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Sample records for path coefficient analysis

  1. New Insights into Signed Path Coefficient Granger Causality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Chong; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Granger causality analysis, as a time series analysis technique derived from econometrics, has been applied in an ever-increasing number of publications in the field of neuroscience, including fMRI, EEG/MEG, and fNIRS. The present study mainly focuses on the validity of “signed path coefficient Granger causality,” a Granger-causality-derived analysis method that has been adopted by many fMRI researches in the last few years. This method generally estimates the causality effect among the time series by an order-1 autoregression, and defines a positive or negative coefficient as an “excitatory” or “inhibitory” influence. In the current work we conducted a series of computations from resting-state fMRI data and simulation experiments to illustrate the signed path coefficient method was flawed and untenable, due to the fact that the autoregressive coefficients were not always consistent with the real causal relationships and this would inevitablely lead to erroneous conclusions. Overall our findings suggested that the applicability of this kind of causality analysis was rather limited, hence researchers should be more cautious in applying the signed path coefficient Granger causality to fMRI data to avoid misinterpretation. PMID:27833547

  2. New Insights into Signed Path Coefficient Granger Causality Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Chong; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Granger causality analysis, as a time series analysis technique derived from econometrics, has been applied in an ever-increasing number of publications in the field of neuroscience, including fMRI, EEG/MEG, and fNIRS. The present study mainly focuses on the validity of "signed path coefficient Granger causality," a Granger-causality-derived analysis method that has been adopted by many fMRI researches in the last few years. This method generally estimates the causality effect among the time series by an order-1 autoregression, and defines a positive or negative coefficient as an "excitatory" or "inhibitory" influence. In the current work we conducted a series of computations from resting-state fMRI data and simulation experiments to illustrate the signed path coefficient method was flawed and untenable, due to the fact that the autoregressive coefficients were not always consistent with the real causal relationships and this would inevitablely lead to erroneous conclusions. Overall our findings suggested that the applicability of this kind of causality analysis was rather limited, hence researchers should be more cautious in applying the signed path coefficient Granger causality to fMRI data to avoid misinterpretation.

  3. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Aliya, F; Begum, H; Reddy, M T; Sivaraj, N; Pandravada, S R; Narshimulu, G

    2014-05-01

    Fifty genotypes of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India during kharif, 2012. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively for twelve quantitative characters namely vine length (m), number of stems per plant, days to first female flower appearance, first female flowering node, days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period (days), fruit length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit weight (g), number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant (kg) for identification of the potential selection indices. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruiting period and number of fruits per plant not only had positively significant correlation with fruit yield but also had positively high direct effect on it and are regarded as the main determinants of fruit yield. Days to first fruit harvest had positively moderate direct effect on fruit yield and its association was negatively significant, days to last fruit harvest had negatively high direct effect on fruit yield and its association was significant positively, hence restricted simultaneous selection can be made for days to first fruit harvest and days to last fruit harvest. The improvement in fruit yield can be effective if selection is based on days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period and number of fruits per plant.

  4. Interrelationship and path coefficient analysis of yield components in F4 progenies of tef (Eragrostis tef).

    PubMed

    Debebe, Abel; Singh, Harijat; Tefera, Hailu

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted at Debre Zeit and Akaki during 2004-2005 cropping season on F2-derived F4 bulk families of three crosses, viz, DZ-01-974 x DZ-01-2786, DZ-01-974 x DZ-Cr-37 and Alba x Kaye Murri. To estimate the correlations and path coefficients between yield and yield components, 63 F4 families were taken randomly from each of the three crosses. The 189 F4 families, five parents and two checks were space planted following in 14 x 14 simple lattice design. Study of associations among traits indicated that yield was positively associated with shoot biomass, harvest index, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at phenotypic level at Debre Zeit. At Akaki, yield had significant positive correlation with shoot biomass, harvest index, plant height, panicle length and panicle weight. At genotypic level, grain yield per plot exhibited positive association with harvest index, shoot biomass, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at Debre Zeit. By contrast, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and panicle length showed negative association with yield. At Akaki, kernel yield per plot was positively correlated at genotypic level with all the traits considered where lodging index had the highest correlation followed by shoot biomass, panicle kernel weight and harvest index. Path coefficient analysis at both phenotypic and genotypic levels for both the locations suggested those shoot biomass and harvest indexes are the two important yield determining traits. These two traits might be useful in indirect selection for yield improvement in the material generated from the three crosses under consideration.

  5. Path-counting formulas for generalized kinship coefficients and condensed identity coefficients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, En; Ozsoyoglu, Z Meral

    2014-01-01

    An important computation on pedigree data is the calculation of condensed identity coefficients, which provide a complete description of the degree of relatedness of two individuals. The applications of condensed identity coefficients range from genetic counseling to disease tracking. Condensed identity coefficients can be computed using linear combinations of generalized kinship coefficients for two, three, four individuals, and two pairs of individuals and there are recursive formulas for computing those generalized kinship coefficients (Karigl, 1981). Path-counting formulas have been proposed for the (generalized) kinship coefficients for two (three) individuals but there have been no path-counting formulas for the other generalized kinship coefficients. It has also been shown that the computation of the (generalized) kinship coefficients for two (three) individuals using path-counting formulas is efficient for large pedigrees, together with path encoding schemes tailored for pedigree graphs. In this paper, we propose a framework for deriving path-counting formulas for generalized kinship coefficients. Then, we present the path-counting formulas for all generalized kinship coefficients for which there are recursive formulas and which are sufficient for computing condensed identity coefficients. We also perform experiments to compare the efficiency of our method with the recursive method for computing condensed identity coefficients on large pedigrees.

  6. Path Flow Estimation Using Time Varying Coefficient State Space Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, Yow-Jen; Lan, Chien-Lun

    2009-08-01

    The dynamic path flow information is very crucial in the field of transportation operation and management, i.e., dynamic traffic assignment, scheduling plan, and signal timing. Time-dependent path information, which is important in many aspects, is nearly impossible to be obtained. Consequently, researchers have been seeking estimation methods for deriving valuable path flow information from less expensive traffic data, primarily link traffic counts of surveillance systems. This investigation considers a path flow estimation problem involving the time varying coefficient state space model, Gibbs sampler, and Kalman filter. Numerical examples with part of a real network of the Taipei Mass Rapid Transit with real O-D matrices is demonstrated to address the accuracy of proposed model. Results of this study show that this time-varying coefficient state space model is very effective in the estimation of path flow compared to time-invariant model.

  7. Path Analysis: A Brief Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Bernardo J.

    Path analysis is presented as a technique that can be used to test on a priori model based on a theoretical conceptualization involving a network of selected variables. This being an introductory source, no previous knowledge of path analysis is assumed, although some understanding of the fundamentals of multiple regression analysis might be…

  8. Interactive cutting path analysis programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, J. M.; Williams, D. S.; Colley, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    The operation of numerically controlled machine tools is interactively simulated. Four programs were developed to graphically display the cutting paths for a Monarch lathe, Cintimatic mill, Strippit sheet metal punch, and the wiring path for a Standard wire wrap machine. These programs are run on a IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system under the DOS-3 disk operating system. The cutting path analysis programs accept input via both paper tape and disk file.

  9. An Introduction to Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Lee M.

    1977-01-01

    The analytical procedure of path analysis is described in terms of its use in nonexperimental settings in the social sciences. The description assumes a moderate statistical background on the part of the reader. (JKS)

  10. Adaptive Environmental Source Localization and Tracking with Unknown Permittivity and Path Loss Coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Fidan, Barış; Umay, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Accurate signal-source and signal-reflector target localization tasks via mobile sensory units and wireless sensor networks (WSNs), including those for environmental monitoring via sensory UAVs, require precise knowledge of specific signal propagation properties of the environment, which are permittivity and path loss coefficients for the electromagnetic signal case. Thus, accurate estimation of these coefficients has significant importance for the accuracy of location estimates. In this paper, we propose a geometric cooperative technique to instantaneously estimate such coefficients, with details provided for received signal strength (RSS) and time-of-flight (TOF)-based range sensors. The proposed technique is integrated to a recursive least squares (RLS)-based adaptive localization scheme and an adaptive motion control law, to construct adaptive target localization and adaptive target tracking algorithms, respectively, that are robust to uncertainties in aforementioned environmental signal propagation coefficients. The efficiency of the proposed adaptive localization and tracking techniques are both mathematically analysed and verified via simulation experiments. PMID:26690441

  11. Path-integral calculation of the third virial coefficient of quantum gases at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Garberoglio, Giovanni; Harvey, Allan H.

    2011-04-07

    We derive path-integral expressions for the second and third virial coefficients of monatomic quantum gases. Unlike previous work that considered only Boltzmann statistics, we include exchange effects (Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics). We use state-of-the-art pair and three-body potentials to calculate the third virial coefficient of {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He in the temperature range 2.6-24.5561 K. We obtain uncertainties smaller than those of the limited experimental data. Inclusion of exchange effects is necessary to obtain accurate results below about 7 K.

  12. Path-integral calculation of the third virial coefficient of quantum gases at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Garberoglio, Giovanni; Harvey, Allan H

    2011-04-07

    We derive path-integral expressions for the second and third virial coefficients of monatomic quantum gases. Unlike previous work that considered only Boltzmann statistics, we include exchange effects (Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics). We use state-of-the-art pair and three-body potentials to calculate the third virial coefficient of (3)He and (4)He in the temperature range 2.6-24.5561 K. We obtain uncertainties smaller than those of the limited experimental data. Inclusion of exchange effects is necessary to obtain accurate results below about 7 K.

  13. Pathfinder: Visual Analysis of Paths in Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Partl, C.; Gratzl, S.; Streit, M.; Wassermann, A. M.; Pfister, H.; Schmalstieg, D.; Lex, A.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of paths in graphs is highly relevant in many domains. Typically, path-related tasks are performed in node-link layouts. Unfortunately, graph layouts often do not scale to the size of many real world networks. Also, many networks are multivariate, i.e., contain rich attribute sets associated with the nodes and edges. These attributes are often critical in judging paths, but directly visualizing attributes in a graph layout exacerbates the scalability problem. In this paper, we present visual analysis solutions dedicated to path-related tasks in large and highly multivariate graphs. We show that by focusing on paths, we can address the scalability problem of multivariate graph visualization, equipping analysts with a powerful tool to explore large graphs. We introduce Pathfinder (Figure 1), a technique that provides visual methods to query paths, while considering various constraints. The resulting set of paths is visualized in both a ranked list and as a node-link diagram. For the paths in the list, we display rich attribute data associated with nodes and edges, and the node-link diagram provides topological context. The paths can be ranked based on topological properties, such as path length or average node degree, and scores derived from attribute data. Pathfinder is designed to scale to graphs with tens of thousands of nodes and edges by employing strategies such as incremental query results. We demonstrate Pathfinder's fitness for use in scenarios with data from a coauthor network and biological pathways. PMID:27942090

  14. Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Michael C.; Maeda, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    The meta-analysis of coefficient alpha across many studies is becoming more common in psychology by a methodology labeled reliability generalization. Existing reliability generalization studies have not used the sampling distribution of coefficient alpha for precision weighting and other common meta-analytic procedures. A framework is provided for…

  15. Path-integral calculation of the second virial coefficient including intramolecular flexibility effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garberoglio, Giovanni; Jankowski, Piotr; Szalewicz, Krzysztof; Harvey, Allan H.

    2014-07-01

    We present a path-integral Monte Carlo procedure for the fully quantum calculation of the second molecular virial coefficient accounting for intramolecular flexibility. This method is applied to molecular hydrogen (H2) and deuterium (D2) in the temperature range 15-2000 K, showing that the effect of molecular flexibility is not negligible. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data, as well as with virials given by recent empirical equations of state, although some discrepancies are observed for H2 between 100 and 200 K.

  16. Path-integral calculation of the second virial coefficient including intramolecular flexibility effects.

    PubMed

    Garberoglio, Giovanni; Jankowski, Piotr; Szalewicz, Krzysztof; Harvey, Allan H

    2014-07-28

    We present a path-integral Monte Carlo procedure for the fully quantum calculation of the second molecular virial coefficient accounting for intramolecular flexibility. This method is applied to molecular hydrogen (H2) and deuterium (D2) in the temperature range 15-2000 K, showing that the effect of molecular flexibility is not negligible. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data, as well as with virials given by recent empirical equations of state, although some discrepancies are observed for H2 between 100 and 200 K.

  17. Path-integral calculation of the second virial coefficient including intramolecular flexibility effects

    SciTech Connect

    Garberoglio, Giovanni; Jankowski, Piotr; Szalewicz, Krzysztof; Harvey, Allan H.

    2014-07-28

    We present a path-integral Monte Carlo procedure for the fully quantum calculation of the second molecular virial coefficient accounting for intramolecular flexibility. This method is applied to molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and deuterium (D{sub 2}) in the temperature range 15–2000 K, showing that the effect of molecular flexibility is not negligible. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data, as well as with virials given by recent empirical equations of state, although some discrepancies are observed for H{sub 2} between 100 and 200 K.

  18. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John Eric; Carré, Matt J.

    2010-07-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  19. Conditions for transmission path analysis in energy distribution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragonès, Àngels; Guasch, Oriol

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we explore under which conditions transmission path analysis (TPA) developed for statistical energy analysis (SEA) can be applied to the less restrictive energy distribution (ED) models. It is shown that TPA can be extended without problems to proper-SEA systems whereas the situation is not so clear for quasi-SEA systems. In the general case, it has been found that a TPA can always be performed on an ED model if its inverse influence energy coefficient (EIC) matrix turns to have negative off-diagonal entries. If this condition is satisfied, it can be shown that the inverse EIC matrix automatically becomes an M-matrix. An ED graph can then be defined for it and use can be made of graph theory ranking path algorithms, previously developed for SEA systems, to classify dominant paths in ED models. A small mechanical system consisting of connected plates has been used to illustrate some of the exposed theoretical results.

  20. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  1. A taxonomy of integral reaction path analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, Joseph F.; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.

    2004-12-23

    W. C. Gardiner observed that achieving understanding through combustion modeling is limited by the ability to recognize the implications of what has been computed and to draw conclusions about the elementary steps underlying the reaction mechanism. This difficulty can be overcome in part by making better use of reaction path analysis in the context of multidimensional flame simulations. Following a survey of current practice, an integral reaction flux is formulated in terms of conserved scalars that can be calculated in a fully automated way. Conditional analyses are then introduced, and a taxonomy for bidirectional path analysis is explored. Many examples illustrate the resulting path analysis and uncover some new results about nonpremixed methane-air laminar jets.

  2. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  3. Manifest variable path analysis: potentially serious and misleading consequences due to uncorrected measurement error.

    PubMed

    Cole, David A; Preacher, Kristopher J

    2014-06-01

    Despite clear evidence that manifest variable path analysis requires highly reliable measures, path analyses with fallible measures are commonplace even in premier journals. Using fallible measures in path analysis can cause several serious problems: (a) As measurement error pervades a given data set, many path coefficients may be either over- or underestimated. (b) Extensive measurement error diminishes power and can prevent invalid models from being rejected. (c) Even a little measurement error can cause valid models to appear invalid. (d) Differential measurement error in various parts of a model can change the substantive conclusions that derive from path analysis. (e) All of these problems become increasingly serious and intractable as models become more complex. Methods to prevent and correct these problems are reviewed. The conclusion is that researchers should use more reliable measures (or correct for measurement error in the measures they do use), obtain multiple measures for use in latent variable modeling, and test simpler models containing fewer variables.

  4. Statechart Analysis with Symbolic PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.

    2012-01-01

    We report here on our on-going work that addresses the automated analysis and test case generation for software systems modeled using multiple Statechart formalisms. The work is motivated by large programs such as NASA Exploration, that involve multiple systems that interact via safety-critical protocols and are designed with different Statechart variants. To verify these safety-critical systems, we have developed Polyglot, a framework for modeling and analysis of model-based software written using different Statechart formalisms. Polyglot uses a common intermediate representation with customizable Statechart semantics and leverages the analysis and test generation capabilities of the Symbolic PathFinder tool. Polyglot is used as follows: First, the structure of the Statechart model (expressed in Matlab Stateflow or Rational Rhapsody) is translated into a common intermediate representation (IR). The IR is then translated into Java code that represents the structure of the model. The semantics are provided as "pluggable" modules.

  5. Measurements of Lorentz air-broadening coefficients and relative intensities in the H2O-16 pure rotational and nu2 bands from long horizontal path atmospheric spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Goldman, Aaron; Malathy Devi, V.

    1991-01-01

    Lorentz air-broadening coefficients and relative intensities have been measured for forty-three lines in the pure rotational band and twenty lines in the nu2 band of H2O-16 between 800 and 1150/cm. The results were derived from analysis of nine 0.017/cm-resolution atmospheric absorption spectra recorded over horizontal paths of 0.5-1.5 km with the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer and main solar telescope operated on Kitt Peak by the National Solar Observatory. A nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting technique was used in the spectral analysis. The results are compared with previous measurements and calculations. In most cases, the measured pressure-broadening coefficients and intensities are significantly different from the values in the 1986 HITRAN line parameters compilation.

  6. Performance Analysis of Path Planning Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhirui; Li, Shuanghong; Zhang, Ying; Du, Qiaoling

    Ant colony system (ACS) algorithm was applied to the path planning for the robot. In the same working environment, path planning based on MAKLINK graph theory and Voronoi diagram were simulated and compared. MAKLINK graph theory is appropriate to apply to precise searching in small-scale district, and Voronoi diagram is suitable for fast path planning in a large area.

  7. Adaptive path planning: Algorithm and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pang C.

    1993-03-01

    Path planning has to be fast to support real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To alleviate this problem, we present a learning algorithm that uses past experience to enhance future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful subgoals is learned to support faster planning. The algorithm is suitable for both stationary and incrementally-changing environments. To analyze our algorithm, we use a previously developed stochastic model that quantifies experience utility. Using this model, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, and provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior. The results are demonstrated with problems in manipulator planning. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently general that they may also be applied to task planning or other planning domains in which experience is useful.

  8. A new coefficient of concordance with applications to biosignal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weichao; Chen, Zhaoguo; Liu, Wenqing

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose a novel concordance coefficients called Order Statistics Concordance Coefficients based on order statistics and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. For comparison, we also construct other three similar index based on Average Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, Kendall's Concordance Coefficients, Average Kendall's tau. We propose Multivariate Normal Model to estimate the correlation coefficient, Linear Model and Nonlinear Model to model the linear and nonlinear association between multichannel signals, And we also apply the concordance coefficients to biosignal analysis developed a new organizational index for quantifying organization of AF. Statistical evidences suggest that (a) Order Statistics Concordance Coefficients have better robust than other three index; (b) capable of distinguishing fibrillatory rhythms from nonfibrillatory rhythms, such as Atiral flutter; (c) can reflect the effectiveness of adenosine, a drug commonly used during electrophysiological procedures; and (d) perform better than other three concordance coefficients.

  9. Review of analysis methods for rotating systems with periodic coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugundji, J.; Wendell, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Two of the more common procedures for analyzing the stability and forced response of equations with periodic coefficients are reviewed: the use of Floquet methods, and the use of multiblade coordinate and harmonic balance methods. The analysis procedures of these periodic coefficient systems are compared with those of the more familiar constant coefficient systems.

  10. Transport coefficients of normal liquid helium-4 calculated by path integral centroid molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaoka, Haruna; Kinugawa, Kenichi

    2017-03-01

    Thermal conductivity, shear viscosity, and bulk viscosity of normal liquid 4He at 1.7-4.0 K are calculated using path integral centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations. The calculated thermal conductivity and shear viscosity above lambda transition temperature are on the same order of magnitude as experimental values, while the agreement of shear viscosity is better. Above 2.3 K the CMD well reproduces the temperature dependences of isochoric shear viscosity and of the time integral of the energy current and off-diagonal stress tensor correlation functions. The calculated bulk viscosity, not known in experiments, is several times larger than shear viscosity.

  11. Spectral analysis of the VLBI pole path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuberi, Midhat; Smylie, Doug E.

    2009-12-01

    Modern observations of polar motion, using techniques such as Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), have reduced error levels by as much as three orders of magnitude, compared to classical astronometric methods. Here we focus on VLBI observations which are characteristically unequally spaced. We develop a very effective method of spectral analysis for unequally spaced time sequences. First, the least squares fit to the representation of the sequence by the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is calculated, weighting the observations by the inverse square of the accompanying standard error. The coefficient matrix of the normal equations of this fit is nearly singular. It is subjected to a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). In the usual application of SVD singular values are eliminated in order to improve the stability of the numerical system but no criterion is given for how many singular values to eliminate. To overcome this shortcoming, we introduce the Parseval condition which relates the mean square in the time domain to that in the frequency domain. Singular values are eliminated until Parseval's theorem is satisfied. Typically, the mean square in the frequency domain is many orders of magnitude too large. As singular values are eliminated, starting with the smallest and working upward, the mean square in the frequency domain appears to decrease monotonically until the Parseval relation is satisfied. Once the DFTs are found, spectral analysis and the estimation of confidence intervals proceed in the standard way. We perform a spectral analysis of the polar motion on 24.5 years of observations by using a Welch Overlapping Segment Analysis (WOSA) with four record segments of 14-year length with 75% overlap. Parameters of the Chandler wobble resonance are found as well as a detailed spectrum.

  12. Direct orientation sampling of diatomic molecules for path integral Monte Carlo calculation of fully quantum virial coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Ramachandran; Schultz, Andrew J.; Kofke, David A.

    2017-03-01

    We develop an orientation sampling algorithm for rigid diatomic molecules, which allows direct generation of rings of images used for path-integral calculation of nuclear quantum effects. The algorithm treats the diatomic molecule as two independent atoms as opposed to one (quantum) rigid rotor. Configurations are generated according to a solvable approximate distribution that is corrected via the acceptance decision of the Monte Carlo trial. Unlike alternative methods that treat the systems as a quantum rotor, this atom-based approach is better suited for generalization to multi-atomic (more than two atoms) and flexible molecules. We have applied this algorithm in combination with some of the latest ab initio potentials of rigid H2 to compute fully quantum second virial coefficients, for which we observe excellent agreement with both experimental and simulation data from the literature.

  13. Analysis of a heat transfer device for measuring film coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medrow, R. A.; Johnson, R. L.; Loomis, W. R.; Wedeven, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A heat transfer device consisting of a heated rotating cylinder in a bath was analyzed for its effectiveness to determine heat transfer coefficient of fluids. A time dependent analysis shows that the performance is insensitive to the value of heat transfer coefficient with the given rig configuration.

  14. Folded-path optical analysis gas cell

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, R.M.; Wright, D.D.

    1995-08-08

    A folded-path gas cell employs an elliptical concave mirror in confronting relationship to two substantially spherical concave mirrors. At least one of the spherical mirrors, and usually both, are formed with an added cylindrical component to increase orthogonal foci coincidence and thereby to increase the radiation energy throughput characteristic of the cell. 10 figs.

  15. Folded-path optical analysis gas cell

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, Robert M.; Wright, David D.

    1995-01-01

    A folded-path gas cell employs an elliptical concave mirror in confronting relationship to two substantially spherical concave mirrors. At least one of the spherical mirrors, and usually both, are formed with an added cylindrical component to increase orthogonal focii coincidence and thereby to increase the radiation energy throughput characteristic of the cell.

  16. [Electroencephalogram Feature Selection Based on Correlation Coefficient Analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinzhi; Tang, Xiaofang

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of classification with small amount of motor imagery training data on the development of brain-computer interface (BCD systems, we proposed an analyzing method to automatically select the characteristic parameters based on correlation coefficient analysis. Throughout the five sample data of dataset IV a from 2005 BCI Competition, we utilized short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and correlation coefficient calculation to reduce the number of primitive electroencephalogram dimension, then introduced feature extraction based on common spatial pattern (CSP) and classified by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Simulation results showed that the average rate of classification accuracy could be improved by using correlation coefficient feature selection method than those without using this algorithm. Comparing with support vector machine (SVM) optimization features algorithm, the correlation coefficient analysis can lead better selection parameters to improve the accuracy of classification.

  17. Path-analysis based validation of aerosol-precipitation micro-scale interaction using observational evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Prashant; Bhushan, Mani; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2016-04-01

    Aerosols can modulate variability of Indian summer monsoon by perturbing the radiative balance of the atmosphere, affecting the land-ocean processes and altering the cloud-microphysics at varying spatio-temporal scale, ranging from fast (less than a day) to slow (months) temporal effects. In the literature, overall interaction between AOD and Precipitation was quantified as correlation coefficients (Ramchandran and Kedia, 2013; Gryspeerdt et al., 2012; Gryspeerdt et al., 2014), however the segregation of the interaction was required to better understand the presence/absence of pathway mediated through changes in cloud-microphysics and atmospheric stability. In this work, effects of aerosols on precipitation, mediated through changes in cloud-microphysics and atmospheric stability, on daily time-scales, are studied and quantified using coincident observational data of aerosols, clouds and rainfall, using Path-analysis (Wright, 1969). MODIS, ERA-interim and IMD data-sets for years 2000-2009 for Aerosol optical depth (AOD), Column water vapour (CWV), Cloud droplet effective radius (CDERL), Convective available potential energy (CAPE) and Precipitation, over Indian region were used for the analysis. Cause-effect model was built to validate and quantify the effects of AOD on precipitation, mediated through CDERL and CAPE. To contrast cause-effect mechanism in presence and absence of aerosol fields, high AOD-low Precipitation and low AOD-low Precipitation clusters were formed. Cluster-averaged time series were used to calculate the lagged correlation (AOD leading) and provided as input to Path-analysis. "AOD-CDERL-Precipitation" and "AOD-CAPE-Precipitation" pathways were found to be statistically significant for high AOD-low Precipitation clusters while both were absent for low AOD-low Precipitation clusters, for years 2003 and 2004. For other years statistically significant pathway between AOD and Precipitation could not be found. In "AOD-CDERL-Precipitation" pathway

  18. Vibration Analysis of a Split Path Gearbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Rashidi, Majid

    1995-01-01

    Split path gearboxes can be attractive alternatives to the common planetary designs for rotorcraft, but because they have seen little use, they are relatively high risk designs. To help reduce the risk of fielding a rotorcraft with a split path gearbox, the vibration and dynamic characteristics of such a gearbox were studied. A mathematical model was developed by using the Lagrangian method, and it was applied to study the effect of three design variables on the natural frequencies and vibration energy of the gearbox. The first design variable, shaft angle, had little influence on the natural frequencies. The second variable, mesh phasing, had a strong effect on the levels of vibration energy, with phase angles of 0 deg and 180 deg producing low vibration levels. The third design variable, the stiffness of the shafts connecting the spur gears to the helical pinions, strongly influenced the natural frequencies of some of the vibration modes, including two of the dominant modes. We found that, to achieve the lowest level of vibration energy, the natural frequencies of these two dominant modes should be less than those of the main excitation sources.

  19. Seismic refraction analysis: the path forward

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.; Zelt, Colin; Doll, William

    2012-01-01

    Seismic Refraction Methods: Unleashing the Potential and Understanding the Limitations; Tucson, Arizona, 29 March 2012 A workshop focused on seismic refraction methods took place on 29 May 2012, associated with the 2012 Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems. This workshop was convened to assess the current state of the science and discuss paths forward, with a primary focus on near-surface problems but with an eye on all applications. The agenda included talks on these topics from a number of experts interspersed with discussion and a dedicated discussion period to finish the day. Discussion proved lively at times, and workshop participants delved into many topics central to seismic refraction work.

  20. Correlation and path coefficient analyses in sweet melon (Cucumis melo var. Aegyptiacus L.) under irrigated and drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, E A; Ramadan, A Y

    2013-07-01

    Genotypic correlation and path analyses were carried out for growth, yield and fruit quality traits in 13 sweet melon genotypes collected from different places in Egypt. Seeds of these melon populations were sown under irrigated and drought stress conditions. The analysis of variance for the studied traits showed that the differences among genotypes were highly significant for all studied traits under irrigation and drought stress. Under irrigated conditions, total yield per plant was positively and significantly correlated with fruit weight, flesh fruit thickness and fruit length. Positive direct effects were exhibited for fruit weight, number of fruits per plant and stem length on total yield per plant, while maximum positive indirect effects on total yield per plant were exhibited by fruit length and flesh fruit thickness through fruit weight. In case of drought stress conditions, total yield per plant had the highest positive and significant correlation with fruit weight followed by flesh fruit thickness, fruit length and stem length. Fruit weight had the greatest positive direct effect on total yield per plant followed by number of fruits per plant, fruit length and total soluble solid content. Flesh fruit thickness and fruit length had high positive indirect effect on total yield per plant via fruit weight. The results obtained from correlation and path analyses showed that the efficiency in the selection for total yield per plant in sweet melon should increased through the selection of fruit weight under irrigated conditions and fruit weight and fruit length under drought conditions.

  1. Path analysis: A model for the development of scientific reasoning abilities in adolescents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuessy, Carol L.

    A model was formulated and tested for the development of scientific reasoning abilities in adolescents. Piagetian theory provided the framework for choosing potential determinants of the dependent variable, scientific reasoning abilities. A model reflecting hypothesized causal relationships among determinants and with the dependent variable was developed a priori on the basis of theoretical and substantive reasoning. The hypothesized model was tested and revised using path analysis. Data from intact classes of middle-school (n = 101) and high-school (n = 89) students from an upper-middle-class suburb of a midwestern city revealed significant (p < 0.05) path coefficients for these variables and scientific reasoning abilities: age, I.Q., field dependence-independence, and experience. A path from locus of control to scientific reasoning abilities through field dependence-independence was also statistically significant. The revised model explained 61 percent of the variance in scientific reasoning abilities.

  2. Path Similarity Analysis: A Method for Quantifying Macromolecular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Seyler, Sean L.; Kumar, Avishek; Thorpe, M. F.; Beckstein, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Diverse classes of proteins function through large-scale conformational changes and various sophisticated computational algorithms have been proposed to enhance sampling of these macromolecular transition paths. Because such paths are curves in a high-dimensional space, it has been difficult to quantitatively compare multiple paths, a necessary prerequisite to, for instance, assess the quality of different algorithms. We introduce a method named Path Similarity Analysis (PSA) that enables us to quantify the similarity between two arbitrary paths and extract the atomic-scale determinants responsible for their differences. PSA utilizes the full information available in 3N-dimensional configuration space trajectories by employing the Hausdorff or Fréchet metrics (adopted from computational geometry) to quantify the degree of similarity between piecewise-linear curves. It thus completely avoids relying on projections into low dimensional spaces, as used in traditional approaches. To elucidate the principles of PSA, we quantified the effect of path roughness induced by thermal fluctuations using a toy model system. Using, as an example, the closed-to-open transitions of the enzyme adenylate kinase (AdK) in its substrate-free form, we compared a range of protein transition path-generating algorithms. Molecular dynamics-based dynamic importance sampling (DIMS) MD and targeted MD (TMD) and the purely geometric FRODA (Framework Rigidity Optimized Dynamics Algorithm) were tested along with seven other methods publicly available on servers, including several based on the popular elastic network model (ENM). PSA with clustering revealed that paths produced by a given method are more similar to each other than to those from another method and, for instance, that the ENM-based methods produced relatively similar paths. PSA applied to ensembles of DIMS MD and FRODA trajectories of the conformational transition of diphtheria toxin, a particularly challenging example, showed that

  3. Path Analysis Tests of Theoretical Models of Children's Memory Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarie, Darlene; Miller, Patricia H.; Ferron, John; Cunningham, Walter R.

    2004-01-01

    Path analysis was used to test theoretical models of relations among variables known to predict differences in children's memory--strategies, capacity, and metamemory. Children in kindergarten to fourth grade (chronological ages 5 to 11) performed different memory tasks. Several strategies (i.e., sorting, clustering, rehearsal, and self-testing)…

  4. Quantifying tight-gas sandstone permeability via critical path analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rock permeability has been actively investigated over the past several decades by the geosciences community. However, its accurate estimation still presents significant technical challenges, especially in spatially complex rocks. In this letter, we apply critical path analysis (CPA) to estimate perm...

  5. Start and Stop Rules for Exploratory Path Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipley, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Describes a method for choosing rejection probabilities for the tests of independence that are used in constraint-based algorithms of exploratory path analysis. The method consists of generating a Markov or semi-Markov model from the equivalence class represented by a partial ancestral graph and then testing the d-separation implications. (SLD)

  6. Establishing a Causal Model for Bloom's Taxonomy through Path Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Takeshi; And Others

    Path analysis was used to reanalyze Kropp and Stoker's data from tests designed to evaluate Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives in the cognitive domain. Scores for 1,128 students in grades nine through twelve were analyzed separately by grade level for four content areas on six taxonomic levels. A measure of general ability was also…

  7. Comprehensive analysis of the optical Kerr coefficient of graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-08-25

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the nonlinear optical Kerr effect in graphene. We directly solve the S-matrix element to calculate the absorption rate, utilizing the Volkov-Keldysh-type crystal wave functions. We then convert to the nonlinear refractive index coefficients through the Kramers-Kronig relation. In this formalism, the source of Kerr nonlinearity is the interplay of optical fields that cooperatively drive the transition from valence to conduction band. This formalism makes it possible to identify and compute the rates of distinct nonlinear processes that contribute to the Kerr nonlinear refractive index coefficient. The four identified mechanisms are two-photon absorption, Raman transition, self-coupling, and quadratic ac Stark effect. As a result, we present a comparison of our theory with recent experimental and theoretical results.

  8. Comprehensive analysis of the optical Kerr coefficient of graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-08-25

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the nonlinear optical Kerr effect in graphene. We directly solve the S-matrix element to calculate the absorption rate, utilizing the Volkov-Keldysh-type crystal wave functions. We then convert to the nonlinear refractive index coefficients through the Kramers-Kronig relation. In this formalism, the source of Kerr nonlinearity is the interplay of optical fields that cooperatively drive the transition from valence to conduction band. This formalism makes it possible to identify and compute the rates of distinct nonlinear processes that contribute to the Kerr nonlinear refractive index coefficient. The four identified mechanisms are two-photon absorption, Raman transition,more » self-coupling, and quadratic ac Stark effect. As a result, we present a comparison of our theory with recent experimental and theoretical results.« less

  9. Symbolic observability coefficients for univariate and multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letellier, Christophe; Aguirre, Luis A.

    2009-06-01

    In practical problems, the observability of a system not only depends on the choice of observable(s) but also on the space which is reconstructed. In fact starting from a given set of observables, the reconstructed space is not unique, since the dimension can be varied and, in the case of multivariate measurement functions, there are various ways to combine the measured observables. Using a graphical approach recently introduced, we analytically compute symbolic observability coefficients which allow to choose from the system equations the best observable, in the case of scalar reconstructions, and the best way to combine the observables in the case of multivariate reconstructions. It is shown how the proposed coefficients are also helpful for analysis in higher dimension.

  10. Comprehensive analysis of the optical Kerr coefficient of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-08-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the nonlinear optical Kerr effect in graphene. We directly solve the S -matrix element to calculate the absorption rate, utilizing the Volkov-Keldysh-type crystal wave functions. We then convert to the nonlinear refractive index coefficients through the Kramers-Kronig relation. In this formalism, the source of Kerr nonlinearity is the interplay of optical fields that cooperatively drive the transition from valence to conduction band. This formalism makes it possible to identify and compute the rates of distinct nonlinear processes that contribute to the Kerr nonlinear refractive index coefficient. The four identified mechanisms are two-photon absorption, Raman transition, self-coupling, and quadratic ac Stark effect. We also present a comparison of our theory with recent experimental and theoretical results.

  11. KEGG-PATH: Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes-based pathway analysis using a path analysis model.

    PubMed

    Du, Junli; Yuan, Zhifa; Ma, Ziwei; Song, Jiuzhou; Xie, Xiaoli; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-29

    The dynamic impact approach (DIA) represents an alternative to overrepresentation analysis (ORA) for functional analysis of time-course experiments or those involving multiple treatments. The DIA can be used to estimate the biological impact of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with particular biological functions, for example, as represented by the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) annotations. However, the DIA does not take into account the correlated dependence structure of the KEGG pathway hierarchy. We have developed herein a path analysis model (KEGG-PATH) to subdivide the total effect of each KEGG pathway into the direct effect and indirect effect by taking into account not only each KEGG pathway itself, but also the correlation with its related pathways. In addition, this work also attempts to preliminarily estimate the impact direction of each KEGG pathway by a gradient analysis method from principal component analysis (PCA). As a result, the advantage of the KEGG-PATH model is demonstrated through the functional analysis of the bovine mammary transcriptome during lactation.

  12. Correlation and path analysis of biomass sorghum production.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, T P S; Barelli, M A A; Castrillon, M A S; da Silva, R S; de Oliveira, F T; Corrêa, C L; Zago, B W; Tardin, F D

    2016-12-23

    Sorghum biomass is an interesting raw material for bioenergy production due to its versatility, potential of being a renewable energy source, and low-cost of production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability of biomass sorghum genotypes and to estimate genotypic, phenotypic, and environmental correlations, and direct and indirect effects of seven agronomic traits through path analysis. Thirty-four biomass sorghum genotypes and two forage sorghum genotypes were cultivated in a randomized block design with three replicates. The following morpho-agronomic traits were evaluated: flowering date, stem diameter, number of stems, plant height, number of leaves, green mass production, and dry matter production. There were significant differences at the 1% level for all traits. The highest genotypic correlation was found between the traits green mass production and dry matter production. The path analysis demonstrated that green mass production and number of leaves can assist in the selection of dry matter production.

  13. Behavior analysis, mentalism, and the path to social justice

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional psychology is mentalistic in the sense that it appeals to inner causes in the explanation of behavior. Two examples of mentalism in traditional psychology are (a) dispositional attributions and (b) conventional treatments of intelligence. These examples may be linked to such pernicious social -isms as racism and sexism by noting that some individuals justify engaging in discriminatory conduct toward others by appealing to some deficient inner quality of those being discriminated against. This sort of mentalistic appeal ultimately prevents some members of our society from being integrated into society and from progressing down the path of social justice. Behavior analysis offers a constructional alternative to the mentalistic views of traditional psychology and allows our society as a whole to move down the path. PMID:22478401

  14. Accurate determination of the diffusion coefficient of proteins by Fourier analysis with whole column imaging detection.

