45.4±13.7 years) underwent an open subpectoral biceps tenodesis for anterior shoulder pain localized to the bicipital groove. Excised tendons were sent for histologic analysis. Specimens were graded using a semiquantitative scoring system to evaluate tenocyte morphology, the presence of ground substance, collagen bundle characteristics, and vascular changes. Chronic inflammation was noted in only two of 26 specimens, and no specimen demonstrated acute inflammation. Tenocyte enlargement and proliferation, characterized by increased roundness and size of the cell and nucleus with proteoglycan matrix expansion and myxoid degenerative changes, was found in all 26 specimens. Abundant ground substance, collagen bundle changes, and increased vascularization were visualized in all samples. Anterior shoulder pain attributed to the biceps tendon does not appear to be due to an inflammatory process in most cases. The histologic findings of the extra-articular portion of the LHB tendon and synovial sheath are similar to the pathologic findings in de Quervain tenosynovitis at the wrist, and may be due to a chronic degenerative process similar to this and other tendinopathies of the body.
Seil, R; Müller, B; Georg, T; Kohn, D; Rupp, S
This study evaluated the reliability and interobserver variability of five patellar height ratios as measured by two examiners on standard radiographs: Insall-Salvati (IS), modified Insall-Salvati (MIS), Blackburne-Peel (BP), Caton-Deschamps (CD), and Labelle-Laurin (LL). Plain lateral radiographs with a knee flexion angle of 20 degrees for IS, MIS, BP, and CD ratios and 90 degrees for the LL method of 22 knees of 21 patients with varying pathological knee conditions were analyzed. Statistical results revealed a low interobserver variability with high correlation coefficients (0.86 for IS, 0.82 for MIS, 0.86 for BP, 0.92 for CD, and 0.81 for LL; P > 0.3) and low mean interobserver errors. However, regarding the reliability of the radiographic results of the different methods for patella alta, baja, or norma we found varying results in 68% of the patients. In two patients the patellar height was classified as alta, norma, or baja depending on the ratio used. Regarding the definitions of patellar height used by the authors of these methods, we found the lowest number of normal patellae with the IS ratio and no patella alta for the CD ratio. The LL method revealed the highest number of patella alta. The BP ratio showed intermediate results for both patella alta and baja, being the most moderate method. This study showed that there was a good interobserver reliability for the evaluation of patellar height according to the common radiological ratios. However, the high frequency of differing results between the different radiographic ratios showed that patellar height classification as "alta," "norma," or "baja" depends heavily on the chosen index. The differing results were due mainly to the normative patellar height data and to anatomical differences. Based on these findings we recommend a ratio using the articular surface of the patella in relation to the joint line. We recommend the BP method because it revealed the lowest interobserver variability and discriminated
Achkoun, Abdessalam; Houjairi, Khalid; Quahtan, Omar; Hassoun, Jalal; Arssi, Mohamed; Rahmi, Mohamed; Garch, Abdelhak
Simultaneous rupture of both the patellar tendon and the anterior cruciate ligament is a relatively rare injury. Its diagnosis can easily be missed during the initial examination. Treatment options include immediate repair of the patellar tendon with either simultaneous or delayed reconstruction of the ACL. We present the case of a combined rupture of the patellar tendon, the anterior cruciate ligament in a 22-year old footballer. A two-stage treatment approach was performed with an excellent functional outcome.
Pingel, Jessica; Petersen, M Christine H; Fredberg, Ulrich; Kjær, Søren G; Quistorff, Bjørn; Langberg, Henning; Hansen, Jacob B
Achilles tendinopathy is a painful inflammatory condition characterized by swelling, stiffness and reduced function of the Achilles tendon. Kager's fat pad is an adipose tissue located in the area anterior to the Achilles tendon. Observations reveal a close physical interplay between Kager's fat pad and its surrounding structures during movement of the ankle, suggesting that Kager's fat pad may stabilize and protect the mechanical function of the ankle joint. The aim of this study was to characterize whether Achilles tendinopathy was accompanied by changes in expression of inflammatory markers and metabolic enzymes in Kager's fat pad. A biopsy was taken from Kager's fat pad from 31 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and from 13 healthy individuals. Gene expression was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Focus was on genes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. Expression of the majority of analyzed inflammatory marker genes was increased in patients with Achilles tendinopathy compared to that in healthy controls. Expression patterns of the patient group were consistent with reduced lipolysis and increased fatty acid β-oxidation. In the fat pad, the pain-signaling neuropeptide substance P was found to be present in one third of the subjects in the Achilles tendinopathy group but in none of the healthy controls. Gene expression changes in Achilles tendinopathy patient samples were consistent with Kager's fat pad being more inflamed than in the healthy control group. Additionally, the results indicate an altered lipid metabolism in Kager's fat pad of Achilles tendinopathy patients.
Achilles tendinopathy is one of the most frequently ankle and foot overuse injuries, which is a clinical syndrome characterized by the combination of pain, swelling, and impaired performance. The two main categories of Achilles tendinopathy are classified according to anatomical location and broadly include insertional and noninsertional tendinopathy. The etiology of Achilles tendinopathy is multifactorial including both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Failed healing response and degenerative changes were found in the tendon. The failed healing response includes three different and continuous stages (reactive tendinopathy, tendon disrepair, and degenerative tendinopathy). The histological studies have demonstrated an increased number of tenocytes and concentration of glycosaminoglycans in the ground substance, disorganization and fragmentation of the collagen, and neovascularization. There are variable conservative and surgical treatment options for Achilles tendinopathy. However, there has not been a gold standard of these treatments because of the controversial clinical results between various studies. In the future, new level I researches will be needed to prove the effect of these treatment options. PMID:27885357
Li, Hong-Yun; Hua, Ying-Hui
Achilles tendinopathy is one of the most frequently ankle and foot overuse injuries, which is a clinical syndrome characterized by the combination of pain, swelling, and impaired performance. The two main categories of Achilles tendinopathy are classified according to anatomical location and broadly include insertional and noninsertional tendinopathy. The etiology of Achilles tendinopathy is multifactorial including both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Failed healing response and degenerative changes were found in the tendon. The failed healing response includes three different and continuous stages (reactive tendinopathy, tendon disrepair, and degenerative tendinopathy). The histological studies have demonstrated an increased number of tenocytes and concentration of glycosaminoglycans in the ground substance, disorganization and fragmentation of the collagen, and neovascularization. There are variable conservative and surgical treatment options for Achilles tendinopathy. However, there has not been a gold standard of these treatments because of the controversial clinical results between various studies. In the future, new level I researches will be needed to prove the effect of these treatment options.
Fusini, Federico; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Bottegoni, Carlo; Gigante, Antonio; Zanchini, Fabio; Busilacchi, Alberto
Summary Background nutraceuticals are common support therapy for management of tendinopathies. Even if they are widely diffused, our knowledge is still poor. The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the most commonly used nutraceuticals and their effects on tendons. Methods glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate, vitamin C, hydrolazed type 1 collagen, arginine alpha-keto-glutarate, bromelain, curcumin, boswellic acid, and methil-sulfonil-methane were considered. During the last week of Dicember 2015 a comprehensive research of main databases for each substance was made in relation with tendinopathy. Repeated articles, articles not in English nor in Italian, not common nutraceuticals, and articles not related with tendons or tenocytes were excluded. Clinical article quality was assessed independently by two reviewers using the modified Coleman methodology score. Results preclinical and clinical data from 46 articles from all databases were analyzed. All these nutraceuticals demonstrated several effects on normal and pathological tendons. Preclinical and clinical studies showed a possible role on collagen synthesis, inflammation, mechanical properties, and maturation of collagen bundles, antioxidant effect, edema, and analgesia. The majority clinical studies had some methodological limitations with an average Modified Coleman Methodology Score of 51.3 points and SD of 20.5 points. In particular, there were very low values in power, error, outcome assessment, and clinical effect. Conclusion preclinical results are very encouraging, however they are not fully confirmed by clinical studies. There are few clinical papers on the use of nutraceuticals in tendon disorders, and their methodological quality is poor. Furthermore, in most of the studies more than one supplement was administered at the same time. This may bias the results, and the effect of each single component cannot be determined. Furthermore, the interactions between nutraceuticals and drugs, or other
Maffulli, Nicola; Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco
Tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon involves clinical conditions in and around the tendon and it is the result of a failure of a chronic healing response. Although several conservative therapeutic options have been proposed, few of them are supported by randomized controlled trials. The management is primarily conservative and many patients respond well to conservative measures. If clinical conditions do not improve after 6 months of conservative management, surgery is recommended. The management of chronic ruptures is different from that of acute ruptures. The optimal surgical procedure is still debated. In this article chronic Achilles tendon disorders are debated and evidence-based medicine treatment strategies are discussed.
It is now over a decade since the features defining a contractile dysfunction of the shoulder were first reported. Since this time, some progress has been made to better understand this mechanical syndrome. In response to these developments, this narrative review will explore current understanding in relation to pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this syndrome with reference to literature specifically relating to contractile dysfunction but also literature relating to rotator cuff tendinopathy where necessary. The review not only identifies the strengths of the mechanical diagnosis and therapy approach with reference to a contractile dysfunction of the shoulder but also identifies where further progress needs to be made.
Nho, Shane J; Strauss, Eric J; Lenart, Brett A; Provencher, Matthew T; Mazzocca, Augustus D; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A
Tendinopathy of the long head of the biceps brachii encompasses a spectrum of pathology ranging from inflammatory tendinitis to degenerative tendinosis. Disorders of the long head of the biceps often occur in conjunction with other shoulder pathology. A thorough patient history, physical examination, and radiographic evaluation are necessary for diagnosis. Nonsurgical management, including rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, and injections, is attempted first in patients with mild disease. Surgical management is indicated for refractory or severe disease. In addition to simple biceps tenotomy, a variety of tenodesis techniques has been described. Open biceps tenodesis has been used historically. However, promising results have recently been reported with arthroscopic tenodesis.
