Science.gov

Sample records for path coefficient analysis

  1. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Aliya, F; Begum, H; Reddy, M T; Sivaraj, N; Pandravada, S R; Narshimulu, G

    2014-05-01

    Fifty genotypes of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India during kharif, 2012. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively for twelve quantitative characters namely vine length (m), number of stems per plant, days to first female flower appearance, first female flowering node, days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period (days), fruit length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit weight (g), number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant (kg) for identification of the potential selection indices. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruiting period and number of fruits per plant not only had positively significant correlation with fruit yield but also had positively high direct effect on it and are regarded as the main determinants of fruit yield. Days to first fruit harvest had positively moderate direct effect on fruit yield and its association was negatively significant, days to last fruit harvest had negatively high direct effect on fruit yield and its association was significant positively, hence restricted simultaneous selection can be made for days to first fruit harvest and days to last fruit harvest. The improvement in fruit yield can be effective if selection is based on days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period and number of fruits per plant. PMID:26030998

  2. Interrelationship and path coefficient analysis of yield components in F4 progenies of tef (Eragrostis tef).

    PubMed

    Debebe, Abel; Singh, Harijat; Tefera, Hailu

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted at Debre Zeit and Akaki during 2004-2005 cropping season on F2-derived F4 bulk families of three crosses, viz, DZ-01-974 x DZ-01-2786, DZ-01-974 x DZ-Cr-37 and Alba x Kaye Murri. To estimate the correlations and path coefficients between yield and yield components, 63 F4 families were taken randomly from each of the three crosses. The 189 F4 families, five parents and two checks were space planted following in 14 x 14 simple lattice design. Study of associations among traits indicated that yield was positively associated with shoot biomass, harvest index, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at phenotypic level at Debre Zeit. At Akaki, yield had significant positive correlation with shoot biomass, harvest index, plant height, panicle length and panicle weight. At genotypic level, grain yield per plot exhibited positive association with harvest index, shoot biomass, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at Debre Zeit. By contrast, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and panicle length showed negative association with yield. At Akaki, kernel yield per plot was positively correlated at genotypic level with all the traits considered where lodging index had the highest correlation followed by shoot biomass, panicle kernel weight and harvest index. Path coefficient analysis at both phenotypic and genotypic levels for both the locations suggested those shoot biomass and harvest indexes are the two important yield determining traits. These two traits might be useful in indirect selection for yield improvement in the material generated from the three crosses under consideration.

  3. Path ANalysis

    2007-07-14

    The PANL software determines path through an Adversary Sequence Diagram (ASD) with minimum Probability of Interruption, P(I), given the ASD information and data about site detection, delay, and response force times. To accomplish this, the software generates each path through the ASD, then applies the Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI) methodology for calculating P(I) to each path, and keeps track of the path with the lowest P(I). Primary use is for training purposes duringmore » courses on physical security design. During such courses PANL will be used to demonstrate to students how more complex software codes are used by the US Department of Energy to determine the most-vulnerable paths and, where security needs improvement, how such codes can help determine physical security upgrades.« less

  4. Path ANalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark K.

    2007-07-14

    The PANL software determines path through an Adversary Sequence Diagram (ASD) with minimum Probability of Interruption, P(I), given the ASD information and data about site detection, delay, and response force times. To accomplish this, the software generates each path through the ASD, then applies the Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI) methodology for calculating P(I) to each path, and keeps track of the path with the lowest P(I). Primary use is for training purposes during courses on physical security design. During such courses PANL will be used to demonstrate to students how more complex software codes are used by the US Department of Energy to determine the most-vulnerable paths and, where security needs improvement, how such codes can help determine physical security upgrades.

  5. Calculation of solar attenuation coefficient using ACCOS V along a critical scattering path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, Alan J.

    An appraisal of the optical properties of the AVHRR is made for a proposed orbital trajectory which results in an unexpected solar stray-light path; i.e., bypassing the external scan mirror and Cassegrain telescope and proceeding directly to the inner conical baffle. This stray-light path is directed onto an internal beamsplitter which, in turn, is directly observed by the detectors. Stray-light analysis, as a goal, seeks to remove or minimize the influence of such critical scattering paths. The AVHRR path is evaluated using a standard optical ray-tracing program, ACCOS V. To determine the expected sensor degradation, a calculation of the expected attenuation coefficient of scattered sunlight in the AVHRR sensor is estimated based on this important critical scattering path.

  6. Interactive cutting path analysis programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, J. M.; Williams, D. S.; Colley, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    The operation of numerically controlled machine tools is interactively simulated. Four programs were developed to graphically display the cutting paths for a Monarch lathe, Cintimatic mill, Strippit sheet metal punch, and the wiring path for a Standard wire wrap machine. These programs are run on a IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system under the DOS-3 disk operating system. The cutting path analysis programs accept input via both paper tape and disk file.

  7. Cross-Correlations and Structures of Aero-Engine Gas Path System Based on DCCA Coefficient and Rooted Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Keqiang; Fan, Jie; Gao, You

    2015-12-01

    Identifying the mutual interaction is a crucial problem that facilitates the understanding of emerging structures in complex system. We here focus on aero-engine dynamic as an example of complex system. By applying the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) coefficient method to aero-engine gas path system, we find that the low-spool rotor speed (N1) and high-spool rotor speed (N2) fluctuation series exhibit cross-correlation characteristic. Further, we employ detrended cross-correlation coefficient matrix and rooted tree to investigate the mutual interactions of other gas path variables. The results can infer that the exhaust gas temperature (EGT), N1, N2, fuel flow (WF) and engine pressure ratio (EPR) are main gas path parameters.

  8. Analysis of internal conversion coefficients

    PubMed

    Coursol; Gorozhankin; Yakushev; Briancon; Vylov

    2000-03-01

    An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z = 30 to Z = 103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10 < or = Z < or = 104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Rosel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations. PMID:10724406

  9. Adaptive Environmental Source Localization and Tracking with Unknown Permittivity and Path Loss Coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Fidan, Barış; Umay, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Accurate signal-source and signal-reflector target localization tasks via mobile sensory units and wireless sensor networks (WSNs), including those for environmental monitoring via sensory UAVs, require precise knowledge of specific signal propagation properties of the environment, which are permittivity and path loss coefficients for the electromagnetic signal case. Thus, accurate estimation of these coefficients has significant importance for the accuracy of location estimates. In this paper, we propose a geometric cooperative technique to instantaneously estimate such coefficients, with details provided for received signal strength (RSS) and time-of-flight (TOF)-based range sensors. The proposed technique is integrated to a recursive least squares (RLS)-based adaptive localization scheme and an adaptive motion control law, to construct adaptive target localization and adaptive target tracking algorithms, respectively, that are robust to uncertainties in aforementioned environmental signal propagation coefficients. The efficiency of the proposed adaptive localization and tracking techniques are both mathematically analysed and verified via simulation experiments. PMID:26690441

  10. Imaginary time path integral Monte Carlo route to rate coefficients for nonadiabatic barrier crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolynes, Peter G.

    1987-01-01

    Nonadiabatic transitions are central to many areas of chemical and condensed matter physics, ranging from biological electron transfer to the optical properties of one-dimensional conductors. Here, a path integral Monte Carlo method is used to simulate such transitions, based on the observation that nonadiabatic rate coefficients are often dominated by saddle point trajectories that correspond to an imaginary time. Simple analytic theories can be used to continue these imaginary time correlation functions to determine rate coefficients. The advantages and drawbacks of this approach are discussed.

  11. Path-integral calculation of the second virial coefficient including intramolecular flexibility effects

    SciTech Connect

    Garberoglio, Giovanni; Jankowski, Piotr; Szalewicz, Krzysztof; Harvey, Allan H.

    2014-07-28

    We present a path-integral Monte Carlo procedure for the fully quantum calculation of the second molecular virial coefficient accounting for intramolecular flexibility. This method is applied to molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and deuterium (D{sub 2}) in the temperature range 15–2000 K, showing that the effect of molecular flexibility is not negligible. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data, as well as with virials given by recent empirical equations of state, although some discrepancies are observed for H{sub 2} between 100 and 200 K.

  12. Generalized Path Analysis and Generalized Simultaneous Equations Model for Recursive Systems with Responses of Mixed Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Tien-Lung; Shau, Wen-Yi; Hu, Fu-Chang

    2006-01-01

    This article generalizes linear path analysis (PA) and simultaneous equations models (SiEM) to deal with mixed responses of different types in a recursive or triangular system. An efficient instrumental variable (IV) method for estimating the structural coefficients of a 2-equation partially recursive generalized path analysis (GPA) model and…

  13. A taxonomy of integral reaction path analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, Joseph F.; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.

    2004-12-23

    W. C. Gardiner observed that achieving understanding through combustion modeling is limited by the ability to recognize the implications of what has been computed and to draw conclusions about the elementary steps underlying the reaction mechanism. This difficulty can be overcome in part by making better use of reaction path analysis in the context of multidimensional flame simulations. Following a survey of current practice, an integral reaction flux is formulated in terms of conserved scalars that can be calculated in a fully automated way. Conditional analyses are then introduced, and a taxonomy for bidirectional path analysis is explored. Many examples illustrate the resulting path analysis and uncover some new results about nonpremixed methane-air laminar jets.

  14. Behavioral Path Analysis and Environmental Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, James A.; Kahle, Ellen

    Behavioral Path Analysis is both a theory and a methodology for studying person-environment interactions. It is designed to be applicable to the evaluation of both environments in use and proposed designed environments. This paper presents the basics of the theory, and some examples of recent applications that have guided its development. The…

  15. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  16. The Use of Path Analysis in Program Evaluation. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nick L.; Murray, Stephen L.

    Path analysis, a technique related to multiple regression analysis is used for ascribing causal relationships among variables. Path analysis involves the construction of explicitly formulated causal models and makes the reasoning explicit in the form of path diagrams and structural equations. Regression analysis is then used to construct path…

  17. Adaptive path planning: Algorithm and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pang C.

    1995-03-01

    To address the need for a fast path planner, we present a learning algorithm that improves path planning by using past experience to enhance future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse work of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a framework in which a slow but effective planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less effective planner coupled with experience. We analyze algorithm by formalizing the concept of improvability and deriving conditions under which a planner can be improved within the framework. The analysis is based on two stochastic models, one pessimistic (on task complexity), the other randomized (on experience utility). Using these models, we derive quantitative bounds to predict the learning behavior. We use these estimation tools to characterize the situations in which the algorithm is useful and to provide bounds on the training time. In particular, we show how to predict the maximum achievable speedup. Additionally, our analysis techniques are elementary and should be useful for studying other types of probabilistic learning as well.

  18. Statechart Analysis with Symbolic PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.

    2012-01-01

    We report here on our on-going work that addresses the automated analysis and test case generation for software systems modeled using multiple Statechart formalisms. The work is motivated by large programs such as NASA Exploration, that involve multiple systems that interact via safety-critical protocols and are designed with different Statechart variants. To verify these safety-critical systems, we have developed Polyglot, a framework for modeling and analysis of model-based software written using different Statechart formalisms. Polyglot uses a common intermediate representation with customizable Statechart semantics and leverages the analysis and test generation capabilities of the Symbolic PathFinder tool. Polyglot is used as follows: First, the structure of the Statechart model (expressed in Matlab Stateflow or Rational Rhapsody) is translated into a common intermediate representation (IR). The IR is then translated into Java code that represents the structure of the model. The semantics are provided as "pluggable" modules.

  19. Measurements of Lorentz air-broadening coefficients and relative intensities in the H2O-16 pure rotational and nu2 bands from long horizontal path atmospheric spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Goldman, Aaron; Malathy Devi, V.

    1991-01-01

    Lorentz air-broadening coefficients and relative intensities have been measured for forty-three lines in the pure rotational band and twenty lines in the nu2 band of H2O-16 between 800 and 1150/cm. The results were derived from analysis of nine 0.017/cm-resolution atmospheric absorption spectra recorded over horizontal paths of 0.5-1.5 km with the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer and main solar telescope operated on Kitt Peak by the National Solar Observatory. A nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting technique was used in the spectral analysis. The results are compared with previous measurements and calculations. In most cases, the measured pressure-broadening coefficients and intensities are significantly different from the values in the 1986 HITRAN line parameters compilation.

  20. Developments in Impeller/Seal Secondary Flow Path Modeling for Dynamic Force Coefficients and Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan; Bhattacharya, Avijit; Athavale, Mahesh; Venkataraman, Balaji; Ryan, Steve; Funston, Kerry

    1997-01-01

    This paper highlights bulk flow and CFD-based models prepared to calculate force and leakage properties for seals and shrouded impeller leakage paths. The bulk flow approach uses a Hir's based friction model and the CFD approach solves the Navier Stoke's (NS) equation with a finite whirl orbit or via analytical perturbation. The results show good agreement in most instances with available benchmarks.

  1. Performance Analysis of Path Planning Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhirui; Li, Shuanghong; Zhang, Ying; Du, Qiaoling

    Ant colony system (ACS) algorithm was applied to the path planning for the robot. In the same working environment, path planning based on MAKLINK graph theory and Voronoi diagram were simulated and compared. MAKLINK graph theory is appropriate to apply to precise searching in small-scale district, and Voronoi diagram is suitable for fast path planning in a large area.

  2. Adaptive path planning: Algorithm and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pang C.

    1993-03-01

    Path planning has to be fast to support real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To alleviate this problem, we present a learning algorithm that uses past experience to enhance future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful subgoals is learned to support faster planning. The algorithm is suitable for both stationary and incrementally-changing environments. To analyze our algorithm, we use a previously developed stochastic model that quantifies experience utility. Using this model, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, and provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior. The results are demonstrated with problems in manipulator planning. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently general that they may also be applied to task planning or other planning domains in which experience is useful.

  3. Correlation and path analysis of morphological and weight traits in marine gastropod Glossaulax reiniana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liqiang; He, Yangyang; Yang, Feng; Nie, Hongtao; Yan, Xiwu

    2014-07-01

    Using correlation and path analysis, the genetic correlation between weight traits and morphological traits was determined in the marine gastropod Glossaulax reiniana. A total of 100 G. reiniana individuals from a wild population were used. Shell width ( X 1), shell height ( X 2), umbo-callus height ( X 3), body width ( X 4), operculum length ( X 5), operculum width ( X 6), body weight ( Y 1) and soft-tissue weight ( Y 2) were measured, and the correlation coefficient matrix calculated. Morphological traits were used as independent variables and weight traits as dependent variables for path coefficient analysis. Path coefficients, correlation indices and determination coefficients were also determined. Results indicate that the correlation coefficients associated with each morphological and weight trait were all highly significant ( P <0.01). After deleting redundant independent variables, the following optimum multiple regression equations were obtained using stepwise multiple regression analysis: Y 1 = - 29.317+0.362 X 2 +0.349 X 4 + 1.190 X 5 for body weight; and Y 2 = - 17.292+0.166 X 1 +0.171 X 2 +0.703 X 5, for soft-tissue weight. Operculum height had the highest positive direct correlation with both body weight and soft-tissue weight, which was in accordance with the test results obtained from determinate coefficient analysis. The indication of high genetic correlations between weight traits and morphological traits will provide valuable information for G. reiniana breeding programs.

  4. Generalized skew coefficients for flood-frequency analysis in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of generalized skew coefficients used in flood-frequency analysis. Station skew coefficients were computed for 267 long-term stream-gaging stations in Minnesota and the surrounding states of Iowa, North and South Dakota, Wisconsin, and the provinces of Manitoba and Ontario, Canada. Generalized skew coefficients were computed from station skew coefficients using a locally weighted regression technique. The resulting regression trend surface was the generalized skew coefficient map, except for the North Shore area, and has a mean square error of 0.182.

  5. Analysis of a heat transfer device for measuring film coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medrow, R. A.; Johnson, R. L.; Loomis, W. R.; Wedeven, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A heat transfer device consisting of a heated rotating cylinder in a bath was analyzed for its effectiveness to determine heat transfer coefficient of fluids. A time dependent analysis shows that the performance is insensitive to the value of heat transfer coefficient with the given rig configuration.

  6. Tikhonov regularization-based operational transfer path analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei; Lu, Yingying; Zhang, Zhousuo

    2016-06-01

    To overcome ill-posed problems in operational transfer path analysis (OTPA), and improve the stability of solutions, this paper proposes a novel OTPA based on Tikhonov regularization, which considers both fitting degrees and stability of solutions. Firstly, fundamental theory of Tikhonov regularization-based OTPA is presented, and comparative studies are provided to validate the effectiveness on ill-posed problems. Secondly, transfer path analysis and source contribution evaluations for numerical cases studies on spherical radiating acoustical sources are comparatively studied. Finally, transfer path analysis and source contribution evaluations for experimental case studies on a test bed with thin shell structures are provided. This study provides more accurate transfer path analysis for mechanical systems, which can benefit for vibration reduction by structural path optimization. Furthermore, with accurate evaluation of source contributions, vibration monitoring and control by active controlling vibration sources can be effectively carried out.

  7. Folded-path optical analysis gas cell

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, Robert M.; Wright, David D.

    1995-01-01

    A folded-path gas cell employs an elliptical concave mirror in confronting relationship to two substantially spherical concave mirrors. At least one of the spherical mirrors, and usually both, are formed with an added cylindrical component to increase orthogonal focii coincidence and thereby to increase the radiation energy throughput characteristic of the cell.

  8. Folded-path optical analysis gas cell

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, R.M.; Wright, D.D.

    1995-08-08

    A folded-path gas cell employs an elliptical concave mirror in confronting relationship to two substantially spherical concave mirrors. At least one of the spherical mirrors, and usually both, are formed with an added cylindrical component to increase orthogonal foci coincidence and thereby to increase the radiation energy throughput characteristic of the cell. 10 figs.

  9. [Electroencephalogram Feature Selection Based on Correlation Coefficient Analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinzhi; Tang, Xiaofang

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of classification with small amount of motor imagery training data on the development of brain-computer interface (BCD systems, we proposed an analyzing method to automatically select the characteristic parameters based on correlation coefficient analysis. Throughout the five sample data of dataset IV a from 2005 BCI Competition, we utilized short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and correlation coefficient calculation to reduce the number of primitive electroencephalogram dimension, then introduced feature extraction based on common spatial pattern (CSP) and classified by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Simulation results showed that the average rate of classification accuracy could be improved by using correlation coefficient feature selection method than those without using this algorithm. Comparing with support vector machine (SVM) optimization features algorithm, the correlation coefficient analysis can lead better selection parameters to improve the accuracy of classification. PMID:26710441

  10. [An application of path analysis to studies about transmigration].

    PubMed

    Suwarno, B

    1981-12-01

    The factors related to resistance to transmigration in Indonesia are examined using path analysis. The author uses resistance to transmigration as the dependent variable, behavior and personality as intervening variables, and institutionalized social and cultural environments as independent variables.

  11. Path-analysis based validation of aerosol-precipitation micro-scale interaction using observational evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Prashant; Bhushan, Mani; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2016-04-01

    Aerosols can modulate variability of Indian summer monsoon by perturbing the radiative balance of the atmosphere, affecting the land-ocean processes and altering the cloud-microphysics at varying spatio-temporal scale, ranging from fast (less than a day) to slow (months) temporal effects. In the literature, overall interaction between AOD and Precipitation was quantified as correlation coefficients (Ramchandran and Kedia, 2013; Gryspeerdt et al., 2012; Gryspeerdt et al., 2014), however the segregation of the interaction was required to better understand the presence/absence of pathway mediated through changes in cloud-microphysics and atmospheric stability. In this work, effects of aerosols on precipitation, mediated through changes in cloud-microphysics and atmospheric stability, on daily time-scales, are studied and quantified using coincident observational data of aerosols, clouds and rainfall, using Path-analysis (Wright, 1969). MODIS, ERA-interim and IMD data-sets for years 2000-2009 for Aerosol optical depth (AOD), Column water vapour (CWV), Cloud droplet effective radius (CDERL), Convective available potential energy (CAPE) and Precipitation, over Indian region were used for the analysis. Cause-effect model was built to validate and quantify the effects of AOD on precipitation, mediated through CDERL and CAPE. To contrast cause-effect mechanism in presence and absence of aerosol fields, high AOD-low Precipitation and low AOD-low Precipitation clusters were formed. Cluster-averaged time series were used to calculate the lagged correlation (AOD leading) and provided as input to Path-analysis. "AOD-CDERL-Precipitation" and "AOD-CAPE-Precipitation" pathways were found to be statistically significant for high AOD-low Precipitation clusters while both were absent for low AOD-low Precipitation clusters, for years 2003 and 2004. For other years statistically significant pathway between AOD and Precipitation could not be found. In "AOD-CDERL-Precipitation" pathway

  12. Vibration Analysis of a Split Path Gearbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Rashidi, Majid

    1995-01-01

    Split path gearboxes can be attractive alternatives to the common planetary designs for rotorcraft, but because they have seen little use, they are relatively high risk designs. To help reduce the risk of fielding a rotorcraft with a split path gearbox, the vibration and dynamic characteristics of such a gearbox were studied. A mathematical model was developed by using the Lagrangian method, and it was applied to study the effect of three design variables on the natural frequencies and vibration energy of the gearbox. The first design variable, shaft angle, had little influence on the natural frequencies. The second variable, mesh phasing, had a strong effect on the levels of vibration energy, with phase angles of 0 deg and 180 deg producing low vibration levels. The third design variable, the stiffness of the shafts connecting the spur gears to the helical pinions, strongly influenced the natural frequencies of some of the vibration modes, including two of the dominant modes. We found that, to achieve the lowest level of vibration energy, the natural frequencies of these two dominant modes should be less than those of the main excitation sources.

  13. Seismic refraction analysis: the path forward

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.; Zelt, Colin; Doll, William

    2012-01-01

    Seismic Refraction Methods: Unleashing the Potential and Understanding the Limitations; Tucson, Arizona, 29 March 2012 A workshop focused on seismic refraction methods took place on 29 May 2012, associated with the 2012 Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems. This workshop was convened to assess the current state of the science and discuss paths forward, with a primary focus on near-surface problems but with an eye on all applications. The agenda included talks on these topics from a number of experts interspersed with discussion and a dedicated discussion period to finish the day. Discussion proved lively at times, and workshop participants delved into many topics central to seismic refraction work.

  14. PathVisio 3: An Extendable Pathway Analysis Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Kutmon, Martina; van Iersel, Martijn P.; Bohler, Anwesha; Kelder, Thomas; Nunes, Nuno; Pico, Alexander R.; Evelo, Chris T.

    2015-01-01

    PathVisio is a commonly used pathway editor, visualization and analysis software. Biological pathways have been used by biologists for many years to describe the detailed steps in biological processes. Those powerful, visual representations help researchers to better understand, share and discuss knowledge. Since the first publication of PathVisio in 2008, the original paper was cited more than 170 times and PathVisio was used in many different biological studies. As an online editor PathVisio is also integrated in the community curated pathway database WikiPathways. Here we present the third version of PathVisio with the newest additions and improvements of the application. The core features of PathVisio are pathway drawing, advanced data visualization and pathway statistics. Additionally, PathVisio 3 introduces a new powerful extension systems that allows other developers to contribute additional functionality in form of plugins without changing the core application. PathVisio can be downloaded from http://www.pathvisio.org and in 2014 PathVisio 3 has been downloaded over 5,500 times. There are already more than 15 plugins available in the central plugin repository. PathVisio is a freely available, open-source tool published under the Apache 2.0 license (http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0). It is implemented in Java and thus runs on all major operating systems. The code repository is available at http://svn.bigcat.unimaas.nl/pathvisio. The support mailing list for users is available on https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/wikipathways-discuss and for developers on https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/wikipathways-devel. PMID:25706687

  15. PathVisio 3: an extendable pathway analysis toolbox.

    PubMed

    Kutmon, Martina; van Iersel, Martijn P; Bohler, Anwesha; Kelder, Thomas; Nunes, Nuno; Pico, Alexander R; Evelo, Chris T

    2015-02-01

    PathVisio is a commonly used pathway editor, visualization and analysis software. Biological pathways have been used by biologists for many years to describe the detailed steps in biological processes. Those powerful, visual representations help researchers to better understand, share and discuss knowledge. Since the first publication of PathVisio in 2008, the original paper was cited more than 170 times and PathVisio was used in many different biological studies. As an online editor PathVisio is also integrated in the community curated pathway database WikiPathways. Here we present the third version of PathVisio with the newest additions and improvements of the application. The core features of PathVisio are pathway drawing, advanced data visualization and pathway statistics. Additionally, PathVisio 3 introduces a new powerful extension systems that allows other developers to contribute additional functionality in form of plugins without changing the core application. PathVisio can be downloaded from http://www.pathvisio.org and in 2014 PathVisio 3 has been downloaded over 5,500 times. There are already more than 15 plugins available in the central plugin repository. PathVisio is a freely available, open-source tool published under the Apache 2.0 license (http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0). It is implemented in Java and thus runs on all major operating systems. The code repository is available at http://svn.bigcat.unimaas.nl/pathvisio. The support mailing list for users is available on https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/wikipathways-discuss and for developers on https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/wikipathways-devel.

  16. Correlation and path coefficient analyses in sweet melon (Cucumis melo var. Aegyptiacus L.) under irrigated and drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, E A; Ramadan, A Y

    2013-07-01

    Genotypic correlation and path analyses were carried out for growth, yield and fruit quality traits in 13 sweet melon genotypes collected from different places in Egypt. Seeds of these melon populations were sown under irrigated and drought stress conditions. The analysis of variance for the studied traits showed that the differences among genotypes were highly significant for all studied traits under irrigation and drought stress. Under irrigated conditions, total yield per plant was positively and significantly correlated with fruit weight, flesh fruit thickness and fruit length. Positive direct effects were exhibited for fruit weight, number of fruits per plant and stem length on total yield per plant, while maximum positive indirect effects on total yield per plant were exhibited by fruit length and flesh fruit thickness through fruit weight. In case of drought stress conditions, total yield per plant had the highest positive and significant correlation with fruit weight followed by flesh fruit thickness, fruit length and stem length. Fruit weight had the greatest positive direct effect on total yield per plant followed by number of fruits per plant, fruit length and total soluble solid content. Flesh fruit thickness and fruit length had high positive indirect effect on total yield per plant via fruit weight. The results obtained from correlation and path analyses showed that the efficiency in the selection for total yield per plant in sweet melon should increased through the selection of fruit weight under irrigated conditions and fruit weight and fruit length under drought conditions.

  17. Path Similarity Analysis: A Method for Quantifying Macromolecular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Seyler, Sean L.; Kumar, Avishek; Thorpe, M. F.; Beckstein, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Diverse classes of proteins function through large-scale conformational changes and various sophisticated computational algorithms have been proposed to enhance sampling of these macromolecular transition paths. Because such paths are curves in a high-dimensional space, it has been difficult to quantitatively compare multiple paths, a necessary prerequisite to, for instance, assess the quality of different algorithms. We introduce a method named Path Similarity Analysis (PSA) that enables us to quantify the similarity between two arbitrary paths and extract the atomic-scale determinants responsible for their differences. PSA utilizes the full information available in 3N-dimensional configuration space trajectories by employing the Hausdorff or Fréchet metrics (adopted from computational geometry) to quantify the degree of similarity between piecewise-linear curves. It thus completely avoids relying on projections into low dimensional spaces, as used in traditional approaches. To elucidate the principles of PSA, we quantified the effect of path roughness induced by thermal fluctuations using a toy model system. Using, as an example, the closed-to-open transitions of the enzyme adenylate kinase (AdK) in its substrate-free form, we compared a range of protein transition path-generating algorithms. Molecular dynamics-based dynamic importance sampling (DIMS) MD and targeted MD (TMD) and the purely geometric FRODA (Framework Rigidity Optimized Dynamics Algorithm) were tested along with seven other methods publicly available on servers, including several based on the popular elastic network model (ENM). PSA with clustering revealed that paths produced by a given method are more similar to each other than to those from another method and, for instance, that the ENM-based methods produced relatively similar paths. PSA applied to ensembles of DIMS MD and FRODA trajectories of the conformational transition of diphtheria toxin, a particularly challenging example, showed that

  18. Quantifying tight-gas sandstone permeability via critical path analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rock permeability has been actively investigated over the past several decades by the geosciences community. However, its accurate estimation still presents significant technical challenges, especially in spatially complex rocks. In this letter, we apply critical path analysis (CPA) to estimate perm...

  19. Establishing a Causal Model for Bloom's Taxonomy through Path Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Takeshi; And Others

    Path analysis was used to reanalyze Kropp and Stoker's data from tests designed to evaluate Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives in the cognitive domain. Scores for 1,128 students in grades nine through twelve were analyzed separately by grade level for four content areas on six taxonomic levels. A measure of general ability was also…

  20. Comprehensive analysis of the optical Kerr coefficient of graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-08-25

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the nonlinear optical Kerr effect in graphene. We directly solve the S-matrix element to calculate the absorption rate, utilizing the Volkov-Keldysh-type crystal wave functions. We then convert to the nonlinear refractive index coefficients through the Kramers-Kronig relation. In this formalism, the source of Kerr nonlinearity is the interplay of optical fields that cooperatively drive the transition from valence to conduction band. This formalism makes it possible to identify and compute the rates of distinct nonlinear processes that contribute to the Kerr nonlinear refractive index coefficient. The four identified mechanisms are two-photon absorption, Raman transition,more » self-coupling, and quadratic ac Stark effect. As a result, we present a comparison of our theory with recent experimental and theoretical results.« less

  1. Comprehensive analysis of the optical Kerr coefficient of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-08-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the nonlinear optical Kerr effect in graphene. We directly solve the S -matrix element to calculate the absorption rate, utilizing the Volkov-Keldysh-type crystal wave functions. We then convert to the nonlinear refractive index coefficients through the Kramers-Kronig relation. In this formalism, the source of Kerr nonlinearity is the interplay of optical fields that cooperatively drive the transition from valence to conduction band. This formalism makes it possible to identify and compute the rates of distinct nonlinear processes that contribute to the Kerr nonlinear refractive index coefficient. The four identified mechanisms are two-photon absorption, Raman transition, self-coupling, and quadratic ac Stark effect. We also present a comparison of our theory with recent experimental and theoretical results.

  2. Path degeneracy and EXAFS analysis of disordered materials.

    PubMed

    Ravel, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of EXAFS data measured on a material with a disordered local configuration environment around the absorbing atom can be challenging owing to the proliferation of photoelectron scattering paths that must be considered in the analysis. In the case where the absorbing atom exists in multiple inequivalent sites, the problem is compounded by having to consider each site separately. A method is proposed for automating the calculation of theory for inequivalent sites, then averaging the contributions from sufficiently similar scattering paths. With this approach, the complexity of implementing a successful fitting model on a highly disordered sample is reduced. As an example, an analysis of Ti K-edge data on zirconolite, CaZrTi2O7, which has three inequivalent Ti sites, is presented. PMID:25343794

  3. KEGG-PATH: Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes-based pathway analysis using a path analysis model.

    PubMed

    Du, Junli; Yuan, Zhifa; Ma, Ziwei; Song, Jiuzhou; Xie, Xiaoli; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-29

    The dynamic impact approach (DIA) represents an alternative to overrepresentation analysis (ORA) for functional analysis of time-course experiments or those involving multiple treatments. The DIA can be used to estimate the biological impact of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with particular biological functions, for example, as represented by the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) annotations. However, the DIA does not take into account the correlated dependence structure of the KEGG pathway hierarchy. We have developed herein a path analysis model (KEGG-PATH) to subdivide the total effect of each KEGG pathway into the direct effect and indirect effect by taking into account not only each KEGG pathway itself, but also the correlation with its related pathways. In addition, this work also attempts to preliminarily estimate the impact direction of each KEGG pathway by a gradient analysis method from principal component analysis (PCA). As a result, the advantage of the KEGG-PATH model is demonstrated through the functional analysis of the bovine mammary transcriptome during lactation.

  4. Coefficient of variation spectral analysis: An application to underwater acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herstein, P. D.; Laplante, R. F.

    1983-05-01

    Acoustic noise in the ocean is often described in terms of its power spectral density. Just as in other media, this noise consists of both narrowband and broadband frequency components. A major problem in the analysis of power spectral density measurements is distinguishing between narrowband spectral components of interest and contaminating narrowband components. In this paper, the use of coefficient of variation (Cv) spectrum is examined as an adjunct to the conventional power spectrum to distinguish narrowband components of interest from contaminating components. The theory of the Cv is presented. Coefficients for several classical input distributions are developed. It is shown that Cv spectra can be easily implemented as an adjunct procedure during the computation of the ensemble of averaged power spectra. Power and Cv spectra derived from actual at-sea sonobuoy measurements of deep ocean ambient noise separate narrowband components from narrowband lines of interest in the ensemble of averaged power spectra, these acoustic components of interest can be distinguished in the Cv spectra.

  5. Behavior analysis, mentalism, and the path to social justice.

    PubMed

    Moore, J

    2003-01-01

    Traditional psychology is mentalistic in the sense that it appeals to inner causes in the explanation of behavior. Two examples of mentalism in traditional psychology are (a) dispositional attributions and (b) conventional treatments of intelligence. These examples may be linked to such pernicious social -isms as racism and sexism by noting that some individuals justify engaging in discriminatory conduct toward others by appealing to some deficient inner quality of those being discriminated against. This sort of mentalistic appeal ultimately prevents some members of our society from being integrated into society and from progressing down the path of social justice. Behavior analysis offers a constructional alternative to the mentalistic views of traditional psychology and allows our society as a whole to move down the path.

  6. Behavior analysis, mentalism, and the path to social justice

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional psychology is mentalistic in the sense that it appeals to inner causes in the explanation of behavior. Two examples of mentalism in traditional psychology are (a) dispositional attributions and (b) conventional treatments of intelligence. These examples may be linked to such pernicious social -isms as racism and sexism by noting that some individuals justify engaging in discriminatory conduct toward others by appealing to some deficient inner quality of those being discriminated against. This sort of mentalistic appeal ultimately prevents some members of our society from being integrated into society and from progressing down the path of social justice. Behavior analysis offers a constructional alternative to the mentalistic views of traditional psychology and allows our society as a whole to move down the path. PMID:22478401

  7. Path-Integral Monte Carlo Determination of the Fourth-Order Virial Coefficient for a Unitary Two-Component Fermi Gas with Zero-Range Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D.

    2016-06-01

    The unitary equal-mass Fermi gas with zero-range interactions constitutes a paradigmatic model system that is relevant to atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, particle, and astrophysics. This work determines the fourth-order virial coefficient b4 of such a strongly interacting Fermi gas using a customized ab initio path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) algorithm. In contrast to earlier theoretical results, which disagreed on the sign and magnitude of b4 , our b4 agrees within error bars with the experimentally determined value, thereby resolving an ongoing literature debate. Utilizing a trap regulator, our PIMC approach determines the fourth-order virial coefficient by directly sampling the partition function. An on-the-fly antisymmetrization avoids the Thomas collapse and, combined with the use of the exact two-body zero-range propagator, establishes an efficient general means to treat small Fermi systems with zero-range interactions.

  8. Path integral Monte Carlo determination of the fourth-order virial coefficient for unitary two-component Fermi gas with zero-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D.

    2016-05-01

    The unitary equal-mass Fermi gas with zero-range interactions constitutes a paradigmatic model system that is relevant to atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, particle, and astro physics. This work determines the fourth-order virial coefficient b4 of such a strongly-interacting Fermi gas using a customized ab inito path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) algorithm. In contrast to earlier theoretical results, which disagreed on the sign and magnitude of b4, our b4 agrees with the experimentally determined value, thereby resolving an ongoing literature debate. Utilizing a trap regulator, our PIMC approach determines the fourth-order virial coefficient by directly sampling the partition function. An on-the-fly anti-symmetrization avoids the Thomas collapse and, combined with the use of the exact two-body zero-range propagator, establishes an efficient general means to treat small Fermi systems with zero-range interactions. We gratefully acknowledge support by the NSF.

  9. Path-Integral Monte Carlo Determination of the Fourth-Order Virial Coefficient for a Unitary Two-Component Fermi Gas with Zero-Range Interactions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D

    2016-06-10

    The unitary equal-mass Fermi gas with zero-range interactions constitutes a paradigmatic model system that is relevant to atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, particle, and astrophysics. This work determines the fourth-order virial coefficient b_{4} of such a strongly interacting Fermi gas using a customized ab initio path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) algorithm. In contrast to earlier theoretical results, which disagreed on the sign and magnitude of b_{4}, our b_{4} agrees within error bars with the experimentally determined value, thereby resolving an ongoing literature debate. Utilizing a trap regulator, our PIMC approach determines the fourth-order virial coefficient by directly sampling the partition function. An on-the-fly antisymmetrization avoids the Thomas collapse and, combined with the use of the exact two-body zero-range propagator, establishes an efficient general means to treat small Fermi systems with zero-range interactions. PMID:27341213

  10. Path-sensitive analysis for reducing rollback overheads

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, John K.P.; Wang, Kai-Ting Amy; Yamashita, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaotong

    2014-07-22

    A mechanism is provided for path-sensitive analysis for reducing rollback overheads. The mechanism receives, in a compiler, program code to be compiled to form compiled code. The mechanism divides the code into basic blocks. The mechanism then determines a restore register set for each of the one or more basic blocks to form one or more restore register sets. The mechanism then stores the one or more register sets such that responsive to a rollback during execution of the compiled code. A rollback routine identifies a restore register set from the one or more restore register sets and restores registers identified in the identified restore register set.

  11. Path analysis of agro-industrial traits in sweet sorghum.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, G M R; Nunes, J A R; Parrella, R A C; Teixeira, D H L; Bruzi, A T; Durães, N N L; Fagundes, T G

    2015-12-09

    Sweet sorghum has considerable potential for ethanol production due to its succulent stalks that contain directly fermentable sugars. Since many traits need to be considered in the selection process to breed superior cultivars for ethanol production, then correlations between the traits might be of use to help the breeder define optimal improvement strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the principal agro-industrial traits in sweet sorghum, and to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of primary and secondary traits on ethanol production per hectare. In total, 45 sweet sorghum genotypes (lineage/hybrids) were evaluated in an experiment designed in an alpha lattice 5 x 9. The data were analyzed using a mixed model approach. A detailed study of simple correlations was accomplished using path analysis. The experimental precision was high, with an accuracy above 76%. The various genotypes showed genetic variation for all agronomic and industrial traits, except stalk diameter. Some agro-industrial traits showed significant simple correlations with ethanol production, but according to the path analysis, some of these traits did not show a significant direct or indirect effect on ethanol production. The results highlighted the primary and secondary traits with practical relevance to sweet sorghum breeding, since they showed director indirect effects on ethanol production.

  12. In-situ determination of field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients: Performance, simulation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobile, Michael; Widdowson, Mark; Stewart, Lloyd; Nyman, Jennifer; Deeb, Rula; Kavanaugh, Michael; Mercer, James; Gallagher, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Better estimates of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass, its persistence into the future, and the potential impact of source reduction are critical needs for determining the optimal path to clean up sites impacted by NAPLs. One impediment to constraining time estimates of source depletion is the uncertainty in the rate of mass transfer between NAPLs and groundwater. In this study, an innovative field test is demonstrated for the purpose of quantifying field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients (klN) within a source zone of a fuel-contaminated site. Initial evaluation of the test concept using a numerical model revealed that the aqueous phase concentration response to the injection of clean groundwater within a source zone was a function of NAPL mass transfer. Under rate limited conditions, NAPL dissolution together with the injection flow rate and the radial distance to monitoring points directly controlled time of travel. Concentration responses observed in the field test were consistent with the hypothetical model results allowing field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients to be quantified. Site models for groundwater flow and solute transport were systematically calibrated and utilized for data analysis. Results show klN for benzene varied from 0.022 to 0.60 d- 1. Variability in results was attributed to a highly heterogeneous horizon consisting of layered media of varying physical properties.

  13. In-situ determination of field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients: Performance, simulation and analysis.

    PubMed

    Mobile, Michael; Widdowson, Mark; Stewart, Lloyd; Nyman, Jennifer; Deeb, Rula; Kavanaugh, Michael; Mercer, James; Gallagher, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Better estimates of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass, its persistence into the future, and the potential impact of source reduction are critical needs for determining the optimal path to clean up sites impacted by NAPLs. One impediment to constraining time estimates of source depletion is the uncertainty in the rate of mass transfer between NAPLs and groundwater. In this study, an innovative field test is demonstrated for the purpose of quantifying field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients (kl(N)) within a source zone of a fuel-contaminated site. Initial evaluation of the test concept using a numerical model revealed that the aqueous phase concentration response to the injection of clean groundwater within a source zone was a function of NAPL mass transfer. Under rate limited conditions, NAPL dissolution together with the injection flow rate and the radial distance to monitoring points directly controlled time of travel. Concentration responses observed in the field test were consistent with the hypothetical model results allowing field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients to be quantified. Site models for groundwater flow and solute transport were systematically calibrated and utilized for data analysis. Results show kl(N) for benzene varied from 0.022 to 0.60d(-1). Variability in results was attributed to a highly heterogeneous horizon consisting of layered media of varying physical properties.

  14. Transparent composite model for DCT coefficients: design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, En-Hui; Yu, Xiang; Meng, Jin; Sun, Chang

    2014-03-01

    The distributions of discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of images are revisited on a per image base. To better handle, the heavy tail phenomenon commonly seen in the DCT coefficients, a new model dubbed a transparent composite model (TCM) is proposed and justified for both modeling accuracy and an additional data reduction capability. Given a sequence of the DCT coefficients, a TCM first separates the tail from the main body of the sequence. Then, a uniform distribution is used to model the DCT coefficients in the heavy tail, whereas a different parametric distribution is used to model data in the main body. The separate boundary and other parameters of the TCM can be estimated via maximum likelihood estimation. Efficient online algorithms are proposed for parameter estimation and their convergence is also proved. Experimental results based on Kullback-Leibler divergence and χ(2) test show that for real-valued continuous ac coefficients, the TCM based on truncated Laplacian offers the best tradeoff between modeling accuracy and complexity. For discrete or integer DCT coefficients, the discrete TCM based on truncated geometric distributions (GMTCM) models the ac coefficients more accurately than pure Laplacian models and generalized Gaussian models in majority cases while having simplicity and practicality similar to those of pure Laplacian models. In addition, it is demonstrated that the GMTCM also exhibits a good capability of data reduction or feature extraction-the DCT coefficients in the heavy tail identified by the GMTCM are truly outliers, and these outliers represent an outlier image revealing some unique global features of the image. Overall, the modeling performance and the data reduction feature of the GMTCM make it a desirable choice for modeling discrete or integer DCT coefficients in the real-world image or video applications, as summarized in a few of our further studies on quantization design, entropy coding design, and image understanding

  15. Soil Organic Matter Effects on Phosphorus Sorption: a Path Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, J.; Hesterberg, D; Osmond, D

    2009-01-01

    While P sorption in mineral soils has been extensively studied, P sorption behavior in organic-rich soils is less known. This study was conducted to determine the relationships between Langmuir P sorption maxima (S{sub max}) and selected physicochemical properties of soils, with particular emphasis on organic matter (OM) content. The S{sub max} values were determined for 72 soil samples from the North Carolina Coastal Plain, along with pH, clay and OM contents, oxalate-extractable P (P{sub ox}), Al (Al{sub ox}), and Fe (Fe{sub ox}), and Mehlich 3 extractable P (P{sub M3}), Al (Al{sub M3}), and Fe (Fe{sub M3}). Path analysis was used to examine direct and indirect effects of soil properties on S{sub max}. In the oxalate path analysis, the direct effects of clay, Al{sub ox}, and Fe{sub ox} on S{sub max} were significant in the order Al{sub ox} > clay > Fe{sub ox} (P < 0.05). The S{sub max} was highly influenced by the indirect effect of Al{sub ox} and Fe{sub ox} through OM content. A two-piece segmented linear relationship existed between S{sub max} and OM and the regression slope in soils with OM {le} 49 g kg{sup -1} was 10-fold greater than that for soils with OM > 49 g kg{sup -1}. This finding suggested that noncrystalline or organically bound Al and Fe in the soils with OM > 49 g kg{sup -1} is less effective for P sorption than in the soils with lower OM content. In the Mehlich 3 path analysis, the direct effects of clay, OM, and Al{sub M3} on S{sub max} were significant in the order Al{sub M3} > OM > clay (P < 0.05) while the direct effect of Fe{sub M3} on S{sub max} was not significant. Oxalate may be better suited than Mehlich 3 as an extractant for predicting P sorption capacity in the Coastal Plain soils.

  16. Application of critical path analysis in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amal; Chakraborty, Bhaswat S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research operates in a strictly regulated environment under various management models, but a distinct management model of clinical trial (CT) still needs exploration and research. Critical path analysis (CPA) is a management approach can be used for monitoring, analysis, and prediction of success of its time-bound operational activities. A model CT was compiled with 78 activities, which were further merged into 35 major activities. After performing dependence analysis, the list was finalized with 25 activities which were taken in activity predecessor to create a network diagram and perform CPA considering patients, conduct, and outcome. Activities were inclusive, described the trial entirely with accuracy, and were in chronological and logical sequences. This approach does not replace an understanding of or adherence to the requirements contained in all applicable regulations, guidelines or standard operating procedures governing clinical studies but ensures the proper use of operational and decisional approaches including optimal resource management. As the need to meet deadlines becomes more important and the need to produce good, stable project plans, CPA is very useful for determining activities that can lead to project delay. With this approach, project may be effectively monitored, and realistic schedules can be maintained. PMID:26955606

  17. Sum over Histories Representation for Kinetic Sensitivity Analysis: How Chemical Pathways Change When Reaction Rate Coefficients Are Varied.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shirong; Davis, Michael J; Skodje, Rex T

    2015-11-12

    The sensitivity of kinetic observables is analyzed using a newly developed sum over histories representation of chemical kinetics. In the sum over histories representation, the concentrations of the chemical species are decomposed into the sum of probabilities for chemical pathways that follow molecules from reactants to products or intermediates. Unlike static flux methods for reaction path analysis, the sum over histories approach includes the explicit time dependence of the pathway probabilities. Using the sum over histories representation, the sensitivity of an observable with respect to a kinetic parameter such as a rate coefficient is then analyzed in terms of how that parameter affects the chemical pathway probabilities. The method is illustrated for species concentration target functions in H2 combustion where the rate coefficients are allowed to vary over their associated uncertainty ranges. It is found that large sensitivities are often associated with rate limiting steps along important chemical pathways or by reactions that control the branching of reactive flux.

  18. Electron Transport Coefficients and Effective Ionization Coefficients in SF6-O2 and SF6-Air Mixtures Using Boltzmann Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Linsheng; Xu, Min; Yuan, Dingkun; Zhang, Yafang; Hu, Zhaoji; Tan, Zhihong

    2014-10-01

    The electron drift velocity, electron energy distribution function (EEDF), density-normalized effective ionization coefficient and density-normalized longitudinal diffusion velocity are calculated in SF6-O2 and SF6-Air mixtures. The experimental results from a pulsed Townsend discharge are plotted for comparison with the numerical results. The reduced field strength varies from 40 Td to 500 Td (1 Townsend=10-17 V·cm2) and the SF6 concentration ranges from 10% to 100%. A Boltzmann equation associated with the two-term spherical harmonic expansion approximation is utilized to gain the swarm parameters in steady-state Townsend. Results show that the accuracy of the Boltzmann solution with a two-term expansion in calculating the electron drift velocity, electron energy distribution function, and density-normalized effective ionization coefficient is acceptable. The effective ionization coefficient presents a distinct relationship with the SF6 content in the mixtures. Moreover, the E/Ncr values in SF6-Air mixtures are higher than those in SF6-O2 mixtures and the calculated value E/Ncr in SF6-O2 and SF6-Air mixtures is lower than the measured value in SF6-N2. Parametric studies conducted on these parameters using the Boltzmann analysis offer substantial insight into the plasma physics, as well as a basis to explore the ozone generation process.

  19. Bayesian sparsity-path-analysis of genetic association signal using generalized t priors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anthony; Caron, Francois; Doucet, Arnaud; Holmes, Chris

    2012-01-06

    We explore the use of generalized t priors on regression coefficients to help understand the nature of association signal within "hit regions" of genome-wide association studies. The particular generalized t distribution we adopt is a Student distribution on the absolute value of its argument. For low degrees of freedom, we show that the generalized t exhibits "sparsity-prior" properties with some attractive features over other common forms of sparse priors and includes the well known double-exponential distribution as the degrees of freedom tends to infinity. We pay particular attention to graphical representations of posterior statistics obtained from sparsity-path-analysis (SPA) where we sweep over the setting of the scale (shrinkage/precision) parameter in the prior to explore the space of posterior models obtained over a range of complexities, from very sparse models with all coefficient distributions heavily concentrated around zero, to models with diffuse priors and coefficients distributed around their maximum likelihood estimates. The SPA plots are akin to LASSO plots of maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimates but they characterise the complete marginal posterior distributions of the coefficients plotted as a function of the precision of the prior. Generating posterior distributions over a range of prior precisions is computationally challenging but naturally amenable to sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithms indexed on the scale parameter. We show how SMC simulation on graphic-processing-units (GPUs) provides very efficient inference for SPA. We also present a scale-mixture representation of the generalized t prior that leads to an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain MAP estimates should only these be required.

  20. Dropouts from nursing education: path analysis of a national sample.

    PubMed

    Munro, B H

    1980-01-01

    Path analysis was used to test a theoretical model of college nursing student dropouts. Multiple regression was used to assess the relative importance of the predictor variables. Students' self-reported reasons for dropping out were studied by contingency and correlational analyses to determine the relationship between these reasons and individual difference variables. Factor analysis was used to develop scales to measure the variables of locus of control, self-esteem, social integration, and institutional commitment. The sample of students was drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Included in the sample were students entering two- and four-year nursing programs full-time in the fall of 1972. These two groups of students were found to be significantly different in measures of cognitive ability and in aspirations for further education. Approximately 27 percent of the two-year and 41 percent of the four-year students withdrew from their nursing programs during this study. Reasons for withdrawal most frequently cited by both groups related to losing interest in nursing and becoming interested in other fields of study. Educational aspirations had the strongest direct effect on persistence in nursing for two-year students; for four-year students, academic ability was the most powerful predictor of persistence.

  1. Progressive collapse analysis using updated models for alternate path analysis after a blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskew, Edward; Jang, Shinae; Bertolaccini, Kelly

    2016-04-01

    Progressive collapse is of rising importance within the structural engineering community due to several recent cases. The alternate path method is a design technique to determine the ability of a structure to sustain the loss of a critical element, or elements, and still resist progressive collapse. However, the alternate path method only considers the removal of the critical elements. In the event of a blast, significant damage may occur to nearby members not included in the alternate path design scenarios. To achieve an accurate assessment of the current condition of the structure after a blast or other extreme event, it may be necessary to reduce the strength or remove additional elements beyond the critical members designated in the alternate path design method. In this paper, a rapid model updating technique utilizing vibration measurements is used to update the structural model to represent the real-time condition of the structure after a blast occurs. Based upon the updated model, damaged elements will either have their strength reduced, or will be removed from the simulation. The alternate path analysis will then be performed, but only utilizing the updated structural model instead of numerous scenarios. After the analysis, the simulated response from the analysis will be compared to failure conditions to determine the buildings post-event condition. This method has the ability to incorporate damage to noncritical members into the analysis. This paper will utilize numerical simulations based upon a unified facilities criteria (UFC) example structure subjected to an equivalent blast to validate the methodology.

  2. Transition path theory analysis of c-Src kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yilin; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S; Roux, Benoît

    2016-08-16

    Nonreceptor tyrosine kinases of the Src family are large multidomain allosteric proteins that are crucial to cellular signaling pathways. In a previous study, we generated a Markov state model (MSM) to simulate the activation of c-Src catalytic domain, used as a prototypical tyrosine kinase. The long-time kinetics of transition predicted by the MSM was in agreement with experimental observations. In the present study, we apply the framework of transition path theory (TPT) to the previously constructed MSM to characterize the main features of the activation pathway. The analysis indicates that the activating transition, in which the activation loop first opens up followed by an inward rotation of the αC-helix, takes place via a dense set of intermediate microstates distributed within a fairly broad "transition tube" in a multidimensional conformational subspace connecting the two end-point conformations. Multiple microstates with negligible equilibrium probabilities carry a large transition flux associated with the activating transition, which explains why extensive conformational sampling is necessary to accurately determine the kinetics of activation. Our results suggest that the combination of MSM with TPT provides an effective framework to represent conformational transitions in complex biomolecular systems. PMID:27482115

  3. Analysis of a distributed algorithm to determine multiple routes with path diversity in ad hoc networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, Dipak; Mueller, Stephen Ng

    2005-04-01

    With multipath routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), a source can establish multiple routes to a destination for routing data. In MANETs, mulitpath routing can be used to provide route resilience, smaller end-to-end delay, and better load balancing. However, when the multiple paths are close together, transmissions of different paths may interfere with each other, causing degradation in performance. Besides interference, the physical diversity of paths also improves fault tolerance. We present a purely distributed multipath protocol based on the AODV-Multipath (AODVM) protocol called AODVM with Path Diversity (AODVM/PD) that finds multiple paths with a desired degree of correlation between paths specified as an input parameter to the algorithm. We demonstrate through detailed simulation analysis that multiple paths with low degree of correlation determined by AODVM/PD provides both smaller end-to-end delay than AODVM in networks with low mobility and better route resilience in the presence of correlated node failures.

  4. Causal Modeling--Path Analysis a New Trend in Research in Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastegar, Mina

    2006-01-01

    This article aims at discussing a new statistical trend in research in applied linguistics. This rather new statistical procedure is causal modeling--path analysis. The article demonstrates that causal modeling--path analysis is the best statistical option to use when the effects of a multitude of L2 learners' variables on language achievement are…

  5. Self-controlled learning benefits: exploring contributions of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation via path analysis.

    PubMed

    Ste-Marie, Diane M; Carter, Michael J; Law, Barbi; Vertes, Kelly; Smith, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Research has shown learning advantages for self-controlled practice contexts relative to yoked (i.e., experimenter-imposed) contexts; yet, explanations for this phenomenon remain relatively untested. We examined, via path analysis, whether self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation are important constructs for explaining self-controlled learning benefits. The path model was created using theory-based and empirically supported relationships to examine causal links between these psychological constructs and physical performance. We hypothesised that self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation would have greater predictive power for learning under self-controlled compared to yoked conditions. Participants learned double-mini trampoline progressions, and measures of physical performance, self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation were collected over two practice days and a delayed retention day. The self-controlled group (M = 2.04, SD = .98) completed significantly more skill progressions in retention than their yoked counterparts (M = 1.3, SD = .65). The path model displayed adequate fit, and similar significant path coefficients were found for both groups wherein each variable was predominantly predicted by its preceding time point (e.g., self-efficacy time 1 predicts self-efficacy time 2). Interestingly, the model was not moderated by group; thus, failing to support the hypothesis that self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation have greater predictive power for learning under self-controlled relative to yoked conditions.

  6. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha to Evaluate Informative Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to evaluate informative hypotheses for meta-analysis of Cronbach's coefficient alpha using a Bayesian approach. The coefficient alpha is one of the most widely used reliability indices. In meta-analyses of reliability, researchers typically form specific informative hypotheses beforehand, such as "alpha of…

  7. CONGR: A FORTRAN IV Program to Compute Coefficients of Congruence for Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran IV program which computes either of the coefficients of congruence (psi or phi) used in comparison of factors in factor analysis is presented. Output consists of a non-symmetric matrix of factor coefficients. Listings of the program, results and test data are available. (Author/JKS)

  8. Use of Path Analysis and Path Diagrams as a Means of Understanding Regression, Factor Analysis, and Other Linear Structural Relations (LISREL) Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gary W.