    PubMed

    Zarabadi, Atefeh S; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2015-02-17

    Analysis in the frequency domain is considered a powerful tool to elicit precise information from spectroscopic signals. In this study, the Fourier transformation technique is employed to determine the diffusion coefficient (D) of a number of proteins in the frequency domain. Analytical approaches are investigated for determination of D from both experimental and data treatment viewpoints. The diffusion process is modeled to calculate diffusion coefficients based on the Fourier transformation solution to Fick's law equation, and its results are compared to time domain results. The simulations characterize optimum spatial and temporal conditions and demonstrate the noise tolerance of the method. The proposed model is validated by its application for the electropherograms from the diffusion path of a set of proteins. Real-time dynamic scanning is conducted to monitor dispersion by employing whole column imaging detection technology in combination with capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) and the imaging plug flow (iPF) experiment. These experimental techniques provide different peak shapes, which are utilized to demonstrate the Fourier transformation ability in extracting diffusion coefficients out of irregular shape signals. Experimental results confirmed that the Fourier transformation procedure substantially enhanced the accuracy of the determined values compared to those obtained in the time domain.

  15. Path integral Monte Carlo determination of the fourth-order virial coefficient for unitary two-component Fermi gas with zero-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D.

    2016-05-01

    The unitary equal-mass Fermi gas with zero-range interactions constitutes a paradigmatic model system that is relevant to atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, particle, and astro physics. This work determines the fourth-order virial coefficient b4 of such a strongly-interacting Fermi gas using a customized ab inito path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) algorithm. In contrast to earlier theoretical results, which disagreed on the sign and magnitude of b4, our b4 agrees with the experimentally determined value, thereby resolving an ongoing literature debate. Utilizing a trap regulator, our PIMC approach determines the fourth-order virial coefficient by directly sampling the partition function. An on-the-fly anti-symmetrization avoids the Thomas collapse and, combined with the use of the exact two-body zero-range propagator, establishes an efficient general means to treat small Fermi systems with zero-range interactions. We gratefully acknowledge support by the NSF.

  16. Path-Integral Monte Carlo Determination of the Fourth-Order Virial Coefficient for a Unitary Two-Component Fermi Gas with Zero-Range Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D.

    2016-06-01

    The unitary equal-mass Fermi gas with zero-range interactions constitutes a paradigmatic model system that is relevant to atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, particle, and astrophysics. This work determines the fourth-order virial coefficient b4 of such a strongly interacting Fermi gas using a customized ab initio path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) algorithm. In contrast to earlier theoretical results, which disagreed on the sign and magnitude of b4 , our b4 agrees within error bars with the experimentally determined value, thereby resolving an ongoing literature debate. Utilizing a trap regulator, our PIMC approach determines the fourth-order virial coefficient by directly sampling the partition function. An on-the-fly antisymmetrization avoids the Thomas collapse and, combined with the use of the exact two-body zero-range propagator, establishes an efficient general means to treat small Fermi systems with zero-range interactions.

  17. Path-sensitive analysis for reducing rollback overheads

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, John K.P.; Wang, Kai-Ting Amy; Yamashita, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaotong

    2014-07-22

    A mechanism is provided for path-sensitive analysis for reducing rollback overheads. The mechanism receives, in a compiler, program code to be compiled to form compiled code. The mechanism divides the code into basic blocks. The mechanism then determines a restore register set for each of the one or more basic blocks to form one or more restore register sets. The mechanism then stores the one or more register sets such that responsive to a rollback during execution of the compiled code. A rollback routine identifies a restore register set from the one or more restore register sets and restores registers identified in the identified restore register set.

  18. On the use of beta coefficients in meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robert A; Brown, Steven P

    2005-01-01

    This research reports an investigation of the use of standardized regression (beta) coefficients in meta-analyses that use correlation coefficients as the effect-size metric. The investigation consisted of analyzing more than 1,700 corresponding beta coefficients and correlation coefficients harvested from published studies. Results indicate that, under certain conditions, using knowledge of corresponding beta coefficients to input missing correlations (effect sizes) generally produces relatively accurate and precise population effect-size estimates. Potential benefits from applying this knowledge include smaller sampling errors because of increased numbers of effect sizes and smaller non-sampling errors because of the inclusion of a broader array of research designs.

  19. Analysis of the contact graph routing algorithm: Bounding interplanetary paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrane, Edward; Burleigh, Scott; Kasch, Niels

    2012-06-01

    Interplanetary communication networks comprise orbiters, deep-space relays, and stations on planetary surfaces. These networks must overcome node mobility, constrained resources, and significant propagation delays. Opportunities for wireless contact rely on calculating transmit and receive opportunities, but the Euclidean-distance diameter of these networks (measured in light-seconds and light-minutes) precludes node discovery and contact negotiation. Propagation delay may be larger than the line-of-sight contact between nodes. For example, Mars and Earth orbiters may be separated by up to 20.8 min of signal propagation time. Such spacecraft may never share line-of-sight, but may uni-directionally communicate if one orbiter knows the other's future position. The Contact Graph Routing (CGR) approach is a family of algorithms presented to solve the messaging problem of interplanetary communications. These algorithms exploit networks where nodes exhibit deterministic mobility. For CGR, mobility and bandwidth information is pre-configured throughout the network allowing nodes to construct transmit opportunities. Once constructed, routing algorithms operate on this contact graph to build an efficient path through the network. The interpretation of the contact graph, and the construction of a bounded approximate path, is critically important for adoption in operational systems. Brute force approaches, while effective in small networks, are computationally expensive and will not scale. Methods of inferring cycles or other librations within the graph are difficult to detect and will guide the practical implementation of any routing algorithm. This paper presents a mathematical analysis of a multi-destination contact graph algorithm (MD-CGR), demonstrates that it is NP-complete, and proposes realistic constraints that make the problem solvable in polynomial time, as is the case with the originally proposed CGR algorithm. An analysis of path construction to complement hop

  20. In-situ determination of field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients: Performance, simulation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobile, Michael; Widdowson, Mark; Stewart, Lloyd; Nyman, Jennifer; Deeb, Rula; Kavanaugh, Michael; Mercer, James; Gallagher, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Better estimates of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass, its persistence into the future, and the potential impact of source reduction are critical needs for determining the optimal path to clean up sites impacted by NAPLs. One impediment to constraining time estimates of source depletion is the uncertainty in the rate of mass transfer between NAPLs and groundwater. In this study, an innovative field test is demonstrated for the purpose of quantifying field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients (klN) within a source zone of a fuel-contaminated site. Initial evaluation of the test concept using a numerical model revealed that the aqueous phase concentration response to the injection of clean groundwater within a source zone was a function of NAPL mass transfer. Under rate limited conditions, NAPL dissolution together with the injection flow rate and the radial distance to monitoring points directly controlled time of travel. Concentration responses observed in the field test were consistent with the hypothetical model results allowing field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients to be quantified. Site models for groundwater flow and solute transport were systematically calibrated and utilized for data analysis. Results show klN for benzene varied from 0.022 to 0.60 d- 1. Variability in results was attributed to a highly heterogeneous horizon consisting of layered media of varying physical properties.

  1. Path analysis of self-efficacy and diving performance revisited.

    PubMed

    Feltz, Deborah L; Chow, Graig M; Hepler, Teri J

    2008-06-01

    The Feltz (1982) path analysis of the relationship between diving efficacy and performance showed that, over trials, past performance was a stronger predictor than self-efficacy of performance. Bandura (1997) criticized the study as statistically "overcontrolling" for past performance by using raw past performance scores along with self-efficacy as predictors of performance. He suggests residualizing past performance by regressing the raw scores on self-efficacy and entering them into the model to remove prior contributions of self-efficacy imbedded in past performance scores. To resolve this controversy, we reanalyzed the Feltz data using three statistical models: raw past performance, residual past performance, and a method that residualizes past performance and self-efficacy. Results revealed that self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of performance in both residualized models than in the raw past performance model. Furthermore, the influence of past performance on future performance was weaker when the residualized methods were conducted.

  2. Path Analysis of Household Energy Use - Neighborhood Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenjin, Nanako

    Many have studied residential energy use in relation with appliance types and efficiency, dwelling types, behavior, socio-demographics, and geography. Yet little is understood about the interrelations among the variables in the context of energy use. We used data collected through residential energy surveys from two neighborhoods in California. Path analysis models with emphasis on the appliance characteristics, appliance usage, and household energy use were developed and statistically tested. Our study showed that even a simple demographic variable like household size has unique effect channels on household energy use and also the channel was significant in one neighborhood but not in the other. While our model leaves much to be improved, the model supports a framework of energy use to explain energy use from a behavioral perspective in which household decisions were related to socio-demographic characteristics but neighborhood difference also plays a major role.

  3. Application of critical path analysis in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amal; Chakraborty, Bhaswat S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research operates in a strictly regulated environment under various management models, but a distinct management model of clinical trial (CT) still needs exploration and research. Critical path analysis (CPA) is a management approach can be used for monitoring, analysis, and prediction of success of its time-bound operational activities. A model CT was compiled with 78 activities, which were further merged into 35 major activities. After performing dependence analysis, the list was finalized with 25 activities which were taken in activity predecessor to create a network diagram and perform CPA considering patients, conduct, and outcome. Activities were inclusive, described the trial entirely with accuracy, and were in chronological and logical sequences. This approach does not replace an understanding of or adherence to the requirements contained in all applicable regulations, guidelines or standard operating procedures governing clinical studies but ensures the proper use of operational and decisional approaches including optimal resource management. As the need to meet deadlines becomes more important and the need to produce good, stable project plans, CPA is very useful for determining activities that can lead to project delay. With this approach, project may be effectively monitored, and realistic schedules can be maintained. PMID:26955606

  4. Dropouts from nursing education: path analysis of a national sample.

    PubMed

    Munro, B H

    1980-01-01

    Path analysis was used to test a theoretical model of college nursing student dropouts. Multiple regression was used to assess the relative importance of the predictor variables. Students' self-reported reasons for dropping out were studied by contingency and correlational analyses to determine the relationship between these reasons and individual difference variables. Factor analysis was used to develop scales to measure the variables of locus of control, self-esteem, social integration, and institutional commitment. The sample of students was drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Included in the sample were students entering two- and four-year nursing programs full-time in the fall of 1972. These two groups of students were found to be significantly different in measures of cognitive ability and in aspirations for further education. Approximately 27 percent of the two-year and 41 percent of the four-year students withdrew from their nursing programs during this study. Reasons for withdrawal most frequently cited by both groups related to losing interest in nursing and becoming interested in other fields of study. Educational aspirations had the strongest direct effect on persistence in nursing for two-year students; for four-year students, academic ability was the most powerful predictor of persistence.

  5. Evaluation of seed yield-related characters in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) using factor and path analysis.

    PubMed

    Biabani, A R; Pakniyat, H

    2008-04-15

    Fifteen sesame genotypes were grown in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications during 2004, in experimental station of Agricultural College, Shiraz University in Badjgah, Iran. Many plant traits were scored in the field. Path coefficient analysis and factor analysis divided the 15 measured variables into 5 factors. The 5 factors explained 81% of the total genetic variation in the dependence structure. Factor 1 was strongly associated with number of capsules in the main stem, length of floral axis, number of capsules per plant and plant height. Other factors (2, 3, 4 and 5) explained the rest of genetic variations and may not be important in sesame breeding programs.

  6. Sum over Histories Representation for Kinetic Sensitivity Analysis: How Chemical Pathways Change When Reaction Rate Coefficients Are Varied.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shirong; Davis, Michael J; Skodje, Rex T

    2015-11-12

    The sensitivity of kinetic observables is analyzed using a newly developed sum over histories representation of chemical kinetics. In the sum over histories representation, the concentrations of the chemical species are decomposed into the sum of probabilities for chemical pathways that follow molecules from reactants to products or intermediates. Unlike static flux methods for reaction path analysis, the sum over histories approach includes the explicit time dependence of the pathway probabilities. Using the sum over histories representation, the sensitivity of an observable with respect to a kinetic parameter such as a rate coefficient is then analyzed in terms of how that parameter affects the chemical pathway probabilities. The method is illustrated for species concentration target functions in H2 combustion where the rate coefficients are allowed to vary over their associated uncertainty ranges. It is found that large sensitivities are often associated with rate limiting steps along important chemical pathways or by reactions that control the branching of reactive flux.

  7. Progressive collapse analysis using updated models for alternate path analysis after a blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskew, Edward; Jang, Shinae; Bertolaccini, Kelly

    2016-04-01

    Progressive collapse is of rising importance within the structural engineering community due to several recent cases. The alternate path method is a design technique to determine the ability of a structure to sustain the loss of a critical element, or elements, and still resist progressive collapse. However, the alternate path method only considers the removal of the critical elements. In the event of a blast, significant damage may occur to nearby members not included in the alternate path design scenarios. To achieve an accurate assessment of the current condition of the structure after a blast or other extreme event, it may be necessary to reduce the strength or remove additional elements beyond the critical members designated in the alternate path design method. In this paper, a rapid model updating technique utilizing vibration measurements is used to update the structural model to represent the real-time condition of the structure after a blast occurs. Based upon the updated model, damaged elements will either have their strength reduced, or will be removed from the simulation. The alternate path analysis will then be performed, but only utilizing the updated structural model instead of numerous scenarios. After the analysis, the simulated response from the analysis will be compared to failure conditions to determine the buildings post-event condition. This method has the ability to incorporate damage to noncritical members into the analysis. This paper will utilize numerical simulations based upon a unified facilities criteria (UFC) example structure subjected to an equivalent blast to validate the methodology.

  8. Analysis of a distributed algorithm to determine multiple routes with path diversity in ad hoc networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, Dipak; Mueller, Stephen Ng

    2005-04-01

    With multipath routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), a source can establish multiple routes to a destination for routing data. In MANETs, mulitpath routing can be used to provide route resilience, smaller end-to-end delay, and better load balancing. However, when the multiple paths are close together, transmissions of different paths may interfere with each other, causing degradation in performance. Besides interference, the physical diversity of paths also improves fault tolerance. We present a purely distributed multipath protocol based on the AODV-Multipath (AODVM) protocol called AODVM with Path Diversity (AODVM/PD) that finds multiple paths with a desired degree of correlation between paths specified as an input parameter to the algorithm. We demonstrate through detailed simulation analysis that multiple paths with low degree of correlation determined by AODVM/PD provides both smaller end-to-end delay than AODVM in networks with low mobility and better route resilience in the presence of correlated node failures.

  9. Texture coefficient analysis of ion beam irradiated copper nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Pallavi; Chaudhary, Ritika; Chauhan, R. P.

    2016-05-01

    Radiation may deteriorate physical properties of the materials and leave negative as well as positive impacts especially on crystalline materials. The energy deposited by ions to the grains and grain boundaries could also influence other properties of grains like: strain, reflection of charge carriers from grain boundaries, in addition to their grain size and orientation. The intensity of a peak in the XRD spectra is the direct reflection of orientation of a miller plane in the crystal. The increased intensity symbolizes the crystalline behavior due to defects annealing, while decreased intensity portray the defects formation and slender amorphisation. Orientation distribution function is a probability distribution function that quantified the texture of a polycrystalline material. The coefficients of harmonic expansion of orientation distribution function is the measurement of the texture coefficient `TC'. This study focused on the investigation of effect of ion beam irradiation on the preffered orientation of the planes of copper nanowires.

  10. Transition path theory analysis of c-Src kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yilin; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S.; Roux, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Nonreceptor tyrosine kinases of the Src family are large multidomain allosteric proteins that are crucial to cellular signaling pathways. In a previous study, we generated a Markov state model (MSM) to simulate the activation of c-Src catalytic domain, used as a prototypical tyrosine kinase. The long-time kinetics of transition predicted by the MSM was in agreement with experimental observations. In the present study, we apply the framework of transition path theory (TPT) to the previously constructed MSM to characterize the main features of the activation pathway. The analysis indicates that the activating transition, in which the activation loop first opens up followed by an inward rotation of the αC-helix, takes place via a dense set of intermediate microstates distributed within a fairly broad “transition tube” in a multidimensional conformational subspace connecting the two end-point conformations. Multiple microstates with negligible equilibrium probabilities carry a large transition flux associated with the activating transition, which explains why extensive conformational sampling is necessary to accurately determine the kinetics of activation. Our results suggest that the combination of MSM with TPT provides an effective framework to represent conformational transitions in complex biomolecular systems. PMID:27482115

  11. Analysis of correlation coefficient filtering in elasticity imaging.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Wen; Rubin, Jonathan M; Xie, Hua; Witte, Russell S; Jia, Congxian; Olafsson, Ragnar; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2008-11-01

    Correlation-based speckle tracking methods are commonly used in elasticity imaging to estimate displacements. In the presence of local strain, a larger window size results in larger displacement error. To reduce tracking error, we proposed a short correlation window followed by a correlation coefficient filter. Although simulation and experimental results demonstrated the efficacy of the method, it was not clear why correlation coefficient filtering reduces tracking error since tracking error increases if normalization before filtering is not applied. In this paper, we analyzed tracking errors by estimating phase variances of the cross-correlation function and the correlation coefficient at the true time lag based on statistical properties of these functions' real and imaginary parts. The role of normalization is clarified by identifying the effect of the cross-correlation function's amplitude fluctuation on the function's imaginary part. Furthermore, we present analytic forms for predicting axial displacement error as a function of strain, system parameters (signal-to-noise ratio, center frequency, and signal and noise bandwidths), and tracking parameters (window and filter sizes) for cases with and without normalization before filtering. Simulation results correspond to theory well for both noise-free cases and general cases with an empirical correction term included for strains up to 4%.

  12. Determination of shelf heat transfer coefficients along the shelf flow path of a freeze dryer using the shelf fluid temperature perturbation approach.

    PubMed

    Kuu, Wei Y; Nail, Steven L; Hardwick, Lisa M

    2007-01-01

    The spatial distribution of local shelf heat transfer coefficients, Ks, was determined by mapping the transient temperature response of the shelf surface along the serpentine internal channels of the shelf while the temperature of the heat transfer fluid was ramped from -40 degrees to 40 degrees C. The solution of a first-order non-steady-state differential equation resulted in a predicted shelf surface temperature as a function of the shelf fluid temperature at any point along the flow path. During the study, the shelf surfaces were maintained under a thermally insulated condition so that the heat transfers by gas conduction and radiation were negligible. To minimize heat conduction by gas, the chamber was evacuated to a low pressure, such as 100 mTorr. To minimize heat transfers between shelves, shelves were moved close together, with a gap of approximately 3 mm between any two shelves, because the shelf surface temperatures at corresponding vertical locations of two shelves are virtually equal. In addition, this also provides a shielding from radiation heat transfer from shelf to walls. Local heat transfer coefficients at the probed locations h(x) ( approximately Ks) were calculated by fitting the experimental shelf temperature response to the theoretical value. While the resulting values of K(s) are in general agreement with previously reported values, the values of Ks close to the inlet are significantly higher than those of other locations of the shelf channel. This observation is most likely attributed to the variation of the flow pattern of heat transfer fluid within the channels.

  13. The Importance of Structure Coefficients in Structural Equation Modeling Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    A general linear model (GLM) framework is used to suggest that structure coefficients ought to be interpreted in structural equation modeling confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) studies in which factors are correlated. The computation of structure coefficients in explanatory factor analysis and CFA is explained. Two heuristic data sets are used to…

  14. Self-controlled learning benefits: exploring contributions of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation via path analysis.

    PubMed

    Ste-Marie, Diane M; Carter, Michael J; Law, Barbi; Vertes, Kelly; Smith, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Research has shown learning advantages for self-controlled practice contexts relative to yoked (i.e., experimenter-imposed) contexts; yet, explanations for this phenomenon remain relatively untested. We examined, via path analysis, whether self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation are important constructs for explaining self-controlled learning benefits. The path model was created using theory-based and empirically supported relationships to examine causal links between these psychological constructs and physical performance. We hypothesised that self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation would have greater predictive power for learning under self-controlled compared to yoked conditions. Participants learned double-mini trampoline progressions, and measures of physical performance, self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation were collected over two practice days and a delayed retention day. The self-controlled group (M = 2.04, SD = .98) completed significantly more skill progressions in retention than their yoked counterparts (M = 1.3, SD = .65). The path model displayed adequate fit, and similar significant path coefficients were found for both groups wherein each variable was predominantly predicted by its preceding time point (e.g., self-efficacy time 1 predicts self-efficacy time 2). Interestingly, the model was not moderated by group; thus, failing to support the hypothesis that self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation have greater predictive power for learning under self-controlled relative to yoked conditions.

  15. Factors Affecting Counselor Educators' Integration of Educational Technology: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John F.

    2011-01-01

    This study used path analysis to explore the effects of individual and institutional-level factors on counselor educators' integration of technology in counselor education. The study fills a gap in the literature by providing a research-based path model describing counselor educators' integration of technology in counselor education. Counselor…

  16. Survey and Analysis of Surface Warfare Officer Career Path Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    this specialization alternative are discussed in Swinger [Ref. 2:pp. 98-100]. 1. Hypothesis 1 The null hypothesis states that each specialization...Maior Career Path Change (NPRDC TN 89-5), Navy Personnel Research and Development Center, October 1988. 2. Swinger , A., "Talent at Sea," U. S. Naval

  17. The solubility of (Ba,Sr)SO 4 precipitates: Thermodynamic equilibrium and reaction path analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Rai, Dhanpat; Moore, Dean A.

    1993-09-01

    The solubility of (Ba,Sr)SO 4 precipitates, varying in SrSO 4 mole fraction from 0.05-0.90, was investigated at room temperature with an equilibration period extending to almost three years. The data show that on or before 315 days of equilibration the precipitates reach a reversible equilibrium with the aqueous solution. The reversibility of this equilibrium was verified both by the attainment of steady-state concentrations with time and by heating the samples to perturb the equilibrium and then observing the slow return to the initial equilibrium state. The dissolution of the (Ba,Sr)SO 4 precipitates does not, in general, follow limiting reaction paths as defined by the Lippmann solutus or stoichiometric dissolution curves. In addition, activity coefficient calculations for the BaSO 4 and SrSO 4 components of the solid phase, using either total bulk analysis or near-surface analysis of the component mole fractions, do not satisfy the Gibbs-Duhem equation, demonstrating that a single solid-solution phase does not control both the aqueous Ba and Sr concentrations. Instead, our long-term equilibration data can be explained by the unavoidable formation of small amounts of barite and substitution of Sr into a solid-solution phase with the BaSO 4 component of the solid-solution phase never reaching thermodynamic equilibrium with the aqueous phase.

  18. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha to Evaluate Informative Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to evaluate informative hypotheses for meta-analysis of Cronbach's coefficient alpha using a Bayesian approach. The coefficient alpha is one of the most widely used reliability indices. In meta-analyses of reliability, researchers typically form specific informative hypotheses beforehand, such as "alpha of…

  19. Calculation and Analysis of Heat Transfer Coefficients in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Yang, Jianhua; Li, Qinghai

    A new way for the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler research is proposed by the supervisory information system (SIS) in power plant level. The heat transfer coefficient in CFB boiler furnace is calculated and analyzed by the SIS calculation analysis in a commercial CFB boiler, the way how to calculate the heat transfer coefficient in SIS is introduced, and the heat transfer coefficient is accurately received by calculating a large amount of data from database. The relation about the heat transfer coefficient to unit load, bed temperature, bed velocity, and suspension density is analyzed; the linear relation could be accepted for the commercial CFB design. A new calculating and simple way for the heat transfer coefficient of CFB boiler is proposed for CFB boiler design. Using this research result, the reheat spray water flux larger than the design value in lots of commercial CFB boilers is analyzed; the main reason is the designed heat transfer coefficient smaller than the actual value.

  20. Path integral analysis of Jarzynski's equality: analytical results.

    PubMed

    Minh, David D L; Adib, Artur B

    2009-02-01

    We apply path integrals to study nonequilibrium work theorems in the context of Brownian dynamics, deriving in particular the equations of motion governing the most typical and most dominant trajectories. For the analytically soluble cases of a moving harmonic potential and a harmonic oscillator with a time-dependent natural frequency, we find such trajectories, evaluate the work-weighted propagators, and validate Jarzynski's equality.

  1. Genome-scale cluster analysis of replicated microarrays using shrinkage correlation coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianchao; Chang, Chunqi; Salmi, Mari L; Hung, Yeung Sam; Loraine, Ann; Roux, Stanley J

    2008-01-01

    Background Currently, clustering with some form of correlation coefficient as the gene similarity metric has become a popular method for profiling genomic data. The Pearson correlation coefficient and the standard deviation (SD)-weighted correlation coefficient are the two most widely-used correlations as the similarity metrics in clustering microarray data. However, these two correlations are not optimal for analyzing replicated microarray data generated by most laboratories. An effective correlation coefficient is needed to provide statistically sufficient analysis of replicated microarray data. Results In this study, we describe a novel correlation coefficient, shrinkage correlation coefficient (SCC), that fully exploits the similarity between the replicated microarray experimental samples. The methodology considers both the number of replicates and the variance within each experimental group in clustering expression data, and provides a robust statistical estimation of the error of replicated microarray data. The value of SCC is revealed by its comparison with two other correlation coefficients that are currently the most widely-used (Pearson correlation coefficient and SD-weighted correlation coefficient) using statistical measures on both synthetic expression data as well as real gene expression data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two leading clustering methods, hierarchical and k-means clustering were applied for the comparison. The comparison indicated that using SCC achieves better clustering performance. Applying SCC-based hierarchical clustering to the replicated microarray data obtained from germinating spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii, we discovered two clusters of genes with shared expression patterns during spore germination. Functional analysis suggested that some of the genetic mechanisms that control germination in such diverse plant lineages as mosses and angiosperms are also conserved among ferns. Conclusion This study shows that SCC is

  2. An improved path flux analysis with multi generations method for mechanism reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Gou, Xiaolong

    2016-03-01

    An improved path flux analysis with a multi generations (IMPFA) method is proposed to eliminate unimportant species and reactions, and to generate skeletal mechanisms. The production and consumption path fluxes of each species at multiple reaction paths are calculated and analysed to identify the importance of the species and of the elementary reactions. On the basis of the indexes of each reaction path of the first, second, and third generations, the improved path flux analysis with two generations (IMPFA2) and improved path flux analysis with three generations (IMPFA3) are used to generate skeletal mechanisms that contain different numbers of species. The skeletal mechanisms are validated in the case of homogeneous autoignition and perfectly stirred reactor of methane and n-decane/air mixtures. Simulation results of the skeletal mechanisms generated by IMPFA2 and IMPFA3 are compared with those obtained by path flux analysis (PFA) with two and three generations, respectively. The comparisons of ignition delay times, final temperatures, and temperature dependence on flow residence time show that the skeletal mechanisms generated by the present IMPFA method are more accurate than those obtained by the PFA method, with almost the same number of species under a range of initial conditions. By considering the accuracy and computational efficiency, when using the IMPFA (or PFA) method, three generations may be the best choice for the reduction of large-scale detailed chemistry.

  3. Uncertainty Analysis of Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide a complete description of a materials thermoelectric power factor, in addition to the measured nominal value, an uncertainty interval is required. The uncertainty may contain sources of measurement error including systematic bias error and precision error of a statistical nature. The work focuses specifically on the popular ZEM-3 (Ulvac Technologies) measurement system, but the methods apply to any measurement system. The analysis accounts for sources of systematic error including sample preparation tolerance, measurement probe placement, thermocouple cold-finger effect, and measurement parameters; in addition to including uncertainty of a statistical nature. Complete uncertainty analysis of a measurement system allows for more reliable comparison of measurement data between laboratories.

  4. Impact of Maternal Death on Household Economy in Rural China: A Prospective Path Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fang; Ao, Deng; Feng, Yao; Wang, Lin; Chen, Jie; Huntington, Dale

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to explore the inter-relationships among maternal death, household economic status after the event, and potential influencing factors. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of households that had experienced maternal death (n = 195) and those that experienced childbirth without maternal death (n = 384) in rural China. All the households were interviewed after the event occurred and were followed up 12 months later. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationship model, utilizing income and expenditure per capita in the following year after the event as the main outcome variables, maternal death as the predictor, and direct costs, the amount of money offset by positive and negative coping strategies, whether the husband remarried, and whether the newborn was alive as the mediators. Results In the following year after the event, the path analysis revealed a direct effect from maternal death to lower income per capita (standardized coefficient = -0.43, p = 0.041) and to lower expenditure per capita (standardized coefficient = -0.51, p<0.001). A significant indirect effect was found from maternal death to lower income and expenditure per capita mediated by the influencing factors of higher direct costs, less money from positive coping methods, more money from negative coping, and the survival of the newborn. Conclusion This study analyzed the direct and indirect effects of maternal death on a household economy. The results provided evidence for better understanding the mechanism of how this event affects a household economy and provided a reference for social welfare policies to target the most vulnerable households that have suffered from maternal deaths. PMID:26247210

  5. Multidimensional stock network analysis: An Escoufier's RV coefficient approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gan Siew; Djauhari, Maman A.

    2013-09-01

    The current practice of stocks network analysis is based on the assumption that the time series of closed stock price could represent the behaviour of the each stock. This assumption leads to consider minimal spanning tree (MST) and sub-dominant ultrametric (SDU) as an indispensible tool to filter the economic information contained in the network. Recently, there is an attempt where researchers represent stock not only as a univariate time series of closed price but as a bivariate time series of closed price and volume. In this case, they developed the so-called multidimensional MST to filter the important economic information. However, in this paper, we show that their approach is only applicable for that bivariate time series only. This leads us to introduce a new methodology to construct MST where each stock is represented by a multivariate time series. An example of Malaysian stock exchange will be presented and discussed to illustrate the advantages of the method.

  6. Path analysis of the energy density of wood in eucalyptus clones.

    PubMed

    Couto, A M; Teodoro, P E; Trugilho, P F

    2017-03-16

    Path analysis has been used for establishing selection criteria in genetic breeding programs for several crops. However, it has not been used in eucalyptus breeding programs yet. In the present study, we aimed to identify the wood technology traits that could be used as the criteria for direct and indirect selection of eucalyptus genotypes with high energy density of wood. Twenty-four eucalyptus clones were evaluated in a completely randomized design with five replications. The following traits were assessed: basic wood density, total extractives, lignin content, ash content, nitrogen content, carbon content, hydrogen content, sulfur content, oxygen content, higher calorific power, holocellulose, and energy density. After verifying the variability of all evaluated traits among the clones, a two-dimensional correlation network was used to determine the phenotypic patterns among them. The obtained coefficient of determination (0.94) presented a higher magnitude in relation to the effect of the residual variable, and it served as an excellent model for explaining the genetic effects related to the variations observed in the energy density of wood in all eucalyptus clones. However, for future studies, we recommend evaluating other traits, especially the morphological traits, because of the greater ease in their measurement. Selecting clones with high basic density is the most promising strategy for eucalyptus breeding programs that aim to increase the energy density of wood because of its high heritability and magnitude of the cause-and-effect relationship with this trait.

  7. Uncertainties in Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides. An Uncertainty Analysis for Risk Coefficients Reported in Federal Guidance Report No. 13

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, David; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F; Nelson, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 13 (FGR 13) provides risk coefficients for estimation of the risk of cancer due to low-level exposure to each of more than 800 radionuclides. Uncertainties in risk coefficients were quantified in FGR 13 for 33 cases (exposure to each of 11 radionuclides by each of three exposure pathways) on the basis of sensitivity analyses in which various combinations of plausible biokinetic, dosimetric, and radiation risk models were used to generate alternative risk coefficients. The present report updates the uncertainty analysis in FGR 13 for the cases of inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides and expands the analysis to all radionuclides addressed in that report. The analysis indicates that most risk coefficients for inhalation or ingestion of radionuclides are determined within a factor of 5 or less by current information. That is, application of alternate plausible biokinetic and dosimetric models and radiation risk models (based on the linear, no-threshold hypothesis with an adjustment for the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor) is unlikely to change these coefficients by more than a factor of 5. In this analysis the assessed uncertainty in the radiation risk model was found to be the main determinant of the uncertainty category for most risk coefficients, but conclusions concerning the relative contributions of risk and dose models to the total uncertainty in a risk coefficient may depend strongly on the method of assessing uncertainties in the risk model.

  8. Fourier optics analysis of phase-mask-based path-length-multiplexed optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yin, Biwei; Dwelle, Jordan; Wang, Bingqing; Wang, Tianyi; Feldman, Marc D; Rylander, Henry G; Milner, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that constructs a depth-resolved image by measuring the optical path-length difference between broadband light backscattered from a sample and a reference surface. For many OCT sample arm optical configurations, sample illumination and backscattered light detection share a common path. When a phase mask is placed in the sample path, features in the detected signal are observed, which suggests that an analysis of a generic common path OCT imaging system is warranted. In this study, we present a Fourier optics analysis using a Fresnel diffraction approximation of an OCT system with a path-length-multiplexing element (PME) inserted in the sample arm optics. The analysis may be generalized for most phase-mask-based OCT systems. A radial-angle-diverse PME is analyzed in detail, and the point spread function, coherent transfer function, sensitivity of backscattering angular diversity detection, and signal formation in terms of sample spatial frequency are simulated and discussed. The analysis reveals important imaging features and application limitations of OCT imaging systems with a phase mask in the sample path optics.

  9. Global Qualitative Flow-Path Modeling for Local State Determination in Simulation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Fleming, Land D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    For qualitative modeling and analysis, a general qualitative abstraction of power transmission variables (flow and effort) for elements of flow paths includes information on resistance, net flow, permissible directions of flow, and qualitative potential is discussed. Each type of component model has flow-related variables and an associated internal flow map, connected into an overall flow network of the system. For storage devices, the implicit power transfer to the environment is represented by "virtual" circuits that include an environmental junction. A heterogeneous aggregation method simplifies the path structure. A method determines global flow-path changes during dynamic simulation and analysis, and identifies corresponding local flow state changes that are effects of global configuration changes. Flow-path determination is triggered by any change in a flow-related device variable in a simulation or analysis. Components (path elements) that may be affected are identified, and flow-related attributes favoring flow in the two possible directions are collected for each of them. Next, flow-related attributes are determined for each affected path element, based on possibly conflicting indications of flow direction. Spurious qualitative ambiguities are minimized by using relative magnitudes and permissible directions of flow, and by favoring flow sources over effort sources when comparing flow tendencies. The results are output to local flow states of affected components.

  10. Exact Analysis of Squared Cross-Validity Coefficient in Predictive Regression Models.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2009-01-01

    In regression analysis, the notion of population validity is of theoretical interest for describing the usefulness of the underlying regression model, whereas the presumably more important concept of population cross-validity represents the predictive effectiveness for the regression equation in future research. It appears that the inference procedures of the squared multiple correlation coefficient have been extensively developed. In contrast, a full range of statistical methods for the analysis of the squared cross-validity coefficient is considerably far from complete. This article considers a distinct expression for the definition of the squared cross-validity coefficient as the direct connection and monotone transformation to the squared multiple correlation coefficient. Therefore, all the currently available exact methods for interval estimation, power calculation, and sample size determination of the squared multiple correlation coefficient are naturally modified and extended to the analysis of the squared cross-validity coefficient. The adequacies of the existing approximate procedures and the suggested exact method are evaluated through a Monte Carlo study. Furthermore, practical applications in areas of psychology and management are presented to illustrate the essential features of the proposed methodologies. The first empirical example uses 6 control variables related to driver characteristics and traffic congestion and their relation to stress in bus drivers, and the second example relates skills, cognitive performance, and personality to team performance measures. The results in this article can facilitate the recommended practice of cross-validation in psychological and other areas of social science research.

  11. Factors influencing first childbearing timing decisions among men: Path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kariman, Nourossadat; Amerian, Maliheh; Jannati, Padideh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors that influence men’s childbearing intentions have been relatively unexplored in the literature. Objective: This study aimed to determine the influencing factors about the first childbearing timing decisions of men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 men who were referred to private and governmental healthcare centers in Shahrood, Iran were randomly recruited from April to September 2014. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Quality of Life Questionnaire; ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, Synder’s Hope Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: After removing the statistically insignificant paths, men’s age at marriage had the highest direct effect (β=0.86) on their first childbearing decision. Marital satisfaction (β=-0.09), social support (β=0.06), economic status (β=0.06), and quality of life (β=-0.08) were other effective factors on men’s first childbearing decisions. Moreover, marital satisfaction and social support had significant indirect effects on men’s childbearing decisions (β=-0.04 and -0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Many factors, including personal factors (age at marriage and quality of life), family factors (marital satisfaction), and social factors (social support), can affect men’s decision to have a child. Policymakers are hence required to develop strategies to promote the socioeconomic and family conditions of the couples and to encourage them to have as many children as they desire at an appropriate time. PMID:27738661

  12. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship between the H. sapiens and monkey. This similarity will be helpful at theft identification, maternity identification, disease identification, etc.

  13. Experimental prediction of the wavelength-dependent path-length factor for optical intrinsic signal analysis.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Koichiro; Tachibana, Tomoya; Furukawa, Shunsuke; Katsura, Takushige; Yamazaki, Kyoko; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Maki, Atsushi; Okada, Eiji

    2007-05-10

    Analysis of the optical intrinsic signal of an exposed cortex has been applied to measurement of functional brain activation. It is important for accurate measurement of concentration changes in oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin to consider the wavelength dependence of the mean optical path lengths for the reflectance of cortical tissue. A method is proposed to experimentally estimate the wavelength dependence of the mean optical path length in cortical tissue from the multispectral reflectance of the exposed cortex without any additional instruments. The trend in the wavelength dependence of the mean optical path length estimated by the proposed method agrees with that estimated by the model-based prediction, whereas the magnitude of the wavelength dependence predicted by the proposed method is greater than that of the model-based prediction. The experimentally predicted mean optical path length minimizes the difference in the measured changes in the concentrations of the oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin calculated from different wavelength pairs.

  14. Scientific Influence: An Analysis of the Main Path Structure in the "Journal of Conflict Resolution."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carley, Kathleen M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of citation networks as a reflection of the intellectual developments in a scientific field focuses on an analysis of citations in the "Journal of Conflict Resolution." Main path analysis is described; the development of the field of conflict resolution is discussed; and interdisciplinarity is explored. (17 references) (LRW)

  15. An Optimization-Driven Analysis Pipeline to Uncover Biomarkers and Signaling Paths: Cervix Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Enery; Camacho-Caceres, Katia; Ropelewski, Alexander J.; Rosas, Juan; Ortiz-Mojer, Michael; Perez-Marty, Lynn; Irizarry, Juan; Gonzalez, Valerie; Rodríguez, Jesús A.; Cabrera-Rios, Mauricio; Isaza, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Establishing how a series of potentially important genes might relate to each other is relevant to understand the origin and evolution of illnesses, such as cancer. High-throughput biological experiments have played a critical role in providing information in this regard. A special challenge, however, is that of trying to conciliate information from separate microarray experiments to build a potential genetic signaling path. This work proposes a two-step analysis pipeline, based on optimization, to approach meta-analysis aiming to build a proxy for a genetic signaling path. PMID:26388997

  16. Adaptive Green-Kubo estimates of transport coefficients from molecular dynamics based on robust error analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Reese E.; Mandadapu, Kranthi K.