Bertrand, Helene; Reeves, Kenneth Dean; Bennett, Cameron J; Bicknell, Simon; Cheng, An-Lin
To compare the effect of dextrose prolotherapy on pain levels and degenerative changes in painful rotator cuff tendinopathy against 2 potentially active control injection procedures. Randomized controlled trial, blinded to participants and evaluators. Outpatient pain medicine practice. Persons (N=73) with chronic shoulder pain, examination findings of rotator cuff tendinopathy, and ultrasound-confirmed supraspinatus tendinosis/tear. Three monthly injections either (1) onto painful entheses with dextrose (Enthesis-Dextrose), (2) onto entheses with saline (Enthesis-Saline), or (3) above entheses with saline (Superficial-Saline). All solutions included 0.1% lidocaine. All participants received concurrent programmed physical therapy. Primary: participants achieving an improvement in maximal current shoulder pain ≥2.8 (twice the minimal clinically important difference for visual analog scale pain) or not. Secondary: improvement in the Ultrasound Shoulder Pathology Rating Scale (USPRS) and a 0-to-10 satisfaction score (10, completely satisfied). The 73 participants had moderate to severe shoulder pain (7.0±2.0) for 7.6±9.6 years. There were no baseline differences between groups. Blinding was effective. At 9-month follow-up, 59% of Enthesis-Dextrose participants maintained ≥2.8 improvement in pain compared with Enthesis-Saline (37%; P=.088) and Superficial-Saline (27%; P=.017). Enthesis-Dextrose participants' satisfaction was 6.7±3.2 compared with Enthesis-Saline (4.7±4.1; P=.079) and Superficial-Saline (3.9±3.1; P=.003). USPRS findings were not different between groups (P=.734). In participants with painful rotator cuff tendinopathy who receive physical therapy, injection of hypertonic dextrose on painful entheses resulted in superior long-term pain improvement and patient satisfaction compared with blinded saline injection over painful entheses, with intermediate results for entheses injection with saline. These differences could not be attributed to a
Howell, Michael A; Catanzariti, Alan R
Calcific insertional Achilles tendinopathy can result in significant pain and disability. Although some patients respond to nonoperative therapy, many patients are at risk for long-term morbidity and unpredictable clinical outcomes. There is no evidence-based data to support the timing of operative invention, choice of procedures, or whether equinus requires treatment. This article suggests the need for a classification system based on physical examination and imaging to help guide treatment. There is an obvious need for evidence-based studies evaluating outcomes and for properly conducted scientific research to establish appropriate treatment protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keshmiri, Armin; Maderbacher, Günther; Baier, Clemens; Zeman, Florian; Grifka, Joachim; Springorum, Hans Robert
Component malrotation has a major impact on patellar kinematics in total knee arthroplasty. The influence of natural rotational limb alignment on patellar kinematics is unclear so far. Based on recent clinical investigations, we hypothesized that rotational limb alignment significantly influences patellar kinematics. Patellar kinematics of ten cadaveric knees was measured using computer navigation during passive motion. Data were correlated with different rotational limb alignment parameters of preoperative CT scans. Femoral antetorsion showed a significant influence on patellar rotation, while tibial tubercle-posterior cruciate ligament distance additionally displayed a significant influence on patellar mediolateral shift (p < 0.05). Femoral posterior condylar angle was sensitive to patellar epicondylar distance, rotation and tilt (p < 0.05). Patellar rotation was influenced by five out of eight rotational limb alignment parameters (p < 0.05). Rotational limb alignment should be paid more attention in terms of clinical evaluation of patellar tracking and future biomechanical and clinical investigations.
Rebouças Moreira, Tiago Amaral; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Mustacchi, Zan; Pécora, José Ricardo; Passarelli Tírico, Luis Eduardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis
To analyze occurrences of trochlear dysplasia in patients with Down syndrome in the presence and absence of femoropatellar instability. Eleven knees with stable patellae and thirteen with unstable patellae in patients with Down syndrome were compared. Radiographs were produced to evaluate patellar height, trochlear angle and femoropatellar congruence angle. The prevalence ratio for a high patella between the unstable and the stable patients was 1.01 using the Insall-Salvati index and 0.68 using the Caton-Deschamps index. For an abnormal congruence angle, the prevalence ratio was 2.04. An increased congruence angle was only found in four cases, all presenting instability. Trochlear dysplasia was only found in cases of instability. The trochlear groove angle and the femoropatellar congruence angle correlated with the presence of patellar instability.
Abraham, A; Macnicol, M F
The phenomenon of growth arrest lines has been widely described in the medical literature. They are usually found at the metaphysis of growing long bones and are the result of short periods of partial growth arrest. Recurrent dislocation of the patella is a well-recognised problem, particularly in adolescents. Several radiological features have been reported in association with patellar dislocation or instability. We have reported a hitherto undescribed radiological sign of patellar growth arrest lines on the skyline radiographs of two patients with this condition. The shape of the patella when symptoms were at their worst corresponded remarkably closely to the outline of the subsequent growth arrest line. We postulated that repeated dislocations adversely affect the process of normal maturation of the patella. With the resolution of symptoms, patella ossification resumes, leaving the telltale sign of previous injury in the form of a growth arrest line and an improvement in bone density once the patella has been stabilised and tracks normally.
Fonseca, Leonardo Pini Rosalem Marciano da; Kawatake, Ednei Haruo; Pochini, Alberto de Castro
Lateral retinacular release is a useful resource in knee surgery that can be used for disorders of the extensor mechanism. For many years, it was indiscriminately used in the treatment of the various patellofemoral joint alterations, with conflicting functional results. This study aimed to analyze the changes that have occurred in the indications and clinical effectiveness of lateral retinacular release by reviewing the relevant literature of the past ten years, comparing it to the classic literature on the subject. It was found that less extensive releases decompress the lateral patellar facet, helping with pain control, while decreasing the risks of medial subluxation. Nowadays, there is clear evidence for its indication in the lateral patellar hypercompression syndrome associated with anterior knee pain, as long as there is no related instability; furthermore, it will normally play an adjuvant role in extensor mechanism alignment surgeries for cases of recurrent patellar instability. The initial results for symptomatic patellofemoral osteoarthritis are promising when lateral release is combined with cartilage debridement; in total knee replacement, it is more commonly used for the correction of valgus deformity in order to improve the components' congruency. Finally, distinguishing the different patellofemoral joint pathologies is seen as crucial in order to indicate this procedure. Further randomized control trials that compare surgical techniques with long-term results are still needed.
Abuja, Gustavo A; Kowaleski, Michael P; García-López, José M
To report surgical management bilateral lateral patellar luxation in a mature alpaca using a combination of trochlear wedge recession (TWR), tibial tuberosity transposition (TTT), and joint capsule imbrication. Clinical case report. 9-year-old castrated male Alpaca. Bilateral, grade III/IV, lateral patellar luxation was identified by palpation, lameness examination and confirmed with radiography and ultrasonography. Surgical procedures were staged, with the left stifle treated first. Bilateral TWR, TTT, and joint capsule imbrication were performed. Outcome was assessed by radiography and follow up lameness examinations. An immediate improvement in weight bearing occurred after surgery of the left hind limb. Five months after initial surgery, right hind limb patella luxation was corrected. After surgery on the 2nd limb, the alpaca had progressive improvement in weight bearing during hospitalization. At 12 months, there were no signs of lameness and the alpaca had resumed normal activities. For bilateral lateral patellar luxation, a combination of TWR, TTT, and joint capsule imbrication resulted in excellent long-term outcome. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Jensen, K; Di Fabio, R P
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a quadriceps femoris muscle eccentric training program on strength gain in patients with patellar tendinitis. The effect of an eight-week eccentric exercise program on quadriceps femoris muscle work was evaluated in four groups of subjects--two groups of "normal" (healthy) subjects and two groups of patients with patellar tendinitis. All four groups participated in a home muscle stretching exercise program, but only two groups--one group of normal subjects (N-A) and one group of subjects with tendinitis (T-A)--received additional eccentric training on an eccentric isokinetic dynamometer. The eccentric quadriceps femoris muscle work ratio (involved limb/uninvolved limb x 100) was used to quantify strength in the N-A and T-A Groups. Pain ratings were recorded for subjects with tendinitis before and after the eight-week experiment and were correlated with the dependent variable using a Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient. The N-A Group performed significantly better than all subjects with tendinitis (p less than .05). Subjects in the T-A Group, however, showed a trend toward increasing eccentric quadriceps femoris muscle work capacity over the eight-week training period. As pain ratings in the T-A Group increased, work ratios decreased. We concluded that eccentric exercise may be an effective treatment for patellar tendinitis, but that knee pain may limit optimal gains in strength.
Yang, Justin S; Fulkerson, John P; Obopilwe, Elifho; Voss, Andreas; Divenere, Jessica; Mazzocca, Augustus D; Edgar, Cory M
To measure the patellofemoral contact pressure in early flexion after a tibial tubercle distalization osteotomy. Ten matched-pair fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were studied. The average Blackburne-Peel ratio of the native knees was 0.91. The knees were placed on a testing rig, with a fixed femur and tibia mobile through 90° of flexion. Individual quadriceps heads and the iliotibial band were separated and loaded with 205 N in anatomic directions using a weighted pulley system. A straight tubercle distalization osteotomy of 1 cm was performed and fixed with screws, with and without a lateral release. Patellofemoral contact pressures were measured at 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° of flexion using pressure-sensitive films on the medial trochlea and lateral trochlea. Contact force, area, and pressure were measured in the following states: (1) in the native knee, (2) after distalization, and (3) after distalization with lateral release. The average Blackburne-Peel ratio after distalization was 0.64. Tibial tubercle distalization resulted in a 6-fold increase in mean contact pressure at 0° (0.15 MPa vs 0.90 MPa, P < .001) and a 55% increase at 10° of flexion (0.70 MPa vs 1.09 MPa, P = .02). Mean contact pressure was similar from 20° to 90° of flexion (P > .1). After distalization, the total contact area was significantly higher at 0° of flexion (17.7 mm(2) vs 58.4 mm(2), P = .02). Lateral release after distalization did not significantly change contact pressure (P > .21). Our results suggest that patella baja, as a result of excessive patellar distalization, can cause increased patellofemoral contact pressures during early flexion at 0° and 10°. No changes were seen in contact pressure from 20° to 90°. Care should be taken to prevent excessive distalization of the patella to avoid patella baja and increased patellofemoral contact pressures during early flexion. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by
Papa, John A.
Objective: To chronicle the conservative treatment and management of a 77-year old female patient presenting with chronic pain of 8 months duration in the midportion of the achilles tendon diagnosed as achilles tendinopathy. Clinical features: The main clinical feature was pain in the midportion of the achilles tendon, 2 to 6 cm proximal to the calcaneal insertion. Symptom onset was gradual and unrelated to any acute trauma or overt injury mechanism. Intervention and outcome: The conservative treatment approach consisted of medical acupuncture with electrical stimulation, Graston Technique®, eccentric calf training, and rehabilitative exercise prescription. Outcome measures included verbal pain rating scale, lower extremity functional scale (LEFS), and a return to activities of daily living (ADLs). The patient attained long-term resolution of her complaint and at 12 month follow-up reported no recurrence of symptoms. Conclusion: A combination of conservative rehabilitation strategies may be used by chiropractors to treat midportion achilles tendinopathy and allow an individual to return to pain free ADLs in a timely manner. PMID:22997472
White, Kristin E.
Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe and discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of 3 female long distance runners with high hamstring tendinopathy. Clinical Features Three female runners presented to a chiropractic office with proximal hamstring pain that was aggravated by running. Increasing mileage, hills, and/or interval training preceded the onset of symptoms in each case. The subjects all displayed weakness of the hip abductors, pelvic joint dysfunction, hamstring tightness, and ischial tuberosity tenderness. Other clinical findings included overpronation, proprioceptive weakness, and lumbar dysfunction. Intervention and Outcome All 3 patients were treated with Graston Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization, lumbopelvic manipulation, and electrical muscle stimulation with ultrasound. Active exercise focused on hamstring stretching and strengthening, gluteal strengthening, and proprioceptive training. The 3 runners seen in this clinic had resolution of hamstring pain in an average of 13 treatments and were able to continue competing without restriction. Conclusion Runners with high hamstring tendinopathy may respond favorably to conservative chiropractic treatment and active rehabilitation with minimal time off of training. PMID:22014863
Maquirriain, Javier; Ayerza, Miguel; Costa-Paz, Matías; Muscolo, D Luis
The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate preliminary results of an endoscopic-assisted surgical technique for patients suffering from chronic Achilles tendinopathies. Case series. Endoscopic operations were performed on 7 consecutive patients involved in recreational sports suffering from chronic Achilles tendon (AT) lesions in whom conservative treatment had failed. Diagnoses included 2 patients with pure peritendinitis, 4 with peritendinitis and degenerative tendinosis, and 1 with a chronic partial tear. Patients were preoperatively and postoperatively evaluated at a mean follow-up period of 16 months (range, 6 to 27 months) with a 0-100 points rating system. All patients were studied preoperatively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 6 were re-evaluated with the same procedure after surgery. All surgical interventions were performed on an ambulatory basis and 5 under local anesthesia. The surgical endoscopic technique consisted of peritenon release and debridement in cases with pure peritendinitis. In addition, 2 longitudinal tenotomies were performed in cases with degenerative tendinosis or partial tears. According to the scoring system used, all 7 patients had improved final outcome after surgery from a mean of 39 points preoperatively to 88 points postoperatively. The patient with an AT partial tear achieved the lowest score. The only complications were a minor hematoma and edema that resolved spontaneously. Postoperative MRI in patients with tendinosis failed to show evidence of degenerative areas. Endoscopic surgery may be a valid alternative to treat Achilles tendinopathies unresponsive to conservative treatment because of potential lower morbidity.
Lin, Heng An; Chong, Heng An; Yeo, William
To report the one-year outcome of 44 patients treated with a novel technique of calcaneoplasty and reattachment of the Achilles tendon. 15 men and 29 women (mean age, 53 years) with insertional tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon underwent calcaneoplasty, retrocalcaneal bursa excision, debridement and reattachment of the Achilles tendon with suture anchors via a lateral approach. Outcome was measured using the visual analogue score (VAS) for pain, the SF-36 health survey, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot scores. Patient expectation and satisfaction were also assessed. Of the 44 patients, 37, 43, and 21 were followed up at 3, 6, and 12 months. The mean VAS for pain and AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score improved significantly up to 6 months. The mean SF-36 score improved significantly up to 6 months for physical functioning, role functioning (physical), and bodily pain. Patient expectation and satisfaction also improved significantly. No patient had postoperative infections or rupture. Three patients had delayed wound healing, which resolved after simple dressings. Calcaneoplasty and reattachment of the Achilles tendon via a lateral approach for insertional tendinopathy enables early weight bearing and achieves good outcome and pain relief.
Papa, John A
To chronicle the conservative treatment and management of a 77-year old female patient presenting with chronic pain of 8 months duration in the midportion of the achilles tendon diagnosed as achilles tendinopathy. The main clinical feature was pain in the midportion of the achilles tendon, 2 to 6 cm proximal to the calcaneal insertion. Symptom onset was gradual and unrelated to any acute trauma or overt injury mechanism. The conservative treatment approach consisted of medical acupuncture with electrical stimulation, Graston Technique®, eccentric calf training, and rehabilitative exercise prescription. Outcome measures included verbal pain rating scale, lower extremity functional scale (LEFS), and a return to activities of daily living (ADLs). The patient attained long-term resolution of her complaint and at 12 month follow-up reported no recurrence of symptoms. A combination of conservative rehabilitation strategies may be used by chiropractors to treat midportion achilles tendinopathy and allow an individual to return to pain free ADLs in a timely manner.
Thévenin-Lemoine, Camille; Ferrand, Mathieu; Courvoisier, Aurélien; Damsin, Jean-Paul; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Vialle, Raphaël
Patellar height variations can be responsible for many functional disorders in children. The Caton-Deschamps index to measure patellar height has been described for adults. Our goal was to determine Caton-Deschamps index values in a pediatric population. Lateral radiographs of the knee were analyzed in a cohort of 300 healthy patients. All radiographs were done to evaluate the patients after minor trauma and all were reported to be normal by a senior radiologist. The cohort was divided into ten groups on the basis of the age of the child. Radiographic measurements were done by a computer-assisted technique. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability studies were performed prior to the descriptive analysis of the data. Mean patellar length (and standard deviation) was 33.39 ± 7.4 mm. Mean patellar tendon length was 34.57 ± 6.7 mm. The mean Caton-Deschamps index was 1.06 ± 0.21. Patellar and patellar tendon length significantly increased with age, whereas the Caton-Deschamps index significantly decreased. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability studies showed excellent reliabilities with an intraclass correlation coefficient that was between 0.930 and 0.944 (95% confidence interval). The Caton-Deschamps index is a simple and reliable index for evaluating patellar height in children as well as adults. It is an alternative to the Insall-Salvati index measurement, in which reproducibility is poor due to difficulties in determining the distal point of the patellar tendon, and to the Koshino index, which is complex to use. In our study, there was a correlation between the Caton-Deschamps index and age, due to the progressive patellar ossification that begins at the proximal part of the patella. The Caton-Deschamps index is a pertinent and reliable ratio to evaluate patellar height in children and adolescents. To make an accurate diagnosis of patellar disorders in children, the normal, age-based Caton-Deschamps values need to be considered.
Ong, Gene Yong-Kwang
Five pediatric patients with acute traumatic "first-time" lateral patellar dislocations were successfully reduced using a novel, atraumatic, and simple technique. Uniquely, unlike the traditional method of patellar reduction, the patellar dislocations were reduced without any direct manipulation of the patella. In co-operative patients, no analgesia was required. Further validation of the reproducibility of the effectiveness of this method for successful patellar reduction in pediatric and adult populations are required.
Paulos, Lonnie E; O'Connor, Daryl L; Karistinos, Anastassios
The purpose of this study was to investigate the intermediate-term results of a retrospective clinical trial designed to establish the value of lateral retinaculum release of the patella in conjunction with partial lateral patella facetectomy in patients with stage III or stage IV patellofemoral arthritis. Between October 1992 and January 2005, all patients undergoing arthroscopy, lateral patellar retinaculum release, and lateral patella facetectomy were evaluated. In total, 66 knees in 63 patients (89%) were available for evaluation at a mean of 60 months after the index surgery. Evaluations consisted of preoperative and postoperative questionnaires, physical examinations, and radiographs. The main outcome measure was the Kujala patellofemoral score. For those patients not undergoing total knee arthroplasty before evaluation, the mean Kujala score was 45.6 preoperatively and 72.0 postoperatively (P < .001); subjectively, 56% of patients were very satisfied, 32% satisfied and would repeat the procedure, 5% were indifferent, and 7% were dissatisfied and would not repeat the procedure. Including all patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty before evaluation and those who would not repeat the procedure or were indifferent, our accumulative failure rate was 17%. Correlations of several measures with the Kujala score, as well as subgroup comparisons of several measures between patients who were satisfied and those who were not satisfied with their reconstructions, were performed. However, all of these failed to achieve statistical significance after adjustment for multiple comparisons and so are not reported in this report. Lateral patella retinaculum release and partial lateral patella facetectomy for end-stage patellofemoral disease provides up to 5 years of symptomatic relief in over 80% of carefully selected patients who do not have significant arthritis (grade IV) in the medial or lateral knee compartments. Significant lateral facet patellofemoral arthritis
Littlewood, Chris; Malliaras, Peter; Mawson, Sue; May, Stephen; Walters, Stephen
This paper describes a self-managed loaded exercise programme which has been designed to address the pain and disability associated with rotator cuff tendinopathy. The intervention has been developed with reference to current self-management theory and with reference to the emerging benefit of loaded exercise for tendinopathy. This self-managed loaded exercise programme is being evaluated within the mixed methods SELF study (ISRCTN 84709751) which includes a pragmatic randomised controlled trial conducted within the UK National Health Service.
Ranger, Tom A; Wong, Andrea M Y; Cook, Jill L; Gaida, Jamie E
Musculoskeletal symptoms limit adherence to exercise interventions for individuals with type 2 diabetes. People with diabetes may be susceptible to tendinopathy due to chronically elevated blood glucose levels. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this potential association by systematically reviewing and meta-analysing case-control, cross-sectional, and studies that considered both of these conditions. Nine medical databases and hand searching methods were used without year limits to identify all relevant English language articles that considered diabetes and tendinopathy. Two authors applied exclusion criteria and one author extracted data with verification by a second author. Meta-analysis was conducted using a random effects model. Results were expressed as odds ratio (OR), mean difference or standardised mean difference with a confidence intervals (95% CI). Heterogeneity was assessed by I(2). 31 studies were included in the final analysis of which 26 recruited people with diabetes and five recruited people with tendinopathy. Tendinopathy was more prevalent in people with diabetes (17 studies, OR 3·67, 95% CI 2·71 to 4·97), diabetes was more prevalent in people with tendinopathy (5 studies, OR 1·28, 95% CI 1·10 to 1·49), people with diabetes and tendinopathy had a longer duration of diabetes than people with diabetes only (6 studies, mean difference 5·26 years, 95% CI 4·15 to 6·36) and people with diabetes had thicker tendons than controls (9 studies, standardised mean difference 0·79 95% CI 0·47 to 1·12). These findings provide strong evidence that diabetes is associated with higher risk of tendinopathy. This is clinically relevant as tendinopathy may affect adherence to exercise interventions for diabetes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Balogh, Daniel G; Kramek, Betty
Medical records of 26 small breed dogs treated with single-session bilateral medial patellar luxation repair were reviewed. Excluding dogs with complications associated with cranial cruciate ligament disease, 20/21 dogs with long-term follow-up achieved a complete or acceptable clinical recovery. The complication rate was not increased compared to that previously reported for unilateral patellar luxation repair.