    The usefulness of path analysis as a means of better understanding various linear models is demonstrated. First, two linear models are presented in matrix form using linear structural relations (LISREL) notation. The two models, regression and factor analysis, are shown to be identical although the research question and data matrix to which these…

  9. Uncertainty Analysis of Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide a complete description of a materials thermoelectric power factor, in addition to the measured nominal value, an uncertainty interval is required. The uncertainty may contain sources of measurement error including systematic bias error and precision error of a statistical nature. The work focuses specifically on the popular ZEM-3 (Ulvac Technologies) measurement system, but the methods apply to any measurement system. The analysis accounts for sources of systematic error including sample preparation tolerance, measurement probe placement, thermocouple cold-finger effect, and measurement parameters; in addition to including uncertainty of a statistical nature. Complete uncertainty analysis of a measurement system allows for more reliable comparison of measurement data between laboratories.

  10. Multidimensional stock network analysis: An Escoufier's RV coefficient approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gan Siew; Djauhari, Maman A.

    2013-09-01

    The current practice of stocks network analysis is based on the assumption that the time series of closed stock price could represent the behaviour of the each stock. This assumption leads to consider minimal spanning tree (MST) and sub-dominant ultrametric (SDU) as an indispensible tool to filter the economic information contained in the network. Recently, there is an attempt where researchers represent stock not only as a univariate time series of closed price but as a bivariate time series of closed price and volume. In this case, they developed the so-called multidimensional MST to filter the important economic information. However, in this paper, we show that their approach is only applicable for that bivariate time series only. This leads us to introduce a new methodology to construct MST where each stock is represented by a multivariate time series. An example of Malaysian stock exchange will be presented and discussed to illustrate the advantages of the method.

  11. Impact of Maternal Death on Household Economy in Rural China: A Prospective Path Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fang; Ao, Deng; Feng, Yao; Wang, Lin; Chen, Jie; Huntington, Dale

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to explore the inter-relationships among maternal death, household economic status after the event, and potential influencing factors. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of households that had experienced maternal death (n = 195) and those that experienced childbirth without maternal death (n = 384) in rural China. All the households were interviewed after the event occurred and were followed up 12 months later. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationship model, utilizing income and expenditure per capita in the following year after the event as the main outcome variables, maternal death as the predictor, and direct costs, the amount of money offset by positive and negative coping strategies, whether the husband remarried, and whether the newborn was alive as the mediators. Results In the following year after the event, the path analysis revealed a direct effect from maternal death to lower income per capita (standardized coefficient = -0.43, p = 0.041) and to lower expenditure per capita (standardized coefficient = -0.51, p<0.001). A significant indirect effect was found from maternal death to lower income and expenditure per capita mediated by the influencing factors of higher direct costs, less money from positive coping methods, more money from negative coping, and the survival of the newborn. Conclusion This study analyzed the direct and indirect effects of maternal death on a household economy. The results provided evidence for better understanding the mechanism of how this event affects a household economy and provided a reference for social welfare policies to target the most vulnerable households that have suffered from maternal deaths. PMID:26247210

  12. Determination of partition coefficients of refrigerants by gas liquid chromatographic headspace analysis.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Michael H; Gil-Lostes, Javier; Corr, Stuart; Acree, William E

    2012-11-23

    Gas-water partition coefficients, K(w), and gas-solvent partition coefficients, K(s), have been determined for chlorodifluoromethane and for 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane by headspace analysis, using a very simple experimental procedure. These partition coefficients then yield water-solvent partition coefficients, P(s). Where comparisons can be made there is excellent agreement with literature values for K(w) and P(s). The obtained values of K(s) and P(s) can be used to obtain physicochemical properties, or descriptors, for the refrigerants. Combination of these descriptors with previous equations we have developed enables partition coefficients to be obtained for a host of systems.

  13. Determination of partition coefficients of refrigerants by gas liquid chromatographic headspace analysis.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Michael H; Gil-Lostes, Javier; Corr, Stuart; Acree, William E

    2012-11-23

    Gas-water partition coefficients, K(w), and gas-solvent partition coefficients, K(s), have been determined for chlorodifluoromethane and for 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane by headspace analysis, using a very simple experimental procedure. These partition coefficients then yield water-solvent partition coefficients, P(s). Where comparisons can be made there is excellent agreement with literature values for K(w) and P(s). The obtained values of K(s) and P(s) can be used to obtain physicochemical properties, or descriptors, for the refrigerants. Combination of these descriptors with previous equations we have developed enables partition coefficients to be obtained for a host of systems. PMID:23089519

  14. Uncertainties in Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides. An Uncertainty Analysis for Risk Coefficients Reported in Federal Guidance Report No. 13

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, David; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F; Nelson, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 13 (FGR 13) provides risk coefficients for estimation of the risk of cancer due to low-level exposure to each of more than 800 radionuclides. Uncertainties in risk coefficients were quantified in FGR 13 for 33 cases (exposure to each of 11 radionuclides by each of three exposure pathways) on the basis of sensitivity analyses in which various combinations of plausible biokinetic, dosimetric, and radiation risk models were used to generate alternative risk coefficients. The present report updates the uncertainty analysis in FGR 13 for the cases of inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides and expands the analysis to all radionuclides addressed in that report. The analysis indicates that most risk coefficients for inhalation or ingestion of radionuclides are determined within a factor of 5 or less by current information. That is, application of alternate plausible biokinetic and dosimetric models and radiation risk models (based on the linear, no-threshold hypothesis with an adjustment for the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor) is unlikely to change these coefficients by more than a factor of 5. In this analysis the assessed uncertainty in the radiation risk model was found to be the main determinant of the uncertainty category for most risk coefficients, but conclusions concerning the relative contributions of risk and dose models to the total uncertainty in a risk coefficient may depend strongly on the method of assessing uncertainties in the risk model.

  15. pathFinder: a static network analysis tool for pharmacological analysis of signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Samal, Babru B; Eiden, Lee E

    2008-01-01

    The study of signal transduction is becoming a de facto part of the analysis of gene expression and protein profiling techniques. Many online tools are used to cluster genes in various ways or to assign gene products to signal transduction pathways. Among these, pathFinder is a unique tool that can find signal transduction pathways between first, second, or nth messengers and their targets within the cell. pathFinder can identify qualitatively all possible signal transduction pathways connecting any starting component and target within a database of two-component pathways (directional dyads). One or more intermediate pathway components can be excluded to simulate the use of pharmacological inhibitors or genetic deletion (knockout). Missing elements in a pathway connecting the activator or initiator and target can also be inferred from a null pathway result. The value of this static network analysis tool is illustrated by the predication from pathFinder analysis of a novel cyclic AMP-dependent, protein kinase A-independent signaling pathway in neuroendocrine cells, which has been experimentally confirmed.

  16. Physical Analysis of the Drag and Magnus Coefficients of the Topspin Tennis Ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Elizabeth; Howald, Craig

    2007-05-01

    We experimentally determined the drag and Magnus coefficients of a topspin tennis ball using video analysis. Three video cameras were used to record the initial spin, projectile motion, and final spin of the ball. From these recordings the initial velocity, initial spin, final spin, horizontal acceleration, vertical acceleration, x position, and y positions of the ball were extracted. The coefficient of drag was calculated to be CD=0.6104 +/-0.06187 and the Magnus coefficient was calculated to be CM=0.6576+/-0.08767. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.OSS07.P1.14

  17. A FORTRAN program for the calculation and analysis of two-locus linkage disequilibrium coefficients.

    PubMed

    Black, W C; Krafsur, E S

    1985-08-01

    A FORTRAN program was written that calculates composite linkage disequilibrium coefficients from genotypic data. Chi-square tests determine whether coefficients calculated for allele and locus pairs are significantly greater than zero. A subroutine is provided that partitions the variance in linkage disequilibrium into within- and between-subpopulation components. Output obtained from analysis of allozyme data collected from natural subpopulations of the house fly (Musca domestica L.) are included to illustrate features of the program.

  18. Fourier optics analysis of phase-mask-based path-length-multiplexed optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yin, Biwei; Dwelle, Jordan; Wang, Bingqing; Wang, Tianyi; Feldman, Marc D; Rylander, Henry G; Milner, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that constructs a depth-resolved image by measuring the optical path-length difference between broadband light backscattered from a sample and a reference surface. For many OCT sample arm optical configurations, sample illumination and backscattered light detection share a common path. When a phase mask is placed in the sample path, features in the detected signal are observed, which suggests that an analysis of a generic common path OCT imaging system is warranted. In this study, we present a Fourier optics analysis using a Fresnel diffraction approximation of an OCT system with a path-length-multiplexing element (PME) inserted in the sample arm optics. The analysis may be generalized for most phase-mask-based OCT systems. A radial-angle-diverse PME is analyzed in detail, and the point spread function, coherent transfer function, sensitivity of backscattering angular diversity detection, and signal formation in terms of sample spatial frequency are simulated and discussed. The analysis reveals important imaging features and application limitations of OCT imaging systems with a phase mask in the sample path optics.

  19. Comparison of similarity coefficients used for cluster analysis based on RAPD markers in wild olives.

    PubMed

    Sesli, M; Yegenoglu, E D

    2010-11-16

    Five different similarity coefficients (Jaccard, Sorensen-Dice, simple matching, Rogers and Tanimoto, and Russel and Rao) were evaluated and 10 wild olives analyzed with RAPD markers. The influence of the similarity coefficients on wild olives clustering was investigated. Forty-five primers were used on samples from 10 wild olives (Wild 1 and 2 obtained from Mugla province; Wild 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 from Manisa province and Wild 9 and 10 from Izmir province of Turkey). The similarity matrices obtained from RAPD markers were compared by the Mantel test. Cluster analysis was made with UPGMA dendrograms, and the consensus fork indexes between all pairs of dendrograms were calculated. The Jaccard and Sorensen-Dice coefficients gave the same results, due to the fact that both exclude negative co-occurrences. The dendrograms using the simple matching and Rogers and Tanimoto coefficients were similar; Wild 4 (Akhisar, Manisa) and Wild 9 (Bornova, Izmir) olives had the closest genetic similarities. This occurred because these coefficients include negative co-occurrences. The Russel and Rao coefficients produced different results, because they include negative co-occurrences in the denominator. We concluded that the coefficients that do not include negative co-occurrences are more efficient for studies of wild olives clustering based on RAPD markers.

  20. Global Qualitative Flow-Path Modeling for Local State Determination in Simulation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Fleming, Land D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    For qualitative modeling and analysis, a general qualitative abstraction of power transmission variables (flow and effort) for elements of flow paths includes information on resistance, net flow, permissible directions of flow, and qualitative potential is discussed. Each type of component model has flow-related variables and an associated internal flow map, connected into an overall flow network of the system. For storage devices, the implicit power transfer to the environment is represented by "virtual" circuits that include an environmental junction. A heterogeneous aggregation method simplifies the path structure. A method determines global flow-path changes during dynamic simulation and analysis, and identifies corresponding local flow state changes that are effects of global configuration changes. Flow-path determination is triggered by any change in a flow-related device variable in a simulation or analysis. Components (path elements) that may be affected are identified, and flow-related attributes favoring flow in the two possible directions are collected for each of them. Next, flow-related attributes are determined for each affected path element, based on possibly conflicting indications of flow direction. Spurious qualitative ambiguities are minimized by using relative magnitudes and permissible directions of flow, and by favoring flow sources over effort sources when comparing flow tendencies. The results are output to local flow states of affected components.

  1. Factors influencing first childbearing timing decisions among men: Path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kariman, Nourossadat; Amerian, Maliheh; Jannati, Padideh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors that influence men’s childbearing intentions have been relatively unexplored in the literature. Objective: This study aimed to determine the influencing factors about the first childbearing timing decisions of men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 men who were referred to private and governmental healthcare centers in Shahrood, Iran were randomly recruited from April to September 2014. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Quality of Life Questionnaire; ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, Synder’s Hope Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: After removing the statistically insignificant paths, men’s age at marriage had the highest direct effect (β=0.86) on their first childbearing decision. Marital satisfaction (β=-0.09), social support (β=0.06), economic status (β=0.06), and quality of life (β=-0.08) were other effective factors on men’s first childbearing decisions. Moreover, marital satisfaction and social support had significant indirect effects on men’s childbearing decisions (β=-0.04 and -0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Many factors, including personal factors (age at marriage and quality of life), family factors (marital satisfaction), and social factors (social support), can affect men’s decision to have a child. Policymakers are hence required to develop strategies to promote the socioeconomic and family conditions of the couples and to encourage them to have as many children as they desire at an appropriate time. PMID:27738661

  2. Adaptive Green-Kubo estimates of transport coefficients from molecular dynamics based on robust error analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Reese E.; Mandadapu, Kranthi K.

    2012-04-01

    We present a rigorous Green-Kubo methodology for calculating transport coefficients based on on-the-fly estimates of: (a) statistical stationarity of the relevant process, and (b) error in the resulting coefficient. The methodology uses time samples efficiently across an ensemble of parallel replicas to yield accurate estimates, which is particularly useful for estimating the thermal conductivity of semi-conductors near their Debye temperatures where the characteristic decay times of the heat flux correlation functions are large. Employing and extending the error analysis of Zwanzig and Ailawadi [Phys. Rev. 182, 280 (1969)], 10.1103/PhysRev.182.280 and Frenkel [in Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", Course LXXV (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1980)] to the integral of correlation, we are able to provide tight theoretical bounds for the error in the estimate of the transport coefficient. To demonstrate the performance of the method, four test cases of increasing computational cost and complexity are presented: the viscosity of Ar and water, and the thermal conductivity of Si and GaN. In addition to producing accurate estimates of the transport coefficients for these materials, this work demonstrates precise agreement of the computed variances in the estimates of the correlation and the transport coefficient with the extended theory based on the assumption that fluctuations follow a Gaussian process. The proposed algorithm in conjunction with the extended theory enables the calculation of transport coefficients with the Green-Kubo method accurately and efficiently.

  3. Adaptive Green-Kubo estimates of transport coefficients from molecular dynamics based on robust error analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Reese E; Mandadapu, Kranthi K

    2012-04-21

    We present a rigorous Green-Kubo methodology for calculating transport coefficients based on on-the-fly estimates of: (a) statistical stationarity of the relevant process, and (b) error in the resulting coefficient. The methodology uses time samples efficiently across an ensemble of parallel replicas to yield accurate estimates, which is particularly useful for estimating the thermal conductivity of semi-conductors near their Debye temperatures where the characteristic decay times of the heat flux correlation functions are large. Employing and extending the error analysis of Zwanzig and Ailawadi [Phys. Rev. 182, 280 (1969)] and Frenkel [in Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", Course LXXV (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1980)] to the integral of correlation, we are able to provide tight theoretical bounds for the error in the estimate of the transport coefficient. To demonstrate the performance of the method, four test cases of increasing computational cost and complexity are presented: the viscosity of Ar and water, and the thermal conductivity of Si and GaN. In addition to producing accurate estimates of the transport coefficients for these materials, this work demonstrates precise agreement of the computed variances in the estimates of the correlation and the transport coefficient with the extended theory based on the assumption that fluctuations follow a Gaussian process. The proposed algorithm in conjunction with the extended theory enables the calculation of transport coefficients with the Green-Kubo method accurately and efficiently.

  4. Disentangling evolutionary cause-effect relationships with phylogenetic confirmatory path analysis.

    PubMed

    von Hardenberg, Achaz; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro

    2013-02-01

    Confirmatory path analysis is a statistical technique to build models of causal hypotheses among variables and test if the data conform with the causal model. However, classical path analysis techniques ignore the nonindependence of observations due to phylogenetic relatedness among species, possibly leading to spurious results. Here, we present a simple method to perform phylogenetic confirmatory path analysis (PPA). We analyzed simulated datasets with varying amounts of phylogenetic signal in the data and a known underlying causal structure linking the traits to estimate Type I error and power. Results show that Type I error for PPA appeared to be slightly anticonservative (range: 0.047-0.072) but path analysis models ignoring phylogenetic signal resulted in much higher Type I error rates, which were positively related to the amount of phylogenetic signal (range: 0.051 for λ= 0 to 0.916 for λ= 1). Further, the power of the test was not compromised when accounting for phylogeny. As an example of the application of PPA, we revisit a study on the correlates of aggressive broodmate competition across seven avian families. The use of PPA allowed us to gain greater insight into the plausible causal paths linking species traits to aggressive broodmate competition.

  5. An analysis of the characteristics of aerosol light scattering coefficients at Seoul and Baengnyeongdo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Eun, S.; Seo, W.; Park, J.; Ahn, J.; Moon, K.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere can scatter and absorb solar radiation and their spatial/temporal distributions are highly inhomogeneous due to short lifetimes (about a few weeks or less). Through scattering and absorption of solar radiation, aerosols directly affect visibility and climate through the modification of the Earth's energy budget (Charlson et al., 1992; Yan, 2007; Wang, 2012). This study investigates long-term trends and characteristics of aerosol light scattering coefficient at Seoul and Baengnyeongdo, 100 km upstream of Seoul, in Korea. Aerosol scattering coefficients were measured continuously with nephelometers. The analysis period is limited to one year of 2011. For the relationship analysis of extinction coefficients (σext) to visibility and aerosol optical depth, σsp observed at 3 p.m. have been used with help of aerosol absorption coefficients (σap) in order to remove its dependence upon relative humidity (RH), and also those of rainy period have been excluded. As expected, σext estimated are inversely proportional to visibility observation by eye. Aerosol extinction coefficients have been vertically integrated with an assumption of nearly well-mixed within an e-folding height to determine aerosol optical depth (τa), and compared with those retrieved from sunphotometer. The results show a reasonable agreement in spite of an inherent difference of each definition. We expect these findings would help to eventually understand aerosol radiative forcing and its effect on the regional climate change around Korea.

  6. Psychometric Inferences from a Meta-Analysis of Reliability and Internal Consistency Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, Juan; Suero, Manuel; Gambara, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the reliability of the scores from a specific test, also called reliability generalization, allows the quantitative synthesis of its properties from a set of studies. It is usually assumed that part of the variation in the reliability coefficients is due to some unknown and implicit mechanism that restricts and biases the…

  7. Random matrix theory analysis of cross-correlations in the US stock market: Evidence from Pearson’s correlation coefficient and detrended cross-correlation coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang-Jin; Xie, Chi; Chen, Shou; Yang, Jiao-Jiao; Yang, Ming-Yan

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we first build two empirical cross-correlation matrices in the US stock market by two different methods, namely the Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the detrended cross-correlation coefficient (DCCA coefficient). Then, combining the two matrices with the method of random matrix theory (RMT), we mainly investigate the statistical properties of cross-correlations in the US stock market. We choose the daily closing prices of 462 constituent stocks of S&P 500 index as the research objects and select the sample data from January 3, 2005 to August 31, 2012. In the empirical analysis, we examine the statistical properties of cross-correlation coefficients, the distribution of eigenvalues, the distribution of eigenvector components, and the inverse participation ratio. From the two methods, we find some new results of the cross-correlations in the US stock market in our study, which are different from the conclusions reached by previous studies. The empirical cross-correlation matrices constructed by the DCCA coefficient show several interesting properties at different time scales in the US stock market, which are useful to the risk management and optimal portfolio selection, especially to the diversity of the asset portfolio. It will be an interesting and meaningful work to find the theoretical eigenvalue distribution of a completely random matrix R for the DCCA coefficient because it does not obey the Marčenko-Pastur distribution.

  8. Efficient computation of aerodynamic influence coefficients for aeroelastic analysis on a transputer network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janetzke, David C.; Murthy, Durbha V.

    1991-01-01

    Aeroelastic analysis is multi-disciplinary and computationally expensive. Hence, it can greatly benefit from parallel processing. As part of an effort to develop an aeroelastic capability on a distributed memory transputer network, a parallel algorithm for the computation of aerodynamic influence coefficients is implemented on a network of 32 transputers. The aerodynamic influence coefficients are calculated using a 3-D unsteady aerodynamic model and a parallel discretization. Efficiencies up to 85 percent were demonstrated using 32 processors. The effect of subtask ordering, problem size, and network topology are presented. A comparison to results on a shared memory computer indicates that higher speedup is achieved on the distributed memory system.

  9. Automatic Beam Path Analysis of Laser Wakefield Particle Acceleration Data

    SciTech Connect

    Rubel, Oliver; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Wu, Kesheng; Prabhat,; Weber, Gunther H.; Ushizima, Daniela M.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes

    2009-10-19

    Numerical simulations of laser wakefield particle accelerators play a key role in the understanding of the complex acceleration process and in the design of expensive experimental facilities. As the size and complexity of simulation output grows, an increasingly acute challenge is the practical need for computational techniques that aid in scientific knowledge discovery. To that end, we present a set of data-understanding algorithms that work in concert in a pipeline fashion to automatically locate and analyze high energy particle bunches undergoing acceleration in very large simulation datasets. These techniques work cooperatively by first identifying features of interest in individual timesteps, then integrating features across timesteps, and based on the information derived perform analysis of temporally dynamic features. This combination of techniques supports accurate detection of particle beams enabling a deeper level of scientific understanding of physical phenomena than hasbeen possible before. By combining efficient data analysis algorithms and state-of-the-art data management we enable high-performance analysis of extremely large particle datasets in 3D. We demonstrate the usefulness of our methods for a variety of 2D and 3D datasets and discuss the performance of our analysis pipeline.

  10. Interdiffusion in Ni-rich, Ni-Cr-Al alloys at 1100 and 1200 C. I - Diffusion paths and microstructures. II - Diffusion coefficients and predicted concentration profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Heckel, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Interdiffusion in Ni-rich Ni-Cr-Al alloys is investigated experimentally after annealing at 1100 and 1200 C using gamma/gamma, gamma/gamma+beta, gamma/gamma+gamma prime, and gamma/gamma+alpha diffusion couples. The amount and location of Kirkendall porosity suggests that Al diffuses more rapidly than Cr which diffuses more rapidly than Ni in the gamma phase of Ni-Cr-Al alloys. The location and extent of maxima and minima in the concentration profiles of the diffusion couples indicate that both cross-term diffusion coefficients are positive. Measurements are also presented of the ternary interdiffusion coefficients of the gamma phase in the Ni-Cr-Al system. It is shown that the interdiffusion coefficients can be accurately predicted by using a ternary finite-difference interdiffusion model.

  11. Paths to tobacco abstinence: A repeated measures latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Danielle E.; Ebssa, Lemma; Witkiewitz, Katie; Shiffman, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Objective Knowledge of smoking change processes may be enhanced by identifying pathways to stable abstinence. We sought to identify latent classes of smokers based on their day-to-day smoking status in the first weeks of a cessation attempt. We examined treatment effects on class membership and compared classes on baseline individual differences and 6-month abstinence rates. Method In this secondary analysis of a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial (N=1433) of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies (nicotine patch, nicotine lozenge, bupropion SR, patch and lozenge, or bupropion SR and lozenge), we conducted repeated measures latent class analysis of daily smoking status (any smoking vs. none) for the first 27 days of a quit attempt. Treatment and covariate relations with latent class membership were examined. Distal outcome analysis compared confirmed 6-month abstinence rates among the latent classes. Results A 5-class solution was selected. Three-quarters of smokers were in stable smoking or abstinent classes, but 25% were in classes with unstable abstinence probabilities over time. Active treatment (compared to placebo), and particularly the patch and lozenge combination, promoted early quitting. Latent classes differed in 6-month abstinence rates and on several baseline variables, including nicotine dependence, quitting history, self-efficacy, sleep disturbance, and minority status. Conclusions Repeated measures latent class analysis identified latent classes of smoking change patterns affected by treatment, related to known risk factors, and predictive of distal outcomes. Tracking behavior early in a change attempt may identify prognostic patterns of change and facilitate adaptive treatment planning. PMID:25867447

  12. Measuring arbitrary diffusion coefficient distributions of nano-objects by taylor dispersion analysis.

    PubMed

    Cipelletti, Luca; Biron, Jean-Philippe; Martin, Michel; Cottet, Hervé

    2015-08-18

    Taylor dispersion analysis is an absolute and straightforward characterization method that allows determining the diffusion coefficient, or equivalently the hydrodynamic radius, from angstroms to submicron size range. In this work, we investigated the use of the Constrained Regularized Linear Inversion approach as a new data processing method to extract the probability density functions of the diffusion coefficient (or hydrodynamic radius) from experimental taylorgrams. This new approach can be applied to arbitrary polydisperse samples and gives access to the whole diffusion coefficient distributions, thereby significantly enhancing the potentiality of Taylor dispersion analysis. The method was successfully applied to both simulated and real experimental data for solutions of moderately polydisperse polymers and their binary and ternary mixtures. Distributions of diffusion coefficients obtained by this method were favorably compared with those derived from size exclusion chromatography. The influence of the noise of the simulated taylorgrams on the data processing is discussed. Finally, we discuss the ability of the method to correctly resolve bimodal distributions as a function of the relative separation between the two constituent species.

  13. Ergonomic analysis of New York apple harvest work using a Posture-Activities-Tools-Handling (PATH) work sampling approach.

    PubMed

    Earle-Richardson, G; Fulmer, S; Jenkins, P; Mason, C; Bresee, C; May, J

    2004-08-01

    Although back, neck, and shoulder strains are common among migrant and seasonal orchard workers, little data currently exist regarding the ergonomic factors contributing to this problem. We adapted Posture-Activities-Tools-Handling (PATH) instruments and methods for ergonomic job analysis of apple harvest work in three New York orchards, and used the resulting protocol to quantify hazardous activities, loads, and postures. Using a prototype developed previously, we trained twelve contract orchard observers with classroom training and supervised orchard practice. The PATH data were then collected on 14 orchard workers over four days (2,900 observations). Mean coefficients of variation ranged from a low of 0.212 (standing leg neutral) to a high of 0.603 (trunk moderate flexion). Most frequently observed activities were: picking (62.9%), placing and moving apples in the bag (8. 7%), and walking (8.1%). Weight bearing (>10 lb, >4.54 kg) was observed 78.5% of the time throughout a range of activities. Apple harvest work is comparable with other ergonomically high-risk occupations. Future research should focus on low-cost interventions that reduce load and awkward postures.

  14. Errata to the Werts-Linn Comments on Boyle's "Path Analysis and Ordinal Data."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werts, Charles E.; Linn, Robert L.

    The Werts-Linn procedure for dealing with categorical errors of measurement in "Comments on Boyle's 'Path Analysis and Ordinal Data'" in The American Journal of Sociology, volume 76, number 6, May 1971, is shown to be inappropriate to the problem of ordered categories. (For related document, see TM 002 301.) (DB)

  15. A Path Analysis of Social Problem-Solving as a Predictor of White Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Amanda G.; Caskie, Grace I. L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined (a) whether a developmental model or a model in which all subscales' measurement errors are correlated best explains the relationships among White racial identity (WRI) statuses, and (b) social problem-solving (SPS) skills as a predictor of WRI. Path analysis was conducted with a sample of 255 White undergraduate students from…

  16. Neighborhoods, Social Support, and African American Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes: A Multilevel Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents' internalizing symptoms via adolescents' social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; "M" age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and indirect…

  17. Mathematics Teaching Anxiety and Self-Efficacy Beliefs toward Mathematics Teaching: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peker, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between pre-service primary school teachers' mathematics teaching anxiety and their self-efficacy beliefs toward mathematics teaching through path analysis. There were a total of 250 pre-service primary school teachers involved in this study. Of the total, 202 were female and 48 were…

  18. The Effects of Credibility, Reliance, and Exposure on Media Agenda-Setting: A Path Analysis Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanta, Wayne; Hu, Yu-Wei

    1994-01-01

    Uses path analysis to investigate a model of agenda-setting. Supports the model, showing that, if individuals perceive the media to be highly credible, they will rely on the media for information, will increase their exposure to media messages and in turn will become more susceptible to agenda-setting. (SR)

  19. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  20. Automatic clustering and population analysis of white matter tracts using maximum density paths.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Gautam; Joshi, Shantanu H; Jahanshad, Neda; Villalon-Reina, Julio; Aganj, Iman; Lenglet, Christophe; Sapiro, Guillermo; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-08-15

    We introduce a framework for population analysis of white matter tracts based on diffusion-weighted images of the brain. The framework enables extraction of fibers from high angular resolution diffusion images (HARDI); clustering of the fibers based partly on prior knowledge from an atlas; representation of the fiber bundles compactly using a path following points of highest density (maximum density path; MDP); and registration of these paths together using geodesic curve matching to find local correspondences across a population. We demonstrate our method on 4-Tesla HARDI scans from 565 young adults to compute localized statistics across 50 white matter tracts based on fractional anisotropy (FA). Experimental results show increased sensitivity in the determination of genetic influences on principal fiber tracts compared to the tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. Our results show that the MDP representation reveals important parts of the white matter structure and considerably reduces the dimensionality over comparable fiber matching approaches. PMID:24747738

  1. Automatic Clustering and Population Analysis of White Matter Tracts using Maximum Density Paths

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Gautam; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Villalon-Reina, Julio; Aganj, Iman; Lenglet, Christophe; Sapiro, Guillermo; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a framework for population analysis of white matter tracts based on diffusion-weighted images of the brain. The framework enables extraction of fibers from high angular resolution diffusion images (HARDI); clustering of the fibers based partly on prior knowledge from an atlas; representation of the fiber bundles compactly using a path following points of highest density (maximum density path; MDP); and registration of these paths together using geodesic curve matching to find local correspondences across a population. We demonstrate our method on 4-Tesla HARDI scans from 565 young adults to compute localized statistics across 50 white matter tracts based on fractional anisotropy (FA). Experimental results show increased sensitivity in the determination of genetic influences on principal fiber tracts compared to the tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. Our results show that the MDP representation reveals important parts of the white matter structure and considerably reduces the dimensionality over comparable fiber matching approaches. PMID:24747738

  2. Depth profiling the optical absorption and thermal reflection coefficient via an analysis based on the method of images (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of depth profiling optical absorption in a thermally depth variable solid is a problem of direct interest for the analysis of complex structured materials. In this work, we introduce a new algorithm to solve this problem in a planar layered sample which is impulse irradiated. The sample is comprised of "N" model layers of thickness Δx, of constant diffusivity α, where the conductivity varies depth wise with each layer. This derivation extends to the general case of a depth variable thermal reflection coefficient with depth variable optical source density. In such a sample, at finite time, t, past excitation, thermal energy can only significantly penetrate NL model layers NL≈√4αt[-ln(ɛ)] /2Δx, where ɛ is a small error (ɛ⩽10-6) and a double transit through each layer is assumed. The depth profile of optical absorption in each layer, i, is approximated by δ(x-iΔx), weighted by the optical source density Si. The temperature at x=0- just inside a front medium contacting the sample is given by T(x=0,t)= ∑ i=12NL SiṡGR(x,x0=iΔx,t)]x=0, where GR(x,x0,t) represents an effective Green's function for optical absorption at the depth x0=iΔx in the sample. The method of images1 gives GR(x,x0=iΔx,t) in the following form: [GR(x,0Δx,t)GR(x,2Δx,t)…GR(x,2NLΔx,t)]=[A10A12 A14 A16 …..A1,2NL0A32A34 A36 …..A3,2NL….0……A2NL-1,2NL][G(x-0Δx,t)G(x-2Δx,t)……G(x-2NLΔx,t)]. The G(x-nΔx,t) are shifted image fields obtained from the infinite domain Green's function for one-dimensional heat conduction. They account for thermal wave reflection/transmission over the path length nΔx from the source (at interface i) to the surface (x=0). The Ain are lumped coefficients giving the efficiency of heat transmission from the ith source to the surface for each path order n. They are determined by a mapping procedure that identifies all propagation paths of each order, n, and computes the individual and lumped reflection coefficients. Equation (2) is

  3. Analysis of the coefficient of variation in shear and tensile bond strength tests.

    PubMed

    Romano, Fábio Lourenço; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Magnani, Maria Beatriz Borges de Araújo; Nouer, Darcy Flávio

    2005-09-01

    The coefficient of variation is a dispersion measurement that does not depend on the unit scales, thus allowing the comparison of experimental results involving different variables. Its calculation is crucial for the adhesive experiments performed in laboratories because both precision and reliability can be verified. The aim of this study was to evaluate and to suggest a classification of the coefficient variation (CV) for in vitro experiments on shear and tensile strengths. The experiments were performed in laboratory by fifty international and national studies on adhesion materials. Statistical data allowing the estimation of the coefficient of variation was gathered from each scientific article since none of them had such a measurement previously calculated. Excel worksheet was used for organizing the data while the sample normality was tested by using Shapiro Wilk tests (alpha = 0.05) and the Statistical Analysis System software (SAS). A mean value of 6.11 (SD = 1.83) for the coefficient of variation was found by the data analysis and the data had a normal distribution (p>0.05). A range classification was proposed for the coefficient of variation from such data, that is, it should be considered low for a value lesser than 2.44; intermediate for a value between 2.44 and 7.94, high for a value between 7.94 and 9.78, and finally, very high for a value greater than 9.78. Such classification can be used as a guide for experiments on adhesion materials, thus making the planning easier as well as revealing precision and validity concerning the data.

  4. Random effects coefficient of determination for mixed and meta-analysis models.

    PubMed

    Demidenko, Eugene; Sargent, James; Onega, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    The key feature of a mixed model is the presence of random effects. We have developed a coefficient, called the random effects coefficient of determination, [Formula: see text], that estimates the proportion of the conditional variance of the dependent variable explained by random effects. This coefficient takes values from 0 to 1 and indicates how strong the random effects are. The difference from the earlier suggested fixed effects coefficient of determination is emphasized. If [Formula: see text] is close to 0, there is weak support for random effects in the model because the reduction of the variance of the dependent variable due to random effects is small; consequently, random effects may be ignored and the model simplifies to standard linear regression. The value of [Formula: see text] apart from 0 indicates the evidence of the variance reduction in support of the mixed model. If random effects coefficient of determination is close to 1 the variance of random effects is very large and random effects turn into free fixed effects-the model can be estimated using the dummy variable approach. We derive explicit formulas for [Formula: see text] in three special cases: the random intercept model, the growth curve model, and meta-analysis model. Theoretical results are illustrated with three mixed model examples: (1) travel time to the nearest cancer center for women with breast cancer in the U.S., (2) cumulative time watching alcohol related scenes in movies among young U.S. teens, as a risk factor for early drinking onset, and (3) the classic example of the meta-analysis model for combination of 13 studies on tuberculosis vaccine. PMID:23750070

  5. Parallel computation of aerodynamic influence coefficients for aeroelastic analysis on a transputer network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janetzke, D. C.; Murthy, D. V.

    1991-01-01

    Aeroelastic analysis is mult-disciplinary and computationally expensive. Hence, it can greatly benefit from parallel processing. As part of an effort to develop an aeroelastic analysis capability on a distributed-memory transputer network, a parallel algorithm for the computation of aerodynamic influence coefficients is implemented on a network of 32 transputers. The aerodynamic influence coefficients are calculated using a three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic model and a panel discretization. Efficiencies up to 85 percent are demonstrated using 32 processors. The effects of subtask ordering, problem size and network topology are presented. A comparison to results on a shared-memory computer indicates that higher speedup is achieved on the distributed-memory system.

  6. Image analysis measurements of particle coefficient of restitution for coal gasification applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, LaTosha M; Gopalan, Balaji; Pisupati, Sarma V; Shadle, Lawrence J

    2013-10-01

    New robust Lagrangian computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are powerful tools that can be used to study the behavior of a diverse population of coal particle sizes, densities, and mineral compositions in entrained gasifiers. By using this approach, the responses of the particles impacting the wall were characterized over a range of velocities (1 to 8 m/s) and incident angles (90 to 20°). Within CFD models, the kinematic coefficient of restitution is the boundary condition defining the particle wall behavior. Four surfaces were studied to simulate the physical conditions of different entrained-flow gasification particle–surface collision scenarios: 1) a flat metal plate 2) a low viscosity silicon adhesive, 3) a high viscosity silicon adhesive, and 4) adhered particles on a flat metal plate with Young's modulus of elasticity ranging from 0.9 to 190 GPa. Entrained flow and drop experiments were conducted with granular coke particles, polyethylene beads and polystyrene pellets. The particle normal and tangential coefficients of restitution were measured using high speed imaging and particle tracking. The measured coefficients of restitution were observed to have a strong dependence on the rebound angles for most of the data. Suitable algebraic expressions for the normal and the tangential component of the coefficient of restitution were developed based upon ANOVA analysis. These expressions quantify the effect of normalized Young's modulus, particle equancy, and relative velocity on the coefficient of restitution. The coefficient of restitution did not have a strong dependence on the particle velocity over the range considered as long as the velocity was above the critical velocity. However, strong correlations were found between the degree of equancy of the particles and the mean coefficient of restitution such that the coefficient of restitution decreased for smaller particle equancies. It was concluded that the degree of equancy and the normalized Young

  7. Vulnerabilities, Influences and Interaction Paths: Failure Data for Integrated System Risk Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land

    2006-01-01

    We describe graph-based analysis methods for identifying and analyzing cross-subsystem interaction risks from subsystem connectivity information. By discovering external and remote influences that would be otherwise unexpected, these methods can support better communication among subsystem designers at points of potential conflict and to support design of more dependable and diagnosable systems. These methods identify hazard causes that can impact vulnerable functions or entities if propagated across interaction paths from the hazard source to the vulnerable target. The analysis can also assess combined impacts of And-Or trees of disabling influences. The analysis can use ratings of hazards and vulnerabilities to calculate cumulative measures of the severity and importance. Identification of cross-subsystem hazard-vulnerability pairs and propagation paths across subsystems will increase coverage of hazard and risk analysis and can indicate risk control and protection strategies.

  8. Optimal error analysis of spectral methods with emphasis on non-constant coefficients and deformed geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maday, Yvon; Ronquist, Einar M.

    1989-01-01

    The numerical analysis of spectral methods when non-constant coefficients appear in the equation, either due to the original statement of the equations or to take into account the deformed geometry, is presented. Particular attention is devoted to the optimality of the discretization even for low values of the discretization parameter. The effect of some overintegration is also addressed, in order to possibly improve the accuracy of the discretization.

  9. Analysis of vibration waveforms of electromechanical response to determine piezoelectric and electrostrictive coefficients.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Manabu; Hoshina, Takuya; Takeda, Hiroaki; Tsurumi, Takaaki

    2012-08-01

    We developed a possible method to determine both coefficients of piezoelectricity (d) and electrostriction (M) at the same time by a waveform analysis of current and vibration velocity in the resonance state. The waveforms of the current and vibration velocity were theoretically described using the equations of motion and piezoelectric constitutive equations, considering the dissipation effect. The dissipation factor of the d coefficient and M coefficient is dielectric loss tangent tan δ. The waveforms measured in all of the ceramics, such as Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) (PZT), Pb(Mg,Nb)O(3) (PMN), and 0.8Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb2/3)O(3)-0.2PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT), were well fitted with the calculated waveform. This fitting produced both the d and M coefficients, which agreed with those determined via the conventional methods. Moreover, the respective contributions of both piezoelectricity and electrostriction to the d value determined in the resonance-antiresonance method were clarified. PMID:22899111

  10. Reliability sensitivity-based correlation coefficient calculation in structural reliability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhou; Zhang, Yimin; Zhang, Xufang; Huang, Xianzhen

    2012-05-01

    The correlation coefficients of random variables of mechanical structures are generally chosen with experience or even ignored, which cannot actually reflect the effects of parameter uncertainties on reliability. To discuss the selection problem of the correlation coefficients from the reliability-based sensitivity point of view, the theory principle of the problem is established based on the results of the reliability sensitivity, and the criterion of correlation among random variables is shown. The values of the correlation coefficients are obtained according to the proposed principle and the reliability sensitivity problem is discussed. Numerical studies have shown the following results: (1) If the sensitivity value of correlation coefficient ρ is less than (at what magnitude 0.000 01), then the correlation could be ignored, which could simplify the procedure without introducing additional error. (2) However, as the difference between ρ s, that is the most sensitive to the reliability, and ρ R , that is with the smallest reliability, is less than 0.001, ρ s is suggested to model the dependency of random variables. This could ensure the robust quality of system without the loss of safety requirement. (3) In the case of | E abs|>0.001 and also | E rel|>0.001, ρ R should be employed to quantify the correlation among random variables in order to ensure the accuracy of reliability analysis. Application of the proposed approach could provide a practical routine for mechanical design and manufactory to study the reliability and reliability-based sensitivity of basic design variables in mechanical reliability analysis and design.

  11. Automatic Match between Delimitation Line and Real Terrain Based on Least-Cost Path Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, C. Q.; Jiang, N.; Zhang, X. N.; Ma, J.

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, during the international negotiation on separating dispute areas, manual adjusting is lonely applied to the match between delimitation line and real terrain, which not only consumes much time and great labor force, but also cannot ensure high precision. Concerning that, the paper mainly explores automatic match between them and study its general solution based on Least -Cost Path Analysis. First, under the guidelines of delimitation laws, the cost layer is acquired through special disposals of delimitation line and terrain features line. Second, a new delimitation line gets constructed with the help of Least-Cost Path Analysis. Third, the whole automatic match model is built via Module Builder in order to share and reuse it. Finally, the result of automatic match is analyzed from many different aspects, including delimitation laws, two-sided benefits and so on. Consequently, a conclusion is made that the method of automatic match is feasible and effective.

  12. Viscoelasticity and primitive path analysis of entangled polymer liquids: From F-actin to polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Nariya; Grest, Gary S.; Everaers, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    We combine computer simulations and scaling arguments to develop a unified view of polymer entanglement based on the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state. Our results agree with experimentally measured plateau moduli for three different polymer classes over a wide range of reduced polymer densities: (i) semidilute theta solutions of synthetic polymers, (ii) the corresponding dense melts above the glass transition or crystallization temperature, and (iii) solutions of semiflexible (bio)polymers such as F-actin or suspensions of rodlike viruses. Together, these systems cover the entire range from loosely to tightly entangled polymers. In particular, we argue that the primitive path analysis renormalizes a loosely to a tightly entangled system and provide a new explanation of the successful Lin-Noolandi packing conjecture for polymer melts.

  13. Methods for integrating moderation and mediation: a general analytical framework using moderated path analysis.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jeffrey R; Lambert, Lisa Schurer

    2007-03-01

    Studies that combine moderation and mediation are prevalent in basic and applied psychology research. Typically, these studies are framed in terms of moderated mediation or mediated moderation, both of which involve similar analytical approaches. Unfortunately, these approaches have important shortcomings that conceal the nature of the moderated and the mediated effects under investigation. This article presents a general analytical framework for combining moderation and mediation that integrates moderated regression analysis and path analysis. This framework clarifies how moderator variables influence the paths that constitute the direct, indirect, and total effects of mediated models. The authors empirically illustrate this framework and give step-by-step instructions for estimation and interpretation. They summarize the advantages of their framework over current approaches, explain how it subsumes moderated mediation and mediated moderation, and describe how it can accommodate additional moderator and mediator variables, curvilinear relationships, and structural equation models with latent variables.

  14. Material decomposition with the multi-energy attenuation coefficient ratio by using a multiple discriminant analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woo-Jin; Kang, Se-Ryong; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sam-Sun; Heo, Min-Suk; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a spectral CT system using a photon counting detector and to decompose materials by applying a multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) to the energy-dependent attenuation coefficient ratios. We imaged cylindrical phantoms of Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with four holes filled with calcium chloride, iodine, and gold nanoparticle contrast agents. The attenuation coefficients were measured via reconstructed multi-energy images, and the linear attenuation ratio was used for material identification. The MDA projection matrix, determined from training phantoms, was used to identify the four materials in the testing phantoms. For quantification purposes, the relationships between the attenuation coefficients at multiple energy bins and the concentrations were characterized by using the least-squares method for each material. The mean identification accuracy for each of the three materials were 0.94 ± 0.09 for iodine, 0.96 ± 0.07 for gold nanoparticles, and 0.92 ± 0.05 for calcium chloride. The mean quantification errors were 1.90 ± 1.58% for iodine, 3.85 ± 3.13% for gold nanoparticle, and 3.40 ± 2.62% for calcium chloride. The developed multi-energy CT system based on the photon-counting detector with MDA can precisely decompose the four materials.

  15. Highly efficient codec based on significance-linked connected-component analysis of wavelet coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Bing-Bing; Vass, Jozsef; Zhuang, Xinhua

    1997-04-01

    Recent success in wavelet coding is mainly attributed to the recognition of importance of data organization. There has been several very competitive wavelet codecs developed, namely, Shapiro's Embedded Zerotree Wavelets (EZW), Servetto et. al.'s Morphological Representation of Wavelet Data (MRWD), and Said and Pearlman's Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT). In this paper, we propose a new image compression algorithm called Significant-Linked Connected Component Analysis (SLCCA) of wavelet coefficients. SLCCA exploits both within-subband clustering of significant coefficients and cross-subband dependency in significant fields. A so-called significant link between connected components is designed to reduce the positional overhead of MRWD. In addition, the significant coefficients' magnitude are encoded in bit plane order to match the probability model of the adaptive arithmetic coder. Experiments show that SLCCA outperforms both EZW and MRWD, and is tied with SPIHT. Furthermore, it is observed that SLCCA generally has the best performance on images with large portion of texture. When applied to fingerprint image compression, it outperforms FBI's wavelet scalar quantization by about 1 dB.

  16. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    PubMed

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:8318934

  17. PathGrid: The Transfer of Astronomical Image Algorithms to the Analysis of Medical Microscopy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, N. A.; Brenton, J. D.; Caldas, C.; Irwin, M. J.; Akram, A.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Lewis, J. R.; MacCullum, P.; Morris, L. J.; Rixon, G. T.

    2009-09-01

    We describe our pilot `PathGrid' study which applies astronomical image processing and data handling techniques to the challenges involved in analysing Tissue Micro Array (TMA) image data. Image analysis has been applied to the input TMA data using open source solutions developed for an astronomical context. The resulting data products are in turn interfaced to the clinical trials systems in use at the Cambridge Research Institute (Cancer Research-UK).

  18. Rate coefficients of the CF3CHFCF3 + H → CF3CFCF3 + H2 reaction at different temperatures calculated by transition state theory with ab initio and DFT reaction paths.

    PubMed

    Ng, Maggie; Mok, Daniel K W; Lee, Edmond P F; Dyke, John M

    2013-03-15

    The minimum energy path (MEP) of the reaction, CF(3)CHFCF(3) + H → transition state (TS) → CF(3)CFCF(3) + H(2), has been computed at different ab initio levels and with density functional theory (DFT) using different functionals. The computed B3LYP/6-31++G**, BH&HLYP/cc-pVDZ, BMK/6-31++G**, M05/6-31+G**, M05-2X/6-31+G**, UMP2/6-31++G**, PUMP2/6-31++G**//UMP2/6-31++G**, RCCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ//UMP2/6-31++G**, RCCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ(spd,sp)//UMP2//6-31++G**, RCCSD(T)/CBS//M05/6-31+G**, and RCCSD(T)/CBS//UMP2/6-31++G** MEPs, and associated gradients and Hessians, were used in reaction rate coefficient calculations based on the transition state theory (TST). Reaction rate coefficients were computed between 300 and 1500 K at various levels of TST, which include conventional TST, canonical variational TST (CVT) and improved CVT (ICVT), and with different tunneling corrections, namely, Wigner, zero-curvature, and small-curvature (SCT). The computed rate coefficients obtained at different ab initio, DFT and TST levels are compared with experimental values available in the 1000-1200 K temperature range. Based on the rate coefficients computed at the ICVT/SCT level, the highest TST level used in this study, the BH&HLYP functional performs best among all the functionals used, while the RCCSD(T)/CBS//MP2/6-31++G** level is the best among all the ab initio levels used. Comparing computed reaction rate coefficients obtained at different levels of theory shows that, the computed barrier height has the strongest effect on the computed reaction rate coefficients as expected. Variational effects on the computed rate coefficients are found to be negligibly small. Although tunneling effects are relatively small at high temperatures (~1500 K), SCT corrections are significant at low temperatures (~300 K), and both barrier heights and the magnitudes of the imaginary frequencies affect SCT corrections.

  19. In-situ source path contribution analysis of structure borne road noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, A. S.; Moorhouse, A. T.; Huntley, T.; Tate, S.

    2013-11-01

    Source-path-contribution (SPC) analysis, also known as transfer path analysis (TPA), is a technique widely used in the automotive industry for rank ordering noise and vibration sources. The SPC approach is known to provide reliable diagnostic information but is time consuming to apply. In this paper, a faster SPC approach that allows all measurements to be performed in-situ is outlined and tested. For validation purposes a classic example consisting of a vehicle's suspension system (considered a vibration source) attached to a vehicle body (receiver) is analysed. It is found that structure borne noise inside the vehicle can be predicted well by either the conventional or the novel in-situ SPC approaches and that both methods give the same diagnostic information in terms of the rank ordering of path contributions. Thus, the new in-situ approach provides results at least as reliable as the conventional inverse SPC approach but has significant practical advantages in terms of reduced test time, transferability of data and flexibility in the location of the source-receiver interface. An additional investigation also demonstrates the feasibility of including rotational motions and moments in the analysis and it is shown that improved accuracy can be achieved as a result.

  20. On Optimal Backward Perturbation Analysis for the Linear System with Skew Circulant Coefficient Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhaolin; Shen, Nuo; Zhou, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    We first give the style spectral decomposition of a special skew circulant matrix C and then get the style decomposition of arbitrary skew circulant matrix by making use of the Kronecker products between the elements of first row in skew circulant and the special skew circulant C. Besides that, we obtain the singular value of skew circulant matrix as well. Finally, we deal with the optimal backward perturbation analysis for the linear system with skew circulant coefficient matrix on the base of its style spectral decomposition. PMID:24369488

  1. PathGrid: a service-orientated architecture for microscopy image analysis.

    PubMed

    Walton, N A; Brenton, J D; Caldas, C; Irwin, M J; Akram, A; Gonzalez-Solares, E; Lewis, J R; Maccallum, P H; Morris, L J; Rixon, G T

    2010-08-28

    This paper describes 'PathGrid'--an analysis and data integration system, developed initially to meet the demands in the analysis of medical microscopy imaging data. An overview of the current system is given, describing the techniques used in developing the data handling infrastructure and the analysis algorithm development. The use of software created in the context of systems designed for the astronomy domain is noted, specifically infrastructure from the astronomy virtual observatory movement for data discovery, access and workflow management, and astronomical image analysis software adapted for the analysis of high-throughput astronomy imaging surveys. This paper notes the applicability of the techniques from the astronomy domain. The testbed infrastructure deployment is described, emphasizing its speed and ease of use and support. The validity of the analysis techniques is confirmed through the pilot study described here--with the application to a large sample of immunohistochemistry microscopy data obtained in part for assessing the oestrogen receptor status of breast cancers. The analysis showed that the specificity and sensitivity values for the automatic scoring using PathGrid were within the errors of those obtained via a 'gold standard' manual pathologist scoring.

  2. A Run-Length Encoding Approach for Path Analysis of C. elegans Search Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hongkyun; Furst, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans explores the environment using a combination of different movement patterns, which include straight movement, reversal, and turns. We propose to quantify C. elegans movement behavior using a computer vision approach based on run-length encoding of step-length data. In this approach, the path of C. elegans is encoded as a string of characters, where each character represents a path segment of a specific type of movement. With these encoded string data, we perform k-means cluster analysis to distinguish movement behaviors resulting from different genotypes and food availability. We found that shallow and sharp turns are the most critical factors in distinguishing the differences among the movement behaviors. To validate our approach, we examined the movement behavior of tph-1 mutants that lack an enzyme responsible for serotonin biosynthesis. A k-means cluster analysis with the path string-encoded data showed that tph-1 movement behavior on food is similar to that of wild-type animals off food. We suggest that this run-length encoding approach is applicable to trajectory data in animal or human mobility data. PMID:27462364

  3. A Run-Length Encoding Approach for Path Analysis of C. elegans Search Behavior.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Kim, Hongkyun; Furst, Jacob; Raicu, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans explores the environment using a combination of different movement patterns, which include straight movement, reversal, and turns. We propose to quantify C. elegans movement behavior using a computer vision approach based on run-length encoding of step-length data. In this approach, the path of C. elegans is encoded as a string of characters, where each character represents a path segment of a specific type of movement. With these encoded string data, we perform k-means cluster analysis to distinguish movement behaviors resulting from different genotypes and food availability. We found that shallow and sharp turns are the most critical factors in distinguishing the differences among the movement behaviors. To validate our approach, we examined the movement behavior of tph-1 mutants that lack an enzyme responsible for serotonin biosynthesis. A k-means cluster analysis with the path string-encoded data showed that tph-1 movement behavior on food is similar to that of wild-type animals off food. We suggest that this run-length encoding approach is applicable to trajectory data in animal or human mobility data. PMID:27462364

  4. A Path Analysis of Mental Health Among Thai Immigrant Employees in Pranakron Si Ayutthaya Province.

    PubMed

    Kaewanuchit, Chonticha; Sawangdee, Yothin

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this research were to study both direct and indirect path analyses of mental health, and to analyse a causal relationship of each variable. A cross-sectional study used stratified random sampling to select Thai immigrant employees in Pranakron Si Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. General data were analysed by number and percentage. The mental health variable was measured by THMHI-15. The latter was analysed by general statistic, and a path analysis. The results found that job conditions and distance travelled between house and workplace had a direct effect on mental health with a standardised regression weight of 0.581, and -0.443, respectively (p value <0.01). It was found that housing conditions had no effect on mental health. The income variable had a direct influence on mental health with a standardised regression weight of 0.68 (p value <0.01). This research indicated that job conditions were an important factor related to mental health.

  5. Free wake analysis of hover performance using a new influence coefficient method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Ong, Ching Cho; Ching, Cho Ong

    1990-01-01

    A new approach to the prediction of helicopter rotor performance using a free wake analysis was developed. This new method uses a relaxation process that does not suffer from the convergence problems associated with previous time marching simulations. This wake relaxation procedure was coupled to a vortex-lattice, lifting surface loads analysis to produce a novel, self contained performance prediction code: EHPIC (Evaluation of Helicopter Performance using Influence Coefficients). The major technical features of the EHPIC code are described and a substantial amount of background information on the capabilities and proper operation of the code is supplied. Sample problems were undertaken to demonstrate the robustness and flexibility of the basic approach. Also, a performance correlation study was carried out to establish the breadth of applicability of the code, with very favorable results.