    2012-04-01

    We present a rigorous Green-Kubo methodology for calculating transport coefficients based on on-the-fly estimates of: (a) statistical stationarity of the relevant process, and (b) error in the resulting coefficient. The methodology uses time samples efficiently across an ensemble of parallel replicas to yield accurate estimates, which is particularly useful for estimating the thermal conductivity of semi-conductors near their Debye temperatures where the characteristic decay times of the heat flux correlation functions are large. Employing and extending the error analysis of Zwanzig and Ailawadi [Phys. Rev. 182, 280 (1969)], 10.1103/PhysRev.182.280 and Frenkel [in Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", Course LXXV (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1980)] to the integral of correlation, we are able to provide tight theoretical bounds for the error in the estimate of the transport coefficient. To demonstrate the performance of the method, four test cases of increasing computational cost and complexity are presented: the viscosity of Ar and water, and the thermal conductivity of Si and GaN. In addition to producing accurate estimates of the transport coefficients for these materials, this work demonstrates precise agreement of the computed variances in the estimates of the correlation and the transport coefficient with the extended theory based on the assumption that fluctuations follow a Gaussian process. The proposed algorithm in conjunction with the extended theory enables the calculation of transport coefficients with the Green-Kubo method accurately and efficiently.

  17. Adaptive Green-Kubo estimates of transport coefficients from molecular dynamics based on robust error analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Reese E; Mandadapu, Kranthi K

    2012-04-21

    We present a rigorous Green-Kubo methodology for calculating transport coefficients based on on-the-fly estimates of: (a) statistical stationarity of the relevant process, and (b) error in the resulting coefficient. The methodology uses time samples efficiently across an ensemble of parallel replicas to yield accurate estimates, which is particularly useful for estimating the thermal conductivity of semi-conductors near their Debye temperatures where the characteristic decay times of the heat flux correlation functions are large. Employing and extending the error analysis of Zwanzig and Ailawadi [Phys. Rev. 182, 280 (1969)] and Frenkel [in Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", Course LXXV (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1980)] to the integral of correlation, we are able to provide tight theoretical bounds for the error in the estimate of the transport coefficient. To demonstrate the performance of the method, four test cases of increasing computational cost and complexity are presented: the viscosity of Ar and water, and the thermal conductivity of Si and GaN. In addition to producing accurate estimates of the transport coefficients for these materials, this work demonstrates precise agreement of the computed variances in the estimates of the correlation and the transport coefficient with the extended theory based on the assumption that fluctuations follow a Gaussian process. The proposed algorithm in conjunction with the extended theory enables the calculation of transport coefficients with the Green-Kubo method accurately and efficiently.

  18. Density-dependent analysis of nonequilibrium paths improves free energy estimates

    PubMed Central

    Minh, David D. L.

    2009-01-01

    When a system is driven out of equilibrium by a time-dependent protocol that modifies the Hamiltonian, it follows a nonequilibrium path. Samples of these paths can be used in nonequilibrium work theorems to estimate equilibrium quantities such as free energy differences. Here, we consider analyzing paths generated with one protocol using another one. It is posited that analysis protocols which minimize the lag, the difference between the nonequilibrium and the instantaneous equilibrium densities, will reduce the dissipation of reprocessed trajectories and lead to better free energy estimates. Indeed, when minimal lag analysis protocols based on exactly soluble propagators or relative entropies are applied to several test cases, substantial gains in the accuracy and precision of estimated free energy differences are observed. PMID:19485432

  19. Automatic Beam Path Analysis of Laser Wakefield Particle Acceleration Data

    SciTech Connect

    Rubel, Oliver; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Wu, Kesheng; Prabhat,; Weber, Gunther H.; Ushizima, Daniela M.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes

    2009-10-19

    Numerical simulations of laser wakefield particle accelerators play a key role in the understanding of the complex acceleration process and in the design of expensive experimental facilities. As the size and complexity of simulation output grows, an increasingly acute challenge is the practical need for computational techniques that aid in scientific knowledge discovery. To that end, we present a set of data-understanding algorithms that work in concert in a pipeline fashion to automatically locate and analyze high energy particle bunches undergoing acceleration in very large simulation datasets. These techniques work cooperatively by first identifying features of interest in individual timesteps, then integrating features across timesteps, and based on the information derived perform analysis of temporally dynamic features. This combination of techniques supports accurate detection of particle beams enabling a deeper level of scientific understanding of physical phenomena than hasbeen possible before. By combining efficient data analysis algorithms and state-of-the-art data management we enable high-performance analysis of extremely large particle datasets in 3D. We demonstrate the usefulness of our methods for a variety of 2D and 3D datasets and discuss the performance of our analysis pipeline.

  20. An analysis of the characteristics of aerosol light scattering coefficients at Seoul and Baengnyeongdo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Eun, S.; Seo, W.; Park, J.; Ahn, J.; Moon, K.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere can scatter and absorb solar radiation and their spatial/temporal distributions are highly inhomogeneous due to short lifetimes (about a few weeks or less). Through scattering and absorption of solar radiation, aerosols directly affect visibility and climate through the modification of the Earth's energy budget (Charlson et al., 1992; Yan, 2007; Wang, 2012). This study investigates long-term trends and characteristics of aerosol light scattering coefficient at Seoul and Baengnyeongdo, 100 km upstream of Seoul, in Korea. Aerosol scattering coefficients were measured continuously with nephelometers. The analysis period is limited to one year of 2011. For the relationship analysis of extinction coefficients (σext) to visibility and aerosol optical depth, σsp observed at 3 p.m. have been used with help of aerosol absorption coefficients (σap) in order to remove its dependence upon relative humidity (RH), and also those of rainy period have been excluded. As expected, σext estimated are inversely proportional to visibility observation by eye. Aerosol extinction coefficients have been vertically integrated with an assumption of nearly well-mixed within an e-folding height to determine aerosol optical depth (τa), and compared with those retrieved from sunphotometer. The results show a reasonable agreement in spite of an inherent difference of each definition. We expect these findings would help to eventually understand aerosol radiative forcing and its effect on the regional climate change around Korea.

  1. Evaluation of Reliability Coefficients for Two-Level Models via Latent Variable Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Penev, Spiridon

    2010-01-01

    A latent variable analysis procedure for evaluation of reliability coefficients for 2-level models is outlined. The method provides point and interval estimates of group means' reliability, overall reliability of means, and conditional reliability. In addition, the approach can be used to test simple hypotheses about these parameters. The…

  2. Vibrational Analysis of a Shipboard Free Electron Laser Beam Path

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    springs. Reducing the sprung mass of the system allows for a lower spring rate and more easily produced real springs. The uneven distribution of mass due...the rate change of the deformation is small enough due to the long period of oscillation to allow operation. 35 Figure 21. Underwater...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited VIBRATIONAL ANALYSIS

  3. Random matrix theory analysis of cross-correlations in the US stock market: Evidence from Pearson’s correlation coefficient and detrended cross-correlation coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang-Jin; Xie, Chi; Chen, Shou; Yang, Jiao-Jiao; Yang, Ming-Yan

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we first build two empirical cross-correlation matrices in the US stock market by two different methods, namely the Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the detrended cross-correlation coefficient (DCCA coefficient). Then, combining the two matrices with the method of random matrix theory (RMT), we mainly investigate the statistical properties of cross-correlations in the US stock market. We choose the daily closing prices of 462 constituent stocks of S&P 500 index as the research objects and select the sample data from January 3, 2005 to August 31, 2012. In the empirical analysis, we examine the statistical properties of cross-correlation coefficients, the distribution of eigenvalues, the distribution of eigenvector components, and the inverse participation ratio. From the two methods, we find some new results of the cross-correlations in the US stock market in our study, which are different from the conclusions reached by previous studies. The empirical cross-correlation matrices constructed by the DCCA coefficient show several interesting properties at different time scales in the US stock market, which are useful to the risk management and optimal portfolio selection, especially to the diversity of the asset portfolio. It will be an interesting and meaningful work to find the theoretical eigenvalue distribution of a completely random matrix R for the DCCA coefficient because it does not obey the Marčenko-Pastur distribution.

  4. Interdiffusion in Ni-rich, Ni-Cr-Al alloys at 1100 and 1200 C. I - Diffusion paths and microstructures. II - Diffusion coefficients and predicted concentration profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Heckel, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Interdiffusion in Ni-rich Ni-Cr-Al alloys is investigated experimentally after annealing at 1100 and 1200 C using gamma/gamma, gamma/gamma+beta, gamma/gamma+gamma prime, and gamma/gamma+alpha diffusion couples. The amount and location of Kirkendall porosity suggests that Al diffuses more rapidly than Cr which diffuses more rapidly than Ni in the gamma phase of Ni-Cr-Al alloys. The location and extent of maxima and minima in the concentration profiles of the diffusion couples indicate that both cross-term diffusion coefficients are positive. Measurements are also presented of the ternary interdiffusion coefficients of the gamma phase in the Ni-Cr-Al system. It is shown that the interdiffusion coefficients can be accurately predicted by using a ternary finite-difference interdiffusion model.

  5. Errata to the Werts-Linn Comments on Boyle's "Path Analysis and Ordinal Data."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werts, Charles E.; Linn, Robert L.

    The Werts-Linn procedure for dealing with categorical errors of measurement in "Comments on Boyle's 'Path Analysis and Ordinal Data'" in The American Journal of Sociology, volume 76, number 6, May 1971, is shown to be inappropriate to the problem of ordered categories. (For related document, see TM 002 301.) (DB)

  6. Neighborhoods, Social Support, and African American Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes: A Multilevel Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents' internalizing symptoms via adolescents' social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; "M" age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and…

  7. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  8. Mathematics Teaching Anxiety and Self-Efficacy Beliefs toward Mathematics Teaching: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peker, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between pre-service primary school teachers' mathematics teaching anxiety and their self-efficacy beliefs toward mathematics teaching through path analysis. There were a total of 250 pre-service primary school teachers involved in this study. Of the total, 202 were female and 48 were…

  9. Indirect Estimations of Frictional Coefficients of Fractures in Sandstones for Analysis of Injection Induced Microseismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Y.; Chang, C.; Koh, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    The frictional coefficient of fractures, a fundamental parameter needed to analyze a variety of geomechanical problems for microseismicity, is normally determined from laboratory shear tests. However, recovered rock cores are rarely available because of difficulties and high cost in getting undisturbed core samples. In that case, the frictional coefficient should be either assumed or estimated indirectly. We investigate the frictional property of fractures of various sandstones in laboratory tests and attempt to correlate that with other properties measureable relatively readily even without cores. We use various sandstones obtained from different depths of a 1 km deep borehole drilled for coal bed methane development in a Paleozoic sedimentary basin, South Korea. The sandstones have various physical properties (e.g. P-wave velocity (VP) of 2253-5038 m/s) and chemical compositions in terms of clay content (5-31%). We conduct direct shear tests in an artificial saw-cut fracture in the sandstones and determined frictional coefficients in a range of 0.36-0.57. The frictional coefficients have an inverse-linear correlation with clay contents measured from XRD analysis. These results are also quite consistent with those from previous clay gouge experiments (Takahashi et al., 2007; Tembe et al., 2010; Kohli & Zoback, 2013). They also have a linear correlation with VP. Our study demonstrates that frictional coefficients can be estimated empirically from such properties. To check feasibility of such an approach, we apply the obtained empirical relation to the borehole where cores were recovered. The clay contents in sandstone formations are estimated from the borehole gamma ray log calibrated using the XRD clay content data. Clay content estimated from gamma ray varies significantly with depth in a range of 0-45%. This range of clay content corresponds to frictional coefficients of 0.25-0.58. Comparison between estimated and measured frictional coefficients shows a

  10. Methodology of a combined ground based testing and numerical modelling analysis of supersonic combustion flow paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannemann, Klaus; Karl, Sebastian; Martinez Schramm, Jan; Steelant, Johan

    2010-10-01

    In the framework of the European Commission co-funded LAPCAT (Long-Term Advanced Propulsion Concepts and Technologies) project, the methodology of a combined ground-based testing and numerical modelling analysis of supersonic combustion flow paths was established. The approach is based on free jet testing of complete supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) configurations consisting of intake, combustor and nozzle in the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel Göttingen (HEG) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and computational fluid dynamics studies utilising the DLR TAU code. The capability of the established methodology is demonstrated by applying it to the flow path of the generic HyShot II scramjet flight experiment configuration.

  11. Analysis of light propagation in highly scattering media by path-length-assigned Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsuhiro; Nishidate, Izumi; Iwai, Toshiaki

    2014-05-01

    Numerical analysis of optical propagation in highly scattering media is investigated when light is normally incident to the surface and re-emerges backward from the same point. This situation corresponds to practical light scattering setups, such as in optical coherence tomography. The simulation uses the path-length-assigned Monte Carlo method based on an ellipsoidal algorithm. The spatial distribution of the scattered light is determined and the dependence of its width and penetration depth on the path-length is found. The backscattered light is classified into three types, in which ballistic, snake, and diffuse photons are dominant.

  12. [Theoretical analysis of the single optical path spectrum detection in biological tissue].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Du, Zhen-hui; Chen, Feng; Xu, Ke-xin

    2008-06-01

    The technology of spectrum detection with high sensitivity is of significance in clinic diagnosis and tissue optical parameter measurement. A new method of difference-modulated laser spectrum detection was developed in the present paper. The measuring light and the reference light are separated from the lasing light source in this method. After passing through the tissue, the measuring light interferes with the reference light, and the frequency character of spectrum includes the information of the difference of optical path-length between the measuring light and reference light. By using the phase sensitive detector, the spectrum signal with different frequency can be separated, and consequently the measuring light passed through the tissue with different optical length will be apart. The mechanism of difference-modulated laser spectrum was analyzed and the value of dominant frequency of spectrum was deduced. Based on the theory of the optical path distribution in biological tissue, the spectrum signature of measuring light was discussed also. The distribution of dominant frequency component is decided by the difference of optical path-length between measuring light and reference light when the modulation parameters are invariable, and the magnitude of tissue' s modulus decay will effect the energy distribution of spectrum frequencies component. Theoretical analysis showed that the method of difference modulation can be used to separate lights according to the optical path-length and realize the single optical path measurement in biological tissue.

  13. Vulnerabilities, Influences and Interaction Paths: Failure Data for Integrated System Risk Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land

    2006-01-01

    We describe graph-based analysis methods for identifying and analyzing cross-subsystem interaction risks from subsystem connectivity information. By discovering external and remote influences that would be otherwise unexpected, these methods can support better communication among subsystem designers at points of potential conflict and to support design of more dependable and diagnosable systems. These methods identify hazard causes that can impact vulnerable functions or entities if propagated across interaction paths from the hazard source to the vulnerable target. The analysis can also assess combined impacts of And-Or trees of disabling influences. The analysis can use ratings of hazards and vulnerabilities to calculate cumulative measures of the severity and importance. Identification of cross-subsystem hazard-vulnerability pairs and propagation paths across subsystems will increase coverage of hazard and risk analysis and can indicate risk control and protection strategies.

  14. Analysis of the impact path on factors of China's energy-related CO2 emissions: a path analysis with latent variables.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhui; Lei, Yalin

    2017-02-01

    Identifying the impact path on factors of CO2 emissions is crucial for the government to take effective measures to reduce carbon emissions. The most existing research focuses on the total influence of factors on CO2 emissions without differentiating between the direct and indirect influence. Moreover, scholars have addressed the relationships among energy consumption, economic growth, and CO2 emissions rather than estimating all the causal relationships simultaneously. To fill this research gaps and explore overall driving factors' influence mechanism on CO2 emissions, this paper utilizes a path analysis model with latent variables (PA-LV) to estimate the direct and indirect effect of factors on China's energy-related carbon emissions and to investigate the causal relationships among variables. Three key findings emanate from the analysis: (1) The change in the economic growth pattern inhibits the growth rate of CO2 emissions by reducing the energy intensity; (2) adjustment of industrial structure contributes to energy conservation and CO2 emission reduction by raising the proportion of the tertiary industry; and (3) the growth of CO2 emissions impacts energy consumption and energy intensity negatively, which results in a negative impact indirectly on itself. To further control CO2 emissions, the Chinese government should (1) adjust the industrial structure and actively develop its tertiary industry to improve energy efficiency and develop low-carbon economy, (2) optimize population shifts to avoid excessive population growth and reduce energy consumption, and (3) promote urbanization steadily to avoid high energy consumption and low energy efficiency.

  15. Determination of stress concentration coefficients upon cyclic loading by photometric analysis of structure images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minina, N. A.; Emishkin, V. A.; Ovchinnikov, I. N.

    2017-01-01

    The development of an experimental method for the determination of stress concentration coefficient by the photometric analysis of surface reflectivity of material near stress concentrator and at a distance from it is considered in the paper. The experiments were performed with the AD-19 aluminum alloy samples under fatigue test conditions realized at a vibrating table with cantilevered sample. Notches 5 mm long and 0.4 mm wide spaced at constant intervals were applied by electrical discharge along one edge of the samples. The reflections of light from the fragments in the vicinity of the stress concentrator and from the opposite edge of the sample were compared with the help of photometric image analyzer. It is shown that such analysis can be used to determine the stress concentration coefficients.

  16. Image analysis measurements of particle coefficient of restitution for coal gasification applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, LaTosha M; Gopalan, Balaji; Pisupati, Sarma V; Shadle, Lawrence J

    2013-10-01

    New robust Lagrangian computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are powerful tools that can be used to study the behavior of a diverse population of coal particle sizes, densities, and mineral compositions in entrained gasifiers. By using this approach, the responses of the particles impacting the wall were characterized over a range of velocities (1 to 8 m/s) and incident angles (90 to 20°). Within CFD models, the kinematic coefficient of restitution is the boundary condition defining the particle wall behavior. Four surfaces were studied to simulate the physical conditions of different entrained-flow gasification particle–surface collision scenarios: 1) a flat metal plate 2) a low viscosity silicon adhesive, 3) a high viscosity silicon adhesive, and 4) adhered particles on a flat metal plate with Young's modulus of elasticity ranging from 0.9 to 190 GPa. Entrained flow and drop experiments were conducted with granular coke particles, polyethylene beads and polystyrene pellets. The particle normal and tangential coefficients of restitution were measured using high speed imaging and particle tracking. The measured coefficients of restitution were observed to have a strong dependence on the rebound angles for most of the data. Suitable algebraic expressions for the normal and the tangential component of the coefficient of restitution were developed based upon ANOVA analysis. These expressions quantify the effect of normalized Young's modulus, particle equancy, and relative velocity on the coefficient of restitution. The coefficient of restitution did not have a strong dependence on the particle velocity over the range considered as long as the velocity was above the critical velocity. However, strong correlations were found between the degree of equancy of the particles and the mean coefficient of restitution such that the coefficient of restitution decreased for smaller particle equancies. It was concluded that the degree of equancy and the normalized Young

  17. Optimal error analysis of spectral methods with emphasis on non-constant coefficients and deformed geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maday, Yvon; Ronquist, Einar M.

    1989-01-01

    The numerical analysis of spectral methods when non-constant coefficients appear in the equation, either due to the original statement of the equations or to take into account the deformed geometry, is presented. Particular attention is devoted to the optimality of the discretization even for low values of the discretization parameter. The effect of some overintegration is also addressed, in order to possibly improve the accuracy of the discretization.

  18. Comprehensive analysis of correlation coefficients estimated from pooling heterogeneous microarray data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The synthesis of information across microarray studies has been performed by combining statistical results of individual studies (as in a mosaic), or by combining data from multiple studies into a large pool to be analyzed as a single data set (as in a melting pot of data). Specific issues relating to data heterogeneity across microarray studies, such as differences within and between labs or differences among experimental conditions, could lead to equivocal results in a melting pot approach. Results We applied statistical theory to determine the specific effect of different means and heteroskedasticity across 19 groups of microarray data on the sign and magnitude of gene-to-gene Pearson correlation coefficients obtained from the pool of 19 groups. We quantified the biases of the pooled coefficients and compared them to the biases of correlations estimated by an effect-size model. Mean differences across the 19 groups were the main factor determining the magnitude and sign of the pooled coefficients, which showed largest values of bias as they approached ±1. Only heteroskedasticity across the pool of 19 groups resulted in less efficient estimations of correlations than did a classical meta-analysis approach of combining correlation coefficients. These results were corroborated by simulation studies involving either mean differences or heteroskedasticity across a pool of N > 2 groups. Conclusions The combination of statistical results is best suited for synthesizing the correlation between expression profiles of a gene pair across several microarray studies. PMID:23822712

  19. Two-condition within-participant statistical mediation analysis: A path-analytic framework.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Amanda K; Hayes, Andrew F

    2017-03-01

    Researchers interested in testing mediation often use designs where participants are measured on a dependent variable Y and a mediator M in both of 2 different circumstances. The dominant approach to assessing mediation in such a design, proposed by Judd, Kenny, and McClelland (2001), relies on a series of hypothesis tests about components of the mediation model and is not based on an estimate of or formal inference about the indirect effect. In this article we recast Judd et al.'s approach in the path-analytic framework that is now commonly used in between-participant mediation analysis. By so doing, it is apparent how to estimate the indirect effect of a within-participant manipulation on some outcome through a mediator as the product of paths of influence. This path-analytic approach eliminates the need for discrete hypothesis tests about components of the model to support a claim of mediation, as Judd et al.'s method requires, because it relies only on an inference about the product of paths-the indirect effect. We generalize methods of inference for the indirect effect widely used in between-participant designs to this within-participant version of mediation analysis, including bootstrap confidence intervals and Monte Carlo confidence intervals. Using this path-analytic approach, we extend the method to models with multiple mediators operating in parallel and serially and discuss the comparison of indirect effects in these more complex models. We offer macros and code for SPSS, SAS, and Mplus that conduct these analyses. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Experimental validation of the direct transmissibility approach to classical transfer path analysis on a mechanical setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, Oriol; García, Carlos; Jové, Jordi; Artís, Pere

    2013-05-01

    Transmissibility functions have received renewed interest given the important role they play in operational modal analysis and operational transfer path analysis. However, transmissibilities can also be used in the framework of classical transmission path analysis. This avoids some of the problems associated to the latter, such as the measurement of operational loads, or the need to remove the active parts of the system to measure frequency response functions. The key of the transmissibility approach to classical transfer path analysis relies on the notion of direct or blocked transmissibilities, which can be computed from standard measurable transmissibilities. The response at any degree of freedom to a system external load can then be decomposed in terms of the remaining degrees of freedom responses and the system direct transmissibilities. Although the theory supporting this approach has been known for long, no experimental validation test has been reported to date. It is the purpose of this paper to provide such a test by applying the method to a simple mechanical system for which an analytical solution can be derived. For different configurations, it will be shown that direct transmissibilities computed from measured transmissibilities compare fairly well with analytical results. This opens the door to apply the method to more complex situations of practical interest with confidence.

  1. Viscoelasticity and primitive path analysis of entangled polymer liquids: From F-actin to polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Nariya; Grest, Gary S.; Everaers, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    We combine computer simulations and scaling arguments to develop a unified view of polymer entanglement based on the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state. Our results agree with experimentally measured plateau moduli for three different polymer classes over a wide range of reduced polymer densities: (i) semidilute theta solutions of synthetic polymers, (ii) the corresponding dense melts above the glass transition or crystallization temperature, and (iii) solutions of semiflexible (bio)polymers such as F-actin or suspensions of rodlike viruses. Together, these systems cover the entire range from loosely to tightly entangled polymers. In particular, we argue that the primitive path analysis renormalizes a loosely to a tightly entangled system and provide a new explanation of the successful Lin-Noolandi packing conjecture for polymer melts.

  2. Automatic Match between Delimitation Line and Real Terrain Based on Least-Cost Path Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, C. Q.; Jiang, N.; Zhang, X. N.; Ma, J.

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, during the international negotiation on separating dispute areas, manual adjusting is lonely applied to the match between delimitation line and real terrain, which not only consumes much time and great labor force, but also cannot ensure high precision. Concerning that, the paper mainly explores automatic match between them and study its general solution based on Least -Cost Path Analysis. First, under the guidelines of delimitation laws, the cost layer is acquired through special disposals of delimitation line and terrain features line. Second, a new delimitation line gets constructed with the help of Least-Cost Path Analysis. Third, the whole automatic match model is built via Module Builder in order to share and reuse it. Finally, the result of automatic match is analyzed from many different aspects, including delimitation laws, two-sided benefits and so on. Consequently, a conclusion is made that the method of automatic match is feasible and effective.

  3. Bayesian meta-analysis of Cronbach's coefficient alpha to evaluate informative hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kensuke

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a new method to evaluate informative hypotheses for meta-analysis of Cronbach's coefficient alpha using a Bayesian approach. The coefficient alpha is one of the most widely used reliability indices. In meta-analyses of reliability, researchers typically form specific informative hypotheses beforehand, such as 'alpha of this test is greater than 0.8' or 'alpha of one form of a test is greater than the others.' The proposed method enables direct evaluation of these informative hypotheses. To this end, a Bayes factor is calculated to evaluate the informative hypothesis against its complement. It allows researchers to summarize the evidence provided by previous studies in favor of their informative hypothesis. The proposed approach can be seen as a natural extension of the Bayesian meta-analysis of coefficient alpha recently proposed in this journal (Brannick and Zhang, 2013). The proposed method is illustrated through two meta-analyses of real data that evaluate different kinds of informative hypotheses on superpopulation: one is that alpha of a particular test is above the criterion value, and the other is that alphas among different test versions have ordered relationships. Informative hypotheses are supported from the data in both cases, suggesting that the proposed approach is promising for application.

  4. PathGrid: The Transfer of Astronomical Image Algorithms to the Analysis of Medical Microscopy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, N. A.; Brenton, J. D.; Caldas, C.; Irwin, M. J.; Akram, A.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Lewis, J. R.; MacCullum, P.; Morris, L. J.; Rixon, G. T.

    2009-09-01

    We describe our pilot `PathGrid' study which applies astronomical image processing and data handling techniques to the challenges involved in analysing Tissue Micro Array (TMA) image data. Image analysis has been applied to the input TMA data using open source solutions developed for an astronomical context. The resulting data products are in turn interfaced to the clinical trials systems in use at the Cambridge Research Institute (Cancer Research-UK).

  5. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    PubMed

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  6. CFD analysis of flow through Venturi tube and its discharge coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukimin, A.; Zuber, M.; Ahmad, K. A.

    2016-10-01

    Venturi tube plays a very important role in different fields of engineering. It has a number of industrial applications in which its design is an essential factor. Venturi tube used in gas measurement applications provides an accurate critical gas flow measurement. There is a need to design Venturi tube with an effective analytical tool or software. In this work, two parameters: pressure drop and velocity discharge nozzle were analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The results obtained were then analyzed for accurate determination of the Venturi tube's discharge coefficient, Cd. It was found that there is less than 1% difference between the average values of the discharge coefficient obtained from the numerical analysis and experimental results.

  7. Quantum chemical analysis of reaction paths in chorismate mutase: Conformational effects and electrostatic stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szefczyk, Borys; Claeyssens, Frederik; Mulholland, Adrian J.; Sokalski, W. Andrzej

    We have performed a detailed, quantum chemical, decomposition analysis of the physical nature of key interactions in the model enzyme chorismate mutase (CM), for several active conformations produced by high level combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) modeling. In opposition to our previous study, interactions between selected residues in the active site of CM were analysed along the whole reaction path, for several paths. The interaction energy is calculated up to Møller-Plesset second order level of theory and decomposed into physically meaningful components (electrostatic, exchange, delocalization, and electron correlation). This analysis shows, that the dominant interaction is differential stabilization by Arg90: this residue significantly stabilizes the transition state (TS) relative to the substrate in all the paths studied. Interactions in the active site of CM are dominated by the electrostatic component, whereas other components, for example electron correlation, are constant during reaction. Electrostatic effects alone are found to be responsible for lowering the barrier for reaction at the active site. Analysis of four reaction paths derived from QM/MM modeling shows that differences in the height of the barrier are due to differences in the electrostatic interactions of several weakly interacting residues. The influence of conformational effects, such as hydroxyl group rotation in the chorismate/TS, and the distance between Arg90 and the reacting chorismate, have also been analysed. The results show that specific conformations provide better activation barrier lowering. Even small changes in the conformation, like rotation of the hydroxyl group in chorismate (substrate), can significantly alter the activation barrier.0

  8. Highly efficient codec based on significance-linked connected-component analysis of wavelet coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Bing-Bing; Vass, Jozsef; Zhuang, Xinhua

    1997-04-01

    Recent success in wavelet coding is mainly attributed to the recognition of importance of data organization. There has been several very competitive wavelet codecs developed, namely, Shapiro's Embedded Zerotree Wavelets (EZW), Servetto et. al.'s Morphological Representation of Wavelet Data (MRWD), and Said and Pearlman's Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT). In this paper, we propose a new image compression algorithm called Significant-Linked Connected Component Analysis (SLCCA) of wavelet coefficients. SLCCA exploits both within-subband clustering of significant coefficients and cross-subband dependency in significant fields. A so-called significant link between connected components is designed to reduce the positional overhead of MRWD. In addition, the significant coefficients' magnitude are encoded in bit plane order to match the probability model of the adaptive arithmetic coder. Experiments show that SLCCA outperforms both EZW and MRWD, and is tied with SPIHT. Furthermore, it is observed that SLCCA generally has the best performance on images with large portion of texture. When applied to fingerprint image compression, it outperforms FBI's wavelet scalar quantization by about 1 dB.

  9. Determination and analysis of distribution coefficients of 137Cs in soils from Biscay (Spain).

    PubMed

    Elejalde, C; Herranz, M; Legarda, F; Romero, F

    2000-10-01

    The distribution coefficient of (137)Cs has been determined in 58 soils from 12 sampling points from Biscay by treating 10 g with 25 ml of an aqueous solution with an activity of 1765 Bq in the radionuclide, by shaking during 64 h and measuring the residual activity with a suitable detector. Soils were characterised by sampling depth, particle size analysis and the usual chemical parameters. Soils were thereafter treated to fix the chemical forms of (137)Cs speciation by successive extractions in order to determine fractions due to exchangeable, associated with carbonates, iron oxide and organic matter fractions, obtaining by difference the amount taken by the rest of the soil constituents. For this research, 16 soils from four points were selected from the previous samples. The greatest mean percentages of (137)Cs sorption were with the rest (69.93), exchangeable (13.17) and organic matter (12.54%) fractions. This paper includes also the calculation of partial distribution coefficients for chemical species as well as relations of distribution coefficients both among them and with soil parameters.

  10. Morphological Awareness in Literacy Acquisition of Chinese Second Graders: A Path Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haomin

    2016-02-01

    The present study tested a path diagram regarding the contribution of morphological awareness (MA) to early literacy acquisition among Chinese-speaking second graders ([Formula: see text]). Three facets of MA were addressed, namely derivational awareness, compound awareness and compound structure awareness. The model aimed to test a theory of causal order among measures of MA and literacy outcomes. Drawing upon multivariate path analysis, direct and indirect effects of MA were analyzed to identify their role in literacy performance among young children. Results revealed that all three facets of MA made significant contributions to lexical inference ability. In addition, compound awareness showed a unique and significant contribution to vocabulary knowledge. It was also observed that lexical inference ability had a mediating effect predictive of both vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Moreover, vocabulary knowledge mediated the effect of MA on reading comprehension. However, no significant contribution of MA to reading comprehension was found after controlling for lexical inference ability and vocabulary knowledge.

  11. Error analysis of coefficient-based regularized algorithm for density-level detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Pan, Zhibin; Li, Luoqing; Tang, Yuanyan

    2013-04-01

    In this letter, we consider a density-level detection (DLD) problem by a coefficient-based classification framework with [Formula: see text]-regularizer and data-dependent hypothesis spaces. Although the data-dependent characteristic of the algorithm provides flexibility and adaptivity for DLD, it leads to difficulty in generalization error analysis. To overcome this difficulty, an error decomposition is introduced from an established classification framework. On the basis of this decomposition, the estimate of the learning rate is obtained by using Rademacher average and stepping-stone techniques. In particular, the estimate is independent of the capacity assumption used in the previous literature.

  12. Path analysis and canonical correlations for indirect selection of Jatropha genotypes with higher oil yield.

    PubMed

    Silva, L A; Peixoto, L A; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Laviola, B G; Bhering, L L

    2017-03-22

    Jatropha is a species with great potential for biodiesel production, and the knowledge on how the main agronomic traits are correlated will contribute to its improvement. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic parameters of the traits: plant height at 12 and 40 months, canopy projection on the row at 12 and 40 months, canopy projection between the row at 12 and 40 months, number of branches at 40 months, grain yield, and oil yield; to verify the existence of phenotypic correlation between these traits; to verify the influence of the morphological traits on oil yield by means of path analysis; and to evaluate the relationship between the productive traits in Jatropha and the morphological traits measured at different ages. Sixty-seven half-sib families were evaluated using a completely randomized block design with two replications and five plants per plot. Analysis of variance was used to estimate the genetic value. Phenotypic correlations were given by the Pearson correlation between traits. For the canonical correlation analysis, two groups of traits were established: group I, consisting of traits of economic importance for the culture, and group II, consisting of morphological traits. Path analysis was carried out considering oil yield as the main dependent variable. Genetic variability was observed among Jatropha families. Productive traits can be indirectly selected via morphological traits due to the correlation between these two groups of traits. Therefore, canonical correlations and path analysis are two strategies that may be useful in Jatropha-breeding program when the objective is to select productive traits via morphological traits.

  13. Correlates of Unwanted Births in Bangladesh: A Study through Path Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brijesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unwanted birth is an important public health concern due to its negative association with adverse outcomes of mothers and children as well as socioeconomic development of a country. Although a number of studies have been investigated the determinants of unwanted births through logistic regression analysis, an extensive assessment using path model is lacking. In the current study, we applied path analysis to know the important covariates for unwanted births in Bangladesh. Methods The study used data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. It considered sub-sample consisted of 7,972 women who had given most recent births five years preceding the date of interview or who were currently pregnant at survey time. Correlation analysis was used to find out the significant association with unwanted births. This study provided the factors affecting unwanted births in Bangladesh. The path model was used to determine the direct, indirect and total effects of socio-demographic factors on unwanted births. Results The result exhibited that more than one-tenth of the recent births were unwanted in Bangladesh. The differentials of unwanted births were women’s age, education, age at marriage, religion, socioeconomic status, exposure of mass-media and use of family planning. In correlation analysis, it showed that unwanted births were positively correlated with women age and place of residence and these relationships were significant. On the contrary, unwanted births were inversely significantly correlated with education and social status. The total effects of endogenous variables such as women age, place of residence and use of family planning methods had favorable effect on unwanted births. Conclusion Policymakers and program planners need to design programs and services carefully to reduce unwanted births in Bangladesh, especially, service should focus on helping those groups of women who were identified in the analysis as being at

  14. SACICA: a sparse approximation coefficient-based ICA model for functional magnetic resonance imaging data analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nizhuan; Zeng, Weiming; Chen, Lei

    2013-05-30

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to evaluate the functional connectivity, which assumes that the sources of functional networks are statistically independent. Recently, many researchers have demonstrated that sparsity is an effective assumption for fMRI signal separation. In this research, we present a sparse approximation coefficient-based ICA (SACICA) model to analyse fMRI data, which is a promising combination model of sparse features and an ICA technique. The SACICA method consists of three procedures. The wavelet packet decomposition procedure, which decomposes the fMRI data into wavelet tree nodes with different degrees of sparsity, is first. Then, the sparse approximation coefficients set formation procedure, in which an effective Lp norm is proposed to measure the sparse degree of the distinct wavelet tree nodes, is second. The ICA decomposition and reconstruction procedure, which utilises the sparse approximation coefficients set of the fMRI data, is last. The hybrid data experimental results demonstrated that the SACICA method exhibited the stronger spatial source reconstruction ability with respect to the unsmoothed fMRI data and better detection sensitivity of the functional signal on the smoothed fMRI data than the FastICA method. Furthermore, task-related experiments also revealed that SACICA was not only effective in discovering the functional networks but also exhibited a better detection sensitivity of the visual-related functional signal. In addition, the SACICA combined with Fast-FENICA proposed by Wang et al. (2012) was demonstrated to conduct the group analysis effectively on the resting-state data set.

  15. Thermal optical path difference analysis of the telescope correct lens assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ming-Ying; Chang, Shenq-Tsong; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2012-12-01

    The effect of correct lens thermal optical path difference (OPD) on the optical performance of the Cassegrain telescope system is presented. The correct lens assembly includes several components such as a set of correct lenses, lens mount, spacer, mount barrel, and retainer. The heat transfer from the surrounding environment to the correct lens barrel will cause optical system aberration. The temperature distribution of the baffle is from 20.546°C to 21.485°C. Meanwhile, the off-axis ray's path of the OPD has taken the lens incidence point and emergence point into consideration. The correct lens temperature distribution is calculated by the lens barrel heat transfer analysis; the thermal distortion and stress are solved by the Finite Element Method (FEM) software. The temperature distribution is weighted to each incidence ray path, and the thermal OPD is calculated. The thermal OPD on the Z direction is transferred to optical aberration by fitting OPD into a rigid body motion and the Zernike polynomial. The aberration results can be used to evaluate the thermal effect on the correct lens assembly in the telescope system.

  16. Survival analysis for apparent diffusion coefficient measures in children with embryonal brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Grech-Sollars, Matthew; Saunders, Dawn E; Phipps, Kim P; Clayden, Jonathan D; Clark, Chris A

    2012-10-01

    Embryonal brain tumors constitute a large and important subgroup of pediatric brain tumors. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measures have been previously used in the analysis of these tumors. We investigated a newly described ADC-derived parameter, the apparent transient coefficient in tumor (ATCT), a measure of the gradient change of ADC from the peri-tumoral edema into the tumor core, to study whether ATCT correlates with survival outcome. Sixty-one patients with histologically proven embryonal brain tumors and who had diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) as part of their clinical imaging were enrolled in a retrospective study correlating ADC measures with survival. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed for extent of surgical resection, age <3 years at diagnosis, tumor type, and metastasis at presentation. A multivariate survival analysis was performed that took into consideration ATCT and variables found to be significant in the Kaplan-Meier analysis as covariates. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ATCT was the only significant covariate (P < .001). Survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves, dividing the patients into 4 groups of increasing values of ATCT, showed that more negative values of ATCT were significantly associated with a poorer prognosis (P < .001). A statistically significant difference was observed for survival data with respect to the change in ADC from edema into the tumor volume. Results show that more negative ATCT values are significantly associated with a poorer survival among children with embryonal brain tumors, irrespective of tumor type, extent of resection, age <3 years at diagnosis, and metastasis at presentation.