Oh, Kwang-Jun; Yoon, Jung-Ro; Yang, Jae-Hyuk
Late presentation of congenital patellar dislocation with advanced osteoarthritis is rare. This article presents a case of a 59-year-old man with underlying pseudoachondroplastic dwarfism. Advanced osteoarthritis due to bilateral neglected congenital patellar dislocation was treated with total knee arthroplasty without patella relocation surgery. Two years later, the patient had an improvement in Knee Society scores, painless function, and stability.
... resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. 888.3580 Section 888.3580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 888.3580 Knee joint patellar (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint patellar (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device made of...
... resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. 888.3580 Section 888.3580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 888.3580 Knee joint patellar (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint patellar (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device made of...
... resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. 888.3580 Section 888.3580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 888.3580 Knee joint patellar (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint patellar (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device made of...
Kulig, Kornelia; Oki, Kari C; Chang, Yu-Jen; Bashford, Gregory R
To examine Achilles and patellar tendon morphology in dancers with and without tendon pain. Fifty-three dancers with and without Achilles and/or patellar tendon pain participated. Eleven age-matched non-dancers served as controls. Longitudinal ultrasound images of the middle and distal Achilles and proximal and distal patellar tendons were acquired. To assess macromorphology, the thickness of the middle and distal Achilles and proximal and distal patellar tendons were measured. Micromorphology was analyzed by selecting 2 x 2-mm2 regions of interest in the tendons; spectral analysis using the fast Fourier transform was run for several kernels (2 x 2-mm2 subimages) within each image, and the peak spatial frequency (PSF) was extracted. A one-way ANOVA compared asymptomatic, symptomatic, and control tendon thickness and PSF. Macromorphology: There was no significant difference between asymptomatic and symptomatic dancers in middle or distal Achilles tendon thickness and distal patellar tendon thickness. Proximal patellar tendons in control subjects were thinner than those in asymptomatic (p=0.036) and symptomatic (p=0.003) dancers. Micromorphology: There was no significant difference in PSF between asymptomatic and symptomatic dancers and controls in the Achilles or patellar tendon. Increased proximal patellar tendon thickness without changes in tendon micromorphology suggests that tendon adaptations are more likely activity-related and less likely influenced by degeneration.
Arendt, Elizabeth A; England, Kristin; Agel, Julie; Tompkins, Marc A
Various knee anatomic imaging factors have been historically associated with lateral patellar dislocation. The characterization of these anatomic factors in a primary lateral patellar dislocation population has not been well described. Our purpose was to characterize the spectrum of anatomic factors from slice imaging measurements specific to a population of primary lateral patellar dislocation. A secondary purpose was to stratify these data by sex/skeletal maturity to better detail potential dimorphic characteristics. Patients with a history of primary lateral patellar dislocation between 2008 and 2012 were prospectively identified. Ten MRI measurements were analysed with results stratified by sex/skeletal maturity. A '4-factor' analysis was performed to detail the number of 'excessive' anatomic factors within a single individual. This study involved 157 knees (79 M/78 F), and 107 patients were skeletally mature. The measurements demonstrate more anatomic risk factors in this population than historical controls. Patella height and trochlear measurements are the most common 'dysplastic' anatomic factors in this population. There were differences based on sex for some patellar height measurements and for TT-TG; there were no differences based on skeletal maturity. Primary lateral patellar dislocation patients have MRI measurements of knee anatomic factors that are generally more dysplastic than the normal population; however, there is a broad spectrum of anatomic features with no pattern predominating. Characterizing knee anatomic imaging factors in the patient with a primary lateral patellar dislocation is a necessary first step in characterizing the (potential) differences between the primary and recurrent patellar dislocation patient. IV.
Park, Hee Jin; Kim, Hyung Soo; Chung, Soo Tae; Park, Noh Hyuck; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Park, Jai Hyung; Kim, Joo Hak; Lee, Tae Woo; Lee, Chang Hyun; Oh, Se Man
Background Patients with chronic lateral ankle instability also have peroneal tendinopathy often. However, preoperative MRIs of these patients are vague in many cases. Our study was performed to see the reliability of MRI findings of peroneal tendinopathy in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability. Methods MRI images for 82 patients who had chronic lateral ankle instability, and had received surgical treatment between March 2006 and November 2009 were compared with impressions from operating rooms. The mean age of patients was 36.4 years (range, 15 to 64 years), 82 ankles were studied, and patients with rheumatoid diseases were excluded from the study. Results Of the 82 cases, 26 were true positives, 38 true negatives, 13 false positives and 5 false negatives. Of 39 cases of peroneal tendinopathy diagnosed from MRI, 14 had peroneal tendon partial tears, 15 tenosynovitis, 3 dislocations, 17 low-lying muscle bellies, and 6 peroneus quartus muscles. Of 31 cases of peroneal tendinopathy observed in surgery 11 had peroneal tendon partial tears, 4 tenosynovitis, 5 dislocations, 12 low-lying muscle belliess, and 1 peroneus quartus muscle. Sensitivity and specificity of peroneal tendinopathy were 83.9% and 74.5%, respectively. Positive predictive value was 66.7%. Negative predictive value was 88.4%. Accuracy rate was 78.0%. Conclusions MRI is a useful diagnostic tool for detecting peroneal tendinopathy in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability. However, MRI is vague in many cases. Therefore, a thorough delicate physical examination and careful observation is needed. PMID:21119941
Vadalà, A; Iorio, R; Bonifazi, A M; Bolle, G; Ferretti, A
A 27-year-old professional martial arts athlete experienced recurrent right knee patellar tendon rupture on three occasions. He underwent two operations for complete patellar tendon rupture: an end-to-end tenorrhaphy the first time, and revision with a bone-patellar-tendon (BPT) allograft. After the third episode, he was referred to our department, where we performed a surgical reconstruction with the use of hamstring pro-patellar tendon, in a figure-of-eight configuration, followed by a careful rehabilitation protocol. Clinical and radiological follow-ups were realized at 1, 3, and 6 months and 1 and 2 years postop, with an accurate physical examination, the use of recognized international outcome scores, and radiograph and MRI studies. As far as we know, this is the first paper to report a re-revision of a patellar tendon rupture.
Abolghasemian, Mansour; Samiezadeh, Saeid; Sternheim, Amir; Bougherara, Habiba; Barnes, C Lowry; Backstein, David J
A biomechanical computer-based model was developed to simulate the influence of patellar thickness on passive knee flexion after arthroplasty. Using the computer model of a single-radius, PCL-sacrificing knee prosthesis, a range of patella-implant composite thicknesses was simulated. The biomechanical model was then replicated using two cadaveric knees. A patellar-thickness range of 15 mm was applied to each of the knees. Knee flexion was found to decrease exponentially with increased patellar thickness in both the biomechanical and experimental studies. Importantly, this flexion loss followed an exponential pattern with higher patellar thicknesses in both studies. In order to avoid adverse biomechanical and functional consequences, it is recommended to restore patellar thickness to that of the native knee during total knee arthroplasty.
Jelsing, Elena J; Maida, Eugene; Smith, Jay
Calcific rotator cuff tendinopathy caused by symptomatic calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition is a well-established cause of shoulder pain. In refractory or acutely symptomatic cases, sonographically guided percutaneous lavage and aspiration can significantly reduce pain in approximately 60%-92% of cases. Although the complication rate of sonographically guided percutaneous lavage and aspiration is apparently low, needle clogging attributable to impacted calcific debris has been described by several authors and in our experience can occur in daily practice. Traditionally, an inability to relieve the obstruction via needle repositioning or increased syringe plunger pressure has required needle removal and replacement. In this article, we outline a simple technique that can be used to restore patency of the obstructed lavage needle without necessitating needle removal and replacement. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... area of the body). Constant jumping, landing, and changing direction can cause strains, tears, and damage to ...
Lenhart, Rachel L; Brandon, Scott C E; Smith, Colin R; Novacheck, Tom F; Schwartz, Michael H; Thelen, Darryl G
Patella alta is common in cerebral palsy, especially in patients with crouch gait. Correction of patella alta has been advocated in the treatment of crouch, however the appropriate degree of correction and the implications for knee extensor function remain unclear. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess the impact of patellar position on quadriceps and patellar tendon forces during normal and crouch gait. To this end, a lower extremity musculoskeletal model with a novel 12 degree of freedom knee joint was used to simulate normal gait in a healthy child, as well as mild (23 deg min knee flexion in stance), moderate (41 deg), and severe (67 deg) crouch gait in three children with cerebral palsy. The simulations revealed that quadriceps and patellar tendon forces increase dramatically with crouch, and are modulated by patellar position. For example with a normal patellar tendon position, peak patellar tendon forces were 0.7 times body weight in normal walking, but reached 2.2, 3.2 and 5.4 times body weight in mild, moderate and severe crouch. Moderate patella alta acted to reduce quadriceps and patellar tendon loads in crouch gait, due to an enhancement of the patellar tendon moment arms with alta in a flexed knee. In contrast, patella baja reduced the patellar tendon moment arm in a flexed knee and thus induced an increase in the patellar tendon loads needed to walk in crouch. Functionally, these results suggest that patella baja could also compromise knee extensor function for other flexed knee activities such as chair rise and stair climbing. The findings are important to consider when using surgical approaches for correcting patella alta in children who exhibit crouch gait patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yılmaz, Barış; Çiçek, Esin Derin; Şirin, Evrim; Özdemir, Güzelali; Karakuş, Özgün; Muratlı, Hasan Hilmi
This study compared 20 children hospitalised with acute patellofemoral dislocation with an age-matched healthy control group with no history of knee problems or patellar dislocation. The following morphological parameters were significantly different between the groups: the mean patellar width and length, mean sulcus depth, mean patellar tendon width and total patellar volume. The magnetic resonance imaging findings of this study suggested that structurally smaller than normal patella and patellar tendon volumes are predisposing factors for acute patellofemoral dislocation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bosch, U; Zeichen, J; Skutek, M; Albers, I; van Griensven, M; Gässler, N
The significance of mobilization and loading for healing ligaments and tendons is generally accepted today. Local deformation of cells thereby represents the key stimulus for the cellular response. Less is known, however, about the effects of cyclic strain on the cellular and molecular level. The aim of the in vitro investigation was to determine the effect of cyclic mechanical strain on collagen type I and III and on fibronectin formation in human patellar tendon derived fibroblasts. Human patellar tendon derived fibroblasts from 5 donors (mean age 29.2 years) were cultured under standard conditions. Monolayers of subconfluently grown 3rd passage cells were stretched in rectangular silicone dishes with cyclic movement along their longitudinal axes. Cyclic strain (5%, 1 Hz) was applied for 30 min and 60 min, respectively. Carboxyterminal procollagen type I propeptide (P-I-CP) and aminoterminal procollagen type III propeptide (P-III-NP) release was measured by a radio-immunoassay 6 h and 12 h after stretching. The release of fibronectin was measured by nephelometry following immunoreaction with a specific antiserum. Cells from each donor without any cyclic stretching served as controls. Compared with the controls, only cyclic stretching for 60 min resulted in a significantly increased release of P-I-CP and fibronectin after 6 h. The release of P-III-NP was significantly increased 12 h after 30 min of cyclic stretching as well as 6 h and 12 h after 60 min of cyclic stretching, respectively. We conclude that cyclic stretching causes a time-dependent, differential regulation of formation of fibronectin and collagen type I and III. This may effect the quality and thus the mechanical properties of healing tendon and ligament tissues. In order to improve current treatment protocols and to enlarge our knowledge of tissue healing, it is necessary to understand the cellular response to cyclic strain.