  6. Correlates of Unwanted Births in Bangladesh: A Study through Path Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brijesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unwanted birth is an important public health concern due to its negative association with adverse outcomes of mothers and children as well as socioeconomic development of a country. Although a number of studies have been investigated the determinants of unwanted births through logistic regression analysis, an extensive assessment using path model is lacking. In the current study, we applied path analysis to know the important covariates for unwanted births in Bangladesh. Methods The study used data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. It considered sub-sample consisted of 7,972 women who had given most recent births five years preceding the date of interview or who were currently pregnant at survey time. Correlation analysis was used to find out the significant association with unwanted births. This study provided the factors affecting unwanted births in Bangladesh. The path model was used to determine the direct, indirect and total effects of socio-demographic factors on unwanted births. Results The result exhibited that more than one-tenth of the recent births were unwanted in Bangladesh. The differentials of unwanted births were women’s age, education, age at marriage, religion, socioeconomic status, exposure of mass-media and use of family planning. In correlation analysis, it showed that unwanted births were positively correlated with women age and place of residence and these relationships were significant. On the contrary, unwanted births were inversely significantly correlated with education and social status. The total effects of endogenous variables such as women age, place of residence and use of family planning methods had favorable effect on unwanted births. Conclusion Policymakers and program planners need to design programs and services carefully to reduce unwanted births in Bangladesh, especially, service should focus on helping those groups of women who were identified in the analysis as being at

  7. Evaluation of dispersivity coefficients by means of a laboratory image analysis.

    PubMed

    Citarella, Donato; Cupola, Fausto; Tanda, Maria Giovanna; Zanini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the application of an innovative procedure that allows the estimation of longitudinal and transverse dispersivities in an experimental plume devised in a laboratory sandbox. The phenomenon of transport in porous media is studied using sodium fluorescein as tracer. The fluorescent excitation was achieved by using blue light and the concentration data were obtained through the processing of side wall images collected with a high resolution color digital camera. After a calibration process, the relationship between the luminosity of the emitted fluorescence and the fluorescein concentration was determined at each point of the sandbox. The relationships were used to describe the evolution of the transport process quantitatively throughout the entire domain. Some check tests were performed in order to verify the reliability of the experimental device. Numerical flow and transport models of the sandbox were developed and calibrated comparing computed and observed flow rates and breakthrough curves. The estimation of the dispersivity coefficients was carried out by analyzing the concentration field deduced from the images collected during the experiments; the dispersivity coefficients were evaluated in the domain zones where the tracer affected the porous medium under the hypothesis that the transport phenomenon is described by advection-dispersion equation (ADE) and by computing the differential components of the concentration by means of a numerical leap-frog scheme. The values determined agree with the ones referred in literature for similar media and with the coefficients obtained by calibrating the numerical model. Very interesting considerations have been made from the analysis of the performance of the methodology at different locations in the flow domain and phases of the plume evolution.

  8. Evaluation of dispersivity coefficients by means of a laboratory image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citarella, Donato; Cupola, Fausto; Tanda, Maria Giovanna; Zanini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the application of an innovative procedure that allows the estimation of longitudinal and transverse dispersivities in an experimental plume devised in a laboratory sandbox. The phenomenon of transport in porous media is studied using sodium fluorescein as tracer. The fluorescent excitation was achieved by using blue light and the concentration data were obtained through the processing of side wall images collected with a high resolution color digital camera. After a calibration process, the relationship between the luminosity of the emitted fluorescence and the fluorescein concentration was determined at each point of the sandbox. The relationships were used to describe the evolution of the transport process quantitatively throughout the entire domain. Some check tests were performed in order to verify the reliability of the experimental device. Numerical flow and transport models of the sandbox were developed and calibrated comparing computed and observed flow rates and breakthrough curves. The estimation of the dispersivity coefficients was carried out by analyzing the concentration field deduced from the images collected during the experiments; the dispersivity coefficients were evaluated in the domain zones where the tracer affected the porous medium under the hypothesis that the transport phenomenon is described by advection-dispersion equation (ADE) and by computing the differential components of the concentration by means of a numerical leap-frog scheme. The values determined agree with the ones referred in literature for similar media and with the coefficients obtained by calibrating the numerical model. Very interesting considerations have been made from the analysis of the performance of the methodology at different locations in the flow domain and phases of the plume evolution.

  9. Weighted Implementation of Suboptimal Paths (WISP): An Optimized Algorithm and Tool for Dynamical Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Wart, Adam T; Durrant, Jacob; Votapka, Lane; Amaro, Rommie E

    2014-02-11

    Allostery can occur by way of subtle cooperation among protein residues (e.g., amino acids) even in the absence of large conformational shifts. Dynamical network analysis has been used to model this cooperation, helping to computationally explain how binding to an allosteric site can impact the behavior of a primary site many ångstroms away. Traditionally, computational efforts have focused on the most optimal path of correlated motions leading from the allosteric to the primary active site. We present a program called Weighted Implementation of Suboptimal Paths (WISP) capable of rapidly identifying additional suboptimal pathways that may also play important roles in the transmission of allosteric signals. Aside from providing signal redundancy, suboptimal paths traverse residues that, if disrupted through pharmacological or mutational means, could modulate the allosteric regulation of important drug targets. To demonstrate the utility of our program, we present a case study describing the allostery of HisH-HisF, an amidotransferase from T. maritima thermotiga. WISP and its VMD-based graphical user interface (GUI) can be downloaded from http://nbcr.ucsd.edu/wisp.

  10. An improved parameter estimation scheme for image modification detection based on DCT coefficient analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liyang; Han, Qi; Niu, Xiamu; Yiu, S M; Fang, Junbin; Zhang, Ye

    2016-02-01

    Most of the existing image modification detection methods which are based on DCT coefficient analysis model the distribution of DCT coefficients as a mixture of a modified and an unchanged component. To separate the two components, two parameters, which are the primary quantization step, Q1, and the portion of the modified region, α, have to be estimated, and more accurate estimations of α and Q1 lead to better detection and localization results. Existing methods estimate α and Q1 in a completely blind manner, without considering the characteristics of the mixture model and the constraints to which α should conform. In this paper, we propose a more effective scheme for estimating α and Q1, based on the observations that, the curves on the surface of the likelihood function corresponding to the mixture model is largely smooth, and α can take values only in a discrete set. We conduct extensive experiments to evaluate the proposed method, and the experimental results confirm the efficacy of our method.

  11. An improved parameter estimation scheme for image modification detection based on DCT coefficient analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liyang; Han, Qi; Niu, Xiamu; Yiu, S M; Fang, Junbin; Zhang, Ye

    2016-02-01

    Most of the existing image modification detection methods which are based on DCT coefficient analysis model the distribution of DCT coefficients as a mixture of a modified and an unchanged component. To separate the two components, two parameters, which are the primary quantization step, Q1, and the portion of the modified region, α, have to be estimated, and more accurate estimations of α and Q1 lead to better detection and localization results. Existing methods estimate α and Q1 in a completely blind manner, without considering the characteristics of the mixture model and the constraints to which α should conform. In this paper, we propose a more effective scheme for estimating α and Q1, based on the observations that, the curves on the surface of the likelihood function corresponding to the mixture model is largely smooth, and α can take values only in a discrete set. We conduct extensive experiments to evaluate the proposed method, and the experimental results confirm the efficacy of our method. PMID:26804669

  12. Substructuring of multibody systems for numerical transfer path analysis in internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acri, Antonio; Offner, Guenter; Nijman, Eugene; Rejlek, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Noise legislations and the increasing customer demands determine the Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) development of modern commercial vehicles. In order to meet the stringent legislative requirements for the vehicle noise emission, exact knowledge of all vehicle noise sources and their acoustic behavior is required. Transfer path analysis (TPA) is a fairly well established technique for estimating and ranking individual low-frequency noise or vibration contributions via the different transmission paths. Transmission paths from different sources to target points of interest and their contributions can be analyzed by applying TPA. This technique is applied on test measurements, which can only be available on prototypes, at the end of the designing process. In order to overcome the limits of TPA, a numerical transfer path analysis methodology based on the substructuring of a multibody system is proposed in this paper. Being based on numerical simulation, this methodology can be performed starting from the first steps of the designing process. The main target of the proposed methodology is to get information of noise sources contributions of a dynamic system considering the possibility to have multiple forces contemporary acting on the system. The contributions of these forces are investigated with particular focus on distribute or moving forces. In this paper, the mathematical basics of the proposed methodology and its advantages in comparison with TPA will be discussed. Then, a dynamic system is investigated with a combination of two methods. Being based on the dynamic substructuring (DS) of the investigated model, the methodology proposed requires the evaluation of the contact forces at interfaces, which are computed with a flexible multi-body dynamic (FMBD) simulation. Then, the structure-borne noise paths are computed with the wave based method (WBM). As an example application a 4-cylinder engine is investigated and the proposed methodology is applied on the

  13. Do lab-derived distribution coefficient values of pesticides match distribution coefficient values determined from column and field-scale experiments? A critical analysis of relevant literature.

    PubMed

    Vereecken, H; Vanderborght, J; Kasteel, R; Spiteller, M; Schäffer, A; Close, M

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed sorption parameters for pesticides that were derived from batch and column or batch and field experiments. The batch experiments analyzed in this study were run with the same pesticide and soil as in the column and field experiments. We analyzed the relationship between the pore water velocity of the column and field experiments, solute residence times, and sorption parameters, such as the organic carbon normalized distribution coefficient ( ) and the mass exchange coefficient in kinetic models, as well as the predictability of sorption parameters from basic soil properties. The batch/column analysis included 38 studies with a total of 139 observations. The batch/field analysis included five studies, resulting in a dataset of 24 observations. For the batch/column data, power law relationships between pore water velocity, residence time, and sorption constants were derived. The unexplained variability in these equations was reduced, taking into account the saturation status and the packing status (disturbed-undisturbed) of the soil sample. A new regression equation was derived that allows estimating the values derived from column experiments using organic matter and bulk density with an value of 0.56. Regression analysis of the batch/column data showed that the relationship between batch- and column-derived values depends on the saturation status and packing of the soil column. Analysis of the batch/field data showed that as the batch-derived value becomes larger, field-derived values tend to be lower than the corresponding batch-derived values, and vice versa. The present dataset also showed that the variability in the ratio of batch- to column-derived value increases with increasing pore water velocity, with a maximum value approaching 3.5. PMID:21546674

  14. Effect of Weather on Agricultural Futures Markets on the Basis of DCCA Cross-Correlation Coefficient Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guangxi; He, Cuiting; Xu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the correlation between weather and agricultural futures markets on the basis of detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) cross-correlation coefficients and q-dependent cross-correlation coefficients. In addition, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is used to measure extreme weather and thus analyze further the effect of this condition on agricultural futures markets. Cross-correlation exists between weather and agricultural futures markets on certain time scales. There are some correlations between temperature and soybean return associated with medium amplitudes. Under extreme weather conditions, weather exerts different influences on different agricultural products; for instance, soybean return is greatly influenced by temperature, and weather variables exhibit no effect on corn return. Based on the detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA) coefficient and DFA regression results are similar to that of DCCA coefficient.

  15. Robust spectral-domain optical coherence tomography speckle model and its cross-correlation coefficient analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Huang, Yong; Guo, Yuan; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a generic speckle simulation for optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal, by convolving the point spread function (PSF) of the OCT system with the numerically synthesized random sample field. We validated our model and used the simulation method to study the statistical properties of cross-correlation coefficients (XCC) between Ascans which have been recently applied in transverse motion analysis by our group. The results of simulation show that over sampling is essential for accurate motion tracking; exponential decay of OCT signal leads to an under estimate of motion which can be corrected; lateral heterogeneity of sample leads to an over estimate of motion for a few pixels corresponding to the structural boundary. PMID:23456001

  16. Mesoscopic dynamics of fermionic cold atoms - Quantitative analysis of transport coefficients and relaxation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Yuta; Tsumura, Kyosuke; Kunihiro, Teiji

    2016-05-01

    We give a quantitative analysis of the dynamical properties of fermionic cold atomic gases in normal phase, such as the shear viscosity, heat conductivity, and viscous relaxation times, using the novel microscopic expressions derived by the renormalization group (RG) method, where the Boltzmann equation is faithfully solved to extract the hydrodynamics without recourse to any ansatz. In particular, we examine the quantum statistical effects, temperature dependence, and scattering-length dependence of the transport coefficients and the viscous relaxation times. The numerical calculation shows that the relation τπ = η / P, which is derived in the relaxation-time approximation (RTA) and is used in most of the literature, turns out to be satisfied quite well, while the similar relation for the viscous relaxation time τJ of the heat conductivity is satisfied only approximately with a considerable error.

  17. Passive forgery detection using discrete cosine transform coefficient analysis in JPEG compressed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Shian; Tsay, Jyh-Jong

    2016-05-01

    Passive forgery detection aims to detect traces of image tampering without the need for prior information. With the increasing demand for image content protection, passive detection methods able to identify image tampering areas are increasingly needed. However, most current passive approaches either work only for image-level JPEG compression detection and cannot localize region-level forgery, or suffer from high-false detection rates in localizing altered regions. This paper proposes an effective approach based on discrete cosine transform coefficient analysis for the detection and localization of altered regions of JPEG compressed images. This approach can also work with altered JPEG images resaved in JPEG compressed format with different quality factors. Experiments with various tampering methods such as copy-and-paste, image completion, and composite tampering, show that the proposed approach is able to effectively detect and localize altered areas and is not sensitive to image contents such as edges and textures.

  18. Analysis of rotordynamic coefficients of helically-grooved turbulent annular seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, C.-H.; Childs, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis for helically-grooved turbulent annular seals is developed to predict leakage and dynamic coefficients, as related to rotordynamics. The grooved surface pattern is formulated as an inhomogeneous directivity in surface shear stress. The zeroth-order equations define the steady-state leakage and the circumferential velocity development due to wall shear for a centered rotor position. The first-order equations define perturbations in the pressure and axial and circumferential velocity fields due to small motion of the rotor about the centered position. Numerical results are presented for proposed grooved seals in the High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPTOP) of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and for a water-pump application. The results show that an optimum helix angle exists from a rotordynamic stability viewpoint. Further, a properly designed helically-grooved stator is predicted to have pronounced stability advantages over other currently used seals.

  19. Fourier mode analysis of multigrid methods for partial differential equations with random coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Seynaeve, Bert; Rosseel, Eveline; Nicolai, Bart; Vandewalle, Stefan . E-mail: Stefan.Vandewalle@cs.kuleuven.be

    2007-05-20

    Partial differential equations with random coefficients appear for example in reliability problems and uncertainty propagation models. Various approaches exist for computing the stochastic characteristics of the solution of such a differential equation. In this paper, we consider the spectral expansion approach. This method transforms the continuous model into a large discrete algebraic system. We study the convergence properties of iterative methods for solving this discretized system. We consider one-level and multi-level methods. The classical Fourier mode analysis technique is extended towards the stochastic case. This is done by taking the eigenstructure into account of a certain matrix that depends on the random structure of the problem. We show how the convergence properties depend on the particulars of the algorithm, on the discretization parameters and on the stochastic characteristics of the model. Numerical results are added to illustrate some of our theoretical findings.

  20. Correlations and path analysis among agronomic and technological traits of upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Farias, F J C; Carvalho, L P; Silva Filho, J L; Teodoro, P E

    2016-01-01

    To date, path analysis has been used with the aim of breeding different cultures. However, for cotton, there have been few studies using this analysis, and all of these have used fiber productivity as the primary dependent variable. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify agronomic and technological properties that can be used as criteria for direct and indirect phenotypes in selecting cotton genotypes with better fibers. We evaluated 16 upland cotton genotypes in eight trials conducted during the harvest 2008/2009 in the State of Mato Grosso, using a randomized block design with four replicates. The evaluated traits were: plant height, average boll weight, percentage of fiber, cotton seed yield, fiber length, uniformity of fiber, short fiber index, fiber strength, elongation, maturity of the fibers, micronaire, reflectance, and the degree of yellowing. Phenotypic correlations between the traits and cotton fiber yield (main dependent variable) were unfolded in direct and indirect effects through path analysis. Fiber strength, uniformity of fiber, and reflectance were found to influence fiber length, and therefore, these traits are recommended for both direct and indirect selection of cotton genotypes. PMID:27525939

  1. Comparison of Damage Path Predictions for Composite Laminates by Explicit and Standard Finite Element Analysis Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogert, Philip B.; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Chunchu, Prasad B.

    2006-01-01

    Splitting, ultimate failure load and the damage path in center notched composite specimens subjected to in-plane tension loading are predicted using progressive failure analysis methodology. A 2-D Hashin-Rotem failure criterion is used in determining intra-laminar fiber and matrix failures. This progressive failure methodology has been implemented in the Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard finite element codes through user written subroutines "VUMAT" and "USDFLD" respectively. A 2-D finite element model is used for predicting the intra-laminar damages. Analysis results obtained from the Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard code show good agreement with experimental results. The importance of modeling delamination in progressive failure analysis methodology is recognized for future studies. The use of an explicit integration dynamics code for simple specimen geometry and static loading establishes a foundation for future analyses where complex loading and nonlinear dynamic interactions of damage and structure will necessitate it.

  2. Development and application of a T-RFLP data analysis method using correlation coefficient matrices.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yoshio; Takeshita, Toru; Kamio, Noriaki; Shiota, Susumu; Shibata, Yukie; Yasui, Masaki; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2008-12-01

    Environmental microbiology studies commonly use terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes, for example, to analyze changes in community structure in relation to changing physicochemical and biological conditions over space and time. Although T-RFLP is most useful for comparing samples from different environments, a large number of samples makes effective analysis difficult using the Web-based tools that are currently available. To resolve this dilemma, we used a new approach for calculating data from multiple T-RFLP samples by estimating terminal fragment combinations, then applying a correlation analysis using two different fluorescent dyes generated simultaneously from all samples. This calculation was based on the expectation that the proportions of two terminal fragments from one full-length polymerase chain reaction fragment would be nearly the same in each analysis. Using this program, the oral microflora in 73 human saliva samples were analyzed, and 24 bacterial groups, with peak areas of at least 0.5% and correlation coefficients of 0.55 or greater, were identified from the T-RFs within 40 s.

  3. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in open-path configuration for the analysis of distant objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallé, B.; Mauchien, P.; Maurice, S.

    2007-08-01

    A review of recent results on stand-off Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis and applications is presented. Stand-off LIBS was suggested for elemental analysis of materials located in environments where any physical access was not possible but optical access could be envisaged. This review only refers to the use of the open-path LIBS configuration in which the laser beam and the returning plasma light are transmitted through the atmosphere. It does not present the results obtained with a transportation of the laser pulses to the target through an optical fiber. Open-path stand-off LIBS has mainly been used with nanosecond laser pulses for solid sample analysis at distances of tens of meters. Liquid samples have also been analyzed at distances of a few meters. The distances achievable depend on many parameters including the laser characteristics (pulse energy and power, beam divergence, spatial profile) and the optical system used to focus the pulses at a distance. A large variety of laser focusing systems have been employed for stand-off analysis comprising refracting or reflecting telescope. Efficient collection of the plasma light is also needed to obtain analytically useful signals. For stand-off LIBS analysis, a lens or a mirror is required to increase the solid angle over which the plasma light can be collected. The light collection device can be either at an angle from the laser beam path or collinear with the optical axis of the system used to focus the laser pulses on the target surface. These different configurations have been used depending on the application such as rapid sorting of metal samples, identification of material in nuclear industry, process control and monitoring in metallurgical industry, applications in future planetary missions, detection of environmental contamination or cleaning of objects of cultural heritage. Recent stand-off analyses of metal samples have been reported using femtosecond laser pulses to extend LIBS

  4. Interactive analysis of geographically distributed population imaging data collections over light-path data networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lew, Baldur; Botha, Charl P.; Milles, Julien R.; Vrooman, Henri A.; van de Giessen, Martijn; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.

    2015-03-01

    The cohort size required in epidemiological imaging genetics studies often mandates the pooling of data from multiple hospitals. Patient data, however, is subject to strict privacy protection regimes, and physical data storage may be legally restricted to a hospital network. To enable biomarker discovery, fast data access and interactive data exploration must be combined with high-performance computing resources, while respecting privacy regulations. We present a system using fast and inherently secure light-paths to access distributed data, thereby obviating the need for a central data repository. A secure private cloud computing framework facilitates interactive, computationally intensive exploration of this geographically distributed, privacy sensitive data. As a proof of concept, MRI brain imaging data hosted at two remote sites were processed in response to a user command at a third site. The system was able to automatically start virtual machines, run a selected processing pipeline and write results to a user accessible database, while keeping data locally stored in the hospitals. Individual tasks took approximately 50% longer compared to a locally hosted blade server but the cloud infrastructure reduced the total elapsed time by a factor of 40 using 70 virtual machines in the cloud. We demonstrated that the combination light-path and private cloud is a viable means of building an analysis infrastructure for secure data analysis. The system requires further work in the areas of error handling, load balancing and secure support of multiple users.

  5. The SSME HPFTP interstage seals: Analysis and experiments for leakage and reaction-force coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    An improved theory for the prediction of the rotordynamic coefficients of turbulent annular seals was developed. Predictions from the theory are compared to the experimental results and an approach for the direct calculation of empirical turbulent coefficients from test data are introduced. An improved short seal solution is shown to do a better job of calculating effective stiffness and damping coefficients than either the original short seal solution or a finite length solution. However, the original short seal solution does a much better job of predicting equivalent added mass coefficient.

  6. Understanding hydrological flow paths in conceptual catchment models using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mockler, Eva M.; O'Loughlin, Fiachra E.; Bruen, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Increasing pressures on water quality due to intensification of agriculture have raised demands for environmental modeling to accurately simulate the movement of diffuse (nonpoint) nutrients in catchments. As hydrological flows drive the movement and attenuation of nutrients, individual hydrological processes in models should be adequately represented for water quality simulations to be meaningful. In particular, the relative contribution of groundwater and surface runoff to rivers is of interest, as increasing nitrate concentrations are linked to higher groundwater discharges. These requirements for hydrological modeling of groundwater contribution to rivers initiated this assessment of internal flow path partitioning in conceptual hydrological models. In this study, a variance based sensitivity analysis method was used to investigate parameter sensitivities and flow partitioning of three conceptual hydrological models simulating 31 Irish catchments. We compared two established conceptual hydrological models (NAM and SMARG) and a new model (SMART), produced especially for water quality modeling. In addition to the criteria that assess streamflow simulations, a ratio of average groundwater contribution to total streamflow was calculated for all simulations over the 16 year study period. As observations time-series of groundwater contributions to streamflow are not available at catchment scale, the groundwater ratios were evaluated against average annual indices of base flow and deep groundwater flow for each catchment. The exploration of sensitivities of internal flow path partitioning was a specific focus to assist in evaluating model performances. Results highlight that model structure has a strong impact on simulated groundwater flow paths. Sensitivity to the internal pathways in the models are not reflected in the performance criteria results. This demonstrates that simulated groundwater contribution should be constrained by independent data to ensure results

  7. Hierarchy of Dysfunction Related to Dressing Performance in Stroke Patients: A Path Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Takaaki; Nagayama, Hirofumi; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamane, Kazuhiro; Otsuki, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Tozato, Fusae

    2016-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that various dysfunctions caused by stroke affect the level of independence in dressing. These dysfunctions can be hierarchical, and these effects on dressing performance can be complicated in stroke patients. However, there are no published reports focusing on the hierarchical structure of the relationships between the activities of daily living and balance function, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, strength of the abdominal muscles and knee extension on the unaffected side, and visuospatial deficits. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the hierarchical and causal relationships between dressing performance and these dysfunctions in stroke patients. This retrospective study included 104 first-time stroke patients. The causal relationship between the dressing performance and age, time post stroke, balance function, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, strength of the abdominal muscles and knee extension on the unaffected side, and visuospatial deficits were examined using path analysis. A hypothetical path model was created based on previous studies, and the goodness of fit between the data and model were verified. A modified path model was created that achieved an almost perfect fit to the data. Balance function and abdominal muscle strength have direct effects on dressing performance, with standardized direct effect estimates of 0.78 and 0.15, respectively. Age, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, and strength of abdominal muscle and knee extension on the unaffected side have indirect effects on dressing by influencing balance function. Our results suggest that dressing performance depends strongly on balance function, and it is mainly influenced by the motor function of the affected lower limb. PMID:26954499

  8. Gaussian white noise analysis and its application to Feynman path integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryawan, Herry Pribawanto

    2016-02-01

    In applied science, Gaussian white noise (the time derivative of Brownian motion) is often chosen as a mathematical idealization of phenomena involving sudden and extremely large fluctuations. It is also possible to define and study Gaussian white noise in a mathematically rigorous framework. In this survey paper we review the Gaussian white noise as an object in an infinite dimensional topological vector space. A brief construction of Gaussian white noise space and Gaussian white noise distributions will be presented. Gaussian white noise analysis provides a framework which offers various generalization of concept known from finite dimensional analysis to the infinite dimensional case, among them are differential operators, Fourier transform, and distribution theory. We will also present some recent developments and results on the application of Gaussian white noise theory to Feynman's path integral approach for quantum mechanics.

  9. Using path analysis to examine adolescent suicide attempts, life satisfaction, and health risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, W Gregory; Reininger, Belinda M; Drane, J Wanzer

    2002-02-01

    This study determined if differences existed between four race/gender groups in regard to attempted suicide among a randomly selected, cross-sectional population of 4,565 public high school students in South Carolina. A modified Youth Risk Behavior Survey was designed to gather information on quality of life, life satisfaction, and six risk-behavior categories. Data first were analyzed using logistic regression analysis and subsequently analyzed using path analysis. Results suggest several independent variables (feelings of intimidation, alcohol and cocaine use, self-perceptions of mental health, self-perceptions of body weight, dieting practices, bulimic episodes, and physical and sexual abuse) were associated significantly (p < .01) with adolescent attempted suicide either directly or indirectly through mediating variables. Significant associations among risk behaviors, mediating variables, and self-reported attempted suicide varied across the four race/gender groups, indicating a need to further study differences noticed in each race/gender scheme.

  10. A statistical analysis of tree-ring dating in conjunction with snow avalanches: Comparison of on-path versus off-path responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Carl L.; Butler, David R.; Vitek, John D.

    1989-07-01

    Tree-rings were collected from snow-avalanche paths in Colorado, and from positions away from avalanche paths. The rings were examined for morphological responses to avalanche-induced trauma. Use of the Chi-square statistic revealed a significant difference in the number of morphological responses from on-path versus off-path positions. A high number of on-path trees were definitely damaged by avalanche impact in 1973; a lower number of trees from off-path positions illustrated morphologic ring-responses from random, nonavalanche, events in the same year.

  11. Higher-order aggregate networks in the analysis of temporal networks: path structures and centralities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtes, Ingo; Wider, Nicolas; Garas, Antonios

    2016-03-01

    Despite recent advances in the study of temporal networks, the analysis of time-stamped network data is still a fundamental challenge. In particular, recent studies have shown that correlations in the ordering of links crucially alter causal topologies of temporal networks, thus invalidating analyses based on static, time-aggregated representations of time-stamped data. These findings not only highlight an important dimension of complexity in temporal networks, but also call for new network-analytic methods suitable to analyze complex systems with time-varying topologies. Addressing this open challenge, here we introduce a novel framework for the study of path-based centralities in temporal networks. Studying betweenness, closeness and reach centrality, we first show than an application of these measures to time-aggregated, static representations of temporal networks yields misleading results about the actual importance of nodes. To overcome this problem, we define path-based centralities in higher-order aggregate networks, a recently proposed generalization of the commonly used static representation of time-stamped data. Using data on six empirical temporal networks, we show that the resulting higher-order measures better capture the true, temporal centralities of nodes. Our results demonstrate that higher-order aggregate networks constitute a powerful abstraction, with broad perspectives for the design of new, computationally efficient data mining techniques for time-stamped relational data.

  12. Application of path analysis to urinary findings of cadmium-induced renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Abe, T; Kobayashi, E; Okubo, Y; Suwazono, Y; Kido, T; Shaikh, Z A; Nogawa, K

    2001-01-01

    In order to identify some causal relations among various urinary indices of cadmium-induced renal dysfunction, such as glucose, total protein, amino nitrogen, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m), metallothionein (MT), and cadmium (Cd), we applied path analysis method to previous epidemiological studies targeting the residents of the Cd-polluted Kakehashi River basin of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. We obtained a diagram-termed path model, representing some causal relations among the above urinary indices. It shows that urinary Cd is located at the beginning point in the diagram, and Cd-induced renal dysfunction develops in the following order: Cd exposure-->increase of beta 2-m and/or MT excretion-->increase of amino-N and/or total protein excretion-->increase of glucose excretion. It was proved mathematically, that in the case of both males and females, increased excretions of beta 2-m and/or MT were the most sensitive urinary indices of the early stage of chronic Cd-induced renal dysfunction.

  13. Analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of near-terminal aircraft flight paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiess, J. R.; Matthews, C. G.

    1982-01-01

    The flight paths of arriving and departing aircraft at an airport are stochastically represented. Radar data of the aircraft movements are used to decompose the flight paths into linear and curvilinear segments. Variables which describe the segments are derived, and the best fitting probability distributions of the variables, based on a sample of flight paths, are found. Conversely, given information on the probability distribution of the variables, generation of a random sample of flight paths in a Monte Carlo simulation is discussed. Actual flight paths at Dulles International Airport are analyzed and simulated.

  14. Application of the Load Coefficient Method of ASME Code Case N-468 to the seismic analysis of piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Antaki, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    ASME Code case N-468 recognizes the use of static analysis (the Load Coefficient Method or LCM) as an alternative to the commonly used response spectra modal analysis method (or RSMAM) for the structural evaluation of piping systems. The LCM, in various forms, has been commonly used in the late 1960`s to mid-1970`s for the design of nuclear piping systems of all sizes. With the advent of more user-friendly software, the LCM slowly gave way to the RSMAM, the latter being almost exclusively used throughout the 1980`s. The paper presents the development of the seismic load coefficients in accordance with ASME Section III Code Case N-468. The load coefficients are then applied to 87 piping systems and compared to the response spectra modal analysis method.

  15. Application of the Load Coefficient Method of ASME Code Case N-468 to the seismic analysis of piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Antaki, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    ASME Code case N-468 recognizes the use of static analysis (the Load Coefficient Method or LCM) as an alternative to the commonly used response spectra modal analysis method (or RSMAM) for the structural evaluation of piping systems. The LCM, in various forms, has been commonly used in the late 1960's to mid-1970's for the design of nuclear piping systems of all sizes. With the advent of more user-friendly software, the LCM slowly gave way to the RSMAM, the latter being almost exclusively used throughout the 1980's. The paper presents the development of the seismic load coefficients in accordance with ASME Section III Code Case N-468. The load coefficients are then applied to 87 piping systems and compared to the response spectra modal analysis method.

  16. Analysis of Two-Phase Path Management Scheme for MPLS Traffic Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Hitomi; Kawahara, Kenji; Oie, Yuji

    Traffic Engineering (TE) is important for improving QoS in forwarding paths by efficient use of network resources. In fact, MPLS allows several detour paths to be (pre-)established for some source-destination pair as well as its primary path of minimum hops. Thus, we focus on a two-phase path management scheme using these two kinds of paths. In the first phase, each primary path is allocated to a flow on a specific source-destination pair if the path is not congested, i.e., if its utilization is less than some predetermined threshold; otherwise, as the second phase, one of the detour paths is allocated randomly if the path is available. Therefore, in this paper, we analytically evaluate this path management scheme by extending the M/M/c/c queueing system, and through some numerical results we investigate the impact of a threshold on the flow-blocking probability. Through some numerical results, we discuss the adequacy of the path management scheme for MPLS-TE.

  17. Glioma grading using apparent diffusion coefficient map: application of histogram analysis based on automatic segmentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongwon; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Lee, Sooyeul; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2014-09-01

    The accurate diagnosis of glioma subtypes is critical for appropriate treatment, but conventional histopathologic diagnosis often exhibits significant intra-observer variability and sampling error. The aim of this study was to investigate whether histogram analysis using an automatically segmented region of interest (ROI), excluding cystic or necrotic portions, could improve the differentiation between low-grade and high-grade gliomas. Thirty-two patients (nine low-grade and 23 high-grade gliomas) were included in this retrospective investigation. The outer boundaries of the entire tumors were manually drawn in each section of the contrast-enhanced T1 -weighted MR images. We excluded cystic or necrotic portions from the entire tumor volume. The histogram analyses were performed within the ROI on normalized apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. To evaluate the contribution of the proposed method to glioma grading, we compared the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. We found that an ROI excluding cystic or necrotic portions was more useful for glioma grading than was an entire tumor ROI. In the case of the fifth percentile values of the normalized ADC histogram, the area under the ROC curve for the tumor ROIs excluding cystic or necrotic portions was significantly higher than that for the entire tumor ROIs (p < 0.005). The automatic segmentation of a cystic or necrotic area probably improves the ability to differentiate between high- and low-grade gliomas on an ADC map. PMID:25042540

  18. Comparative Analysis of Control Coefficients on the Performance of CNTFET Under Different Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imam, Safayat-Al; Kalam, Nasheen; Abdullah, Sharmin

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with the performance of both gate and drain control coefficients to analyze the behavior of carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) under ballistic conditions and based on the change of different parameter value, such as oxide thickness of structure and temperature variation. A thorough study of both gate and drain control coefficient effects on the performance of CNTFETs has been conducted under different temperature and oxide layers and the output of the device has been analyzed through different parameters. Higher values of control coefficient help to attain larger transconductance by the increasing temperatures. For a fixed value of control coefficient, 4nm thickness of oxide has a transconductance of ˜ 4.5 × 10-5 S/m. Smaller oxide layer thickness has higher slope of increment in transconductance value. ON-state current to leakage current ratio shows a steady state response toward increment of gate control coefficient. Also, increment of oxide thickness has an adverse effect on current ratio, while a linear decay of current ratio is observed with the increased value of drain controlled one. Drain-induced battery lowering (DIBL) effect decreases with the value of gate control one and increases with the drain control coefficient. In this way, the optimum value for both the control coefficients has to be considered in order to perform well.

  19. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient analysis of encephalitis: A comparative study with topographic evaluation and conventional MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Katirag, Ahmet; Beker-Acay, Mehtap; Unlu, Ebru; Demirbas, Hayri; Demirturk, Nese

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to reveal the efficiency of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of encephalitis, and to determine the relation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, the onset of the clinical symptoms, and the lesion extent. Methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 17 patients with encephalitis diagnosed on the basis of laboratory, clinical and radiologic findings during 2009 and 2015. Based on the duration between the onset of the symptoms and the brain MRI findings, the patients were divided into three groups. ADC values of the encephalitis lesion, the lesions’ topographic analysis score, deep gray matter involvement, patients’ clinical situation and the duration of the arrival to the clinic was examined. Results: Mean ADC values were 0,988±0,335 x10-3 mm2/s in group I (0-2 days), 1,045±0,347 x10-3 mm2/s in Group-II (3-7 days), 1,451±0,225 x10-3 mm2/s in Group-III (8 days and over). The relation between the ADC values and the duration of the arrival, topographic analysis score, the relation between the patients’ clinical situation and the deep gray matter involvement were found to be statistically significant. The deep gray matter involvement was demonstrated more clearly by FLAIR images when compared with DWI. Conclusion: Conventional MRI sequences may be insufficient in showing the encephalitis lesion. DWI must be added to the imaging modalities immediately in the cases suspected of having encephalitis. PMID:27375722

  20. Ion chamber absorbed dose calibration coefficients, N{sub D,w}, measured at ADCLs: Distribution analysis and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, B. R.

    2015-04-15

    ADCL conformance with National Institute of Standards and Technology standards. This study shows that N{sub D,w} coefficients measured at different ADCLs are statistically equivalent, especially considering reasonable uncertainties. This analysis of N{sub D,w} coefficients also allows identification of chamber types that can be considered stable enough for accurate reference dosimetry.

  1. The NASA Langley laminar-flow-control experiment on a swept, supercritical airfoil: Suction coefficient analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.; Harris, Charles D.; Harvey, William D.

    1991-01-01

    A swept supercritical wing incorporating laminar flow control at transonic flow conditions was designed and tested. The definition of an experimental suction coefficient and a derivation of the compressible and incompressible formulas for the computation of the coefficient from measurable quantities is presented. The suction flow coefficient in the highest velocity nozzles is shown to be overpredicted by as much as 12 percent through the use of an incompressible formula. However, the overprediction on the computed value of suction drag when some of the suction nozzles were operating in the compressible flow regime is evaluated and found to be at most 6 percent at design conditions.

  2. Examining the Probability of Identification for Gifted Programs for Students in Georgia Elementary Schools: A Multilevel Path Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBee, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the analysis of a large-scale data set (N = 326,352) collected by the Georgia Department of Education using multilevel path analysis to model the probability that a student would be identified for participation in a gifted program. The model examined individual- and school-level factors that influence the probability that an…

  3. Class start times, sleep, and academic performance in college: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Onyper, Serge V; Thacher, Pamela V; Gilbert, Jack W; Gradess, Samuel G

    2012-04-01

    Path analysis was used to examine the relationship between class start times, sleep, circadian preference, and academic performance in college-aged adults. Consistent with observations in middle and high school students, college students with later class start times slept longer, experienced less daytime sleepiness, and were less likely to miss class. Chronotype was an important moderator of sleep schedules and daytime functioning; those with morning preference went to bed and woke up earlier and functioned better throughout the day. The benefits of taking later classes did not extend to academic performance, however; grades were somewhat lower in students with predominantly late class schedules. Furthermore, students taking later classes were at greater risk for increased alcohol consumption, and among all the factors affecting academic performance, alcohol misuse exerted the strongest effect. Thus, these results indicate that later class start times in college, while allowing for more sleep, also increase the likelihood of alcohol misuse, ultimately impeding academic success.

  4. [Optical Path Difference Analysis and Simulation of Four Typical Rotary Type Interferometer].

    PubMed

    Feng, Ming-chun; Liu, Wen-qing; Xu, Liang; Gao, Min-guang; Wei, Xiu-li; Tong, Jing-jing; Li, Xiang-xian

    2015-11-01

    The four kinds of the structure characteristics of rotary type interferometer are mainly analyzed from the classical Michelson interferometer structure in the paper. The Optical path difference between the interferometer and the rotation angle is also analyzed. By setting parameters, the four kinds of rotary type optical path difference of the interferometer are simulated based on the optical path difference formula. The rotation velcocity of the four kinds of interferometers is also simulated. By simulation and contrast of the optical path difference, the relationship is intuitively reflect by figure between the optical path difference and the rotation angle. The scope of the rotation angle is discussed within 3% of the velocity errors. It is the very good reference significance to study the structure and properties of the interferometer by analyzing and simulating the optical path difference discussed in the paper.

  5. Linear-fitting-based similarity coefficient map for tissue dissimilarity analysis in -w magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shao-De; Wu, Shi-Bin; Wang, Hao-Yu; Wei, Xin-Hua; Chen, Xin; Pan, Wan-Long; Hu, Jiani; Xie, Yao-Qin

    2015-12-01

    Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM) aims to improve the morphological evaluation of weighted magnetic resonance imaging However, how to interpret the generated SCM map is still pending. Moreover, is it probable to extract tissue dissimilarity messages based on the theory behind SCM? The primary purpose of this paper is to address these two questions. First, the theory of SCM was interpreted from the perspective of linear fitting. Then, a term was embedded for tissue dissimilarity information. Finally, our method was validated with sixteen human brain image series from multi-echo . Generated maps were investigated from signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and perceived visual quality, and then interpreted from intra- and inter-tissue intensity. Experimental results show that both perceptibility of anatomical structures and tissue contrast are improved. More importantly, tissue similarity or dissimilarity can be quantified and cross-validated from pixel intensity analysis. This method benefits image enhancement, tissue classification, malformation detection and morphological evaluation. Project supported in part by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015AA043203 and 2012AA02A604), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 81171402, 61471349, and 81501463), the Innovative Research Team Program of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2011S013), the Science and Technological Program for Higher Education, Science and Research, and Health Care Institutions of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2011108101001), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2014A030310360), the Fundamental Research Program of Shenzhen City, China (Grant No. JCYJ20140417113430639), and Beijing Center for Mathematics and Information Interdisciplinary Sciences, China.

  6. Path Finder

    SciTech Connect

    Rigdon, J. Brian; Smith, Marcus Daniel; Mulder, Samuel A

    2014-01-07

    PathFinder is a graph search program, traversing a directed cyclic graph to find pathways between labeled nodes. Searches for paths through ordered sequences of labels are termed signatures. Determining the presence of signatures within one or more graphs is the primary function of Path Finder. Path Finder can work in either batch mode or interactively with an analyst. Results are limited to Path Finder whether or not a given signature is present in the graph(s).

  7. Leak-Path Factor Analysis for the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, C.; Leonard, M.

    1999-06-13

    Leak-path factors (LPFs) were calculated for the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) located in the Plutonium Facility, Building 41 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 55. In the unlikely event of an accidental fire powerful enough to fail a container holding actinides, the subsequent release of oxides, modeled as PuO{sub 2} aerosols, from the facility and into the surrounding environment was predicted. A 1-h nondestructive assay (NDA) laboratory fire accident was simulated with the MELCOR severe accident analysis code. Fire-driven air movement along with wind-driven air infiltration transported a portion of these actinides from the building. This fraction is referred to as the leak-path factor. The potential effect of smoke aerosol on the transport of the actinides was investigated to verify the validity of neglecting the smoke as conservative. The input model for the NMSF consisted of a system of control volumes, flow pathways, and surfaces sufficient to model the thermal-hydraulic conditions within the facility and the aerosol transport data necessary to simulate the transport of PuO{sub 2} particles. The thermal-hydraulic, heat-transfer, and aerosol-transport models are solved simultaneously with data being exchanged between models. A MELCOR input model was designed such that it would reproduce the salient features of the fire per the corresponding CFAST calculation. Air infiltration into and out of the facility would be affected strongly by wind-driven differential pressures across the building. Therefore, differential pressures were applied to each side of the building according to guidance found in the ASHRAE handbook using a standard-velocity head equation with a leading multiplier to account for the orientation of the wind with the building. The model for the transport of aerosols considered all applicable transport processes, but the deposition within the building clearly was dominated by gravitational settling.

  8. Worry, worry attacks, and PTSD among Cambodian refugees: a path analysis investigation.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2011-06-01

    Among traumatized Cambodian refugees, this article investigates worry (e.g., the types of current life concerns) and how worry worsens posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To explore how worry worsens PTSD, we examine a path model of worry to see whether certain key variables (e.g., worry-induced somatic arousal and worry-induced trauma recall) mediate the relationship between worry and PTSD. Survey data were collected from March 2010 until May 2010 in a convenience sample of 201 adult Cambodian refugees attending a psychiatric clinic in Massachusetts, USA. We found that worry was common in this group (65%), that worry was often about current life concerns (e.g., lacking financial resources, children not attending school, health concerns, concerns about relatives in Cambodia), and that worry often induced panic attacks: in the entire sample, 41% (83/201) of the patients had "worry attacks" (i.e., worry episodes that resulted in a panic episode) in the last month. "Worry attacks" were highly associated with PTSD presence. In the entire sample, generalized anxiety disorder was also very prevalent, and was also highly associated with PTSD. Path analysis revealed that the effect of worry on PTSD severity was mediated by worry-induced somatic arousal, worry-induced catastrophic cognitions, worry-induced trauma recall, inability to stop worry, and irritability. The final model accounted for 75% of the variance in PTSD severity among patients with worry. The public health and treatment implications of the study's findings that worry may have a potent impact on PTSD severity in severely traumatized populations are discussed: worry and daily concerns are key areas of intervention for these worry-hypersensitive (and hence daily-stressor-hypersensitive) populations. PMID:21663803

  9. First-principles analysis on Seebeck coefficient in zinc oxide nanowires for thermoelectric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.

    2016-03-01

    The Seebeck coefficient of ZnO<0001> nanowires was simulated on the basis of first- principles calculation, to discuss the potential for future application to thermoelectric devices. Simulation procedure by means of the electronic band structure with one-dimensional periodic boundary condition was presented, and dependences of the Seebeck coefficient on temperature and carrier concentration have been investigated for many kinds of n- or p-doped ZnO<0001> nanowire models with 1.00-2.65 nm diameter. For the direct band-gap semiconducting models, a magnitude of the Seebeck coefficient increases gradually as temperature rises in the p-doped state, and a significant effect of miniaturization to nanowire on the Seebeck coefficient has been brought out, such as about 1000 µV/K in the p-doped state and -820 µV/K in the n-doped state for the (ZnO)24 nanowire model with 1 × 1017 cm-3 carrier concentration at room temperature. Similar characteristics of the Seebeck coefficient were observed for some indirect band-gap semiconducting models. At the end of this paper, the simulation was extended to the no band-gap conducting models with some modification.

  10. Estimation of the coefficient of variation from laboratory analysis of split specimens for quality control in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Connett, J E; Lee, W W

    1990-02-01

    An explicit statistical model is proposed for the coefficient of variation for laboratory analyses of constituents of blood, serum, saliva, or other specimens. A method for computing the maximum likelihood estimate of the key parameter is described, and compared with two simpler noniterative estimates. Validity of the model is explored by analysis of data from the central laboratory of a large cooperative clinical trial. Simulation studies are employed to compare the accuracy of the three estimators of the coefficient of variation. For most laboratory measurements for which the model is valid, one of the two noniterative estimates is nearly as accurate and unbiased as the maximum likelihood estimate.

  11. Charting a path for innovative toilet technology using multicriteria decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Borsuk, Mark E; Maurer, Max; Lienert, Judit; Larsen, Tove A

    2008-03-15

    Practical and theoretically sound methods for analyzing innovative environmental technologies are needed to inform public and private decisions regarding research and development, risk management, and stakeholder communication. By integrating scientific assessments with a characterization of values, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) supports the ranking of alternative technology pathways on the basis of technical, financial, and social concerns. We applied MCDAto evaluate the use of NoMix urine separating toilets for managing environmental risk and postponing expensive upgrades to a large wastewater treatment plant near Zürich, Switzerland. Results indicate that, given current priorities, no single, fixed course of action (including the status quo) will be desirable to all stakeholders over the considered time horizon. However, a path forward is suggested that is not significantly disadvantageous to any stakeholder now and leaves open future options, allowing society to achieve overall greater benefits if priorities change, new environmental risks are revealed, or technology improves. While our analysis focuses on a particular catchment in Switzerland, many communities worldwide are faced with an aging and inefficient wastewater treatment infrastructure while also experiencing growth and development. Our framework can help these communities balance the conflicting objectives of diverse stakeholders and gain insight into the role that urine separation can play in transitioning to a more comprehensive and sustainable urban water management system. PMID:18409604

  12. Connecting Cultural Models of Home-Based Care and Childminders' Career Paths: An Eco-Cultural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonyan, Holli A.; Nuttall, Joce

    2014-01-01

    Family day care or childminding involves a particularly transient workforce. This paper introduces Eco(logical)-Cultural Theory (ECT) to examine the cultural organisation of childminding and presents an ECT analysis of pilot survey results: asking minders about their daily routines and their career paths. Reasons for becoming a minder and…

  13. Broadening of polymer chromatographic signals: Analysis, quantification and correction through effective diffusion coefficients.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Inmaculada; Coto, Baudilio

    2015-08-14

    Average molecular weights and polydispersity indexes are some of the most important parameters considered in the polymer characterization. Usually, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and multi angle light scattering (MALS) are used for this determination, but GPC values are overestimated due to the dispersion introduced by the column separation. Several procedures were proposed to correct such effect usually involving more complex calibration processes. In this work, a new method of calculation has been considered including diffusion effects. An equation for the concentration profile due to diffusion effects along the GPC column was considered to be a Fickian function and polystyrene narrow standards were used to determine effective diffusion coefficients. The molecular weight distribution function of mono and poly disperse polymers was interpreted as a sum of several Fickian functions representing a sample formed by only few kind of polymer chains with specific molecular weight and diffusion coefficient. Proposed model accurately fit the concentration profile along the whole elution time range as checked by the computed standard deviation. Molecular weights obtained by this new method are similar to those obtained by MALS or traditional GPC while polydispersity index values are intermediate between those obtained by the traditional GPC combined to Universal Calibration method and the MALS method. Values for Pearson and Lin coefficients shows improvement in the correlation of polydispersity index values determined by GPC and MALS methods when diffusion coefficients and new methods are used.

  14. Finite difference analysis of rotordynamic seal coefficients for an eccentric shaft position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordmann, R.; Dietzen, F. J.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic coefficients of seals are calculated for shaft movements around an eccentric position. The turbulent flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equations in connection with a turbulence model. The equations are solved by a finite-difference procedure.

  15. Measurement and analysis of the mannitol partition coefficient in sucrose crystallization under simulated industrial conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol is a major deterioration product of Leuconstoc mesenteroides bacterial deterioration of both sugarcane and sugar beet. The effect of crystallization conditions on the mannitol partition coefficient (Keff) between impure sucrose syrup and crystal has been investigated in a batch laboratory c...

  16. Bootsie: estimation of coefficient of variation of AFLP data by bootstrap analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bootsie is an English-native replacement for ASG Coelho’s “DBOOT” utility for estimating coefficient of variation of a population of AFLP marker data using bootstrapping. Bootsie improves on DBOOT by supporting batch processing, time-to-completion estimation, built-in graphs, and a suite of export t...

  17. Statistical Analysis for Multisite Trials Using Instrumental Variables with Random Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Reardon, Sean F.; Nomi, Takako

    2012-01-01

    Multisite trials can clarify the average impact of a new program and the heterogeneity of impacts across sites. Unfortunately, in many applications, compliance with treatment assignment is imperfect. For these applications, we propose an instrumental variable (IV) model with person-specific and site-specific random coefficients. Site-specific IV…

  18. Theoretical design and analysis of the layered synthetic microstructure optic for the dual path X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Chao, S.

    1984-01-01

    A ray tracing analysis was performed for several configurations for the inner channel of the dual path X-ray telescope, which is proposed to use the second mirror of the Stanford/MSFC Wolter-Schwarzchild telescope and a normal incident layered synthetic microstructure (LSM) mirror to form a secondary image near the front of the telescope. The LSM mirror shapes considered were spherical, ellipsoid, hyperboloid, and constant optical path length (OPL) aspheric. Only the constant OPL case gave good axial resolution. All cases had poor off axis resolution as judged by the RMS blur circle radius.

  19. Analysis of path-planning strategies in dynamic computer-vision-guided teleoperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payeur, Pierre; Gosselin, Clement M.; Laurendeau, Denis

    1995-12-01

    Numerous path planning and collision avoidance techniques have been proposed in the robotics literature. Global techniques provide optimal paths but are not flexible to changes in the environment. Local techniques provide non optimal paths but can adapt quickly to dynamic environments and usually require less computing time. One of the most promising techniques in the second category is the potential field approach. Unfortunately, it is well known that local minima may trap the robot away from its goal. Our work intends to override this drawback and to give full autonomy to a potential field path planning strategy ensuring collision avoidance. This paper presents a study of path planning and collision avoidance strategies and defines a general framework to implement a potential field path planning strategy in an unknown and dynamic environment. Our work is concerned with telemanipulation tasks in hazardous environments such as electricity distribution networks. A volumetric model of the scene is built incrementally from the information provided by a dynamic computer vision setup. It is used to help a human operator in guiding the manipulator without colliding with components of the scene. The impact of various path planning techniques on the behavior of the robot is analyzed as well as the dependency on the volumetric model. Finally, it is shown that potential field techniques can lead to very good performances, especially if they are combined with other appropriate tools such as a reliable model of the environment.

  20. Strain analysis and strain path modelling in the Loch Tollie gneisses, Gairloch, NW Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odling, N. E.

    A quantitative structural analysis is presented for the Loch Tullie gneisses of the Lewisian complex outcropping at Gairloch. The gneisses and the dykes they contain are folded into a large antiformal structure known as the Tollic Antiform. Quartz aggregates in quartzo-feldspathic gneisses have been used as finite strain markers in eleven specimens across the antiform. Two models, using rotational strain (simple shear) and irrotational strain (pure shear), are used to reconstruct the strain path. Results show that only the rotational strain model satisfies the strain data and the field evidence, and indicates a steeply northeast (75°) dipping shear plane and moderately northwest (55°) plunging shear direction, with a southwest-side-down sense of shear. A strain profile is constructed for the Tollie gneisses using the model and the attitude of gneissose layering. This shows increasing shear strain to the southwest to a maximum gamma value of approximately 8. The strain profile indicates a horizontal dextral displacement of 4.7 km and a vertical displacement of 6.8 km for the Tollie gneisses. The Tollie Antiform thus lies on the northeast margin of a large-scale shear zone, the main zone of deformation of which can be traced southwestwards some 4 km. Such a shear zone presents a major tectonic boundary within the Lewisian of northwest Scotland.

  1. Path analysis of familial resemblance of pulmonary function and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Cotch, M F; Beaty, T H; Cohen, B H

    1990-12-01

    The techniques of path analysis were utilized to assess the relative importance of genetic factors, personal smoking behavior, and shared environment in the resemblance of pulmonary function among relatives using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data from nuclear families. Data on 1-s forced expiratory volume, FEV1 (adjusted for age, sex, race, height, and ascertainment group) and the number of cigarettes smoked per day were available on 978 individuals in 384 nuclear families residing in the Baltimore metropolitan area. All these individuals were seen twice between 1971 and 1981, with an average of 5 yr between visits. The direct effect of an individual's own smoking explained 10 and 3% of variation in adjusted FEV1 among parents and offspring, respectively. Shared environmental factors influencing personal smoking behavior accounted for 5% of the parent-offspring correlation in adjusted FEV1 and 3% of the sibling correlation in adjusted FEV1 in this sample. Undefined environmental factors that influenced an individual's smoking habits and could be shared among relatives were found to explain 19% of the familial correlations in smoking. Genetic heritability estimates ranged between 36 and 40%, with no evidence of intergenerational differences in the expression of apparent genetic control of pulmonary function. PMID:2252251

  2. Fear of cultural extinction and psychopathology among Mandaean refugees: an exploratory path analysis.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary; Silove, Derrick

    2009-01-01

    The Mandaeans are a small religious community originating from Iraq and Iran who are facing the possibility of cultural extinction within the next few generations. This study aimed to examine the relationships between life experiences, psychopathology and fear of cultural extinction in Mandaean refugees. A survey was conducted of 315 adult Iraqi Mandaean refugees living in Australia. Past traumatic experiences and current resettlement difficulties were assessed. Mental health outcomes were also examined, including measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Fear of cultural extinction was measured by items developed in consultation with the Mandaean community. A path analysis was employed to investigate the relationship between trauma, living difficulties, PTSD, depression, and fear of cultural extinction. Results indicated that trauma and living difficulties impacted indirectly on fear of cultural extinction, while PTSD (and not depression) directly predicted levels of anxiety about the Mandaean culture ceasing to exist. The current findings indicate that past trauma and symptoms of posttraumatic stress contribute to fear of cultural extinction. Exposure to human rights violations enacted on the basis of religion has significant mental health consequences that extend beyond PTSD. The relationship between perception of threat, PTSD, and fear of cultural extinction is considered in the context of cognitive models of traumatic stress. Government immigration policy must prioritize the reunification of small, endangered groups to sustain cultural traditions. Treatment interventions implemented with cultural groups facing extinction should take into consideration anxiety about loss of culture.

  3. General framework for transfer path analysis: History, theory and classification of techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Seijs, Maarten V.; de Klerk, Dennis; Rixen, Daniel J.

    2016-02-01

    Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) designates the family of test-based methodologies to study the transmission of mechanical vibrations. Since the first adaptation of electric network analogies in the field of mechanical engineering a century ago, a multitude of TPA methods have emerged and found their way into industrial development processes. Nowadays the TPA paradigm is largely commercialised into out-of-the-box testing products, making it difficult to articulate the differences and underlying concepts that are paramount to understanding the vibration transmission problem. The aim of this paper is to derive and review a wide repertoire of TPA techniques from their conceptual basics, liberating them from their typical field of application. A selection of historical references is provided to align methodological developments with particular milestones in science. Eleven variants of TPA are derived from a unified framework and classified into three categories, namely classical, component-based and transmissibility-based TPA. Current challenges and practical aspects are discussed and reference is made to related fields of research.