  17. Analysis of accommodation coefficients of noble gases on aluminum surface with an experimental/computational method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selden, Nathaniel; Gimelshein, Natalia; Gimelshein, Sergey; Ketsdever, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    A method that connects measurements of radiometric forces on a heated vane in the transitional flow regime with the kinetic modeling of the flow, and derives the accommodation coefficients through the successive analysis of measured and computed results, is proposed. The method utilizes the fact that radiometric forces exerted on heated objects immersed in rarefied gases are governed by the interaction of gas molecules with the surface. Experimental results on radiometric forces on a 0.11 m diameter circular vane are obtained on a nano-Newton thrust stand in a 3 m long vacuum chamber for pressures ranging from approximately 0.01 to 1 Pa. The vane was heated to 419 K on the hot side and 396 K on the cold side. The numerical modeling is conducted using a combined ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook/direct simulation Monte Carlo approach that allows accurate and time efficient analysis of radiometric forces on a vane in large vacuum chambers filled with rarefied gas. Accommodation coefficients for the Maxwell model are estimated for argon, xenon, and helium on a machined aluminum surface, and found to be 0.81, 0.86, and 0.53, respectively.

  18. Substructuring of multibody systems for numerical transfer path analysis in internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acri, Antonio; Offner, Guenter; Nijman, Eugene; Rejlek, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Noise legislations and the increasing customer demands determine the Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) development of modern commercial vehicles. In order to meet the stringent legislative requirements for the vehicle noise emission, exact knowledge of all vehicle noise sources and their acoustic behavior is required. Transfer path analysis (TPA) is a fairly well established technique for estimating and ranking individual low-frequency noise or vibration contributions via the different transmission paths. Transmission paths from different sources to target points of interest and their contributions can be analyzed by applying TPA. This technique is applied on test measurements, which can only be available on prototypes, at the end of the designing process. In order to overcome the limits of TPA, a numerical transfer path analysis methodology based on the substructuring of a multibody system is proposed in this paper. Being based on numerical simulation, this methodology can be performed starting from the first steps of the designing process. The main target of the proposed methodology is to get information of noise sources contributions of a dynamic system considering the possibility to have multiple forces contemporary acting on the system. The contributions of these forces are investigated with particular focus on distribute or moving forces. In this paper, the mathematical basics of the proposed methodology and its advantages in comparison with TPA will be discussed. Then, a dynamic system is investigated with a combination of two methods. Being based on the dynamic substructuring (DS) of the investigated model, the methodology proposed requires the evaluation of the contact forces at interfaces, which are computed with a flexible multi-body dynamic (FMBD) simulation. Then, the structure-borne noise paths are computed with the wave based method (WBM). As an example application a 4-cylinder engine is investigated and the proposed methodology is applied on the

  19. Dynamical mechanism in aero-engine gas path system using minimum spanning tree and detrended cross-correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Keqiang; Zhang, Hong; Gao, You

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the mutual interaction in aero-engine gas path system is a crucial problem that facilitates the understanding of emerging structures in complex system. By employing the multiscale multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis method to aero-engine gas path system, the cross-correlation characteristics between gas path system parameters are established. Further, we apply multiscale multifractal detrended cross-correlation distance matrix and minimum spanning tree to investigate the mutual interactions of gas path variables. The results can infer that the low-spool rotor speed (N1) and engine pressure ratio (EPR) are main gas path parameters. The application of proposed method contributes to promote our understanding of the internal mechanisms and structures of aero-engine dynamics.

  20. Free wake analysis of hover performance using a new influence coefficient method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Ong, Ching Cho; Ching, Cho Ong

    1990-01-01

    A new approach to the prediction of helicopter rotor performance using a free wake analysis was developed. This new method uses a relaxation process that does not suffer from the convergence problems associated with previous time marching simulations. This wake relaxation procedure was coupled to a vortex-lattice, lifting surface loads analysis to produce a novel, self contained performance prediction code: EHPIC (Evaluation of Helicopter Performance using Influence Coefficients). The major technical features of the EHPIC code are described and a substantial amount of background information on the capabilities and proper operation of the code is supplied. Sample problems were undertaken to demonstrate the robustness and flexibility of the basic approach. Also, a performance correlation study was carried out to establish the breadth of applicability of the code, with very favorable results.

  1. Evaluation of dispersivity coefficients by means of a laboratory image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citarella, Donato; Cupola, Fausto; Tanda, Maria Giovanna; Zanini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the application of an innovative procedure that allows the estimation of longitudinal and transverse dispersivities in an experimental plume devised in a laboratory sandbox. The phenomenon of transport in porous media is studied using sodium fluorescein as tracer. The fluorescent excitation was achieved by using blue light and the concentration data were obtained through the processing of side wall images collected with a high resolution color digital camera. After a calibration process, the relationship between the luminosity of the emitted fluorescence and the fluorescein concentration was determined at each point of the sandbox. The relationships were used to describe the evolution of the transport process quantitatively throughout the entire domain. Some check tests were performed in order to verify the reliability of the experimental device. Numerical flow and transport models of the sandbox were developed and calibrated comparing computed and observed flow rates and breakthrough curves. The estimation of the dispersivity coefficients was carried out by analyzing the concentration field deduced from the images collected during the experiments; the dispersivity coefficients were evaluated in the domain zones where the tracer affected the porous medium under the hypothesis that the transport phenomenon is described by advection-dispersion equation (ADE) and by computing the differential components of the concentration by means of a numerical leap-frog scheme. The values determined agree with the ones referred in literature for similar media and with the coefficients obtained by calibrating the numerical model. Very interesting considerations have been made from the analysis of the performance of the methodology at different locations in the flow domain and phases of the plume evolution.

  2. Non-normal path analysis in the presence of measurement error and missing data: a Bayesian analysis of nursing homes' structure and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Byron J; Lee, Robert; Thompson, Sarah; Dunton, Nancy; Becker, Annette; Wells, Valorie

    2006-11-15

    Path analytic models are useful tools in quantitative nursing research. They allow researchers to hypothesize causal inferential paths and test the significance of these paths both directly and indirectly through a mediating variable. A standard statistical method in the path analysis literature is to treat the variables as having a normal distribution and to estimate paths using several least squares regression equations. The parameters corresponding to the direct paths have point and interval estimates based on normal distribution theory. Indirect paths are a product of the direct path from the independent variable to the mediating variable and the direct path of the mediating variable to the dependent variable. However, in the case of non-normal distributions, the point and interval estimates of the indirect path become much more difficult to estimate. We address the issue of calculating indirect point and interval estimates in the case of non-normally distributed data. Our substantive application is a nursing home research problem in which the variables in the path analysis of interest involve variables with normal, Bernoulli, or Poisson distributions. Additionally, one of the Poisson variables is observed with error. This paper addresses estimating point and interval estimation of indirect paths for variables with non-normal distributions in the presence of missing data and measurement error. We handle these difficulties from a fully Bayesian point of view. We present our substantive path analysis motivated from a nursing home structure, process, and outcomes model. Our results focus on the impact job turnover in the nursing homes has on nursing home outcomes.

  3. Modeling anaerobic digestion of blue algae: stoichiometric coefficients of amino acids acidogenesis and thermodynamics analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xian-Zheng; Shi, Xiao-Shuang; Yuan, Chun-Xin; Wang, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Guo, Rong-Bo; Wang, Li-Sheng

    2014-02-01

    In order to facilitate the application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1), an approach for a detailed calculation of stoichiometric coefficients for amino acids acidogenesis during the anaerobic digestion of blue algae is presented. The simulation results obtained support the approach by good predictions of the dynamic behavior of cumulative methane production, pH values as well as the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate and inorganic nitrogen. The sensitivity analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation showed that the stoichiometric coefficients for amino acids acidogenesis had high sensitivities to the outputs of the model. The model further indicated that the Gibbs free energies from the uptake of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), valerate and butyrate were positive through the digestion, while the free energies for other components were negative. During the digestion, the cumulative heat productions from microbial activities and methane were 77.69 kJ and 185.76 kJ, respectively. This result suggested that proper heat preservation of anaerobic digesters could minimize the external heating needs due to the heat produced from microbial activities.

  4. An improved parameter estimation scheme for image modification detection based on DCT coefficient analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liyang; Han, Qi; Niu, Xiamu; Yiu, S M; Fang, Junbin; Zhang, Ye

    2016-02-01

    Most of the existing image modification detection methods which are based on DCT coefficient analysis model the distribution of DCT coefficients as a mixture of a modified and an unchanged component. To separate the two components, two parameters, which are the primary quantization step, Q1, and the portion of the modified region, α, have to be estimated, and more accurate estimations of α and Q1 lead to better detection and localization results. Existing methods estimate α and Q1 in a completely blind manner, without considering the characteristics of the mixture model and the constraints to which α should conform. In this paper, we propose a more effective scheme for estimating α and Q1, based on the observations that, the curves on the surface of the likelihood function corresponding to the mixture model is largely smooth, and α can take values only in a discrete set. We conduct extensive experiments to evaluate the proposed method, and the experimental results confirm the efficacy of our method.

  5. Comparison of Damage Path Predictions for Composite Laminates by Explicit and Standard Finite Element Analysis Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogert, Philip B.; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Chunchu, Prasad B.

    2006-01-01

    Splitting, ultimate failure load and the damage path in center notched composite specimens subjected to in-plane tension loading are predicted using progressive failure analysis methodology. A 2-D Hashin-Rotem failure criterion is used in determining intra-laminar fiber and matrix failures. This progressive failure methodology has been implemented in the Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard finite element codes through user written subroutines "VUMAT" and "USDFLD" respectively. A 2-D finite element model is used for predicting the intra-laminar damages. Analysis results obtained from the Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard code show good agreement with experimental results. The importance of modeling delamination in progressive failure analysis methodology is recognized for future studies. The use of an explicit integration dynamics code for simple specimen geometry and static loading establishes a foundation for future analyses where complex loading and nonlinear dynamic interactions of damage and structure will necessitate it.

  6. Do lab-derived distribution coefficient values of pesticides match distribution coefficient values determined from column and field-scale experiments? A critical analysis of relevant literature.

    PubMed

    Vereecken, H; Vanderborght, J; Kasteel, R; Spiteller, M; Schäffer, A; Close, M

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed sorption parameters for pesticides that were derived from batch and column or batch and field experiments. The batch experiments analyzed in this study were run with the same pesticide and soil as in the column and field experiments. We analyzed the relationship between the pore water velocity of the column and field experiments, solute residence times, and sorption parameters, such as the organic carbon normalized distribution coefficient ( ) and the mass exchange coefficient in kinetic models, as well as the predictability of sorption parameters from basic soil properties. The batch/column analysis included 38 studies with a total of 139 observations. The batch/field analysis included five studies, resulting in a dataset of 24 observations. For the batch/column data, power law relationships between pore water velocity, residence time, and sorption constants were derived. The unexplained variability in these equations was reduced, taking into account the saturation status and the packing status (disturbed-undisturbed) of the soil sample. A new regression equation was derived that allows estimating the values derived from column experiments using organic matter and bulk density with an value of 0.56. Regression analysis of the batch/column data showed that the relationship between batch- and column-derived values depends on the saturation status and packing of the soil column. Analysis of the batch/field data showed that as the batch-derived value becomes larger, field-derived values tend to be lower than the corresponding batch-derived values, and vice versa. The present dataset also showed that the variability in the ratio of batch- to column-derived value increases with increasing pore water velocity, with a maximum value approaching 3.5.

  7. Effect of Weather on Agricultural Futures Markets on the Basis of DCCA Cross-Correlation Coefficient Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guangxi; He, Cuiting; Xu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the correlation between weather and agricultural futures markets on the basis of detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) cross-correlation coefficients and q-dependent cross-correlation coefficients. In addition, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is used to measure extreme weather and thus analyze further the effect of this condition on agricultural futures markets. Cross-correlation exists between weather and agricultural futures markets on certain time scales. There are some correlations between temperature and soybean return associated with medium amplitudes. Under extreme weather conditions, weather exerts different influences on different agricultural products; for instance, soybean return is greatly influenced by temperature, and weather variables exhibit no effect on corn return. Based on the detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis (DMCA) coefficient and DFA regression results are similar to that of DCCA coefficient.

  8. Robust spectral-domain optical coherence tomography speckle model and its cross-correlation coefficient analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Huang, Yong; Guo, Yuan; Kang, Jin U

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a generic speckle simulation for optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal, by convolving the point-spread function (PSF) of the OCT system with the numerically synthesized random sample field. We validate our model and use the simulation method to study the statistical properties of cross-correlation coefficients between A-scans, which have been recently applied in transverse motion analysis by our group. The results of simulation show that oversampling is essential for accurate motion tracking; exponential decay of OCT signal leads to an underestimate of motion that can be corrected; lateral heterogeneity of sample leads to an overestimate of motion for a few pixels corresponding to the structural boundary.

  9. Flux control coefficients determined by inhibitor titration: the design and analysis of experiments to minimize errors.

    PubMed Central

    Small, J R

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a study into the effects of experimental error on the estimated values of flux control coefficients obtained using specific inhibitors. Two possible techniques for analysing the experimental data are compared: a simple extrapolation method (the so-called graph method) and a non-linear function fitting method. For these techniques, the sources of systematic errors are identified and the effects of systematic and random errors are quantified, using both statistical analysis and numerical computation. It is shown that the graph method is very sensitive to random errors and, under all conditions studied, that the fitting method, even under conditions where the assumptions underlying the fitted function do not hold, outperformed the graph method. Possible ways of designing experiments to minimize the effects of experimental errors are analysed and discussed. PMID:8257434

  10. Analysis of rotordynamic coefficients of helically-grooved turbulent annular seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, C.-H.; Childs, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis for helically-grooved turbulent annular seals is developed to predict leakage and dynamic coefficients, as related to rotordynamics. The grooved surface pattern is formulated as an inhomogeneous directivity in surface shear stress. The zeroth-order equations define the steady-state leakage and the circumferential velocity development due to wall shear for a centered rotor position. The first-order equations define perturbations in the pressure and axial and circumferential velocity fields due to small motion of the rotor about the centered position. Numerical results are presented for proposed grooved seals in the High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPTOP) of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and for a water-pump application. The results show that an optimum helix angle exists from a rotordynamic stability viewpoint. Further, a properly designed helically-grooved stator is predicted to have pronounced stability advantages over other currently used seals.

  11. Mesoscopic dynamics of fermionic cold atoms - Quantitative analysis of transport coefficients and relaxation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Yuta; Tsumura, Kyosuke; Kunihiro, Teiji

    2016-05-01

    We give a quantitative analysis of the dynamical properties of fermionic cold atomic gases in normal phase, such as the shear viscosity, heat conductivity, and viscous relaxation times, using the novel microscopic expressions derived by the renormalization group (RG) method, where the Boltzmann equation is faithfully solved to extract the hydrodynamics without recourse to any ansatz. In particular, we examine the quantum statistical effects, temperature dependence, and scattering-length dependence of the transport coefficients and the viscous relaxation times. The numerical calculation shows that the relation τπ = η / P, which is derived in the relaxation-time approximation (RTA) and is used in most of the literature, turns out to be satisfied quite well, while the similar relation for the viscous relaxation time τJ of the heat conductivity is satisfied only approximately with a considerable error.

  12. Passive forgery detection using discrete cosine transform coefficient analysis in JPEG compressed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Shian; Tsay, Jyh-Jong

    2016-05-01

    Passive forgery detection aims to detect traces of image tampering without the need for prior information. With the increasing demand for image content protection, passive detection methods able to identify image tampering areas are increasingly needed. However, most current passive approaches either work only for image-level JPEG compression detection and cannot localize region-level forgery, or suffer from high-false detection rates in localizing altered regions. This paper proposes an effective approach based on discrete cosine transform coefficient analysis for the detection and localization of altered regions of JPEG compressed images. This approach can also work with altered JPEG images resaved in JPEG compressed format with different quality factors. Experiments with various tampering methods such as copy-and-paste, image completion, and composite tampering, show that the proposed approach is able to effectively detect and localize altered areas and is not sensitive to image contents such as edges and textures.

  13. Path analysis for adherence to pelvic floor muscle exercise among women with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Yueh; Tzeng, Ya-Ling

    2009-06-01

    This study developed and tested the accuracy of a model designed to predict adherence to a pelvic floor muscle exercise regimen by Taiwanese women with urinary incontinence. The sample was composed of 106 women treated for urinary incontinence at urban hospitals in central and northern Taiwan from April 2000 to March 2003. All participants had practiced prescribed pelvic floor muscle exercises for at least 6 weeks at the time they completed study measures, which included adherence to pelvic floor muscle exercise, self-efficacy for the exercise, knowledge of the exercise, attitudes toward the exercise, dyadic cohesion, perceived benefits of the exercise, and severity of urine loss. After stepwise multiple regression analysis, a path analysis was conducted, with significant paths retained as modifiers. Self-efficacy for pelvic floor muscle exercise strongly and directly affected adherence to the exercise regimen. Attitudes toward the exercise, dyadic cohesion, and perceived benefits of the exercise affected adherence when mediated by self-efficacy for pelvic floor muscle exercise. Severity of urine loss also directly affected adherence. Exercise knowledge affected neither self-efficacy nor adherence. The model fit the data and accounted for 40% of adherence variance. Findings affirm the significant role of self-efficacy in predicting adherence to pelvic floor muscle exercise. Thus, self-efficacy for exercise can be an indicator for nurses to tailor exercise-training programs for women with urinary incontinence. Nurses can use the study findings to develop interventions to increase women's adherence to the exercise.

  14. Interactive analysis of geographically distributed population imaging data collections over light-path data networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lew, Baldur; Botha, Charl P.; Milles, Julien R.; Vrooman, Henri A.; van de Giessen, Martijn; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.

    2015-03-01

    The cohort size required in epidemiological imaging genetics studies often mandates the pooling of data from multiple hospitals. Patient data, however, is subject to strict privacy protection regimes, and physical data storage may be legally restricted to a hospital network. To enable biomarker discovery, fast data access and interactive data exploration must be combined with high-performance computing resources, while respecting privacy regulations. We present a system using fast and inherently secure light-paths to access distributed data, thereby obviating the need for a central data repository. A secure private cloud computing framework facilitates interactive, computationally intensive exploration of this geographically distributed, privacy sensitive data. As a proof of concept, MRI brain imaging data hosted at two remote sites were processed in response to a user command at a third site. The system was able to automatically start virtual machines, run a selected processing pipeline and write results to a user accessible database, while keeping data locally stored in the hospitals. Individual tasks took approximately 50% longer compared to a locally hosted blade server but the cloud infrastructure reduced the total elapsed time by a factor of 40 using 70 virtual machines in the cloud. We demonstrated that the combination light-path and private cloud is a viable means of building an analysis infrastructure for secure data analysis. The system requires further work in the areas of error handling, load balancing and secure support of multiple users.

  15. Hierarchy of Dysfunction Related to Dressing Performance in Stroke Patients: A Path Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Takaaki; Nagayama, Hirofumi; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamane, Kazuhiro; Otsuki, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Tozato, Fusae

    2016-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that various dysfunctions caused by stroke affect the level of independence in dressing. These dysfunctions can be hierarchical, and these effects on dressing performance can be complicated in stroke patients. However, there are no published reports focusing on the hierarchical structure of the relationships between the activities of daily living and balance function, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, strength of the abdominal muscles and knee extension on the unaffected side, and visuospatial deficits. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the hierarchical and causal relationships between dressing performance and these dysfunctions in stroke patients. This retrospective study included 104 first-time stroke patients. The causal relationship between the dressing performance and age, time post stroke, balance function, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, strength of the abdominal muscles and knee extension on the unaffected side, and visuospatial deficits were examined using path analysis. A hypothetical path model was created based on previous studies, and the goodness of fit between the data and model were verified. A modified path model was created that achieved an almost perfect fit to the data. Balance function and abdominal muscle strength have direct effects on dressing performance, with standardized direct effect estimates of 0.78 and 0.15, respectively. Age, motor and sensory functions of the affected lower limb, and strength of abdominal muscle and knee extension on the unaffected side have indirect effects on dressing by influencing balance function. Our results suggest that dressing performance depends strongly on balance function, and it is mainly influenced by the motor function of the affected lower limb. PMID:26954499

  16. Understanding hydrological flow paths in conceptual catchment models using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mockler, Eva M.; O'Loughlin, Fiachra E.; Bruen, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Increasing pressures on water quality due to intensification of agriculture have raised demands for environmental modeling to accurately simulate the movement of diffuse (nonpoint) nutrients in catchments. As hydrological flows drive the movement and attenuation of nutrients, individual hydrological processes in models should be adequately represented for water quality simulations to be meaningful. In particular, the relative contribution of groundwater and surface runoff to rivers is of interest, as increasing nitrate concentrations are linked to higher groundwater discharges. These requirements for hydrological modeling of groundwater contribution to rivers initiated this assessment of internal flow path partitioning in conceptual hydrological models. In this study, a variance based sensitivity analysis method was used to investigate parameter sensitivities and flow partitioning of three conceptual hydrological models simulating 31 Irish catchments. We compared two established conceptual hydrological models (NAM and SMARG) and a new model (SMART), produced especially for water quality modeling. In addition to the criteria that assess streamflow simulations, a ratio of average groundwater contribution to total streamflow was calculated for all simulations over the 16 year study period. As observations time-series of groundwater contributions to streamflow are not available at catchment scale, the groundwater ratios were evaluated against average annual indices of base flow and deep groundwater flow for each catchment. The exploration of sensitivities of internal flow path partitioning was a specific focus to assist in evaluating model performances. Results highlight that model structure has a strong impact on simulated groundwater flow paths. Sensitivity to the internal pathways in the models are not reflected in the performance criteria results. This demonstrates that simulated groundwater contribution should be constrained by independent data to ensure results

  17. Gaussian white noise analysis and its application to Feynman path integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryawan, Herry Pribawanto

    2016-02-01

    In applied science, Gaussian white noise (the time derivative of Brownian motion) is often chosen as a mathematical idealization of phenomena involving sudden and extremely large fluctuations. It is also possible to define and study Gaussian white noise in a mathematically rigorous framework. In this survey paper we review the Gaussian white noise as an object in an infinite dimensional topological vector space. A brief construction of Gaussian white noise space and Gaussian white noise distributions will be presented. Gaussian white noise analysis provides a framework which offers various generalization of concept known from finite dimensional analysis to the infinite dimensional case, among them are differential operators, Fourier transform, and distribution theory. We will also present some recent developments and results on the application of Gaussian white noise theory to Feynman's path integral approach for quantum mechanics.

  18. Effectiveness of thigh-to-thigh current path for the measurement of abdominal fat in bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Hwan; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-12-01

    We present a new method measuring body impedance using a thigh-to-thigh current path, which can reflect the abdominal fat portion more sensitively and can be conveniently applied during the daily use on a toilet seat. Two pairs of electrodes were installed on a toilet seat to provide current and to permit voltage measurement through a thigh-to-thigh current path. The effectiveness of the method was compared with conventional foot-to-foot and hand-to-foot current paths by simulation and by experiments referenced to computed tomography (CT) image analysis. Body impedance using three different current paths was measured, and abdominal CT images were acquired for eight subjects. Measured body impedances were compared with the visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (VF/SF) calculated from the CT-determined abdominal fat volume. The thigh-to-thigh current path was about 75% more sensitive in abdominal fat measurement than the conventional current paths in simulation experiments and displayed a higher VF/SF correlation (r = 0.768) than the foot-to-foot (r = 0.425) and hand-to-foot (r = 0.497) current paths.

  19. Social Psychological Factors and Suicidal Intent Among Suicide Attempters in Rural China: A Path Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Yu; Chu, Jie; Sun, Shi-Hua; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Xiao-Lei; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the effects of social psychological factors on suicidal intent among suicide attempters in rural China. Suicide attempters were identified by the county-level Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) and interviewed by the research team. A path analysis was conducted with physical illness, social support, and negative life events as exogenous variables, and life satisfaction, depressive emotions, and suicidal intent as endogenous variables. Beginning with a saturation model, a best model was obtained after removing the paths that were not significant. In the final model, depressive emotions and life satisfaction were directly associated with suicidal intent, and the standardized effect estimates were 0.3007 (p < 0.001) and -0.1182 (p = 0.0368). Physical illness, social support, and negative life events did not directly affect suicidal intent but had indirect effect. Depressive emotions may be the most important and direct predictor of suicidal intent; physical illness, negative life events, and social support affect suicidal intent through life satisfaction and depressive emotions.

  20. Higher-order aggregate networks in the analysis of temporal networks: path structures and centralities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtes, Ingo; Wider, Nicolas; Garas, Antonios

    2016-03-01

    Despite recent advances in the study of temporal networks, the analysis of time-stamped network data is still a fundamental challenge. In particular, recent studies have shown that correlations in the ordering of links crucially alter causal topologies of temporal networks, thus invalidating analyses based on static, time-aggregated representations of time-stamped data. These findings not only highlight an important dimension of complexity in temporal networks, but also call for new network-analytic methods suitable to analyze complex systems with time-varying topologies. Addressing this open challenge, here we introduce a novel framework for the study of path-based centralities in temporal networks. Studying betweenness, closeness and reach centrality, we first show than an application of these measures to time-aggregated, static representations of temporal networks yields misleading results about the actual importance of nodes. To overcome this problem, we define path-based centralities in higher-order aggregate networks, a recently proposed generalization of the commonly used static representation of time-stamped data. Using data on six empirical temporal networks, we show that the resulting higher-order measures better capture the true, temporal centralities of nodes. Our results demonstrate that higher-order aggregate networks constitute a powerful abstraction, with broad perspectives for the design of new, computationally efficient data mining techniques for time-stamped relational data.

  1. The SSME HPFTP interstage seals: Analysis and experiments for leakage and reaction-force coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    An improved theory for the prediction of the rotordynamic coefficients of turbulent annular seals was developed. Predictions from the theory are compared to the experimental results and an approach for the direct calculation of empirical turbulent coefficients from test data are introduced. An improved short seal solution is shown to do a better job of calculating effective stiffness and damping coefficients than either the original short seal solution or a finite length solution. However, the original short seal solution does a much better job of predicting equivalent added mass coefficient.

  2. Comparative analysis of animal growth: a primate continuum revealed by a new dimensionless growth rate coefficient.

    PubMed

    Vinicius, Lucio; Mumby, Hannah S

    2013-05-01

    The comparative analysis of animal growth still awaits full integration into life-history studies, partially due to the difficulty of defining a comparable measure of growth rate across species. Using growth data from 50 primate species, we introduce a modified "general growth model" and a dimensionless growth rate coefficient β that controls for size scaling and phylogenetic effects in the distribution of growth rates. Our results contradict the prevailing idea that slow growth characterizes primates as a group: the observed range of β values shows that not all primates grow slowly, with galago species exhibiting growth rates similar or above the mammalian average, while other strepsirrhines and most New World monkeys show limited reduction in growth rates. Low growth rate characterizes apes and some papionines. Phylogenetic regressions reveal associations between β and life-history variables, providing tests for theories of primate growth evolution. We also show that primate slow growth is an exclusively postnatal phenomenon. Our study exemplifies how the dimensionless approach promotes the integration of growth rate data into comparative life-history analysis, and demonstrates its potential applicability to other cases of adaptive diversification of animal growth patterns.

  3. A Comparison of Nonmetric Temporal Path Analysis with Linear Models Approach Using Actual and Hypothetical French Placement Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk, HingKwan; Jacobs, Lucy C.

    Two studies that compare the use of analysis of patterns in time (APT) (formerly non-metric temporal path analysis) and the linear models approach (LMA) are reported. In the first study, scores on the College Entrance Examination Board French Achievement Test (CEEBFAT), number of years of study of high school French (YHSF), and course achievement…

  4. Examining the Probability of Identification for Gifted Programs for Students in Georgia Elementary Schools: A Multilevel Path Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBee, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the analysis of a large-scale data set (N = 326,352) collected by the Georgia Department of Education using multilevel path analysis to model the probability that a student would be identified for participation in a gifted program. The model examined individual- and school-level factors that influence the probability that an…

  5. Visualization and analysis of occlusion for human jaws using a "functionally generated path"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myszkowski, Karol; Herder, Jens; Kunii, Tosiyasu L.; Ibusuki, Masumi

    1996-03-01

    Dynamic characteristics of occlusion during lower jaw motion are useful in the diagnosis of jaw articulation problems and in computer-aided design/ manufacture of teeth restorations. The Functionally Generated Path (FGP), produced as a surface which envelops the actual occlusal surface of the moving opponent jaw, can be used for compact representation of dynamic occlusal relations. In traditional dentistry FGP is recorded as a bite impression in a patient's mouth. We propose an efficient computerized technique for FGP reconstruction and validate it through implementation and testing. The distance maps between occlusal surfaces of jaws, calculated for multiple projection directions and accumulated for mandibular motion, provide information for FGP computation. Rasterizing graphics hardware is used for fast calculation of the distance maps. Real-world data are used: the scanned shape of teeth and the measured motion of the lower jaw. We show applications of FGP to analysis of the occlusion relations and occlusal surface design for restorations.

  6. Neighborhoods, Social Support, and African American Adolescents’ Mental Health Outcomes: A Multilevel Path Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Noelle M; Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents’ internalizing symptoms via adolescents’ social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; M age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and indirect effects of neighborhood characteristics on adolescents’ mental health outcomes was conducted. Higher neighborhood poverty and unemployment rates predicted greater internalizing symptoms via lower cumulative social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. In contrast, higher concentrations of African American and residentially stable residents in one’s neighborhood related to fewer internalizing symptoms among adolescent residents via greater cumulative social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23199188

  7. A stochastic analysis of terrain evaluation variables for path selection. [roving vehicle navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, J. G.; Shen, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    A stochastic analysis was performed on the variables associated with the characteristics of the terrain encountered by a roving system with an autonomous navigation system. A laser rangefinder is employed to detect terrain features at ranges up to 75 m. Analytic expressions and a numerical scheme were developed to calculate the variance of data on these four variables: (1) body clearance, (2) in-path slope, (3) tilt slope, and (4) wheel deviation. The variance is due to noise in the range data. It was found that the standard deviation of these terrain variables is large enough to warrant the use of a safety margin to aid the roving vehicle in avoiding high risk areas.

  8. Class start times, sleep, and academic performance in college: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Onyper, Serge V; Thacher, Pamela V; Gilbert, Jack W; Gradess, Samuel G

    2012-04-01

    Path analysis was used to examine the relationship between class start times, sleep, circadian preference, and academic performance in college-aged adults. Consistent with observations in middle and high school students, college students with later class start times slept longer, experienced less daytime sleepiness, and were less likely to miss class. Chronotype was an important moderator of sleep schedules and daytime functioning; those with morning preference went to bed and woke up earlier and functioned better throughout the day. The benefits of taking later classes did not extend to academic performance, however; grades were somewhat lower in students with predominantly late class schedules. Furthermore, students taking later classes were at greater risk for increased alcohol consumption, and among all the factors affecting academic performance, alcohol misuse exerted the strongest effect. Thus, these results indicate that later class start times in college, while allowing for more sleep, also increase the likelihood of alcohol misuse, ultimately impeding academic success.

  9. Statistical analysis of the NIPR (Japan) Antarctic chondrites - Paths of thermal evolution of parent bodies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukacs, B.; Berczi, Sz.

    1997-03-01

    On the basis of the new Catalog of Antarctic Meteorites (Yanai, Kojima, Haramura, 1995) we carried out statistical analysis on the bulk composition of chondrites (of the 2987 classified chondrites on 403 samples). From averages of van Schmus-Wood petrologic classes (vSW-pc), we have projected paths of thermal evolution of chondritic parent bodies of E, H, L and LL types. Transformations in the ferrous compounds were projected to the vSW-table, then their changes between the vSW-pc stages were projected to the compositional field of the Fe + FeS vs Fe-oxides diagram. There the sequence of vSW-pc averages (representing higher and higher heat-impact with increasing vSW-pc numbers) formed an oxidation and reduction series from the initial reduction (for all types) through reoxidation (for H, L, LL types) until final outflow of iron (for L and LL types).

  10. A path analysis of reading comprehension for adults with low literacy.

    PubMed

    Mellard, Daryl F; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari L

    2010-01-01

    Adult literacy interventions often rely on models of reading validated with children or adult populations with a broad range of reading abilities. Such models do not fully satisfy the need for intervention research and development for adults with low literacy. Thus, the authors hypothesized that a model representing the relationship between reading component skills would be predictive of reading comprehension for an adult population with low literacy and beneficial to adult literacy researchers. Using data from 174 adults participating in adult basic education and secondary education programs, the authors performed a path analysis of component skills' contribution to reading comprehension. The findings are clear that existing reading models do not describe this population. The implications are discussed in terms of instructional and curricular interventions.

  11. Intimate partner violence in the eastern part of Iran: a path analysis of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam Hosseini, Vahideh; Asadi, Zahra Sadat; Akaberi, Arash; Hashemian, Masoumeh

    2013-08-01

    Intimate partner violence against women is a widespread phenomenon that is the cause of many deleterious health and social consequences. This study examines the impact of some risk factors on partner violence in the eastern region of Iran, using path analysis. The study used a population-based cross sectional study design. In this study, 251 married women who were referred to the health centers were selected through a proportionally stratified and randomized sampling method. Domestic violence was measured using Conflict Tactics Scale and the socio-demographic variable was assessed by a self-report questionnaire. Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling was used for evaluating the overall path analysis and the direct and indirect p-value was estimated by Bootstrap method. AMOS and SPSS software were used to analyze data. The prevalence of overall violence was 78.1%, with 37.8% and 0.8% of women reporting minor and severe violence, respectively, and 39.8% reporting both severe and minor forms of violence. Psychological violence was the most common type of violence reported (66.5%). The model showed that husbands' drug abuse and women's higher level of education compared to their husbands were the first and second most important factors that significantly and directly influenced the violence. The women's attitude, however, had the least effect on the violence. The findings indicated that higher educated women and women with addicted husbands were more likely to experience violence. Treating the drug abuse disorders, especially mental disorders, using behavioral couple's therapy, as well as modifying certain traditional and cultural biases against women's empowerment are suggested.

  12. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literary Analysis and Systems Engineering Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, James; Conley, Catharine; Siegel, Bette

    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literary analysis of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current ‘state of knowledge’. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection. Keywords: planetary protection, human spaceflight requirements, human space exploration, human space operations, systems engineering, literature analysis

  13. Metabolic control analysis using transient metabolite concentrations. Determination of metabolite concentration control coefficients.

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, J; Liao, J C

    1992-01-01

    The methodology previously developed for determining the Flux Control Coefficients [Delgado & Liao (1992) Biochem. J. 282, 919-927] is extended to the calculation of metabolite Concentration Control Coefficients. It is shown that the transient metabolite concentrations are related by a few algebraic equations, attributed to mass balance, stoichiometric constraints, quasi-equilibrium or quasi-steady states, and kinetic regulations. The coefficients in these relations can be estimated using linear regression, and can be used to calculate the Control Coefficients. The theoretical basis and two examples are discussed. Although the methodology is derived based on the linear approximation of enzyme kinetics, it yields reasonably good estimates of the Control Coefficients for systems with non-linear kinetics. PMID:1497632

  14. Pulled Motzkin paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janse van Rensburg, E. J.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper the models of pulled Dyck paths in Janse van Rensburg (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 215001) are generalized to pulled Motzkin path models. The generating functions of pulled Motzkin paths are determined in terms of series over trinomial coefficients and the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its endpoint (see Orlandini and Whittington (2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 5305-14)) is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the endpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh f))/(2sinh f) → f as f → ∞, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. In addition, the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its midpoint is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the midpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh (f/2))/sinh (f/2) → 2f as f → ∞, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. Formal combinatorial identities arising from pulled Motzkin path models are also presented. These identities are the generalization of combinatorial identities obtained in directed paths models to their natural trinomial counterparts.

  15. WFC3/UVIS External CTE Monitor: 2016 Updates on Coefficients and Analysis Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosmeyer, C. M.; Baggett, S.

    2017-03-01

    The evolution of the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) of Hubble’s WFC3/UVIS detector has been monitored since 2009, using observations of star clusters NGC 104 and NGC 6791. We present here results from an updated analysis pipeline with an improved cross-identification of sources and a new capability to study CTE loss mitigation by use of flash levels 6 - 116 e-/pix. We measure flux loss due to CTE degradation as a function of source brightness, observation date, background level, and vertical distance from the readout amplifier with a 2nd degree polynomial, whose coefficients are provided to allow observers to estimate flux corrections for their point-source photometry. Current flux losses for images with the recommended minimum 12 e-/pix background are 5 - 15%, depending on source brightness. These losses are further reduced via use of the CTE-corrected images now available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes. Within its overall growth, there appears to be a flattening in the CTE degradation rate that may be correlated with the Solar cycle maximum. The data reported here span from October 2009 to August 2016 and were calibrated with calwf3 v3.3.

  16. Cross method for analysis of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and aggregation coefficient in medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaikina, Irene V.; Furmanchuk, Dmitryi A.

    1998-06-01

    Method of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement is non-specific one. The ESR are tightly correlated to increase or decrease of aggregation coefficient (N). The variations of N could happen due to two main reasons: either changes in concentration of plasma proteins (first of all of fibrinogen) or changes of erythrocyte membrane characteristics (surface charge, transmembrane potential). The cross-method of ESR analysis has been proposed, using blood samples from patient and healthy donor of the same ABO blood groups and Rh-factors. The hematocrit (Ho)-ESR dependencies were measured in four variants: (1) patient's erythrocytes in patient's plasma; (2) patient's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (3) donor's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (4) donor's erythrocytes in patient's plasma. On presenting the ESR data for more than 100 patients with different bone marrow disorders after chemotherapy in the coordinates Ho-ESR three conventional zones could be marked out: high-ESR zone, medium zone and zone of low level of Ho. Proposed cross-method allows to estimate which of the two aforementioned reasons results in ESR variation. Some patients revealed not only changed fibrinogen level but additional changes in membrane affinity to fibrinogen. The modificated ESR cross-method opens us some new capacities in medical diagnostics.