Kamineni, Srinath; Butterfield, Timothy; Sinai, Anthony
Tendinopathy is a common clinical pathology, with mixed treatment results, especially when chronic. In this study, we examine the effects of an ultrasonic debridement modality in a rabbit tendinopathy model. We asked four questions: (1) Was it possible to create and visualize with ultrasound a tendinopathy lesion in a rabbit Achilles tendon? (2) Was it possible to guide a 19-gauge ultrasonic probe into the tendinopathy lesion? (3) Following ultrasonic treatment, was tendinopathy debris histologically present? and (4) Was the collagen profile qualitatively and quantitatively normalized following treatment? Skeletally mature female New Zealand white rabbits (n = 12) were injected with, ultrasonography localization, 0.150 ml of collagenase into the Achilles tendon. The collagenase-induced Achilles tendinopathy (3 weeks) was treated with percutaneous ultrasonic debridement. The tendons were harvested, at 3 weeks after treatment, and were subjected to histological assessment (modified Movin score) and biochemical analysis (collagen isoform content). Histopathological examination revealed that all tendons injected with collagenase showed areas of hypercellularity and focal areas of tendon disorganization and degeneration. The treated tendons had lower (improved) histopathological scores than injured tendons (P < 0.001). Western blot analysis showed that ultrasonic therapy restored, within statistical limits, collagen type I, III, and X expressions in a treated tendon, to qualitative and semi-quantitative levels of a normal tendon. We were successfully able to create a collagenase-injected tendinopathy lesion in a rabbit Achilles tendon and visualize the lesion with an ultrasound probe. A 19-gauge ultrasonic probe was inserted into the tendinopathic lesion under direct ultrasound guidance, and minimal tendinopathic debris remained after treatment. The treated tendon demonstrated a normalized qualitative and semi-quantitative collagen profile and improved histological
Hinsley, Hannah; Nicholls, Alex; Daines, Michael; Wallace, Gemma; Arden, Nigel; Carr, Andrew
Summary Background: ultrasound is a valid cost effective tool in screening for rotator cuff pathology with high levels of accuracy in detecting full-thickness tears. To date there is no rotator cuff tendinopathy classification using ultrasound. The aims of this study are to define a valid high-definition ultrasound rotator cuff tendinopathy classification, which has discriminate validity between groups based upon anatomical principles. Methods: 464 women, aged 65–87, from an established general population cohort underwent bilateral shoulder ultrasound and musculoskeletal assessment. Sonographer accuracy was established in a separate study by comparing ultrasound findings to the gold standard intra-operative findings. Results: there were 510 normal tendons, 217 abnormal tendons, 77 partial tears, and 124 full-thickness tears. There was no statistical difference in age or the proportion with pain between the abnormal enthesis and partial tear groups, however both groups were statistically older (p<0.001) and had a greater proportion with pain (p<0.001 & p=0.050) than normal tendons. The full-thickness tears were statistically older than normal tendons (p<0.001), but not abnormal/partially torn tendons. The proportion with pain was significantly greater than both groups (p<0.001 & p=0.006). Symptomatic shoulders had a larger median tear size than asymptomatic shoulders (p=0.006). Using tear size as a predictor of pain likelihood, optimum sensitivity and specificity occurred when dividing tears into groups up to 2.5cm and >2.5cm, which corresponds with anatomical descriptions of the width of the supraspinatus tendon. Conclusion: the classification system is as follows: Normal Tendons; Abnormal enthesis/Partial-thickness tear; Single tendon full-thickness tears (0–2.5cm); Multi-tendon full-thickness tears (>2.5cm). PMID:25489559
Millar, Neal L; Reilly, James H; Kerr, Shauna C; Campbell, Abigail L; Little, Kevin J; Leach, William J; Rooney, Brian P; Murrell, George A C; McInnes, Iain B
To seek evidence for the role of hypoxia in early human tendinopathy, and thereafter to explore mechanisms whereby tissue hypoxia may regulate apoptosis, inflammatory mediator expression and matrix regulation in human tenocytes. Fifteen torn supraspinatus tendon (established pathology) and matched intact subscapularis tendon (representing 'early pathology') biopsies were collected from patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Control samples of the subscapularis tendon were collected from 10 patients undergoing arthroscopic stabilisation surgery. Markers of hypoxia were quantified by immunohistochemical methods. Human tendon-derived primary cells were derived from hamstring tendon tissue obtained during hamstring tendon anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The impact of hypoxia upon tenocyte biology ex vivo was measured using quantitative real-time PCR, multiplex cytokine assays, apoptotic proteomic profiling, immunohistochemistry and annexin V fluorescence-activated cell sorter staining. Increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, Bcl-2 and clusterin was detected in subscapularis tendon samples compared with both matched torn samples and non-matched control samples (p<0.01). Hypoxic tenocytes exhibited increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (p<0.001), altered matrix regulation (p<0.01) with increased production of collagen type III operating through a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. Finally, hypoxia increased the expression of several mediators of apoptosis and thereby promoted tenocyte apoptosis. Hypoxia promotes the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, key apoptotic mediators and drives matrix component synthesis towards a collagen type III profile by human tenocytes. The authors propose hypoxic cell injury as a critical pathophysiological mechanism in early tendinopathy offering novel therapeutic opportunities in the management of tendon disorders.
Hinsley, Hannah; Nicholls, Alex; Daines, Michael; Wallace, Gemma; Arden, Nigel; Carr, Andrew
ultrasound is a valid cost effective tool in screening for rotator cuff pathology with high levels of accuracy in detecting full-thickness tears. To date there is no rotator cuff tendinopathy classification using ultrasound. The aims of this study are to define a valid high-definition ultrasound rotator cuff tendinopathy classification, which has discriminate validity between groups based upon anatomical principles. 464 women, aged 65-87, from an established general population cohort underwent bilateral shoulder ultrasound and musculoskeletal assessment. Sonographer accuracy was established in a separate study by comparing ultrasound findings to the gold standard intra-operative findings. there were 510 normal tendons, 217 abnormal tendons, 77 partial tears, and 124 full-thickness tears. There was no statistical difference in age or the proportion with pain between the abnormal enthesis and partial tear groups, however both groups were statistically older (p<0.001) and had a greater proportion with pain (p<0.001 & p=0.050) than normal tendons. The full-thickness tears were statistically older than normal tendons (p<0.001), but not abnormal/partially torn tendons. The proportion with pain was significantly greater than both groups (p<0.001 & p=0.006). Symptomatic shoulders had a larger median tear size than asymptomatic shoulders (p=0.006). Using tear size as a predictor of pain likelihood, optimum sensitivity and specificity occurred when dividing tears into groups up to 2.5cm and >2.5cm, which corresponds with anatomical descriptions of the width of the supraspinatus tendon. the classification system is as follows: Normal Tendons; Abnormal enthesis/Partial-thickness tear; Single tendon full-thickness tears (0-2.5cm); Multi-tendon full-thickness tears (>2.5cm).
Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore; Koonce, Ryan; Genuario, James; Lind, Charles; Hamming, David
Although knee injuries are common among professional football players, ruptures of the patellar tendon are relatively rare. Predisposing factors, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well established in high-level athletes. Professional football players with isolated rupture of the patellar tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty-four ruptures of the patellar tendon in 22 National Football League (NFL) players were identified from 1994 through 2004. Team physicians retrospectively reviewed training room and clinic records, operative notes, and imaging studies for each of these players. Player game statistics and draft status were analyzed to identify return to play predictors. A successful outcome was defined as participating in 1 regular-season NFL game. Eleven of the 24 injuries had antecedent symptoms. The most common mechanism of injury was an eccentric overload to a contracting extensor mechanism. Physical examination demonstrated a palpable defect in all players. Twenty-two were complete ruptures, and 2 were partial injuries. Three of the 24 cases had a concomitant anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. In 19 of the 24 injuries, the player returned to participate in at least 1 game in the NFL. Players who returned were drafted, on average, in the fourth round, while those who failed to return to play were drafted, on average, in the sixth round. Of those players who returned to play, the average number of games played was 45.4, with a range of 1 to 142 games. Patellar tendon ruptures can occur in otherwise healthy professional football players without antecedent symptoms or predisposing factors. The most common mechanism of injury is eccentric overload. Close attention should be paid to stability examination of the knee given the not uncommon occurrence of concomitant ACL injury. Although this is usually a season-ending injury when it occurs in
Gellhorn, Alfred C; Morgenroth, David C; Goldstein, Barry
Obtaining accurate and readily repeatable measurements is a prerequisite for using measures of soft tissue structures both clinically and in the research setting. Few studies have evaluated the interrater reliability of ultrasound measurements of tendons. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of a new method of sonographic measurement of patellar tendon length using direct dissection as the gold standard. Four cadaveric knees were sonographically evaluated by two independent investigators. Two custom designed straps with nylon strapping and stainless steel wire were used to firmly mark position on the leg and create an acoustic shadow on the ultrasound image. Anatomic landmarks were the distal patellar pole and the bony ridge on the anterior proximal tibia. After sonographic evaluation, the knee was dissected to expose the patellar tendon, which was measured using digital calipers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to determine reliability of measurements between observers, where ICC >0.75 was considered good and >0.9 was considered excellent. Validity was measured using a Bland-Altman plot, which measures bias between measurement methods as well as variability of scatter. Three sonographic measurements were made by each investigator on each tendon. The length of each of the four tendons based on the mean values of sonographic measurements was 53.8 mm, 53.4 mm, 49.4 mm and 46.8 mm. The length based on visual inspection of the dissected tissue was 54.6 mm, 52.8 mm, 49.8 mm and 46.9 mm. The calculated ICC between raters was 0.96. On the Bland-Altman plot, the bias, or mean difference between sonographic and visual measures, was 0.17 mm, with a standard deviation of 0.71. The 95% limit of agreement was -1.55 to 1.22 mm. Measurement of patellar tendon length with ultrasound using adjustable surface markers and calipers is highly accurate and has good interrater reliability. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for
Albers, Iris Sophie; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald Leo; Dekker, Janny Hendrika; Van den Akker-Scheek, Inge
Lower extremity tendinopathy is a common sports injury, but it can also affect non-athletes. Because tendinopathy is difficult to treat and has negative effects on the ability to work and quality of life, development of preventive interventions is important. The first step in the Van Mechelen prevention model is to determine the extent of the problem. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of lower extremity tendinopathy in a Dutch general practice population. The secondary aim was to investigate possible associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in a Dutch general practice. Using International Classification of Primary Care codes, the electronic patient files were searched to identify cases of adductor tendinopathy, greater trochanteric pain syndrome, jumper's knee, Achilles tendinopathy, and plantar fasciopathy in 2012. The tendinopathy patients were compared to the general practice population regarding age, gender, use of medication, and comorbidity using 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence and incidence rates of lower extremity tendinopathy found in this study were 11.83 and 10.52 per 1000 person-years. Lower extremity tendinopathy was more prevalent among older patients. No differences between tendinopathy patients and the general practice population were found regarding gender, use of medication, or comorbidity. In this cross-sectional study in a Dutch general practice, the prevalence and incidence rates of lower extremity tendinopathy were 11.83 and 10.52 per 1000 person-years. Lower extremity tendinopathy deserves a higher place in locomotor system research to develop preventive interventions.
Background Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common condition, causing considerable morbidity in athletes and non-athletes alike. Conservative or physical therapies are accepted as first-line management of AT; however, despite a growing volume of research, there remains a lack of high quality studies evaluating their efficacy. Previous systematic reviews provide preliminary evidence for non-surgical interventions for AT, but lack key quality components as outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) Statement. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis (where possible) of the evidence for physical therapies for AT management. Methods A comprehensive strategy was used to search 11 electronic databases from inception to September 2011. Search terms included Achilles, tendinopathy, pain, physical therapies, electrotherapy and exercise (English language full-text publications, human studies). Reference lists of eligible papers were hand-searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included if they evaluated at least one non-pharmacological, non-surgical intervention for AT using at least one outcome of pain and/or function. Two independent reviewers screened 2852 search results, identifying 23 suitable studies, and assessed methodological quality and risk of bias using a modified PEDro scale. Effect size calculation and meta-analyses were based on fixed and random effects models respectively. Results Methodological quality ranged from 2 to 12 (/14). Four studies were excluded due to high risk of bias, leaving 19 studies, the majority of which evaluated midportion AT. Effect sizes from individual RCTs support the use of eccentric exercise. Meta-analyses identified significant effects favouring the addition of laser therapy to eccentric exercise at 12 weeks (pain VAS: standardised mean difference −0.59, 95% confidence interval −1.11 to −0.07), as well as no differences in effect
Fredberg, Ulrich; Kjær, Søren G.; Quistorff, Bjørn; Langberg, Henning; Hansen, Jacob B.
Background Achilles tendinopathy is a painful inflammatory condition characterized by swelling, stiffness and reduced function of the Achilles tendon. Kager’s fat pad is an adipose tissue located in the area anterior to the Achilles tendon. Observations reveal a close physical interplay between Kager’s fat pad and its surrounding structures during movement of the ankle, suggesting that Kager’s fat pad may stabilize and protect the mechanical function of the ankle joint. Aim The aim of this study was to characterize whether Achilles tendinopathy was accompanied by changes in expression of inflammatory markers and metabolic enzymes in Kager’s fat pad. Methods A biopsy was taken from Kager’s fat pad from 31 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and from 13 healthy individuals. Gene expression was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Focus was on genes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. Results Expression of the majority of analyzed inflammatory marker genes was increased in patients with Achilles tendinopathy compared to that in healthy controls. Expression patterns of the patient group were consistent with reduced lipolysis and increased fatty acid β-oxidation. In the fat pad, the pain-signaling neuropeptide substance P was found to be present in one third of the subjects in the Achilles tendinopathy group but in none of the healthy controls. Conclusion Gene expression changes in Achilles tendinopathy patient samples were consistent with Kager’s fat pad being more inflamed than in the healthy control group. Additionally, the results indicate an altered lipid metabolism in Kager’s fat pad of Achilles tendinopathy patients. PMID:25996876
Saxena, Amol; Ramdath, Sona; O'Halloran, Patrick; Gerdesmeyer, Ludger; Gollwitzer, Hans
Achilles tendinopathy is common and extracorporeal shockwaves have become a popular treatment for this condition, even though previous research has not provided conclusive results regarding its efficacy in cases of Achilles tendinopathy. Our aim was to evaluate 3 weekly shockwave treatments in patients with Achilles tendinopathy, as quantified by the Roles and Maudsley score. A total of 74 tendons in 60 patients were assessed at baseline and at least 1 year posttreatment, including 32 (43.24%) paratendinoses, 23 (31.08%) proximal tendinoses, and 19 (25.68%) insertional tendinoses. The mean age of the participants was 48.6 ± 12.94 years, and patients with paratendinosis (41.44 ± 14.01 years) were statistically significantly younger than those with proximal (53 ± 8.9 years) and insertional (54.26 ± 9.74 years) tendinopathy, and these differences were statistically significant (P = .0012 and P = .0063, respectively). Overall, 58 (78.38%) tendons improved by at least 1 year posttreatment, including 75% in the paratendinosis, 78.26% in the proximal tendinosis, and 84.21% in the insertional tendinosis groups, and no adverse effects were observed. The Roles and Maudsley score improved from 3.22 ± 0.55 to 1.84 ± 1.05 (P < .0001) in the paratendinosis group, 3.39 ± 0.5 to 1.57 ± 0.66 (P < .0001) in the proximal tendinopathy group, and 3.32 ± 0.58 to 1.47 ± 0.7 (P = .0001) in the insertional tendinopathy group. Based on these results, we believe that shockwave therapy serves as a safe, viable, and effective option for the treatment of Achilles tendinopathy. Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Watson, Paul J.; Barry, Simon
Background and Purpose Achilles tendinopathy can be a debilitating chronic condition for both active and inactive individuals. The identification of risk facors is important both in preventing but also treating tendinopathy, many factors have been proposed but there is a lack of primary epidemiological data. The purpose of this study was to develop a statement of expert consensus on risk factors for Achilles tendinopathy in active and sedentary patient populations to inform a primary epidemiological study. Study design Delphi study Methods and Measures An online Delphi study was completed inviting participation from world tendon experts. The consensus was developed using three rounds of the Delphi technique. The first round developed a complete list of potential risk factors, the second round refined this list but also separated the factors into two population groups – active/athletic and inactive/sedentary. The third round ranked this list in order of perceived importance. Results Forty-four experts were invited to participate, 16 participated in the first round (response rate 40%) and two dropped out in the second round (resulting in a response rate of 35%). A total of 27 intrinsic and eight extrinsic risk factors were identified during round one. During round two only 12 intrinsic and five extrinsic risk factors were identified as important in active/athletic tendinopathy while 14 intrinsic and three extrinsic factors were identified as important for inactive/sedentary tendinopathy. Conclusions Risk factors for Achilles tendinopathy were identified based on expert consensus, and these factors provide a basis for primary epidemiological studies. Plantarflexor strength was identified as the primary modifiable factor in the active/athletic group while systemic factors were identified as important in the inactive/sedentary group, many of the potential factors suggested for either group were non-modifiable. Non-modifiable factors include: previous tendinopathy
Song, Chen-Yi; Lin, Jiu-Jenq; Jan, Mei-Hwa; Lin, Yeong-Fwu
Lateral patellar malalignment and maltracking are commonly believed to be associated with patellofemoral pain. In the current review, a computerized and manual search of English-language articles was performed using multiple combinations of the following keywords: 'patellofemoral pain syndrome' or 'patellofemoral pain', and 'patellar alignment' or 'patellar tracking'. The role of patellar alignment and tracking in vivo is discussed via a review of papers regarding the differences in asymptomatic and symptomatic patella. An attempt is made to identify the potential mechanism of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Evidence suggests that symptomatic patella do not consistently demonstrate lateral malalignment or tracking in patellar tilt and translation. Abnormal patellar alignment and tracking may be potential risk factors that are associated with patellofemoral pain. Other contributing factors should be considered in dealing with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Further studies are required to determine what normal patella alignment and tracking is before going on to define how these are altered in subjects with patellofemoral pain. Furthermore, prospective studies are needed to identify the alteration of patellofemoral kinematics, if any, and whether these are the causative factor or the consequence of the patellofemoral pain syndrome, as well as to determine the risk of development of patellofemoral pain syndrome in individuals with and without abnormal patellar tracking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Cheng-hai; Shu, Lei; Ma, Long-fei; Zhou, Jian-wei; Ji, Gang; Wang, Fei; Wang, Juan
The objective of this study was to explore the clinical effect of medial and lateral retinaculum plasty for congenital patellar dislocation due to small patella syndrome. Twelve patients with congenital patellar dislocation due to small patella syndrome treated at the authors' hospital between January 2005 and February 2010 were enrolled in the study. The study group comprised 4 men (4 knees) and 8 women (8 knees) with an average age of 10.58±6.91 years. All patients underwent medial and lateral retinaculum plasty. Clinical evaluation included the number of patellar redislocations, patellar apprehension sign, Kujala score, subjective questionnaire score, and patella lateral shift and patellar tilt angle measured using a cross-sectional computed tomography scan. All patients were followed up, and the shortest follow-up time was 2 years. Kujala scores improved from 49.20±6.20 preoperatively to 80.10±5.80 postoperatively. Subjective questionnaire scores indicated that the excellent and good rate was 75%. In addition, a significant difference existed in the patellar tilt angle and patella lateral shift between pre- and postoperative results (P<.05). Medial and lateral retinaculum plasty for patients with congenital patellar dislocation due to small patella syndrome can be effective to correct the tracking of the patellofemoral joint and improve knee function. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Keshmiri, Armin; Maderbacher, Günther; Baier, Clemens; Sendtner, Ernst; Schaumburger, Jens; Zeman, Florian; Grifka, Joachim; Springorum, Hans R
Postoperative anterior knee pain is one of the most frequent complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Changes in patellar kinematics after TKA relative to the preoperative arthritic knee are not well understood. We compared the patellar kinematics preoperatively with the kinematics after ligament-balanced navigated TKA. We measured patellar tracking before and after ligament-balanced TKA in 40 consecutive patients using computer navigation. Furthermore, the influences of different femoral and tibial component alignment on patellar kinematics were analyzed using generalized linear models. After TKA, the patellae shifted statistically significantly more laterally between 30° and 60°. The lateral tilt increased at 90° of flexion whereas the epicondylar distance decreased between 45° and 75° of flexion. Sagittal component alignment, but not rotational component alignment, had a significant influence on patellar kinematics. There are major differences in patellar kinematics between the preoperative arthritic knee and the knee after TKA. Combined sagittal component alignment in particular appears to have a major effect on patellar kinematics. Surgeons should be especially aware of altering preoperative sagittal alignment until the possible clinical relevance has been investigated.