  4. A novel coefficient for detecting and quantifying asymmetry of California electricity market based on asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In order to detect and quantify asymmetry of two time series, a novel cross-correlation coefficient is proposed based on recent asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (A-DXA), which we called A-DXA coefficient. The A-DXA coefficient, as an important extension of DXA coefficient ρ D X A , contains two directional asymmetric cross-correlated indexes, describing upwards and downwards asymmetric cross-correlations, respectively. By using the information of directional covariance function of two time series and directional variance function of each series itself instead of power-law between the covariance function and time scale, the proposed A-DXA coefficient can well detect asymmetry between the two series no matter whether the cross-correlation is significant or not. By means of the proposed A-DXA coefficient conducted over the asymmetry for California electricity market, we found that the asymmetry between the prices and loads is not significant for daily average data in 1999 yr market (before electricity crisis) but extremely significant for those in 2000 yr market (during the crisis). To further uncover the difference of asymmetry between the years 1999 and 2000, a modified H statistic (MH) and ΔMH statistic are proposed. One of the present contributions is that the high MH values calculated for hourly data exist in majority months in 2000 market. Another important conclusion is that the cross-correlation with downwards dominates over the whole 1999 yr in contrast to the cross-correlation with upwards dominates over the 2000 yr.

  5. A novel coefficient for detecting and quantifying asymmetry of California electricity market based on asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In order to detect and quantify asymmetry of two time series, a novel cross-correlation coefficient is proposed based on recent asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (A-DXA), which we called A-DXA coefficient. The A-DXA coefficient, as an important extension of DXA coefficient ρDXA, contains two directional asymmetric cross-correlated indexes, describing upwards and downwards asymmetric cross-correlations, respectively. By using the information of directional covariance function of two time series and directional variance function of each series itself instead of power-law between the covariance function and time scale, the proposed A-DXA coefficient can well detect asymmetry between the two series no matter whether the cross-correlation is significant or not. By means of the proposed A-DXA coefficient conducted over the asymmetry for California electricity market, we found that the asymmetry between the prices and loads is not significant for daily average data in 1999 yr market (before electricity crisis) but extremely significant for those in 2000 yr market (during the crisis). To further uncover the difference of asymmetry between the years 1999 and 2000, a modified H statistic (MH) and ΔMH statistic are proposed. One of the present contributions is that the high MH values calculated for hourly data exist in majority months in 2000 market. Another important conclusion is that the cross-correlation with downwards dominates over the whole 1999 yr in contrast to the cross-correlation with upwards dominates over the 2000 yr.

  6. Slip flow coefficient analysis in water hydraulics gear pump for environmental friendly application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, A. A.; Wasbari, F.; Zakaria, M. S.; Ibrahim, M. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Water hydraulics is the sustainable option in developing fluid power systems with environmental friendly approach. Therefore, an investigation on water-based external gear pump application is being conducted, as a low cost solution in the shifting effort of using water, instead of traditional oil hydraulics in fluid power application. As the gear pump is affected by fluid viscosity, an evaluation has been conducted on the slip flow coefficient, in order to understand to what extent the spur gear pump can be used with water-based hydraulic fluid. In this paper, the results of a simulated study of variable-speed fixed displacement gear pump are presented. The slip flow coefficient varies from rotational speed of 250 RPM to 3500 RPM, and provides volumetric efficiency ranges from 9 % to 97% accordingly.

  7. Analysis of segregation trends observed in iron meteorites using measured distribution coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellamuthu, R.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1985-02-01

    Fe-Ni alloys of meteoritic composition were solidified by a plane front solidification technique. Distribution coefficients of Ni, P, Ir, Ge, and Cu were determined from the composition data of the plane front solidified alloys. Equations that describe the distribution coefficients (P, Ni, Ir, Ge, and Cu) as a function of S and P content as well as S to P ratio were used to calculate solute partitioning between solid and liquid during the solidification of IIAB, IIIAB, and IVA parent bodies. The calculated P versus Ni, Ir versus Ni, Ge versus Ni, and Cu versus Ni trends are in good agreement with the observed meteorite data for each chemical group. It is concluded that each chemical group formed as a single molten pool in a parent body and that solute partitioning that occurred during solidification is responsible for the observed compositional trends within a single meteorite group.

  8. Orbit Optimization and Scattering Coefficient Analysis for the Proposed GLORIA System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimization of an orbit for a Low-Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellite for coastal coverage over Antarctic and United States shorelines as part of the Geostationary/Low-Earth Orbiting Radar Image Acquisition (GLORIA) System. Simulations over a range of orbital parameters are performed to determine the optimal orbit. Scattering coefficients are computed for the optimal orbit throughout the day and characterized to compare various scenarios for which link budget comparisons could then be made.

  9. Analysis of multiple reflection effects in reflective measurements of electro-optic coefficients of poled polymers in multilayer structures.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong H; Lee, Chi H; Herman, Warren N

    2006-09-18

    We present new closed-form expressions for analysis of Teng-Man measurements of the electro-optic coefficients of poled polymer thin films. These expressions account for multiple reflection effects using a rigorous analysis of the multilayered structure for varying angles of incidence. The analysis based on plane waves is applicable to both transparent and absorptive films and takes into account the properties of the transparent conducting electrode layer. Methods for fitting data are presented and the error introduced by ignoring the transparent conducting layer and multiple reflections is discussed. PMID:19529267

  10. Performance Analysis of Node-Disjoint Paths in Multipath Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, G. Shiva; D'Souza, R. J.; Varaprasad, G.

    2011-12-01

    Routing in the resource constrained network is still a challenge. To increase the operational lifetme of the wireless senor networks is the major objective of energy efficeint routing protocols. Multipath routing protocols increases the QoS, network reliability, and lifetime. This work analyses the node-dsijoint paths which contribute in realising the objectives of mutlipath routing. This work proposes the three different criteria to select the node-disjoint paths between the source and sink node. They are (i) minimum hop (ii) maximum residual energy and (iii) maximum path cost. End to end delay, residual energy and throughput are the metrics considered to evaluate the performance of three different criteria to select node-disjoint paths between source and destination.

  11. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive industries in a

  12. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive industries in a

  13. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive industries in a

  14. Linear and nonlinear dynamic analysis of redundant load path bearingless rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. R.

    1985-01-01

    The bearingless rotorcraft offers reduced weight, less complexity and superior flying qualities. Almost all the current industrial structural dynamic programs of conventional rotors which consist of single load path rotor blades employ the transfer matrix method to determine natural vibration characteristics because this method is ideally suited for one dimensional chain like structures. This method is extended to multiple load path rotor blades without resorting to an equivalent single load path approximation. Unlike the conventional blades, it isk necessary to introduce the axial-degree-of-freedom into the solution process to account for the differential axial displacements in the different load paths. With the present extension, the current rotor dynamic programs can be modified with relative ease to account for the multiple load paths without resorting to the equivalent single load path modeling. The results obtained by the transfer matrix method are validated by comparing with the finite element solutions. A differential stiffness matrix due to blade rotation is derived to facilitate the finite element solutions.

  15. Comparison of similarity coefficients used for cluster analysis with amplified fragment length polymorphism markers in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dalirsefat, Seyed Benyamin; da Silva Meyer, Andréia; Mirhoseini, Seyed Ziyaeddin

    2009-01-01

    Establishing accurate genetic similarity and dissimilarity between individuals is an essential and decisive point for clustering and analyzing inter and intra population diversity because different similarity and dissimilarity indices may yield contradictory outcomes. We assessed the variations caused by three commonly used similarity coefficients including Jaccard, Sorensen-Dice and Simple matching in the clustering and ordination of seven Iranian native silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), strains analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Comparisons among the similarity coefficients were made using the Spearman correlation analysis, dendrogram evaluation (visual inspection and consensus fork index--CI(C)), projection efficiency in a two-dimensional space, and groups formed by the Tocher optimization procedure. The results demonstrated that for almost all methodologies, the Jaccard and Sorensen-Dice coefficients revealed extremely close results, because both of them exclude negative co-occurrences. Due to the fact that there is no guarantee that the DNA regions with negative cooccurrences between two strains are indeed identical, the use of coefficients such as Jaccard and Sorensen-Dice that do not include negative co-occurrences was imperative for closely related organisms. PMID:20050782

  16. Re-analysis of narcotic critical body residue data using the equilibrium distribution concept and refined partition coefficients.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi

    2016-08-10

    Narcosis occurs as a result of the accumulation of chemicals in the phospholipid membrane. The toxic threshold concentration in the membrane is thought to be relatively constant across different chemicals and species. Hence, estimating chemical concentrations in the membrane is expected to reduce the variability of narcotic critical body residue (CBR) data. In this study, a high quality CBR dataset for three aquatic species reported recently in the literature was evaluated with the internal equilibrium distribution concept. The raw wet-weight-based CBR values were converted to membrane-weight-based CBR values by assuming that the chemical is distributed in storage lipids, membranes, proteins, and water according to the respective equilibrium partition coefficients. Several sets of partition coefficients were compared for this analysis. The results were consistent with the notion that the use of a structural protein instead of serum albumin as a surrogate for the body protein fraction could reduce the variability of CBRs. Partition coefficients predicted by polyparameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs) reduced the variability of CBRs as much as or even more than experimental partition coefficients did. It is suggested that CBR data for chemicals with larger structural diversity and biological species with more distinct compositions are needed to evaluate further the equilibrium distribution concept and the constant membrane threshold hypothesis.

  17. Return period adjustment for runoff coefficients based on analysis in undeveloped Texas watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dhakal, Nirajan; Fang, Xing; Asquith, William H.; Cleveland, Theodore G.; Thompson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    The rational method for peak discharge (Qp) estimation was introduced in the 1880s. The runoff coefficient (C) is a key parameter for the rational method that has an implicit meaning of rate proportionality, and the C has been declared a function of the annual return period by various researchers. Rate-based runoff coefficients as a function of the return period, C(T), were determined for 36 undeveloped watersheds in Texas using peak discharge frequency from previously published regional regression equations and rainfall intensity frequency for return periods T of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years. The C(T) values and return period adjustments C(T)/C(T=10  year) determined in this study are most applicable to undeveloped watersheds. The return period adjustments determined for the Texas watersheds in this study and those extracted from prior studies of non-Texas data exceed values from well-known literature such as design manuals and textbooks. Most importantly, the return period adjustments exceed values currently recognized in Texas Department of Transportation design guidance when T>10  years.

  18. Job Stress and Related Factors Among Iranian Male Staff Using a Path Analysis Model

    PubMed Central

    Azad-Marzabadi, Esfandiar; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, job stress has been cited as a risk factor for some diseases. Objectives Given the importance of this subject, we established a new model for classifying job stress among Iranian male staff using path analysis. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was done on male staff in Tehran, Iran, 2013. The participants in the study were selected using a proportional stratum sampling method. The tools used included nine questionnaires (1- HSE questionnaire; 2- GHQ questionnaire; 3- Beck depression inventory; 4- Framingham personality type; 5- Azad-Fesharaki’s physical activity questionnaire; 6- Adult attachment style questionnaire; 7- Azad socioeconomic questionnaire; 8- Job satisfaction survey; and 9- demographic questionnaire). Results A total of 575 individuals (all male) were recruited for the study. Their mean (±SD) age was 33.49 (±8.9) and their mean job experience was 12.79 (±8.98) years. The pathway of job stress among Iranian male staff showed an adequate model fit (RMSEA=0.021, GFI=0.99, AGFI=0.97, P=0.136). In addition, the total effect of variables like personality type (β=0.283), job satisfaction (β=0.287), and age (β=0.108) showed a positive relationship with job stress, while variables like general health (β=-0.151) and depression (β=-0.242) showed the reverse effect on job stress. Conclusions According to the results of this study, we can conclude that our suggested model is suited to explaining the pathways of stress among Iranian male staff.

  19. Job Stress and Related Factors Among Iranian Male Staff Using a Path Analysis Model

    PubMed Central

    Azad-Marzabadi, Esfandiar; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, job stress has been cited as a risk factor for some diseases. Objectives Given the importance of this subject, we established a new model for classifying job stress among Iranian male staff using path analysis. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was done on male staff in Tehran, Iran, 2013. The participants in the study were selected using a proportional stratum sampling method. The tools used included nine questionnaires (1- HSE questionnaire; 2- GHQ questionnaire; 3- Beck depression inventory; 4- Framingham personality type; 5- Azad-Fesharaki’s physical activity questionnaire; 6- Adult attachment style questionnaire; 7- Azad socioeconomic questionnaire; 8- Job satisfaction survey; and 9- demographic questionnaire). Results A total of 575 individuals (all male) were recruited for the study. Their mean (±SD) age was 33.49 (±8.9) and their mean job experience was 12.79 (±8.98) years. The pathway of job stress among Iranian male staff showed an adequate model fit (RMSEA=0.021, GFI=0.99, AGFI=0.97, P=0.136). In addition, the total effect of variables like personality type (β=0.283), job satisfaction (β=0.287), and age (β=0.108) showed a positive relationship with job stress, while variables like general health (β=-0.151) and depression (β=-0.242) showed the reverse effect on job stress. Conclusions According to the results of this study, we can conclude that our suggested model is suited to explaining the pathways of stress among Iranian male staff. PMID:27621934

  20. Determination of zircon/melt trace element partition coefficients from SIMS analysis of melt inclusions in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. B.; Bodnar, R. J.; Shimizu, N.; Sinha, A. K.

    2002-09-01

    Partition coefficients ( zircon/meltD M) for rare earth elements (REE) (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Dy, Er and Yb) and other trace elements (Ba, Rb, B, Sr, Ti, Y and Nb) between zircon and melt have been calculated from secondary ion mass spectrometric (SIMS) analyses of zircon/melt inclusion pairs. The melt inclusion-mineral (MIM) technique shows that D REE increase in compatibility with increasing atomic number, similar to results of previous studies. However, D REE determined using the MIM technique are, in general, lower than previously reported values. Calculated D REE indicate that light REE with atomic numbers less than Sm are incompatible in zircon and become more incompatible with decreasing atomic number. This behavior is in contrast to most previously published results which indicate D > 1 and define a flat partitioning pattern for elements from La through Sm. The partition coefficients for the heavy REE determined using the MIM technique are lower than previously published results by factors of ≈15 to 20 but follow a similar trend. These differences are thought to reflect the effects of mineral and/or glass contaminants in samples from earlier studies which employed bulk analysis techniques. D REE determined using the MIM technique agree well with values predicted using the equations of Brice (1975), which are based on the size and elasticity of crystallographic sites. The presence of Ce 4+ in the melt results in elevated D Ce compared to neighboring REE due to the similar valence and size of Ce 4+ and Zr 4+. Predicted zircon/meltD values for Ce 4+ and Ce 3+ indicate that the Ce 4+/Ce 3+ ratios of the melt ranged from about 10 -3 to 10 -2. Partition coefficients for other trace elements determined in this study increase in compatibility in the order Ba < Rb < B < Sr < Ti < Y < Nb, with Ba, Rb, B and Sr showing incompatible behavior (D M < 1.0), and Ti, Y and Nb showing compatible behavior (D M > 1.0). The effect of partition coefficients on melt evolution during

  1. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of SSME phase 2 and phase 2+ preburner injector element hydrogen flow paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.

    1992-01-01

    Phase 2+ Space Shuttle Main Engine powerheads, E0209 and E0215 degraded their main combustion chamber (MCC) liners at a faster rate than is normal for phase 2 powerheads. One possible cause of the accelerated degradation was a reduction of coolant flow through the MCC. Hardware changes were made to the preburner fuel leg which may have reduced the resistance and, therefore, pulled some of the hydrogen from the MCC coolant leg. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to determine hydrogen flow path resistances of the phase 2+ fuel preburner injector elements relative to the phase 2 element. FDNS was implemented on axisymmetric grids with the hydrogen assumed to be incompressible. The analysis was performed in two steps: the first isolated the effect of the different inlet areas and the second modeled the entire injector element hydrogen flow path.

  2. A moderated mediated path analysis of factors influencing student performance on a standardized high-stakes science test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelkey, Ramona K.

    Gender, ethnicity, family economic status, reading score, mathematics score, and number of science semesters successfully completed were examined for their contributory role to a student's science score on a high-stakes, high school exit examination. Path analysis and analysis of variance procedures were used to quantify each variable's influence on science score. Gender, ethnicity, and family economic status were found to be moderators while reading proved to mediate within the model. The path model was created using a calibration sample and cross-validated using a hold-out validation sample. Bootstrapping was used to verify the goodness of fit of the model. A predictive equation explained 66% (R2 = .66) of the variance in observed TAKS science score.

  3. Analysis of ONEDANT code package for the calculation of the Doppler coefficient of reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Soares, I. ); Miller, W.F.; Perry, R.T. )

    1993-06-01

    The viability of the use of the ONEDANT discrete ordinates code for the calculation of the Doppler coefficient of reactivity for a pressurized water reactor is investigated. The ONEDANT results are compared with benchmark results from a Monte Carlo code, MCNP-3A. A comparison with the results obtained using the CELL-2 and WIMS-AECL codes is also included. The influences of certain variables, such as spatial mesh, S[sub N] angular quadrature order, interaction convergence criterion, boundary conditions, P[sub N] order, and number of energy groups, are analyzed. An alternative benchmark calculation to the Monte Carlo result is attempted to provide some feel for the approximate accuracy of the Monte Carlo calculation. Such an alternative answer is important when less approximate methods are compared with these results.

  4. The use of the coefficient of variation in detecting sincerity of effort: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shechtman, Orit; Anton, Stephen D; Kanasky, William F; Robinson, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    The coefficient of variation (CV) is used to determine sincerity of effort of strength measurements. However, there is a controversy in the literature concerning its validity and effectiveness. We used a meta-analytic approach and calculated the effect size between maximal and submaximal efforts for the CV of grip, elbow flexion and knee extension. We summarized findings concerning stability, sensitivity and specificity of the CV. We found large effect sizes (d > or = 0.8) for all comparisons indicating that submaximal efforts were more variable than maximal efforts. We also found large error rates and low stability of the CV. The error rates and stability values of the CV are unacceptable from both a clinical and a medico-legal standpoint. Therefore, the use of the CV for assessing sincerity of effort needs to be questioned.

  5. Standardized Regression Coefficients as Indices of Effect Sizes in Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Rae Seon

    2011-01-01

    When conducting a meta-analysis, it is common to find many collected studies that report regression analyses, because multiple regression analysis is widely used in many fields. Meta-analysis uses effect sizes drawn from individual studies as a means of synthesizing a collection of results. However, indices of effect size from regression analyses…

  6. Morphological Awareness in Literacy Acquisition of Chinese Second Graders: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Haomin

    2016-01-01

    The present study tested a path diagram regarding the contribution of morphological awareness (MA) to early literacy acquisition among Chinese-speaking second graders (N = 123). Three facets of MA were addressed, namely derivational awareness, compound awareness and compound structure awareness. The model aimed to test a theory of causal order…

  7. An Investigation of Factors Influencing Student Use of Technology in K-12 Classrooms Using Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Dawson, Kara; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of teachers' characteristics, school characteristics, and contextual characteristics on classroom technology integration and teacher use of technology as mediators of student use of technology. A research-based path model was designed and tested based on data gathered from 732 teachers from…

  8. Toward a Model of Adolescent Self Evaluation: A Cross-National Application of Path Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Charles; And Others

    This cross-national study initiated construction of a path model to analyze the development of self-evaluation among adolescents, and to show that this process of development occurs cross-culturally. Seven variables assumed to be antecedents of self-evaluation were included in the model: SES, support from the mother and from the father, the…

  9. Knowledge Monitoring, Goal Orientations, Self-Efficacy, and Academic Performance: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.; Was, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between knowledge monitoring and motivation as defined by self-efficacy and goal orientations. A path model was proposed to hypothesize the causal relations among predictors of the students' total score in the Educational Psychology course. The sample consisted of undergraduate…

  10. Feasibility Analysis of Improving On-Campus Learning Paths via a Depth Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Wen-Fu; Tu, Shih-Chun; Chien, Mei-Ying

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to apply a depth sensor to create a human-body-sensing context for outdoor learning paths; it is conducted by incorporating both quasi-experiment and survey to compare students' cognitive learning outcome within the context and understand students' attitudes toward the context created. The result of ANCOVA indicates…

  11. Routeing of power lines through least-cost path analysis and multicriteria evaluation to minimise environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Bagli, Stefano; Geneletti, Davide; Orsi, Francesco

    2011-04-15

    Least-cost path analysis (LCPA) allows designers to find the 'cheapest' way to connect two locations within a cost surface, which can be computed by combining multiple criteria, and therefore by accounting for different issues (environmental impact, economic investment, etc.). This procedure can be easily implemented with modern Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies, and consequently it has been widely employed to support planning and design of different types of linear infrastructures, ranging from roads to pipelines. This paper presents an approach based on the integration of multicriteria evaluation (MCE) and LCPA to identify the most suitable route for a 132 kV power line. Criteria such as cost, visibility, population density, and ecosystem naturalness were used for the analysis. Firstly, spatial MCE and LCPA were combined to generate cost surfaces, and to identify alternative paths. Subsequently, MCE was used to compare the alternatives, and rank them according to their overall suitability. Finally, a sensitivity analysis allowed the stability of the results to be tested and the most critical factors of the evaluation to be detected. The study found that small changes in the location of the power line start and end points can result in significantly different paths, and consequently impact levels. This suggested that planners should always consider alternative potential locations of terminals in order to identify the best path. Furthermore, it was shown that the use of different weight scenarios may help making the model adaptable to varying environmental and social contexts. The approach was tested on a real-world case study in north-eastern Italy.

  12. The analysis of trend variations of reference evapotranspiration via eliminating the significance effect of all autocorrelation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirataee, Babak; Montaseri, Majid; Sanikhani, Hadi

    2016-10-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is considered a key parameter for evaluating the climatic changes as well as spatial and temporal patterns of parameters influencing the eco-hydrological processes. The analysis of trend variations of this index can be used to determine appropriate strategies in planning and management of water resources. In this paper, the trend variations of monthly and annual ET0 in Urmia Lake basin, located in the northwest of Iran, have been analyzed using data from 14 synoptic stations in the study area. Regarding the significant effect of autocorrelation coefficients with different lags on trend variations of ET0, this paper has resorted to modified Mann-Kendall test via eliminating the significance effect of autocorrelation coefficients with different lags to analyze the trend variations. Furthermore, Theil-Sen estimator has been used to determine the slope of trend line of ET0. The results indicated an increasing trend in ET0 values at all the studied stations. Having used the modified Mann-Kendall test, the values of significant increasing (positive) trend, which were estimated using common Mann-Kendall test, dramatically decreased. As such, the values of only 7 stations have been significant at 95 % level. The results confirmed the need for eliminating the significance effect of autocorrelation coefficients with different lags to determine and evaluate the trend of hydrological variables.

  13. a Latent Variable Path Analysis Model of Secondary Physics Enrollments in New York State.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolewski, Stanley John

    The Percentage of Enrollment in Physics (PEP) at the secondary level nationally has been approximately 20% for the past few decades. For a more scientifically literate citizenry as well as specialists to continue scientific research and development, it is desirable that more students enroll in physics. Some of the predictor variables for physics enrollment and physics achievement that have been identified previously includes a community's socioeconomic status, the availability of physics, the sex of the student, the curriculum, as well as teacher and student data. This study isolated and identified predictor variables for PEP of secondary schools in New York. Data gathered by the State Education Department for the 1990-1991 school year was used. The source of this data included surveys completed by teachers and administrators on student characteristics and school facilities. A data analysis similar to that done by Bryant (1974) was conducted to determine if the relationships between a set of predictor variables related to physics enrollment had changed in the past 20 years. Variables which were isolated included: community, facilities, teacher experience, number of type of science courses, school size and school science facilities. When these variables were isolated, latent variable path diagrams were proposed and verified by the Linear Structural Relations computer modeling program (LISREL). These diagrams differed from those developed by Bryant in that there were more manifest variables used which included achievement scores in the form of Regents exam results. Two criterion variables were used, percentage of students enrolled in physics (PEP) and percent of students enrolled passing the Regents physics exam (PPP). The first model treated school and community level variables as exogenous while the second model treated only the community level variables as exogenous. The goodness of fit indices for the models was 0.77 for the first model and 0.83 for the second

  14. Representation of exposures in regression analysis and interpretation of regression coefficients: basic concepts and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Leffondré, Karen; Jager, Kitty J; Boucquemont, Julie; Stel, Vianda S; Heinze, Georg

    2014-10-01

    Regression models are being used to quantify the effect of an exposure on an outcome, while adjusting for potential confounders. While the type of regression model to be used is determined by the nature of the outcome variable, e.g. linear regression has to be applied for continuous outcome variables, all regression models can handle any kind of exposure variables. However, some fundamentals of representation of the exposure in a regression model and also some potential pitfalls have to be kept in mind in order to obtain meaningful interpretation of results. The objective of this educational paper was to illustrate these fundamentals and pitfalls, using various multiple regression models applied to data from a hypothetical cohort of 3000 patients with chronic kidney disease. In particular, we illustrate how to represent different types of exposure variables (binary, categorical with two or more categories and continuous), and how to interpret the regression coefficients in linear, logistic and Cox models. We also discuss the linearity assumption in these models, and show how wrongly assuming linearity may produce biased results and how flexible modelling using spline functions may provide better estimates.

  15. Analysis of stimulus-related activity in rat auditory cortex using complex spectral coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Bryan M.

    2013-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of sensory responses recorded from the scalp or cortical surface remain controversial. Evoked vs. induced response components (i.e., changes in mean vs. variance) are associated with bottom-up vs. top-down processing, but trial-by-trial response variability can confound this interpretation. Phase reset of ongoing oscillations has also been postulated to contribute to sensory responses. In this article, we present evidence that responses under passive listening conditions are dominated by variable evoked response components. We measured the mean, variance, and phase of complex time-frequency coefficients of epidurally recorded responses to acoustic stimuli in rats. During the stimulus, changes in mean, variance, and phase tended to co-occur. After the stimulus, there was a small, low-frequency offset response in the mean and modest, prolonged desynchronization in the alpha band. Simulations showed that trial-by-trial variability in the mean can account for most of the variance and phase changes observed during the stimulus. This variability was state dependent, with smallest variability during periods of greatest arousal. Our data suggest that cortical responses to auditory stimuli reflect variable inputs to the cortical network. These analyses suggest that caution should be exercised when interpreting variance and phase changes in terms of top-down cortical processing. PMID:23657279

  16. A meta-analysis of the canopy light extinction coefficient in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liangxia; Hu, Zhongmin; Fan, Jiangwen; Zhou, Decheng; Tang, Fengpei

    2014-12-01

    The canopy light extinction coefficient ( K) is a key factor in affecting ecosystem carbon, water, and energy processes. However, K is assumed as a constant in most biogeochemical models owing to lack of in-site measurements at diverse terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, by compiling data of K measured at 88 terrestrial ecosystems, we investigated the spatiotemporal variations of this index across main ecosystem types, including grassland, cropland, shrubland, broadleaf forest, and needleleaf forest. Our results indicated that the average K of all biome types during whole growing season was 0.56. However, this value in the peak growing season was 0.49, indicating a certain degree of seasonal variation. In addition, large variations in K exist within and among the plant functional types. Cropland had the highest value of K (0.62), followed by broadleaf forest (0.59), shrubland (0.56), grassland (0.50), and needleleaf forest (0.45). No significant spatial correlation was found between K and the major environmental factors, i.e., mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, and leaf area index (LAI). Intra-annually, significant negative correlations between K and seasonal changes in LAI were found in the natural ecosystems. In cropland, however, the temporal relationship was site-specific. The ecosystem type specific values of K and its temporal relationship with LAI observed in this study may contribute to improved modeling of global biogeochemical cycles.

  17. [Influencing factors in measuring absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-long; Shen, Fang; Zhang, Jin-fang

    2013-05-01

    Absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters in natural water is one of the key parameters in ocean color remote sensing. In order to study the influencing factors that affect the measurement, a series of experiments were designed to measure samples using transmittance method (T method), transmittance-reflectance method (T-R method) and absorptance method (A method). The results shows that absorption coefficient measured by the A method has a much lower error compared to the T method and T-R method due to influencing factors,such as filter-to-filter variations, water content of the filter, and homogeneity of filter load and so on. Another factor influence absorption coefficient is path-length amplification induced by multiple scattering inside the filter. To determine the path-length amplification, the true absorption was measured by AC-s (WetLabs). The linear fitting result shows that the mean path-length amplification is much higher for the A method than that of the T-R method and the T method (4.01 versus 2.20 and 2.32), and the corresponding correlation coefficient are 0.90, 0.87 and 0.80. For the A method and the T-R method, higher correlation coefficients are calculated when using polynomial fitting, and the value are 0.95 and 0.94. Analysis of the mean relative error caused by different influencing factors indicates that path-length amplification is the largest error source in measuring the absorption coefficient.

  18. Analysis of rain fade duration models for Earth-to-satellite path based on data measured in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Hassan; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Al-Khateeb, Khalid A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Statistical analysis of rain fade duration is crucial information for system engineer to design and plan a fade mitigation technique (FMT) for the satellite communication system. An investigation is carried out based on data measured of one year period in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from satellite path of MEASAT3. This paper presents statistical analysis of measured fade duration on high elevation angle (77.4°) in Ku-band compared to three prediction models of fade duration. It is found that none of the models could predict measured fade duration distribution accurately.

  19. A Note on the Relationship between the Number of Indicators and Their Reliability in Detecting Regression Coefficients in Latent Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Conor V.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the question of how variation in the number and reliability of indicators affects the power to reject the hypothesis that the regression coefficients are zero in latent linear regression analysis. We show that power remains constant as long as the coefficient of determination remains unchanged. Any increase in the number of indicators…

  20. The application of stress path and critical state analysis to sediment deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Mervyn E.; Addis, Michael A.

    The importance of consolidation, compression and shear as deformation mechanisms in uncemented sediments is discussed and the critical state concept is introduced as a unifying model for these aspects of deformation. From the critical state and the law of effective stress, the concepts of burial and tectonic stress paths are introduced with reference to the development of growth faults in an unlithified sediment undergoing simultaneous burial and extension. It is demonstrated that particulate deformation mechanisms can be important at burial depths of several kilometres, especially if the sediment is overpressured, and that deformation of this type will influence the geometry and nature of the structures produced. A model for the geometry and spacing of growth faults developed in unlithified sediments is proposed utilizing stress path and critical state concepts.

  1. Analysis of climate paths reveals potential limitations on species range shifts.

    PubMed

    Early, Regan; Sax, Dov F

    2011-11-01

    Forecasts of species endangerment under climate change usually ignore the processes by which species ranges shift. By analysing the 'climate paths' that range shifts might follow, and two key range-shift processes--dispersal and population persistence--we show that short-term climatic and population characteristics have dramatic effects on range-shift forecasts. By employing this approach with 15 amphibian species in the western USA, we make unexpected predictions. First, inter-decadal variability in climate change can prevent range shifts by causing gaps in climate paths, even in the absence of geographic barriers. Second, the hitherto unappreciated trait of persistence during unfavourable climatic conditions is critical to species range shifts. Third, climatic fluctuations and low persistence could lead to endangerment even if the future potential range size is large. These considerations may render habitat corridors ineffectual for some species, and conservationists may need to consider managed relocation and augmentation of in situ populations. PMID:21955643

  2. Moderated path analysis of the relationships between masculinity and men's attitudes toward seeking psychological help.

    PubMed

    Levant, Ronald F; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Rankin, Thomas J; Halter, Margaret J; Mellinger, Chris; Williams, Christine M

    2013-07-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of one mediator and 4 moderators of the relationships between 2 masculinity variables (Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Gender Role Conflict) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (Attitudes). Self-stigma was the hypothesized mediator, and the hypothesized moderators were (a) Depression, (b) General Self-efficacy, (c) Precontemplation, and (d) Barriers to Help-seeking. A sample of 654 men responded to an online survey of 9 questionnaires. After evaluating mediation in the absence of moderation, moderated path analyses were conducted for each moderator. The relationship between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes was partially mediated by Self-stigma, whereas that between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes was completely mediated. No indirect or direct paths involving Gender Role Conflict were moderated by any moderators. Both Depression and Barriers to Help-seeking demonstrated mediated moderation by moderating both Stage 1 (the path from Traditional Masculinity Ideology to Self-stigma) of the mediated relationships and the direct effects between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. Precontemplation moderated the direct effect between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. The findings suggest that the relationships between masculinity variables and men's negative help-seeking attitudes may be better understood through their relationships with other variables that serve as mediators and moderators. Findings from the present study may offer some direction in the design of interventions to remediate men's negative help-seeking attitudes.

  3. Moderated path analysis of the relationships between masculinity and men's attitudes toward seeking psychological help.

    PubMed

    Levant, Ronald F; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Rankin, Thomas J; Halter, Margaret J; Mellinger, Chris; Williams, Christine M

    2013-07-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of one mediator and 4 moderators of the relationships between 2 masculinity variables (Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Gender Role Conflict) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (Attitudes). Self-stigma was the hypothesized mediator, and the hypothesized moderators were (a) Depression, (b) General Self-efficacy, (c) Precontemplation, and (d) Barriers to Help-seeking. A sample of 654 men responded to an online survey of 9 questionnaires. After evaluating mediation in the absence of moderation, moderated path analyses were conducted for each moderator. The relationship between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes was partially mediated by Self-stigma, whereas that between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes was completely mediated. No indirect or direct paths involving Gender Role Conflict were moderated by any moderators. Both Depression and Barriers to Help-seeking demonstrated mediated moderation by moderating both Stage 1 (the path from Traditional Masculinity Ideology to Self-stigma) of the mediated relationships and the direct effects between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. Precontemplation moderated the direct effect between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. The findings suggest that the relationships between masculinity variables and men's negative help-seeking attitudes may be better understood through their relationships with other variables that serve as mediators and moderators. Findings from the present study may offer some direction in the design of interventions to remediate men's negative help-seeking attitudes. PMID:23668728

  4. Exact Analysis of Squared Cross-Validity Coefficient in Predictive Regression Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2009-01-01

    In regression analysis, the notion of population validity is of theoretical interest for describing the usefulness of the underlying regression model, whereas the presumably more important concept of population cross-validity represents the predictive effectiveness for the regression equation in future research. It appears that the inference…

  5. Frequency analysis of temperature-dependent interferometric signal for the measurement of the temperature coefficient of refractive index.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianqin; Shen, Jun; Neill, W Stuart

    2016-07-01

    A method of frequency analysis for the measurement of the temperature coefficient of refractive index (dn/dT) using a Fabry-Perot interferometer was developed and tested against ethanol and water. The temperature-dependent interferometric signal described by Airy's formula was analyzed in both the temperature and frequency domains. By fast Fourier transform, a low-pass filter was designed and employed to eliminate the noise superimposed on the signal. dn/dT was determined accurately from the noise-removed signal by peak analysis. Furthermore, the signal frequency parameters may be utilized for the material thermophysical property characterization. This method lays the foundation for an online dn/dT instrument for monitoring chemical processes. PMID:27475545

  6. Frequency analysis of temperature-dependent interferometric signal for the measurement of the temperature coefficient of refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianqin; Shen, Jun; Neill, W. Stuart

    2016-07-01

    A method of frequency analysis for the measurement of the temperature coefficient of refractive index (dn/dT) using a Fabry-Perot interferometer was developed and tested against ethanol and water. The temperature-dependent interferometric signal described by Airy's formula was analyzed in both the temperature and frequency domains. By fast Fourier transform, a low-pass filter was designed and employed to eliminate the noise superimposed on the signal. dn/dT was determined accurately from the noise-removed signal by peak analysis. Furthermore, the signal frequency parameters may be utilized for the material thermophysical property characterization. This method lays the foundation for an online dn/dT instrument for monitoring chemical processes.

  7. The role of critical ethnic awareness and social support in the discrimination-depression relationship among Asian Americans: path analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Isok

    2014-01-01

    This study used a path analytic technique to examine associations among critical ethnic awareness, racial discrimination, social support, and depressive symptoms. Using a convenience sample from online survey of Asian American adults (N = 405), the study tested 2 main hypotheses: First, based on the empowerment theory, critical ethnic awareness would be positively associated with racial discrimination experience; and second, based on the social support deterioration model, social support would partially mediate the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The result of the path analysis model showed that the proposed path model was a good fit based on global fit indices, χ²(2) = 4.70, p = .10; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; comparative fit index = 0.97; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.92; and standardized root mean square residual = 0.03. The examinations of study hypotheses demonstrated that critical ethnic awareness was directly associated (b = .11, p < .05) with the racial discrimination experience, whereas social support had a significant indirect effect (b = .48; bias-corrected 95% confidence interval [0.02, 1.26]) between the racial discrimination experience and depressive symptoms. The proposed path model illustrated that both critical ethnic awareness and social support are important mechanisms for explaining the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among this sample of Asian Americans. This study highlights the usefulness of the critical ethnic awareness concept as a way to better understand how Asian Americans might perceive and recognize racial discrimination experiences in relation to its mental health consequences.

  8. Path analysis of the chronicity of depression using the comprehensive developmental model framework.

    PubMed

    Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Lavebratt, Catharina; Forsell, Yvonne

    2016-07-01

    Background Depressive disorder is recognized as recurrent or chronic in the majority of affected individuals; but literature is not consistent about determinants of the disorder course. Aims To analyse the relationships between familial, personal and environmental characteristics in different life phases and their effects on the chronicity of depression in a population-based sample. Methods It was a longitudinal panel study with three waves (W1-W3) for 651 adult men and women with diagnosis of minor/major depression or dysthymia at W1 of the Swedish PART (mental health, work and relations) study. Risk factors and co-morbidities were assessed with questionnaires. The main outcome was an episode of minor/major depression or dysthymia at 10-12 years of follow-up (W3). Liability for depressive episodes was determined using exploratory structural equation modelling (SEM), following a path approach with step-wise specification searches. Results Most of the risk factors determined, directly or indirectly, depression severity at W3. Somatic trait anxiety, partner loss and other negative life events at W1, depressive symptoms at W2, and life difficulties and other dependent life events at W3 had direct effects on the outcome. Conclusions SEM model revealed complex and intertwined psychopathological pathways leading to chronicity of depression, given previous episodes, which could be assembled in two main mechanisms: a depressive-internalizing path and an adversity path comprised of life events. Pathways are simpler than those of depression occurrence, emphasizing the relevance of personality factors as depression determinants, and excluding disability levels, co-morbidities and social support. These novel findings need to be replicated in future studies.

  9. Gyrosynchrotron radiation formulae. [analysis of electron moving along a helical path in a magnetoactive medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    The wave-normal emissivity and the ray emissivity formulas for an electron moving along a helical path in a magnetoactive medium are presented. Simplified formulas for the case of an isotropic plasma are also given. Because of the helical motion of the electron, a difference exists between the radiated power per unit solid angle and the received power per unit solid angle. The relation between these two quantities in a magnetoactive medium is shown. Results are compared with those obtained by others, and the sources of discrepancies are pointed out.

  10. Orbital maneuvering subsystem functional path analysis for performance monitoring fault detection and annunciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keesler, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    The functional paths of the Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) is defined. The operational flight instrumentation required for performance monitoring, fault detection, and annunciation is described. The OMS is a pressure fed rocket engine propulsion subsystem. One complete OMS shares each of the two auxiliary propulsion subsystem pods with a reaction control subsystem. Each OMS is composed of a pressurization system, a propellant tanking system, and a gimbaled rocket engine. The design, development, and operation of the system are explained. Diagrams of the system are provided.

  11. Thermal stress analysis of a graded zirconia/metal gas path seal system for aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    A ceramic/metallic aircraft gas turbine outer gas path seal designed to enable improved engine performance is studied. Flexible numerical analysis schemes suitable for the determination of transient temperature profiles and thermal stress distributions in the seal are outlined. An estimation of the stresses to which a test seal is subjected during simulated engine deceleration from sea level takeoff to idle conditions is made. Experimental evidence has indicated that the surface layer of the seal is probably subjected to excessive tensile stresses during cyclic temperature loading. This assertion is supported by the analytical results presented. Brief consideration is given to means of mitigating this adverse stressing.

  12. Relationships among the slopes of lines derived from various data analysis techniques and the associated correlation coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for fitting a straight line to a collection of data points is given. The relationships between the slopes and correlation coefficients, and between the corresponding standard deviations and correlation coefficient are given.

  13. Analysis of ligand-protein exchange by Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs (CoLD-CoP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, David A.; Chantova, Mihaela; Chaudhry, Saadia

    2015-06-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool in describing protein structures and protein activity for pharmaceutical and biochemical development. This study describes a method to determine weak binding ligands in biological systems by using hierarchic diffusion coefficient clustering of multidimensional data obtained with a 400 MHz Bruker NMR. Comparison of DOSY spectrums of ligands of the chemical library in the presence and absence of target proteins show translational diffusion rates for small molecules upon interaction with macromolecules. For weak binders such as compounds found in fragment libraries, changes in diffusion rates upon macromolecular binding are on the order of the precision of DOSY diffusion measurements, and identifying such subtle shifts in diffusion requires careful statistical analysis. The "CoLD-CoP" (Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs) method presented here uses SAHN clustering to identify protein-binders in a chemical library or even a not fully characterized metabolite mixture. We will show how DOSY NMR and the "CoLD-CoP" method complement each other in identifying the most suitable candidates for lysozyme and wheat germ acid phosphatase.

  14. The Inversion Point of the Isothermal Reactivity Coefficient of the IPEN/MB-01 Reactor - II: Theoretical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A. dos; Fuga, R.; Abe, A.Y.

    2005-10-15

    TORT, an S{sub N} three-dimensional transport code, is employed for the analysis of the inversion point of the isothermal reactivity coefficient of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. The analyses are performed in companion NJOY, AMPX-II, and TORT systems considering the data libraries ENDF/B-VI.8, JENDL3.3, and JEF3.0. The analyses reveal that for this peculiar problem, there is a need to convert all the computer codes to DOUBLE-PRECISION as well as to increase to seven the number of digits of the ANISN library generated by XSDRNPM. Contrary to the traditional diffusion theory codes, TORT k{sub eff} results are very sensitive to the number of both fine and broad groups. For instance, the traditional and very well known two- and four-group structure, largely utilized in several diffusion codes, produced simply unacceptable k{sub eff} results. The highest deviation between calculated and experimental values found for the inversion point was -4.48 deg. C. At first glance, there appears to be a significant discrepancy. However, in terms of reactivity coefficient, this discrepancy means a deviation of -0.90 {+-} 0.05 pcm/deg. C, which indicates that the calculational methodology and related nuclear data libraries meet the desired accuracy (-1.0 pcm/deg. C) for the determination of this parameter for thermal reactors.

  15. Analysis of ligand-protein exchange by Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs (CoLD-CoP).

    PubMed

    Snyder, David A; Chantova, Mihaela; Chaudhry, Saadia

    2015-06-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool in describing protein structures and protein activity for pharmaceutical and biochemical development. This study describes a method to determine weak binding ligands in biological systems by using hierarchic diffusion coefficient clustering of multidimensional data obtained with a 400 MHz Bruker NMR. Comparison of DOSY spectrums of ligands of the chemical library in the presence and absence of target proteins show translational diffusion rates for small molecules upon interaction with macromolecules. For weak binders such as compounds found in fragment libraries, changes in diffusion rates upon macromolecular binding are on the order of the precision of DOSY diffusion measurements, and identifying such subtle shifts in diffusion requires careful statistical analysis. The "CoLD-CoP" (Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs) method presented here uses SAHN clustering to identify protein-binders in a chemical library or even a not fully characterized metabolite mixture. We will show how DOSY NMR and the "CoLD-CoP" method complement each other in identifying the most suitable candidates for lysozyme and wheat germ acid phosphatase.

  16. Centrality and Flow Vergence gradient based Path analysis of scientific literature: A case study of Biotechnology for Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathabai, Hiran H.; Prabhakaran, Thara; Changat, Manoj

    2015-07-01

    Biotechnology, ever since its inception has had a huge impact on the society and its various applications have been intricately woven into the human web of life. Its evolution amidst all the other research realms vital to mankind is remarkable. In this paper, we intend to identify the radical innovations in Biotechnology for Engineering using network analyses. Centrality analysis and Path analysis are used for identifying important works. Existence of Flow Vergence effect in the scientific literature is revealed. Flow Vergence gradient, an arc metric derived from FV model, is utilised for Path analysis which detects pivotal papers of paradigm shift more accurately. A major paradigm shift has been identified in the business models of Biotechnology for Engineering - 'Capability to Connectivity' model. Evidence towards the adoption of business practices in BT firms by nanotechnology start-ups is also identified. The notion of critical divergence is introduced and the exhibition of interdisciplinary interaction in emerging fields due to critical divergence is discussed. Implications of above analyses which target: (i) Science and technology policy makers, (ii) industrialists and investors, (iii) researchers in academia as well as industry, are also discussed.

  17. Studies of nonequilibrium behavior in surfactant systems using videomicroscopy and diffusion path analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Raney, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    A petroleum sulfonate system typical of those used in surfactant flooding of oil reservoirs was examined to determine salinity effects on nonequilibrium phenomena. Microemulsions and/or brine phases formed as intermediate layers at all salinities. Diffusion paths calculated for a model system match the experimental results with regard to the number and rate of formation of the intermediate phases. Contacting experiments were performed between an oil phase containing oleic acid and caustic brine solutions of varying salinity and pH. Interfacial turbulence and liquid crystal formation were commonplace. Spontaneous emulsification of water in the oil was observed when the surfactant was oil-soluble. Oil-in-water emulsions formed spontaneously when the surfactant was hydrophilic. Hydrocarbons were contacted with aqueous solutions of pure ethyoxylated alcohol surfactants. Enhanced solubilization of oil was seen at temperatures above the cloud point of the nonionic surfactant solutions. Intermediate liquid crystal and microemulsion layers typically formed near the phase inversion temperature, while conversion of oil into a water-in-oil microemulsions occurred at higher temperatures. Comparison of a pure ethoxylated alcohol system was also made to formulations having the same cloud point but containing a different ethoxylated alcohol and a lipophilic additive. Differences in nonequilibrium behavior were observed upon contacting with hydrocarbons due to partitioning of additive into the oleic phase. Finally, contacting experiments were compared to calculated diffusion paths for a well-characterized oil-water-alcohol system. One observation was the formation of an interface across a three-phase region.

  18. Advanced Launch System Multi-Path Redundant Avionics Architecture Analysis and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the Multi-Path Redundant Avionics Suite (MPRAS) program is the development of a set of avionic architectural modules which will be applicable to the family of launch vehicles required to support the Advanced Launch System (ALS). To enable ALS cost/performance requirements to be met, the MPRAS must support autonomy, maintenance, and testability capabilities which exceed those present in conventional launch vehicles. The multi-path redundant or fault tolerance characteristics of the MPRAS are necessary to offset a reduction in avionics reliability due to the increased complexity needed to support these new cost reduction and performance capabilities and to meet avionics reliability requirements which will provide cost-effective reductions in overall ALS recurring costs. A complex, real-time distributed computing system is needed to meet the ALS avionics system requirements. General Dynamics, Boeing Aerospace, and C.S. Draper Laboratory have proposed system architectures as candidates for the ALS MPRAS. The purpose of this document is to report the results of independent performance and reliability characterization and assessment analyses of each proposed candidate architecture and qualitative assessments of testability, maintainability, and fault tolerance mechanisms. These independent analyses were conducted as part of the MPRAS Part 2 program and were carried under NASA Langley Research Contract NAS1-17964, Task Assignment 28.

  19. On the analysis of condylar path versus real motion of the temporomandibular joint: application for Sicat Function.

    PubMed

    Kordaß, Bernd; Ruge, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) function using condylar path tracings is a challenge in functionally oriented dentistry. In most cases, reference points on the skin surface over the TMJ region are defined as "arbitrary", "individual" or "kinematic" condylar hinge axis points, which are displayed as "condylar paths" in motion. To what extent these reference points represent the actual condylar paths in each individual patient is ultimately unclear because the geometric relationship of the actual condyle to the selected reference point is usually unknown. Depending on the location of the point on the condyle and the centers of rotation of mandibular movement, these trajectories can vary greatly during combined rotational and sliding movements (eg, opening and closing movements of the mandible); this represents a grid of points located in the vicinity of the TMJ. To record the actual condylar path as the movement trajectory of a given point (eg, the condylar center), technological solutions are needed with which to link the tracing technology with the appropriate imaging technology capable of scanning the condyle, including the points of interest, and displaying them in real dynamic motion. Sicat Function (Sicat, D-Bonn) is such a solution. Sicat Function links cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans (made using the Galileos CBCT scanner; Sirona, Bensheim, Germany) with ultrasound-based, three-dimensional (3D) functional jaw movement recordings of the mandible (made using the JMT+ Jaw Motion Tracker; Sicat, Bonn, Germany). Digital images of the dental arches acquired with the intraoral scanner Cerec system (Sirona) can also be superimposed. This results in the generation of a 3D model of the bony mandible, including the TMJ, which reproduces the 3D real dynamic movement of the condyles simultaneously with that of the condylar paths at defined points (with the condylar centers being a particular point of interest). Sicat Function is an integrated, digital

  20. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Z. Q. J.; Lowhorn, N. D.; Wong-Ng, W.; Zhang, W.; Thomas, E. L.; Otani, M.; Green, M. L.; Tran, T. N.; Caylor, C.; Dilley, N. R.; Downey, A.; Edwards, B.; Elsner, N.; Ghamaty, S.; Hogan, T.; Jie, Q.; Li, Q.; Martin, J.; Nolas, G.; Obara, H.; Sharp, J.; Venkatasubramanian, R.; Willigan, R.; Yang, J.; Tritt, T.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™) for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials—undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy). Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations. PMID:27504212

  1. Permeability and kinetic coefficients for mesoscale BCF surface step dynamics: Discrete two-dimensional deposition-diffusion equation analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Renjie; Evans, James W.; Oliveira, Tiago J.

    2016-04-08

    Here, a discrete version of deposition-diffusion equations appropriate for description of step flow on a vicinal surface is analyzed for a two-dimensional grid of adsorption sites representing the stepped surface and explicitly incorporating kinks along the step edges. Model energetics and kinetics appropriately account for binding of adatoms at steps and kinks, distinct terrace and edge diffusion rates, and possible additional barriers for attachment to steps. Analysis of adatom attachment fluxes as well as limiting values of adatom densities at step edges for nonuniform deposition scenarios allows determination of both permeability and kinetic coefficients. Behavior of these quantities is assessedmore » as a function of key system parameters including kink density, step attachment barriers, and the step edge diffusion rate.« less

  2. Aero-thermo-dynamic analysis of a low ballistic coefficient deployable capsule in Earth re-entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuppardi, G.; Savino, R.; Mongelluzzo, G.

    2016-10-01

    The paper deals with a microsatellite and the related deployable recovery capsule. The aero-brake is folded at launch and deployed in space and is able to perform a de-orbiting controlled re-entry. This kind of capsule, with a flexible, high temperature resistant fabric, thanks to its lightness and modulating capability, can be an alternative to the current "conventional" recovery capsules. The present authors already analyzed the trajectory and the aerodynamic behavior of low ballistic coefficient capsules during Earth re-entry and Mars entry. In previous studies, aerodynamic longitudinal stability analysis and evaluation of thermal and aerodynamic loads for a possible suborbital re-entry demonstrator were carried out in both continuum and rarefied regimes. The present study is aimed at providing preliminary information about thermal and aerodynamic loads and longitudinal stability for a similar deployable capsule, as well as information about the electronic composition of the plasma sheet and its possible influence on radio communications at the altitudes where GPS black-out could occur. Since the computer tests were carried out at high altitudes, therefore in rarefied flow fields, use of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo codes was mandatory. The computations involved both global aerodynamic quantities (drag and longitudinal moment coefficients) and local aerodynamic quantities (heat flux and pressure distributions along the capsule surface). The results verified that the capsule at high altitude (150 km) is self-stabilizing; it is stable around the nominal attitude or at zero angle of attack and unstable around the reverse attitude or at 180° angle of attack. The analysis also pointed out the presence of extra statically stable equilibrium trim points.

  3. Graphical and Statistical Analysis of Airplane Passenger Cabin RF Coupling Paths to Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jafri, Madiha; Ely, Jay; Vahala, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Portable wireless technology provides many benefits to modern day travelers. Over the years however, numerous reports have cited portable electronic devices (PEDs) as a possible cause of electromagnetic interference (EMI) to aircraft navigation and communication radio systems. PEDs may act as transmitters, both intentional and unintentional, and their signals may be detected by the various radio receiver antennas installed on the aircraft. Measurement of the radiated field coupling between passenger cabin locations and aircraft communication and navigation receivers, via their antennas is defined herein as interference path loss (IPL). IPL data is required for assessing the threat of PEDs to aircraft radios, and is very dependent upon airplane size, the interfering transmitter position within the airplane, and the location of the particular antenna for the aircraft system of concern. NASA Langley Research Center, Eagles Wings Inc., and United Airlines personnel performed extensive IPL measurements on several Boeing 737 airplanes.

  4. Social support, stress, health, and academic success in Ghanaian adolescents: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the role psychosocial factors play in promoting the health and academic success of adolescents. A total of 770 adolescent boys and girls in Senior High Schools were randomly selected to complete a self-report questionnaire. School reported latest terminal examination grades were used as the measure of academic success. Structural equation modelling indicated a relatively good fit to the posteriori model with four of the hypothesised paths fully supported and two partially supported. Perceived social support was negatively related to stress and predictive of health and wellbeing but not academic success. Stress was predictive of health but not academic success. Finally, health and wellbeing was able to predict academic success. These findings have policy implications regarding efforts aimed at promoting the health and wellbeing as well as the academic success of adolescents in Ghana.

  5. Point and path performance of light aircraft: A review and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Summey, D. C.; Johnson, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    The literature on methods for predicting the performance of light aircraft is reviewed. The methods discussed in the review extend from the classical instantaneous maximum or minimum technique to techniques for generating mathematically optimum flight paths. Classical point performance techniques are shown to be adequate in many cases but their accuracies are compromised by the need to use simple lift, drag, and thrust relations in order to get closed form solutions. Also the investigation of the effect of changes in weight, altitude, configuration, etc. involves many essentially repetitive calculations. Accordingly, computer programs are provided which can fit arbitrary drag polars and power curves with very high precision and which can then use the resulting fits to compute the performance under the assumption that the aircraft is not accelerating.

  6. Path analysis examining self-efficacy and decision-making performance on a simulated baseball task.

    PubMed

    Hepler, Teri J; Feltz, Deborah L

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between decision-making self-efficacy and decision-making performance in sport. Undergraduate students (N = 78) performzed 10 trials of a decision-making task in baseball. Self-efficacy was measured before performing each trial. Decision-making performance was assessed by decision speed and decision accuracy. Path analyses examined the relationships between self-efficacy, residualized past performance, and current performance. The results indicated that self-efficacy was a significant and consistent predictor of decision speed (eight of nine trials), but not decision accuracy (four of nine trials). It was also found that experience does not have a meaningful effect on the relationship between self-efficacy and decision-making performance in sport.