  17. Path Finder

    SciTech Connect

    Rigdon, J. Brian; Smith, Marcus Daniel; Mulder, Samuel A

    2014-01-07

    PathFinder is a graph search program, traversing a directed cyclic graph to find pathways between labeled nodes. Searches for paths through ordered sequences of labels are termed signatures. Determining the presence of signatures within one or more graphs is the primary function of Path Finder. Path Finder can work in either batch mode or interactively with an analyst. Results are limited to Path Finder whether or not a given signature is present in the graph(s).

  18. [Optical Path Difference Analysis and Simulation of Four Typical Rotary Type Interferometer].

    PubMed

    Feng, Ming-chun; Liu, Wen-qing; Xu, Liang; Gao, Min-guang; Wei, Xiu-li; Tong, Jing-jing; Li, Xiang-xian

    2015-11-01

    The four kinds of the structure characteristics of rotary type interferometer are mainly analyzed from the classical Michelson interferometer structure in the paper. The Optical path difference between the interferometer and the rotation angle is also analyzed. By setting parameters, the four kinds of rotary type optical path difference of the interferometer are simulated based on the optical path difference formula. The rotation velcocity of the four kinds of interferometers is also simulated. By simulation and contrast of the optical path difference, the relationship is intuitively reflect by figure between the optical path difference and the rotation angle. The scope of the rotation angle is discussed within 3% of the velocity errors. It is the very good reference significance to study the structure and properties of the interferometer by analyzing and simulating the optical path difference discussed in the paper.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Control Coefficients on the Performance of CNTFET Under Different Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imam, Safayat-Al; Kalam, Nasheen; Abdullah, Sharmin

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with the performance of both gate and drain control coefficients to analyze the behavior of carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) under ballistic conditions and based on the change of different parameter value, such as oxide thickness of structure and temperature variation. A thorough study of both gate and drain control coefficient effects on the performance of CNTFETs has been conducted under different temperature and oxide layers and the output of the device has been analyzed through different parameters. Higher values of control coefficient help to attain larger transconductance by the increasing temperatures. For a fixed value of control coefficient, 4nm thickness of oxide has a transconductance of ˜ 4.5 × 10-5 S/m. Smaller oxide layer thickness has higher slope of increment in transconductance value. ON-state current to leakage current ratio shows a steady state response toward increment of gate control coefficient. Also, increment of oxide thickness has an adverse effect on current ratio, while a linear decay of current ratio is observed with the increased value of drain controlled one. Drain-induced battery lowering (DIBL) effect decreases with the value of gate control one and increases with the drain control coefficient. In this way, the optimum value for both the control coefficients has to be considered in order to perform well.

  20. The NASA Langley laminar-flow-control experiment on a swept, supercritical airfoil: Suction coefficient analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.; Harris, Charles D.; Harvey, William D.

    1991-01-01

    A swept supercritical wing incorporating laminar flow control at transonic flow conditions was designed and tested. The definition of an experimental suction coefficient and a derivation of the compressible and incompressible formulas for the computation of the coefficient from measurable quantities is presented. The suction flow coefficient in the highest velocity nozzles is shown to be overpredicted by as much as 12 percent through the use of an incompressible formula. However, the overprediction on the computed value of suction drag when some of the suction nozzles were operating in the compressible flow regime is evaluated and found to be at most 6 percent at design conditions.

  1. Ray propagation path analysis of acousto-ultrasonic signals in composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1987-01-01

    The most important result was the demonstration that acousto-ultrasonic (AU) energy introduced into a laminated graphite/resin propagates by two modes through the structure. The first mode, along the graphite fibers, is the faster. The second mode, through the resin matrix, besides being slower is also more strongly attenuated at the higher frequencies. This demonstration was accomplished by analyzing the time and frequency domain of the composite AU signal and comparing them to the same for a neat resin specimen of the same chemistry and geometry as the composite matrix. Analysis of the fine structure of AU spectra was accomplished by various geometrical strategies. It was shown that the multitude of narrow peaks associated with AU spectra are the effect of the many pulse arrivals in the signal. The shape and distribution of the peaks is mainly determined by the condition of nonnormal reflections of ray paths. A cepstrum analysis was employed which can be useful in detecting characteristic times. Analysis of propagation modes can be accomplished while ignoring the fine structure.

  2. Worry, worry attacks, and PTSD among Cambodian refugees: a path analysis investigation.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2011-06-01

    Among traumatized Cambodian refugees, this article investigates worry (e.g., the types of current life concerns) and how worry worsens posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To explore how worry worsens PTSD, we examine a path model of worry to see whether certain key variables (e.g., worry-induced somatic arousal and worry-induced trauma recall) mediate the relationship between worry and PTSD. Survey data were collected from March 2010 until May 2010 in a convenience sample of 201 adult Cambodian refugees attending a psychiatric clinic in Massachusetts, USA. We found that worry was common in this group (65%), that worry was often about current life concerns (e.g., lacking financial resources, children not attending school, health concerns, concerns about relatives in Cambodia), and that worry often induced panic attacks: in the entire sample, 41% (83/201) of the patients had "worry attacks" (i.e., worry episodes that resulted in a panic episode) in the last month. "Worry attacks" were highly associated with PTSD presence. In the entire sample, generalized anxiety disorder was also very prevalent, and was also highly associated with PTSD. Path analysis revealed that the effect of worry on PTSD severity was mediated by worry-induced somatic arousal, worry-induced catastrophic cognitions, worry-induced trauma recall, inability to stop worry, and irritability. The final model accounted for 75% of the variance in PTSD severity among patients with worry. The public health and treatment implications of the study's findings that worry may have a potent impact on PTSD severity in severely traumatized populations are discussed: worry and daily concerns are key areas of intervention for these worry-hypersensitive (and hence daily-stressor-hypersensitive) populations.

  3. Worry, Worry Attacks, and PTSD among Cambodian Refugees: A Path Analysis Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Devon E.; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Among traumatized Cambodian refugees, this article investigates worry (e.g., the types of current life concerns) and how worry worsens posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To explore how worry worsens PTSD, we examine a path model of worry to see whether certain key variables (e.g., worry-induced somatic arousal and worry-induced trauma recall) mediate the relationship between worry and PTSD. Survey data were collected from March 2010 until May 2010 in a convenience sample of 201 adult Cambodian refugees attending a psychiatric clinic in Massachusetts, USA. We found that worry was common in this group (65%), that worry was often about current life concerns (e.g., lacking financial resources, children not attending school, health concerns, concerns about relatives in Cambodia), and that worry often induced panic attacks: in the entire sample, 41% (83/201) of the patients had “worry attacks” (i.e., worry episodes that resulted in a panic episode) in the last month. “Worry attacks” were highly associated with PTSD presence. In the entire sample, generalized anxiety disorder was also very prevalent, and was also highly associated with PTSD. Path analysis revealed that the effect of worry on PTSD severity was mediated by worry-induced somatic arousal, worry-induced catastrophic cognitions, worry-induced trauma recall, inability to stop worry, and irritability. The final model accounted for 75% of the variance in PTSD severity among patients with worry. The public health and treatment implications of the study’s findings that worry may have a potent impact on PTSD severity in severely traumatized populations are discussed: worry and daily concerns are key areas of intervention for these worry-hypersensitive (and hence daily-stressor-hypersensitive) populations. PMID:21663803

  4. Country 'choices' or deforestation paths: a method for global change analysis of human-forest interactions.

    PubMed

    Koop, G; Tole, L

    2001-10-01

    Data used in quantitative studies of global tropical deforestation are typically of poor quality. These studies use either cross-sectional or panel data to measure the contribution of social and land use factors to forest decline world wide. However, there are pitfalls in the use of either type of data. Panel data studies treat each year's observation as a distinct, reliable, data point, when a careful examination of the data reveals this assumption to be implausible. In contrast, cross-sectional studies discard most of the time series information in the data, calculating a single average deforestation rate for each country. In this paper, we argue for a middle road between these two approaches: one that does not treat the time series information as completely reliable but does not disregard it altogether. Using a well-known global forest data set (FAO's Production Series Yearbooks), we argue that the most the data can reliably tell us is whether a country's deforestation rate falls into one of four categories or country 'path choices'. We then use the data categorised in this way in a small empirical investigation of the socio-economic causes of deforestation. This multinomial logit framework allows for the determination of the influence of independent variables on the probability that a country will follow one deforestation path vs. another. Results from the logit analysis of key social and land use indicators chosen for their importance in the literature in driving deforestation suggest that the effect of these variables will differ for countries depending on the particular set of deforestation trajectories in question.

  5. A Robust Multiple Correlation Coefficient for the Rank Analysis of Linear Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    A multiple correlation coefficient is discussed to measure the degree of association between a random variable Y and a set of random variables X sub...approach of analyzing linear models in a regression, prediction context. The population parameter equals the classical multiple correlation ... coefficient if the multivariate normal model holds but would be more robust for departures from this model. Some results are given on the consistency of the sample estimate and on a test for independence. (Author)

  6. Exploring Hydrological Flow Paths in Conceptual Catchment Models using Variance-based Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mockler, E. M.; O'Loughlin, F.; Bruen, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Conceptual rainfall runoff (CRR) models aim to capture the dominant hydrological processes in a catchment in order to predict the flows in a river. Most flood forecasting models focus on predicting total outflows from a catchment and often perform well without the correct distribution between individual pathways. However, modelling of water flow paths within a catchment, rather than its overall response, is specifically needed to investigate the physical and chemical transport of matter through the various elements of the hydrological cycle. Focus is increasingly turning to accurately quantifying the internal movement of water within these models to investigate if the simulated processes contributing to the total flows are realistic in the expectation of generating more robust models. Parameter regionalisation is required if such models are to be widely used, particularly in ungauged catchments. However, most regionalisation studies to date have typically consisted of calibrations and correlations of parameters with catchment characteristics, or some variations of this. In order for a priori parameter estimation in this manner to be possible, a model must be parametrically parsimonious while still capturing the dominant processes of the catchment. The presence of parameter interactions within most CRR model structures can make parameter prediction in ungauged basins very difficult, as the functional role of the parameter within the model may not be uniquely identifiable. We use a variance based sensitivity analysis method to investigate parameter sensitivities and interactions in the global parameter space of three CRR models, simulating a set of 30 Irish catchments within a variety of hydrological settings over a 16 year period. The exploration of sensitivities of internal flow path partitioning was a specific focus and correlations between catchment characteristics and parameter sensitivities were also investigated to assist in evaluating model performances

  7. Application of the Gini correlation coefficient to infer regulatory relationships in transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chuang; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2012-09-01

    One of the computational challenges in plant systems biology is to accurately infer transcriptional regulation relationships based on correlation analyses of gene expression patterns. Despite several correlation methods that are applied in biology to analyze microarray data, concerns regarding the compatibility of these methods with the gene expression data profiled by high-throughput RNA transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology have been raised. These concerns are mainly due to the fact that the distribution of read counts in RNA-Seq experiments is different from that of fluorescence intensities in microarray experiments. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of the existing correlation methods and, if necessary, introduction of novel methods into biology is appropriate. In this study, we compared four existing correlation methods used in microarray analysis and one novel method called the Gini correlation coefficient on previously published microarray-based and sequencing-based gene expression data in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). The comparisons were performed on more than 11,000 regulatory relationships in Arabidopsis, including 8,929 pairs of transcription factors and target genes. Our analyses pinpointed the strengths and weaknesses of each method and indicated that the Gini correlation can compensate for the shortcomings of the Pearson correlation, the Spearman correlation, the Kendall correlation, and the Tukey's biweight correlation. The Gini correlation method, with the other four evaluated methods in this study, was implemented as an R package named rsgcc that can be utilized as an alternative option for biologists to perform clustering analyses of gene expression patterns or transcriptional network analyses.

  8. Linear-fitting-based similarity coefficient map for tissue dissimilarity analysis in -w magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shao-De; Wu, Shi-Bin; Wang, Hao-Yu; Wei, Xin-Hua; Chen, Xin; Pan, Wan-Long; Hu, Jiani; Xie, Yao-Qin

    2015-12-01

    Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM) aims to improve the morphological evaluation of weighted magnetic resonance imaging However, how to interpret the generated SCM map is still pending. Moreover, is it probable to extract tissue dissimilarity messages based on the theory behind SCM? The primary purpose of this paper is to address these two questions. First, the theory of SCM was interpreted from the perspective of linear fitting. Then, a term was embedded for tissue dissimilarity information. Finally, our method was validated with sixteen human brain image series from multi-echo . Generated maps were investigated from signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and perceived visual quality, and then interpreted from intra- and inter-tissue intensity. Experimental results show that both perceptibility of anatomical structures and tissue contrast are improved. More importantly, tissue similarity or dissimilarity can be quantified and cross-validated from pixel intensity analysis. This method benefits image enhancement, tissue classification, malformation detection and morphological evaluation. Project supported in part by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015AA043203 and 2012AA02A604), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 81171402, 61471349, and 81501463), the Innovative Research Team Program of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2011S013), the Science and Technological Program for Higher Education, Science and Research, and Health Care Institutions of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2011108101001), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2014A030310360), the Fundamental Research Program of Shenzhen City, China (Grant No. JCYJ20140417113430639), and Beijing Center for Mathematics and Information Interdisciplinary Sciences, China.

  9. Connecting Cultural Models of Home-Based Care and Childminders' Career Paths: An Eco-Cultural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonyan, Holli A.; Nuttall, Joce

    2014-01-01

    Family day care or childminding involves a particularly transient workforce. This paper introduces Eco(logical)-Cultural Theory (ECT) to examine the cultural organisation of childminding and presents an ECT analysis of pilot survey results: asking minders about their daily routines and their career paths. Reasons for becoming a minder and…

  10. A Path Analysis of the Relationship among Critical Motivational Variables and Achievement in Reform-Oriented Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, James A.; Leavy, Aisling; Leader, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among critical motivational variables and mathematics achievement as middle grades students engaged in a reform-oriented curriculum, "Mathematics in Context." We tested 327 students in fifth, sixth, and seventh grade before and after two years of implementation. We performed a path analysis with…

  11. Uncertainties in Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides: An Uncertainty Analysis for Risk Coefficients Reported in Federal Guidance Report No. 13

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal Guidance Report No.13 (FGR 13) provides cancer risk coefficients for modes of environmental exposure to each of more than 800 radionuclides (EPA 1999), including inhalation of airborne activity and ingestion of activity in food or drinking water.

  12. Global convergence analysis of a new nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient with strong Wolfe line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrahman, Awad; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd; Omer, Osman

    2015-05-01

    Nonlinear conjugate gradient (CG) methods are the most important method for solving large-scale unconstrained optimization problems. Many studies and modifications have been conducted recently to improve this method. In this paper, a new class of conjugate gradient coefficients (βk ) with a new parameter m =‖gk ‖ /‖gk -1 ‖ that possess global convergence properties is presented. The global convergence and sufficient decent property result is established using inexact line searches to determine the (αk>0 ) is a step size of CG methods. Numerical result shows that the new formula is superior and more efficient when compared to other CG coefficients.

  13. Group analysis of Benjamin—Bona—Mahony equations with time dependent coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaneeva, Olena; Popovych, Roman O.; Sophocleous, Christodoulos

    2015-06-01

    Group classification of a class of Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (BBM) equations with time dependent coefficients is carried out. Two equivalent lists of equations possessing Lie symmetry extensions are presented: up to point equivalence within the class of BBM equations and without the simplification by equivalence transformations. It is shown that the complete results can be achieved using either the gauging of arbitrary elements of the class by the equivalence transformations or the method of mapping between classes. As by-product of the second approach the complete group classification of a class of variable-coefficient BBM equations with forcing term is derived.

  14. Using wave intensity analysis to determine local reflection coefficient in flexible tubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Parker, Kim H; Khir, Ashraf W

    2016-09-06

    It has been shown that reflected waves affect the shape and magnitude of the arterial pressure waveform, and that reflected waves have physiological and clinical prognostic values. In general the reflection coefficient is defined as the ratio of the energy of the reflected to the incident wave. Since pressure has the units of energy per unit volume, arterial reflection coefficient are traditionally defined as the ratio of reflected to the incident pressure. We demonstrate that this approach maybe prone to inaccuracies when applied locally. One of the main objectives of this work is to examine the possibility of using wave intensity, which has units of energy flux per unit area, to determine the reflection coefficient. We used an in vitro experimental setting with a single inlet tube joined to a second tube with different properties to form a single reflection site. The second tube was long enough to ensure that reflections from its outlet did not obscure the interactions of the initial wave. We generated an approximately half sinusoidal wave at the inlet of the tube and took measurements of pressure and flow along the tube. We calculated the reflection coefficient using wave intensity (RdI and RdI(0.5)) and wave energy (RI and RI(0.5)) as well as the measured pressure (RdP) and compared these results with the reflection coefficient calculated theoretically based on the mechanical properties of the tubes. The experimental results show that the reflection coefficients determined by all the techniques we studied increased or decreased with distance from the reflection site, depending on the type of reflection. In our experiments, RdP, RdI(0.5) and RI(0.5) are the most reliable parameters to measure the mean reflection coefficient, whilst RdI and RI provide the best measure of the local reflection coefficient, closest to the reflection site. Additional work with bifurcations, tapered tubes and in vivo experiments are needed to further understand, validate the method

  15. Vehicle wheel drag coefficient in relation to travelling velocity - CFD analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leśniewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.

    2016-10-01

    In order to understand the aerodynamic losses associated with a rotating automobile wheel, a detailed characteristics of the drag coefficient in relation to the applied velocity are necessary. Single drag coefficient value is most often reported for the commercially available vehicles, much less is revealed about the influence of particular car components on the energy consumption in various driving cycles. However, detailed flow potential losses determination is desired for performance estimation. To address these needs, the numerical investigation of an isolated wheel is proposed herein.

  16. Transfer path analysis: Current practice, trade-offs and consideration of damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktav, Akın; Yılmaz, Çetin; Anlaş, Günay

    2017-02-01

    Current practice of experimental transfer path analysis is discussed in the context of trade-offs between accuracy and time cost. An overview of methods, which propose solutions for structure borne noise, is given, where assumptions, drawbacks and advantages of methods are stated theoretically. Applicability of methods is also investigated, where an engine induced structure borne noise of an automobile is taken as a reference problem. Depending on this particular problem, sources of measurement errors, processing operations that affect results and physical obstacles faced in the application are analysed. While an operational measurement is common in all stated methods, when it comes to removal of source, or the need for an external excitation, discrepancies are present. Depending on the chosen method, promised outcomes like independent characterisation of the source, or getting information about mounts also differ. Although many aspects of the problem are reported in the literature, damping and its effects are not considered. Damping effect is embedded in the measured complex frequency response functions, and it is needed to be analysed in the post processing step. Effects of damping, reasons and methods to analyse them are discussed in detail. In this regard, a new procedure, which increases the accuracy of results, is also proposed.

  17. Path-following analysis of the dynamical response of a piecewise-linear capsule system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páez Chávez, Joseph; Liu, Yang; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina; Wiercigroch, Marian

    2016-08-01

    The dynamical response of a piecewise-linear capsule system is studied by means of path-following techniques in this paper. As the capsule model belongs to the class of piecewise-smooth dynamical systems involving impact and friction, a special care is taken in order to divide the trajectory of the system into a smooth vector field in each disjoint subregion. Specifically we study a two-sided drifting system focusing on directional control and energy consumption. We aim to address two practical problems which are maximizing the rate of progression and directional control of the system by following a typical period-1 trajectory. The one-parameter analysis shows that two types of bifurcations, grazing bifurcation and boundary-intersection crossing bifurcation are found, and the maximal rate of progression is achieved when the capsule performs the oscillations without sticking phases. In our two-parameter study, the control parameters for which the rate of progression is maximal are identified using fixed value of power consumption, and the curves which divide the motion of the capsule between forward and backward progression are obtained.

  18. A path analysis model of factors influencing children's requests for unhealthy foods.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Miller, Caroline; Chapman, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the complex combination of factors influencing the extent to which children request unhealthy foods from their parents. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive model of influencing factors to provide insight into potential methods of reducing these requests. A web panel provider was used to administer a national online survey to a sample of 1302 Australian parent-child dyads (total sample n=2604). Initial univariate analyses identified potential predictors of children's requests for and consumption of unhealthy foods. The identified variables were subsequently incorporated into a path analysis model that included both parents' and children's reports of children's requests for unhealthy foods. The resulting model accounted for a substantial 31% of the variance in parent-reported food request frequency and 27% of the variance in child-reported request frequency. The variable demonstrating the strongest direct association with both parents' and children's reports of request frequency was the frequency of children's current intake of unhealthy foods. Parents' and children's exposure to food advertising and television viewing time were also positively associated with children's unhealthy food requests. The results highlight the need to break the habitual provision of unhealthy foods to avoid a vicious cycle of requests resulting in consumption.

  19. A multilevel path analysis of contact frequency between social network members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Pauline; Arentze, Theo; Timmermans, Harry

    2012-04-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the role of social networks in spatial-choice and travel behavior. It has been acknowledged that social activities and the travel for these activities can emerge from individuals' social networks and that social activities are responsible for an important portion of travel demand. The influence of information and communication technologies (ICT's) is also important in this respect. The purpose of the paper is to examine the effects of characteristics of egos and ego-alter relationships on the frequency of social interaction by different communication modes, using multilevel path analysis. The analyses are based on social network data collected in 2008 in the Eindhoven region in the Netherlands among 116 respondents. The results indicate a complementary relationship between contact frequencies by different modes. The contact frequencies of the different modes, especially face-to-face and telephone, can also be largely explained by the ego's personal characteristics and the type of relationship and the distance between ego and alter.

  20. General framework for transfer path analysis: History, theory and classification of techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Seijs, Maarten V.; de Klerk, Dennis; Rixen, Daniel J.

    2016-02-01

    Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) designates the family of test-based methodologies to study the transmission of mechanical vibrations. Since the first adaptation of electric network analogies in the field of mechanical engineering a century ago, a multitude of TPA methods have emerged and found their way into industrial development processes. Nowadays the TPA paradigm is largely commercialised into out-of-the-box testing products, making it difficult to articulate the differences and underlying concepts that are paramount to understanding the vibration transmission problem. The aim of this paper is to derive and review a wide repertoire of TPA techniques from their conceptual basics, liberating them from their typical field of application. A selection of historical references is provided to align methodological developments with particular milestones in science. Eleven variants of TPA are derived from a unified framework and classified into three categories, namely classical, component-based and transmissibility-based TPA. Current challenges and practical aspects are discussed and reference is made to related fields of research.

  1. The Longitudinal Process of Early Parent Involvement on Student Achievement: A Path Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Momoko; Englund, Michelle M; Warner-Richter, Mallory N; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the process whereby early parent involvement in preschool effects student achievement from kindergarten through 6(th) grade. Participants were 1,539 low-income, mainly African American children and their mothers, in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Program children (N = 989) received one or two years of the Child-Parent Center (CPC) program - a preschool intervention that strongly promoted parents' development of parent involvement skills within the school and at home. Children from similar backgrounds who did not attend the CPC, but participated in available local resources (e.g. day care), were obtained as a comparison group (N = 550). Path analysis revealed an interactive process between parent involvement, academic achievement, and children's motivation. Early parent involvement directly influenced kindergarten achievement, which in turn influenced first grade student motivation. Highly motivated children then encouraged parents to continue involvement. The cyclic nature of this process across elementary school was observed. The model accounted for 61% of the variance in 6(th) grade achievement. Findings suggest that early parent involvement promoted in the CPC program, sets the stage for subsequent parent involvement, student motivation, and academic achievement throughout early and middle childhood.

  2. Measurement and analysis of the mannitol partition coefficient in sucrose crystallization under simulated industrial conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol is a major deterioration product of Leuconstoc mesenteroides bacterial deterioration of both sugarcane and sugar beet. The effect of crystallization conditions on the mannitol partition coefficient (Keff) between impure sucrose syrup and crystal has been investigated in a batch laboratory c...

  3. Measurement and analysis of the dextran partition coefficient in sucrose crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promraksa, Arwut; Flood, Adrian E.; Schneider, Philip A.

    2009-07-01

    The effect of crystallization conditions on the dextran partition coefficient between impure syrup and sugar crystal has been investigated in a batch crystallizer. The crystallizer is operated isothermally at temperatures of 30, 40, and 50 °C, at constant relative supersaturations of 0.05, 0.07, and 0.09, and with mother liquor dextran concentrations of 1000 and 2000 ppm/Brix. The dextran content has been determined by the CSR method. A 1:1 mass ratio of high-fraction dextran (approximately 250,000 Da) and low-fraction dextran (60,000-90,000 Da) is used to represent a wide range of dextran contamination. It is seen that the dextran partition coefficient in sucrose crystallization increases with both increasing supersaturation and increasing crystallization temperature. However it appears that these are secondary effects, with the partition coefficient strongly correlating with crystal growth rate alone, despite the regressed data having large variations in temperature, mother liquor dextran content, and supersaturation. Dextran incorporation into the sugar crystal results from both dextran adsorption onto the crystal surface and mother liquor inclusions. The explanation for the variation in the dextran content in sugar crystal with respect to the growth rate is due to increased adsorption due to the higher surface roughness of crystals grown at high growth rates. Although the dextran concentration in the solution affects the dextran content in the crystal, it does not strongly affect the dextran partition coefficient.

  4. Broadening of polymer chromatographic signals: Analysis, quantification and correction through effective diffusion coefficients.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Inmaculada; Coto, Baudilio

    2015-08-14

    Average molecular weights and polydispersity indexes are some of the most important parameters considered in the polymer characterization. Usually, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and multi angle light scattering (MALS) are used for this determination, but GPC values are overestimated due to the dispersion introduced by the column separation. Several procedures were proposed to correct such effect usually involving more complex calibration processes. In this work, a new method of calculation has been considered including diffusion effects. An equation for the concentration profile due to diffusion effects along the GPC column was considered to be a Fickian function and polystyrene narrow standards were used to determine effective diffusion coefficients. The molecular weight distribution function of mono and poly disperse polymers was interpreted as a sum of several Fickian functions representing a sample formed by only few kind of polymer chains with specific molecular weight and diffusion coefficient. Proposed model accurately fit the concentration profile along the whole elution time range as checked by the computed standard deviation. Molecular weights obtained by this new method are similar to those obtained by MALS or traditional GPC while polydispersity index values are intermediate between those obtained by the traditional GPC combined to Universal Calibration method and the MALS method. Values for Pearson and Lin coefficients shows improvement in the correlation of polydispersity index values determined by GPC and MALS methods when diffusion coefficients and new methods are used.

  5. Analysis of oscillatory motion of a light airplane at high values of lift coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    A modified stepwise regression is applied to flight data from a light research air-plane operating at high angles at attack. The well-known phenomenon referred to as buckling or porpoising is analyzed and modeled using both power series and spline expansions of the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients associated with the longitudinal equations of motion.

  6. Bootsie: estimation of coefficient of variation of AFLP data by bootstrap analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bootsie is an English-native replacement for ASG Coelho’s “DBOOT” utility for estimating coefficient of variation of a population of AFLP marker data using bootstrapping. Bootsie improves on DBOOT by supporting batch processing, time-to-completion estimation, built-in graphs, and a suite of export t...

  7. Statistical Analysis for Multisite Trials Using Instrumental Variables with Random Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Reardon, Sean F.; Nomi, Takako

    2012-01-01

    Multisite trials can clarify the average impact of a new program and the heterogeneity of impacts across sites. Unfortunately, in many applications, compliance with treatment assignment is imperfect. For these applications, we propose an instrumental variable (IV) model with person-specific and site-specific random coefficients. Site-specific IV…

  8. Stress optical path difference analysis of off-axis lens ray trace footprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ming-Ying; Chan, Chia-Yen; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Wu, Kun-Huan; Chen, Chih-Wen; Chan, Shenq-Tsong; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical and thermal stress on lens will cause the glass refractive index different, the refractive index of light parallel and light perpendicular to the direction of stress. The refraction index changes will introduce Optical Path Difference (OPD). This study is applying Finite Element Method (FEM) and optical ray tracing; calculate off axis ray stress OPD. The optical system stress distribution result is calculated from finite element simulation, and the stress coordinate need to rotate to optical path direction. Meanwhile, weighting stress to each optical ray path and sum the ray path OPD. The Z-direction stress OPD can be fitted by Zernike polynomial, the separated to sag difference, and rigid body motion. The fitting results can be used to evaluate the stress effect on optical component.

  9. PathNet: A Tool for Pathway Analysis Using Topological Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-24

    relations among pathways. In this study, we used PathNet to identify biologically relevant results in two Alzheimer ?s disease microarray datasets, and...important component in Alzheimer ?s disease progression, despite the absence of this pathway in the standard enrichment analyses. Conclusions: PathNet is a...Honjo K, van Reekum R, Verhoeff NP: Alzheimer’s disease and infection: do infectious agents contribute to progression of Alzheimer’s disease? Alzheimers

  10. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive industries in a

  11. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive industries in a

  12. A novel coefficient for detecting and quantifying asymmetry of California electricity market based on asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In order to detect and quantify asymmetry of two time series, a novel cross-correlation coefficient is proposed based on recent asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (A-DXA), which we called A-DXA coefficient. The A-DXA coefficient, as an important extension of DXA coefficient ρDXA, contains two directional asymmetric cross-correlated indexes, describing upwards and downwards asymmetric cross-correlations, respectively. By using the information of directional covariance function of two time series and directional variance function of each series itself instead of power-law between the covariance function and time scale, the proposed A-DXA coefficient can well detect asymmetry between the two series no matter whether the cross-correlation is significant or not. By means of the proposed A-DXA coefficient conducted over the asymmetry for California electricity market, we found that the asymmetry between the prices and loads is not significant for daily average data in 1999 yr market (before electricity crisis) but extremely significant for those in 2000 yr market (during the crisis). To further uncover the difference of asymmetry between the years 1999 and 2000, a modified H statistic (MH) and ΔMH statistic are proposed. One of the present contributions is that the high MH values calculated for hourly data exist in majority months in 2000 market. Another important conclusion is that the cross-correlation with downwards dominates over the whole 1999 yr in contrast to the cross-correlation with upwards dominates over the 2000 yr.

  13. A novel coefficient for detecting and quantifying asymmetry of California electricity market based on asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In order to detect and quantify asymmetry of two time series, a novel cross-correlation coefficient is proposed based on recent asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (A-DXA), which we called A-DXA coefficient. The A-DXA coefficient, as an important extension of DXA coefficient ρ D X A , contains two directional asymmetric cross-correlated indexes, describing upwards and downwards asymmetric cross-correlations, respectively. By using the information of directional covariance function of two time series and directional variance function of each series itself instead of power-law between the covariance function and time scale, the proposed A-DXA coefficient can well detect asymmetry between the two series no matter whether the cross-correlation is significant or not. By means of the proposed A-DXA coefficient conducted over the asymmetry for California electricity market, we found that the asymmetry between the prices and loads is not significant for daily average data in 1999 yr market (before electricity crisis) but extremely significant for those in 2000 yr market (during the crisis). To further uncover the difference of asymmetry between the years 1999 and 2000, a modified H statistic (MH) and ΔMH statistic are proposed. One of the present contributions is that the high MH values calculated for hourly data exist in majority months in 2000 market. Another important conclusion is that the cross-correlation with downwards dominates over the whole 1999 yr in contrast to the cross-correlation with upwards dominates over the 2000 yr.

  14. Interferometric measurement of a diffusion coefficient: comparison of two methods and uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riquelme, Rodrigo; Lira, Ignacio; Pérez-López, Carlos; Rayas, Juan A.; Rodríguez-Vera, Ramón

    2007-05-01

    Two methods to measure the diffusion coefficient of a species in a liquid by optical interferometry were compared. The methods were tested on a 1.75 M NaCl aqueous solution diffusing into water at 26 °C. Results were D = 1.587 × 10-9 m2 s-1 with the first method and D = 1.602 × 10-9 m2 s-1 with the second method. Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess the possible dispersion of these results. The standard uncertainties were found to be of the order of 0.05 × 10-9 m2 s-1 with both methods. We found that the value of the diffusion coefficient obtained by either method is very sensitive to the magnification of the optical system, and that if diffusion is slow the measurement of time does not need to be very accurate.

  15. Colocalization analysis in fluorescence micrographs: verification of a more accurate calculation of pearson's correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Andrew L; Macleod, Alasdair; Noppen, Samuel; Sanderson, Jeremy; Guérin, Christopher J

    2010-12-01

    One of the most routine uses of fluorescence microscopy is colocalization, i.e., the demonstration of a relationship between pairs of biological molecules. Frequently this is presented simplistically by the use of overlays of red and green images, with areas of yellow indicating colocalization of the molecules. Colocalization data are rarely quantified and can be misleading. Our results from both synthetic and biological datasets demonstrate that the generation of Pearson's correlation coefficient between pairs of images can overestimate positive correlation and fail to demonstrate negative correlation. We have demonstrated that the calculation of a thresholded Pearson's correlation coefficient using only intensity values over a determined threshold in both channels produces numerical values that more accurately describe both synthetic datasets and biological examples. Its use will bring clarity and accuracy to colocalization studies using fluorescent microscopy.

  16. Slip flow coefficient analysis in water hydraulics gear pump for environmental friendly application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, A. A.; Wasbari, F.; Zakaria, M. S.; Ibrahim, M. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Water hydraulics is the sustainable option in developing fluid power systems with environmental friendly approach. Therefore, an investigation on water-based external gear pump application is being conducted, as a low cost solution in the shifting effort of using water, instead of traditional oil hydraulics in fluid power application. As the gear pump is affected by fluid viscosity, an evaluation has been conducted on the slip flow coefficient, in order to understand to what extent the spur gear pump can be used with water-based hydraulic fluid. In this paper, the results of a simulated study of variable-speed fixed displacement gear pump are presented. The slip flow coefficient varies from rotational speed of 250 RPM to 3500 RPM, and provides volumetric efficiency ranges from 9 % to 97% accordingly.

  17. Orbit Optimization and Scattering Coefficient Analysis for the Proposed GLORIA System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimization of an orbit for a Low-Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellite for coastal coverage over Antarctic and United States shorelines as part of the Geostationary/Low-Earth Orbiting Radar Image Acquisition (GLORIA) System. Simulations over a range of orbital parameters are performed to determine the optimal orbit. Scattering coefficients are computed for the optimal orbit throughout the day and characterized to compare various scenarios for which link budget comparisons could then be made.

  18. Correlation Between Posttraumatic Growth and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Based on Pearson Correlation Coefficient: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, An-Nuo; Wang, Lu-Lu; Li, Hui-Ping; Gong, Juan; Liu, Xiao-Hong

    2016-11-22

    The literature on posttraumatic growth (PTG) is burgeoning, with the inconsistencies in the literature of the relationship between PTG and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms becoming a focal point of attention. Thus, this meta-analysis aims to explore the relationship between PTG and PTSD symptoms through the Pearson correlation coefficient. A systematic search of the literature from January 1996 to November 2015 was completed. We retrieved reports on 63 studies that involved 26,951 patients. The weighted correlation coefficient revealed an effect size of 0.22 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.18 to 0.25. Meta-analysis provides evidence that PTG may be positively correlated with PTSD symptoms and that this correlation may be modified by age, trauma type, and time since trauma. Accordingly, people with high levels of PTG should not be ignored, but rather, they should continue to receive help to alleviate their PTSD symptoms.

  19. ''Latest Capabilities of Pov-Ray Ricochet Flight Path Analysis & Impact Probability Prediction Software''

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.E.; Brereton, S.; Newton, M.; Moore, B.; Muirhead, D.; Pastrnak, J.; Prokosch, D.; Spence, B.; Towle, R.

    2000-09-05

    POV-Ray Ricochet Tracker is a freeware computer code developed to analyze high-speed fragment ricochet trajectory paths in complex 3-D areas such as explosives tiring chambers, facility equipment rooms, or shipboard Command and Control Centers. The code analyzes as many as millions of individual fragment trajectory paths in three dimensions and tracks these trajectory paths for up to four bounces through the three-dimensional model. It allows determination of the probabilities of hitting any designated areas or objects in the model. It creates renderings of any ricochet flight paths of interest in photo realistic renderings of the 3-D model. POV-Ray Ricochet Tracker is a customized version of the Persistence of Vision{trademark} Ray-Tracer (POV-Ray{trademark}) version 3.02 code for the Macintosh{trademark} Operating System (MacOS{trademark}). POV-Ray is a third generation graphics engine that creates three-dimensional, very high quality (photo-realistic) images with realistic reflections, shading, textures, perspective, and other effects using a rendering technique called ray-tracing. It reads a text tile that describes the objects, lighting, and camera location in a scene and generates an image of that scene from the viewpoint of the camera. More information about POV-Ray, including the executable and source code, may be found at http://www.povray.org. The customized code (POV-Ray Shrapnel Tracker, V3.02-Custom Build 2) generates individual fragment trajectory paths at any desired angle intervals in three dimensions. The code tracks these trajectory paths through any complex three-dimensional space, and outputs detailed data for each ray as requested by the user. The output may include trajectory source location, initial direction of each trajectory, vector data for each bounce point, and any impacts with designated model target surfaces during any trajectory segment (direct path or reflected paths). This allows determination of the three-dimensional trajectory of

  20. Job Stress and Related Factors Among Iranian Male Staff Using a Path Analysis Model

    PubMed Central

    Azad-Marzabadi, Esfandiar; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, job stress has been cited as a risk factor for some diseases. Objectives Given the importance of this subject, we established a new model for classifying job stress among Iranian male staff using path analysis. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was done on male staff in Tehran, Iran, 2013. The participants in the study were selected using a proportional stratum sampling method. The tools used included nine questionnaires (1- HSE questionnaire; 2- GHQ questionnaire; 3- Beck depression inventory; 4- Framingham personality type; 5- Azad-Fesharaki’s physical activity questionnaire; 6- Adult attachment style questionnaire; 7- Azad socioeconomic questionnaire; 8- Job satisfaction survey; and 9- demographic questionnaire). Results A total of 575 individuals (all male) were recruited for the study. Their mean (±SD) age was 33.49 (±8.9) and their mean job experience was 12.79 (±8.98) years. The pathway of job stress among Iranian male staff showed an adequate model fit (RMSEA=0.021, GFI=0.99, AGFI=0.97, P=0.136). In addition, the total effect of variables like personality type (β=0.283), job satisfaction (β=0.287), and age (β=0.108) showed a positive relationship with job stress, while variables like general health (β=-0.151) and depression (β=-0.242) showed the reverse effect on job stress. Conclusions According to the results of this study, we can conclude that our suggested model is suited to explaining the pathways of stress among Iranian male staff. PMID:27621934

  1. Partitioning of sediments among shoreface transport paths: analysis of sediment dispersal patterns using empirical orthogonal functions

    SciTech Connect

    Zarillo, G.A.; Liu, T.C.; Tsien, H.S.; Zimmerman, M.S.