Keshmiri, Armin; Maderbacher, Günther; Baier, Clemens; Sendtner, Ernst; Schaumburger, Jens; Zeman, Florian; Grifka, Joachim; Springorum, Hans R
Background and purpose Postoperative anterior knee pain is one of the most frequent complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Changes in patellar kinematics after TKA relative to the preoperative arthritic knee are not well understood. We compared the patellar kinematics preoperatively with the kinematics after ligament-balanced navigated TKA. Patients and methods We measured patellar tracking before and after ligament-balanced TKA in 40 consecutive patients using computer navigation. Furthermore, the influences of different femoral and tibial component alignment on patellar kinematics were analyzed using generalized linear models. Results After TKA, the patellae shifted statistically significantly more laterally between 30° and 60°. The lateral tilt increased at 90° of flexion whereas the epicondylar distance decreased between 45° and 75° of flexion. Sagittal component alignment, but not rotational component alignment, had a significant influence on patellar kinematics. Interpretation There are major differences in patellar kinematics between the preoperative arthritic knee and the knee after TKA. Combined sagittal component alignment in particular appears to have a major effect on patellar kinematics. Surgeons should be especially aware of altering preoperative sagittal alignment until the possible clinical relevance has been investigated. PMID:25582349
Gomes Júnior, Nelson Pelozo; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Raduan, Fernando Cipolini; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moisés
The presence of accessory tendons in the foot and ankle needs to be recognized, given that depending on their location, they may cause disorders relating either to pain processes or to handling of the surgical findings. We describe the presence of an accessory flexor tendon of the toes, seen in surgical exposure for transferring the long flexor tendon of the hallux to the calcaneus, due to the presence of a disorder of tendinopathy of the insertion of the calcaneal tendon in association with Haglund's syndrome.
Gomes Júnior, Nelson Pelozo; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Raduan, Fernando Cipolini; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moisés
The presence of accessory tendons in the foot and ankle needs to be recognized, given that depending on their location, they may cause disorders relating either to pain processes or to handling of the surgical findings. We describe the presence of an accessory flexor tendon of the toes, seen in surgical exposure for transferring the long flexor tendon of the hallux to the calcaneus, due to the presence of a disorder of tendinopathy of the insertion of the calcaneal tendon in association with Haglund's syndrome. PMID:26962495
Tahririan, Mohammad Ali; Moezi, Mehdi; Motififard, Mahdi; Nemati, Mahdi; Nemati, Amin
Background: Degenerative changes and inflammation in the rotator cuff (RC) are the most important causes of shoulder pain. The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in patients with chronic RC tendinopathy. Materials and Methods: This study was an open-label study performed at Kashani Hospital between April 2012 and June 2014. Patients with a <1 cm partial tearing of the bursal side of RC with no or little response to conservative management were included. PRP injection was done using ultrasonography guide via posterior subacromial approach. Demographic data were obtained in all patient before the study, and shoulder function was evaluated using Constant shoulder score (CSS) before and 3 months after PRP injection. Results: A total number of 17 patients were enrolled. The mean of CSS before and after intervention was 37.05 ± 11.03 and 61.76 ± 14.75, respectively (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant correlation between the pain score before the study and the improvement in CSS (P = 0.45, r = 0.03). Significant relation was observed between the individuals’ age and improvement of CSS (P = 0.02, r = −0.49). There was no significant difference in CSS improvement between genders (P = 0.23). Conclusion: Single injection of PRP is effective to reduce pain and improve range of motion in patients with bursal side partial tearing of RC who failed to respond to conservative treatments. PMID:28217638
Benson, R T; McDonnell, S M; Knowles, H J; Rees, J L; Carr, A J; Hulley, P A
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of tissue hypoxia and apoptosis at different stages of tendinopathy and tears of the rotator cuff. We studied tissue from 24 patients with eight graded stages of either impingement (mild, moderate and severe) or tears of the rotator cuff (partial, small, medium, large and massive) and three controls. Biopsies were analysed using three immunohistochemical techniques, namely antibodies against HIF-1alpha (a transcription factor produced in a hypoxic environment), BNip3 (a HIF-1alpha regulated pro-apoptotic protein) and TUNEL (detecting DNA fragmentation in apoptosis). The HIF-1alpha expression was greatest in mild impingement and in partial, small, medium and large tears. BNip3 expression increased significantly in partial, small, medium and large tears but was reduced in massive tears. Apoptosis was increased in small, medium, large and massive tears but not in partial tears. These findings reveal evidence of hypoxic damage throughout the spectrum of pathology of the rotator cuff which may contribute to loss of cells by apoptosis. This provides a novel insight into the causes of degeneration of the rotator cuff and highlights possible options for treatment.
Benson, R. T.; McDonnell, S. M.; Knowles, H. J.; Rees, J. L.; Carr, A. J.; Hulley, P. A.
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of tissue hypoxia and apoptosis at different stages of tendinopathy and tears of the rotator cuff. We studied tissue from 24 patients with eight graded stages of either impingement (mild, moderate and severe) or tears of the rotator cuff (partial, small, medium, large and massive) and three controls. Biopsies were analysed using three immunohistochemical techniques, namely antibodies against HIF-1α (a transcription factor produced in a hypoxic environment), BNip3 (a HIF-1α regulated pro-apoptotic protein) and TUNEL (detecting DNA fragmentation in apoptosis). The HIF-1α expression was greatest in mild impingement and in partial, small, medium and large tears. BNip3 expression increased significantly in partial, small, medium and large tears but was reduced in massive tears. Apoptosis was increased in small, medium, large and massive tears but not in partial tears. These findings reveal evidence of hypoxic damage throughout the spectrum of pathology of the rotator cuff which may contribute to loss of cells by apoptosis. This provides a novel insight into the causes of degeneration of the rotator cuff and highlights possible options for treatment. PMID:20190320
Tahririan, Mohammad Ali; Moezi, Mehdi; Motififard, Mahdi; Nemati, Mahdi; Nemati, Amin
Degenerative changes and inflammation in the rotator cuff (RC) are the most important causes of shoulder pain. The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in patients with chronic RC tendinopathy. This study was an open-label study performed at Kashani Hospital between April 2012 and June 2014. Patients with a <1 cm partial tearing of the bursal side of RC with no or little response to conservative management were included. PRP injection was done using ultrasonography guide via posterior subacromial approach. Demographic data were obtained in all patient before the study, and shoulder function was evaluated using Constant shoulder score (CSS) before and 3 months after PRP injection. A total number of 17 patients were enrolled. The mean of CSS before and after intervention was 37.05 ± 11.03 and 61.76 ± 14.75, respectively (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant correlation between the pain score before the study and the improvement in CSS (P = 0.45, r = 0.03). Significant relation was observed between the individuals' age and improvement of CSS (P = 0.02, r = -0.49). There was no significant difference in CSS improvement between genders (P = 0.23). Single injection of PRP is effective to reduce pain and improve range of motion in patients with bursal side partial tearing of RC who failed to respond to conservative treatments.
Dakin, Stephanie G.; Dudhia, Jayesh; Smith, Roger K.W.
Injuries to the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in equine athletes, but the healing response is poorly understood. One important drive for the healing of connective tissues is the inflammatory cascade, but the role of inflammation in tendinopathy has been contentious in the literature. This article reviews the processes involved in the healing of tendon injuries in natural disease and experimental models. The importance of inflammatory processes known to be active in tendon disease is discussed with particular focus on recent findings related specifically to the horse. Whilst inflammation is necessary for debridement after injury, persistent inflammation is thought to drive fibrosis, a perceived adverse consequence of tendon healing. Therefore the ability to resolve inflammation by the resident cell populations in tendons at an appropriate time would be crucial for successful outcome. This review summarises new evidence for the importance of resolution of inflammation after tendon injury. Given that many anti-inflammatory drugs suppress both inflammatory and resolving components of the inflammatory response, prolonged use of these drugs may be contraindicated as a therapeutic approach. We propose that these findings have profound implications not only for current treatment strategies but also for the possibility of developing novel therapeutic approaches involving modulation of the inflammatory process. PMID:24556326
Berruto, M; Howe, J G; Beynnon, B D; Johnson, R J; Nichols, C E; Pope, M H
The implantation of a free autogenous patellar tendon graft is the surgical technique that currently offers the best results in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. However, numerous aspects regarding both technique and postoperative rehabilitation can still be improved. The aim of this study was to measure the elongation of the patellar tendon in vivo in the operating room after reconstructive surgery, subjecting the knee to normal strain such as passive mobilization or anterior displacement of the tibia. Three volunteers were studied. Our results were different from those reported in a previous study conducted in vivo on a normal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). In spite of the isometric position of the tendon, passive mobilization provoked a progressive increase in the elongation of the graft within each cycle of flexion-extension and between one cycle and the next. This also occurred during the Lachman test. These findings suggest that the graft undergoes a process of tensile adjustment when it is first put under strain. Continued elongation once this process appears stabilized raises doubts as to the reliability of isometric measuring devices.