  7. Determinants of physical activity based on the theory of planned behavior in Iranian Military Staff's Wives: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Gholamnia Shirvani, Zeinab; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2015-01-01

    Level of physical activity as a key determinant of healthy lifestyle less than is required in individuals particularly women. Applying theories of behavioral change about complex behaviors such as physical activity leads to identify effective factors and their relations. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of physical activity behavior based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in military staff's wives in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was performed in 180 military personnel's spouses residing in organizational houses, in Tehran, Iran in 2014. The participants were randomly selected with multi-stage cluster sampling. The validity and reliability of the theory based scale evaluated before conducting the path analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS16 and LISREL8.8. The results indicated the model explained 77% and 17% of intention and behavior variance. Subjective norms (Beta=0.83) and intention (Beta=0.37) were the strongest predictors of intention and behavior, respectively. The instrumental and affective attitude had no significant path to intention and behavior. The direct relation of perceived behavioral control to behavior was non-significant. This research demonstrated relative importance and relationships of Theory of Planned Behavior constructs in physical activity behavior of military personnel's spouses in Tehran. It is essential to consider these determinants in designing of educational interventions for promoting and maintaining physical activity behavior in this target group. PMID:25948459

  8. Determinants of physical activity based on the theory of planned behavior in Iranian Military Staff's Wives: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Gholamnia Shirvani, Zeinab; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2014-11-30

    Level of physical activity as a key determinant of healthy lifestyle less than is required in individuals particularly women. Applying theories of behavioral change about complex behaviors such as physical activity leads to identify effective factors and their relations. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of physical activity behavior based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in military staff's wives in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was performed in 180 military personnel's spouses residing in organizational houses, in Tehran, Iran in 2014. The participants were randomly selected with multi-stage cluster sampling. The validity and reliability of the theory based scale evaluated before conducting the path analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS16 and LISREL8.8. The results indicated the model explained 77% and 17% of intention and behavior variance. Subjective norms (Beta=0.83) and intention (Beta=0.37) were the strongest predictors of intention and behavior, respectively. The instrumental and affective attitude had no significant path to intention and behavior. The direct relation of perceived behavioral control to behavior was non-significant. This research demonstrated relative importance and relationships of Theory of Planned Behavior constructs in physical activity behavior of military personnel's spouses in Tehran. It is essential to consider these determinants in designing of educational interventions for promoting and maintaining physical activity behavior in this target group.

  9. Ternary diffusion path in terms of eigenvalues and eigenvectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram-Mohan, L. R.; Dayananda, Mysore A.

    2016-04-01

    Based on the transfer matrix methodology, a new analysis is presented for the description of slopes of the ternary diffusion path for a solid-solid diffusion couple. Concentration profiles and diffusion paths for isothermal, ternary diffusion couples are examined in the context of eigenvalues and eigenvectors obtained from the diagonalisation of the ? ternary interdiffusion coefficients employed for their representation. New relations are derived relating the decoupled interdiffusion fluxes to combinations of concentration gradients through the major and minor eigenvalues, and the diffusion path becomes parallel to the major eigenvector at each path end. General expressions for the slope of the ternary diffusion path at any section of the couple are also derived in terms of eigenvalue and eigenvector parameters. Expressions for the path slope at the Matano plane involve only concentrations, major and minor eigenvalues and eigenvector parameters. New constraints relating the eigenvalues and the concentration gradients of the individual components are also presented at selected sections, where the diffusion path is parallel to the straight line joining the terminal composition points on an isotherm. Applications of the various relations are illustrated with the aid of a hypothetical couple and an experimental Cu-Ni-Zn diffusion couple.

  10. The relationship between South Korean clinical nurses' attitudes toward organizations and voluntary turnover intention: A path analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Kyung; Chang, Sun Ju

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between attitudes toward their organizations and voluntary turnover intention among South Korean clinical nurses. Data from a total of 312 clinical nurses in six hospitals in South Korea were collected for the study. Both hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis were used to analyse the data. The overall fit of the hypothetical model was good. Voluntary turnover intention was found to have significant direct pathways to job embeddedness and organizational commitment. Organizational commitment and satisfaction with organizational rewards had indirect pathways to voluntary turnover intention through job embeddedness. All variances explained 62.3% of the voluntary turnover intention scores. The findings suggest that greater job embeddedness, organizational commitment and satisfaction with organizational rewards lead to lower voluntary turnover intention among clinical nurses in South Korea. PMID:24666586

  11. Response coefficient analysis of a fed-batch bioreactor to dissolved oxygen perturbation in complementary cultures during PHB production

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Pratap R

    2008-01-01

    Background Although the production of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) has many biological, energetic and environmental advantages over chemically synthesized polymers, synthetic polymers continue to be produced industrially since the productivities of fermentation processes fr PHB are not yet economically competitive. Improvement of a PHB fermentation requires good understanding and optimization under the realistic conditions of large bioreactors. Laboratory-scale studies have shown that co-cultures of Ralstonia eutropha and Lactobacillus delbrueckii generate better fermentation efficiencies than R. eutropha alone. In large bioreactors, incomplete dispersioin and perturbations in the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, both of which affect the fermentation, have to be considered. This study analyzes the effect of DO fluctuations on bioreactor performance for both ideal and optimally dispersed broths. Results Response coefficient analysis was employed to obtain quantitative information on the effect of DO perturbations on different variables. Three values of the Peclet number (Pe) cheracterized three levels of dispersion: Pe = 0.01 for nearly complete dispersion, Pe = 20 for optimum dispersion and Pe = 60 for insufficient dispersion. The response coefficients (RCs) of the pairs of bacterial concentrations and the main substrates, glucose and ammonium chloride, showed contrasting variations with time. Lactate, a critical intermediate, and PHB had similar RC profiles but those of lactate were one to two orders of magnitude larger than other RCs. Significantly, the optimum Pe also resulted in the largest RCs, suggesting a balance between productivity and reactor stability. Conclusion Since R. eutropha requires oxygen for its growth whereas L. delbrueckii does not, fluctuations in the DO concentartion have a strong influence on the fermentation. Apart from this, the mechanism of PHB biosynthesis indicates that control of lactate is a critical determinant of fermentation

  12. Integrative Analysis of Gene-Environment Interactions under a Multi-response Partially Linear Varying Coefficient Model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cen; Cui, Yuehua; Ma, Shuangge

    2014-01-01

    Consider the integrative analysis of genetic data with multiple correlated response variables. The goal is to identify important gene-environment (G×E) interactions along with main gene and environment effects that are associated with the responses. The homogeneity and heterogeneity models can be adopted to describe the genetic basis of multiple responses. To accommodate possible nonlinear effects of some environment effects, a multi-response partially linear varying coefficient (MPLVC) model is assumed. Penalization is adopted for marker selection. The proposed penalization method can select genetic variants with G×E interactions, no G×E interactions, and no main effects simultaneously. It adopts different penalties to accommodate the homogeneity and heterogeneity models. The proposed method can be effectively computed using a coordinate descent algorithm. Simulation study and the analysis of Health Professional’s Follow-up Study (HPFS), which has two correlated continuous traits, SNP measurements, and multiple environment effects, show superior performance of the proposed method over its competitors. PMID:25146388

  13. Life events, anxiety, social support, personality, and alexithymia in female patients with chronic pain: A path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fanmin; Yang, Bangxiang; Fu, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction This study sought to identify a model that explains the relationship between psychosocial factors and chronic pain in female patients, and to explore all of these constructs in a single study and provide a more holistic examination of the overall psychosocial factors that female patients with chronic pain encounter. Methods Female patients with chronic pain (n = 147), aged 20–65 (M = 34.9 years, SD = 11.25), from an outpatient pain clinic completed a cross‐sectional self‐report questionnaire on anxiety, life events, personality, social support, and alexithymia. Data were analyzed by means of path analysis. Results The direct effect of anxiety on female patients with chronic pain was greatest among all the paths. Personality and alexithymia led to chronic pain in female patients only indirectly, mediated by life events. The personality factors of neuroticism and extraversion were associated positively with social support, which had an indirect effect on the influence of life events on chronic pain. However, alexithymia was associated negatively with social support, which had an indirect effect on the influence of life events on chronic pain. Discussion Our findings provide evidence that life events are a mediator in the relationship between personality, social support, alexithymia, and chronic pain in female patients. PMID:26568558

  14. Bayesian Uncertainty Quantification for Bond Energies and Mobilities Using Path Integral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Joshua C.; Fok, Pak-Wing; Chou, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic single-molecule force spectroscopy is often used to distort bonds. The resulting responses, in the form of rupture forces, work applied, and trajectories of displacements, are used to reconstruct bond potentials. Such approaches often rely on simple parameterizations of one-dimensional bond potentials, assumptions on equilibrium starting states, and/or large amounts of trajectory data. Parametric approaches typically fail at inferring complicated bond potentials with multiple minima, while piecewise estimation may not guarantee smooth results with the appropriate behavior at large distances. Existing techniques, particularly those based on work theorems, also do not address spatial variations in the diffusivity that may arise from spatially inhomogeneous coupling to other degrees of freedom in the macromolecule. To address these challenges, we develop a comprehensive empirical Bayesian approach that incorporates data and regularization terms directly into a path integral. All experimental and statistical parameters in our method are estimated directly from the data. Upon testing our method on simulated data, our regularized approach requires less data and allows simultaneous inference of both complex bond potentials and diffusivity profiles. Crucially, we show that the accuracy of the reconstructed bond potential is sensitive to the spatially varying diffusivity and accurate reconstruction can be expected only when both are simultaneously inferred. Moreover, after providing a means for self-consistently choosing regularization parameters from data, we derive posterior probability distributions, allowing for uncertainty quantification. PMID:26331254

  15. Bayesian Uncertainty Quantification for Bond Energies and Mobilities Using Path Integral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fok, Pak-Wing; Chang, Joshua; Chou, Tom; UCLA-OSU-UD Biomath Group Collaboration

    Dynamic single-molecule force spectroscopy is often used to distort bonds. The resulting responses, in the form of rupture forces and trajectories of displacements, are used to reconstruct bond potentials. Such approaches often rely on simple parameterizations of one-dimensional bond potentials and/or large amounts of trajectory data. Parametric approaches typically fail at inferring complicated bond potentials with multiple minima, while piecewise estimation may not guarantee smooth results. Existing techniques also do not address spatial variations in the diffusivity that may arise from inhomogeneous coupling to other degrees of freedom in the macromolecule. To address these challenges, we develop an empirical Bayesian approach that incorporates data and regularization terms into a path integral. All experimental and statistical parameters in our method are estimated from the data. Upon testing our method on simulated data, our regularized approach requires less data and allows simultaneous inference of both complex bond potentials and diffusivities. We show that the accuracy of the reconstructed bond potential is sensitive to the spatially varying diffusivity and accurate reconstruction can be expected only when both are simultaneously inferred.

  16. Path analysis of relationship among personality, perceived stress, coping, social support, and psychological outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Feizi, Awat; Afshar, Hamid; Mazaheri, Mina; Behnamfar, Omid; Hassanzadeh-Keshteli, Ammar; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide a structural model of the relationship between personality traits, perceived stress, coping strategies, social support, and psychological outcomes in the general population. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study in which the study group was selected using multistage cluster and convenience sampling among a population of 4 million. For data collection, a total of 4763 individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire on demographics, personality traits, life events, coping with stress, social support, and psychological outcomes such as anxiety and depression. To evaluate the comprehensive relationship between the variables, a path model was fitted. RESULTS: The standard electronic modules showed that personality traits and perceived stress are important determinants of psychological outcomes. Social support and coping strategies were demonstrated to reduce the increasing cumulative positive effects of neuroticism and perceived stress on the psychological outcomes and enhance the protective effect of extraversion through decreasing the positive effect of perceived stress on the psychological outcomes. CONCLUSION: Personal resources play an important role in reduction and prevention of anxiety and depression. In order to improve the psychological health, it is necessary to train and reinforce the adaptive coping strategies and social support, and thus, to moderate negative personality traits. PMID:27354968

  17. Mathematical analysis study for radar data processing and enchancement. Part 2: Modeling of propagation path errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, R.; Brownlow, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    A study is performed under NASA contract to evaluate data from an AN/FPS-16 radar installed for support of flight programs at Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center. The purpose of this study is to provide information necessary for improving post-flight data reduction and knowledge of accuracy of derived radar quantities. Tracking data from six flights are analyzed. Noise and bias errors in raw tracking data are determined for each of the flights. A discussion of an altitude bias error during all of the tracking missions is included. This bias error is defined by utilizing pressure altitude measurements made during survey flights. Four separate filtering methods, representative of the most widely used optimal estimation techniques for enhancement of radar tracking data, are analyzed for suitability in processing both real-time and post-mission data. Additional information regarding the radar and its measurements, including typical noise and bias errors in the range and angle measurements, is also presented. This report is in two parts. This is part 2, a discussion of the modeling of propagation path errors.

  18. Quantitative analysis of human walking trajectory on a circular path in darkness.

    PubMed

    Takei, Y; Grasso, R; Berthoz, A

    1996-01-01

    Thirteen normal (eight young and five older) subjects and a patient who was removed left sided acoustic neurinoma were tested to walk blindfolded along circular paths. They were asked to walk completing two revolutions and to stop when they judged they had returned to the initial position with their head faced to the initial directions. Movements of two markers on the subjects head were recorded by three dimensional motion analyzing system (ELITE system) at 50 Hz which allowed us to measure (a) total walked distance, (b) average radius of the trajectory, and (c) cumulative angle of rotation. Eight young subjects were tested on three circles with radii 0.5, 0.9, and 1.15 m, in two conditions (control, and with mental arythmetic), only to clockwise direction. Five older subjects and a patient were tested on a circle of 0.9 m radius in two conditions, but to both directions, counterclockwise and clockwise. Walked trajectories of young subjects were smooth, whereas those of older subjects tended to be polygonal. Young subjects overshot the ideal distance (6.6%) and ideal radius (9.5%), whereas they undershot the ideal angle (5.1%). There was no effect of circle size or condition on these variables. On the other hand, there was a significant effect of condition on average radius in the older group. The performance of older subjects seemed to be affected by the concurrent mental task. Comparing the counterclockwise walk, the older subjects undershot the turning angle much more than the young subjects which suggest deficits in the vestibular function with aging. The patient showed larger radius and smaller angle while she turned to the healthy side (clockwise) than to the affected side (counterclockwise). Lack of unilateral vestibular information seemed to have affected the circular walking trajectory.

  19. Analysis and demonstration of atmospheric methane monitoring by mid-infrared open-path chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Daghestani, Nart S; Brownsword, Richard; Weidmann, Damien

    2014-12-15

    Atmospheric methane concentration levels were detected using a custom built laser dispersion spectrometer in a long open-path beam configuration. The instrument is driven by a chirped distributed feedback mid-infrared quantum cascade laser centered at ~1283.46 cm-1 and covers intense rotational-vibrational transitions from the fundamental ν4 band of methane. A full forward model simulating molecular absorption and dispersion profiles, as well as instrumental noise, is demonstrated. The instrument's analytical model is validated and used for quantitative instrumental optimization. The temporal evolution of atmospheric methane mixing ratios is retrieved using a fitting algorithm based on the model. Full error propagation analysis on precision gives a normalized sensitivity of ~3 ppm.m.Hz-0.5 for atmospheric methane. PMID:25607487

  20. Relative permeability of hydrate-bearing sediments from percolation theory and critical path analysis: theoretical and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, H.; Rice, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Relative permeabilities to water and gas are important parameters for accurate modeling of the formation of methane hydrate deposits and production of methane from hydrate reservoirs. Experimental measurements of gas and water permeability in the presence of hydrate are difficult to obtain. The few datasets that do exist suggest that relative permeability obeys a power law relationship with water or gas saturation with exponents ranging from around 2 to greater than 10. Critical path analysis and percolation theory provide a framework for interpreting the saturation-dependence of relative permeability based on percolation thresholds and the breadth of pore size distributions, which may be determined easily from 3-D images or gas adsorption-desorption hysteresis. We show that the exponent of the permeability-saturation relationship for relative permeability to water is related to the breadth of the pore size distribution, with broader pore size distributions corresponding to larger exponents. Relative permeability to water in well-sorted sediments with narrow pore size distributions, such as Berea sandstone or Toyoura sand, follows percolation scaling with an exponent of 2. On the other hand, pore-size distributions determined from argon adsorption measurements we performed on clays from the Nankai Trough suggest that relative permeability to water in fine-grained intervals may be characterized by exponents as large as 10 as determined from critical path analysis. We also show that relative permeability to the gas phase follows percolation scaling with a quadratic dependence on gas saturation, but the threshold gas saturation for percolation changes with hydrate saturation, which is an important consideration in systems in which both hydrate and gas are present, such as during production from a hydrate reservoir. Our work shows how measurements of pore size distributions from 3-D imaging or gas adsorption may be used to determine relative permeabilities.

  1. Relative permeability of hydrate-bearing sediments from percolation theory and critical path analysis: theoretical and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Daigle, Hugh; Rice, Mary Anna; Daigle, Hugh

    2015-12-14

    Relative permeabilities to water and gas are important parameters for accurate modeling of the formation of methane hydrate deposits and production of methane from hydrate reservoirs. Experimental measurements of gas and water permeability in the presence of hydrate are difficult to obtain. The few datasets that do exist suggest that relative permeability obeys a power law relationship with water or gas saturation with exponents ranging from around 2 to greater than 10. Critical path analysis and percolation theory provide a framework for interpreting the saturation-dependence of relative permeability based on percolation thresholds and the breadth of pore size distributions, which may be determined easily from 3-D images or gas adsorption-desorption hysteresis. We show that the exponent of the permeability-saturation relationship for relative permeability to water is related to the breadth of the pore size distribution, with broader pore size distributions corresponding to larger exponents. Relative permeability to water in well-sorted sediments with narrow pore size distributions, such as Berea sandstone or Toyoura sand, follows percolation scaling with an exponent of 2. On the other hand, pore-size distributions determined from argon adsorption measurements we performed on clays from the Nankai Trough suggest that relative permeability to water in fine-grained intervals may be characterized by exponents as large as 10 as determined from critical path analysis. We also show that relative permeability to the gas phase follows percolation scaling with a quadratic dependence on gas saturation, but the threshold gas saturation for percolation changes with hydrate saturation, which is an important consideration in systems in which both hydrate and gas are present, such as during production from a hydrate reservoir. Our work shows how measurements of pore size distributions from 3-D imaging or gas adsorption may be used to determine relative permeabilities.

  2. Coefficient of thermal expansion dependent thermal stress analysis of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) using finite element model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, Omotola

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are highly sophisticated micro scale ceramic insulation applied on high temperature components such as gas turbine blades. TBCs create a large temperature drop between the gas turbine environment and the underlying metal blades. TBC lifetime is finite and influenced by several factors such as: Bond Coat (BC) oxidation, BC roughness, Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between the layers, and creep properties of the TBC system. However, there is a lack of reliable methods of TBC life prediction which result in under utilization of these coatings. This research study focuses on modeling the steady state thermal stresses in TBC systems of various oxide thicknesses, and BC roughness, using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The model factors into it the temperature dependent thermo mechanical properties of each layer, as well as the creep properties. The steady state model results show similar results to the existing transient models: an increase in tensile stresses as the oxide thickness increases, an increase in tensile stresses with BC roughness and stress relaxation in the ceramic BC interface due to creep. It also shows in each model, initially compressive stresses in the BC - Top Coat (TC) interface, and its evolution into higher tensile stresses which lead to crack formation and ultimately failure of the TBC by spallation.

  3. Express Path Analysis Identifies a Tyrosine Kinase Src-centric Network Regulating Divergent Host Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Ahmad Faisal; Chandra, Pallavi; Chopra, Aanchal; Siddiqui, Zaved; Bhaskar, Ashima; Singh, Amit; Kumar, Dhiraj

    2011-01-01

    Global gene expression profiling has emerged as a major tool in understanding complex response patterns of biological systems to perturbations. However, a lack of unbiased analytical approaches has restricted the utility of complex microarray data to gain novel system level insights. Here we report a strategy, express path analysis (EPA), that helps to establish various pathways differentially recruited to achieve specific cellular responses under contrasting environmental conditions in an unbiased manner. The analysis superimposes differentially regulated genes between contrasting environments onto the network of functional protein associations followed by a series of iterative enrichments and network analysis. To test the utility of the approach, we infected THP1 macrophage cells with a virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain (H37Rv) or the attenuated non-virulent strain H37Ra as contrasting perturbations and generated the temporal global expression profiles. EPA of the results provided details of response-specific and time-dependent host molecular network perturbations. Further analysis identified tyrosine kinase Src as the major regulatory hub discriminating the responses between wild-type and attenuated Mtb infection. We were then able to verify this novel role of Src experimentally and show that Src executes its role through regulating two vital antimicrobial processes of the host cells (i.e. autophagy and acidification of phagolysosome). These results bear significant potential for developing novel anti-tuberculosis therapy. We propose that EPA could prove extremely useful in understanding complex cellular responses for a variety of perturbations, including pathogenic infections. PMID:21953458

  4. Assessment of critical path analyses of the relationship between permeability and electrical conductivity of pore networks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Critical path analysis (CPA) is a method for estimating macroscopic transport coefficients of heterogeneous materials that are highly disordered at the micro-scale. Developed originally to model conduction in semiconductors, numerous researchers have noted that CPA might also have relevance to flow ...

  5. The informativeness of coefficients a and b of the soil line for the analysis of remote sensing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhovich, D. I.; Rukhovich, A. D.; Rukhovich, D. D.; Simakova, M. S.; Kulyanitsa, A. L.; Bryzzhev, A. V.; Koroleva, P. V.

    2016-08-01

    The coefficients of the soil line are often taken into account in calculations of vegetation indices. These coefficients are usually calculated for the entire satellite image, or are taken as constants without any calculations. In both cases, the informativeness of these coefficients is low and insufficient for the needs of soil mapping. In our study, we calculated soil line coefficients at 8000 lattice points for the territory of Plavsk, Arsen'evsk, and Chern districts of Tula oblast on the basis of 34 Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images obtained in 1985-2014. In order to distinguish between the soil line calculated for a given image and the soil line calculated for lattice points on the basis of dozens of multitemporal images, we suggest that the latter can be referred to as the temporal soil line. The temporal soil line is described by a classical equation: NIR = RED a + b, where a is its slope relative to the horizontal axis (RED), and b is the Y-axis (NIR) intercept. Both coefficients were used to create soil maps. The verification of the maps was performed with the use of data on 1985 soil pits. The informativeness of these coefficients appeared to be sufficient for delineation of eight groups of soils of different taxonomic levels: soddy moderately podzolic soils, soddy slightly podzolic soils, soddy-podzolic soils, light gray forest soils, gray forest soils, dark gray forest soils, podzolized chernozems, and leached chernozems. The b coefficient proved to be more informative, as it allowed us to create the soil map precisely on its basis. In order to create the soil map on the basis of the a coefficient, we had to apply some threshold values of the b coefficient. The bare soil on each of Landsat scenes was separated with the help of the mask of agricultural fields and the notion of the spectral neighborhood of soil line (SNSL).

  6. Meta-analysis inside and outside particle physics: convergence using the path of least resistance?

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dan; Baker, Rose

    2013-06-01

    In this note, we explain how the method proposed by Hartung and Knapp provides a compromise between conventional meta-analysis methodology and 'unconstrained averaging', as used by the Particle Data Group. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Meta-Analysis inside and outside Particle Physics: Convergence Using the Path of Least Resistance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Dan; Baker, Rose

    2013-01-01

    In this note, we explain how the method proposed by Hartung and Knapp provides a compromise between conventional meta-analysis methodology and "unconstrained averaging", as used by the Particle Data Group.

  8. Osmotic virial coefficients for model protein and colloidal solutions: Importance of ensemble constraints in the analysis of light scattering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siderius, Daniel W.; Krekelberg, William P.; Roberts, Christopher J.; Shen, Vincent K.

    2012-05-01

    Protein-protein interactions in solution may be quantified by the osmotic second virial coefficient (OSVC), which can be measured by various experimental techniques including light scattering. Analysis of Rayleigh light scattering measurements from such experiments requires identification of a scattering volume and the thermodynamic constraints imposed on that volume, i.e., the statistical mechanical ensemble in which light scattering occurs. Depending on the set of constraints imposed on the scattering volume, one can obtain either an apparent OSVC, A2,app, or the true thermodynamic OSVC, {B_{22}^{osm}}, that is rigorously defined in solution theory [M. A. Blanco, E. Sahin, Y. Li, and C. J. Roberts, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 225103 (2011), 10.1063/1.3596726]. However, it is unclear to what extent A2,app and {B_{22}^{osm}} differ, which may have implications on the physical interpretation of OSVC measurements from light scattering experiments. In this paper, we use the multicomponent hard-sphere model and a well-known equation of state to directly compare A2,app and {B_{22}^{osm}}. Our results from the hard-sphere equation of state indicate that A2,app underestimates {B_{22}^{osm}}, but in a systematic manner that may be explained using fundamental thermodynamic expressions for the two OSVCs. The difference between A2,app and {B_{22}^{osm}} may be quantitatively significant, but may also be obscured in experimental application by statistical uncertainty or non-steric interactions. Consequently, the two OSVCs that arise in the analysis of light scattering measurements do formally differ, but in a manner that may not be detectable in actual application.

  9. Preliminary analysis of 15 GHz scintillations on an ATS-5 satellite-to-ground path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levis, C. A.; Ungvichian, V.

    1976-01-01

    Although the ATS 5 satellite failed to de-spin, a rather intricate analysis procedure allows the extraction of scintillation information at spectral rates from 20 to 60 Hz, as well as below 0.5 Hz. The procedure has been applied to 15.3 GHz signals. Distributions and spectra were obtained for a limited amount of data, representing a variety of meteorological conditions. A definite correlation of scintillation strength and variability with rainfall is apparent. The data analysis is continuing.

  10. Linking predators to seasonality of upwelling: Using food web indicators and path analysis to infer trophic connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sarah Ann; Sydeman, William J.; Santora, Jarrod A.; Black, Bryan A.; Suryan, Robert M.; Calambokidis, John; Peterson, William T.; Bograd, Steven J.

    2012-08-01

    Upwelling in eastern boundary current systems is a primary driver of ecosystem productivity. Typically, peak upwelling occurs during spring and summer, but winter upwelling may also be important to ecosystem functions. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that winter and spring/summer upwelling, operating through indirect trophic interactions, are important to a suite of top predators in the California Current. To test this hypothesis, we collated information on upwelling, chlorophyll-a concentrations, zooplankton and forage fish, and related these to predator responses including rockfish growth, salmon abundance, seabird productivity and phenology (timing of egg-laying), and whale abundance. Seabird diets served in part as food web indicators. We modeled pathways of response using path analysis and tested for significance of the dominant paths with multiple regression. We found support for the hypothesis that relationships between upwelling and top predator variables were mediated primarily by intermediate trophic levels. Both winter and summer upwelling were important in path models, as were intermediate lower and mid trophic level functional groups represented by chlorophyll-a, zooplankton, and forage fish. Significant pathways of response explained from 50% to 80% of the variation of seabird (Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and common murre (Uria aalge)), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) dependent variables, whereas splitnose rockfish (Sebastes diploproa) showed no significant response pathways. Upwelling and trophic responses for salmon were established for both the year of ocean entry and the year of return, with zooplankton important in the year of ocean entry and forage fish important in the year of return. This study provides one of the first comparative investigations between upwelling and predators, from fish to marine mammals and birds within a geographically restricted area

  11. Detailed heat transfer coefficient measurements and thermal analysis at engine conditions of a pedestal with fillet radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Ireland, P. T.; Jones, T. V.

    1995-04-01

    The heat transfer coefficient over the surface of a pedestal with fillet radii has been measured using thermochromic liquid crystals and the transient heat transfer method. The tests were performed at engine representative Reynolds numbers for a geometry typical of those used in turbine blade cooling systems. The heat conduction process that occurs in the engine was subsequently modeled numerically with a finite element discretization of the solid pedestal. The measured heat transfer coefficients were used to derive the exact boundary conditions applicable to the engine. The temperature field within the pedestal, calculated using the correct heat transfer coefficient distribution, is compared to that calculated using an area-averaged heat transfer coefficient. Metal temperature differences of 90 K are predicted across the blade wall.

  12. Genetic variability, character association, and path analysis for economic traits in menthofuran rich half-sib seed progeny of Mentha piperita L.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Birendra; Mali, Himanshi; Gupta, Ekta

    2014-01-01

    Menthofuran rich eight half-sib seed progeny of Mentha piperita (MPS-36) were studied for various genetic parameters, namely, coefficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance, correlation, and path of various plant and oil attributes, namely, plant height, L:S ratio, herb yield, β -myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, menthone, menthofuran, neomenthone, pulegone, and menthol. Maximum genotypic coefficient of variation and genetic advance as percentage of mean were recorded for pulegone, followed by menthofuran and 1,8-cineole. The genotypic correlation in general was higher than phenotypic; positive significant correlation was recorded for limonene with 1,8-cineole and menthone, β -myrcene with limonene, and 1,8-cineole and menthofuran with neomenthol. A high direct positive effect on menthofuran was of neomenthol.

  13. Genetic Variability, Character Association, and Path Analysis for Economic Traits in Menthofuran Rich Half-Sib Seed Progeny of Mentha piperita L.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Birendra; Mali, Himanshi; Gupta, Ekta

    2014-01-01

    Menthofuran rich eight half-sib seed progeny of Mentha piperita (MPS-36) were studied for various genetic parameters, namely, coefficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance, correlation, and path of various plant and oil attributes, namely, plant height, L : S ratio, herb yield, β-myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, menthone, menthofuran, neomenthone, pulegone, and menthol. Maximum genotypic coefficient of variation and genetic advance as percentage of mean were recorded for pulegone, followed by menthofuran and 1,8-cineole. The genotypic correlation in general was higher than phenotypic; positive significant correlation was recorded for limonene with 1,8-cineole and menthone, β-myrcene with limonene, and 1,8-cineole and menthofuran with neomenthol. A high direct positive effect on menthofuran was of neomenthol. PMID:24963471

  14. Analysis of benchmarks on the reactivity temperature coefficient using new libraries based on ENDF/B-VI (release 5) and JEF2-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erradi, L.; Htet, A.; Chakir, E.

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents, the analysis of discrepancies between calculation and experiments in the prediction of isothermal moderator temperature coefficient of a set of lattice experiments, using WIMSD4, WIMSD5B and APOLLO1 lattice codes. In this analysis we have used the original cross sections libraries (CEA-86 library for APOLLO1 and both of 1981 and 1986 libraries for WIMS) and the updated ones based on JEF2.2 data for APOLLO code and both of ENDF/B6 and JEF2.2 data for WIMS code. We have also analysed the numerical benchmark proposed by Mosteller to evaluate the accuracy in predicting Doppler coefficient in light water type lattices. This study on Doppler coefficient was performed using, in addition to APOLLO and WIMS codes, the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B for which a new library based on ENDF/B6 nuclear data file, have been processed using the NJOY system.

  15. Social Cognitive Predictors of College Students' Academic Performance and Persistence: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Tramayne, Selena; Hoxha, Denada; Telander, Kyle; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lent, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested Social Cognitive Career Theory's (SCCT) academic performance model using a two-stage approach that combined meta-analytic and structural equation modeling methodologies. Unbiased correlations obtained from a previously published meta-analysis [Robbins, S. B., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., & Langley, R. (2004). Do psychosocial…

  16. Genetics correlation and path coefficient analysis of cotton yield with some contributing quantitative and qualitative traits in Upland Cotton (Gosspypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many quantitative and qualitative traits interact to affect lint yield in upland cotton. Breeders should be aware of these traits and their interactions before embarking on a breeding program to improve lint yield. In this study, twelve diverse germplasm lines of upland cotton were used to investiga...

  17. Openness to Experience and Night-Sky Watching Interest as Predictors of Reading for Pleasure: Path Analysis of a Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between reading for pleasure, night-sky watching interest, and openness to experience were examined in a sample of 129 college students. Results of a path analysis examining a mediation model indicated that the influence of night-sky interest on reading for pleasure was not mediated by the broad personality domain openness to…

  18. Path Analysis of Work Family Conflict, Job Salary and Promotion Satisfaction, Work Engagement to Subjective Well-Being of the Primary and Middle School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chun-mei; Cui, Shu-jing; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the path analysis of work family conflict, job salary and promotion satisfaction, work engagement to subjective well-being of the primary and middle school principals, and provide advice for enhancing their well-being. Methods: Using convenient sampling, totally 300 primary and middle school principals completed the WFC,…

  19. Individual and Social Influences on Students' Attitudes to Debt: A Cross-National Path Analysis Using Data from England and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil; Agnew, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the construction of debt attitudes among 439 first-year undergraduates in England and New Zealand. It works from a conceptual model that predicts that attitudes will be partly determined by a range of social factors, mediated through personality and 'financial literacy'. Path analysis is used to explore this model. The proposed…

  20. The Health Action Process Approach as a Motivational Model of Dietary Self-Management for People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chung-Yi; Lynch, Ruth Torkelson; Chan, Fong; Rose, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the health action process approach (HAPA) as a motivational model for dietary self-management for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Quantitative descriptive research design using path analysis was used. Participants were 209 individuals with MS recruited from the National MS Society and a…

  1. The Perceptions of Temporal Path Analysis of Learners' Self-Regulation on Learning Stress and Social Relationships in Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This research focus on the temporal path analysis of learning stress, test anxiety, peer stress (classmate relatedness), teacher relatedness, autonomy, and self-regulative performance in junior high school. Owing to the processes of self-determination always combines several negotiations with the interactive perceptions of personal experiences and…

  2. Dimensional model for estimating factors influencing childhood obesity: path analysis based modeling.

    PubMed

    Kheirollahpour, Maryam; Shohaimi, Shamarina

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to identify and develop a comprehensive model which estimates and evaluates the overall relations among the factors that lead to weight gain in children by using structural equation modeling. The proposed models in this study explore the connection among the socioeconomic status of the family, parental feeding practice, and physical activity. Six structural models were tested to identify the direct and indirect relationship between the socioeconomic status and parental feeding practice general level of physical activity, and weight status of children. Finally, a comprehensive model was devised to show how these factors relate to each other as well as to the body mass index (BMI) of the children simultaneously. Concerning the methodology of the current study, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied to reveal the hidden (secondary) effect of socioeconomic factors on feeding practice and ultimately on the weight status of the children and also to determine the degree of model fit. The comprehensive structural model tested in this study suggested that there are significant direct and indirect relationships among variables of interest. Moreover, the results suggest that parental feeding practice and physical activity are mediators in the structural model. PMID:25097878

  3. Thermal stress analysis of ceramic gas-path seal components for aircraft turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, F. E.; Bill, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Stress and temperature distributions were evaluated numerically for a blade-tip seal system proposed for gas turbine applications. The seal consists of an abradable ceramic layer on metallic backing with intermediate layers between the ceramic layer and metal substrate. The most severe stresses in the seal, as far as failure is concerned, are tensile stresses at the top of the ceramic layer and shear and normal stresses at the layer interfaces. All these stresses reach their maximum values during the deceleration phase of a test engine cycle. A parametric study was carried out to evaluate the influence of various design parameters on these critical stress values. The influences of material properties and geometric parameters of the ceramic, intermediate, and backing layers were investigated. After the parametric study was completed, a seal system was designed which incorporated materials with beneficial elastic and thermal properties in each layer of the seal. An analysis of the proposed seal design shows an appreciable decrease in the magnitude of the maximum critical stresses over those obtained with earlier configurations.

  4. Dimensional Model for Estimating Factors influencing Childhood Obesity: Path Analysis Based Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Kheirollahpour, Maryam; Shohaimi, Shamarina

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to identify and develop a comprehensive model which estimates and evaluates the overall relations among the factors that lead to weight gain in children by using structural equation modeling. The proposed models in this study explore the connection among the socioeconomic status of the family, parental feeding practice, and physical activity. Six structural models were tested to identify the direct and indirect relationship between the socioeconomic status and parental feeding practice general level of physical activity, and weight status of children. Finally, a comprehensive model was devised to show how these factors relate to each other as well as to the body mass index (BMI) of the children simultaneously. Concerning the methodology of the current study, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied to reveal the hidden (secondary) effect of socioeconomic factors on feeding practice and ultimately on the weight status of the children and also to determine the degree of model fit. The comprehensive structural model tested in this study suggested that there are significant direct and indirect relationships among variables of interest. Moreover, the results suggest that parental feeding practice and physical activity are mediators in the structural model. PMID:25097878

  5. Linear and nonlinear dynamic analysis of redundant load path bearingless rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. R.; Shultz, Louis A.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop the transfer matrix method to treat nonlinear autonomous boundary value problems with multiple branches. The application is the complete nonlinear aeroelastic analysis of multiple-branched rotor blades. Once the development is complete, it can be incorporated into the existing transfer matrix analyses. There are several difficulties to be overcome in reaching this objective. The conventional transfer matrix method is limited in that it is applicable only to linear branch chain-like structures, but consideration of multiple branch modeling is important for bearingless rotors. Also, hingeless and bearingless rotor blade dynamic characteristics (particularly their aeroelasticity problems) are inherently nonlinear. The nonlinear equations of motion and the multiple-branched boundary value problem are treated together using a direct transfer matrix method. First, the formulation is applied to a nonlinear single-branch blade to validate the nonlinear portion of the formulation. The nonlinear system of equations is iteratively solved using a form of Newton-Raphson iteration scheme developed for differential equations of continuous systems. The formulation is then applied to determine the nonlinear steady state trim and aeroelastic stability of a rotor blade in hover with two branches at the root. A comprehensive computer program is developed and is used to obtain numerical results for the (1) free vibration, (2) nonlinearly deformed steady state, (3) free vibration about the nonlinearly deformed steady state, and (4) aeroelastic stability tasks. The numerical results obtained by the present method agree with results from other methods.

  6. Painlevé analysis, auto-Bäcklund transformation and new analytic solutions for a generalized variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guang-Mei; Gao, Yi-Tian; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Chun-Yi

    2006-10-01

    There has been considerable interest in the study on the variable-coefficient nonlinear evolution equations in recent years, since they can describe the real situations in many fields of physical and engineering sciences. In this paper, a generalized variable-coefficient KdV (GvcKdV) equation with the external-force and perturbed/dissipative terms is investigated, which can describe the various real situations, including large-amplitude internal waves, blood vessels, Bose-Einstein condensates, rods and positons. The Painlevé analysis leads to the explicit constraint on the variable coefficients for such a equation to pass the Painlevé test. An auto-Bäcklund transformation is provided by use of the truncated Painlevé expansion and symbolic computation. Via the given auto-Bäcklund transformation, three families of analytic solutions are obtained, including the solitonic and periodic solutions.

  7. Analysis of long-term trends (1950–2009) in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient in major urban watersheds in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velpuri, N.M.; Senay, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the long-term trends in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient in major urban watersheds in the United States. The seasonal Mann–Kendall trend test was performed on monthly precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient data from 1950 to 2009 obtained from 62 urban watersheds covering 21 major urban centers in the United States. The results indicate that only five out of 21 urban centers in the United States showed an uptrend in precipitation. Twelve urban centers showed an uptrend in runoff coefficient. However, six urban centers did not show any trend in runoff coefficient, and three urban centers showed a significant downtrend. The highest rate of change in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient was observed in the Houston urban watershed. Based on the results obtained, we also attributed plausible causes for the trends. Our analysis indicated that while a human only influence is observed in most of the urban watersheds, a combined climate and human influence is observed in the central United States.

  8. Analysis of long-term trends (1950-2009) in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient in major urban watersheds in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the long-term trends in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient in major urban watersheds in the United States. The seasonal Mann-Kendall trend test was performed on monthly precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient data from 1950 to 2009 obtained from 62 urban watersheds covering 21 major urban centers in the United States. The results indicate that only five out of 21 urban centers in the United States showed an uptrend in precipitation. Twelve urban centers showed an uptrend in runoff coefficient. However, six urban centers did not show any trend in runoff coefficient, and three urban centers showed a significant downtrend. The highest rate of change in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient was observed in the Houston urban watershed. Based on the results obtained, we also attributed plausible causes for the trends. Our analysis indicated that while a human only influence is observed in most of the urban watersheds, a combined climate and human influence is observed in the central United States.

  9. Spreadsheet Method for Evaluation of Biochemical Reaction Rate Coefficients and Their Uncertainties by Weighted Nonlinear Least-Squares Analysis of the Integrated Monod Equation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laurence H.; McCarty, Perry L.; Kitanidis, Peter K.

    1998-01-01

    A convenient method for evaluation of biochemical reaction rate coefficients and their uncertainties is described. The motivation for developing this method was the complexity of existing statistical methods for analysis of biochemical rate equations, as well as the shortcomings of linear approaches, such as Lineweaver-Burk plots. The nonlinear least-squares method provides accurate estimates of the rate coefficients and their uncertainties from experimental data. Linearized methods that involve inversion of data are unreliable since several important assumptions of linear regression are violated. Furthermore, when linearized methods are used, there is no basis for calculation of the uncertainties in the rate coefficients. Uncertainty estimates are crucial to studies involving comparisons of rates for different organisms or environmental conditions. The spreadsheet method uses weighted least-squares analysis to determine the best-fit values of the rate coefficients for the integrated Monod equation. Although the integrated Monod equation is an implicit expression of substrate concentration, weighted least-squares analysis can be employed to calculate approximate differences in substrate concentration between model predictions and data. An iterative search routine in a spreadsheet program is utilized to search for the best-fit values of the coefficients by minimizing the sum of squared weighted errors. The uncertainties in the best-fit values of the rate coefficients are calculated by an approximate method that can also be implemented in a spreadsheet. The uncertainty method can be used to calculate single-parameter (coefficient) confidence intervals, degrees of correlation between parameters, and joint confidence regions for two or more parameters. Example sets of calculations are presented for acetate utilization by a methanogenic mixed culture and trichloroethylene cometabolism by a methane-oxidizing mixed culture. An additional advantage of application of this

  10. Predictive Value of Carotid Distensibility Coefficient for Cardiovascular Diseases and All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chuang; Wang, Jing; Ying, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of the present study is to determine the pooled predictive value of carotid distensibility coefficient (DC) for cardiovascular (CV) diseases and all-cause mortality. Background Arterial stiffness is associated with future CV events. Aortic pulse wave velocity is a commonly used predictor for CV diseases and all-cause mortality; however, its assessment requires specific devices and is not always applicable in all patients. In addition to the aortic artery, the carotid artery is also susceptible to atherosclerosis, and is highly accessible because of the surficial property. Thus, carotid DC, which indicates the intrinsic local stiffness of the carotid artery and may be determined using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, is of interest for the prediction. However, the role of carotid DC in the prediction of CV diseases and all-cause mortality has not been thoroughly characterized, and the pooled predictive value of carotid DC remains unclear. Methods A meta-analysis, which included 11 longitudinal studies with 20361 subjects, was performed. Results Carotid DC significantly predicted future total CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality. The pooled risk ratios (RRs) of CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality were 1.19 (1.06–1.35, 95%CI, 9 studies with 18993 subjects), 1.09 (1.01–1.18, 95%CI, 2 studies with 2550 subjects) and 1.65 (1.15–2.37, 95%CI, 6 studies with 3619 subjects), respectively, for the subjects who had the lowest quartile of DC compared with their counterparts who had higher quartiles. For CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality, a decrease in DC of 1 SD increased the risk by 13%, 6% and 41% respectively, whereas a decrease in DC of 1 unit increased the risk by 3%, 1% and 6% respectively. Conclusions Carotid DC is a significant predictor of future CV diseases and all-cause mortality, which may facilitate the identification of high-risk patients for the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of CV diseases

  11. Discrimination Analysis of Earthquakes and Man-Made Events Using ARMA Coefficients Determination by Artificial Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    AllamehZadeh, Mostafa

    2011-12-15

    A Quadratic Neural Networks (QNNs) model has been developed for identifying seismic source classification problem at regional distances using ARMA coefficients determination by Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). We have devised a supervised neural system to discriminate between earthquakes and chemical explosions with filter coefficients obtained by windowed P-wave phase spectra (15 s). First, we preprocess the recording's signals to cancel out instrumental and attenuation site effects and obtain a compact representation of seismic records. Second, we use a QNNs system to obtain ARMA coefficients for feature extraction in the discrimination problem. The derived coefficients are then applied to the neural system to train and classification. In this study, we explore the possibility of using single station three-component (3C) covariance matrix traces from a priori-known explosion sites (learning) for automatically recognizing subsequent explosions from the same site. The results have shown that this feature extraction gives the best classifier for seismic signals and performs significantly better than other classification methods. The events have been tested, which include 36 chemical explosions at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan and 61 earthquakes (mb = 5.0-6.5) recorded by the Iranian National Seismic Network (INSN). The 100% correct decisions were obtained between site explosions and some of non-site events. The above approach to event discrimination is very flexible as we can combine several 3C stations.

  12. A simple and accurate algorithm for path integral molecular dynamics with the Langevin thermostat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Li, Dezhang; Liu, Xinzijian

    2016-07-14

    We introduce a novel simple algorithm for thermostatting path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) with the Langevin equation. The staging transformation of path integral beads is employed for demonstration. The optimum friction coefficients for the staging modes in the free particle limit are used for all systems. In comparison to the path integral Langevin equation thermostat, the new algorithm exploits a different order of splitting for the phase space propagator associated to the Langevin equation. While the error analysis is made for both algorithms, they are also employed in the PIMD simulations of three realistic systems (the H2O molecule, liquid para-hydrogen, and liquid water) for comparison. It is shown that the new thermostat increases the time interval of PIMD by a factor of 4-6 or more for achieving the same accuracy. In addition, the supplementary material shows the error analysis made for the algorithms when the normal-mode transformation of path integral beads is used.

  13. A simple and accurate algorithm for path integral molecular dynamics with the Langevin thermostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Li, Dezhang; Liu, Xinzijian

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a novel simple algorithm for thermostatting path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) with the Langevin equation. The staging transformation of path integral beads is employed for demonstration. The optimum friction coefficients for the staging modes in the free particle limit are used for all systems. In comparison to the path integral Langevin equation thermostat, the new algorithm exploits a different order of splitting for the phase space propagator associated to the Langevin equation. While the error analysis is made for both algorithms, they are also employed in the PIMD simulations of three realistic systems (the H2O molecule, liquid para-hydrogen, and liquid water) for comparison. It is shown that the new thermostat increases the time interval of PIMD by a factor of 4-6 or more for achieving the same accuracy. In addition, the supplementary material shows the error analysis made for the algorithms when the normal-mode transformation of path integral beads is used.

  14. Science Learning: A path analysis of its links with reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, Francisco; García, Ángela; Berbén, A. B. G.; Justicia, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to build and test a conceptual model of the complex interrelationships between students' learning in science (learning approaches and self-regulation), their reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement. These variables were measured by means of a test and a series of questionnaires administered to 604 ninth-grade students, and the data collected were analysed using a correlational, cross-sectional design. Results of a path analysis indicated that (a) students' self-regulated and intentional knowledge-constructing activity (self-regulated strategy use, deep approach and knowledge-building) were what chiefly accounted for their question-asking in class; (b) question-asking (high and low levels) was related directly to reading comprehension and indirectly, through its contribution to the this, to academic achievement; (c) reading comprehension was directly and negatively associated with surface approach and indirectly and positively related to deep approach and knowledge-building; and (d) some of these variables, particularly reading comprehension, accounted for academic achievement in science. This model explained nearly 30% of the variance in academic achievement and provided a substantial and distinctive insight into the web of interrelationships among these variables. Implications for future research and science teaching and learning are discussed (e.g. the importance of supporting students' efforts to learn science in a meaningful, active and self-regulated way and of improving their reading comprehension).

  15. Scenario analysis and path selection of low-carbon transformation in China based on a modified IPAT model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a forecast and analysis of population, economic development, energy consumption and CO2 emissions variation in China in the short- and long-term steps before 2020 with 2007 as the base year. The widely applied IPAT model, which is the basis for calculations, projections, and scenarios of greenhouse gases (GHGs) reformulated as the Kaya equation, is extended to analyze and predict the relations between human activities and the environment. Four scenarios of CO2 emissions are used including business as usual (BAU), energy efficiency improvement scenario (EEI), low carbon scenario (LC) and enhanced low carbon scenario (ELC). The results show that carbon intensity will be reduced by 40-45% as scheduled and economic growth rate will be 6% in China under LC scenario by 2020. The LC scenario, as the most appropriate and the most feasible scheme for China's low-carbon development in the future, can maximize the harmonious development of economy, society, energy and environmental systems. Assuming China's development follows the LC scenario, the paper further gives four paths of low-carbon transformation in China: technological innovation, industrial structure optimization, energy structure optimization and policy guidance. PMID:24204922

  16. Interrelationships between postpartum events, hormonal therapy, reproductive abnormalities and reproductive performance in dairy cows: a path analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Etherington, W G; Martin, S W; Dohoo, I R; Bosu, W T

    1985-01-01

    Path analysis was used to determine the interrelationships between postpartum administration of gonadotrophin releasing hormone and cloprostenol and the occurrence of reproductive disease and reproductive performance in dairy cows. The data analysed were those collected on 226 Holstein-Friesian cows calving in a commercial dairy herd during a 17 month period (May 1, 1981 to October 1, 1982). Cows administered gonadotrophin releasing hormone at day 15 postpartum experienced an improved rate of uterine involution as determined by rectal palpation nine days later. Although this improved rate of uterine involution reduced the risk of pyometritis, it actually directly delayed conception. Also, gonadotrophin releasing hormone therapy directly resulted in an increased incidence of pyometritis which in turn resulted in an increase incidence of cystic ovarian disease and anestrus. The occurrence of these abnormalities resulted in increased intervals from calving to first observed estrus, first service and conception. In addition to this effect, the administration of gonadotrophin releasing hormone was also associated with increased plasma progesterone concentrations at days 24 and 28 postpartum which delayed conception. Cloprostenol therapy at day 24 postpartum resulted in a decreased plasma progesterone concentration at day 28 postpartum which was directly and indirectly associated with a decrease in the calving to conception interval. The indirect effects were mediated by a reduction in days to first estrus. Cloprostenol therapy also directly resulted in a decreased calving to first observed estrus interval for reasons not attributable to the level of progesterone at day 28. PMID:3899335

  17. The role of neighborhood disadvantage, physical disorder, and collective efficacy in adolescent alcohol use: a multilevel path analysis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Nicki; Denny, Simon; Sheridan, Janie; Zhao, Jinfeng; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2016-09-01

    Research into the salient exposures which explain neighborhood variation in adolescent alcohol use remains inconclusive. The Social Disorganization Theory suggests that neighborhood-level disadvantage may reduce collective efficacy to control adolescent risky behavior. Collective perceptions of physical disorder are also implicated in this neighborhood pathway. Drawing on data from a nationally-representative survey of urban high school students in New Zealand, multilevel path analysis was used to estimate the direct and mediating effects of neighborhood disadvantage, physical disorder, and collective efficacy on current drinking, frequency of binge drinking, and typical quantity of alcohol consumed. The findings supported an indirect pathway from disadvantage to binge drinking and high typical quantities in young adolescents (<16 years), mediated by physical disorder and reduced collective efficacy. Collective efficacy was not associated with current drinking in young adolescents. An opposing indirect effect was evident among older adolescents (≥16 years), whereby collective efficacy was positively associated with drinking outcomes. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27521816

  18. An analysis of quantum effects on the thermodynamic properties of cryogenic hydrogen using the path integral method.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, H; Tsuda, S; Tsuboi, N; Koshi, M; Hayashi, K A; Tokumasu, T

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we describe the analysis of the thermodynamic properties of cryogenic hydrogen using classical molecular dynamics (MD) and path integral MD (PIMD) method to understand the effects of the quantum nature of hydrogen molecules. We performed constant NVE MD simulations across a wide density-temperature region to establish an equation of state (EOS). Moreover, the quantum effect on the difference of molecular mechanism of pressure-volume-temperature relationship was addressed. The EOS was derived based on the classical mechanism idea only using the MD simulation results. Simulation results were compared with each MD method and experimental data. As a result, it was confirmed that although the EOS on the basis of classical MD cannot reproduce the experimental data of saturation property of hydrogen in the high-density region, the EOS on the basis of PIMD well reproduces those thermodynamic properties of hydrogen. Moreover, it was clarified that taking quantum effects into account makes the repulsion force larger and the potential well shallower. Because of this mechanism, the intermolecular interaction of hydrogen molecules diminishes and the virial pressure increases.