    1985-02-01

    Recent geomorphic evidence from the inner shelf and shoreface to the east of Long Island's barrier island system indicates that reworking of glacial outwash deposits at the inner shelf-shoreface transition, as sea level rises, may be supplying much of the sediment needed to maintain barrier island to the west. A conceptual model describing sediment dispersal from outwash source areas was developed from this hypothesis. It was reasoned that outwash sediments ranging from silts to coarse gravels would be subject to differential transport paths across and along the shoreface upon reworking. Coarser grain sizes would move onshore toward the intertidal beach, whereas finer sediments would move offshore. Sand of intermediate grain size would be concentrated in the surf zone and move alongshore in wave-generated longshore currents. To test this model, 400 samples from the beach and shoreface of Long Island were analyzed for grain-size frequency distribution and each grain-size class was examined for frequency of occurrence in the cross-shore and alongshore directions. On a spatially averaged basis, grain-size classes displayed peak abundance in specific zones across the shoreface as predicted by the model, but alongshore trends could not be recognized among the noisy data. Therefore, empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) were used to examine uncorrelated modes of variability in the occurrence of each grain-size class in the alongshore direction. The first function, representing more than 60% of the variability among the data, showed that grain sizes subject to longshore transport in the surf zone increase in frequency in the alongshore direction relative to coarser grain sizes. Results also show that peak concentrations of coarse sediments correspond to zones subject to frequent overwashing. It is concluded that EOF analysis of individual grain-size classes holds promise for extracting trends from noisy data sets.

  2. Analysis of strain paths of sheared edges during hole expansion tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koebel, Philipp; Van Tyne, Chester J.; Hora, Pavel; Manopulo, Niko

    2013-12-01

    One of the limitations to the widespread use of advanced high strength steel (AHSS) sheets is the cracking of sheared edges during subsequent stretching operations, as nearly all stamped parts are sheared prior to sheet forming. Cracking at the edge occurs at levels below the conventional forming limit criteria. Understanding the strain path of the sheared edge during a hole expansion test should provide insight into the strain path of a sheared edge when it is stretched during production. As a result, experimental as well as finite element simulations are used for analyzing the strain path behavior of a sheared edge during hole expansion tests. The shearing process changes the global behavior in the sheet during a hole expansion, and the finite element results indicate that the strain paths for points near the edge of the hole during expansion are non-linear due to the presence of the shear affected zone (SAZ). These results are consistent with previously measured experimental values for the strain path.

  3. Re-analysis of narcotic critical body residue data using the equilibrium distribution concept and refined partition coefficients.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi

    2016-08-10

    Narcosis occurs as a result of the accumulation of chemicals in the phospholipid membrane. The toxic threshold concentration in the membrane is thought to be relatively constant across different chemicals and species. Hence, estimating chemical concentrations in the membrane is expected to reduce the variability of narcotic critical body residue (CBR) data. In this study, a high quality CBR dataset for three aquatic species reported recently in the literature was evaluated with the internal equilibrium distribution concept. The raw wet-weight-based CBR values were converted to membrane-weight-based CBR values by assuming that the chemical is distributed in storage lipids, membranes, proteins, and water according to the respective equilibrium partition coefficients. Several sets of partition coefficients were compared for this analysis. The results were consistent with the notion that the use of a structural protein instead of serum albumin as a surrogate for the body protein fraction could reduce the variability of CBRs. Partition coefficients predicted by polyparameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs) reduced the variability of CBRs as much as or even more than experimental partition coefficients did. It is suggested that CBR data for chemicals with larger structural diversity and biological species with more distinct compositions are needed to evaluate further the equilibrium distribution concept and the constant membrane threshold hypothesis.

  4. A moderated mediated path analysis of factors influencing student performance on a standardized high-stakes science test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelkey, Ramona K.

    Gender, ethnicity, family economic status, reading score, mathematics score, and number of science semesters successfully completed were examined for their contributory role to a student's science score on a high-stakes, high school exit examination. Path analysis and analysis of variance procedures were used to quantify each variable's influence on science score. Gender, ethnicity, and family economic status were found to be moderators while reading proved to mediate within the model. The path model was created using a calibration sample and cross-validated using a hold-out validation sample. Bootstrapping was used to verify the goodness of fit of the model. A predictive equation explained 66% (R2 = .66) of the variance in observed TAKS science score.

  5. Analysis of Algorithms Predicting Blood: Air and Tissue: Blood Partition Coefficient from Solvent Partition Coefficients for Use in Complex Mixture Physiological Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    coefficients have been found to vary with changes in hematocrit, blood lipids (fasted versus postprandial sampling) and organ lipids (Fiserova-Bergerova...assumed that blood was taken in various fasted or postprandial states depending on the individual. The one to two hour postprandial value (Fiserova...being made up of tissue water, neutral lipids (non-polar lipids including triglycerides and cholesterol ) and phospholipids (lipids with a phosphoric acid

  6. Analysis of lifetime of wireless sensor network with base station moving on different paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Purohit, N.; Varma, S.

    2014-05-01

    Energy saving is the top most requirement of the wireless sensor network (WSN) for making it a cost effective technology. In this direction, minimisation of the distance between the communicating nodes should be an obvious choice, as it consumes the biggest chunk of the node energy. But the stationary nature of nodes (including the base station) in the standard WSN does not allow it; thus, the provision of a moving base station has been recently introduced. A few schemes with moving base station have already been developed but they suffer from several drawbacks, for example, the path over which the base station can move has not been considered which is highly unfeasible. An efficient and implementable moving strategy is needed to be developed, which is the primary goal of the present work. The fuzzy logic inference mechanism has been developed and the performance of the same is illustrated in terms of WSN lifetime. Lifetime of a WSN depends on many factors, for example, residual energy of nodes, distance between communicating nodes and base station, etc. Ability of fuzzy logic theory to address more than one factor simultaneously gives it an upper edge over other alternatives. The present work explores the possibilities of building either a circular shaped or a cross-shaped path in the deployment area. A relative study of the movement of base station on these paths has been presented. Simulation results show that the cross path always give better performance than circular path and the lifetime improves with increase in the length of the predefined path.

  7. The interrelationships between working conditions, job satisfaction, burnout and mental health among hospital physicians in Japan: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Hayano, Keiko; Ozaki, Makiko; Bito, Seiji; Yanai, Haruo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2009-04-01

    A growing number of physicians are leaving their hospitals because of painful working conditions in hospitals throughout Japan. We set out to analyze the interrelationships between working conditions, job satisfaction, burnout and mental health among Japanese physicians. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2007 for hospital physicians throughout Japan. A path analysis based on structural equation modeling was utilized for examining the interrelationships between work control, on-call duty volume, job satisfaction (the Japan Hospital Physicians Satisfaction Scale), burnout (the Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory) and mental health (the General Health Questionnaire). Of 336 physicians who received a solicitation E-mail, 236 participated in our study (response rate, 70%). Sixty physicians (25.4%) were women with a mean age of 41 yr. In the path analysis, burnout and poor mental health were related directly to job dissatisfaction and short sleeping time, while they were related indirectly to poor work control and heavy on-call duty. In the multi-group path analysis of both genders, sleeping time was related to job satisfaction more likely among female physicians but less among male physicians. Healthcare policy makers need to implement immediate, extensive and decisive measures to improve work condition and to reduce overwork among hospital physicians.

  8. Return period adjustment for runoff coefficients based on analysis in undeveloped Texas watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dhakal, Nirajan; Fang, Xing; Asquith, William H.; Cleveland, Theodore G.; Thompson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    The rational method for peak discharge (Qp) estimation was introduced in the 1880s. The runoff coefficient (C) is a key parameter for the rational method that has an implicit meaning of rate proportionality, and the C has been declared a function of the annual return period by various researchers. Rate-based runoff coefficients as a function of the return period, C(T), were determined for 36 undeveloped watersheds in Texas using peak discharge frequency from previously published regional regression equations and rainfall intensity frequency for return periods T of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years. The C(T) values and return period adjustments C(T)/C(T=10  year) determined in this study are most applicable to undeveloped watersheds. The return period adjustments determined for the Texas watersheds in this study and those extracted from prior studies of non-Texas data exceed values from well-known literature such as design manuals and textbooks. Most importantly, the return period adjustments exceed values currently recognized in Texas Department of Transportation design guidance when T>10  years.

  9. Determination of zircon/melt trace element partition coefficients from SIMS analysis of melt inclusions in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. B.; Bodnar, R. J.; Shimizu, N.; Sinha, A. K.

    2002-09-01

    Partition coefficients ( zircon/meltD M) for rare earth elements (REE) (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Dy, Er and Yb) and other trace elements (Ba, Rb, B, Sr, Ti, Y and Nb) between zircon and melt have been calculated from secondary ion mass spectrometric (SIMS) analyses of zircon/melt inclusion pairs. The melt inclusion-mineral (MIM) technique shows that D REE increase in compatibility with increasing atomic number, similar to results of previous studies. However, D REE determined using the MIM technique are, in general, lower than previously reported values. Calculated D REE indicate that light REE with atomic numbers less than Sm are incompatible in zircon and become more incompatible with decreasing atomic number. This behavior is in contrast to most previously published results which indicate D > 1 and define a flat partitioning pattern for elements from La through Sm. The partition coefficients for the heavy REE determined using the MIM technique are lower than previously published results by factors of ≈15 to 20 but follow a similar trend. These differences are thought to reflect the effects of mineral and/or glass contaminants in samples from earlier studies which employed bulk analysis techniques. D REE determined using the MIM technique agree well with values predicted using the equations of Brice (1975), which are based on the size and elasticity of crystallographic sites. The presence of Ce 4+ in the melt results in elevated D Ce compared to neighboring REE due to the similar valence and size of Ce 4+ and Zr 4+. Predicted zircon/meltD values for Ce 4+ and Ce 3+ indicate that the Ce 4+/Ce 3+ ratios of the melt ranged from about 10 -3 to 10 -2. Partition coefficients for other trace elements determined in this study increase in compatibility in the order Ba < Rb < B < Sr < Ti < Y < Nb, with Ba, Rb, B and Sr showing incompatible behavior (D M < 1.0), and Ti, Y and Nb showing compatible behavior (D M > 1.0). The effect of partition coefficients on melt evolution during

  10. An elementary analysis of the effect of sweep, Mach number, and lift coefficient on wing-structure weight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyser, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented from an elementary analysis of the effect of sweep angle on the idealized structural weight of swept wings, with cruise Mach number M and lift coefficient C sub L as parameters. The analysis indicates that sweep is unnecessary for cruise Mach numbers below about 0.80, whereas for the higher subsonic speeds, a well defined minimum-weight condition exists at a sweep angle in the neighborhood of 35 deg or 40 deg, depending on M and C sub L. The results further indicate that wing-structure weight increases sharply with Mach number in the high subsonic range, with Mach 0.85 wings weighing half again as much as Mach 0.75 wings. Weight is also shown to increase with cruise lift coefficient, but the effect is not strong for the usual range of design lift coefficients. Minimum wing-structure weight is found to occur at a ratio of thickness to normal chord of about 18 percent, but it is concluded that the thickness ratio for optimum wing design would probably lie in the range of 12 to 15 percent.

  11. Numerical analysis of the crack growth path in the cement mantle of the reconstructed acetabulum.

    PubMed

    Benbarek, Smaïl; Bachir Bouiadjra, Bel Abbes; El Mokhtar, Bouziane Mohamed; Achour, Tarik; Serier, Boualem

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use the finite element method to analyze the propagation's path of the crack in the orthopedic cement of the total hip replacement. In fact, a small python statement was incorporated with the Abaqus software to do in loop the following operations: extracting the crack propagation direction from the previous study using the maximal circumferential stresses criterion, drawing the new path, meshing and calculating again (stresses and fracture parameters). The loop is broken when the user's desired crack length is reached (number of propagations) or the value of the mode I stress intensity factor is negative. Results show that the crack propagation's path can be influenced by human body posture. The existing of a cavity in the vicinity of the crack can change its propagation path or can absolutely attract it enough to meet it. Crack can propagate in the outward direction (toward the acetabulum bone) and cannot propagate in the opposite direction, the mode I stress intensity factor increases with the crack length and that of mode II vanishes.

  12. An Investigation of Factors Influencing Student Use of Technology in K-12 Classrooms Using Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Dawson, Kara; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of teachers' characteristics, school characteristics, and contextual characteristics on classroom technology integration and teacher use of technology as mediators of student use of technology. A research-based path model was designed and tested based on data gathered from 732 teachers from…

  13. Morphological Awareness in Literacy Acquisition of Chinese Second Graders: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Haomin

    2016-01-01

    The present study tested a path diagram regarding the contribution of morphological awareness (MA) to early literacy acquisition among Chinese-speaking second graders (N = 123). Three facets of MA were addressed, namely derivational awareness, compound awareness and compound structure awareness. The model aimed to test a theory of causal order…

  14. Feasibility Analysis of Improving On-Campus Learning Paths via a Depth Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Wen-Fu; Tu, Shih-Chun; Chien, Mei-Ying

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to apply a depth sensor to create a human-body-sensing context for outdoor learning paths; it is conducted by incorporating both quasi-experiment and survey to compare students' cognitive learning outcome within the context and understand students' attitudes toward the context created. The result of ANCOVA indicates that the…

  15. Benchmark 1 - Nonlinear strain path forming limit of a reverse draw: Part C: Benchmark analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xin

    2013-12-01

    This document summarizes the Benchmark 1 results and presents all submitted FEA results from 9 participants and experimental results in 104 figures, including load-displacement curves, strain path evolutions over four specified blank positions, and deformed under different forming settings: three sheet materials, three blank geometries (width), and two shim heights that alter the strain paths and the two stage strain ratio with major strain path changes. The fourth specified point corresponds to the location of localized necking. The FEA models and software/hardware used by the participants are provided. The rich data presented from both simulation and experimental measurement provide valuable information on the current interest in material plasticity/formability and their prediction under continuous non-linear strain path that exist in this reverse draw process. At the request of the author, and Proceedings Editor, a corrected and updated version of this paper was published on January 2, 2014. The Corrigendum attached to the updated article PDF contains a list of the changes made to the original published version.

  16. Knowledge Monitoring, Goal Orientations, Self-Efficacy, and Academic Performance: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.; Was, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between knowledge monitoring and motivation as defined by self-efficacy and goal orientations. A path model was proposed to hypothesize the causal relations among predictors of the students' total score in the Educational Psychology course. The sample consisted of undergraduate students…

  17. Choice Paths in the Swedish Upper Secondary Education--A Critical Discourse Analysis of Recent Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Decentralisation policy in Sweden emphasises school capitation allowance, the local upper secondary schools' decision-making and pupils' choices in contrast to previous bureaucratic governing. The aim of this article is to discuss how pupils' educational choice paths are a part of the different kinds of integration and differentiation processes…

  18. Path Analysis on Educational Fiscal Decision-Making Mechanism in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Hongbin; Sun, Baicai

    2007-01-01

    In China's current educational fiscal decision making, problems are as follows: no law to trust or not abiding by available laws, absence of equity and efficiency, as well as the standardization of decision-making procedures. It is necessary to set up effective fiscal decision-making mechanism in education and rationally devise reliable paths.

  19. Analysis of Atmospheric Composition and Tropospheric Variability With Integrated Open- Path and Ground-Based Solar Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steill, J. D.; Compton, R. N.; Hager, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Ground-based solar infrared absorption spectroscopy coupled with open-path spectroscopy provides a means for analysis of the highly variable contribution of the boundary layer to problems of radiative transfer and atmospheric chemistry. This is of particular importance in geographic regions of significant local anthropogenic influence and large tropospheric fluctuations in general. A Bomem DA8 FT-IR integrated with a sun-tracking and open-path system (~0.5 km) is located at The University of Tennessee, in downtown Knoxville and near The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, an area known for problematic air quality. From atmospheric absorption spectra, boundary layer concentrations as well as total column abundances and vertical concentration profiles are derived. A record of more than 1000 solar-sourced atmospheric spectra covering a period greater than three years in duration is under analysis to characterize the limit of precision in total column abundance determinations for many gases such as O3, CO, CH4, N2O, HF and CO2. Initial efforts using atmospheric O2 as a calibration indicate the solar-sourced spectra may not meet the precision required for the highly accurate atmospheric CO2 quantification by such global efforts as the OCO and NDSC. However, the determined variability of CO2 and other gas concentrations is statistically significant and is indicative of local concentration fluxes pertinent to the regional atmospheric chemistry. This is therefore an important data record in the southeastern United States, a somewhat under- sampled geographic region. In addition to providing a means to improve the analysis of solar spectra, the open-path data is useful for elucidation of seasonal and diurnal trends in the trace gas concentrations. This provides an urban air quality monitor in addition to improving the description of the total atmospheric composition, as the open-path system is stable and permanent.

  20. Evaporation in relation to CO 2 concentration: Analysis of mass transfer coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, C. S. P.; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Rao, Surampalli; Abd Elbasit, Mohamed A. M.; Kumar, Manoj

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the potential of mass transfer approach in estimating evaporation changes under different CO 2 levels are evaluated using data from controlled chamber experiments in which radiation and wind velocity were kept constant and temperature and relative humidity profiles were varied in different patterns along with CO 2 concentration. Currently, FAO procedure lists three approaches to compute air vapour pressure based on temperature and relative humidity profiles. In this study, the impact of using different procedures of estimating air vapour pressure is examined to assess the use of mass transfer approach for estimating evaporation. To achieve this, a part of the data is used to calibrate mass transfer coefficient which is subsequently used to project evaporation for future states. Accordingly, strategies are ranked for their potential in estimating evaporation. The effect of evaporation rate is compared at 400 ppm and 600 ppm CO 2 level. It has been observed that the evaporation rate is more pronounced at higher CO 2 level.

  1. Non-Fourier Thermoelastic Analysis of an Annular Fin with Variable Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Haw-Long; Chang, Win-Jin; Chen, Wen-Lih; Yang, Yu-Ching

    2012-06-01

    This paper numerically investigates the hyperbolic thermoelastic problem of an annular fin. The ambient convection heat transfer coefficient of the fin is assumed to be spatially varying. The major difficulty in dealing with such problems is the suppression of numerical oscillations in the vicinity of a jump discontinuity. An efficient numerical scheme involving hybrid application of Laplace transform and control volume method in conjunction with hyperbolic shape functions is used to solve the linear hyperbolic heat conduction equation. The transformed nodal temperatures are inverted to the physical quantities by using numerical inversion of the Laplace transform. Then the stress distributions in the annular fin are calculated subsequently. The results in the illustrated examples show that the application of hyperbolic shape functions can successfully suppress the numerical oscillations in the vicinity of jump discontinuities.

  2. The use of the coefficient of variation in detecting sincerity of effort: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shechtman, Orit; Anton, Stephen D; Kanasky, William F; Robinson, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    The coefficient of variation (CV) is used to determine sincerity of effort of strength measurements. However, there is a controversy in the literature concerning its validity and effectiveness. We used a meta-analytic approach and calculated the effect size between maximal and submaximal efforts for the CV of grip, elbow flexion and knee extension. We summarized findings concerning stability, sensitivity and specificity of the CV. We found large effect sizes (d > or = 0.8) for all comparisons indicating that submaximal efforts were more variable than maximal efforts. We also found large error rates and low stability of the CV. The error rates and stability values of the CV are unacceptable from both a clinical and a medico-legal standpoint. Therefore, the use of the CV for assessing sincerity of effort needs to be questioned.

  3. a Latent Variable Path Analysis Model of Secondary Physics Enrollments in New York State.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolewski, Stanley John

    The Percentage of Enrollment in Physics (PEP) at the secondary level nationally has been approximately 20% for the past few decades. For a more scientifically literate citizenry as well as specialists to continue scientific research and development, it is desirable that more students enroll in physics. Some of the predictor variables for physics enrollment and physics achievement that have been identified previously includes a community's socioeconomic status, the availability of physics, the sex of the student, the curriculum, as well as teacher and student data. This study isolated and identified predictor variables for PEP of secondary schools in New York. Data gathered by the State Education Department for the 1990-1991 school year was used. The source of this data included surveys completed by teachers and administrators on student characteristics and school facilities. A data analysis similar to that done by Bryant (1974) was conducted to determine if the relationships between a set of predictor variables related to physics enrollment had changed in the past 20 years. Variables which were isolated included: community, facilities, teacher experience, number of type of science courses, school size and school science facilities. When these variables were isolated, latent variable path diagrams were proposed and verified by the Linear Structural Relations computer modeling program (LISREL). These diagrams differed from those developed by Bryant in that there were more manifest variables used which included achievement scores in the form of Regents exam results. Two criterion variables were used, percentage of students enrolled in physics (PEP) and percent of students enrolled passing the Regents physics exam (PPP). The first model treated school and community level variables as exogenous while the second model treated only the community level variables as exogenous. The goodness of fit indices for the models was 0.77 for the first model and 0.83 for the second

  4. Standardized Regression Coefficients as Indices of Effect Sizes in Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Rae Seon

    2011-01-01

    When conducting a meta-analysis, it is common to find many collected studies that report regression analyses, because multiple regression analysis is widely used in many fields. Meta-analysis uses effect sizes drawn from individual studies as a means of synthesizing a collection of results. However, indices of effect size from regression analyses…

  5. The analysis of trend variations of reference evapotranspiration via eliminating the significance effect of all autocorrelation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirataee, Babak; Montaseri, Majid; Sanikhani, Hadi

    2016-10-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is considered a key parameter for evaluating the climatic changes as well as spatial and temporal patterns of parameters influencing the eco-hydrological processes. The analysis of trend variations of this index can be used to determine appropriate strategies in planning and management of water resources. In this paper, the trend variations of monthly and annual ET0 in Urmia Lake basin, located in the northwest of Iran, have been analyzed using data from 14 synoptic stations in the study area. Regarding the significant effect of autocorrelation coefficients with different lags on trend variations of ET0, this paper has resorted to modified Mann-Kendall test via eliminating the significance effect of autocorrelation coefficients with different lags to analyze the trend variations. Furthermore, Theil-Sen estimator has been used to determine the slope of trend line of ET0. The results indicated an increasing trend in ET0 values at all the studied stations. Having used the modified Mann-Kendall test, the values of significant increasing (positive) trend, which were estimated using common Mann-Kendall test, dramatically decreased. As such, the values of only 7 stations have been significant at 95 % level. The results confirmed the need for eliminating the significance effect of autocorrelation coefficients with different lags to determine and evaluate the trend of hydrological variables.

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of Material Microstructure Effects on Predicted Crack Paths Using Finite Element Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Anaïs; Mehmanparast, Ali

    2016-07-01

    The effects of microstructure, grain and grain boundary (GB) properties on predicted damage paths and indicative crack propagation direction have been examined for a polycrystalline material using mesoscale finite element simulations. Numerical analyses were carried out on a compact tension specimen geometry containing granular mesh structures with random grain shapes and sizes of average diameter 100μm. Nanoindentation tests were performed to investigate the dependency of mesoscale hardness measurements on the indentation location with respect to grain and GB regions. Finite element results have shown that under tensile loading conditions, the predicted damage paths are very sensitive to the granular mesh structure, GB properties and individual grain properties. Furthermore, finite element results have revealed that the cracking mode (i.e., transgranular/intergranular) and maximum crack deviation angle are strongly dependent on the material microstructures employed in simulations.

  7. Analysis of climate paths reveals potential limitations on species range shifts.

    PubMed

    Early, Regan; Sax, Dov F

    2011-11-01

    Forecasts of species endangerment under climate change usually ignore the processes by which species ranges shift. By analysing the 'climate paths' that range shifts might follow, and two key range-shift processes--dispersal and population persistence--we show that short-term climatic and population characteristics have dramatic effects on range-shift forecasts. By employing this approach with 15 amphibian species in the western USA, we make unexpected predictions. First, inter-decadal variability in climate change can prevent range shifts by causing gaps in climate paths, even in the absence of geographic barriers. Second, the hitherto unappreciated trait of persistence during unfavourable climatic conditions is critical to species range shifts. Third, climatic fluctuations and low persistence could lead to endangerment even if the future potential range size is large. These considerations may render habitat corridors ineffectual for some species, and conservationists may need to consider managed relocation and augmentation of in situ populations.

  8. Path loss analysis in millimeter wave cellular systems for urban mobile communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, Ramesh; Hoffman, Mitchell

    2016-09-01

    The proliferation in the number of mobile devices and developments in cellular technology has led to an ever increasing demand for mobile data. The global bandwidth shortage facing wireless carriers today has motivated research for fifth generation (5G) cellular systems. In recent years, millimeter wave (mmW) frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz are being considered as a promising technology for 5G systems. Such systems can offer superior user experience by providing data rates that exceed one Gigabit per second and latencies lower than a millisecond. However, there is little research about cellular mmW propagation in densely populated urban environments. Understanding the radio channel is a primary requirement for optimal design of mmW systems. Radio propagation in mmW systems faces significant challenges due to rapidly varying channel conditions and intermittent connectivity. In this paper, we study the propagation of mmW spectrum in an urban environment. We use a statistical model to simulate an urban environment with diverse building distributions. We perform extensive simulations to analyze the path loss behavior for both line of sight (LOS) and non line of sight (NLOS) conditions for 28 GHZ and 73 GHZ mmW frequencies. We observe that the path loss approximates a logarithmic fit for both LOS and NLOS environments. Our simulations show that the omnidirectional free space path loss is approximately 30 dB higher for mmW systems compared to current 3G PP cellular systems. To address this challenge, we propose using highly directional horn antennas with beam forming for reducing the path loss.

  9. Moderated path analysis of the relationships between masculinity and men's attitudes toward seeking psychological help.

    PubMed

    Levant, Ronald F; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Rankin, Thomas J; Halter, Margaret J; Mellinger, Chris; Williams, Christine M

    2013-07-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of one mediator and 4 moderators of the relationships between 2 masculinity variables (Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Gender Role Conflict) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (Attitudes). Self-stigma was the hypothesized mediator, and the hypothesized moderators were (a) Depression, (b) General Self-efficacy, (c) Precontemplation, and (d) Barriers to Help-seeking. A sample of 654 men responded to an online survey of 9 questionnaires. After evaluating mediation in the absence of moderation, moderated path analyses were conducted for each moderator. The relationship between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes was partially mediated by Self-stigma, whereas that between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes was completely mediated. No indirect or direct paths involving Gender Role Conflict were moderated by any moderators. Both Depression and Barriers to Help-seeking demonstrated mediated moderation by moderating both Stage 1 (the path from Traditional Masculinity Ideology to Self-stigma) of the mediated relationships and the direct effects between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. Precontemplation moderated the direct effect between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. The findings suggest that the relationships between masculinity variables and men's negative help-seeking attitudes may be better understood through their relationships with other variables that serve as mediators and moderators. Findings from the present study may offer some direction in the design of interventions to remediate men's negative help-seeking attitudes.

  10. A meta-analysis of the canopy light extinction coefficient in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liangxia; Hu, Zhongmin; Fan, Jiangwen; Zhou, Decheng; Tang, Fengpei

    2014-12-01

    The canopy light extinction coefficient ( K) is a key factor in affecting ecosystem carbon, water, and energy processes. However, K is assumed as a constant in most biogeochemical models owing to lack of in-site measurements at diverse terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, by compiling data of K measured at 88 terrestrial ecosystems, we investigated the spatiotemporal variations of this index across main ecosystem types, including grassland, cropland, shrubland, broadleaf forest, and needleleaf forest. Our results indicated that the average K of all biome types during whole growing season was 0.56. However, this value in the peak growing season was 0.49, indicating a certain degree of seasonal variation. In addition, large variations in K exist within and among the plant functional types. Cropland had the highest value of K (0.62), followed by broadleaf forest (0.59), shrubland (0.56), grassland (0.50), and needleleaf forest (0.45). No significant spatial correlation was found between K and the major environmental factors, i.e., mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, and leaf area index (LAI). Intra-annually, significant negative correlations between K and seasonal changes in LAI were found in the natural ecosystems. In cropland, however, the temporal relationship was site-specific. The ecosystem type specific values of K and its temporal relationship with LAI observed in this study may contribute to improved modeling of global biogeochemical cycles.

  11. Wavelet coefficient analysis for the quantitative determination of damage in tendons and cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco

    2005-05-01

    Wires, bars, multi-wire strands made of steel or composite materials are widely used in civil infrastructures as tensioning members in cable-stayed bridges, suspension bridges and prestressed concrete. The health monitoring of these components is a long-standing challenge in the NDE community. In the last few years, the authors have been conducting a study on the application of ultrasonic guided waves for the structural health monitoring of bars and multi-wire strands. This paper presents an application of a signal processing technique based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for the detection and the quantification of damage (in the form of small notches) in loaded seven-wire steel strands. The DWT is applied to ultrasonic signals generated and detected via magnetostrictive transducers. The detection and the quantification of damage in the strands are accomplished by constructing and computing a damage index based on the variance and the root mean square of the wavelet coefficient vector of the ultrasonic damage signatures. It is shown that the logarithmic value of the damage index is linearly dependent on the damage size. In the last portion of the paper an eight-dimensional damage index is constructed and it is fed to an artificial neural network that classifies the size and the location of the notch.

  12. Deformation analysis of amorphous metals based on atomic elastic stiffness coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashiro, K.; Nishimura, M.; Tomita, Y.

    2006-06-01

    The elastic limit of a crystal can be evaluated by the positiveness of elastic stiffness coefficients, Bijkl. We had demonstrated that the nucleation of lattice defects such as dislocation and cleavage cracking can be predicted by the atomic Bijkl at each atom point. Amorphous metals and bulk metallic glasses draw intense interest whether the criteria are applicable or not since they are regarded as the ultimate of lattice defects. In the present study, an amorphous Ni-Al binary alloy is made by a usual melt-quench simulation and subjected to tension by means of molecular dynamics simulation. During simulations, the positiveness of atomic Bijkl is discussed for all atoms. Contrary to an Ni-Al crystal, many atoms show negative value even in the initial equilibrium of the amorphous before loading. These unstable atoms turn out to be the non-clustered atom or the outer-shell of the local cluster such as 12(0, 0, 12, 0) icosahedron. On the other hand, the centre atoms of the local clusters show high stability resulting in the positive Bijkl of the whole system. It is also demonstrated that the change in the atomic Bijkl can reveal the collapse and re-configuration of local clusters during the deformation.

  13. Path Pascal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.; Kolstad, R. B.; Holle, D. F.; Miller, T. J.; Krause, P.; Horton, K.; Macke, T.

    1983-01-01

    Path Pascal is high-level experimental programming language based on PASCAL, which incorporates extensions for systems and real-time programming. Pascal is extended to treat real-time concurrent systems.

  14. Determination of partition coefficient and analysis of nitrophenols by three-phase liquid-phase microextraction coupled with capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Miskam, Mazidatulakmam; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Hermawan, Dadan; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2010-07-01

    A three-phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction method coupled with CE was developed and used for the determination of partition coefficients and analysis of selected nitrophenols in water samples. The selected nitrophenols were extracted from 14 mL of aqueous solution (donor solution) with the pH adjusted to pH 3 into an organic phase (1-octanol) immobilized in the pores of the hollow fiber and finally backextracted into 40.0 microL of the acceptor phase (NaOH) at pH 12.0 located inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The extractions were carried out under the following optimum conditions: donor solution, 0.05 M H(3)PO(4), pH 3.0; organic solvent, 1-octanol; acceptor solution, 40 microL of 0.1 M NaOH, pH 12.0; agitation rate, 1050 rpm; extraction time, 15 min. Under optimized conditions, the calibration curves for the analytes were linear in the range of 0.05-0.30 mg/L with r(2)>0.9900 and LODs were in the range of 0.01-0.04 mg/L with RSDs of 1.25-2.32%. Excellent enrichment factors of up to 398-folds were obtained. It was found that the partition coefficient (K(a/d)) values were high for 2-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,6-dinitrophenol and that the individual partition coefficients (K(org/d) and K(a/org)) promoted efficient simultaneous extraction from the donor through the organic phase and further into the acceptor phase. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of water samples.

  15. Measurement and analysis of the mannitol partition coefficient in sucrose crystallization under simulated industrial conditions.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Gillian; Yen, Jenny Wu Tiu; Alexander, Clay; Gober, Jessica

    2012-07-01

    Mannitol is a major deterioration product of Leuconstoc mesenteroides bacterial metabolism of sucrose and fructose from both sugarcane and sugar beet. The effect of crystallization conditions on the mannitol partition coefficient (K(eff)) between impure sucrose syrup and crystal has been investigated in a batch laboratory crystallizer and a batch pilot plant-scale vacuum pan. Laboratory crystallization was operated at 65.5°C (150°F), 60.0°C (140°F), and 51.7°C (125°F) with a 78.0 Brix (% refractometric dissolved solids) pure sucrose syrup containing 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, and 10% (at 65.5°C only) mannitol on a Brix basis. Produced mother liquor and crystals were separated by centrifugation and their mannitol contents measured by ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IC-IPAD). The extent of mannitol partitioning into the crystals depended strongly on the mannitol concentration in the feed syrup and, to a lesser extent, the crystallization temperature. At 65.5 and 60.0°C, the K(eff) varied from ~0.4% to 3.0% with 0.2% to 3.0% mannitol in the feed syrup, respectively. The mannitol K(eff) was lower than that reported for dextran (~9-10% K(eff)), another product of Leuconstoc deterioration, under similar sucrose crystal growth conditions. At 10% mannitol concentration in the syrup at 65.5°C, co-crystallization of mannitol with sucrose occurred and the crystal growth rate was greatly impeded. In both laboratory and pilot plant crystallizations (95.7% purity; 78.0 Brix; 65.5°C), mannitol tended to cause conglomerates to form, which became progressively worse with increased mannitol syrup concentration. At the 3% mannitol concentration, crystallization at both the laboratory and pilot plant scales was more difficult. Mannitol incorporation into the sucrose crystal results mostly from liquid syrup inclusions but adsorption onto the crystal surface may play a minor role at lower mannitol concentrations.

  16. Orbital maneuvering subsystem functional path analysis for performance monitoring fault detection and annunciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keesler, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    The functional paths of the Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) is defined. The operational flight instrumentation required for performance monitoring, fault detection, and annunciation is described. The OMS is a pressure fed rocket engine propulsion subsystem. One complete OMS shares each of the two auxiliary propulsion subsystem pods with a reaction control subsystem. Each OMS is composed of a pressurization system, a propellant tanking system, and a gimbaled rocket engine. The design, development, and operation of the system are explained. Diagrams of the system are provided.

  17. Exact Analysis of Squared Cross-Validity Coefficient in Predictive Regression Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2009-01-01

    In regression analysis, the notion of population validity is of theoretical interest for describing the usefulness of the underlying regression model, whereas the presumably more important concept of population cross-validity represents the predictive effectiveness for the regression equation in future research. It appears that the inference…

  18. Thermal stress analysis of a graded zirconia/metal gas path seal system for aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    A ceramic/metallic aircraft gas turbine outer gas path seal designed to enable improved engine performance is studied. Flexible numerical analysis schemes suitable for the determination of transient temperature profiles and thermal stress distributions in the seal are outlined. An estimation of the stresses to which a test seal is subjected during simulated engine deceleration from sea level takeoff to idle conditions is made. Experimental evidence has indicated that the surface layer of the seal is probably subjected to excessive tensile stresses during cyclic temperature loading. This assertion is supported by the analytical results presented. Brief consideration is given to means of mitigating this adverse stressing.

  19. Frequency analysis of temperature-dependent interferometric signal for the measurement of the temperature coefficient of refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianqin; Shen, Jun; Neill, W. Stuart

    2016-07-01

    A method of frequency analysis for the measurement of the temperature coefficient of refractive index (dn/dT) using a Fabry-Perot interferometer was developed and tested against ethanol and water. The temperature-dependent interferometric signal described by Airy's formula was analyzed in both the temperature and frequency domains. By fast Fourier transform, a low-pass filter was designed and employed to eliminate the noise superimposed on the signal. dn/dT was determined accurately from the noise-removed signal by peak analysis. Furthermore, the signal frequency parameters may be utilized for the material thermophysical property characterization. This method lays the foundation for an online dn/dT instrument for monitoring chemical processes.

  20. Centrality and Flow Vergence gradient based Path analysis of scientific literature: A case study of Biotechnology for Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathabai, Hiran H.; Prabhakaran, Thara; Changat, Manoj

    2015-07-01

    Biotechnology, ever since its inception has had a huge impact on the society and its various applications have been intricately woven into the human web of life. Its evolution amidst all the other research realms vital to mankind is remarkable. In this paper, we intend to identify the radical innovations in Biotechnology for Engineering using network analyses. Centrality analysis and Path analysis are used for identifying important works. Existence of Flow Vergence effect in the scientific literature is revealed. Flow Vergence gradient, an arc metric derived from FV model, is utilised for Path analysis which detects pivotal papers of paradigm shift more accurately. A major paradigm shift has been identified in the business models of Biotechnology for Engineering - 'Capability to Connectivity' model. Evidence towards the adoption of business practices in BT firms by nanotechnology start-ups is also identified. The notion of critical divergence is introduced and the exhibition of interdisciplinary interaction in emerging fields due to critical divergence is discussed. Implications of above analyses which target: (i) Science and technology policy makers, (ii) industrialists and investors, (iii) researchers in academia as well as industry, are also discussed.

  1. Advanced Launch System Multi-Path Redundant Avionics Architecture Analysis and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the Multi-Path Redundant Avionics Suite (MPRAS) program is the development of a set of avionic architectural modules which will be applicable to the family of launch vehicles required to support the Advanced Launch System (ALS). To enable ALS cost/performance requirements to be met, the MPRAS must support autonomy, maintenance, and testability capabilities which exceed those present in conventional launch vehicles. The multi-path redundant or fault tolerance characteristics of the MPRAS are necessary to offset a reduction in avionics reliability due to the increased complexity needed to support these new cost reduction and performance capabilities and to meet avionics reliability requirements which will provide cost-effective reductions in overall ALS recurring costs. A complex, real-time distributed computing system is needed to meet the ALS avionics system requirements. General Dynamics, Boeing Aerospace, and C.S. Draper Laboratory have proposed system architectures as candidates for the ALS MPRAS. The purpose of this document is to report the results of independent performance and reliability characterization and assessment analyses of each proposed candidate architecture and qualitative assessments of testability, maintainability, and fault tolerance mechanisms. These independent analyses were conducted as part of the MPRAS Part 2 program and were carried under NASA Langley Research Contract NAS1-17964, Task Assignment 28.