Mizrahi, J; Susak, Z; Bahar, A; Seliktar, R; Najenson, T
The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between geometry of the patellar tendon (PT) insertion in the socket and the dynamic load transmitted through the PT, in a patellar tendon bearing (PTB) prosthesis. The dynamic load was measured by a specially constructed two-component load cell, which was mounted on the experimental prosthesis. Geometry of the PT insertion relative to the socket was altered by adjusting the location of the mounting frame-load cell assembly. Evaluation of performance of the prosthesis in the range of geometries investigated was made objectively by gait analysis of the patients. The latter was performed on a 10 m walkpath, including at halfway two forceplates, from which the foot-ground forces were recorded. Simultaneously, the PT forces on the prosthesis, as sensed by the load cell were monitored. Computer processing of the data included full analysis of the force-trace and the determination of criteria for optimization of the PT insertion. The resulting criteria were those which expressed minimization of abnormalities in the foot-ground forces of each patient, such as vertical and braking forces and their timings. The complete optimization procedure, which was undertaken for two below-knee male amputees, indicated the correct positioning of the PT insertion, actually taken in the final fitting procedure of the socket of the prosthesis.
Nyland, John; Fried, Andrew; Maitra, Ranjan; Johnson, Darren L; Caborn, David N M
The efficacy of dominant wrist circumference measurements to predict dominant lower extremity patellar tendon thickness at regions of interest for bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft harvest was studied among 24 healthy men and women. Dominant wrist circumference displayed good relationships with dominant lower extremity patellar tendon thickness as determined by two-dimensional diagnostic ultrasound. This initial screening method may assist surgeons as they consider graft selection for patients who may be at risk for developing or exacerbating preexisting patellofemoral joint or knee extensor mechanism conditions with BPTB autograft harvest.
van Sterkenburg, Maayke N; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Kleipool, Roeland P; Niek van Dijk, C
The source of pain and the background to the pain mechanisms associated with mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy have not yet been clarified. Intratendinous degenerative changes are most often addressed when present. However, it is questionable if degeneration of the tendon itself is the main cause of pain. Pain is often most prominent on the medial side, 2–7 cm from the insertion onto the calcaneus. The medial location of the pain has been explained to be caused by enhanced stress on the calcaneal tendon due to hyperpronation. However, on this medial side the plantaris tendon is also located. It has been postulated that the plantaris tendon might play a role in these medially located symptoms. To our knowledge, the exact anatomy and relationship between the plantaris- and calcaneal tendon at the level of complaints have not been anatomically assessed. This was the purpose of our study. One-hundred and seven lower extremities were dissected. After opening the superficial fascia and paratendon, the plantaris tendon was bluntly released from the calcaneal tendon moving distally. The incidence of the plantaris tendon, its course, site of insertion and possible connections were documented. When with manual force the plantaris tendon could not be released, it was defined as a ‘connection’ with the calcaneal tendon. In all specimens a plantaris tendon was identified. Nine different sites of insertion were found, mostly medial and fan-shaped onto the calcaneus. In 11 specimens (10%) firm connections were found at the level of the calcaneal tendon mid-portion. Clinical and histological studies are needed to confirm the role of the plantaris tendon in mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:21323916
Streit, Jonathan J; Shishani, Yousef; Rodgers, Mark; Gobezie, Reuben
Background Bicipital tendinitis is a common cause of anterior shoulder pain, but there is no evidence that acute inflammation of the extra-articular long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon is the root cause of this condition. We evaluated the histologic findings of the extra-articular portion of the LHB tendon and synovial sheath in order to compare those findings to known histologic changes seen in other tendinopathies. Methods Twenty-six consecutive patients (mean age 45.4±13.7 years) underwent an open subpectoral biceps tenodesis for anterior shoulder pain localized to the bicipital groove. Excised tendons were sent for histologic analysis. Specimens were graded using a semiquantitative scoring system to evaluate tenocyte morphology, the presence of ground substance, collagen bundle characteristics, and vascular changes. Results Chronic inflammation was noted in only two of 26 specimens, and no specimen demonstrated acute inflammation. Tenocyte enlargement and proliferation, characterized by increased roundness and size of the cell and nucleus with proteoglycan matrix expansion and myxoid degenerative changes, was found in all 26 specimens. Abundant ground substance, collagen bundle changes, and increased vascularization were visualized in all samples. Conclusion Anterior shoulder pain attributed to the biceps tendon does not appear to be due to an inflammatory process in most cases. The histologic findings of the extra-articular portion of the LHB tendon and synovial sheath are similar to the pathologic findings in de Quervain tenosynovitis at the wrist, and may be due to a chronic degenerative process similar to this and other tendinopathies of the body. PMID:25792859
Kozlovskaia, Maria; Vlahovich, Nicole; Ashton, Kevin J; Hughes, David C
Achilles tendinopathy is the most prevalent tendon disorder in people engaged in running and jumping sports. Aetiology of Achilles tendinopathy is complex and requires comprehensive research of contributing risk factors. There is relatively little research focussing on potential biomedical risk factors for Achilles tendinopathy. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify studies and summarise current knowledge of biomedical risk factors of Achilles tendinopathy in physically active people. Research databases were searched for relevant articles followed by assessment in accordance with PRISMA statement and standards of Cochrane collaboration. Levels of evidence and quality assessment designation were implemented in accordance with OCEBM levels of evidence and Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale, respectively. A systematic review of the literature identified 22 suitable articles. All included studies had moderate level of evidence (2b) with the Newcastle-Ottawa score varying between 6 and 9. The majority (17) investigated genetic polymorphisms involved in tendon structure and homeostasis and apoptosis and inflammation pathways. Overweight as a risk factor of Achilles tendinopathy was described in five included studies that investigated non-genetic factors. COL5A1 genetic variants were the most extensively studied, particularly in association with genetic variants in the genes involved in regulation of cell-matrix interaction in tendon and matrix homeostasis. It is important to investigate connections and pathways whose interactions might be disrupted and therefore alter collagen structure and lead to the development of pathology. Polymorphisms in genes involved in apoptosis and inflammation, and Achilles tendinopathy did not show strong association and, however, should be considered for further investigation. This systematic review suggests that biomedical risk factors are an important consideration in the future study of propensity to the development
Al-Abbad, Hani; Simon, Joel Varghese
Achilles tendinopathy is a pathological state resulting from repetitive loading or stress on the tendon. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is hypothesized to be an effective alternative intervention to surgery when other conservative therapies fail. This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of ESWT in the treatment of insertional and noninsertional Achilles tendinopathies. Articles were electronically searched from the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and SPORTDiscus using a comprehensive search strategy. Studies were included if they were prospective clinical trials examining the effectiveness of ESWT for insertional or noninsertional Achilles tendinopathies. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using PEDro scale and Modified McMaster tool. The strength of the evidence was reported using the National Health and Medical Research Council body of evidence framework. A narrative summary of the findings was presented. Four of the included studies were randomized controlled trials, and 2 were pre-post study designs. Common methodological deficiencies included not blinding the clinician and participants. There was consistent evidence from 4 reviewed studies on the effectiveness of ESWT in the management of patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathies at a minimum 3 months' follow-up. Overall, our review showed satisfactory evidence for the effectiveness of low-energy ESWT in the treatment of chronic insertional and noninsertional Achilles tendinopathies at a minimum 3 months' follow-up before considering surgery if other conservative management fails. However, combining ESWT with eccentric loading appears to show superior results. Level 1, systematic meta-analysis.
McCreesh, Karen M; Anjum, Shakeel; Crotty, James M; Lewis, Jeremy S
Rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy has been widely ascribed to impingement of the supraspinatus tendon (SsT) in the subacromial space, measured as the acromiohumeral distance (AHD). Ultrasound (US) is suitable for measuring AHD and SsT thickness, but few reliability studies have been carried out in symptomatic populations, and interrater reliability is unconfirmed. This study aimed to examine the intrarater and interrater reliability of US measurements of AHD and SsT thickness in asymptomatic control subjects and patients with RC tendinopathy. Seventy participants were recruited and grouped as healthy controls (n = 25) and RC tendinopathy (n = 45). Repeated US measurements of AHD and SsT thickness were obtained by one rater in both groups and by two raters in the RC tendinopathy group. Intrarater and interrater reliability coefficients were excellent for both measurements (intraclass correlation > 0.92), but the intrarater reliability was superior. The minimal detectable change values in the symptomatic group were 0.7 mm for AHD and 0.6 mm for SsT thickness for a single experienced examiner; the values rose to 1.2 mm and 1.3 mm, respectively, for the pair of examiners. The results support the reliability of US for the measurement of AHD and SsT thickness in patients with symptomatic RC tendinopathy and provide minimal detectable change values for use in future research studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Park, Giyoung; Kwon, Dongrak; Park, Junghyun
Conventional ultrasonography or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is commonly performed to obtain information about the severity of the disease, location of the injury, and differential diagnosis. The aim of this research was to investigate the diagnostic confidence of sonoelastography as an adjunct to greyscale ultrasonography in lateral elbow tendinopathy. A single experienced physiatrist performed greyscale ultrasonography and sonoelastography in 28 patients (9 men, 19 women; mean age, 48.5 years; age range, 36-67 years) with unilateral symptoms of lateral elbow tendinopathy; the asymptomatic elbows were used as controls. Greyscale images were described as normal, tendinosis, partial-thickness tear, and full-thickness tear. Sonoelastographic images of the common extensor tendon were analyzed qualitatively (scoring of the elastic spectrum) and quantitatively (based on a color histogram). Both the imaging methods had high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosing lateral elbow tendinopathy. Considering the clinical diagnosis of lateral elbow tendinopathy, sonoelastography showed significantly higher diagnostic accuracy (96.4%) than ultrasonography (89.5%, P < 0.01). Quantitative analysis showed objective interpretation of the sonoelastographic images that revealed greater intensity of green and blue pixels in symptomatic elbows (P < 0.01). Sonoelastography increases diagnostic confidence in tennis elbow pathology over greyscale ultrasonography alone and may be an additional powerful diagnostic tool in cases of lateral elbow tendinopathy with inconclusive greyscale ultrasonographic findings.
Devesa-Garcia, V; Bañeres-De la Torre, A; Cabezas-Salamanca, M A; Lucas-Lucas, N; Rodriguez-Quiros, J
The aim of this report is