  19. Gender differences in exercise dependence and eating disorders in young adults: a path analysis of a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Meulemans, Shelli; Pribis, Peter; Grajales, Tevni; Krivak, Gretchen

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to study the prevalence of exercise dependence (EXD) among college students and to investigate the role of EXD and gender on exercise behavior and eating disorders. Excessive exercise can become an addiction known as exercise dependence. In our population of 517 college students, 3.3% were at risk for EXD and 8% were at risk for an eating disorder. We used Path analysis the simplest case of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to investigate the role of EXD and exercise behavior on eating disorders. We observed a small direct effect from gender to eating disorders. In females we observed significant direct effect between exercise behavior (r = -0.17, p = 0.009) and EXD (r = 0.34, p < 0.001) on eating pathology. We also observed an indirect effect of exercise behavior on eating pathology (r = 0.16) through EXD (r = 0.48, r2 = 0.23, p < 0.001). In females the total variance of eating pathology explained by the SEM model was 9%. In males we observed a direct effect between EXD (r = 0.23, p < 0.001) on eating pathology. We also observed indirect effect of exercise behavior on eating pathology (r = 0.11) through EXD (r = 0.49, r2 = 0.24, p < 0.001). In males the total variance of eating pathology explained by the SEM model was 5%. PMID:25379689

  20. Scenario Analysis and Path Selection of Low-Carbon Transformation in China Based on a Modified IPAT Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a forecast and analysis of population, economic development, energy consumption and CO2 emissions variation in China in the short- and long-term steps before 2020 with 2007 as the base year. The widely applied IPAT model, which is the basis for calculations, projections, and scenarios of greenhouse gases (GHGs) reformulated as the Kaya equation, is extended to analyze and predict the relations between human activities and the environment. Four scenarios of CO2 emissions are used including business as usual (BAU), energy efficiency improvement scenario (EEI), low carbon scenario (LC) and enhanced low carbon scenario (ELC). The results show that carbon intensity will be reduced by 40–45% as scheduled and economic growth rate will be 6% in China under LC scenario by 2020. The LC scenario, as the most appropriate and the most feasible scheme for China’s low-carbon development in the future, can maximize the harmonious development of economy, society, energy and environmental systems. Assuming China's development follows the LC scenario, the paper further gives four paths of low-carbon transformation in China: technological innovation, industrial structure optimization, energy structure optimization and policy guidance. PMID:24204922

  1. Going to work ill: A meta-analysis of the correlates of presenteeism and a dual-path model.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Mariella; Johns, Gary

    2016-07-01

    Interest in presenteeism, attending work while ill, has flourished in light of its consequences for individual well-being and organizational productivity. Our goal was to identify its most significant causes and correlates by quantitatively summarizing the extant research. Additionally, we built an empirical model of some key correlates and compared the etiology of presenteeism versus absenteeism. We used meta-analysis (in total, K = 109 samples, N = 175,965) to investigate the correlates of presenteeism and meta-analytic structural equation modeling to test the empirical model. Salient correlates of working while ill included general ill health, constraints on absenteeism (e.g., strict absence policies, job insecurity), elevated job demands and felt stress, lack of job and personal resources (e.g., low support and low optimism), negative relational experiences (e.g., perceived discrimination), and positive attitudes (satisfaction, engagement, and commitment). Moreover, our dual process model clarified how job demands and job and personal resources elicit presenteeism via both health impairment and motivational paths, and they explained more variation in presenteeism than absenteeism. The study sheds light on the controversial act of presenteeism, uncovering both positive and negative underlying mechanisms. The greater variance explained in presenteeism as opposed to absenteeism underlines the opportunities for researchers to meaningfully investigate the behavior and for organizations to manage it. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Going to work ill: A meta-analysis of the correlates of presenteeism and a dual-path model.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Mariella; Johns, Gary

    2016-07-01

    Interest in presenteeism, attending work while ill, has flourished in light of its consequences for individual well-being and organizational productivity. Our goal was to identify its most significant causes and correlates by quantitatively summarizing the extant research. Additionally, we built an empirical model of some key correlates and compared the etiology of presenteeism versus absenteeism. We used meta-analysis (in total, K = 109 samples, N = 175,965) to investigate the correlates of presenteeism and meta-analytic structural equation modeling to test the empirical model. Salient correlates of working while ill included general ill health, constraints on absenteeism (e.g., strict absence policies, job insecurity), elevated job demands and felt stress, lack of job and personal resources (e.g., low support and low optimism), negative relational experiences (e.g., perceived discrimination), and positive attitudes (satisfaction, engagement, and commitment). Moreover, our dual process model clarified how job demands and job and personal resources elicit presenteeism via both health impairment and motivational paths, and they explained more variation in presenteeism than absenteeism. The study sheds light on the controversial act of presenteeism, uncovering both positive and negative underlying mechanisms. The greater variance explained in presenteeism as opposed to absenteeism underlines the opportunities for researchers to meaningfully investigate the behavior and for organizations to manage it. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26550958

  3. Gender Differences in Exercise Dependence and Eating Disorders in Young Adults: A Path Analysis of a Conceptual Model

    PubMed Central

    Meulemans, Shelli; Pribis, Peter; Grajales, Tevni; Krivak, Gretchen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to study the prevalence of exercise dependence (EXD) among college students and to investigate the role of EXD and gender on exercise behavior and eating disorders. Excessive exercise can become an addiction known as exercise dependence. In our population of 517 college students, 3.3% were at risk for EXD and 8% were at risk for an eating disorder. We used Path analysis the simplest case of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to investigate the role of EXD and exercise behavior on eating disorders. We observed a small direct effect from gender to eating disorders. In females we observed significant direct effect between exercise behavior (r = −0.17, p = 0.009) and EXD (r = 0.34, p < 0.001) on eating pathology. We also observed an indirect effect of exercise behavior on eating pathology (r = 0.16) through EXD (r = 0.48, r2 = 0.23, p < 0.001). In females the total variance of eating pathology explained by the SEM model was 9%. In males we observed a direct effect between EXD (r = 0.23, p < 0.001) on eating pathology. We also observed indirect effect of exercise behavior on eating pathology (r = 0.11) through EXD (r = 0.49, r2 = 0.24, p < 0.001). In males the total variance of eating pathology explained by the SEM model was 5%. PMID:25379689

  4. Shortest multiple disconnected path for the analysis of entanglements in two- and three-dimensional polymeric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, Martin

    2005-06-01

    We present an algorithm which returns a shortest path and related number of entanglements for a given configuration of a polymeric system in 2 or 3 dimensions. Rubinstein and Helfand, and later Everaers et al. introduced a concept to extract primitive paths for dense polymeric melts made of linear chains (a multiple disconnected multibead 'path'), where each primitive path is defined as a path connecting the (space-fixed) ends of a polymer under the constraint of non-interpenetration (excluded volume) between primitive paths of different chains, such that the multiple disconnected path fulfills a minimization criterion. The present algorithm uses geometrical operations and provides a—model independent—efficient approximate solution to this challenging problem. Primitive paths are treated as 'infinitely' thin (we further allow for finite thickness to model excluded volume), and tensionless lines rather than multibead chains, excluded volume is taken into account without a force law. The present implementation allows to construct a shortest multiple disconnected path (SP) for 2D systems (polymeric chain within spherical obstacles) and an optimal SP for 3D systems (collection of polymeric chains). The number of entanglements is then simply obtained from the SP as either the number of interior kinks, or from the average length of a line segment. Further, information about structure and potentially also the dynamics of entanglements is immediately available from the SP. We apply the method to study the 'concentration' dependence of the degree of entanglement in phantom chain systems. Program summaryTitle of program:Z Catalogue number:ADVG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVG Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: Silicon Graphics (Irix), Sun (Solaris), PC (Linux) Operating systems or monitors under which the

  5. Temporal change in the extinction coefficient of snow on the Greenland ice sheet from an analysis of Seasat and Geosat altimeter data

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C.H.

    1996-09-01

    The extinction coefficient of snow k{sub e} along the central portion of the Greenland ice sheet is mapped using data from the Seasat (1978) and Geosat (1985-1989) altimeters. The extinction coefficient is obtained by fitting altimeter waveforms with a surface/volume scattering model. The authors find that in the lower latitudes the Seasat and Geosat extinction coefficients are very nearly the same, while in a specific higher latitude region of the ice sheet the Seasat K{sub e} values exceed the Geosat values by over 100%. By analyzing 18 months of the geosat data, the authors quantified the variability inherent in the extinction coefficient measurements. The results show that the observed temporal variation in the extinction coefficient from 1978 to 1985 is three times larger than the measured variability. This indicates that the average grain size of the near surface snow in this region may have decreased during the time span between the two altimeter datasets. The temporal change in extinction coefficient found in this study demonstrates the important contributions that time-series analysis of satellite datasets can make to the study of the polar ice sheets. In addition, these results have important implications for the study of long-term elevation change over the ice sheets using altimeter data. The study demonstrates that significant biases could be introduced into ice-sheet elevation change estimates because of temporal variations in the surface conditions of the ice sheet. Future investigations of ice-sheet mass balance using altimetry data should be aware of this possibility.

  6. Theoretical analysis of dynamic property for piezoelectric cantilever triple-layer benders with large piezoelectric and electromechanical coupling coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Li Jiao; Pan, Cheng Liang; Pan, Qiao Sheng; Feng, Zhi Hua

    2016-06-01

    Ferroelectric single crystals, such as PZN-PT, provide novel prospects in piezoelectric bending devices such as actuators, sensors or energy harvesters because of their extraordinarily large piezoelectric coefficients. However, large errors may occur in some analyses on electromechanical behaviors using the conventional models. We find the bending rigidity of piezoelectric composited bender is affected not only by thickness, width and the modulus of elasticity of the different layers but also electromechanical coupling coefficients (EMCCs) of the piezoelectric material and the larger EMCCs mean more marked effect. This paper focuses on the derivation of the applied input excitation and output response characteristics in the circular frequency domain for piezoelectric cantilever triple-layer benders (PCTBs), taking into account the secondary piezoelectric effect. Analytic dynamic descriptions of such actuators and transducers are obtained. Based on the presented models dynamic features of PCTB composed of PZN-8%PT are calculated, and numerical results coincide with simulations using the finite element method (FEM).

  7. Analysis of ground-water flow along a regional flow path of the Midwestern Basins and Arches aquifer system in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanover, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of ground-water flow in central-western and northwestern Ohio was done as part of the Midwestern Basins and Arches Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project. The Midwestern Basins and Arches aquifer system is composed of carbonate bedrock of Silurian and Devonian age and overlying glacial flow analysis of the Scioto and Blanchard rivers in the study area were used to describe patrems of ground-water flow, to evaluate stream-aquifer interaction, and to quantify recharge and discharge within the ground-water-flow system along a regional ground-water-flow path. The selected regional flow path begins at a regional topographic high in Logan County, Ohio, and ends in Sandusky Bay (Lake Erie), a regional topographic low. Recharge to the ground-water system along the selected regional flow path was estimated from hydrograph separation of streamflow and averaged 3.24 inches per year. Computer model simulations indicate that 84 percent of the water entering the ground-water system flows less than 5 miles from point of recharge to point of discharge and no deeper than the upper surficial aquifers. The distance and depth that ground water travels and traveltime from point of recharge to point of discharge is controlled largely by where ground water enters the flow system. Ground water entering the flow system in the vicinity of major surface- water divides generally travels further, deeper, and longer than ground water entering the flow system elsewhere along the regional flow path. Particle tracking simulations substantiate the concept that the 80-mile-long regional flow path is within a continuous ground-water basin. Estimated traveltimes for ground-water from the regional high to Sandusky Bay range from 22,000 to 40,700 years, given a range of porosities from 8 to 22 percent for the carbonate-rock aquifer.

  8. Potential risk and its influencing factors for separated bicycle paths.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Yang, Ying; Jin, Sheng; Qu, Zhaowei; Hou, Lei

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose two potential risk indicators to define and evaluate the safety of bicycle path at the microscopic level. Field bicycle data were collected from three survey sites under different traffic conditions. These two risk indicators based on speed dispersion were proposed and calculated during each 5-min interval. The risk influences of various widths of bicycle path and traffic conditions were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. We further proposed a generalized linear model (GLM) for modeling and analyzing the relationships between bicycle risks and v/c ratio and percentages of electric bicycles, male cyclists, young cyclists, and loaded cyclists. The stepwise regression models were applied for determination of coefficients. The results show that the influences of gender and age of cyclists on potential risks are not significant. The risks increase with the width of bicycle path and percentage of electric bicycles, while only for wider bicycle path (4-lane case in this study), the risks are associated with whether or not cyclists are loaded. The findings could contribute for analysis and evaluation of the safety for bicycle path.

  9. Potential risk and its influencing factors for separated bicycle paths.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Yang, Ying; Jin, Sheng; Qu, Zhaowei; Hou, Lei

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose two potential risk indicators to define and evaluate the safety of bicycle path at the microscopic level. Field bicycle data were collected from three survey sites under different traffic conditions. These two risk indicators based on speed dispersion were proposed and calculated during each 5-min interval. The risk influences of various widths of bicycle path and traffic conditions were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. We further proposed a generalized linear model (GLM) for modeling and analyzing the relationships between bicycle risks and v/c ratio and percentages of electric bicycles, male cyclists, young cyclists, and loaded cyclists. The stepwise regression models were applied for determination of coefficients. The results show that the influences of gender and age of cyclists on potential risks are not significant. The risks increase with the width of bicycle path and percentage of electric bicycles, while only for wider bicycle path (4-lane case in this study), the risks are associated with whether or not cyclists are loaded. The findings could contribute for analysis and evaluation of the safety for bicycle path. PMID:26647016

  10. Perfecting a method of micro-analysis of water and acetic acid in a cocoa bean in the course of drying: applying to determine transportation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nganhou, J.; Njomo, D.; Bénet, J. C.; Augier, F.; Berthomieu, G.

    2003-09-01

    This article is about the study of the diffusion of water and acetic acid in a grain of cocoa in course of drying. The authors present a method of microanalysis which enables the analysis of each little slice of the grain : a precise measurement of each slice is realised in view of the analysis from the centre to the surface of the grain with the aid of a cutting apparatus, designed and realised to this effect. At each instant of the drying process, the profiles of water and acetic acid contents are then determined. A one dimensional diffusion model enables a shell by shell evaluation of the diffusion of water and acid in the cocoa grain. The results obtained show an augmentation of transport coefficients in course of drying. We however observe a decrease of the diffusion coefficient of water to the low moisture content : what makes us think of the appearance of crusting phenomenon.

  11. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  12. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

  13. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  14. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; Roberts, C. M.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences based on development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in more developed sites. Thematically, people in less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community based solutions, while people in more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in water-rich sites. Thematically, people in water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  15. A one- and two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path of the AARE (Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering) modular code system

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Higgs, C.E.; Stepanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    AARE, a code package to perform Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering, is a linked modular system for fission reactor core and shielding, as well as fusion blanket, analysis. Its cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path presently includes the cross-section processing and reformatting code TRAMIX, cross-section homogenization and library reformatting code MIXIT, the 1-dimensional transport code ONEDANT, the 2-dimensional transport code TRISM, and the 1- and 2- dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty code SENSIBL. IN the present work, a short description of the whole AARE system is given, followed by a detailed description of the cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Graph characterization via Ihara coefficients.

    PubMed

    Ren, Peng; Wilson, Richard C; Hancock, Edwin R

    2011-02-01

    The novel contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we demonstrate how to characterize unweighted graphs in a permutation-invariant manner using the polynomial coefficients from the Ihara zeta function, i.e., the Ihara coefficients. Second, we generalize the definition of the Ihara coefficients to edge-weighted graphs. For an unweighted graph, the Ihara zeta function is the reciprocal of a quasi characteristic polynomial of the adjacency matrix of the associated oriented line graph. Since the Ihara zeta function has poles that give rise to infinities, the most convenient numerically stable representation is to work with the coefficients of the quasi characteristic polynomial. Moreover, the polynomial coefficients are invariant to vertex order permutations and also convey information concerning the cycle structure of the graph. To generalize the representation to edge-weighted graphs, we make use of the reduced Bartholdi zeta function. We prove that the computation of the Ihara coefficients for unweighted graphs is a special case of our proposed method for unit edge weights. We also present a spectral analysis of the Ihara coefficients and indicate their advantages over other graph spectral methods. We apply the proposed graph characterization method to capturing graph-class structure and clustering graphs. Experimental results reveal that the Ihara coefficients are more effective than methods based on Laplacian spectra.

  17. The role of the forest cover on the definition of runoff coefficient in a regional flood frequency analysis applied to Mediterranean catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Forzieri, Giovanni; Preti, Federico

    2014-05-01

    Flood frequency is fundamental for planning and design structural and non-structural mitigation strategies against land degradation. Flood frequency analysis aims at estimating the probability distributions of flood peaks, so that the flood magnitude for any design return period can be easily determined. The approach commonly employed in engineering hydrology in ungauged catchments is the regional analysis, which exploits the hydrological similarities among catchments and the scaling properties of flood statistics for exporting the information available in gauged catchments to ungauged catchments. One of method most widely applied by hydrologists and engineers is the index flood method, based on the identification of homogeneous regions, where the probability distributions of the annual maximum floods are assumed invariant except for a site-specific scale parameter known as the index flood. The index flood is generally assumed coincident with the mean of annual maximum of flood peaks and is estimated by indirect methods. An indirect estimation method largely applied is based on a conceptual model structured according to the well-known rational formula. A key parameter of the rational formula is the runoff coefficient, which can be interpreted as a probabilistic factor controlling not only the position but also the slope and the curvature of the flood frequency curve. Provided that vegetation patterns can have a significant influence on the catchment antecedent conditions as well as on other rainfall runoff processes in rural catchments, in this study we explore to what extent forest cover can be employed to predict the runoff coefficient, in the framework of a regional flood frequency analysis based on the rational formula coupled with a regional analysis of annual maximum rainfall depths. The results of a k-means cluster analysis applied to a data set of 75 catchments distributed from South to Central Italy, evidenced that the second component of the runoff

  18. Electrochemical proton-coupled electron transfer of an osmium aquo complex: theoretical analysis of asymmetric tafel plots and transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Michelle K; Soudackov, Alexander V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2010-02-01

    Electrochemical proton-coupled electron transfer of an osmium aquo complex attached to a self-assembled monolayer on a gold electrode is studied with a recently developed theoretical formulation. The calculated hydrogen/deuterium kinetic isotope effect for the standard rate constant, the cathodic transfer coefficient at zero overpotential, and the Tafel plot are in excellent agreement with experimental data. The input quantities to the heterogeneous rate constant expressions were calculated with density functional theory in conjunction with dielectric continuum models, and no parameters were fit to experimental data. The theoretical calculations indicate that the asymmetry of the Tafel plot and the deviation of the transfer coefficient at zero overpotential from the standard value of one-half arise from the change in the equilibrium proton donor-acceptor distance upon electron transfer. The direction of the asymmetry and deviation from one-half is determined by the sign of this distance change, and the magnitude of these effects is determined by the magnitude of this distance change, as well as the reorganization energy and the distance dependence of the overlap between the initial and final proton vibrational wave functions. This theory provides experimentally testable predictions for the impact of specific system properties on the qualitative behavior of the Tafel plots. PMID:20067257

  19. Controlling the optical path length in turbid media using differential path-length spectroscopy: fiber diameter dependence.

    PubMed

    Kaspers, O P; Sterenborg, H J C M; Amelink, A

    2008-01-20

    We have characterized the path length for the differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) fiber optic geometry for a wide range of optical properties and for fiber diameters ranging from 200 microm to 1000 microm. Phantom measurements show that the path length is nearly constant for scattering coefficients in the range 5 mm(-1)< micros <50 mm(-1) for all fiber diameters and that the path length is proportional to the fiber diameter. The path length decreases with increasing absorption for all fiber diameters, and this effect is more pronounced for larger fiber diameters. An empirical model is formulated that relates the DPS path length to total absorption for all fiber diameters simultaneously.

  20. Effect of electron collisions on transport coefficients induced by the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bendib, A.; Tahraoui, A.; Bendib, K.; Mohammed El Hadj, K.; Hueller, S.

    2005-03-01

    The transport coefficients of fully ionized plasmas under the influence of a high-frequency electric field are derived solving numerically the electron Fokker-Planck equation using a perturbation method, parametrized as a function of the electron mean-free-path {lambda}{sub ei} compared to the spatial scales L. The isotropic and anisotropic contributions of the inverse bremsstrahlung heating are considered. Electron-electron collision terms are kept in the analysis, which allows us to consider with sufficient accuracy to describe plasmas with arbitrary atomic number Z. Practical numerical fits of the transport coefficients are proposed as functions of Z and the collisionality parameter {lambda}{sub ei}/L.

  1. Sensing polarization effects through the analysis of the effective C6 dispersion coefficients in NaCl solutions.

    PubMed

    Guevara-García, Alfredo; Ireta, Joel; Galván, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory based ab initio molecular dynamics is used to obtain microscopic details of the interactions in sodium chloride solutions. By following the changes in the atomic C6 coefficients under the Tkatchenko-Scheffler's scheme, we were able to identify two different coordination situations for the Cl(-) ion with significant different capabilities to perform dispersion interactions. This capability is enhanced when the ion-ion distance corresponds to the contact ion-pair situation. Also, the oxygen and hydrogen atoms of the water molecules change their aptitudes to interact through van der Waals like terms when they are close to the cation region of the ion-pair. These results have interesting implications on the design of force fields to model electrolyte solutions. PMID:25573569

  2. Sensing polarization effects through the analysis of the effective C{sub 6} dispersion coefficients in NaCl solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Guevara-García, Alfredo Ireta, Joel; Galván, Marcelo

    2015-01-07

    Density functional theory based ab initio molecular dynamics is used to obtain microscopic details of the interactions in sodium chloride solutions. By following the changes in the atomic C{sub 6} coefficients under the Tkatchenko-Scheffler’s scheme, we were able to identify two different coordination situations for the Cl{sup −} ion with significant different capabilities to perform dispersion interactions. This capability is enhanced when the ion-ion distance corresponds to the contact ion-pair situation. Also, the oxygen and hydrogen atoms of the water molecules change their aptitudes to interact through van der Waals like terms when they are close to the cation region of the ion-pair. These results have interesting implications on the design of force fields to model electrolyte solutions.

  3. Identification of 'carbon hot-spots' and quantification of GHG intensities in the biodiesel supply chain using hybrid LCA and structural path analysis.

    PubMed

    Acquaye, Adolf A; Wiedmann, Thomas; Feng, Kuishang; Crawford, Robert H; Barrett, John; Kuylenstierna, Johan; Duffy, Aidan P; Koh, S C Lenny; McQueen-Mason, Simon

    2011-03-15

    It is expected that biodiesel production in the EU will remain the dominant contributor as part of a 10% minimum binding target for biofuel in transportation fuel by 2020 within the 20% renewable energy target in the overall EU energy mix. Life cycle assessments (LCA) of biodiesel to evaluate its environmental impacts have, however, remained questionable, mainly because of the adoption of a traditional process analysis approach resulting in system boundary truncation and because of issues regarding the impacts of land use change and N(2)O emissions from fertilizer application. In this study, a hybrid LCA methodology is used to evaluate the life cycle CO(2) equivalent emissions of rape methyl ester (RME) biodiesel. The methodology uses input-output analysis to estimate upstream indirect emissions in order to complement traditional process LCA in a hybrid framework. It was estimated that traditional LCA accounted for 2.7 kg CO(2)-eq per kg of RME or 36.6% of total life cycle emissions of the RME supply chin. Further to the inclusion of upstream indirect impacts in the LCA system (which accounted for 23% of the total life cycle emissions), emissions due to direct land use change (6%) and indirect land use change (16.5%) and N(2)O emissions from fertilizer applications (17.9%) were also calculated. Structural path analysis is used to decompose upstream indirect emissions paths of the biodiesel supply chain in order to identify, quantify, and rank high carbon emissions paths or 'hot-spots' in the biodiesel supply chain. It was shown, for instance, that inputs from the 'Other Chemical Products' sector (identified as phosphoric acid, H(3)PO(4)) into the biodiesel production process represented the highest carbon emission path (or hot-spot) with 5.35% of total upstream indirect emissions of the RME biodiesel supply chain. PMID:21319814

  4. Using path analysis to examine causal relationships among balanced scorecard performance indicators for general hospitals: the case of a public hospital system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Chin; Tung, Yu-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Examining whether the causal relationships among the performance indicators of the balanced scorecard (BSC) framework exist in hospitals is the aim of this article. Data were collected from all twenty-one general hospitals in a public hospital system and their supervising agency for the 3-year period, 2000-2002. The results of the path analyses identified significant causal relationships among four perspectives in the BSC model. We also verified the relationships among indicators within each perspective, some of which varied as time changed. We conclude that hospital administrators can use path analysis to help them identify and manage leading indicators when adopting the BSC model. However, they should also validate causal relationships between leading and lagging indicators periodically because the management environment changes constantly.

  5. Using path analysis to examine causal relationships among balanced scorecard performance indicators for general hospitals: the case of a public hospital system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Chin; Tung, Yu-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Examining whether the causal relationships among the performance indicators of the balanced scorecard (BSC) framework exist in hospitals is the aim of this article. Data were collected from all twenty-one general hospitals in a public hospital system and their supervising agency for the 3-year period, 2000-2002. The results of the path analyses identified significant causal relationships among four perspectives in the BSC model. We also verified the relationships among indicators within each perspective, some of which varied as time changed. We conclude that hospital administrators can use path analysis to help them identify and manage leading indicators when adopting the BSC model. However, they should also validate causal relationships between leading and lagging indicators periodically because the management environment changes constantly. PMID:17077702

  6. Spaces of paths and the path topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    The natural topology on the space of causal paths of a space-time depends on the topology chosen on the space-time itself. Here we consider the effect of using the path topology on space-time instead of the manifold topology, and its consequences for how properties of space-time are reflected in the structure of the space of causal paths.

  7. Recommended Distribution Coefficients, Kd Values, for Special Analysis Risk Calculations Related to Waste Disposal and Tank Closure on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D

    2005-08-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide a technically defensible list of distribution coefficients, or Kd values, for use in performance assessment (PA) and special analysis (SA) calculations on the SRS. Only Kd values for radionuclides that have new information related to them or that have recently been recognized as being important are discussed in this report. Some 150 Kd values are provided in this report for various waste-disposal or tank-closure environments: soil, corrosion in grout, oxidizing grout waste, gravel, clay, and reducing concrete environments. Documentation and justification for the selection of each Kd value is provided.

  8. PATH: a work sampling-based approach to ergonomic job analysis for construction and other non-repetitive work.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, B; Paquet, V; Punnett, L; Lee, D; Moir, S

    1996-06-01

    A high prevalence and incidence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been reported in construction work. Unlike industrial production-line activity, construction work, as well as work in many other occupations (e.g. agriculture, mining), is non-repetitive in nature; job tasks are non-cyclic, or consist of long or irregular cycles. PATH (Posture, Activity, Tools and Handling), a work sampling-based approach, was developed to characterize the ergonomic hazards of construction and other non-repetitive work. The posture codes in the PATH method are based on the Ovako Work Posture Analysing System (OWAS), with other codes included for describing worker activity, tool use, loads handled and grasp type. For heavy highway construction, observations are stratified by construction stage and operation, using a taxonomy developed specifically for this purpose. Observers can code the physical characteristics of the job reliably after about 30 h of training. A pilot study of six construction laborers during four road construction operations suggests that laborers spend large proportions of time in nonneutral trunk postures and spend approximately 20% of their time performing manual material handling tasks. These results demonstrate how the PATH method can be used to identify specific construction operations and tasks that are ergonomically hazardous.

  9. Performance analysis of multi-radio routing protocol in cognitive radio ad hoc networks under different path failure rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che-Aron, Z.; Abdalla, A. H.; Abdullah, K.; Hassan, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, Cognitive Radio (CR) technology has largely attracted significant studies and research. Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network (CRAHN) is an emerging self-organized, multi-hop, wireless network which allows unlicensed users to opportunistically access available licensed spectrum bands for data communication under an intelligent and cautious manner. However, in CRAHNs, a lot of failures can easily occur during data transmission caused by PU (Primary User) activity, topology change, node fault, or link degradation. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the performance of the Multi-Radio Link-Quality Source Routing (MR-LQSR) protocol in CRAHNs under different path failure rate. In the MR-LQSR protocol, the Weighted Cumulative Expected Transmission Time (WCETT) is used as the routing metric. The simulations are carried out using the NS-2 simulator. The protocol performance is evaluated with respect to performance metrics like average throughput, packet loss, average end-to-end delay and average jitter. From the simulation results, it is observed that the number of path failures depends on the PUs number and mobility rate of SUs (Secondary Users). Moreover, the protocol performance is greatly affected when the path failure rate is high, leading to major service outages.

  10. Efficient path-based computations on pedigree graphs with compact encodings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A pedigree is a diagram of family relationships, and it is often used to determine the mode of inheritance (dominant, recessive, etc.) of genetic diseases. Along with rapidly growing knowledge of genetics and accumulation of genealogy information, pedigree data is becoming increasingly important. In large pedigree graphs, path-based methods for efficiently computing genealogical measurements, such as inbreeding and kinship coefficients of individuals, depend on efficient identification and processing of paths. In this paper, we propose a new compact path encoding scheme on large pedigrees, accompanied by an efficient algorithm for identifying paths. We demonstrate the utilization of our proposed method by applying it to the inbreeding coefficient computation. We present time and space complexity analysis, and also manifest the efficiency of our method for evaluating inbreeding coefficients as compared to previous methods by experimental results using pedigree graphs with real and synthetic data. Both theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that our method is more scalable and efficient than previous methods in terms of time and space requirements. PMID:22536898

  11. Age dating of shallow groundwater with chlorofluorocarbons, tritium/helium 3, and flow path analysis, southern New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Z.; Rice, D.E.; Plummer, L.N.; Busenberg, E.; Drenkard, S.; Schlosser, P.

    1996-01-01

    Groundwater age dating through the combination of transient tracer methods (chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and tritium/helium 3 (3H/3He)) and groundwater flow path analysis is useful for investigating groundwater travel times, flow patterns, and recharge rates, as demonstrated by this study of the homogeneous shallow, unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the southern New Jersey coastal plain. Water samples for age dating were collected from three sets of nested observation wells (10 wells) with 1.5-m-long screens located near groundwater divides. Three steady state finite difference groundwater flow models were calibrated by adjusting horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities to match measured heads and head differences (range, 0.002-0.23 m) among the nested wells, with a uniform recharge rate of 0.46 m per year and porosities of 0.35 (sand) and 0.45 (silt) that were assumed constant for all model simulations and travel time calculations. The simulated groundwater travel times increase with depth in the aquifer, ranging from about 1.5 to 6.5 years for the shallow wells (screen bottoms 3-4 m below the water table), from about 10 to 25 years for the medium-depth wells (screen bottoms 8-19 m below the water table), and from about 30 to more than 40 years for the deep wells (screen bottoms 24-26 m below the water table). Apparent groundwater ages based on CFC- and 3H/3He-dating techniques and model-based travel times could not be statistically differentiated, and all were strongly correlated with depth. Confinement of 3He was high because of the rapid vertical flow velocity (of the order of 1 m/yr), resulting in clear delineation of groundwater travel times based on the 3H/3He-dating technique. The correspondence between the 3H/3He and CFC ages indicates that dispersion has had a minimal effect on the tracer-based ages of water in this aquifer. Differences between the tracer-based apparent ages for seven of the 10 samples were smaller than the error values

  12. Suite of Benchmark Tests to Conduct Mesh-Convergence Analysis of Nonlinear and Non-constant Coefficient Transport Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, K.; Bombardelli, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    Verification of geophysics codes is imperative to avoid serious academic as well as practical consequences. In case that access to any given source code is not possible, the Method of Manufactured Solution (MMS) cannot be employed in code verification. In contrast, employing the Method of Exact Solution (MES) has several practical advantages. In this research, we first provide four new one-dimensional analytical solutions designed for code verification; these solutions are able to uncover the particular imperfections of the Advection-diffusion-reaction equation, such as nonlinear advection, diffusion or source terms, as well as non-constant coefficient equations. After that, we provide a solution of Burgers' equation in a novel setup. Proposed solutions satisfy the continuity of mass for the ambient flow, which is a crucial factor for coupled hydrodynamics-transport solvers. Then, we use the derived analytical solutions for code verification. To clarify gray-literature issues in the verification of transport codes, we designed a comprehensive test suite to uncover any imperfection in transport solvers via a hierarchical increase in the level of tests' complexity. The test suite includes hundreds of unit tests and system tests to check vis-a-vis the portions of the code. Examples for checking the suite start by testing a simple case of unidirectional advection; then, bidirectional advection and tidal flow and build up to nonlinear cases. We design tests to check nonlinearity in velocity, dispersivity and reactions. The concealing effect of scales (Peclet and Damkohler numbers) on the mesh-convergence study and appropriate remedies are also discussed. For the cases in which the appropriate benchmarks for mesh convergence study are not available, we utilize symmetry. Auxiliary subroutines for automation of the test suite and report generation are designed. All in all, the test package is not only a robust tool for code verification but it also provides comprehensive

  13. The Effect of the Violation of the Assumption of Independence When Combining Correlation Coefficients in a Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracz, Susan M.; Elmore, Patricia B.

    Meta-analysis is a technique for combining the summary statistics from previously conducted research studies to indicate the direction of results and provide an index of the magnitude of effect size. This paper focuses on the effect of the violation of the assumption of independence (that the value of any included statistic is in no way…

  14. Identification of Variables Associated with Group Separation in Descriptive Discriminant Analysis: Comparison of Methods for Interpreting Structure Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Holmes

    2010-01-01

    Discriminant Analysis (DA) is a tool commonly used for differentiating among 2 or more groups based on 2 or more predictor variables. DA works by finding 1 or more linear combinations of the predictors that yield maximal difference among the groups. One common goal of researchers using DA is to characterize the nature of group difference by…

  15. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  16. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  17. Transverse heat transfer coefficient in the dual channel ITER TF CICCs Part II. Analysis of transient temperature responses observed during a heat slug propagation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska, Monika; Herzog, Robert; Malinowski, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    A heat slug propagation experiment in the final design dual channel ITER TF CICC was performed in the SULTAN test facility at EPFL-CRPP in Villigen PSI. We analyzed the data resulting from this experiment to determine the equivalent transverse heat transfer coefficient hBC between the bundle and the central channel of this cable. In the data analysis we used methods based on the analytical solutions of a problem of transient heat transfer in a dual-channel cable, similar to Renard et al. (2006) and Bottura et al. (2006). The observed experimental and other limits related to these methods are identified and possible modifications proposed. One result from our analysis is that the hBC values obtained with different methods differ by up to a factor of 2. We have also observed that the uncertainties of hBC in both methods considered are much larger than those reported earlier.

  18. Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals

    SciTech Connect

    Sofo, J. O.; Mahan, G. D.

    2000-07-15

    Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  19. Summation Paths in Clenshaw-Curtis Quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, S.; Adam, Gh.

    2016-02-01

    Two topics concerning the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature within the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of Riemann integrals are considered. First, it is found that the efficient floating point computation of the coefficients of the Chebyshev series expansion of the integrand is to be done within a mathematical structure consisting of the union of coefficient families ordered into complete binary trees. Second, the scrutiny of the decay rates of the involved even and odd rank Chebyshev expansion coefficients with the increase of their rank labels enables the definition of Bayesian decision paths for the advancement to the numerical output.

  20. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Study and analysis of coefficient mismatch in a MASH21 sigma-delta modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binjie, Ge; Xin'an, Wang; Xing, Zhang; Xiaoxing, Feng; Qingqin, Wang

    2010-01-01

    The quantization noise leakage of the first stage in a MASH21 sigma-delta modulator is analyzed. The results show that the finite DC gain of the opamp is the main reason for noise leakage, and finite GBW and SR only generate harmonic distortion. The relationship between DC gain and leakage is modeled and conclusions on design criteria are reached. As an example, a MASH21 modulator for a digital audio application is realized. This modulator, fabricated in an 0.18 μm mixed signal process, achieves an SNDR of 91 dB with 1.8 V supply, which verifies the analysis and design criteria.

  1. Secondary Ionization Coefficient of Dielectric Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwagi, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Susumu; Itoh, Haruo

    Experiments for observations and stabilization of discharge paths in several electrode systems are carried out aiming at precise measurement of the secondary ionization coefficient γ of MgO film electrode. The discharge chamber is filled with Ar gas. The waveforms of the applied voltage between the electrodes and the discharge current are measured with visual observation of the discharge light. Two MgO coated electrodes are placed so that they are facing each other. For these MgO electrodes, the discharge paths take a detour, not the shortest distance. Smaller prebreakdown current pulses are observed before the breakdown. After breakdown, discontinuous discharge current is observed. Therefore, it is prepared a glass tube surrounding the discharge area. As the result, the discharge paths take a straight perpendicular for the electrode surface, and the discharge is stabilized.

  2. Senstitivity analysis of horizontal heat and vapor transfer coefficients for a cloud-topped marine boundary layer during cold-air outbreaks. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Y. V.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of external parameters on the surface heat and vapor fluxes into the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) during cold-air outbreaks are investigated using the numerical model of Stage and Businger (1981a). These fluxes are nondimensionalized using the horizontal heat (g1) and vapor (g2) transfer coefficient method first suggested by Chou and Atlas (1982) and further formulated by Stage (1983a). In order to simplify the problem, the boundary layer is assumed to be well mixed and horizontally homogeneous, and to have linear shoreline soundings of equivalent potential temperature and mixing ratio. Modifications of initial surface flux estimates, time step limitation, and termination conditions are made to the MABL model to obtain accurate computations. The dependence of g1 and g2 in the cloud topped boundary layer on the external parameters (wind speed, divergence, sea surface temperature, radiative sky temperature, cloud top radiation cooling, and initial shoreline soundings of temperature, and mixing ratio) is studied by a sensitivity analysis, which shows that the uncertainties of horizontal transfer coefficients caused by changes in the parameters are reasonably small.

  3. Spin-correlation coefficients and phase-shift analysis for p+{sup 3}He elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, T. V.; Arnold, C. W.; Cesaratto, J. M.; Clegg, T. B.; Couture, A. H.; Karwowski, H. J.; Katabuchi, T.

    2010-09-15

    Angular distributions for the target spin-dependent observables A{sub 0y}, A{sub xx}, and A{sub yy} have been measured using polarized proton beams at several energies between 2 and 6 MeV and a spin-exchange optical pumping polarized {sup 3}He target. These measurements have been included in a global phase-shift analysis following that of E. A. George and L. D. Knutson [Phys. Rev. C 67, 027001 (2003)], who reported two best-fit phase-shift solutions to the previous global p+{sup 3}He elastic-scattering database below 12 MeV. These new measurements, along with measurements of cross-section and beam-analyzing power made over a similar energy range by B. M. Fisher et al. [Phys. Rev. C 74, 034001 (2006)], allowed a single, unique solution to be obtained. The new measurements and phase shifts are compared with theoretical calculations using realistic nucleon-nucleon potential models.

  4. Determination of the helium diffusion coefficient in nuclear waste storage ceramics by a nuclear reaction analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosset, Dominique; Trocellier, Patrick; Serruys, Yves

    2002-06-01

    Host matrices for actinide immobilisation will undergo the formation of large helium quantities due to alpha decay. Helium diffusion rate has to be known in order to predict the long-term behaviour of the material, and particularly, the influence of helium accumulation on mechanical properties. A nuclear reaction analysis method, namely the 3He(d, p) 4He reaction, has been used to analyse the evolution of 3He profiles after ion implantations at 1 and 3 MeV in two materials, monoclinic ZrO 2 (as a test material) and Ca 9Nd(PO 4) 5(SiO 4)F 1.5(OH) 0.5 britholite (envisaged for Am and Pu long-term storage). Two data processing methods are used: the classical excitation curve (proton yields versus deuteron energy) and second, the proton energy spectrum for a given deuteron energy. The characteristics of the 3He profiles (depth, width) obtained by both methods are compared to SRIM estimations. Their evolution during subsequent annealings allows an estimation of the helium diffusion rate in the britholite: D ( cm2/ s)=(2.5±1.5)×10 -4exp(-(1.07±0.03 eV)/ kT) in the temperature range 200-400 °C, in agreement with previous results on similar materials. Moreover, the shape of the proton energy spectra suggests channeling effects in britholite.

  5. A Shortest-Path-Based Method for the Analysis and Prediction of Fruit-Related Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fangchu; Chen, Lei; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Biologically, fruits are defined as seed-bearing reproductive structures in angiosperms that develop from the ovary. The fertilization, development and maturation of fruits are crucial for plant reproduction and are precisely regulated by intrinsic genetic regulatory factors. In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana as a model organism and attempted to identify novel genes related to fruit-associated biological processes. Specifically, using validated genes, we applied a shortest-path-based method to identify several novel genes in a large network constructed using the protein-protein interactions observed in Arabidopsis thaliana. The described analyses indicate that several of the discovered genes are associated with fruit fertilization, development and maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27434024

  6. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy.

  7. Photon path distribution and optical responses of turbid media: theoretical analysis based on the microscopic Beer-Lambert law.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Y

    2001-08-01

    A concise theoretical treatment has been developed to describe the optical responses of a highly scattering inhomogeneous medium using functions of the photon path distribution (PPD). The treatment is based on the microscopic Beer-Lambert law and has been found to yield a complete set of optical responses by time- and frequency-domain measurements. The PPD is defined for possible photons having a total zigzag pathlength of l between the points of light input and detection. Such a distribution is independent of the absorption properties of the medium and can be uniquely determined for the medium under quantification. Therefore, the PPD can be calculated with an imaginary reference medium having the same optical properties as the medium under quantification except for the absence of absorption. One of the advantages of this method is that the optical responses, the total attenuation, the mean pathlength, etc are expressed by functions of the PPD and the absorption distribution.

  8. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy. PMID:25204160

  9. Determinants of Physical Activity Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Iranian Military Staff’s Wives: A Path Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shirvani, Zeinab Gholamnia; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2015-01-01

    Level of physical activity as a key determinant of healthy lifestyle less than is required in individuals particularly women. Applying theories of behavioral change about complex behaviors such as physical activity leads to identify effective factors and their relations. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of physical activity behavior based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in military staff’s wives in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was performed in 180 military personnel’s spouses residing in organizational houses, in Tehran, Iran in 2014. The participants were randomly selected with multi-stage cluster sampling. The validity and reliability of the theory based scale evaluated before conducting the path analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS16 and LISREL8.8. The results indicated the model explained 77% and 17% of intention and behavior variance. Subjective norms (Beta=0.83) and intention (Beta=0.37) were the strongest predictors of intention and behavior, respectively. The instrumental and affective attitude had no significant path to intention and behavior. The direct relation of perceived behavioral control to behavior was non-significant. This research demonstrated relative importance and relationships of Theory of Planned Behavior constructs in physical activity behavior of military personnel’s spouses in Tehran. It is essential to consider these determinants in designing of educational interventions for promoting and maintaining physical activity behavior in this target group. PMID:25948459

  10. Scenario Analysis on Global Hydropower Development Paths and Their Contribution to GHG Mitigation Utilizing a Dynamic CGE Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Z.; Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, hydropower accounts for 16% of the worldwide electricity power supply and 86% of the total renewable electricity energy source due to its low cost, low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and relatively high reliability. It is well known that the global hydropower has not yet been fully developed, but the future paths of development and corresponding contribution to GHG mitigation in each region combined with socioeconomic activities are less known. Here we investigated following three questions. How much will hydropower generation increase in the future? Will hydropower generation reach the economically exploitable capability (EEC)? If this will be the case, when and where will it occur? How much GHG emission will be reduced by adding new hydropower? In order to address these questions, we used the AIM/CGE model, a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to quantify the global hydropower development paths and corresponding GHG mitigation contribution for 17 regions in the world associated with a socio-economic scenario termed SSP2. We compared two scenarios with different assumptions on EEC. One is BAU which takes EEC from the report of "World Energy Resources", the other is FIX_BAU which fix EEC at the current hydropower generation amount throughout the research period (2005-2100) or no additional installation of hydropower plants. The comparison between two scenarios indicated that promoting hydropower development contributed to GHG emission reduction globally but the magnitude varied by region. For example we found that in North Africa, hydropower development grew fast because of the rapid economic development, but it reached EEC as soon as in 2040 because of limitation in EEC due to its climatic and geographical conditions. Conversely, in Brazil, it grew steadily and did not reach its abundant EEC. Consequently, GHG mitigation contribution of North Africa is far less than Brazil. This research provides important information for policy makers to

  11. Positive alcohol expectancies mediate the influence of the behavioral activation system on alcohol use: a prospective path analysis.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Colder, Craig R; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-04-01

    Gray's (1975, 1987) behavioral activation (BAS) and behavioral inhibition systems (BIS) are thought to underlie sensitivity to reinforcement and punishment, respectively. Consistent with Gray's theory and the Acquired Preparedness model, BAS may facilitate the learning of positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs) over time, leading to increases in drinking. Yet, no prospective tests of this pathway have been reported. The present study investigated whether BAS prospectively predicted PAEs and whether PAEs mediated the association between BAS and subsequent alcohol use. We hypothesized that BAS would influence drinking specifically via enhancement-related PAEs. We also explored the role of BIS in PAEs and drinking. College students (N=557) completed online BAS, PAE, and alcohol use measures in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. We conducted autoregressive path analyses with three BAS subscales and BIS (T1) as predictors, four PAE types (T2) as mediators, and quantity and frequency of drinking (T3) as outcomes. The BAS Fun-Seeking scale was prospectively associated with PAEs, and there was a significant indirect path from Fun-Seeking to alcohol use mediated specifically through activity enhancement PAEs. BIS was positively associated with some PAE types, but did not have indirect effects on drinking. Findings are consistent with both the theory of the BAS and the Acquired Preparedness model, as individuals high on BAS Fun-Seeking may find the rewarding properties of alcohol more reinforcing, leading to stronger enhancement PAEs and increased drinking over time. The prospective design helps establish the temporal association between BAS and alcohol-related learning, and points to the need for prevention efforts that target these at-risk students. PMID:22209025

  12. Positive alcohol expectancies mediate the influence of the behavioral activation system on alcohol use: a prospective path analysis.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Colder, Craig R; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-04-01

    Gray's (1975, 1987) behavioral activation (BAS) and behavioral inhibition systems (BIS) are thought to underlie sensitivity to reinforcement and punishment, respectively. Consistent with Gray's theory and the Acquired Preparedness model, BAS may facilitate the learning of positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs) over time, leading to increases in drinking. Yet, no prospective tests of this pathway have been reported. The present study investigated whether BAS prospectively predicted PAEs and whether PAEs mediated the association between BAS and subsequent alcohol use. We hypothesized that BAS would influence drinking specifically via enhancement-related PAEs. We also explored the role of BIS in PAEs and drinking. College students (N=557) completed online BAS, PAE, and alcohol use measures in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. We conducted autoregressive path analyses with three BAS subscales and BIS (T1) as predictors, four PAE types (T2) as mediators, and quantity and frequency of drinking (T3) as outcomes. The BAS Fun-Seeking scale was prospectively associated with PAEs, and there was a significant indirect path from Fun-Seeking to alcohol use mediated specifically through activity enhancement PAEs. BIS was positively associated with some PAE types, but did not have indirect effects on drinking. Findings are consistent with both the theory of the BAS and the Acquired Preparedness model, as individuals high on BAS Fun-Seeking may find the rewarding properties of alcohol more reinforcing, leading to stronger enhancement PAEs and increased drinking over time. The prospective design helps establish the temporal association between BAS and alcohol-related learning, and points to the need for prevention efforts that target these at-risk students.

  13. A new method of assessing cardiac autonomic function and its comparison with spectral analysis and coefficient of variation of R-R interval.

    PubMed

    Toichi, M; Sugiura, T; Murai, T; Sengoku, A

    1997-01-12

    A new non-linear method of assessing cardiac autonomic function was examined in a pharmacological experiment in ten healthy volunteers. The R-R interval data obtained under a control condition and in autonomic blockade by atropine and by propranolol were analyzed by each of the new methods employing Lorenz plot, spectral analysis and the coefficient of variation. With our method we derived two measures, the cardiac vagal index and the cardiac sympathetic index, which indicate vagal and sympathetic function separately. These two indices were found to be more reliable than those obtained by the other two methods. We anticipate that the non-invasive assessment of short-term cardiac autonomic function will come to be performed more reliably and conveniently by this method.

  14. Element analysis and calculation of the attenuation coefficients for gold, bronze and water matrixes using MCNP, WinXCom and experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfandiari, M.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Medhat, M. E.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, element analysis and the mass attenuation coefficient for matrixes of gold, bronze and water with various impurities and the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are evaluated and calculated by the MCNP simulation code for photons emitted from Barium-133, Americium-241 and sources with energies between 1 and 100 keV. The MCNP data are compared with the experimental data and WinXCom code simulated results by Medhat. The results showed that the obtained results of bronze and gold matrix are in good agreement with the other methods for energies above 40 and 60 keV, respectively. However for water matrixes with various impurities, there is a good agreement between the three methods MCNP, WinXCom and the experimental one in low and high energies.

  15. Improved 3D-QSPR analysis of the predictive octanol-air partition coefficients of hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxia; Shi, Jiaqi; Liu, Hui; Wang, Zunyao

    2013-10-01

    The octanol/air partition coefficient (KOA) is a key physicochemical parameter for describing the partition of organic pollutants between air and environment organic phase. The development of appropriate method to estimate KOA is of great importance. In the present study, the steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor and acceptor descriptors were computed by comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). On the basis of these parameters, the statistically quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models for logKOA of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) congeners were developed using partial least-squares (PLS) analysis, of which the R2 is about 0.980, 0.952 respectively. The electrostatic field was found to be main factors governing the logKOA. The results of validation indicate the models of this study exhibit optimum stability, and thus it is feasible to predict logKOA.

  16. 757 Path Loss Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Kent; Huffman, Mitch; Eppic, Brian; White, Harrison

    2005-01-01

    Path Loss Measurements were obtained on three (3) GPS equipped 757 aircraft. Systems measured were Marker Beacon, LOC, VOR, VHF (3), Glide Slope, ATC (2), DME (2), TCAS, and GPS. This data will provide the basis for assessing the EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) safety margins of comm/nav (communication and navigation) systems to portable electronic device emissions. These Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) include all devices operated in or around the aircraft by crews, passengers, servicing personnel, as well as the general public in the airport terminals. EMI assessment capability is an important step in determining if one system-wide PED EMI policy is appropriate. This data may also be used comparatively with theoretical analysis and computer modeling data sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and others.

  17. Multiple path length dual polarization interferometry.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Paul D; Swann, Marcus J; Waigh, Thomas A; Schedin, Fred; Lu, Jian R

    2009-06-22

    An optical sensor for quantitative analysis of ultrathin films and adsorbed layers is described. Quantification of both layer thickness and refractive index (density) can be made for in situ and ex-situ coated films. With the use of two polarizations, in situ measurements are made via one path length in a young's interferometer arrangement while ex-situ measurements use multiple path lengths. The multiple path length young's interferometer arrangement is embodied in a solid state waveguide configuration called the multiple path length dual polarization interferometer (MPL-DPI). The technique is demonstrated with ultrathin layers of poly(methylmethacrylate) and human serum albumin.

  18. A comparative analysis of the center of gravity and center of pressure trajectory path lengths in standing posture: an estimation of active stiffness.

    PubMed

    Caron, O; Gelat, T; Rougier, P; Blanchi, J P

    2000-08-01

    The center of foot pressure (CP) motions, representing the net neuromuscular control, was compared to the center of gravity (CG) motions, representing the net performance. The comparison focused on the trajectory path length parameter along the medio-lateral and antero-posterior axes because these two variables depend on amplitude versus frequency relationship. This relationship was used to evaluate the CG motions based on the CP motions. Seven subjects stood still on a force plate with eyes open and eyes closed. The results showed that the ratio of (CP-CG)/CP trajectory path length was personal for each subject. These results suggest different levels of passive (ligaments, elastic properties) and active (reflex activity) stiffness. For some subjects, this ratio was significantly lower for the eyes open condition than for the eyes closed condition, indicating a decrease of the active stiffness for the eyes open condition. Therefore, a CG-CP comparative analysis appeared helpful in understanding the control of balance and necessary to quantify the subjects' net performance. PMID:11757569

  19. Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The role of multilateral donor agencies in global health is a new area of research, with limited research on how these agencies differ in terms of their governance arrangements, especially in relation to transparency, inclusiveness, accountability, and responsiveness to civil society. We argue that historical analysis of the origins of these agencies and their coalition formation processes can help to explain these differences. We propose an analytical approach that links the theoretical literature discussing institutional origins to path dependency and institutional theory relating to proto institutions in order to illustrate the differences in coalition formation processes that shape governance within four multilateral agencies involved in global health. We find that two new multilateral donor agencies that were created by a diverse coalition of state and non-state actors, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and GAVI, what we call proto-institutions, were more adaptive in strengthening their governance processes. This contrasts with two well-established multilateral donor agencies, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, what we call Bretton Woods (BW) institutions, which were created by nation states alone; and hence, have different origins and consequently different path dependent processes. PMID:23663485

  20. Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Atun, Rifat

    2013-01-01

    The role of multilateral donor agencies in global health is a new area of research, with limited research on how these agencies differ in terms of their governance arrangements, especially in relation to transparency, inclusiveness, accountability, and responsiveness to civil society. We argue that historical analysis of the origins of these agencies and their coalition formation processes can help to explain these differences. We propose an analytical approach that links the theoretical literature discussing institutional origins to path dependency and institutional theory relating to proto institutions in order to illustrate the differences in coalition formation processes that shape governance within four multilateral agencies involved in global health. We find that two new multilateral donor agencies that were created by a diverse coalition of state and non-state actors, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and GAVI, what we call proto-institutions, were more adaptive in strengthening their governance processes. This contrasts with two well-established multilateral donor agencies, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, what we call Bretton Woods (BW) institutions, which were created by nation states alone; and hence, have different origins and consequently different path dependent processes. PMID:23663485

  1. Effect of the shape on the spin state and exchange in quantum dots. Feynman path integral analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shevkunov, S. V.

    2015-05-15

    The ab initio computer simulation of the mixed quantum states of 1–5-nm model ellipsoid quantum dots with “soft” walls containing two and three quantum-indistinguishable nonrelativistic electrons has been performed by the path integral method. The calculation has been carried out beyond the single-electron and mean-field approximations with the fundamentally exact inclusion of Coulomb and exchange correlations of all orders and the spin variable. Distributions over the eigenfunctions of the spin-squared operator, as well as the equilibrium spin numbers, have been obtained depending on the shape of a quantum dot and the temperature. The complete set of basis functions symmetrized in permutations according to the spin of the system has been obtained by application of the Young symmetry operators. The dependence of the energy on the shape of the quantum dot corresponds to the negative sign of the surface tension at its boundary. The calculation indicates that the spin magnetic susceptibility in the system of two electrons decreases strongly for spherical quantum dots (“pairing” of spins) and the temperature dependences have a pronounced maximum whose position depends on the shape of the quantum dot. For three electrons in an oblate quantum dot, the inversion of the energy levels of spin states is observed and affects the spin magnetic susceptibility. The results indicate a strong dependence of the energy of collective spin states of electrons on the detailed inclusion of exchange and Coulomb spatial correlations.

  2. Analysis of Current Fluctuation Due to Trap and Percolation Path in Nano-Scale Bulk FinFET.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyu-Bong; Shin, Jongmin; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2016-05-01

    An electron in the channel can be trapped into the trap inside gate oxide and detrapped into the channel, resulting in the fluctuation in drain current. To investigate the drain current fluctuation (ΔI(D)) caused by trapping/detrapping of an electron in 22 nm bulk FinFET, 3-D device simulation was performed extensively. The ΔI(D) is changed by changing the position of the trap in the gate oxide along the surface of fin body. In the bulk FinFET, the trap located near the center of side surface of the fin body gives the larger ΔI(D) compared to those of the traps located at the top center, top corner, and side bottom. At a fixed trap position, the shallower trap depth (x(T)) from the interface between the gate oxide and the fin body gives the lager ΔI(D). With decreasing fin width (W(fin)) and fin height (H(fin)), the ΔI(D) increases. Especially, decreasing H(fin) increases ΔI(D) significantly. As the trap is close to a percolation path, the ΔI(D) also increases. PMID:27483825

  3. Nano-structural analysis of effective transport paths in fuel-cell catalyst layers by using stochastic material network methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seungho; Kim, Ah-Reum; Um, Sukkee

    2016-02-01

    A two-dimensional material network model has been developed to visualize the nano-structures of fuel-cell catalysts and to search for effective transport paths for the optimal performance of fuel cells in randomly-disordered composite catalysts. Stochastic random modeling based on the Monte Carlo method is developed using random number generation processes over a catalyst layer domain at a 95% confidence level. After the post-determination process of the effective connectivity, particularly for mass transport, the effective catalyst utilization factors are introduced to determine the extent of catalyst utilization in the fuel cells. The results show that the superficial pore volume fractions of 600 trials approximate a normal distribution curve with a mean of 0.5. In contrast, the estimated volume fraction of effectively inter-connected void clusters ranges from 0.097 to 0.420, which is much smaller than the superficial porosity of 0.5 before the percolation process. Furthermore, the effective catalyst utilization factor is determined to be linearly proportional to the effective porosity. More importantly, this study reveals that the average catalyst utilization is less affected by the variations of the catalyst's particle size and the absolute catalyst loading at a fixed volume fraction of void spaces.

  4. The relationships between asthma control, daytime sleepiness, and quality of life among children with asthma: a path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Huang, I-Chan; Thompson, Lindsay; Tuli, Sanjeev; Huang, Shih-Wen; DeWalt, Darren; Revicki, Dennis; Shenkman, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine the relationships between asthma control, daytime sleepiness, and asthma-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among children with asthma. Path analyses were conducted to test if daytime sleepiness can mediate the effect of asthma control status on asthma-specific HRQOL. Methods 160 dyads of asthmatic children and their parents were collected for analyses. The Asthma Control and Communication Instrument (ACCI) was used to categorize adequate and poor asthma control status. The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ) was used to measure children’s daytime sleepiness, including sleep in school, awake in school, sleep in evening, and sleep during transport. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Asthma Impact Scale was used to measure asthma-specific HRQOL. Results Poorly controlled asthma was associated with daytime sleepiness and impaired asthma-specific HRQOL. Asthma control status was directly associated with asthma-specific HRQOL (P<.05), whereas sleep in school and sleep in evening domains of daytime sleepiness significantly mediated the relationship between poor asthma control and impaired HRQOL (P<.01). Conclusions Asthma control status was associated with pediatric asthma-specific HRQOL, and the association was significantly mediated by daytime sleepiness. Healthcare providers need to address pediatric sleep needs related to poor asthma control to reduce the impact on HRQOL. PMID:23684939

  5. An Application of Calculus: Optimum Parabolic Path Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atasever, Merve; Pakdemirli, Mehmet; Yurtsever, Hasan Ali

    2009-01-01

    A practical and technological application of calculus problem is posed to motivate freshman students or junior high school students. A variable coefficient of friction is used in modelling air friction. The case in which the coefficient of friction is a decreasing function of altitude is considered. The optimum parabolic path for a flying object…

  6. Measurement and analysis of distribution coefficients in Fe-Ni alloys containing S and/or P. I - K sub Ni and K sub P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellamuthu, R.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution coefficients of Ni and P in Fe-Ni-S-P alloys are determined using a plane front solidification technique. It is found that the distribution coefficient of Ni is altered only when both S and P are present as alloy constituents; the coefficient increases with S and P contents in the liquid alloy and varies from 0.9 to 1.30. The behavior of the distribution coefficient of P is determined by the S/P ratio in the liquid; the coefficient increases with the S/P ratio and varies from 0.25 to 5.8. Expressions are presented which relate the distribution coefficients of Ni and P to the S and P contents in the liquid.