  2. Ternary diffusion path in terms of eigenvalues and eigenvectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram-Mohan, L. R.; Dayananda, Mysore A.

    2016-04-01

    Based on the transfer matrix methodology, a new analysis is presented for the description of slopes of the ternary diffusion path for a solid-solid diffusion couple. Concentration profiles and diffusion paths for isothermal, ternary diffusion couples are examined in the context of eigenvalues and eigenvectors obtained from the diagonalisation of the ? ternary interdiffusion coefficients employed for their representation. New relations are derived relating the decoupled interdiffusion fluxes to combinations of concentration gradients through the major and minor eigenvalues, and the diffusion path becomes parallel to the major eigenvector at each path end. General expressions for the slope of the ternary diffusion path at any section of the couple are also derived in terms of eigenvalue and eigenvector parameters. Expressions for the path slope at the Matano plane involve only concentrations, major and minor eigenvalues and eigenvector parameters. New constraints relating the eigenvalues and the concentration gradients of the individual components are also presented at selected sections, where the diffusion path is parallel to the straight line joining the terminal composition points on an isotherm. Applications of the various relations are illustrated with the aid of a hypothetical couple and an experimental Cu-Ni-Zn diffusion couple.

  3. Relationships among the slopes of lines derived from various data analysis techniques and the associated correlation coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for fitting a straight line to a collection of data points is given. The relationships between the slopes and correlation coefficients, and between the corresponding standard deviations and correlation coefficient are given.

  4. Analysis of ligand-protein exchange by Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs (CoLD-CoP).

    PubMed

    Snyder, David A; Chantova, Mihaela; Chaudhry, Saadia

    2015-06-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool in describing protein structures and protein activity for pharmaceutical and biochemical development. This study describes a method to determine weak binding ligands in biological systems by using hierarchic diffusion coefficient clustering of multidimensional data obtained with a 400 MHz Bruker NMR. Comparison of DOSY spectrums of ligands of the chemical library in the presence and absence of target proteins show translational diffusion rates for small molecules upon interaction with macromolecules. For weak binders such as compounds found in fragment libraries, changes in diffusion rates upon macromolecular binding are on the order of the precision of DOSY diffusion measurements, and identifying such subtle shifts in diffusion requires careful statistical analysis. The "CoLD-CoP" (Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs) method presented here uses SAHN clustering to identify protein-binders in a chemical library or even a not fully characterized metabolite mixture. We will show how DOSY NMR and the "CoLD-CoP" method complement each other in identifying the most suitable candidates for lysozyme and wheat germ acid phosphatase.

  5. Analysis of ligand-protein exchange by Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs (CoLD-CoP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, David A.; Chantova, Mihaela; Chaudhry, Saadia

    2015-06-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool in describing protein structures and protein activity for pharmaceutical and biochemical development. This study describes a method to determine weak binding ligands in biological systems by using hierarchic diffusion coefficient clustering of multidimensional data obtained with a 400 MHz Bruker NMR. Comparison of DOSY spectrums of ligands of the chemical library in the presence and absence of target proteins show translational diffusion rates for small molecules upon interaction with macromolecules. For weak binders such as compounds found in fragment libraries, changes in diffusion rates upon macromolecular binding are on the order of the precision of DOSY diffusion measurements, and identifying such subtle shifts in diffusion requires careful statistical analysis. The "CoLD-CoP" (Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs) method presented here uses SAHN clustering to identify protein-binders in a chemical library or even a not fully characterized metabolite mixture. We will show how DOSY NMR and the "CoLD-CoP" method complement each other in identifying the most suitable candidates for lysozyme and wheat germ acid phosphatase.

  6. Rapid analysis of dissolved methane, ethylene, acetylene and ethane using partition coefficients and headspace-gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lomond, Jasmine S; Tong, Anthony Z

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of dissolved methane, ethylene, acetylene, and ethane in water is crucial in evaluating anaerobic activity and investigating the sources of hydrocarbon contamination in aquatic environments. A rapid chromatographic method based on phase equilibrium between water and its headspace is developed for these analytes. The new method requires minimal sample preparation and no special apparatus except those associated with gas chromatography. Instead of Henry's Law used in similar previous studies, partition coefficients are used for the first time to calculate concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbon gases, which considerably simplifies the calculation involved. Partition coefficients are determined to be 128, 27.9, 1.28, and 96.3 at 30°C for methane, ethylene, acetylene, and ethane, respectively. It was discovered that the volume ratio of gas-to-liquid phase is critical to the accuracy of the measurements. The method performance can be readily improved by reducing the volume ratio of the two phases. Method validation shows less than 6% variation in accuracy and precision except at low levels of methane where interferences occur in ambient air. Method detection limits are determined to be in the low ng/L range for all analytes. The performance of the method is further tested using environmental samples collected from various sites in Nova Scotia.

  7. Analysis of Al and Fe transport coefficients in LHD core plasmas based on space-resolved EUV spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xianli; Morita, Shigeru; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Murakami, Izumi; Goto, Motoshi; Zhang, Hongming; Liu, Yang

    2016-10-01

    With impurity pellet injection and a one-dimensional transport code, the transport of Al and Fe ions has been analyzed in the Large Helical Device (LHD) based on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) space-resolved spectroscopy. The total density of Fe ions in the plasma core has been analyzed from the radial profiles of the Fe n =3-2 Lα emissions. When the ne profile is peaked or hollow, the Fe density also exhibits a peaked or hollow profile, respectively. Fe transport analysis shows that the convective velocity (V) is outward in the plasma core and inward near the edge when the ne profile is hollow. On the other hand, the V takes negative value over the whole radial range in the peaked ne profile. Therefore, the different Fe density profiles between peaked and hollow ne profiles can be explained by the significant difference in the V profile. Comparison of the transport coefficients between Al and Fe shows the magnitude of V for Al ions seems to be smaller than that for Fe ions while the difference in the diffusion coefficient profile is not significant. The difference in the decay time of line emissions between the two speices is attributed to the weaker convection for the Al.

  8. Determinants of physical activity based on the theory of planned behavior in Iranian Military Staff's Wives: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Gholamnia Shirvani, Zeinab; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2014-11-30

    Level of physical activity as a key determinant of healthy lifestyle less than is required in individuals particularly women. Applying theories of behavioral change about complex behaviors such as physical activity leads to identify effective factors and their relations. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of physical activity behavior based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in military staff's wives in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was performed in 180 military personnel's spouses residing in organizational houses, in Tehran, Iran in 2014. The participants were randomly selected with multi-stage cluster sampling. The validity and reliability of the theory based scale evaluated before conducting the path analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS16 and LISREL8.8. The results indicated the model explained 77% and 17% of intention and behavior variance. Subjective norms (Beta=0.83) and intention (Beta=0.37) were the strongest predictors of intention and behavior, respectively. The instrumental and affective attitude had no significant path to intention and behavior. The direct relation of perceived behavioral control to behavior was non-significant. This research demonstrated relative importance and relationships of Theory of Planned Behavior constructs in physical activity behavior of military personnel's spouses in Tehran. It is essential to consider these determinants in designing of educational interventions for promoting and maintaining physical activity behavior in this target group.

  9. Resolution of genetic and cultural inheritance in twin families by path analysis: application to HDL-cholesterol.

    PubMed Central

    McGue, M; Rao, D C; Iselius, L; Russell, J M

    1985-01-01

    A path model and associated statistical method for the analysis of data on twin families are introduced and applied to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) observations in the Swedish Twin Family Study. The proposed path model incorporates both genetic and environmental sources of familial resemblance, maternal environmental effects, intergenerational differences in heritabilities, marital resemblance due to either primary or secondary phenotypic homogamy, and twin residual environmental correlations. Application of the model to HDL-c levels resulted in parameter estimates consistent with those reported in earlier reviews and in the analysis of nuclear family and twin data. Genetic heritability was estimated as h2 = .363 +/- .243, cultural heritability as c2 = .187 +/- .082, and the proportion of phenotypic variance due to residual environmental effects as r2 = .450 +/- .207. Although the parameter estimates were comparable, the statistical tests of hypotheses were, relative to other designs, of low statistical power. It appears that environmental indices are necessary for powerful tests of hypotheses. PMID:4050793

  10. Graphical and Statistical Analysis of Airplane Passenger Cabin RF Coupling Paths to Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jafri, Madiha; Ely, Jay; Vahala, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Portable wireless technology provides many benefits to modern day travelers. Over the years however, numerous reports have cited portable electronic devices (PEDs) as a possible cause of electromagnetic interference (EMI) to aircraft navigation and communication radio systems. PEDs may act as transmitters, both intentional and unintentional, and their signals may be detected by the various radio receiver antennas installed on the aircraft. Measurement of the radiated field coupling between passenger cabin locations and aircraft communication and navigation receivers, via their antennas is defined herein as interference path loss (IPL). IPL data is required for assessing the threat of PEDs to aircraft radios, and is very dependent upon airplane size, the interfering transmitter position within the airplane, and the location of the particular antenna for the aircraft system of concern. NASA Langley Research Center, Eagles Wings Inc., and United Airlines personnel performed extensive IPL measurements on several Boeing 737 airplanes.

  11. Kudi: A free open-source python library for the analysis of properties along reaction paths.

    PubMed

    Vogt-Geisse, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    With increasing computational capabilities, an ever growing amount of data is generated in computational chemistry that contains a vast amount of chemically relevant information. It is therefore imperative to create new computational tools in order to process and extract this data in a sensible way. Kudi is an open source library that aids in the extraction of chemical properties from reaction paths. The straightforward structure of Kudi makes it easy to use for users and allows for effortless implementation of new capabilities, and extension to any quantum chemistry package. A use case for Kudi is shown for the tautomerization reaction of formic acid. Kudi is available free of charge at www.github.com/stvogt/kudi.

  12. Path analysis examining self-efficacy and decision-making performance on a simulated baseball task.

    PubMed

    Hepler, Teri J; Feltz, Deborah L

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between decision-making self-efficacy and decision-making performance in sport. Undergraduate students (N = 78) performzed 10 trials of a decision-making task in baseball. Self-efficacy was measured before performing each trial. Decision-making performance was assessed by decision speed and decision accuracy. Path analyses examined the relationships between self-efficacy, residualized past performance, and current performance. The results indicated that self-efficacy was a significant and consistent predictor of decision speed (eight of nine trials), but not decision accuracy (four of nine trials). It was also found that experience does not have a meaningful effect on the relationship between self-efficacy and decision-making performance in sport.

  13. Social support, stress, health, and academic success in Ghanaian adolescents: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the role psychosocial factors play in promoting the health and academic success of adolescents. A total of 770 adolescent boys and girls in Senior High Schools were randomly selected to complete a self-report questionnaire. School reported latest terminal examination grades were used as the measure of academic success. Structural equation modelling indicated a relatively good fit to the posteriori model with four of the hypothesised paths fully supported and two partially supported. Perceived social support was negatively related to stress and predictive of health and wellbeing but not academic success. Stress was predictive of health but not academic success. Finally, health and wellbeing was able to predict academic success. These findings have policy implications regarding efforts aimed at promoting the health and wellbeing as well as the academic success of adolescents in Ghana.

  14. Quantum path analysis of high-order above-threshold ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopold, R.; Becker, W.; Kleber, M.

    2000-05-01

    High-order above-threshold ionization spectra are calculated via an improved Keldysh approximation that takes rescattering into account. An approximate method of evaluating the crucial multidimensional integral proceeds via the saddle point method. The saddle points define complex orbits in position space that depart from the ion and return to it to rescatter. The real parts of these orbits are very closely related to the trajectories of the simple-man model. The spectra are analyzed in terms of these quantum orbits whose constructive and destructive interferences generate the spectrum's intricate structures. In most spectral regions, the six trajectories having the shortest travel times between start and return already provide an excellent approximation to the exact calculation. In exceptional cases, more orbits are required. The quantum orbits provide an illuminating illustration of the quantum mechanical path integral.

  15. Analysis of the spectral response of fractal antennas related with its geometry and current paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadrado, Alexander; López-Alonso, José M.; Martínez-Antón, Juan C.; Ezquerro, José M.; González, Francisco J.; Alda, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Fractal antennas have been proposed to improve the bandwidth of resonant structures and optical antennas. Their multiband characteristics are of interest in radiofrequency and microwave technologies. In this contribution we link the geometry of the current paths built-in the fractal antenna with the spectral response. We have seen that the actual currents owing through the structure are not limited to the portion of the fractal that should be geometrically linked with the signal. This fact strongly depends on the design of the fractal and how the different scales are arranged within the antenna. Some ideas involving materials that could actively respond to the incoming radiation could be of help to spectrally select the response of the multiband design.

  16. Point and path performance of light aircraft: A review and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Summey, D. C.; Johnson, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    The literature on methods for predicting the performance of light aircraft is reviewed. The methods discussed in the review extend from the classical instantaneous maximum or minimum technique to techniques for generating mathematically optimum flight paths. Classical point performance techniques are shown to be adequate in many cases but their accuracies are compromised by the need to use simple lift, drag, and thrust relations in order to get closed form solutions. Also the investigation of the effect of changes in weight, altitude, configuration, etc. involves many essentially repetitive calculations. Accordingly, computer programs are provided which can fit arbitrary drag polars and power curves with very high precision and which can then use the resulting fits to compute the performance under the assumption that the aircraft is not accelerating.

  17. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z Q J; Lowhorn, N D; Wong-Ng, W; Zhang, W; Thomas, E L; Otani, M; Green, M L; Tran, T N; Caylor, C; Dilley, N R; Downey, A; Edwards, B; Elsner, N; Ghamaty, S; Hogan, T; Jie, Q; Li, Q; Martin, J; Nolas, G; Obara, H; Sharp, J; Venkatasubramanian, R; Willigan, R; Yang, J; Tritt, T

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™) for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials-undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy). Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations.

  18. Complexity dynamics and Hopf bifurcation analysis based on the first Lyapunov coefficient about 3D IS-LM macroeconomics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Junhai; Ren, Wenbo; Zhan, Xueli

    2017-04-01

    Based on the study of scholars at home and abroad, this paper improves the three-dimensional IS-LM model in macroeconomics, analyzes the equilibrium point of the system and stability conditions, focuses on the parameters and complex dynamic characteristics when Hopf bifurcation occurs in the three-dimensional IS-LM macroeconomics system. In order to analyze the stability of limit cycles when Hopf bifurcation occurs, this paper further introduces the first Lyapunov coefficient to judge the limit cycles, i.e. from a practical view of the business cycle. Numerical simulation results show that within the range of most of the parameters, the limit cycle of 3D IS-LM macroeconomics is stable, that is, the business cycle is stable; with the increase of the parameters, limit cycles becomes unstable, and the value range of the parameters in this situation is small. The research results of this paper have good guide significance for the analysis of macroeconomics system.

  19. Permeability and kinetic coefficients for mesoscale BCF surface step dynamics: Discrete two-dimensional deposition-diffusion equation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Renjie; Evans, James W.; Oliveira, Tiago J.

    2016-04-08

    Here, a discrete version of deposition-diffusion equations appropriate for description of step flow on a vicinal surface is analyzed for a two-dimensional grid of adsorption sites representing the stepped surface and explicitly incorporating kinks along the step edges. Model energetics and kinetics appropriately account for binding of adatoms at steps and kinks, distinct terrace and edge diffusion rates, and possible additional barriers for attachment to steps. Analysis of adatom attachment fluxes as well as limiting values of adatom densities at step edges for nonuniform deposition scenarios allows determination of both permeability and kinetic coefficients. Behavior of these quantities is assessed as a function of key system parameters including kink density, step attachment barriers, and the step edge diffusion rate.

  20. Permeability and kinetic coefficients for mesoscale BCF surface step dynamics: Discrete two-dimensional deposition-diffusion equation analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Renjie; Evans, James W.; Oliveira, Tiago J.

    2016-04-08

    Here, a discrete version of deposition-diffusion equations appropriate for description of step flow on a vicinal surface is analyzed for a two-dimensional grid of adsorption sites representing the stepped surface and explicitly incorporating kinks along the step edges. Model energetics and kinetics appropriately account for binding of adatoms at steps and kinks, distinct terrace and edge diffusion rates, and possible additional barriers for attachment to steps. Analysis of adatom attachment fluxes as well as limiting values of adatom densities at step edges for nonuniform deposition scenarios allows determination of both permeability and kinetic coefficients. Behavior of these quantities is assessedmore » as a function of key system parameters including kink density, step attachment barriers, and the step edge diffusion rate.« less

  1. Aero-thermo-dynamic analysis of a low ballistic coefficient deployable capsule in Earth re-entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuppardi, G.; Savino, R.; Mongelluzzo, G.

    2016-10-01

    The paper deals with a microsatellite and the related deployable recovery capsule. The aero-brake is folded at launch and deployed in space and is able to perform a de-orbiting controlled re-entry. This kind of capsule, with a flexible, high temperature resistant fabric, thanks to its lightness and modulating capability, can be an alternative to the current "conventional" recovery capsules. The present authors already analyzed the trajectory and the aerodynamic behavior of low ballistic coefficient capsules during Earth re-entry and Mars entry. In previous studies, aerodynamic longitudinal stability analysis and evaluation of thermal and aerodynamic loads for a possible suborbital re-entry demonstrator were carried out in both continuum and rarefied regimes. The present study is aimed at providing preliminary information about thermal and aerodynamic loads and longitudinal stability for a similar deployable capsule, as well as information about the electronic composition of the plasma sheet and its possible influence on radio communications at the altitudes where GPS black-out could occur. Since the computer tests were carried out at high altitudes, therefore in rarefied flow fields, use of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo codes was mandatory. The computations involved both global aerodynamic quantities (drag and longitudinal moment coefficients) and local aerodynamic quantities (heat flux and pressure distributions along the capsule surface). The results verified that the capsule at high altitude (150 km) is self-stabilizing; it is stable around the nominal attitude or at zero angle of attack and unstable around the reverse attitude or at 180° angle of attack. The analysis also pointed out the presence of extra statically stable equilibrium trim points.

  2. pathDIP: an annotated resource for known and predicted human gene-pathway associations and pathway enrichment analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Sara; Abovsky, Mark; Pastrello, Chiara; Jurisica, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Molecular pathway data are essential in current computational and systems biology research. While there are many primary and integrated pathway databases, several challenges remain, including low proteome coverage (57%), low overlap across different databases, unavailability of direct information about underlying physical connectivity of pathway members, and high fraction of protein-coding genes without any pathway annotations, i.e. ‘pathway orphans’. In order to address all these challenges, we developed pathDIP, which integrates data from 20 source pathway databases, ‘core pathways’, with physical protein–protein interactions to predict biologically relevant protein–pathway associations, referred to as ‘extended pathways’. Cross-validation determined 71% recovery rate of our predictions. Data integration and predictions increase coverage of pathway annotations for protein-coding genes to 86%, and provide novel annotations for 5732 pathway orphans. PathDIP (http://ophid.utoronto.ca/pathdip) annotates 17 070 protein-coding genes with 4678 pathways, and provides multiple query, analysis and output options. PMID:27899558

  3. Path analysis of relationship among personality, perceived stress, coping, social support, and psychological outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Feizi, Awat; Afshar, Hamid; Mazaheri, Mina; Behnamfar, Omid; Hassanzadeh-Keshteli, Ammar; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide a structural model of the relationship between personality traits, perceived stress, coping strategies, social support, and psychological outcomes in the general population. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study in which the study group was selected using multistage cluster and convenience sampling among a population of 4 million. For data collection, a total of 4763 individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire on demographics, personality traits, life events, coping with stress, social support, and psychological outcomes such as anxiety and depression. To evaluate the comprehensive relationship between the variables, a path model was fitted. RESULTS: The standard electronic modules showed that personality traits and perceived stress are important determinants of psychological outcomes. Social support and coping strategies were demonstrated to reduce the increasing cumulative positive effects of neuroticism and perceived stress on the psychological outcomes and enhance the protective effect of extraversion through decreasing the positive effect of perceived stress on the psychological outcomes. CONCLUSION: Personal resources play an important role in reduction and prevention of anxiety and depression. In order to improve the psychological health, it is necessary to train and reinforce the adaptive coping strategies and social support, and thus, to moderate negative personality traits. PMID:27354968

  4. Mathematical analysis study for radar data processing and enchancement. Part 2: Modeling of propagation path errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, R.; Brownlow, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    A study is performed under NASA contract to evaluate data from an AN/FPS-16 radar installed for support of flight programs at Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center. The purpose of this study is to provide information necessary for improving post-flight data reduction and knowledge of accuracy of derived radar quantities. Tracking data from six flights are analyzed. Noise and bias errors in raw tracking data are determined for each of the flights. A discussion of an altitude bias error during all of the tracking missions is included. This bias error is defined by utilizing pressure altitude measurements made during survey flights. Four separate filtering methods, representative of the most widely used optimal estimation techniques for enhancement of radar tracking data, are analyzed for suitability in processing both real-time and post-mission data. Additional information regarding the radar and its measurements, including typical noise and bias errors in the range and angle measurements, is also presented. This report is in two parts. This is part 2, a discussion of the modeling of propagation path errors.

  5. Bayesian Uncertainty Quantification for Bond Energies and Mobilities Using Path Integral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Joshua C.; Fok, Pak-Wing; Chou, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic single-molecule force spectroscopy is often used to distort bonds. The resulting responses, in the form of rupture forces, work applied, and trajectories of displacements, are used to reconstruct bond potentials. Such approaches often rely on simple parameterizations of one-dimensional bond potentials, assumptions on equilibrium starting states, and/or large amounts of trajectory data. Parametric approaches typically fail at inferring complicated bond potentials with multiple minima, while piecewise estimation may not guarantee smooth results with the appropriate behavior at large distances. Existing techniques, particularly those based on work theorems, also do not address spatial variations in the diffusivity that may arise from spatially inhomogeneous coupling to other degrees of freedom in the macromolecule. To address these challenges, we develop a comprehensive empirical Bayesian approach that incorporates data and regularization terms directly into a path integral. All experimental and statistical parameters in our method are estimated directly from the data. Upon testing our method on simulated data, our regularized approach requires less data and allows simultaneous inference of both complex bond potentials and diffusivity profiles. Crucially, we show that the accuracy of the reconstructed bond potential is sensitive to the spatially varying diffusivity and accurate reconstruction can be expected only when both are simultaneously inferred. Moreover, after providing a means for self-consistently choosing regularization parameters from data, we derive posterior probability distributions, allowing for uncertainty quantification. PMID:26331254

  6. Practical determination of friction coefficient of Al 3003 for forming of backward extruded part using simple tip test and inverse finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bong, H. J.; Leem, D.; Kim, J. H.; Im, Y. T.; Lee, M. G.

    2016-05-01

    The friction coefficient for aluminum alloy 3003 was determined from a specially designed tip test and finite element (FE) simulations. Measured radial tip distance after the tip test was compared to the FE simulations by iteratively changing friction coefficient and the best fitting friction coefficient was determined. To consider strain rate effect on flow stress response during large plastic deformation, a new combined Hollomon- Voce hardening law was proposed. The friction under three different surface conditions was considered by the proposed inverse FE analysis. The results showed that there was obvious strain rate effect on the predicted punch load in the tip test. Moreover, the different friction coefficients were numerically determined for punch/workpiece and die/workpiece interfaces. Two possible causes of this difference were discussed by the analysis on contact normal pressure and slip velocity distributions of the two interfaces.

  7. One-Sided Measurement Approach on Ultrasonic Beam Path Analysis in CFRP Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, K. H.; Hsu, D. K.; Kim, H. J.; Song, S. J.; Dayal, V.; Barnard, D.; Park, J. W.; Lee, K. S.; Yang, Y. J.; Yang, I. Y.

    2008-02-01

    Composite materials are attractive for a wide range of applications because of high performance engineering structures. In particular, the importance of carbon-fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been generally recognized in both space and civil aircraft industries; so, CFRP composite laminates are widely used. It is very important to detect defects in composite laminates because they cause the mechanical properties (stiffness, strength) of the laminate to be reduced. As well known for ultrasonic technique for evaluating the defect of CFRP composite laminates, a pitch-catch technique was found to be more practical than normal incidence backwall echo of longitudinal wave to arbitrary flaws in the composite, including fiber orientation, low level porosity, ply waviness, and cracks. The measurement depth using Rayleigh probes can be increased by increasing the separation distance of the transmitting and receiving probes. Also, with the aid of the automatic scanner, the one-sided pitch-catch probe was used to produce C-scan images for mapping out the images with beam profiles. Especially pitch-catch beam path was nondestructively characterized for the specimens when measuring a peak-to-peak amplitude and time-of-flight in order to build the beam profile modeling in the unidirectional CFRP composite laminates. Also, the pitch-catch simulation was performed to predict the beam profile trend of wave propagation in the unidirectional CF/Epoxy composite laminates. Therefore, it is found that the experimentally Rayleigh wave variation of pitch-catch ultrasonic signal was consistent with simulated results and one-side ultrasonic measurement might be very useful to detect the defects in CFRP composites.

  8. Monte Carlo analysis of single fiber reflectance spectroscopy: photon path length and sampling depth.

    PubMed

    Kanick, S C; Robinson, D J; Sterenborg, H J C M; Amelink, A

    2009-11-21

    Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy is a method to noninvasively quantitate tissue absorption and scattering properties. This study utilizes a Monte Carlo (MC) model to investigate the effect that optical properties have on the propagation of photons that are collected during the single fiber reflectance measurement. MC model estimates of the single fiber photon path length (L(SF)) show excellent agreement with experimental measurements and predictions of a mathematical model over a wide range of optical properties and fiber diameters. Simulation results show that L(SF) is unaffected by changes in anisotropy (g epsilon [0.8, 0.9, 0.95]), but is sensitive to changes in phase function (Henyey-Greenstein versus modified Henyey-Greenstein). A 20% decrease in L(SF) was observed for the modified Henyey-Greenstein compared with the Henyey-Greenstein phase function; an effect that is independent of optical properties and fiber diameter and is approximated with a simple linear offset. The MC model also returns depth-resolved absorption profiles that are used to estimate the mean sampling depth (Z(SF)) of the single fiber reflectance measurement. Simulated data are used to define a novel mathematical expression for Z(SF) that is expressed in terms of optical properties, fiber diameter and L(SF). The model of sampling depth indicates that the single fiber reflectance measurement is dominated by shallow scattering events, even for large fibers; a result that suggests that the utility of single fiber reflectance measurements of tissue in vivo will be in the quantification of the optical properties of superficial tissues.

  9. Using principal component analysis and general path seeker regression for investigation of air pollution and CO modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A.; Voynikova, D.; Gocheva-Ilieva, S.; Kulina, H.; Iliev, I.

    2015-10-01

    The monitoring and control of air quality in urban areas is important problem in many European countries. The main air pollutants are observed and a huge amount of data is collected during the last years. In Bulgaria, the air quality is surveyed by the official environmental agency and in many towns exceedances of harmful pollutants are detected. The aim of this study is to investigate the pollution from 9 air pollutants in the town of Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria in the period of 5 years based on hourly data. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to discover the patterns in the overall pollution and the contribution of the 9 pollutants. In addition the Generalized Path Seeker (GPS) regularized regression method is applied to find dependence of CO (carbon monoxide) with respect to other pollutants and 8 meteorological parameters. It is reported that the CO concentrations are in continuously repeated low level quantities very harmful for human health.

  10. Relative permeability of hydrate-bearing sediments from percolation theory and critical path analysis: theoretical and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Daigle, Hugh; Rice, Mary Anna; Daigle, Hugh

    2015-12-14

    Relative permeabilities to water and gas are important parameters for accurate modeling of the formation of methane hydrate deposits and production of methane from hydrate reservoirs. Experimental measurements of gas and water permeability in the presence of hydrate are difficult to obtain. The few datasets that do exist suggest that relative permeability obeys a power law relationship with water or gas saturation with exponents ranging from around 2 to greater than 10. Critical path analysis and percolation theory provide a framework for interpreting the saturation-dependence of relative permeability based on percolation thresholds and the breadth of pore size distributions, which may be determined easily from 3-D images or gas adsorption-desorption hysteresis. We show that the exponent of the permeability-saturation relationship for relative permeability to water is related to the breadth of the pore size distribution, with broader pore size distributions corresponding to larger exponents. Relative permeability to water in well-sorted sediments with narrow pore size distributions, such as Berea sandstone or Toyoura sand, follows percolation scaling with an exponent of 2. On the other hand, pore-size distributions determined from argon adsorption measurements we performed on clays from the Nankai Trough suggest that relative permeability to water in fine-grained intervals may be characterized by exponents as large as 10 as determined from critical path analysis. We also show that relative permeability to the gas phase follows percolation scaling with a quadratic dependence on gas saturation, but the threshold gas saturation for percolation changes with hydrate saturation, which is an important consideration in systems in which both hydrate and gas are present, such as during production from a hydrate reservoir. Our work shows how measurements of pore size distributions from 3-D imaging or gas adsorption may be used to determine relative permeabilities.

  11. Path Analysis Association between Domestic Violence, Anxiety, Depression and Perceived Stress in Mothers and Children’s Development

    PubMed Central

    VAMEGHI, Roshanak; AMIR ALI AKBARI, Sedigheh; SAJEDI, Firoozeh; SAJJADI, Homeira; ALAVI MAJD, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given that several factors involved in the incidence or exacerbation of developmental disorders in children, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between some of the risk factors affecting mothers’ health and development in children using path analysis. Materials & Methods The present cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 750 mothers and their children in health centers in Tehran, Iran in 2014 enrolled through multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected using a demographic and personal information questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale, Beck’s depression Inventory, Spielberger’ anxiety inventory, the WHO domestic violence questionnaire and an ages & stages questionnaire for assessing children’s development. Data were analyzed using SPSS.19 (Chicago, IL, USA) and Lisrel 8.8. Results Developmental delay was observed in 12.1% of the children. The mean stress score was 23.94±8.62 in the mothers, 50.7% of whom showed mild to severe depression, 84.2% moderate to severe anxiety and 35.3% had been subjected to domestic violence. The path analysis showed that children’s development was affected directly by perceived stress (β=-0.09) and depression (β=-0.17) and indirectly by domestic violence (β=-0.05278) and anxiety (β=-0.0357). Of all the variables examined, depression had the biggest influence on development in the children (β=-0.17). The proposed model showed a good fit (GFI=1, RMSEA=0.034). Conclusion Children’s development was influenced indirectly by domestic violence and anxiety and directly by perceived stress and depression in mothers. It is thus suggested that more concern and attention be paid to women’s mental health and the domestic violence they experience. PMID:27843465

  12. Relative permeability of hydrate-bearing sediments from percolation theory and critical path analysis: theoretical and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, H.; Rice, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Relative permeabilities to water and gas are important parameters for accurate modeling of the formation of methane hydrate deposits and production of methane from hydrate reservoirs. Experimental measurements of gas and water permeability in the presence of hydrate are difficult to obtain. The few datasets that do exist suggest that relative permeability obeys a power law relationship with water or gas saturation with exponents ranging from around 2 to greater than 10. Critical path analysis and percolation theory provide a framework for interpreting the saturation-dependence of relative permeability based on percolation thresholds and the breadth of pore size distributions, which may be determined easily from 3-D images or gas adsorption-desorption hysteresis. We show that the exponent of the permeability-saturation relationship for relative permeability to water is related to the breadth of the pore size distribution, with broader pore size distributions corresponding to larger exponents. Relative permeability to water in well-sorted sediments with narrow pore size distributions, such as Berea sandstone or Toyoura sand, follows percolation scaling with an exponent of 2. On the other hand, pore-size distributions determined from argon adsorption measurements we performed on clays from the Nankai Trough suggest that relative permeability to water in fine-grained intervals may be characterized by exponents as large as 10 as determined from critical path analysis. We also show that relative permeability to the gas phase follows percolation scaling with a quadratic dependence on gas saturation, but the threshold gas saturation for percolation changes with hydrate saturation, which is an important consideration in systems in which both hydrate and gas are present, such as during production from a hydrate reservoir. Our work shows how measurements of pore size distributions from 3-D imaging or gas adsorption may be used to determine relative permeabilities.

  13. Mixed-effects varying-coefficient model with skewed distribution coupled with cause-specific varying-coefficient hazard model with random-effects for longitudinal-competing risks data analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tao; Wang, Min; Liu, Guangying; Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Feng

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that there is strong relationship between HIV viral load and CD4 cell counts in AIDS studies. However, the relationship between them changes during the course of treatment and may vary among individuals. During treatments, some individuals may experience terminal events such as death. Because the terminal event may be related to the individual's viral load measurements, the terminal mechanism is non-ignorable. Furthermore, there exists competing risks from multiple types of events, such as AIDS-related death and other death. Most joint models for the analysis of longitudinal-survival data developed in literatures have focused on constant coefficients and assume symmetric distribution for the endpoints, which does not meet the needs for investigating the nature of varying relationship between HIV viral load and CD4 cell counts in practice. We develop a mixed-effects varying-coefficient model with skewed distribution coupled with cause-specific varying-coefficient hazard model with random-effects to deal with varying relationship between the two endpoints for longitudinal-competing risks survival data. A fully Bayesian inference procedure is established to estimate parameters in the joint model. The proposed method is applied to a multicenter AIDS cohort study. Various scenarios-based potential models that account for partial data features are compared. Some interesting findings are presented.

  14. Assessment of critical path analyses of the relationship between permeability and electrical conductivity of pore networks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Critical path analysis (CPA) is a method for estimating macroscopic transport coefficients of heterogeneous materials that are highly disordered at the micro-scale. Developed originally to model conduction in semiconductors, numerous researchers have noted that CPA might also have relevance to flow ...

  15. White Noise Path Integrals in Stochastic Neurodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpio-Bernido, M. Victoria; Bernido, Christopher C.

    2008-06-01

    The white noise path integral approach is used in stochastic modeling of neural activity, where the primary dynamical variables are the relative membrane potentials, while information on transmembrane ionic currents is contained in the drift coefficient. The white noise path integral allows a natural framework and can be evaluated explicitly to yield a closed form for the conditional probability density.

  16. A novel multi-segment path analysis based on a heterogeneous velocity model for the localization of acoustic emission sources in complex propagation media.

    PubMed

    Gollob, Stephan; Kocur, Georg Karl; Schumacher, Thomas; Mhamdi, Lassaad; Vogel, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    In acoustic emission analysis, common source location algorithms assume, independently of the nature of the propagation medium, a straight (shortest) wave path between the source and the sensors. For heterogeneous media such as concrete, the wave travels in complex paths due to the interaction with the dissimilar material contents and with the possible geometrical and material irregularities present in these media. For instance, cracks and large air voids present in concrete influence significantly the way the wave travels, by causing wave path deviations. Neglecting these deviations by assuming straight paths can introduce significant errors to the source location results. In this paper, a novel source localization method called FastWay is proposed. It accounts, contrary to most available shortest path-based methods, for the different effects of material discontinuities (cracks and voids). FastWay, based on a heterogeneous velocity model, uses the fastest rather than the shortest travel paths between the source and each sensor. The method was evaluated both numerically and experimentally and the results from both evaluation tests show that, in general, FastWay was able to locate sources of acoustic emissions more accurately and reliably than the traditional source localization methods.

  17. Including Omission Mistakes in the Calculation of Cohen's Kappa and an Analysis of the Coefficient's Paradox Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    The application range of Cohen's Kappa is extended to the field of sequential observation data, where omission mistakes of an observer may often occur. It is shown how the omission mistakes can be incorporated into the calculation of the Kappa coefficient without violating the statistic it is based on. The enhanced coefficient is termed Kappa…

  18. Meta-Analysis inside and outside Particle Physics: Convergence Using the Path of Least Resistance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Dan; Baker, Rose

    2013-01-01

    In this note, we explain how the method proposed by Hartung and Knapp provides a compromise between conventional meta-analysis methodology and "unconstrained averaging", as used by the Particle Data Group.

  19. Meta-analysis inside and outside particle physics: convergence using the path of least resistance?

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dan; Baker, Rose

    2013-06-01

    In this note, we explain how the method proposed by Hartung and Knapp provides a compromise between conventional meta-analysis methodology and 'unconstrained averaging', as used by the Particle Data Group. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Modeling and data analysis of the NASA-WSTF frictional heating apparatus - Effects of test parameters on friction coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Sheng-Hu; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Benz, Frank J.; Yuen, Walter W.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical model is being developed jointly by the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) and the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) to analyze data generated from the WSTF frictional heating test facility. Analyses of the data generated in the first seconds of the frictional heating test are shown to be effective in determining the friction coefficient between the rubbing interfaces. Different friction coefficients for carobn steel and Monel K-500 are observed. The initial condition of the surface is shown to affect only the initial value of the friction coefficient but to have no significant influence on the average steady-state friction coefficient. Rotational speed and the formation of oxide film on the rotating surfaces are shown to have a significant effect on the friction coefficient.

  1. Linking predators to seasonality of upwelling: Using food web indicators and path analysis to infer trophic connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sarah Ann; Sydeman, William J.; Santora, Jarrod A.; Black, Bryan A.; Suryan, Robert M.; Calambokidis, John; Peterson, William T.; Bograd, Steven J.

    2012-08-01

    Upwelling in eastern boundary current systems is a primary driver of ecosystem productivity. Typically, peak upwelling occurs during spring and summer, but winter upwelling may also be important to ecosystem functions. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that winter and spring/summer upwelling, operating through indirect trophic interactions, are important to a suite of top predators in the California Current. To test this hypothesis, we collated information on upwelling, chlorophyll-a concentrations, zooplankton and forage fish, and related these to predator responses including rockfish growth, salmon abundance, seabird productivity and phenology (timing of egg-laying), and whale abundance. Seabird diets served in part as food web indicators. We modeled pathways of response using path analysis and tested for significance of the dominant paths with multiple regression. We found support for the hypothesis that relationships between upwelling and top predator variables were mediated primarily by intermediate trophic levels. Both winter and summer upwelling were important in path models, as were intermediate lower and mid trophic level functional groups represented by chlorophyll-a, zooplankton, and forage fish. Significant pathways of response explained from 50% to 80% of the variation of seabird (Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and common murre (Uria aalge)), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) dependent variables, whereas splitnose rockfish (Sebastes diploproa) showed no significant response pathways. Upwelling and trophic responses for salmon were established for both the year of ocean entry and the year of return, with zooplankton important in the year of ocean entry and forage fish important in the year of return. This study provides one of the first comparative investigations between upwelling and predators, from fish to marine mammals and birds within a geographically restricted area

  2. Genetic variability, character association, and path analysis for economic traits in menthofuran rich half-sib seed progeny of Mentha piperita L.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Birendra; Mali, Himanshi; Gupta, Ekta

    2014-01-01

    Menthofuran rich eight half-sib seed progeny of Mentha piperita (MPS-36) were studied for various genetic parameters, namely, coefficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance, correlation, and path of various plant and oil attributes, namely, plant height, L:S ratio, herb yield, β -myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, menthone, menthofuran, neomenthone, pulegone, and menthol. Maximum genotypic coefficient of variation and genetic advance as percentage of mean were recorded for pulegone, followed by menthofuran and 1,8-cineole. The genotypic correlation in general was higher than phenotypic; positive significant correlation was recorded for limonene with 1,8-cineole and menthone, β -myrcene with limonene, and 1,8-cineole and menthofuran with neomenthol. A high direct positive effect on menthofuran was of neomenthol.