  7. The universal path integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth; Dreyer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Path integrals calculate probabilities by summing over classical configurations of variables such as fields, assigning each configuration a phase equal to the action of that configuration. This paper defines a universal path integral, which sums over all computable structures. This path integral contains as sub-integrals all possible computable path integrals, including those of field theory, the standard model of elementary particles, discrete models of quantum gravity, string theory, etc. The universal path integral possesses a well-defined measure that guarantees its finiteness. The probabilities for events corresponding to sub-integrals can be calculated using the method of decoherent histories. The universal path integral supports a quantum theory of the universe in which the world that we see around us arises out of the interference between all computable structures.

  8. Absorption and Attenuation Coefficients Using the WET Labs ac-s in the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Field Measurements and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.

    2008-01-01

    Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.

  9. Optical tomography with discretized path integral

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Bingzhi; Tamaki, Toru; Kushida, Takahiro; Mukaigawa, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Hiroyuki; Raytchev, Bisser; Kaneda, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We present a framework for optical tomography based on a path integral. Instead of directly solving the radiative transport equations, which have been widely used in optical tomography, we use a path integral that has been developed for rendering participating media based on the volume rendering equation in computer graphics. For a discretized two-dimensional layered grid, we develop an algorithm to estimate the extinction coefficients of each voxel with an interior point method. Numerical simulation results are shown to demonstrate that the proposed method works well. PMID:26839903

  10. Analysis and discrimination of grape spoilage via volatiles: a comparison between long optical path Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy and sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Dong, D; Zheng, W; Wang, W; Zhao, X; Jiao, L; Zhao, C

    2014-10-01

    Fruits release specific volatiles as vapors during spoilage that can provide information about the spoilage stages of fruits. We used long optical path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and sensor arrays comprising carbon dioxide and ethanol sensors to study the grape spoilage process synchronously. The results revealed that specific volatiles, such as carbon dioxide, ethanol and esters, are released from grapes during spoilage. The presence and concentrations of these compounds gradually change with storage time. Through chemometric analysis, the infrared spectra of volatiles from different spoilage stages of grapes were successfully classified. As a simple form of instrumentation, the sensor arrays also have the ability to discriminate whether the grapes have decayed. We established a Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) model to classify the grape samples into different spoilage stages, and the model according to different quantities of grapes is also discussed. This study demonstrates that it is possible to characterize grape spoilage by analyzing the released volatiles.

  11. [Tribological assessment of articular cartilage. A system for the analysis of the friction coefficient of cartilage, regenerates and tissue engineering constructs; initial results].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, M L R; Schneider-Wald, B; Krase, A; Richter, W; Reisig, G; Kreinest, M; Heute, S; Pott, P P; Brade, J; Schütte, A

    2012-10-01

    Values for the friction coefficient of articular cartilage are given in ranges of percentage and lower and are calculated as a quotient of the friction force and the perpendicular loading force acting on it. Thus, a sophisticated system has to be provided for analysing the friction coefficient under different conditions in particular when cartilage should be coupled as friction partner. It is possible to deep-freeze articular cartilage before measuring the friction coefficient as the procedure has no influence on the results. The presented tribological system was able to distinguish between altered and native cartilage. Furthermore, tissue engineered constructs for cartilage repair were differentiated from native cartilage probes by their friction coefficient. In conclusion a tribological equipment is presented to analyze the friction coefficient of articular cartilage, in vivo generated cartilage regenerates and in vitro tissue engineered constructs regarding their biomechanical properties for quality assessment.

  12. [Research on error reduction of path change of liquid samples based on near infrared trans-reflective spectra measurement].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Hong; Dong, Da-Ming; Zhou, Ping; Zheng, Wen-Gang; Ye, Song; Wang, Wen-Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Based on sucrose solution as the research object, this paper measured the trans-reflective spectrum of sucrose solution of different concentration by the technique of near infrared spectrum in three optical path (4, 5, 6 mm). Five kinds of pretreatment method (vector normalization, baseline offset correction, multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate transformation, a derivative) were used to eliminate the influence of the optical path difference, and to establish model of the calibration set in combination with the PLS (Partial Least Squares)method. Five kinds of pretreatment method could restrain the inter ference of light path in varying degrees. Compared with the PLS model of original spectra, the model of multiple scattering correction combined with PLS method is the optimal model. The results of quantitative analysis of original spectra: the number of principal component PC= 6, the determination coefficient R2 = 0.891 278, the determination coefficient of cross validation R2CV = 0.888 374, root mean square error of calibration RMSEC = 1.704%, root mean square error of cross validation RMSECV = 1.827%; The results of quantitative analysis of spectra after MSC pretreatment: the number of principal component PC = 3, the determination coefficient R2 = 0.987 535, the determination coefficient of cross validation R2CV = 0.983 343, root mean square er- ror of calibration RMSEC = 0.89%, root mean square error of cross validation RMSECV = 1.05%. The correlation coefficient of the prediction set is as much as 0.976 22. root mean square error of prediction is 0.01, lesser than 0.014 36. The results show that the MSC can eliminate the influence of optical path difference, improve the prediction precision and improve the stability.

  13. Measuring Seebeck Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus and method with various features to minimize typical sources of errors is described. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement errors which may impact accurate measurement are identified and reduced. Applying the identified principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus and method employing a uniaxial, four-point geometry is described to operate from room temperature up to 1300K. These techniques for non-destructive Seebeck coefficient measurements are simple to operate, and are suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.

  14. Orbital Path of the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Don Pettit, Andre Kuipers and Dan Burbank explain the orbital path of the International Space Station. Earth video credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA's Johnson Space Cen...

  15. A Comparison of Approaches for the Analysis of Interaction Effects between Latent Variables Using Partial Least Squares Path Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henseler, Jorg; Chin, Wynne W.

    2010-01-01

    In social and business sciences, the importance of the analysis of interaction effects between manifest as well as latent variables steadily increases. Researchers using partial least squares (PLS) to analyze interaction effects between latent variables need an overview of the available approaches as well as their suitability. This article…

  16. Impedance spectroscopy analysis of an electrolytic cell limited by Ohmic electrodes: The case of ions with two different diffusion coefficients dispersed in an aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalioto, F.; Barbero, G.; Figueiredo Neto, A. M.

    2007-11-01

    We analyze the influence of Ohmic electrodes on the impedance spectroscopy of an electrolytic cell in the shape of a slab. The electrolyte is assumed completely dissociated. The positive and negative ions have different diffusion coefficients. We show that in the very low frequency limit, the electrical impedance of the cell reduces to a pure resistance, whose value depends on the diffusion coefficients and on the conductivity of the electrodes. The ratio between the diffusion coefficients determines the numerical value of the plateaus of the resistance, and the position and amplitude of the local minimum of the reactance of the cell.

  17. Max Delbruck Prize in Biological Physics Lecture: Single-molecule protein folding and transition paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, William

    2012-02-01

    The transition path is the tiny fraction of an equilibrium molecular trajectory when a transition occurs by crossing the free energy barrier between two states. It is a uniquely single-molecule property, and has not yet been observed experimentally for any system in the condensed phase. The importance of the transition path in protein folding is that it contains all of the mechanistic information on how a protein folds. As a major step toward observing transition paths, we have determined the average transition-path time for a fast and a slow-folding protein from a photon-by-photon analysis of fluorescence trajectories in single-molecule FRET experiments. While the folding rate coefficients differ by 10,000-fold, surprisingly, the transition-path times differ by less than 5-fold, showing that a successful barrier crossing event takes almost the same time for a fast- and a slow-folding protein, i.e. almost the same time to fold when it actually happens.

  18. Thermal analysis of pad-on-disc contact under tribological solicitations: a coupled numerical-experimental approach to identify surface temperatures and flow partition coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellami, Amira; Kchaou, Mohamed; Elleuch, Riadh; Desplanques, Yannick

    2016-09-01

    Aiming to provide a better understanding of thermal phenomena occurring in a sliding contact under tribological solicitation, a numerical model of pad-on-disc tribometer has been proposed. This study deals with an inverse problem concerning the identification of the heat exchange coefficient "h". The method used allows the sequential estimation of the thermal boundary conditions by minimizing an error function between numerical and experimental temperature values. Coupled with the identification of the heat flux partition coefficient, the proposed model is validated.

  19. Investigating the possible effects of trauma experiences and 5-HTT on the dissociative experiences of patients with OCD using path analysis and multiple regression.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Christine; Seedat, Soraya; Hemmings, Sian M J; Moolman-Smook, Johanna C; Kidd, Martin; Stein, Dan J

    2007-01-01

    Dissociation is defined as the disruption of the usually integrated functions of consciousness, such as memory, identity, and perceptions of the environment. Causes include various psychological, neurological and neurobiological mechanisms, none of which have been consistently supported. To our knowledge, the role of gene-environment interactions in dissociative experiences in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has not previously been investigated. Eighty-three Caucasian patients (29 male, 54 female) with a principal diagnosis of OCD were included. The Dissociative Experiences Scale was used to assess dissociation. The role of childhood trauma (assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire), and a functional 44-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter, or 5-HTT, in mediating dissociation, was investigated using multiple regression analysis and path analysis using the partial least squares model. Both analyses indicated that an interaction between physical neglect and the S/S genotype of the 5-HTT gene significantly predicted dissociation in patients with OCD. Dissociation may be a predictor of poorer treatment outcome in patients with OCD; therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon may be useful. Here, two different but related statistical techniques (multiple regression and partial least squares), confirmed that physical neglect and the 5-HTT genotype jointly play a role in predicting dissociation in OCD. PMID:17943026

  20. Investigating the possible effects of trauma experiences and 5-HTT on the dissociative experiences of patients with OCD using path analysis and multiple regression.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Christine; Seedat, Soraya; Hemmings, Sian M J; Moolman-Smook, Johanna C; Kidd, Martin; Stein, Dan J

    2007-01-01

    Dissociation is defined as the disruption of the usually integrated functions of consciousness, such as memory, identity, and perceptions of the environment. Causes include various psychological, neurological and neurobiological mechanisms, none of which have been consistently supported. To our knowledge, the role of gene-environment interactions in dissociative experiences in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has not previously been investigated. Eighty-three Caucasian patients (29 male, 54 female) with a principal diagnosis of OCD were included. The Dissociative Experiences Scale was used to assess dissociation. The role of childhood trauma (assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire), and a functional 44-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter, or 5-HTT, in mediating dissociation, was investigated using multiple regression analysis and path analysis using the partial least squares model. Both analyses indicated that an interaction between physical neglect and the S/S genotype of the 5-HTT gene significantly predicted dissociation in patients with OCD. Dissociation may be a predictor of poorer treatment outcome in patients with OCD; therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon may be useful. Here, two different but related statistical techniques (multiple regression and partial least squares), confirmed that physical neglect and the 5-HTT genotype jointly play a role in predicting dissociation in OCD.

  1. Calibration of the infrared molar absorption coefficients by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) for H measurements in olivine and clinopyroxene crystals and rhyolitic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubaud, C.; Bureau, H.; Raepsaet, C.; Khodja, H.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Withers, A. C.; Bell, D. R.

    2007-12-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is the most widely applied technique for measuring hydrogen in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) and silicate glasses. FTIR is rapid, sensitive, widely available and gives information on the bonding environment of H-bearing species. H determination relies on the Beer-Lambert law and therefore requires constraints on the applicable molar absorption coefficient, ɛ. Values of ɛ may be derived only from independent absolute methods. These ɛ are now reasonably well known for glasses, but to date determinations of ɛ applicable to NAMs are extremely limited and subject to uncertainties. Most notably, the Paterson (1982) calibration gives H contents in olivine that are a factor of 2.5- 3.5 lower than those suggested by the Bell et al. JGR 2003 calibration. We performed elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) on a range of samples that had been previously analyzed by FTIR, including natural rhyolitic glasses (1430-1772 ppm H2O), natural and synthetic olivine (0-910 ppm), natural orthopyroxene (38-147 ppm), and natural clinopyroxene crystals (0-490 ppm). ERDA is a nuclear microprobe technique that yields matrix-independent absolute determinations of H concentration. A 3 MeV beam of 4He is employed at high spatial resolution (50 × 200 microns). The detection limit, determined from analysis of dry minerals is 150±20 ppm H2O, too great for analysis of many NAMs from the upper mantle, but applicable to H-rich natural and synthetic NAMs. For glasses, synthetic olivines, and clinopyroxenes, we found good proportionality between the measured ERDA hydrogen concentration and the linear (rhyolite) or integrated (minerals) absorbance measured by FTIR. The ɛ found for rhyolite (103±9 l/mol per cm) is close to that of 88±2 l/mol per cm given by Dobson et al. (GCA, 1989). For clinopyroxene, we obtain ɛ 47010±6070 l/mol per cm2, slightly larger than 38300±1700 l/mol per cm2 found by Bell et al. (Am. Min. 1995). Finally, for

  2. Density-dependent analysis of nonequilibrium paths improves free energy estimates II. A Feynman-Kac formalism.

    PubMed

    Minh, David D L; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan

    2011-01-21

    The nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems have paved the way for estimating equilibrium thermodynamic properties, such as free energy differences, using trajectories from driven nonequilibrium processes. While many statistical estimators may be derived from these identities, some are more efficient than others. It has recently been suggested that trajectories sampled using a particular time-dependent protocol for perturbing the Hamiltonian may be analyzed with another one. Choosing an analysis protocol based on the nonequilibrium density was empirically demonstrated to reduce the variance and bias of free energy estimates. Here, we present an alternate mathematical formalism for protocol postprocessing based on the Feynmac-Kac theorem. The estimator that results from this formalism is demonstrated on a few low-dimensional model systems. It is found to have reduced bias compared to both the standard form of Jarzynski's equality and the previous protocol postprocessing formalism.

  3. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wheeler, David R.; Simonson, Robert J.

    2010-09-21

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  4. A Path to Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegemoller, William; Stegemoller, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    The path taken and the turns made as a turtle traces a polygon are examined to discover an important theorem in geometry. A unique tool, the Angle Adder, is implemented in the investigation. (Contains 9 figures.)

  5. Determination of stabilogram diffusion analysis coefficients and invariant density analysis parameters to understand postural stability associated with standing on anti-fatigue mats.

    PubMed

    Soangra, Rahul; Lockhart, Thurmon E

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged standing has been associated with loss of balance, onset of low back pain symptoms and development of fatigue in lower extremity muscles in working populations. Although so far, it is unknown how individuals’ postural stability is affected by standing on rigid versus cushioned platform but many industries are opting for anti-fatigue mats at workstations to reduce fall and injury related socio-economic cost. The goal of this study is to test SATECH's anti-fatigue mat for its effects on postural stability. A pilot test with seven healthy subjects (25–35 years old) has been conducted with a force plate to obtain kinetics of body when standing on two different platforms. The centers of pressure (COP) position of subjects were determined on rigid and anti-fatigue mats for quiet stance (each trial 60 seconds). In order to understand postural control along with dynamic or stochastic characteristics of the COP, stabilogram diffusion analysis (SDA) and Invariant density analysis methods are used. Subject specific patterns were seen in stabilogram diffusion plots and associated parameters in both conditions. We also found differences in some postural sway SDA parameters with anti-fatigue mats compared to rigid vinyl floor standing with open eyes condition. But no significant differences were found in sway IDA parameters. This work further provides insights whether anti fatigue mats can be helpful to workers involved with prolonged standing tasks. PMID:22846314

  6. Diffusion coefficients of energetic water group ions near Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Richardson, I. G.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the ultralow-energy charge analyzer and energetic particle anisotropy spectrometer sensors, acquired when the ICE spacecraft flew past Comet Giacobini-Zinner on September 11, 1985, are combined, and a single, self-consistent analysis technique is applied to derive a single-particle spectrum from about 200 to 1600 km/s. This information, together with the deduced bulk flow speed of the ions, is used to calculate a parallel diffusion coefficient in the transition region downstream of the bow wave (2.3 +/- 0.5) x 10 exp 17 sq cm/s; the corresponding scattering mean free path is (6 +/- 1) x 10 exp 4 km. The parallel diffusion coefficient is found to depend on the collision frequency of water group ions with Alfven waves, which are assumed to be propagating parallel (antiparallel) to the magnetic field.

  7. Diffusion coefficients of energetic water group ions near Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Richardson, I. G.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1993-03-01

    Data from the ultralow-energy charge analyzer and energetic particle anisotropy spectrometer sensors, acquired when the ICE spacecraft flew past Comet Giacobini-Zinner on September 11, 1985, are combined, and a single, self-consistent analysis technique is applied to derive a single-particle spectrum from about 200 to 1600 km/s. This information, together with the deduced bulk flow speed of the ions, is used to calculate a parallel diffusion coefficient in the transition region downstream of the bow wave (2.3 +/- 0.5) x 10 exp 17 sq cm/s; the corresponding scattering mean free path is (6 +/- 1) x 10 exp 4 km. The parallel diffusion coefficient is found to depend on the collision frequency of water group ions with Alfven waves, which are assumed to be propagating parallel (antiparallel) to the magnetic field.

  8. Electric-field-induced optical path length change in LiNbO3:MgO crystals: spatial anisotropy analysis.

    PubMed

    Andrushchak, Anatoliy S; Yurkevych, Oleh V; Strychalyuk, Bogdan M; Klymash, Mykhailo M; Rusek, Andrzej; Kityk, Andriy V

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we describe the methodology behind the calculation of the indicative surfaces (ISs) of the electric-field-induced optical path length change (EFIOPC) in anisotropic crystal materials accounting for the piezoelectric deformation. It is considered in detail for a particular case of 3m point group symmetry and applied to LiNbO(3) single crystals doped with 7 mol. % MgO (hereafter LiNbO(3):MgO). The contribution of the inverse piezoelectricity into EFIOPC appears to be considerable and, in many cases, modifying, for instance, the spherical coordinates of the extreme directions or even leading to the appearance of new directional maxima on relevant ISs. The ISs of EFIOPC are of considerable practical importance as they allow us to determine an optimal geometry for electro-optic coupling. The spatial anisotropic analysis of EFIOPC in LiNbO(3):MgO crystals suggests that the lowest effective driving voltage is provided by electro-optic cells representing the rectangular slabs of X/50° crystal cut. The modulation efficiency of such electro-optic cells is about 1.5 times better than ones fabricated in the usual way (i.e., as rectangular crystal slabs with the faces parallel to the principal crystallographic directions). PMID:23736331

  9. A Multiple-Group Path Analysis of the Role of Everyday Discrimination on Self-Rated Physical Health among Latina/os in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kristine M.; Alegría, Margarita; Mahalingam, Ramaswami

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the psychosocial mechanisms through which self-reported discrimination may influence the health status of Latinos. Purpose This study examined the mediating role of subjective social status in the US and psychological distress on the relation between everyday discrimination and self-rated physical health, and the moderating role of gender and ethnicity. Methods A US population-based sample of Latinos (N= 2,554) was drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed measures of everyday discrimination, subjective social status, psychological distress, and self-rated physical health. Results Path analysis revealed that among the total sample, subjective social status and psychological distress sequentially mediated the effect of everyday discrimination on self-rated physical health. Psychological distress was a more consistent mediator across Latino subgroups. Gender and ethnicity moderated the mediation model. Conclusions This study provides a systematic examination of how psychosocial mechanisms may operate differently or similarly across Latino subgroups. PMID:23054945

  10. Analysis of the Dielectric Constant of Saline-Alkali Soils and the Effect on Radar Backscattering Coefficient: A Case Study of Soda Alkaline Saline Soils in Western Jilin Province Using RADARSAT-2 Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang-yang; Zhao, Kai; Ren, Jian-hua; Ding, Yan-ling; Wu, Li-li

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is a global problem, especially in developing countries, which affects the environment and productivity of agriculture areas. Salt has a significant effect on the complex dielectric constant of wet soil. However, there is no suitable model to describe the variation in the backscattering coefficient due to changes in soil salinity content. The purpose of this paper is to use backscattering models to understand behaviors of the backscattering coefficient in saline soils based on the analysis of its dielectric constant. The effects of moisture and salinity on the dielectric constant by combined Dobson mixing model and seawater dielectric constant model are analyzed, and the backscattering coefficient is then simulated using the AIEM. Simultaneously, laboratory measurements were performed on ground samples. The frequency effect of the laboratory results was not the same as the simulated results. The frequency dependence of the ionic conductivity of an electrolyte solution is influenced by the ion's components. Finally, the simulated backscattering coefficients measured from the dielectric constant with the AIEM were analyzed using the extracted backscattering coefficient from the RADARSAT-2 image. The results show that RADARSAT-2 is potentially able to measure soil salinity; however, the mixed pixel problem needs to be more thoroughly considered. PMID:25101317

  11. Analysis of the Dielectric constant of saline-alkali soils and the effect on radar backscattering coefficient: a case study of soda alkaline saline soils in Western Jilin Province using RADARSAT-2 data.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-yang; Zhao, Kai; Ren, Jian-hua; Ding, Yan-ling; Wu, Li-li

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is a global problem, especially in developing countries, which affects the environment and productivity of agriculture areas. Salt has a significant effect on the complex dielectric constant of wet soil. However, there is no suitable model to describe the variation in the backscattering coefficient due to changes in soil salinity content. The purpose of this paper is to use backscattering models to understand behaviors of the backscattering coefficient in saline soils based on the analysis of its dielectric constant. The effects of moisture and salinity on the dielectric constant by combined Dobson mixing model and seawater dielectric constant model are analyzed, and the backscattering coefficient is then simulated using the AIEM. Simultaneously, laboratory measurements were performed on ground samples. The frequency effect of the laboratory results was not the same as the simulated results. The frequency dependence of the ionic conductivity of an electrolyte solution is influenced by the ion's components. Finally, the simulated backscattering coefficients measured from the dielectric constant with the AIEM were analyzed using the extracted backscattering coefficient from the RADARSAT-2 image. The results show that RADARSAT-2 is potentially able to measure soil salinity; however, the mixed pixel problem needs to be more thoroughly considered.

  12. Statistical Methods with Varying Coefficient Models

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Wenyang

    2008-01-01

    The varying coefficient models are very important tool to explore the dynamic pattern in many scientific areas, such as economics, finance, politics, epidemiology, medical science, ecology and so on. They are natural extensions of classical parametric models with good interpretability and are becoming more and more popular in data analysis. Thanks to their flexibility and interpretability, in the past ten years, the varying coefficient models have experienced deep and exciting developments on methodological, theoretical and applied sides. This paper gives a selective overview on the major methodological and theoretical developments on the varying coefficient models. PMID:18978950

  13. Sampling diffusive transition paths

    SciTech Connect

    F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian

    2006-10-12

    We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.

  14. Counting paths in digraphs

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Blair D; Seymour, Dr. Paul Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Say a digraph is k-free if it has no directed cycles of length at most k, for k {element_of} Z{sup +}. Thomasse conjectured that the number of induced 3-vertex directed paths in a simple 2-free digraph on n vertices is at most (n-1)n(n+1)/15. We present an unpublished result of Bondy proving there are at most 2n{sup 3}/25 such paths, and prove that for the class of circular interval digraphs, an upper bound of n{sup 3}/16 holds. We also study the problem of bounding the number of (non-induced) 4-vertex paths in 3-free digraphs. We show an upper bound of 4n{sup 4}/75 using Bondy's result for Thomasse's conjecture.

  15. Seismic Imaging, One-Way Wave Equations, Pseudodifferential Operators, Path Integrals, and all that Jazz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artoun, Ojenie; David-Rus, Diana; Emmett, Matthew; Fishman, Lou; Fital, Sandra; Hogan, Chad; Lim, Jisun; Lushi, Enkeleida; Marinov, Vesselin

    2006-05-01

    In this report we summarize an extension of Fourier analysis for the solution of the wave equation with a non-constant coefficient corresponding to an inhomogeneous medium. The underlying physics of the problem is exploited to link pseudodifferential operators and phase space path integrals to obtain a marching algorithm that incorporates the backward scattering into the evolution of the wave. This allows us to successfully apply single-sweep, one-way marching methods in inherently two-way environments, which was not achieved before through other methods for this problem.

  16. Mobile transporter path planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul; Wang, Lui

    1990-01-01

    The use of a genetic algorithm (GA) for solving the mobile transporter path planning problem is investigated. The mobile transporter is a traveling robotic vehicle proposed for the space station which must be able to reach any point of the structure autonomously. Elements of the genetic algorithm are explored in both a theoretical and experimental sense. Specifically, double crossover, greedy crossover, and tournament selection techniques are examined. Additionally, the use of local optimization techniques working in concert with the GA are also explored. Recent developments in genetic algorithm theory are shown to be particularly effective in a path planning problem domain, though problem areas can be cited which require more research.

  17. Coherence-path duality relations for N paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillery, Mark; Bagan, Emilio; Bergou, Janos; Cottrell, Seth

    2016-05-01

    For an interferometer with two paths, there is a relation between the information about which path the particle took and the visibility of the interference pattern at the output. The more path information we have, the smaller the visibility, and vice versa. We generalize this relation to a multi-path interferometer, and we substitute two recently defined measures of quantum coherence for the visibility, which results in two duality relations. The path information is provided by attaching a detector to each path. In the first relation, which uses an l1 measure of coherence, the path information is obtained by applying the minimum-error state discrimination procedure to the detector states. In the second, which employs an entropic measure of coherence, the path information is the mutual information between the detector states and the result of measuring them. Both approaches are quantitative versions of complementarity for N-path interferometers. Support provided by the John Templeton Foundation.

  18. Life Course Pathways of Adversities Linking Adolescent Socioeconomic Circumstances and Functional Somatic Symptoms in Mid-Adulthood: A Path Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Frida; San Sebastian, Miguel; Strömsten, Lotta M. J.; Hammarström, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E.

    2016-01-01

    While research examining the health impact of early socioeconomic conditions suggests that effects may exist independently of or jointly with adult socioeconomic position, studies exploring other potential pathways are few. Following a chain of risk life course model, this prospective study seeks to examine whether pathways of occupational class as well as material and social adversities across the life course link socioeconomic disadvantage in adolescent to functional somatic symptoms in mid-adulthood. Applying path analysis, a multiple mediator model was assessed using prospective data collected during 26 years through the Northern Swedish Cohort. The sample contained 987 individuals residing in the municipality of Luleå, Sweden, who participated in questionnaire surveys at age 16, 21, 30 and 42. Socioeconomic conditions (high/low) in adolescence (age 16) were operationalized using the occupation of the parents, while occupational class in adulthood (manual/non-manual) was measured using the participant’s own occupation at age 21 and 30. The adversity measurements were constructed as separate age specific parcels at age 21 and 30. Social adversity included items pertaining to stressful life events that could potentially harm salient relationships, while material adversity was operationalized using items concerning unfavorable financial and material circumstances. Functional somatic symptoms at age 42 was a summary measure of self-reported physical symptoms, palpitation and sleeping difficulties that had occurred during the last 12 months. An association between socioeconomic conditions at age 16 and functional somatic symptoms at age 42 (r = 0.068) which was partially explained by people’s own occupational class at age 21 and then material as well as social adversity at age 30 was revealed. Rather than proposing a direct and independent health effect of the socioeconomic conditions of the family, the present study suggests that growing up in an unfavorable

  19. The Influence of Localized Glacial Erosion on Exhumation Paths in Accreting Coulomb Wedges: Insights from Particle Velocimetry Analysis of Sandbox Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, P. J.; Davis, K.; Haq, S. S. B.; Ridgway, K.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial erosion can have an impact on the location and development of faults in mountain belts. The rapid removal and deposition of rock, in some cases, is thought to affect the initiation of slip on older fault structures, or cause the development of new structures within the older part of the wedge. We present cross-sectional data from both erosional and non-erosional sandbox models of Coulomb wedges in order to quantify the impact of localized erosion on the location of and slip on deformational structures, as well as the general path of material through a wedge. To do this, we employ Lagrangian particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) using the open-source Python PTV toolkit trackpy, among a suite of other data analysis tools. We are able to extract robust and reliable sets of particle trajectories from a series of images without the need for predefined markers or marker-beds, instead identifying and tracking natural variations in sand color as individual particles. By comparing the motion of particles in cross-section to the local surface topography over an entire experiment, we determine a high-resolution record of exhumation rates, in addition to simple uplift rates. These comparisons are further informed by the use of high-definition Eulerian particle image velocimetry (PIV), which provides quantitative data about the distribution of deformation and instantaneous material displacements throughout a cross-sectional view of a Coulomb wedge. This allows us to interpret these pathways in relation to the behavior of active structures and general wedge morphology. In our experiments, we observe that localized glacial erosion has an impact on material pathways, in the form of an increased rate of exhumation locally, more vertical trajectories towards surface below the zone of erosion, and reactivation of older structures to maintain force balance within the entire wedge.

  20. Ancient DNA analysis of mid-holocene individuals from the Northwest Coast of North America reveals different evolutionary paths for mitogenomes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yinqiu; Lindo, John; Hughes, Cris E; Johnson, Jesse W; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Kemp, Brian M; Ma, Jian; Cunningham, Ryan; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycellyn; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome S; Malhi, Ripan S

    2013-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of North American population history, complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) were generated from four ancient and three living individuals of the northern Northwest Coast of North America, specifically the north coast of British Columbia, Canada, current home to the indigenous Tsimshian, Haida, and Nisga'a. The mitogenomes of all individuals were previously unknown and assigned to new sub-haplogroup designations D4h3a7, A2ag and A2ah. The analysis of mitogenomes allows for more detailed analyses of presumed ancestor-descendant relationships than sequencing only the HVSI region of the mitochondrial genome, a more traditional approach in local population studies. The results of this study provide contrasting examples of the evolution of Native American mitogenomes. Those belonging to sub-haplogroups A2ag and A2ah exhibit temporal continuity in this region for 5000 years up until the present day. Of possible associative significance is that archaeologically identified house structures in this region maintain similar characteristics for this same period of time, demonstrating cultural continuity in residence patterns. The individual dated to 6000 years before present (BP) exhibited a mitogenome belonging to sub-haplogroup D4h3a. This sub-haplogroup was earlier identified in the same general area at 10300 years BP on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, and may have gone extinct, as it has not been observed in any living individuals of the Northwest Coast. The presented case studies demonstrate the different evolutionary paths of mitogenomes over time on the Northwest Coast.

  1. Using chemical, hydrologic, and age dating analysis to delineate redox processes and flow paths in the riparian zone of a glacial outwash aquifer-stream system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, L.J.; Cowdery, T.K.; McMahon, P.B.; Tornes, L.H.; Stoner, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    A combination of chemical and dissolved gas analyses, chlorofluorocarbon age dating, and hydrologic measurements were used to determine the degree to which biogeochemical processes in a riparian wetland were responsible for removing NO3- from groundwaters discharging to the Otter Tail River in west central Minnesota. An analysis of river chemistry and flow data revealed that NO3- concentrations in the river increased in the lower half of the 8.3 km study reach as the result of groundwater discharge to the river. Groundwater head measurements along a study transect through the riparian wetland revealed a zone of groundwater discharge extending out under the river. On the basis of combined chemical, dissolved gas, age date, and hydrologic results, it was determined that water chemistry under the riparian wetland was controlled largely by upgradient groundwaters that followed flow paths up to 16 m deep and discharged under the wetland, creating a pattern of progressively older, more chemically reduced, low NO3- water the farther one progressed from the edge of the wetland toward the river. These findings pose challenges for researchers investigating biogeochemical processes in riparian buffer zones because the progressively older groundwaters entered the aquifer in earlier years when less NO3- fertilizer was being used. NO3- concentrations originally present in the groundwater had also decreased in the upgradient aquifer as a result of denitrification and progressively stronger reducing conditions there. The resulting pattern of decreasing NO3- concentrations across the riparian zone may be incorrectly interpreted as evidence of denitrification losses there instead of in the upgradient aquifer. Consequently, it is important to understand the hydrogeologic setting and age structure of the groundwaters being sampled in order to avgid misinterpreting biogeochemical processes in riparian zones.

  2. On the orthogonalised reverse path method for nonlinear system identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad, P.; Sims, N. D.; Worden, K.

    2012-09-01

    The problem of obtaining the underlying linear dynamic compliance matrix in the presence of nonlinearities in a general multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) system can be solved using the conditioned reverse path (CRP) method introduced by Richards and Singh (1998 Journal of Sound and Vibration, 213(4): pp. 673-708). The CRP method also provides a means of identifying the coefficients of any nonlinear terms which can be specified a priori in the candidate equations of motion. Although the CRP has proved extremely useful in the context of nonlinear system identification, it has a number of small issues associated with it. One of these issues is the fact that the nonlinear coefficients are actually returned in the form of spectra which need to be averaged over frequency in order to generate parameter estimates. The parameter spectra are typically polluted by artefacts from the identification of the underlying linear system which manifest themselves at the resonance and anti-resonance frequencies. A further problem is associated with the fact that the parameter estimates are extracted in a recursive fashion which leads to an accumulation of errors. The first minor objective of this paper is to suggest ways to alleviate these problems without major modification to the algorithm. The results are demonstrated on numerically-simulated responses from MDOF systems. In the second part of the paper, a more radical suggestion is made, to replace the conditioned spectral analysis (which is the basis of the CRP method) with an alternative time domain decorrelation method. The suggested approach - the orthogonalised reverse path (ORP) method - is illustrated here using data from simulated single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) and MDOF systems.

  3. Signal optimization, noise reduction, and systematic error compensation methods in long-path DOAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, Emilio; Donati, Alessandro

    1998-12-01

    The increment of the exploitable optical path represents one of the most important efforts in the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments improvement. The methods that allow long path measurements in the UV region are presented and discussed in this paper. These methods have been experimented in the new Italian DOAS instrument - SPOT - developed and manufactured by Kayser Italia. The system was equipped with a tele-controlled optical shuttle on the light source unit, allowing background radiation measurement. Wavelength absolute calibration of spectra by means of a collimated UV beam from a mercury lamp integrated in the telescope has been exploited. Besides, possible thermal effects on the dispersion coefficients of the holographic grating have been automatically compensated by means of a general non-linear fit during the spectral analysis session. Measurements in bistatic configuration have been performed in urban areas at 1300 m and 2200 m in three spectral windows from 245 to 380 nm. Measurements with these features are expected in the other spectral windows on path lengths ranging from about 5 to 10 km in urban areas. The DOAS technique can be used in field for very fast measurements in the 245-275 nm spectral range, on path lengths up to about 2500 m.

  4. Gas path seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.; Johnson, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A gas path seal suitable for use with a turbine engine or compressor is described. A shroud wearable or abradable by the abrasion of the rotor blades of the turbine or compressor shrouds the rotor bades. A compliant backing surrounds the shroud. The backing is a yieldingly deformable porous material covered with a thin ductile layer. A mounting fixture surrounds the backing.

  5. An Unplanned Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarvey, Lynn M.; Sterenberg, Gladys Y.; Long, Julie S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors elucidate what they saw as three important challenges to overcome along the path to becoming elementary school mathematics teacher leaders: marginal interest in math, low self-confidence, and teaching in isolation. To illustrate how these challenges were mitigated, they focus on the stories of two elementary school teachers--Laura and…

  6. Watershed model calibration framework developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and a genetic algorithm and analysis of pollutant discharge characteristics and load reduction in a TMDL planning area.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Heon; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-11-01

    Manual calibration is common in rainfall-runoff model applications. However, rainfall-runoff models include several complicated parameters; thus, significant time and effort are required to manually calibrate the parameters individually and repeatedly. Automatic calibration has relative merit regarding time efficiency and objectivity but shortcomings regarding understanding indigenous processes in the basin. In this study, a watershed model calibration framework was developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and genetic algorithm (WMCIG) to automatically calibrate the distributed models. The optimization problem used to minimize the sum of squares of the normalized residuals of the observed and predicted values was solved using a genetic algorithm (GA). The final model parameters were determined from the iteration with the smallest sum of squares of the normalized residuals of all iterations. The WMCIG was applied to a Gomakwoncheon watershed located in an area that presents a total maximum daily load (TMDL) in Korea. The proportion of urbanized area in this watershed is low, and the diffuse pollution loads of nutrients such as phosphorus are greater than the point-source pollution loads because of the concentration of rainfall that occurs during the summer. The pollution discharges from the watershed were estimated for each land-use type, and the seasonal variations of the pollution loads were analyzed. Consecutive flow measurement gauges have not been installed in this area, and it is difficult to survey the flow and water quality in this area during the frequent heavy rainfall that occurs during the wet season. The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model was used to calculate the runoff flow and water quality in this basin. Using the water quality results, a load duration curve was constructed for the basin, the exceedance frequency of the water quality standard was calculated for each hydrologic condition class, and the percent reduction

  7. Watershed model calibration framework developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and a genetic algorithm and analysis of pollutant discharge characteristics and load reduction in a TMDL planning area.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Heon; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-11-01

    Manual calibration is common in rainfall-runoff model applications. However, rainfall-runoff models include several complicated parameters; thus, significant time and effort are required to manually calibrate the parameters individually and repeatedly. Automatic calibration has relative merit regarding time efficiency and objectivity but shortcomings regarding understanding indigenous processes in the basin. In this study, a watershed model calibration framework was developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and genetic algorithm (WMCIG) to automatically calibrate the distributed models. The optimization problem used to minimize the sum of squares of the normalized residuals of the observed and predicted values was solved using a genetic algorithm (GA). The final model parameters were determined from the iteration with the smallest sum of squares of the normalized residuals of all iterations. The WMCIG was applied to a Gomakwoncheon watershed located in an area that presents a total maximum daily load (TMDL) in Korea. The proportion of urbanized area in this watershed is low, and the diffuse pollution loads of nutrients such as phosphorus are greater than the point-source pollution loads because of the concentration of rainfall that occurs during the summer. The pollution discharges from the watershed were estimated for each land-use type, and the seasonal variations of the pollution loads were analyzed. Consecutive flow measurement gauges have not been installed in this area, and it is difficult to survey the flow and water quality in this area during the frequent heavy rainfall that occurs during the wet season. The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model was used to calculate the runoff flow and water quality in this basin. Using the water quality results, a load duration curve was constructed for the basin, the exceedance frequency of the water quality standard was calculated for each hydrologic condition class, and the percent reduction

  8. Second coefficient of viscosity in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Robert L.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Zheng, Zhonquan

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic attenuation measurements in air were analyzed in order to estimate the second coefficient of viscosity. Data over a temperature range of 11 C to 50 C and at relative humidities between 6 percent and 91 percent were used. This analysis showed that the second coefficient of viscosity varied between 1900 and 20,000 times larger than the dynamic or first coefficient of viscosity over the temperature and humidity range of the data. In addition, the data showed that the molecular relaxation effects, which are responsible for the magnitude of the second coefficient of viscosity, place severe limits on the use of time-independent, thermodynamic equations of state. Compressible flows containing large streamwise velocity gradients, like shock waves, which cause significant changes in particle properties to occur during time intervals shorter than hundredths of seconds, must be modeled using dynamic equations of state. The dynamic model approach is described briefly.

  9. Averaging Internal Consistency Reliability Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.; Charter, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Seven approaches to averaging reliability coefficients are presented. Each approach starts with a unique definition of the concept of "average," and no approach is more correct than the others. Six of the approaches are applicable to internal consistency coefficients. The seventh approach is specific to alternate-forms coefficients. Although the…

  10. Current SPE Hydrodynamic Modeling and Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban

    2012-08-14

    Extensive work has been conducted on SPE analysis efforts: Fault effects Non-uniform weathered layer analysis MUNROU: material library incorporation, parallelization, and development of non-locking tets Development of a unique continuum-based-visco-plastic strain-rate-dependent material model With corrected SPE data path is now set for a multipronged approach to fully understand experimental series shot effects.

  11. Statistical Estimation of the Atmospheric Aerosol Absorption Coefficient Based on the Data of Optical Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Uzhegov, V.N.; Kozlov, V.S.; Panchenko, M.V.; Pkhalagov, Yu.A.; Pol'kin, V.V.; Terpugova, S.A.; Shmargunov, V.P.; Yausheva, E.P.

    2005-03-18

    The problem of the choice of the aerosol optical constants and, in particular, imaginary part of the refractive index of particles in visible and infrared (IR) wavelength ranges is very important for calculation of the global albedo of the atmosphere in climatic models. The available models of the aerosol optical constants obtained for the prescribed chemical composition of particles (see, for example, Ivlev et al. 1973; Ivlev 1982; Volz 1972), often are far from real aerosol. It is shown in (Krekov et al. 1982) that model estimates of the optical characteristics of the atmosphere depending on the correctness of real and imaginary parts of the aerosol complex refractive index can differ by some hundreds percent. It is known that the aerosol extinction coefficient {alpha}({lambda}) obtained from measurements on a long horizontal path can be represented as {alpha}({lambda})={sigma}({lambda})+{beta}({lambda}), where {sigma} is the directed light scattering coefficient, and {beta} is the aerosol absorption coefficient. The coefficient {sigma}({lambda}) is measured by means of a nephelometer. Seemingly, if measure the values {alpha}({lambda}) and {sigma}({lambda}), it is easy to determine the value {beta}({lambda}). However, in practice it is almost impossible for a number of reasons. Firstly, the real values {alpha}({lambda}) and {sigma}({lambda}) are very close to each other, and the estimate of the parameter {beta}({lambda}) is concealed by the errors of measurements. Secondly, the aerosol optical characteristics on the long path and in the local volume of nephelometer can be different, that also leads to the errors in estimating {beta}({lambda}). Besides, there are serious difficulties in performing spectral measurements of {sigma}({lambda}) in infrared wavelength range. Taking into account these circumstances, in this paper we consider the statistical technique, which makes it possible to estimate the absorption coefficient of real aerosol on the basis of analysis

  12. Maximum-Path Leaves Relative to Vertices and the Vertex One Center of a Spanning Tree: An Enumeration and Analysis of Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, L.J.

    1998-10-01

    This paper enumerates the configurations of a pair of vertices (one of which is a leaf) relative to the unique vertex one center and the leaf of greatest path length from this center in a spanning tree of a graph. From this enumeration, it demonstrates that the vertex one center is between the vertex and the leaf of greatest path length from the vertex for every such pair of vertices. Using this result this paper develops an algorithm for the optimal reconfiguration of a tree infrastructure required to recover from the failure of a network element.

  13. An analysis of factors influencing complex water maze learning in rats: effects of task complexity, path order and escape assistance on performance following prenatal exposure to phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, C V; Weisenburger, W P; Acuff-Smith, K D; Minck, D R

    1991-01-01

    Three hypotheses on factors determining performance in a complex water maze were tested in rats prenatally exposed to phenytoin. The hypotheses were: 1) that increasing maze complexity would better differentiate experimental effects; in particular, that an expanded version of a maze originally described by Biel would better differentiate groups than Biel's original design; 2) that path order is an important factor determining performance; specifically, that path sequence AB would better differentiate experiments from controls than the opposite order (sequence BA); and 3) that repeated trial failures interfere with learning, a problem putatively prevented by employing assisted (i.e., guided) escape. The specific prediction was that rats tested with assisted escape would learn faster and produce better group differentiation than rats tested with unassisted escape. Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley CD rats were gavaged on days 7-18 of gestation with propylene glycol alone (Control) or containing 100 or 200 mg/kg of phenytoin. Straight channel swimming trials followed by maze trials were begun on separate male/female offspring pairs from each litter on postnatal days 50, 70, or 90. The results confirmed hypothesis 1, i.e., the more complex maze better differentiated phenytoin-related group differences. This was true regardless of whether the phenytoin rats exhibiting circling were included in the analyses or not. The results disconfirmed hypothesis 2, i.e., that path order AB would better differentiate the groups than path order BA. Rather, the data supported the alternate hypothesis, that path order was not a significant determinant of prenatal drug-related maze deficits. This was unchanged regardless of whether phenytoin offspring exhibiting circling were or were not included in the analyses. The implication is that path B alone was sufficient to detect phenytoin's effects on maze performance. Finally, the overall results disconfirmed hypothesis 3, i.e., assisted escape

  14. The Determination of Soil-plant Transfer Coefficients of Cesium-137 and Other Elements by γ-Ray Measurement and PIXE Analysis, for use in the Remediation of Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Fujita, A.; Toyama, S.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Takyu, S.; Matsuyama, T.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Ito, S.; Kasahara, K.

    Edible wild plants growing in the area around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant remain contaminated. It is important to identify plants with low levels of contamination for the restoration of agriculture in the area. We collected specimens of 10 wild plant species growing in Iitate village which is one of the most highly contaminated areas and also sampled the soil beneath each plant. We measured the specific activity of 137Cs and the concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Rb and Sr in these samples using a germanium detector and PIXE analysis, respectively. We compared the soil-plant transfer coefficient of 137Cs with those of each element and determined their correlation with 137Cs. It was found that a low Sr transfer coefficient could be used to determine the plants with a low 137Cs transfer coefficient. We suggest that PIXE analysis is a useful analysis technique for agricultural remediation projects in highly contaminated areas around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

  15. Simulating the Gas Diffusion Coefficient in Macropore Network Images: Influences of Soil Pore Morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the diffusion coefficient is necessary for modeling gas transport in soils and other porous media. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between the diffusion coefficient and pore structure parameters, such as the fractal dimension of pores (Dmp), the shortest path leng...

  16. Effect of the proximity of the machined surface on the discharge coefficients of laser cutter nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorodin, F. K.; Abalakov, G. V.

    Results of an experimental study of the discharge coefficients of laser cutter nozzles are reported. It is found that the discharge coefficient of laser cutter nozzles is largely determined by the proximity of the machined surface, Reynolds number, and geometry of the nozzle flow path.

  17. Equivalence of trans paths in ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Juan; Hajek, Bruce

    2006-04-01

    We explore stochastic models for the study of ion transport in biological cells. Analysis of these models explains and explores an interesting feature of ion transport observed by biophysicists. Namely, the average time it takes ions to cross certain ion channels is the same in either direction, even if there is an electric potential difference across the channels. It is shown for simple single ion models that the distribution of a path (i.e., the history of location versus time) of an ion crossing the channel in one direction has the same distribution as the time-reversed path of an ion crossing the channel in the reverse direction. Therefore, not only is the mean duration of these paths equal, but other measures, such as the variance of passage time or the mean time a path spends within a specified section of the channel, are also the same for both directions of traversal. The feature is also explored for channels with interacting ions. If a system of interacting ions is in reversible equilibrium (net flux is zero), then the equivalence of the left-to-right trans paths with the time-reversed right-to-left trans paths still holds. However, if the system is in equilibrium, but not reversible equilibrium, then such equivalence need not hold.

  18. The Use of Structure Coefficients in Regression Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Lucille N.

    It is recognized that parametric methods (e.g., t-tests, discriminant analysis, and methods based on analysis of variance) are special cases of canonical correlation analysis. In canonical correlation it has been argued that structure coefficients must be computed to correctly interpret results. It follows that structure coefficients may be useful…

  19. A Path Algorithm for Constrained Estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Many least-square problems involve affine equality and inequality constraints. Although there are a variety of methods for solving such problems, most statisticians find constrained estimation challenging. The current article proposes a new path-following algorithm for quadratic programming that replaces hard constraints by what are called exact penalties. Similar penalties arise in l1 regularization in model selection. In the regularization setting, penalties encapsulate prior knowledge, and penalized parameter estimates represent a trade-off between the observed data and the prior knowledge. Classical penalty methods of optimization, such as the quadratic penalty method, solve a sequence of unconstrained problems that put greater and greater stress on meeting the constraints. In the limit as the penalty constant tends to ∞, one recovers the constrained solution. In the exact penalty method, squared penalties!are replaced by absolute value penalties, and the solution is recovered for a finite value of the penalty constant. The exact path-following method starts at the unconstrained solution and follows the solution path as the penalty constant increases. In the process, the solution path hits, slides along, and exits from the various constraints. Path following in Lasso penalized regression, in contrast, starts with a large value of the penalty constant and works its way downward. In both settings, inspection of the entire solution path is revealing. Just as with the Lasso and generalized Lasso, it is possible to plot the effective degrees of freedom along the solution path. For a strictly convex quadratic program, the exact penalty algorithm can be framed entirely in terms of the sweep operator of regression analysis. A few well-chosen examples illustrate the mechanics and potential of path following. This article has supplementary materials available online.

  20. Path Analysis of IQ during Infancy and Early Childhood and an Index of the Home Environment in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Treva; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A parent-offspring adoption path model, with a measured index of the home environment, was developed to assess extent to which genetic and environmental influences of the parents affect relationships between the environmental index and children's behavior. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) data from the Colorado Adoption Project were used. The…

  1. Mean free paths of energetic particles at very large heliodistances (Pioneer 11 at 20 AU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moussas, X.; Quenby, J. J.; Theodossiou-Ekaterinidi, Z.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.; Drillia, A. G.; Roulias, D.; Smith, E. J.

    1992-01-01

    The parallel mean free path and the diffusion coefficient parallel to the magnetic field line are derived from magnetic field data at 20 AU to characterize heliospheric modulation and energetic-particle/magnetic-field interaction. The computational method of Moussas et al. (1975, 1982) is employed, and the values of the parallel mean free path are shown to be significantly larger than the values estimated in studies of up to 6 AU. The distance dependence of the parallel diffusion mean free path is found to follow a power law, and the diffusion coefficient dependence upon energy is determined by a constant mean free path and the velocity of the particle. The contribution of the diffusion coefficient perpendicular to the magnetic field is expected to dominate the radial diffusion coefficient of cosmic rays, although the contribution of the diffusion parallel to the field is important with respect to the small-scale structure of intensity gradients.

  2. Nonadiabatic transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase.

  3. Prediction of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds for the interpretation of data in breath gas analysis6

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Christian; Mochalski, Paweł; Unterkofler, Karl; Agapiou, Agapios; Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Liedl, Klaus R

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a database of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients (λb:a and λf:a) is reported for estimating 1678 volatile organic compounds recently reported to appear in the volatilome of the healthy human. For this purpose, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach was applied and a novel method for Henry’s law constants prediction developed. A random forest model based on Molecular Operating Environment 2D (MOE2D) descriptors based on 2619 literature-reported Henry’s constant values was built. The calculated Henry’s law constants correlate very well (R2test = 0.967) with the available experimental data. Blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients were calculated according to the method proposed by Poulin and Krishnan using the estimated Henry’s constant values. The obtained values correlate reasonably well with the experimentally determined ones for a test set of 90 VOCs (R2 = 0.95). The provided data aim to fill in the literature data gap and further assist the interpretation of results in studies of the human volatilome. PMID:26815030

  4. Use of Ion Beam Analysis to Study in Situ the Oxygen Diffusion and Interfacial Transfer Coefficients in Y1Ba2Cu 3O7-x Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García López, J.; Siejka, J.; Lemaitre, Y.; Mage, J. C.; Marcilhac, B.

    An experimental chamber was connected to the 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator allowing in situ sample annealing at T ≤ 700°C and under pO2 ranging from 10-8 to 1 bar. For the first time to our knowledge the 16O(3He,α)15O nuclear reaction has been employed to monitor in situ the oxygen loss and uptake in Y1Ba2Cu3 O7-x (YBCO) thin films as a function of oxygen pressure and temperature (T ≤ 500°C). The role played by the presence of carbon contamination on YBCO surface was elucidated. Using the 12C(d,p)13C nuclear reaction the carbon loss was observed for T ≥ 250°C and it was associated with the oxygen loss enhancement in YBCO. It is found that in absence of carbon contamination, oxygen in-diffusion rate in YBCO is much faster than the out-diffusion rate, the later being surface reaction limited. The oxygen diffusion coefficients and the surface exchange coefficients of YBCO films have been evaluated. These results will be discussed in relation with the mechanism of high temperature YBCO thin film growth by cathodic sputtering and with the mechanism of the oxygen loss and/or uptake during the sample cooling.

  5. Four paths of competition

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    The financial community`s focus on utility competition has been riveted on the proceedings now in progress at state regulatory commissions. The fear that something immediately damaging will come out of these proceedings seems to have diminished in recent months, and the stock market has reacted favorably. However, regulatory developments are only one of four paths leading to competition; the others are the marketplace, the legislatures, and the courts. Each could play a critical role in the emergence of competition.

  6. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  7. Reference Material for Seebeck Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edler, F.; Lenz, E.; Haupt, S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a measurement method and a measuring system to determine absolute Seebeck coefficients of thermoelectric bulk materials with the aim of establishing reference materials for Seebeck coefficients. Reference materials with known thermoelectric properties are essential to allow a reliable benchmarking of different thermoelectric materials for application in thermoelectric generators to convert thermal into electrical energy or vice versa. A temperature gradient (1 to 8) K is induced across the sample, and the resulting voltage is measured by using two differential Au/Pt thermocouples. On the basis of the known absolute Seebeck coefficients of Au and Pt, the unknown Seebeck coefficient of the sample is calculated. The measurements are performed in inert atmospheres and at low pressure (30 to 60) mbar in the temperature range between 300 K and 860 K. The measurement results of the Seebeck coefficients of metallic and semiconducting samples are presented. Achievable relative measurement uncertainties of the Seebeck coefficient are on the order of a few percent.

  8. Transverse heat transfer coefficient in the dual channel ITER TF CICCs. Part I: Analysis of steady state temperature profiles resulting from annular heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska, Monika; Herzog, Robert

    2011-10-01

    Two ITER TF dual channel Cable-in-Conduit Conductors (CICCs) have been tested in the SULTAN test facility. The samples were heated either by foil heaters mounted on the outside of the conductor jacket or by induced AC losses. The steady-state temperature response of several thermometers installed on the jacket surface as well as inside the cable were analyzed using the two-channel analytical model proposed by Renard et al. to obtain the equivalent transverse heat transfer coefficient between the bundle and central channel as a function of the mass flow rate. In addition, on the basis of the measured pressure drop and helium flow velocities, the friction factors for helium flow in the bundle and in the central channel were determined. The obtained results may serve as a reference for these cables.

  9. Solubility properties in polymers and biological media 5: an analysis of the physicochemical properties which influence octanol-water partition coefficients of aliphatic and aromatic solutes.

    PubMed

    Taft, R W; Abraham, M H; Famini, G R; Doherty, R M; Abboud, J L; Kamlet, M J

    1985-08-01

    Octanol-water partition coefficients of 102 aliphatic, polychloro aliphatic, and aromatic non-hydrogen-bond donor and hydrogen-bond donor solutes are well correlated (r = 0.989, SD = 0.175) by the equation: log Kow = 0.20 + 2.74 V/100 - 0.92 pi - 3.49 beta, where V is the molar volume (taken as the molecular weight divided by the liquid density) and pi and beta are the solvatochromic parameters that measure solute dipolarity/polarizability and hydrogen-bond acceptor basicity. A set of "ground rules" (modifications of the input parameters) are described which allow the inclusion of both aliphatic and aromatic solutes in the same correlation equation. Monomer beta values (betam) are used for alcohol solutes.

  10. Chemical composition analysis of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Kurdistan, Iran by HS/SPME method and calculation of the biophysicochemical coefficients of the components.

    PubMed

    Taherpour, Avat Arman; Maroofi, Hossein; Rafie, Zeinab; Larijani, Kambiz

    2012-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the essential oil of wild Melissa officinalis L. obtained from the Kurdistan province of Iran were extracted by headspace/solid-phase micro-extraction and were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Of a total of 14 compounds in the oil, 12 (85.7%) were identified. The main components were as follows: (E)-citral (37.2%), neral (23.9%) and citronellal (20.3%). Some physicochemical properties, such as the logarithm of calculated octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log K (ow))(,) total biodegradation (TB (d) in mol h(-1) and g h(-1)), water solubility (S (w), mg L(-1) at 25°C) and median lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)), were calculated for compounds 1-14 from M. officinalis L.

  11. Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.

    2011-01-01

    Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…

  12. Measurement of Coefficient of Restitution Made Easy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple activity that permits students to determine the coefficient of restitution of bouncing balls using only a stopwatch, a metre stick and graphical analysis. The experiment emphasizes that simple models, in combination with careful attention to how students make measurements, can lead to good results in a straightforward way.

  13. Microcomputer Listens to the Coefficient of Restitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a procedure for determining the coefficient of restitution using a microcomputer which collects and sends data to a large computer where analysis is done and graphical output is generated. The data collection hardware and software are described, and results are illustrated. (Author/SK)

  14. [Measurement of path transverse wind velocity profile using light forward scattering scintillation correlation method].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ke-E; Lü, Wei-Yu; Zheng, Li-Nan; Hu, Shun-Xing; Huang, Jian; Cao, Kai-Fa; Xu, Zhi-Hai

    2014-07-01

    A new method for path transverse wind velocity survey was introduced by analyzing time lagged covariance function of different separation sub-apertures of Hartmann wavefront sensor. A theoretical formula was logically deduced for the light propagation path transverse wind velocity profile. According to the difference of path weighting function for different sub apertures spacing, how to select reasonable path weighting functions was analyzed. Using a Hartmann wavefront sensor, the experiment for measuring path transverse velocity profile along 1 000 m horizontal propagating path was carried out for the first time to our knowledge. The experiment results were as follows. Path transverse averaged velocity from sensor had a good consistency with transverse velocity from the wind anemometer sited near the path receiving end. As the path was divided into two sections, the path transverse velocity of the first section had also a good consistency with that of the second one. Because of different specific underlaying surface of light path, the former was greater than the later over all experiment period. The averaged values were 1.273 and 0.952 m x s(-1) respectively. The path transverse velocity of second section and path transverse averaged velocity had the same trend of decrease and increase with time. The correlation coefficients reached 0.86.

  15. Critical Path Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decision maker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its

  16. Critical Path Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decisionmaker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its content

  17. Comparison of an Ultrasonic Phased Array Evaluation with Destructive Analysis of a Documented Leak Path in a Nozzle Removed from Service

    SciTech Connect

    Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Hanson, Brady D.; Mathews, Royce

    2012-09-24

    Non-destructive and destructive testing methods were employed to evaluate a documented boric acid leakage path through an Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) penetration from the North Anna Unit 2 reactor pressure vessel head that was removed from service in 2002. A previous ultrasonic in-service-inspection (ISI) conducted by industry prior to the head removal, identified a probable leakage path in Nozzle 63 located in the interference fit between the penetration tube and the vessel head. In this current examination, Nozzle 63 was examined using phased array (PA) ultrasonic testing with a 5.0-MHz, eight-element annular array; immersion data were acquired from the nozzle inner diameter (ID) surface. A variety of focal laws were employed to evaluate the signal responses from the interference fit region. These responses were compared to responses obtained from a mockup specimen that was used to determine detection limits and characterization capabilities for wastage and boric acid presence in the interference fit region. Nozzle 63 was destructively examined after the completion of the ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) to visually assess the leak paths. These destructive and nondestructive results compared favorably

  18. Portage and Path Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    We examine portage sites in the U.S. South, Mid-Atlantic, and Midwest, including those on the fall line, a geomorphological feature in the southeastern U.S. marking the final rapids on rivers before the ocean. Historically, waterborne transport of goods required portage around the falls at these points, while some falls provided water power during early industrialization. These factors attracted commerce and manufacturing. Although these original advantages have long since been made obsolete, we document the continuing importance of these portage sites over time. We interpret these results as path dependence and contrast explanations based on sunk costs interacting with decreasing versus increasing returns to scale. PMID:23935217

  19. JAVA PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehhtz, Peter

    2005-01-01

    JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.

  20. Gas Path Sealing in Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of gas path seals is presented with particular attention given to sealing clearance effects on engine component efficiency. The effects on compressor pressure ratio and stall margin are pointed out. Various case-rotor relative displacements, which affect gas path seal clearances, are identified. Forces produced by nonuniform sealing clearances and their effect on rotor stability are discussed qualitatively, and recent work on turbine-blade-tip sealing for high temperature is described. The need for active clearance control and for engine structural analysis is discussed. The functions of the internal-flow system and its seals are reviewed.

  1. Gas path sealing in turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    Survey of gas path seals is presented with particular attention given to sealing clearance effects on engine component efficiency. The effects on compressor pressure ratio and stall margin are pointed out. Various case-rotor relative displacements, which affect gas path seal clearances, are identified. Forces produced by nonuniform sealing clearances and their effect on rotor stability are discussed qualitatively, and recent work on turbine-blade-tip sealing for high temperatures is described. The need for active clearance control and for engine structural analysis is discussed. The functions of the internal-flow system and its seals are reviewed.

  2. Gas path sealing in turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    Gas path seals are discussed with emphasis on sealing clearance effects on engine component efficiency, compressor pressure ratio, and stall margin. Various case-rotor relative displacements, which affect gas path seal clearances, are identified. Forces produced by nonuniform sealing clearances and their effect on rotor stability are examined qualitatively, and recent work on turbine-blade-tip sealing for high temperatures is described. The need for active clearance control and for engine structural analysis is discussed. The functions of the internal-flow system and its seals are reviewed.

  3. Experimental studies, line-shape analysis and semi-empirical calculations of broadening coefficients for CH335Cl-CO2 submillimeter transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudaryonok, A. S.; Lavrentieva, N. N.; Buldyreva, J.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Rohart, F.

    2014-09-01

    Rotational transitions in CH335Cl mixed with CO2 are recorded at 296 K and total pressures up to 0.6 Torr in the frequency interval 186-901 GHz (1.6-0.3 mm) for J=6→7, 10→11, 17→18, 22→23, 31→32, 33→34 and K=0-6, using the frequency-modulation spectrometer of the Laboratory PhLAM (Lille, France). These line-shapes are analyzed with the commonly used Voigt profile as well as with more refined Speed-Dependent Voigt and Galatry models accounting for the line narrowing induced, respectively, by the speed-dependence of the relaxation parameters and by velocity-changing collisions. Due to the high line intensities, the fitting procedure involves the full implementation of the Bee-Lambert law instead of its traditional linear approximation. The experimentally deduced J- and K-dependences of the pressure-broadening coefficients are further used to obtain the model parameters of a semi-empirical approach allowing massive calculations of line-shape parameters for enlarged ranges of rotational quantum numbers requested by spectroscopic databases.

  4. Slip and accommodation coefficients from rarefaction and roughness in rotating microscale disk flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Danny; Ligrani, Phil

    2007-06-01

    Accommodation coefficients are determined from experimental results and analysis based on the Navier-Stokes equations for rotation-induced flows in C-shaped fluid chamber passages formed between a rotating disk and a stationary surface. A first-order boundary condition is used to model the slip flow. The fluid chamber passage height ranges from 6.85to29.2μm to give Knudsen numbers from 0.0025 to 0.031 for air and helium. In all cases, roughness size is large compared to molecular mean free path. The unique method presented for deducing tangential momentum accommodation coefficients gives values with less uncertainty compared to procedures that rely on flows in stationary tubes and channels. When channel height is defined at the tops of the roughness elements, slip velocity magnitudes and associated accommodation coefficients are a result of rarefaction at solid-gas interfaces and shear at the gas-gas interfaces. With this arrangement, tangential accommodation coefficients obtained with this approach decrease, and slip velocity magnitudes increase, at a particular value of Knudsen number, as the level of surface roughness increases. At values of the mean roughness height greater than 500nm, accommodation coefficients then appear to be lower in air flows than in helium flows, when compared for a particular roughness configuration. When channel height is defined midway between the crests and troughs of the roughness elements, nondimensional pressure rise data show little or no dependence on the level of disk surface roughness and working fluid. With this arrangement, slip is largely independent of surface roughness magnitude and mostly due to rarefaction, provided the appropriate channel height is chosen to define the roughness height.

  5. Series extension: predicting approximate series coefficients from a finite number of exact coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttmann, Anthony J.

    2016-10-01

    Given the first 20-100 coefficients of a typical generating function of the type that arises in many problems of statistical mechanics or enumerative combinatorics, we show that the method of differential approximants performs surprisingly well in predicting (approximately) subsequent coefficients. These can then be used by the ratio method to obtain improved estimates of critical parameters. In favourable cases, given only the first 20 coefficients, the next 100 coefficients are predicted with useful accuracy. More surprisingly, this is also the case when the method of differential approximants does not do a useful job in estimating the critical parameters, such as those cases in which one has stretched exponential asymptotic behaviour. Nevertheless, the coefficients are predicted with surprising accuracy. As one consequence, significant computer time can be saved in enumeration problems where several runs would normally be made, modulo different primes, and the coefficients constructed from their values modulo different primes. Another is in the checking of newly calculated coefficients. We believe that this concept of approximate series extension opens up a whole new chapter in the method of series analysis.

  6. Air- and N2-Broadening Coefficients and Pressure-Shift Coefficients in the C-12(O2-16) Laser Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we report the pressure broadening and the pressure-induced line shift coefficients for 46 individual rovibrational lines in both the (12)C(16)O2, 00(sup 0)1-(10(sup 0)0-02(sup 0)0)I, and 00(sup 0)1-(10(sup 0)0-02(sup 0)0)II, laser bands (laser band I centered at 960.959/cm and laser band II centered at 1063.735/cm) determined from spectra recorded with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer. The results were obtained from analysis of 10 long-path laboratory absorption spectra recorded at room temperature using a multispectrum nonlinear least-squares technique. Pressure effects caused by both air and nitrogen have been investigated. The air-broadening coefficients determined in this study agree well with the values in the 1996 HITRAN database; ratios and standard deviations of the ratios of the present air-broadening measurements to the 1996 HITRAN values for the two laser bands are: 1.005(15) for laser band I and 1.005(14) for laser band II. Broadening by nitrogen is 3 to 4% larger than that of air. The pressure-induced line shift coefficients are found to be transition dependent and different for the P- and R-branch lines with same J" value. No noticeable differences in the shift coefficients caused by air and nitrogen were found. The results obtained are compared with available values previously reported in the literature.

  7. Perturbative Methods in Path Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson-Freyd, Theodore Paul

    This dissertation addresses a number of related questions concerning perturbative "path" integrals. Perturbative methods are one of the few successful ways physicists have worked with (or even defined) these infinite-dimensional integrals, and it is important as mathematicians to check that they are correct. Chapter 0 provides a detailed introduction. We take a classical approach to path integrals in Chapter 1. Following standard arguments, we posit a Feynman-diagrammatic description of the asymptotics of the time-evolution operator for the quantum mechanics of a charged particle moving nonrelativistically through a curved manifold under the influence of an external electromagnetic field. We check that our sum of Feynman diagrams has all desired properties: it is coordinate-independent and well-defined without ultraviolet divergences, it satisfies the correct composition law, and it satisfies Schrodinger's equation thought of as a boundary-value problem in PDE. Path integrals in quantum mechanics and elsewhere in quantum field theory are almost always of the shape ∫ f es for some functions f (the "observable") and s (the "action"). In Chapter 2 we step back to analyze integrals of this type more generally. Integration by parts provides algebraic relations between the values of ∫ (-) es for different inputs, which can be packaged into a Batalin--Vilkovisky-type chain complex. Using some simple homological perturbation theory, we study the version of this complex that arises when f and s are taken to be polynomial functions, and power series are banished. We find that in such cases, the entire scheme-theoretic critical locus (complex points included) of s plays an important role, and that one can uniformly (but noncanonically) integrate out in a purely algebraic way the contributions to the integral from all "higher modes," reducing ∫ f es to an integral over the critical locus. This may help explain the presence of analytic continuation in questions like the

  8. Constrained motion control on a hemispherical surface: path planning.

    PubMed

    Berman, Sigal; Liebermann, Dario G; McIntyre, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    Surface-constrained motion, i.e., motion constraint by a rigid surface, is commonly found in daily activities. The current work investigates the choice of hand paths constrained to a concave hemispherical surface. To gain insight regarding paths and their relationship with task dynamics, we simulated various control policies. The simulations demonstrated that following a geodesic path (the shortest path between 2 points on a sphere) is advantageous not only in terms of path length but also in terms of motor planning and sensitivity to motor command errors. These stem from the fact that the applied forces lie in a single plane (that of the geodesic path). To test whether human subjects indeed follow the geodesic, and to see how such motion compares to other paths, we recorded movements in a virtual haptic-visual environment from 11 healthy subjects. The task comprised point-to-point motion between targets at two elevations (30° and 60°). Three typical choices of paths were observed from a frontal plane projection of the paths: circular arcs, straight lines, and arcs close to the geodesic path for each elevation. Based on the measured hand paths, we applied k-means blind separation to divide the subjects into three groups and compared performance indicators. The analysis confirmed that subjects who followed paths closest to the geodesic produced faster and smoother movements compared with the others. The "better" performance reflects the dynamical advantages of following the geodesic path and may also reflect invariant features of control policies used to produce such a surface-constrained motion.

  9. Eddy diffusion coefficients and their upper limits based on application of the similarity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, M. N.; Kelley, M. C.

    2015-07-01

    The equation for the diffusion velocity in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere (MLT) includes the terms for molecular and eddy diffusion. These terms are very similar. For the first time, we show that, by using the similarity theory, the same formula can be obtained for the eddy diffusion coefficient as the commonly used formula derived by Weinstock (1981). The latter was obtained by taking, as a basis, the integral function for diffusion derived by Taylor (1921) and the three-dimensional Kolmogorov kinetic energy spectrum. The exact identity of both formulas means that the eddy diffusion and heat transport coefficients used in the equations, both for diffusion and thermal conductivity, must meet a criterion that restricts the outer eddy scale to being much less than the scale height of the atmosphere. This requirement is the same as the requirement that the free path of molecules must be much smaller than the scale height of the atmosphere. A further result of this criterion is that the eddy diffusion coefficients Ked, inferred from measurements of energy dissipation rates, cannot exceed the maximum value of 3.2 × 106 cm2 s-1 for the maximum value of the energy dissipation rate of 2 W kg-1 measured in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere (MLT). This means that eddy diffusion coefficients larger than the maximum value correspond to eddies with outer scales so large that it is impossible to use these coefficients in eddy diffusion and eddy heat transport equations. The application of this criterion to the different experimental data shows that some reported eddy diffusion coefficients do not meet this criterion. For example, the large values of these coefficients (1 × 107 cm2 s-1) estimated in the Turbulent Oxygen Mixing Experiment (TOMEX) do not correspond to this criterion. The Ked values inferred at high latitudes by Lübken (1997) meet this criterion for summer and winter polar data, but the Ked values for summer at low latitudes are larger than the

  10. Cytoplasmic hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed Central

    al-Baldawi, N F; Abercrombie, R F

    1992-01-01

    The apparent cytoplasmic proton diffusion coefficient was measured using pH electrodes and samples of cytoplasm extracted from the giant neuron of a marine invertebrate. By suddenly changing the pH at one surface of the sample and recording the relaxation of pH within the sample, an apparent diffusion coefficient of 1.4 +/- 0.5 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7) was measured in the acidic or neutral range of pH (6.0-7.2). This value is approximately 5x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the mobile pH buffers (approximately 8 x 10(-6) cm2/s) and approximately 68x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the hydronium ion (93 x 10(-6) cm2/s). A mobile pH buffer (approximately 15% of the buffering power) and an immobile buffer (approximately 85% of the buffering power) could quantitatively account for the results at acidic or neutral pH. At alkaline pH (8.2-8.6), the apparent proton diffusion coefficient increased to 4.1 +/- 0.8 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7). This larger diffusion coefficient at alkaline pH could be explained quantitatively by the enhanced buffering power of the mobile amino acids. Under the conditions of these experiments, it is unlikely that hydroxide movement influences the apparent hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient. PMID:1617134

  11. Quantitative Molecular Thermochemistry Based on Path Integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Glaesemann, K R; Fried, L E

    2005-03-14

    The calculation of thermochemical data requires accurate molecular energies and heat capacities. Traditional methods rely upon the standard harmonic normal mode analysis to calculate the vibrational and rotational contributions. We utilize path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) for going beyond the harmonic analysis, to calculate the vibrational and rotational contributions to ab initio energies. This is an application and extension of a method previously developed in our group.

  12. Determination of sedimentation coefficients for small peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, P; MacPhee, C E; Howlett, G J

    1998-01-01

    Direct fitting of sedimentation velocity data with numerical solutions of the Lamm equations has been exploited to obtain sedimentation coefficients for single solutes under conditions where solvent and solution plateaus are either not available or are transient. The calculated evolution was initialized with the first experimental scan and nonlinear regression was employed to obtain best-fit values for the sedimentation and diffusion coefficients. General properties of the Lamm equations as data analysis tools were examined. This method was applied to study a set of small peptides containing amphipathic heptad repeats with the general structure Ac-YS-(AKEAAKE)nGAR-NH2, n = 2, 3, or 4. Sedimentation velocity analysis indicated single sedimenting species with sedimentation coefficients (s(20,w) values) of 0.37, 0.45, and 0.52 S, respectively, in good agreement with sedimentation coefficients predicted by hydrodynamic theory. The described approach can be applied to synthetic boundary and conventional loading experiments, and can be extended to analyze sedimentation data for both large and small macromolecules in order to define shape, heterogeneity, and state of association. PMID:9449347

  13. Prediction of slant path rain attenuation statistics at various locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a method for predicting slant path attenuation statistics at arbitrary locations for variable frequencies and path elevation angles. The method involves the use of median reflectivity factor-height profiles measured with radar as well as the use of long-term point rain rate data and assumed or measured drop size distributions. The attenuation coefficient due to cloud liquid water in the presence of rain is also considered. Absolute probability fade distributions are compared for eight cases: Maryland (15 GHz), Texas (30 GHz), Slough, England (19 and 37 GHz), Fayetteville, North Carolina (13 and 18 GHz), and Cambridge, Massachusetts (13 and 18 GHz).

  14. Spectral analysis of ionospheric disturbances in the phase delay and radio signal amplitude at limb paths according to the COSMIC data in periods of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmakov, A. V.; Gorbunov, M. E.

    2016-07-01

    Based on more than 4500 sessions of radio transillumination of Earth's atmosphere along the satellite-atmosphere-satellite path obtained in the COSMIC experiment, the distribution along latitude and over local time of the spatial spectra of variations in the ionospheric phase delay and signal amplitude has been analyzed. The spatial spectra have been calculated for two height ranges, i.e., 60-80 and 80-100 km. In the phase signal spectrum within the height range 80-100 km, the second maximum in the vicinity of a frequency of 7-8 rad/km is clearly seen. Its diurnal and latitudinal behavior and its decrease towards high latitudes in both hemispheres can also be seen. In the height range of 60-80 km, this maximum is hardly observed. Although solar flares can lead to substantial local changes in the electron concentration, no substantial difference in the behavior of the spectral densities of the amplitude and phase delay at long limb paths was observed within these two height ranges on days of active and quiet sun. The latter fact makes it possible to develop a united algorithm of optimal ionospheric correction of the radio occultation data independent of solar activity.

  15. Handbook of Feynman Path Integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosche, Christian, Steiner, Frank

    The Handbook of Feynman Path Integrals appears just fifty years after Richard Feynman published his pioneering paper in 1948 entitled "Space-Time Approach to Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics", in which he introduced his new formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of path integrals. The book presents for the first time a comprehensive table of Feynman path integrals together with an extensive list of references; it will serve the reader as a thorough introduction to the theory of path integrals. As a reference book, it is unique in its scope and will be essential for many physicists, chemists and mathematicians working in different areas of research.

  16. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  17. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  18. Diffusion Coefficients in White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saumon, D.; Starrett, C. E.; Daligault, J.

    2015-06-01

    Models of diffusion in white dwarfs universally rely on the coefficients calculated by Paquette et al. (1986). We present new calculations of diffusion coefficients based on an advanced microscopic theory of dense plasmas and a numerical simulation approach that intrinsically accounts for multiple collisions. Our method is validated against a state-of-the-art method and we present results for the diffusion of carbon ions in a helium plasma.

  19. Photon diffusion in a homogeneous medium bounded externally or internally by an infinitely long circular cylindrical applicator. III. Synthetic study of continuous-wave photon fluence rate along unique spiral paths.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anqi; Piao, Daqing; Bunting, Charles F

    2012-04-01

    This is Part III of the work that examines photon diffusion in a scattering-dominant medium enclosed by a "concave" circular cylindrical applicator or enclosing a "convex" circular cylindrical applicator. In Part II of this work Zhang et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 66 (2011)] predicted that, on the tissue-applicator interface of either "concave" or "convex" geometry, there exists a unique set of spiral paths, along which the steady-state photon fluence rate decays at a rate equal to that along a straight line on a planar semi-infinite interface, for the same line-of-sight source-detector distance. This phenomenon of steady-state photon diffusion is referred to as "straight-line-resembling-spiral paths" (abbreviated as "spiral paths"). This Part III study develops analytic approaches to the spiral paths associated with geometry of a large radial dimension and presents spiral paths found numerically for geometry of a small radial dimension. This Part III study also examines whether the spiral paths associated with a homogeneous medium are a good approximation for the medium containing heterogeneity. The heterogeneity is limited to an anomaly that is aligned azimuthally with the spiral paths and has either positive or negative contrast of the absorption or scattering coefficient over the background medium. For a weak-contrast anomaly the perturbation by it to the photon fluence rate along the spiral paths is found by applying a well-established perturbation analysis in cylindrical coordinates. For a strong-contrast anomaly the change by it to the photon fluence rate along the spiral paths is computed using the finite-element method. For the investigated heterogeneous-medium cases the photon fluence rate along the homogeneous-medium associated spiral paths is macroscopically indistinguishable from, and microscopically close to, that along a straight line on a planar semi-infinite interface.

  20. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a sample and non-uniform intensity in the reverberation chambers under test. In this study, conversion methods from Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model do not guarantee reliable estimations, particularly at frequencies below 250 Hz and beyond 2500 Hz.

  1. PathCase-SB architecture and database design

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Integration of metabolic pathways resources and regulatory metabolic network models, and deploying new tools on the integrated platform can help perform more effective and more efficient systems biology research on understanding the regulation in metabolic networks. Therefore, the tasks of (a) integrating under a single database environment regulatory metabolic networks and existing models, and (b) building tools to help with modeling and analysis are desirable and intellectually challenging computational tasks. Description PathCase Systems Biology (PathCase-SB) is built and released. The PathCase-SB database provides data and API for multiple user interfaces and software tools. The current PathCase-SB system provides a database-enabled framework and web-based computational tools towards facilitating the development of kinetic models for biological systems. PathCase-SB aims to integrate data of selected biological data sources on the web (currently, BioModels database and KEGG), and to provide more powerful and/or new capabilities via the new web-based integrative framework. This paper describes architecture and database design issues encountered in PathCase-SB's design and implementation, and presents the current design of PathCase-SB's architecture and database. Conclusions PathCase-SB architecture and database provide a highly extensible and scalable environment with easy and fast (real-time) access to the data in the database. PathCase-SB itself is already being used by researchers across the world. PMID:22070889

  2. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive

  3. Inbreeding coefficients and coalescence times.

    PubMed

    Slatkin, M

    1991-10-01

    This paper describes the relationship between probabilities of identity by descent and the distribution of coalescence times. By using the relationship between coalescence times and identity probabilities, it is possible to extend existing results for inbreeding coefficients in regular systems of mating to find the distribution of coalescence times and the mean coalescence times. It is also possible to express Sewall Wright's FST as the ratio of average coalescence times of different pairs of genes. That simplifies the analysis of models of subdivided populations because the average coalescence time can be found by computing separately the time it takes for two genes to enter a single subpopulation and time it takes for two genes in the same subpopulation to coalesce. The first time depends only on the migration matrix and the second time depends only on the total number of individuals in the population. This approach is used to find FST in the finite island model and in one- and two-dimensional stepping-stone models. It is also used to find the rate of approach of FST to its equilibrium value. These results are discussed in terms of different measures of genetic distance. It is proposed that, for the purposes of describing the amount of gene flow among local populations, the effective migration rate between pairs of local populations, M, which is the migration rate that would be estimated for those two populations if they were actually in an island model, provides a simple and useful measure of genetic similarity that can be defined for either allozyme or DNA sequence data.

  4. Path length enhancement in disordered media for increased absorption.

    PubMed

    Mupparapu, Rajeshkumar; Vynck, Kevin; Svensson, Tomas; Burresi, Matteo; Wiersma, Diederik S

    2015-11-30

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the capability of disordered media to enhance the optical path length in dielectric slabs and augment their light absorption efficiency due to scattering. We first perform a series of Monte Carlo simulations of random walks to determine the path length distribution in weakly to strongly (single to multiple) scattering, non-absorbing dielectric slabs under normally incident light and derive analytical expressions for the path length enhancement in these two limits. Quite interestingly, while multiple scattering is expected to produce long optical paths, we find that media containing a vanishingly small amount of scatterers can still provide high path length enhancements due to the very long trajectories sustained by total internal reflection at the slab interfaces. The path length distributions are then used to calculate the light absorption efficiency of media with varying absorption coefficients. We find that maximum absorption enhancement is obtained at an optimal scattering strength, in-between the single-scattering and the diffusive (strong multiple-scattering) regimes. This study can guide experimentalists towards more efficient and potentially low-cost solutions in photovoltaic technologies.

  5. Does the Component Processes Task Assess Text-Based Inferences Important for Reading Comprehension? A Path Analysis in Primary School Children.

    PubMed

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I; de Koning, Björn B; de Vries, Meinou H; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Using a component processes task (CPT) that differentiates between higher-level cognitive processes of reading comprehension provides important advantages over commonly used general reading comprehension assessments. The present study contributes to further development of the CPT by evaluating the relative contributions of its components (text memory, text inferencing, and knowledge integration) and working memory to general reading comprehension within a single study using path analyses. Participants were 173 third- and fourth-grade children. As hypothesized, knowledge integration was the only component of the CPT that directly contributed to reading comprehension, indicating that the text-inferencing component did not assess inferential processes related to reading comprehension. Working memory was a significant predictor of reading comprehension over and above the component processes. Future research should focus on finding ways to ensure that the text-inferencing component taps into processes important for reading comprehension.

  6. Main flow path and chemical alteration in a marly hill prone to slope instability: assessment from petrophysical measurements and borehole image analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofi, Johanna; Gautier, Stéphanie; Pezard, Philippe; Loggia, Didier; Garel, Emilie

    2010-05-01

    The principal driving force of slope movements is generally considered to be gravity, with the main triggering factor being the increase of pore pressures by the presence of water contained in the geological environment. It is however difficult to anticipate the rupture processes involved in deep seated landslides mainly because of the difficulty in estimating the mechanical behaviors at the scale of the hill slope which is characterized by heterogeneous structures with large and small scale discontinuities. Hydrogeological behaviors are also important parameters and the localization of the main flow paths and saturated zones is a fundamental stage of the slope evolution before and after failure. The processes involved in the rupture is also rock type dependant. Clay shales that have complicated structure at a small scale and are sensible to weathering are very prone to slope instability. In this context, this study focuses a non slided slope made of tectonised clay shales in the Draix Observatory (ORE DRAIX) of the southern Alps (France). The objectives were to characterise at several scales (several m - µm) the internal architecture and main structural and lithological discontinuities of the hill slope in order to locate preferential water flows within the system, and anticipate its possible evolution. This work is based on a mutli-disciplinary approach including petrophysical analyses in the laboratory, well pulse injection tests and downhole geophysical measurements. Optical and acoustical images have been used as an original and efficient tool for internal discontinuities characterization at several scales (several mm - several m) and potential active flow path detection. In all, the integration of measurements leads to propose a simple scenario of fluid circulation and chemical alteration of the hill slope. Owing to the very low permeability of the non altered black marl matrix, the open fractures evidenced from borehole images may be the primary pathways

  7. Does the Component Processes Task Assess Text-Based Inferences Important for Reading Comprehension? A Path Analysis in Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; de Koning, Björn B.; de Vries, Meinou H.; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Using a component processes task (CPT) that differentiates between higher-level cognitive processes of reading comprehension provides important advantages over commonly used general reading comprehension assessments. The present study contributes to further development of the CPT by evaluating the relative contributions of its components (text memory, text inferencing, and knowledge integration) and working memory to general reading comprehension within a single study using path analyses. Participants were 173 third- and fourth-grade children. As hypothesized, knowledge integration was the only component of the CPT that directly contributed to reading comprehension, indicating that the text-inferencing component did not assess inferential processes related to reading comprehension. Working memory was a significant predictor of reading comprehension over and above the component processes. Future research should focus on finding ways to ensure that the text-inferencing component taps into processes important for reading comprehension. PMID:27378989

  8. Does the Component Processes Task Assess Text-Based Inferences Important for Reading Comprehension? A Path Analysis in Primary School Children.

    PubMed

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I; de Koning, Björn B; de Vries, Meinou H; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Using a component processes task (CPT) that differentiates between higher-level cognitive processes of reading comprehension provides important advantages over commonly used general reading comprehension assessments. The present study contributes to further development of the CPT by evaluating the relative contributions of its components (text memory, text inferencing, and knowledge integration) and working memory to general reading comprehension within a single study using path analyses. Participants were 173 third- and fourth-grade children. As hypothesized, knowledge integration was the only component of the CPT that directly contributed to reading comprehension, indicating that the text-inferencing component did not assess inferential processes related to reading comprehension. Working memory was a significant predictor of reading comprehension over and above the component processes. Future research should focus on finding ways to ensure that the text-inferencing component taps into processes important for reading comprehension. PMID:27378989

  9. Associations among correlates of schedule adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART): a path analysis of a sample of crack cocaine using sexually active African-Americans with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, J S; Schönnesson, L Nilsson; Williams, M L; Timpson, S C

    2008-02-01

    Adherence to HIV medication regimens is a function of multiple dimensions including psychological functioning, social support, adherence self-efficacy and optimism regarding treatment. Active substance use can also negatively affect adherence. An understanding of the nature of the associations among the correlates of adherence can better inform the design of interventions to improve adherence. This study developed an exploratory path model of schedule adherence using data from a sample 130 African-American HIV-positive crack cocaine users on highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART). This model was based on the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping developed by Lazarus and Folkman. Following the theory, the effects of psychological distress on schedule adherence were mediated by patients' relationship with their doctor and optimism towards antiretroviral treatment. Adherence was also associated with patients' self-efficacy regarding their medical regimen which, in turn, was associated with their social support.

  10. Path-dependent variational effects and multidimensional tunneling in multi-path variational transition state theory: rate constants calculated for the reactions of HO2 with tert-butanol by including all 46 paths for abstraction at C and all six paths for abstraction at O.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Sripa, Pattrawan; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-01-14

    Multi-path variational transition state theory (MP-VTST) provides a conformationally complete framework for calculating gas-phase rate constants. For reactions in which the transition state has distinguishable torsional minima (which include most reactions), there are multiple possible reaction paths. In principle MP-VTST includes the contributions from all the reaction paths, and it should explicitly treat the variational and tunneling effects of each path, but in practice one may need to truncate the number of paths included in MP-VTST calculations in order to achieve a balance between computational cost and accuracy. In this work, we present calculations including all paths for two prototype combustion reactions, namely the two hydrogen abstraction reactions from tert-butanol by HO2 radical. For both reactions we included all the reaction paths. Since abstraction at C has 46 paths, it provided a good opportunity to carry out a case study in which we investigated the errors introduced by truncating the number of paths. For the reaction studied, we found that the variational and multidimensional tunneling transmission coefficients are very different for different reaction paths, which provides new evidence that MP-VTST is necessary for treating path-dependent variational effects and multidimensional tunneling. We found that tunneling transmission coefficients can be much larger for higher-energy paths than for lower-energy ones. Interestingly, the simple hypothesis that higher barriers are narrower does not explain this finding in the present case; we found instead that the effect is due to higher-energy barriers having the possibility of tunneling at energies farther below the barrier top. We also show that a previously applied criterion for judging convergence with respect to the number of paths may not be reliable at low temperature. PMID:26658549

  11. Recursive Construction of Operator Product Expansion Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Jan; Hollands, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    We derive a novel formula for the derivative of operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients with respect to a coupling constant. The formula involves just the OPE coefficients themselves but no further input, and is in this sense self-consistent. Furthermore, unlike other formal identities of this general nature in quantum field theory (such as the formal expression for the Lagrangian perturbation of a correlation function), our formula requires no further UV-renormalization, i.e., it is completely well-defined from the start. This feature is a result of a cancelation of UV- and IR-divergences between various terms in our identity. Our proof, and an analysis of the features of the identity, is given for the example of massive, Euclidean theory in 4 dimensional Euclidean space. It relies on the renormalization group flow equation method and is valid to arbitrary, but finite orders in perturbation theory. The final formula, however, makes neither explicit reference to the renormalization group flow, nor to perturbation theory, and we conjecture that it also holds non-perturbatively. Our identity can be applied constructively because it gives a novel recursive algorithm for the computation of OPE coefficients to arbitrary (finite) perturbation order in terms of the zeroth order coefficients corresponding to the underlying free field theory, which in turn are trivial to obtain. We briefly illustrate the relation of this method to more standard methods for computing the OPE in some simple examples.

  12. Reconfigurable data path processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohoe, Gregory (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A reconfigurable data path processor comprises a plurality of independent processing elements. Each of the processing elements advantageously comprising an identical architecture. Each processing element comprises a plurality of data processing means for generating a potential output. Each processor is also capable of through-putting an input as a potential output with little or no processing. Each processing element comprises a conditional multiplexer having a first conditional multiplexer input, a second conditional multiplexer input and a conditional multiplexer output. A first potential output value is transmitted to the first conditional multiplexer input, and a second potential output value is transmitted to the second conditional multiplexer output. The conditional multiplexer couples either the first conditional multiplexer input or the second conditional multiplexer input to the conditional multiplexer output, according to an output control command. The output control command is generated by processing a set of arithmetic status-bits through a logical mask. The conditional multiplexer output is coupled to a first processing element output. A first set of arithmetic bits are generated according to the processing of the first processable value. A second set of arithmetic bits may be generated from a second processing operation. The selection of the arithmetic status-bits is performed by an arithmetic-status bit multiplexer selects the desired set of arithmetic status bits from among the first and second set of arithmetic status bits. The conditional multiplexer evaluates the select arithmetic status bits according to logical mask defining an algorithm for evaluating the arithmetic status bits.

  13. Collabortive Authoring of Walden's Paths

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuanling; Bogen II, Paul Logasa; Pogue, Daniel; Furuta, Richard Keith; Shipman, Frank Major

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of an authoring tool to allow users to collaboratively build, annotate, manage, share and reuse collections of distributed resources from the World Wide Web. This extends on the Walden’s Path project’s work to help educators bring resources found on the World Wide Web into a linear contextualized structure. The introduction of collaborative authoring feature fosters collaborative learning activities through social interaction among participants, where participants can coauthor paths in groups. Besides, the prototype supports path sharing, branching and reusing; specifically, individual participant can contribute to the group with private collections of knowledge resources; paths completed by group can be shared among group members, such that participants can tailor, extend, reorder and/or replace nodes to have sub versions of shared paths for different information needs.

  14. Factor Scores, Structure and Communality Coefficients: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odum, Mary

    2011-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper is to present an easy-to-understand primer on three important concepts of factor analysis: Factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Given that statistical analyses are a part of a global general linear model (GLM), and utilize weights as an integral part of analyses (Thompson, 2006;…

  15. The Importance of Structure Coefficients in Parametric Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Katherine R.

    The recognition that all parametric methods are interrelated, coupled with the notion that structure coefficients are often vital in factor and canonical analyses, suggests that structure coefficients may be important in univariate analysis as well. Using a small, heuristic data set, this paper discusses the importance of structure coefficients…

  16. Transport coefficients of heavy baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolos, Laura; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Das, Santosh K.

    2016-08-01

    We compute the transport coefficients (drag and momentum diffusion) of the low-lying heavy baryons Λc and Λb in a medium of light mesons formed at the later stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the Fokker-Planck approach to obtain the transport coefficients from unitarized baryon-meson interactions based on effective field theories that respect chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. We provide the transport coefficients as a function of temperature and heavy-baryon momentum, and analyze the applicability of certain nonrelativistic estimates. Moreover we compare our outcome for the spatial diffusion coefficient to the one coming from the solution of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation, and we find a very good agreement between both calculations. The transport coefficients for Λc and Λb in a thermal bath will be used in a subsequent publication as input in a Langevin evolution code for the generation and propagation of heavy particles in heavy-ion collisions at LHC and RHIC energies.

  17. Path optimization by a variational reaction coordinate method. I. Development of formalism and algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholz, Adam B.; Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    2015-12-28

    The development of algorithms to optimize reaction pathways between reactants and products is an active area of study. Existing algorithms typically describe the path as a discrete series of images (chain of states) which are moved downhill toward the path, using various reparameterization schemes, constraints, or fictitious forces to maintain a uniform description of the reaction path. The Variational Reaction Coordinate (VRC) method is a novel approach that finds the reaction path by minimizing the variational reaction energy (VRE) of Quapp and Bofill. The VRE is the line integral of the gradient norm along a path between reactants and products and minimization of VRE has been shown to yield the steepest descent reaction path. In the VRC method, we represent the reaction path by a linear expansion in a set of continuous basis functions and find the optimized path by minimizing the VRE with respect to the linear expansion coefficients. Improved convergence is obtained by applying constraints to the spacing of the basis functions and coupling the minimization of the VRE to the minimization of one or more points along the path that correspond to intermediates and transition states. The VRC method is demonstrated by optimizing the reaction path for the Müller-Brown surface and by finding a reaction path passing through 5 transition states and 4 intermediates for a 10 atom Lennard-Jones cluster.

  18. Path optimization by a variational reaction coordinate method. I. Development of formalism and algorithms.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, Adam B; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2015-12-28

    The development of algorithms to optimize reaction pathways between reactants and products is an active area of study. Existing algorithms typically describe the path as a discrete series of images (chain of states) which are moved downhill toward the path, using various reparameterization schemes, constraints, or fictitious forces to maintain a uniform description of the reaction path. The Variational Reaction Coordinate (VRC) method is a novel approach that finds the reaction path by minimizing the variational reaction energy (VRE) of Quapp and Bofill. The VRE is the line integral of the gradient norm along a path between reactants and products and minimization of VRE has been shown to yield the steepest descent reaction path. In the VRC method, we represent the reaction path by a linear expansion in a set of continuous basis functions and find the optimized path by minimizing the VRE with respect to the linear expansion coefficients. Improved convergence is obtained by applying constraints to the spacing of the basis functions and coupling the minimization of the VRE to the minimization of one or more points along the path that correspond to intermediates and transition states. The VRC method is demonstrated by optimizing the reaction path for the Müller-Brown surface and by finding a reaction path passing through 5 transition states and 4 intermediates for a 10 atom Lennard-Jones cluster.

  19. Path optimization by a variational reaction coordinate method. I. Development of formalism and algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkholz, Adam B.; Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    The development of algorithms to optimize reaction pathways between reactants and products is an active area of study. Existing algorithms typically describe the path as a discrete series of images (chain of states) which are moved downhill toward the path, using various reparameterization schemes, constraints, or fictitious forces to maintain a uniform description of the reaction path. The Variational Reaction Coordinate (VRC) method is a novel approach that finds the reaction path by minimizing the variational reaction energy (VRE) of Quapp and Bofill. The VRE is the line integral of the gradient norm along a path between reactants and products and minimization of VRE has been shown to yield the steepest descent reaction path. In the VRC method, we represent the reaction path by a linear expansion in a set of continuous basis functions and find the optimized path by minimizing the VRE with respect to the linear expansion coefficients. Improved convergence is obtained by applying constraints to the spacing of the basis functions and coupling the minimization of the VRE to the minimization of one or more points along the path that correspond to intermediates and transition states. The VRC method is demonstrated by optimizing the reaction path for the Müller-Brown surface and by finding a reaction path passing through 5 transition states and 4 intermediates for a 10 atom Lennard-Jones cluster.

  20. Learning to improve path planning performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pang C.

    1995-04-01

    In robotics, path planning refers to finding a short. collision-free path from an initial robot configuration to a desired configuratioin. It has to be fast to support real-time task-level robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To remedy this situation, we present and analyze a learning algorithm that uses past experience to increase future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a speedup-learning framework in which a slow but capable planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less capable planner coupled with experience. The basic algorithm is suitable for stationary environments, and can be extended to accommodate changing environments with on-demand experience repair and object-attached experience abstraction. To analyze the algorithm, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior, and confirm our theoretical results with experiments in path planning of manipulators. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently, general that they may also be applied to other planning domains in which experience is useful.

  1. Interpretation of Structure Coefficients Can Prevent Erroneous Conclusions about Regression Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Jean S.

    The increased use of multiple regression analysis in research warrants closer examination of the coefficients produced in these analyses, especially ones which are often ignored, such as structure coefficients. Structure coefficients are bivariate correlation coefficients between a predictor variable and the synthetic variable. When predictor…

  2. Transport coefficients of gluonic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Santosh K.; Alam, Jan-e

    2011-06-01

    The shear ({eta}) and bulk ({zeta}) viscous coefficients have been evaluated for a gluonic fluid. The elastic, gg{yields}gg and the inelastic, number nonconserving, gg{yields}ggg processes have been considered as the dominant perturbative processes in evaluating the viscous coefficients to entropy density (s) ratios. Recently the processes: gg{yields}ggg has been revisited and a correction to the widely used Gunion-Bertsch (GB) formula has been obtained. The {eta} and {zeta} have been evaluated for gluonic fluid with the formula recently derived. At large {alpha}{sub s} the value of {eta}/s approaches its lower bound, {approx}1/4{pi}.

  3. Yang-Mills theory and fermionic path integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The Yang-Mills gauge field theory, which was proposed 60 years ago, is extremely successful in describing the basic interactions of fundamental particles. The Yang-Mills theory in the course of its developments also stimulated many important field theoretical machinery. In this brief review I discuss the path integral techniques, in particular, the fermionic path integrals which were developed together with the successful applications of quantized Yang-Mills field theory. I start with the Faddeev-Popov path integral formula with emphasis on the treatment of fermionic ghosts as an application of Grassmann numbers. I then discuss the ordinary fermionic path integrals and the general treatment of quantum anomalies. The contents of this review are mostly pedagogical except for a recent analysis of path integral bosonization.

  4. Yang-Mills Theory and Fermionic Path Integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    The Yang-Mills gauge field theory, which was proposed 60 years ago, is extremely successful in describing the basic interactions of fundamental particles. The Yang-Mills theory in the course of its developments also stimulated many important field theoretical machinery. In my talk I discuss the path integral techniques, in particular, the fermionic path integrals which were developed together with the successful applications of quantized Yang-Mills field theory. I start with the Faddeev-Popov path integral formula with emphasis on the treatment of fermionic ghosts as an application of Grassmann numbers. I then discuss the ordinary fermionic path integrals and the general treatment of quantum anomalies. The contents of this talk are mostly pedagogical except for a recent analysis of path integral bosonization.

  5. Numerical modeling of land subsidence due to groundwater withdrawal in Aguascalientes Valley using regional coefficients of deformation determined by InSAR analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, J.; Cabral, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Hernandez-Marin, M.; Ortíz, J. Á.; Solano Rojas, D. E.; Oliver-Cabrera, T.

    2014-12-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater over-exploitation is a deformation process affecting many cities around the world. This type of subsidence develops gradual vertical deformations reaching only a few centimeters per year, but can affect large areas. Consequently, inhabitants of subsiding areas are not aware of the process until others effects are observed, such as ground surface faulting, damage to building, or changes in the natural superficial drain. In order to mitigate and forecast subsidence consequences, it is useful to conduct numerical modeling of the subsidence process. Modeling the subsidence includes the following three basic tasks: a) Delimitation of the shape of the deforming body; b) Determination of the forces that are causing the deformations; and c) Determination of the mechanical properties of the deforming body according with an accepted rheological model. In the case of a land subsidence process, the deforming body is the aquifer system that is being drained. Usually, stratigraphic information from pumping wells, and other geophysical data are used to define the boundaries and shape of the aquifer system. The deformation governing forces, or stresses, can be calculated using the theory of "effective stress". Mechanical properties are usually determined with laboratory testing of samples from shallow strata, because the determination of these properties in samples from the deepest strata is economically or technically unviable. Consequently, the results of the numerical modeling do not necessarily match the observed subsidence evolution and ground faulting. We present in this work numerical simulation results of the land subsiding of the Valley of Aguascalientes, Mexico. Two analyses for the same subsiding area are presented. In the first of them, we used the mechanical properties of only the shallow strata, whereas in the second analysis we used "macroscopic" mechanical properties data determined for the whole aquifer system using In

  6. 14 CFR 23.57 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff path. 23.57 Section 23.57... path. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff path is as follows: (a) The takeoff path extends... completed; and (1) The takeoff path must be based on the procedures prescribed in § 23.45; (2) The...

  7. 14 CFR 23.57 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff path. 23.57 Section 23.57... path. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff path is as follows: (a) The takeoff path extends... completed; and (1) The takeoff path must be based on the procedures prescribed in § 23.45; (2) The...

  8. Pathways with PathWhiz

    PubMed Central

    Pon, Allison; Jewison, Timothy; Su, Yilu; Liang, Yongjie; Knox, Craig; Maciejewski, Adam; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S.

    2015-01-01

    PathWhiz (http://smpdb.ca/pathwhiz) is a web server designed to create colourful, visually pleasing and biologically accurate pathway diagrams that are both machine-readable and interactive. As a web server, PathWhiz is accessible from almost any place and compatible with essentially any operating system. It also houses a public library of pathways and pathway components that can be easily viewed and expanded upon by its users. PathWhiz allows users to readily generate biologically complex pathways by using a specially designed drawing palette to quickly render metabolites (including automated structure generation), proteins (including quaternary structures, covalent modifications and cofactors), nucleic acids, membranes, subcellular structures, cells, tissues and organs. Both small-molecule and protein/gene pathways can be constructed by combining multiple pathway processes such as reactions, interactions, binding events and transport activities. PathWhiz's pathway replication and propagation functions allow for existing pathways to be used to create new pathways or for existing pathways to be automatically propagated across species. PathWhiz pathways can be saved in BioPAX, SBGN-ML and SBML data exchange formats, as well as PNG, PWML, HTML image map or SVG images that can be viewed offline or explored using PathWhiz's interactive viewer. PathWhiz has been used to generate over 700 pathway diagrams for a number of popular databases including HMDB, DrugBank and SMPDB. PMID:25934797

  9. The Path Decomposition Expansion and Multidimensional Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, Assa

    The dissertation consists of two main topics. (a) The Path Decomposition Expansion (PDX): A new path integral technique which allows us to break configuration space into disjoint regions, and express the dynamics of the full system in terms of its parts. (b) The application of the PDX and semiclassical methods for solving quantum -mechanical problems in multidimensions. The result is a conceptually simple, computationally straightforward method for calculating tunneling effects in complicated multidimensional potentials, even in cases where the nature of the states in the classically allowed regions in nontrivial. Algorithms for computing tunneling effects in general classes of problems are obtained. The detailed solutions to several model problems are presented. These enable us to define various well -controlled approximation schemes, which help to reduce the dimensions of complicated tunneling calculations in real physical systems. The dramatic effects of transverse fluctuations on the asymptotic behavior of the groundstate tunnel-splitting are studied also in potentials with non -quadratic minima where standard instanton techniques fail. The power of the PDX is demonstrated by a calculation of the optical absorption coefficient of trans-polyacetylene where large amplitude (non-perturbative) quantum fluctuations of the lattice play an important role in determining the sub-gap absorption tail. Good agreement with experimental data is found, and suggestions for further measurements in this regime are made.

  10. A longitudinal path analysis of peer victimization, threat appraisals to the self, and aggression, anxiety, and depression among urban African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katherine A; Sullivan, Terri N; Kliewer, Wendy

    2013-02-01

    Threat appraisals-individuals' perceptions of how stressful situations may threaten their well-being-are an important but understudied mechanism that could explain links between peer victimization and adjustment. The goal of the present study was to examine relationships between physical and relational victimization by peers, threats to the self, and aggression, anxiety, and depression to better understand the cognitive evaluations that make youth vulnerable to negative adjustment. The sample comprised two cohorts of African American adolescents (N = 326; 54 % female; M = 12.1; SD = 1.6) and their maternal caregivers, who participated in three waves of a longitudinal study. Path models revealed significant direct effects from Time 1 relational victimization, but not physical victimization, to Time 2 threat appraisals (i.e., negative self-evaluations and negative evaluations by others), controlling for Time 1 threat appraisals. Significant direct effects were found from Time 2 threats of negative evaluations by others to Time 3 youth-reported aggression, controlling for Time 1 and Time 2 aggression. Significant direct effects also were found from Time 2 threats of negative self-evaluations to T3 youth-reported depression, controlling for Time 1 and Time 2 depression. Overall, findings highlight the need to consider the role of threats to the self in pathways from peer victimization to adjustment and the implications these appraisals have for youth prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:22990883

  11. Determination of volatile organic compounds in different microenvironments by multibed adsorption and short-path thermal desorption followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuntasal, Oznur Oğuz; Karman, Deniz; Wang, Daniel; Tuncel, Semra G; Tuncel, Gürdal

    2005-12-16

    A multiphase assurance approach was developed for the accurate and precise determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in different microenvironments. This approach includes (i) development of a method including adsorption of VOCs onto a multisorbent media followed by short-path thermal desorption (SPTD) pre-concentration and gas chromatography (GC) coupled to a mass spectrometry (MS) quantification, (ii) validation of the sampling and analytical method and (iii) validation of the data using a multidimensional procedure. Tenax TA and Carbopack B sorbent combinations were used to collect 102 individual VOCs ranging from C5 to C12. Method parameters including thermal desorption temperature, desorption time and cryofocusing temperature were optimized. The average recoveries and method detection limits (MDL) for the target analytes were in the range 80-100% and 0.01-0.14 ppbv, respectively. The method also showed good linearity (R2 > 0.99) and precision (<8%) values. Validation of the method was performed under real environmental conditions at a gas station, in an office and a residential household to examine the influence of variation in meteorological conditions such as temperature and relative humidity and a wide range of VOC concentrations. The sampling and analytical method resulted in successful determination of VOC in different microenvironments. Finally, validation of the data was performed by assessing fingerprint and time series plots and correlation matrices together with meteorological parameters such as mixing height, wind speed and temperature. The data validation procedure provided detection of both faulty data and air pollution episodes.

  12. Minior Actinide Doppler Coefficient Measurement Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan E. Hertel; Dwayne Blaylock

    2008-04-10

    The "Minor Actinide Doppler Coefficient Measurement Assessment" was a Department of Energy (DOE) U-NERI funded project intended to assess the viability of using either the FLATTOP or the COMET critical assembly to measure high temperature Doppler coefficients. The goal of the project was to calculate using the MCNP5 code the gram amounts of Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-241, AM-241, AM-242m, Am-243, and CM-244 needed to produce a 1E-5 in reactivity for a change in operating temperature 800C to 1000C. After determining the viability of using the assemblies and calculating the amounts of each actinide an experiment will be designed to verify the calculated results. The calculations and any doncuted experiments are designed to support the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative in conducting safety analysis of advanced fast reactor or acceoerator-driven transmutation systems with fuel containing high minor actinide content.

  13. Effective Viscosity Coefficient of Nanosuspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.; Egorov, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    Systematic calculations of the effective viscosity coefficient of nanosuspensions have been performed using the molecular dynamics method. It is established that the viscosity of a nanosuspension depends not only on the volume concentration of the nanoparticles but also on their mass and diameter. Differences from Einstein's relation are found even for nanosuspensions with a low particle concentration.

  14. Aerodynamic coefficients and transformation tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Joseph S

    1918-01-01

    The problem of the transformation of numerical values expressed in one system of units into another set or system of units frequently arises in connection with aerodynamic problems. Report contains aerodynamic coefficients and conversion tables needed to facilitate such transformation. (author)

  15. Estimating the Polyserial Correlation Coefficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedrick, Edward J.; Breslin, Frederick C.

    1996-01-01

    Simple noniterative estimators of the polyserial correlation coefficient are developed by exploiting a general relationship between the polyserial correlation and the point polyserial correlation to give extensions of the biserial estimators of K. Pearson (1909), H. E. Brogden (1949), and F. M. Lord (1963) to the multicategory setting. (SLD)

  16. Integer Solutions of Binomial Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    A good formula is like a good story, rich in description, powerful in communication, and eye-opening to readers. The formula presented in this article for determining the coefficients of the binomial expansion of (x + y)n is one such "good read." The beauty of this formula is in its simplicity--both describing a quantitative situation…

  17. Tables of the coefficients A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, N.

    1974-01-01

    Numerical coefficients required to express the angular distribution for the rotationally elastic or inelastic scattering of electrons from a diatomic molecule were tabulated for the case of nitrogen and in the energy range from 0.20 eV to 10.0 eV. Five different rotational states are considered.

  18. Identities for generalized hypergeometric coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Biedenharn, L.C.; Louck, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Generalizations of hypergeometric functions to arbitrarily many symmetric variables are discussed, along with their associated hypergeometric coefficients, and the setting within which these generalizations arose. Identities generalizing the Euler identity for {sub 2}F{sub 1}, the Saalschuetz identity, and two generalizations of the {sub 4}F{sub 3} Bailey identity, among others, are given. 16 refs.

  19. Prediction of stream volatilization coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    Equations are developed for predicting the liquid-film and gas-film reference-substance parameters for quantifying volatilization of organic solutes from streams. Molecular weight and molecular-diffusion coefficients of the solute are used as correlating parameters. Equations for predicting molecular-diffusion coefficients of organic solutes in water and air are developed, with molecular weight and molal volume as parameters. Mean absolute errors of prediction for diffusion coefficients in water are 9.97% for the molecular-weight equation, 6.45% for the molal-volume equation. The mean absolute error for the diffusion coefficient in air is 5.79% for the molal-volume equation. Molecular weight is not a satisfactory correlating parameter for diffusion in air because two equations are necessary to describe the values in the data set. The best predictive equation for the liquid-film reference-substance parameter has a mean absolute error of 5.74%, with molal volume as the correlating parameter. The best equation for the gas-film parameter has a mean absolute error of 7.80%, with molecular weight as the correlating parameter.

  20. Tapped-Hole Vent Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Long helical vent path cools and releases hot pyrotechnical gas that exits along its spiraling threads. Current design uses 1/4-28 threads with outer diameter of stud reduced by 0.025 in. (0.62 mm). To open or close gassampler bottle, pyrotechnic charges on either one side or other of valve cylinder are actuated. Gases vented slowly over long path are cool enough to present no ignition hazard. Vent used to meter flow in refrigeration, pneumaticcontrol, and fluid-control systems by appropriately adjusting size and length of vent path.