  3. Multilayer thin-film inspection through measurements of reflection coefficients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kai; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Brock, Neal J; Kimbrough, Brad

    2011-08-15

    A vibration-insensitive interferometer is described to measure the thickness, refraction index and surface profile of thin-film stack at normal incidence. By satisfying the continuous boundary conditions of electric and magnetic fields at interfaces in a multilayer film stack, the reflection coefficient phase of the thin-film stack can be distinguished from the phase of spatial path difference, thus thickness and refraction index can be extracted. The experiment results showed that the measurement precision is significantly increased after the phase analysis was added into the reflectance analysis.

  4. Social Cognitive Predictors of College Students' Academic Performance and Persistence: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Tramayne, Selena; Hoxha, Denada; Telander, Kyle; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lent, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested Social Cognitive Career Theory's (SCCT) academic performance model using a two-stage approach that combined meta-analytic and structural equation modeling methodologies. Unbiased correlations obtained from a previously published meta-analysis [Robbins, S. B., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., & Langley, R. (2004). Do psychosocial…

  5. The informativeness of coefficients a and b of the soil line for the analysis of remote sensing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhovich, D. I.; Rukhovich, A. D.; Rukhovich, D. D.; Simakova, M. S.; Kulyanitsa, A. L.; Bryzzhev, A. V.; Koroleva, P. V.

    2016-08-01

    The coefficients of the soil line are often taken into account in calculations of vegetation indices. These coefficients are usually calculated for the entire satellite image, or are taken as constants without any calculations. In both cases, the informativeness of these coefficients is low and insufficient for the needs of soil mapping. In our study, we calculated soil line coefficients at 8000 lattice points for the territory of Plavsk, Arsen'evsk, and Chern districts of Tula oblast on the basis of 34 Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images obtained in 1985-2014. In order to distinguish between the soil line calculated for a given image and the soil line calculated for lattice points on the basis of dozens of multitemporal images, we suggest that the latter can be referred to as the temporal soil line. The temporal soil line is described by a classical equation: NIR = RED a + b, where a is its slope relative to the horizontal axis (RED), and b is the Y-axis (NIR) intercept. Both coefficients were used to create soil maps. The verification of the maps was performed with the use of data on 1985 soil pits. The informativeness of these coefficients appeared to be sufficient for delineation of eight groups of soils of different taxonomic levels: soddy moderately podzolic soils, soddy slightly podzolic soils, soddy-podzolic soils, light gray forest soils, gray forest soils, dark gray forest soils, podzolized chernozems, and leached chernozems. The b coefficient proved to be more informative, as it allowed us to create the soil map precisely on its basis. In order to create the soil map on the basis of the a coefficient, we had to apply some threshold values of the b coefficient. The bare soil on each of Landsat scenes was separated with the help of the mask of agricultural fields and the notion of the spectral neighborhood of soil line (SNSL).

  6. Osmotic virial coefficients for model protein and colloidal solutions: importance of ensemble constraints in the analysis of light scattering data.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Daniel W; Krekelberg, William P; Roberts, Christopher J; Shen, Vincent K

    2012-05-07

    Protein-protein interactions in solution may be quantified by the osmotic second virial coefficient (OSVC), which can be measured by various experimental techniques including light scattering. Analysis of Rayleigh light scattering measurements from such experiments requires identification of a scattering volume and the thermodynamic constraints imposed on that volume, i.e., the statistical mechanical ensemble in which light scattering occurs. Depending on the set of constraints imposed on the scattering volume, one can obtain either an apparent OSVC, A(2,app), or the true thermodynamic OSVC, B(22)(osm), that is rigorously defined in solution theory [M. A. Blanco, E. Sahin, Y. Li, and C. J. Roberts, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 225103 (2011)]. However, it is unclear to what extent A(2,app) and B(22)(osm) differ, which may have implications on the physical interpretation of OSVC measurements from light scattering experiments. In this paper, we use the multicomponent hard-sphere model and a well-known equation of state to directly compare A(2,app) and B(22)(osm). Our results from the hard-sphere equation of state indicate that A(2,app) underestimates B(22)(osm), but in a systematic manner that may be explained using fundamental thermodynamic expressions for the two OSVCs. The difference between A(2,app) and B(22)(osm) may be quantitatively significant, but may also be obscured in experimental application by statistical uncertainty or non-steric interactions. Consequently, the two OSVCs that arise in the analysis of light scattering measurements do formally differ, but in a manner that may not be detectable in actual application.

  7. Osmotic virial coefficients for model protein and colloidal solutions: Importance of ensemble constraints in the analysis of light scattering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siderius, Daniel W.; Krekelberg, William P.; Roberts, Christopher J.; Shen, Vincent K.

    2012-05-01

    Protein-protein interactions in solution may be quantified by the osmotic second virial coefficient (OSVC), which can be measured by various experimental techniques including light scattering. Analysis of Rayleigh light scattering measurements from such experiments requires identification of a scattering volume and the thermodynamic constraints imposed on that volume, i.e., the statistical mechanical ensemble in which light scattering occurs. Depending on the set of constraints imposed on the scattering volume, one can obtain either an apparent OSVC, A2,app, or the true thermodynamic OSVC, {B_{22}^{osm}}, that is rigorously defined in solution theory [M. A. Blanco, E. Sahin, Y. Li, and C. J. Roberts, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 225103 (2011), 10.1063/1.3596726]. However, it is unclear to what extent A2,app and {B_{22}^{osm}} differ, which may have implications on the physical interpretation of OSVC measurements from light scattering experiments. In this paper, we use the multicomponent hard-sphere model and a well-known equation of state to directly compare A2,app and {B_{22}^{osm}}. Our results from the hard-sphere equation of state indicate that A2,app underestimates {B_{22}^{osm}}, but in a systematic manner that may be explained using fundamental thermodynamic expressions for the two OSVCs. The difference between A2,app and {B_{22}^{osm}} may be quantitatively significant, but may also be obscured in experimental application by statistical uncertainty or non-steric interactions. Consequently, the two OSVCs that arise in the analysis of light scattering measurements do formally differ, but in a manner that may not be detectable in actual application.

  8. Global ULF wave analysis of radial diffusion coefficients using a global MHD model for the 17 March 2015 storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhao; Hudson, Mary; Paral, Jan; Wiltberger, Michael; Turner, Drew

    2016-07-01

    The 17-18 March 2015 storm is the largest geomagnetic storm in the Van Allen Probes era to date. The Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global MHD model has been run for this event using ARTEMIS data as solar wind input. The ULF wave power spectral density of the azimuthal electric field and compressional magnetic field is analyzed in the 0.5-8.3 mHz range. The lowest three azimuthal modes account for 70% of the total power during quiet times. However, during high activity, they are not exclusively dominant. The calculation of the radial diffusion coefficient is presented. We conclude that the electric field radial diffusion coefficient is dominant over the magnetic field coefficient by one to two orders of magnitude. This result contrasts with the dominant magnetic field diffusion coefficient used in most 3-D diffusion models.

  9. Using Knowledge, Skill and Ability (KSA) Data to Identify Career Pathing Opportunities: An Application of Job Analysis to Internal Manpower Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, William

    1993-01-01

    When knowledge, skills, and abilities of four job classes (secretarial/clerical, managerial/administrative, professional/technical, service) were identified, 68% of those determined important for managerial/administrative were also important for secretarial/clerical. Job analysis proved useful in identifying possible career paths, and potential…

  10. The Health Action Process Approach as a Motivational Model of Dietary Self-Management for People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chung-Yi; Lynch, Ruth Torkelson; Chan, Fong; Rose, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the health action process approach (HAPA) as a motivational model for dietary self-management for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Quantitative descriptive research design using path analysis was used. Participants were 209 individuals with MS recruited from the National MS Society and a…

  11. Individual and Social Influences on Students' Attitudes to Debt: A Cross-National Path Analysis Using Data from England and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil; Agnew, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the construction of debt attitudes among 439 first-year undergraduates in England and New Zealand. It works from a conceptual model that predicts that attitudes will be partly determined by a range of social factors, mediated through personality and 'financial literacy'. Path analysis is used to explore this model. The proposed…

  12. Path Analysis of Work Family Conflict, Job Salary and Promotion Satisfaction, Work Engagement to Subjective Well-Being of the Primary and Middle School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chun-mei; Cui, Shu-jing; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the path analysis of work family conflict, job salary and promotion satisfaction, work engagement to subjective well-being of the primary and middle school principals, and provide advice for enhancing their well-being. Methods: Using convenient sampling, totally 300 primary and middle school principals completed the WFC,…

  13. The Perceptions of Temporal Path Analysis of Learners' Self-Regulation on Learning Stress and Social Relationships in Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This research focus on the temporal path analysis of learning stress, test anxiety, peer stress (classmate relatedness), teacher relatedness, autonomy, and self-regulative performance in junior high school. Owing to the processes of self-determination always combines several negotiations with the interactive perceptions of personal experiences and…

  14. Openness to Experience and Night-Sky Watching Interest as Predictors of Reading for Pleasure: Path Analysis of a Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between reading for pleasure, night-sky watching interest, and openness to experience were examined in a sample of 129 college students. Results of a path analysis examining a mediation model indicated that the influence of night-sky interest on reading for pleasure was not mediated by the broad personality domain openness to…

  15. Genetics correlation and path coefficient analysis of cotton yield with some contributing quantitative and qualitative traits in Upland Cotton (Gosspypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many quantitative and qualitative traits interact to affect lint yield in upland cotton. Breeders should be aware of these traits and their interactions before embarking on a breeding program to improve lint yield. In this study, twelve diverse germplasm lines of upland cotton were used to investiga...

  16. Toluene combustion: reaction paths, thermochemical properties, and kinetic analysis for the methylphenyl radical + O2 reaction.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gabriel; Chen, Chiung-Chu; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2007-09-06

    Aromatic compounds such as toluene and xylene are major components of many fuels. Accurate kinetic mechanisms for the combustion of toluene are, however, incomplete, as they do not accurately model experimental results such as strain rates and ignition times and consistently underpredict conversion. Current kinetic mechanisms for toluene combustion neglect the reactions of the methylphenyl radicals, and we believe that this is responsible, in part, for the shortcomings of these models. We also demonstrate how methylphenyl radical formation is important in the combustion and pyrolysis of other alkyl-substituted aromatic compounds such as xylene and trimethylbenzene. We have studied the oxidation reactions of the methylphenyl radicals with O2 using computational ab initio and density functional theory methods. A detailed reaction submechanism is presented for the 2-methylphenyl radical + O2 system, with 16 intermediates and products. For each species, enthalpies of formation are calculated using the computational methods G3 and G3B3, with isodesmic work reactions used to minimize computational errors. Transition states are calculated at the G3B3 level, yielding high-pressure limit elementary rate constants as a function of temperature. For the barrierless methylphenyl + O2 and methylphenoxy + O association reactions, rate constants are determined from variational transition state theory. Multichannel, multifrequency quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (qRRK) theory, with master equation analysis for falloff, provides rate constants as a function of temperature and pressure from 800 to 2400 K and 1 x 10(-4) to 1 x 10(3) atm. Analysis of our results shows that the dominant pathways for reaction of the three isomeric methylphenyl radicals is formation of methyloxepinoxy radicals and subsequent ring opening to methyl-dioxo-hexadienyl radicals. The next most important reaction pathway involves formation of methylphenoxy radicals + O in a chain branching process. At lower

  17. Thermal optical path difference analysis of off-axis lens ray trace foot-print at Cassegrain telescope correct lens assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ming-Ying; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Chan, Chia-Yen; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Chan, Shenq-Tsong; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2012-10-01

    The Cassegrain telescope system in this study, is discussion correct lens thermal OPD (Optical Path Difference) effect optical performance. The correct lens assembly are includes several components such as correct lens, lens mount, spacer, mount barrel and retainer. The heat transfer from surrounding to the correct lens barrel will causes optical system aberration. Meanwhile, the off-axis rays path of the OPD must consider lens incidence point and emergence point. The correct lens temperature distribution is calculate the lens barrel heat transfer analysis, the thermal distortion and stress are solve by FEM (Finite Element Method) software. The temperature calculation results can be weighting to each incidence ray path and calculate thermal OPD. The thermal OPD on Z-direction can be fitted by rigid body motion and Zernike polynomial. The fitting results can be used to evaluate the thermal effect on correct lens assembly in telescope system.

  18. A simple and accurate algorithm for path integral molecular dynamics with the Langevin thermostat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Li, Dezhang; Liu, Xinzijian

    2016-07-14

    We introduce a novel simple algorithm for thermostatting path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) with the Langevin equation. The staging transformation of path integral beads is employed for demonstration. The optimum friction coefficients for the staging modes in the free particle limit are used for all systems. In comparison to the path integral Langevin equation thermostat, the new algorithm exploits a different order of splitting for the phase space propagator associated to the Langevin equation. While the error analysis is made for both algorithms, they are also employed in the PIMD simulations of three realistic systems (the H2O molecule, liquid para-hydrogen, and liquid water) for comparison. It is shown that the new thermostat increases the time interval of PIMD by a factor of 4-6 or more for achieving the same accuracy. In addition, the supplementary material shows the error analysis made for the algorithms when the normal-mode transformation of path integral beads is used.

  19. A simple and accurate algorithm for path integral molecular dynamics with the Langevin thermostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Li, Dezhang; Liu, Xinzijian

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a novel simple algorithm for thermostatting path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) with the Langevin equation. The staging transformation of path integral beads is employed for demonstration. The optimum friction coefficients for the staging modes in the free particle limit are used for all systems. In comparison to the path integral Langevin equation thermostat, the new algorithm exploits a different order of splitting for the phase space propagator associated to the Langevin equation. While the error analysis is made for both algorithms, they are also employed in the PIMD simulations of three realistic systems (the H2O molecule, liquid para-hydrogen, and liquid water) for comparison. It is shown that the new thermostat increases the time interval of PIMD by a factor of 4-6 or more for achieving the same accuracy. In addition, the supplementary material shows the error analysis made for the algorithms when the normal-mode transformation of path integral beads is used.

  20. Thermal stress analysis of ceramic gas-path seal components for aircraft turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, F. E.; Bill, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Stress and temperature distributions were evaluated numerically for a blade-tip seal system proposed for gas turbine applications. The seal consists of an abradable ceramic layer on metallic backing with intermediate layers between the ceramic layer and metal substrate. The most severe stresses in the seal, as far as failure is concerned, are tensile stresses at the top of the ceramic layer and shear and normal stresses at the layer interfaces. All these stresses reach their maximum values during the deceleration phase of a test engine cycle. A parametric study was carried out to evaluate the influence of various design parameters on these critical stress values. The influences of material properties and geometric parameters of the ceramic, intermediate, and backing layers were investigated. After the parametric study was completed, a seal system was designed which incorporated materials with beneficial elastic and thermal properties in each layer of the seal. An analysis of the proposed seal design shows an appreciable decrease in the magnitude of the maximum critical stresses over those obtained with earlier configurations.

  1. Linear and nonlinear dynamic analysis of redundant load path bearingless rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. R.; Shultz, Louis A.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop the transfer matrix method to treat nonlinear autonomous boundary value problems with multiple branches. The application is the complete nonlinear aeroelastic analysis of multiple-branched rotor blades. Once the development is complete, it can be incorporated into the existing transfer matrix analyses. There are several difficulties to be overcome in reaching this objective. The conventional transfer matrix method is limited in that it is applicable only to linear branch chain-like structures, but consideration of multiple branch modeling is important for bearingless rotors. Also, hingeless and bearingless rotor blade dynamic characteristics (particularly their aeroelasticity problems) are inherently nonlinear. The nonlinear equations of motion and the multiple-branched boundary value problem are treated together using a direct transfer matrix method. First, the formulation is applied to a nonlinear single-branch blade to validate the nonlinear portion of the formulation. The nonlinear system of equations is iteratively solved using a form of Newton-Raphson iteration scheme developed for differential equations of continuous systems. The formulation is then applied to determine the nonlinear steady state trim and aeroelastic stability of a rotor blade in hover with two branches at the root. A comprehensive computer program is developed and is used to obtain numerical results for the (1) free vibration, (2) nonlinearly deformed steady state, (3) free vibration about the nonlinearly deformed steady state, and (4) aeroelastic stability tasks. The numerical results obtained by the present method agree with results from other methods.

  2. Detailed heat transfer coefficient measurements and thermal analysis at engine conditions of a pedestal with fillet radii

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Ireland, P.T.; Jones, T.V.

    1995-04-01

    Short pin-fin and pin-fin arrays are frequently used in turbine blade internal cooling systems to enhance cooling and stiffen the structure. The present work has shown that a knowledge of the detailed heat transfer coefficient distribution is required to predict the cooling effect of such devices accurately. The heat flow process has been numerically modeled at typical engine conditions with the detailed heat transfer distribution measured by the transient heat transfer method being used as the thermal boundary conditions. The heat transfer coefficient over the surface of a pedestal with fillet radii has been measured using thermochromic liquid crystals and the transient heat transfer method. The tests were performed at engine representative Reynolds numbers for a geometry typical of those used in turbine blade cooling systems. The heat conduction process that occurs in the engine was subsequently modeled numerically with a finite element discretization of the solid pedestal. The measured heat transfer coefficients were used to derive the exact boundary conditions applicable to the engine. The temperature field within the pedestal, calculated using the correct heat transfer coefficient distribution, is compared to that calculated using an area-averaged heat transfer coefficient. Metal temperature differences of 90 K are predicted across the blade wall.

  3. Scenario Analysis and Path Selection of Low-Carbon Transformation in China Based on a Modified IPAT Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a forecast and analysis of population, economic development, energy consumption and CO2 emissions variation in China in the short- and long-term steps before 2020 with 2007 as the base year. The widely applied IPAT model, which is the basis for calculations, projections, and scenarios of greenhouse gases (GHGs) reformulated as the Kaya equation, is extended to analyze and predict the relations between human activities and the environment. Four scenarios of CO2 emissions are used including business as usual (BAU), energy efficiency improvement scenario (EEI), low carbon scenario (LC) and enhanced low carbon scenario (ELC). The results show that carbon intensity will be reduced by 40–45% as scheduled and economic growth rate will be 6% in China under LC scenario by 2020. The LC scenario, as the most appropriate and the most feasible scheme for China’s low-carbon development in the future, can maximize the harmonious development of economy, society, energy and environmental systems. Assuming China's development follows the LC scenario, the paper further gives four paths of low-carbon transformation in China: technological innovation, industrial structure optimization, energy structure optimization and policy guidance. PMID:24204922

  4. The Effects of Visual Attention Span and Phonological Decoding in Reading Comprehension in Dyslexia: A Path Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Schneps, Matthew H; Masyn, Katherine E; Thomson, Jennifer M

    2016-11-01

    Increasing evidence has shown visual attention span to be a factor, distinct from phonological skills, that explains single-word identification (pseudo-word/word reading) performance in dyslexia. Yet, little is known about how well visual attention span explains text comprehension. Observing reading comprehension in a sample of 105 high school students with dyslexia, we used a pathway analysis to examine the direct and indirect path between visual attention span and reading comprehension while controlling for other factors such as phonological awareness, letter identification, short-term memory, IQ and age. Integrating phonemic decoding efficiency skills in the analytic model, this study aimed to disentangle how visual attention span and phonological skills work together in reading comprehension for readers with dyslexia. We found visual attention span to have a significant direct effect on more difficult reading comprehension but not on an easier level. It also had a significant direct effect on pseudo-word identification but not on word identification. In addition, we found that visual attention span indirectly explains reading comprehension through pseudo-word reading and word reading skills. This study supports the hypothesis that at least part of the dyslexic profile can be explained by visual attention abilities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Science Learning: A path analysis of its links with reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, Francisco; García, Ángela; Berbén, A. B. G.; Justicia, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to build and test a conceptual model of the complex interrelationships between students' learning in science (learning approaches and self-regulation), their reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement. These variables were measured by means of a test and a series of questionnaires administered to 604 ninth-grade students, and the data collected were analysed using a correlational, cross-sectional design. Results of a path analysis indicated that (a) students' self-regulated and intentional knowledge-constructing activity (self-regulated strategy use, deep approach and knowledge-building) were what chiefly accounted for their question-asking in class; (b) question-asking (high and low levels) was related directly to reading comprehension and indirectly, through its contribution to the this, to academic achievement; (c) reading comprehension was directly and negatively associated with surface approach and indirectly and positively related to deep approach and knowledge-building; and (d) some of these variables, particularly reading comprehension, accounted for academic achievement in science. This model explained nearly 30% of the variance in academic achievement and provided a substantial and distinctive insight into the web of interrelationships among these variables. Implications for future research and science teaching and learning are discussed (e.g. the importance of supporting students' efforts to learn science in a meaningful, active and self-regulated way and of improving their reading comprehension).

  6. Landscape genetics and least-cost path analysis reveal unexpected dispersal routes in the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ian J; Savage, Wesley K; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2009-04-01

    A major goal of landscape genetics is to understand how landscapes structure genetic variation in natural populations. However, landscape genetics still lacks a framework for quantifying the effects of landscape features, such as habitat type, on realized gene flow. Here, we present a methodology for identifying the costs of dispersal through different habitats for the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense), an endangered species restricted to grassland/vernal pool habitat mosaics. We sampled larvae from all 16 breeding ponds in a geographically restricted area of vernal pool habitat at the Fort Ord Natural Reserve, Monterey County, California. We estimated between-pond gene flow using 13 polymorphic microsatellite loci and constructed GIS data layers of habitat types in our study area. We then used least-cost path analysis to determine the relative costs of movement through each habitat that best match rates of gene flow measured by our genetic data. We identified four measurable rates of gene flow between pairs of ponds, with between 10.5% and 19.9% of larvae having immigrant ancestry. Although A. californiense is typically associated with breeding ponds in grassland habitat, we found that dispersal through grassland is nearly twice as costly as dispersal through chaparral and that oak woodland is by far the most costly habitat to traverse. With the increasing availability of molecular resources and GIS data, we anticipate that these methods could be applied to a broad range of study systems, particularly those with cryptic life histories that make direct observation of movement challenging.

  7. Childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence during pregnancy, and posttraumatic stress symptoms following childbirth: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Aline Gaudard E Silva de; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Howard, Louise Michele; Lobato, Gustavo

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the pathways by which childhood sexual abuse (CSA), psychological and physical intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy, and other covariates relate to each other and to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the postpartum period. The sample comprised 456 women who gave birth at a maternity service for high-risk pregnancies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, interviewed at 6-8 weeks after birth. A path analysis was carried out to explore the postulated pathways between exposures and outcome. Trauma History Questionnaire, Conflict Tactics Scales and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist were used to assess information about exposures of main interest and outcome. The link between CSA and PTSD symptoms was mediated by history of trauma, psychiatric history, psychological IPV, and fear of childbirth during pregnancy. Physical IPV was directly associated with postnatal PTSD symptoms, whereas psychological IPV connection seemed to be partially mediated by physical abuse and fear of childbirth during pregnancy. The role of CSA, IPV, and other psychosocial characteristics on the occurrence of PTSD symptoms following childbirth as well as the intricate network of these events should be acknowledged in clinic and intervention approaches.

  8. An analysis of quantum effects on the thermodynamic properties of cryogenic hydrogen using the path integral method

    SciTech Connect

    Nagashima, H.; Tsuda, S.; Tsuboi, N.; Koshi, M.; Hayashi, K. A.; Tokumasu, T.

    2014-04-07

    In this paper, we describe the analysis of the thermodynamic properties of cryogenic hydrogen using classical molecular dynamics (MD) and path integral MD (PIMD) method to understand the effects of the quantum nature of hydrogen molecules. We performed constant NVE MD simulations across a wide density–temperature region to establish an equation of state (EOS). Moreover, the quantum effect on the difference of molecular mechanism of pressure–volume–temperature relationship was addressed. The EOS was derived based on the classical mechanism idea only using the MD simulation results. Simulation results were compared with each MD method and experimental data. As a result, it was confirmed that although the EOS on the basis of classical MD cannot reproduce the experimental data of saturation property of hydrogen in the high-density region, the EOS on the basis of PIMD well reproduces those thermodynamic properties of hydrogen. Moreover, it was clarified that taking quantum effects into account makes the repulsion force larger and the potential well shallower. Because of this mechanism, the intermolecular interaction of hydrogen molecules diminishes and the virial pressure increases.

  9. Shortest multiple disconnected path for the analysis of entanglements in two- and three-dimensional polymeric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, Martin

    2005-06-01

    We present an algorithm which returns a shortest path and related number of entanglements for a given configuration of a polymeric system in 2 or 3 dimensions. Rubinstein and Helfand, and later Everaers et al. introduced a concept to extract primitive paths for dense polymeric melts made of linear chains (a multiple disconnected multibead 'path'), where each primitive path is defined as a path connecting the (space-fixed) ends of a polymer under the constraint of non-interpenetration (excluded volume) between primitive paths of different chains, such that the multiple disconnected path fulfills a minimization criterion. The present algorithm uses geometrical operations and provides a—model independent—efficient approximate solution to this challenging problem. Primitive paths are treated as 'infinitely' thin (we further allow for finite thickness to model excluded volume), and tensionless lines rather than multibead chains, excluded volume is taken into account without a force law. The present implementation allows to construct a shortest multiple disconnected path (SP) for 2D systems (polymeric chain within spherical obstacles) and an optimal SP for 3D systems (collection of polymeric chains). The number of entanglements is then simply obtained from the SP as either the number of interior kinks, or from the average length of a line segment. Further, information about structure and potentially also the dynamics of entanglements is immediately available from the SP. We apply the method to study the 'concentration' dependence of the degree of entanglement in phantom chain systems. Program summaryTitle of program:Z Catalogue number:ADVG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVG Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: Silicon Graphics (Irix), Sun (Solaris), PC (Linux) Operating systems or monitors under which the

  10. Analysis of long-term trends (1950–2009) in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient in major urban watersheds in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velpuri, N.M.; Senay, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the long-term trends in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient in major urban watersheds in the United States. The seasonal Mann–Kendall trend test was performed on monthly precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient data from 1950 to 2009 obtained from 62 urban watersheds covering 21 major urban centers in the United States. The results indicate that only five out of 21 urban centers in the United States showed an uptrend in precipitation. Twelve urban centers showed an uptrend in runoff coefficient. However, six urban centers did not show any trend in runoff coefficient, and three urban centers showed a significant downtrend. The highest rate of change in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient was observed in the Houston urban watershed. Based on the results obtained, we also attributed plausible causes for the trends. Our analysis indicated that while a human only influence is observed in most of the urban watersheds, a combined climate and human influence is observed in the central United States.

  11. Potential risk and its influencing factors for separated bicycle paths.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Yang, Ying; Jin, Sheng; Qu, Zhaowei; Hou, Lei

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose two potential risk indicators to define and evaluate the safety of bicycle path at the microscopic level. Field bicycle data were collected from three survey sites under different traffic conditions. These two risk indicators based on speed dispersion were proposed and calculated during each 5-min interval. The risk influences of various widths of bicycle path and traffic conditions were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. We further proposed a generalized linear model (GLM) for modeling and analyzing the relationships between bicycle risks and v/c ratio and percentages of electric bicycles, male cyclists, young cyclists, and loaded cyclists. The stepwise regression models were applied for determination of coefficients. The results show that the influences of gender and age of cyclists on potential risks are not significant. The risks increase with the width of bicycle path and percentage of electric bicycles, while only for wider bicycle path (4-lane case in this study), the risks are associated with whether or not cyclists are loaded. The findings could contribute for analysis and evaluation of the safety for bicycle path.

  12. Discrimination Analysis of Earthquakes and Man-Made Events Using ARMA Coefficients Determination by Artificial Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    AllamehZadeh, Mostafa

    2011-12-15

    A Quadratic Neural Networks (QNNs) model has been developed for identifying seismic source classification problem at regional distances using ARMA coefficients determination by Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). We have devised a supervised neural system to discriminate between earthquakes and chemical explosions with filter coefficients obtained by windowed P-wave phase spectra (15 s). First, we preprocess the recording's signals to cancel out instrumental and attenuation site effects and obtain a compact representation of seismic records. Second, we use a QNNs system to obtain ARMA coefficients for feature extraction in the discrimination problem. The derived coefficients are then applied to the neural system to train and classification. In this study, we explore the possibility of using single station three-component (3C) covariance matrix traces from a priori-known explosion sites (learning) for automatically recognizing subsequent explosions from the same site. The results have shown that this feature extraction gives the best classifier for seismic signals and performs significantly better than other classification methods. The events have been tested, which include 36 chemical explosions at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan and 61 earthquakes (mb = 5.0-6.5) recorded by the Iranian National Seismic Network (INSN). The 100% correct decisions were obtained between site explosions and some of non-site events. The above approach to event discrimination is very flexible as we can combine several 3C stations.

  13. Analysis of ground-water flow along a regional flow path of the Midwestern Basins and Arches aquifer system in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanover, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of ground-water flow in central-western and northwestern Ohio was done as part of the Midwestern Basins and Arches Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project. The Midwestern Basins and Arches aquifer system is composed of carbonate bedrock of Silurian and Devonian age and overlying glacial flow analysis of the Scioto and Blanchard rivers in the study area were used to describe patrems of ground-water flow, to evaluate stream-aquifer interaction, and to quantify recharge and discharge within the ground-water-flow system along a regional ground-water-flow path. The selected regional flow path begins at a regional topographic high in Logan County, Ohio, and ends in Sandusky Bay (Lake Erie), a regional topographic low. Recharge to the ground-water system along the selected regional flow path was estimated from hydrograph separation of streamflow and averaged 3.24 inches per year. Computer model simulations indicate that 84 percent of the water entering the ground-water system flows less than 5 miles from point of recharge to point of discharge and no deeper than the upper surficial aquifers. The distance and depth that ground water travels and traveltime from point of recharge to point of discharge is controlled largely by where ground water enters the flow system. Ground water entering the flow system in the vicinity of major surface- water divides generally travels further, deeper, and longer than ground water entering the flow system elsewhere along the regional flow path. Particle tracking simulations substantiate the concept that the 80-mile-long regional flow path is within a continuous ground-water basin. Estimated traveltimes for ground-water from the regional high to Sandusky Bay range from 22,000 to 40,700 years, given a range of porosities from 8 to 22 percent for the carbonate-rock aquifer.

  14. A quantitative structure-property relationship analysis of soot-water partition coefficients for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui-Ying; Zou, Jian-Wei; Min, Jian-Qing; Wang, Wei

    2012-06-01

    Geometrical optimization and electrostatic potential calculations have been performed at the HF/6-31G level of theory for investigated persistent organic pollutants (POPs). A number of statistically based parameters have been obtained. Relationship between soot-water partition coefficients (logK(SC)) of POPs and the structural descriptors has been established by the multiple linear regression method. The result shows that the quantities derived from electrostatic potential V(s)(-)¯ and V(s,max), together with molecular surface area (A(S)) and the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (E(HOMO)) can be well used to express the quantitative relationship between structure and logK(SC) (QSPR) of POPs. Predictive capability of the model has been demonstrated by leave-one-out cross-validation with the cross-validated correlation coefficient of 0.9797. Furthermore, the predictive power of this model was further examined for the external test set with the correlation coefficient of 0.9811 between observed and predicted logK(SC), validating the robustness and good predictive ability of our model. Furthermore, in order to further investigate the applicability of these parameters derived from electrostatic potential in prediction of soot-water partition coefficient for organic pollutants, eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), eleven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nine phenyl urea herbicides (PUHs) from other source have also been studied. The QSPR models established may provide a new powerful method for predicting soot-water partition coefficients (logK(SC)) of organic pollutants.

  15. Temporal change in the extinction coefficient of snow on the Greenland ice sheet from an analysis of Seasat and Geosat altimeter data

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C.H.

    1996-09-01

    The extinction coefficient of snow k{sub e} along the central portion of the Greenland ice sheet is mapped using data from the Seasat (1978) and Geosat (1985-1989) altimeters. The extinction coefficient is obtained by fitting altimeter waveforms with a surface/volume scattering model. The authors find that in the lower latitudes the Seasat and Geosat extinction coefficients are very nearly the same, while in a specific higher latitude region of the ice sheet the Seasat K{sub e} values exceed the Geosat values by over 100%. By analyzing 18 months of the geosat data, the authors quantified the variability inherent in the extinction coefficient measurements. The results show that the observed temporal variation in the extinction coefficient from 1978 to 1985 is three times larger than the measured variability. This indicates that the average grain size of the near surface snow in this region may have decreased during the time span between the two altimeter datasets. The temporal change in extinction coefficient found in this study demonstrates the important contributions that time-series analysis of satellite datasets can make to the study of the polar ice sheets. In addition, these results have important implications for the study of long-term elevation change over the ice sheets using altimeter data. The study demonstrates that significant biases could be introduced into ice-sheet elevation change estimates because of temporal variations in the surface conditions of the ice sheet. Future investigations of ice-sheet mass balance using altimetry data should be aware of this possibility.

  16. Identifying associated factors with social capital using path analysis: A population-based survey in Tehran, Iran (Urban HEART-2).

    PubMed

    Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Hassanzadeh, Jafar; Torabinia, Mansour; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Montazeri, Ali; Ghaem, Haleh; Menati, Rostam; Niazi, Mohsen; Kassani, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social capital has been defined as norms, networks, and social links that facilitate collective actions. Social capital is related to a number of main social and public health variables. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the factors associated with social capital among the residents of Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this large cross-sectional population-based study, 31531 residents aged 20 years and above were selected through multi-stage sampling method from 22 districts of Tehran in 2011. The social capital questionnaire, 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) were used. Hypothetical causal models were designed to identify the pathways through which different variables influenced the components of social capital. Then, path analysis was conducted for identifying the determinants of social capital. Results: The most influential variables in 'individual trust' were job status (β=0.37, p=0.02), marital status (β=0.32, p=0.01), Physical Component Summary (PCS) (β=0.37, p=0.02), and age (β=0.34, p=0.03). On the other hand, education level (β=0.34, p=0.01), age (β=0.33, p=0.02), marital status (β=0.33, p=0.01), and job status (β=0.32, p=0.01) were effective in 'cohesion and social support'. Additionally, age (β=0.18, p=0.02), PCS (β=0.36, p=0.01), house ownership (β=0.23, p=0.03), and mental health (β=0.26, p=0.01) were influential in 'social trust/collective relations'. Conclusion: Social capital can be improved in communities by planning to improve education and occupation status, paying more attention to strengthening family bonds, and provision of local facilities and neighborhood bonds to reduce migration within the city.

  17. Identifying associated factors with social capital using path analysis: A population-based survey in Tehran, Iran (Urban HEART-2)

    PubMed Central

    Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Hassanzadeh, Jafar; Torabinia, Mansour; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Montazeri, Ali; Ghaem, Haleh; Menati, Rostam; Niazi, Mohsen; Kassani, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social capital has been defined as norms, networks, and social links that facilitate collective actions. Social capital is related to a number of main social and public health variables. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the factors associated with social capital among the residents of Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this large cross-sectional population-based study, 31531 residents aged 20 years and above were selected through multi-stage sampling method from 22 districts of Tehran in 2011. The social capital questionnaire, 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) were used. Hypothetical causal models were designed to identify the pathways through which different variables influenced the components of social capital. Then, path analysis was conducted for identifying the determinants of social capital. Results: The most influential variables in ‘individual trust’ were job status (β=0.37, p=0.02), marital status (β=0.32, p=0.01), Physical Component Summary (PCS) (β=0.37, p=0.02), and age (β=0.34, p=0.03). On the other hand, education level (β=0.34, p=0.01), age (β=0.33, p=0.02), marital status (β=0.33, p=0.01), and job status (β=0.32, p=0.01) were effective in ‘cohesion and social support’. Additionally, age (β=0.18, p=0.02), PCS (β=0.36, p=0.01), house ownership (β=0.23, p=0.03), and mental health (β=0.26, p=0.01) were influential in ‘social trust/collective relations’. Conclusion: Social capital can be improved in communities by planning to improve education and occupation status, paying more attention to strengthening family bonds, and provision of local facilities and neighborhood bonds to reduce migration within the city. PMID:28210579

  18. Resistivity coefficients for body composition analysis using bioimpedance spectroscopy: effects of body dominance and mixture theory algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ward, L C; Isenring, E; Dyer, J M; Kagawa, M; Essex, T

    2015-07-01

    Body composition is commonly predicted from bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy using mixture theory algorithms. Mixture theory algorithms require the input of values for the resistivities of intra-and extracellular water of body tissues. Various derivations of these algorithms have been published, individually requiring resistivity values specific for each algorithm. This study determined apparent resistivity values in 85 healthy males and 66 healthy females for each of the four published mixture theory algorithms. The resistivity coefficients determined here are compared to published values and the inter-individual (biological) variation discussed with particular reference to consequential error in prediction of body fluid volumes. In addition, the relationships between the four algorithmic approaches are derived and methods for the inter-conversion of coefficients between algorithms presented.

  19. A Path Model of School Violence Perpetration: Introducing Online Game Addiction as a New Risk Factor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Yop; Lee, Jeen Suk; Oh, Sehun

    2015-08-10

    Drawing on the cognitive information-processing model of aggression and the general aggression model, we explored why adolescents become addicted to online games and how their immersion in online games affects school violence perpetration (SVP). For this purpose, we conducted statistical analyses on 1,775 elementary and middle school students who resided in northern districts of Seoul, South Korea. The results validated the proposed structural equation model and confirmed the statistical significance of the structural paths from the variables; that is, the paths from child abuse and self-esteem to SVP were significant. The levels of self-esteem and child abuse victimization affected SVP, and this effect was mediated by online game addiction (OGA). Furthermore, a multigroup path analysis showed significant gender differences in the path coefficients of the proposed model, indicating that gender exerted differential effects on adolescents' OGA and SVP. Based on these results, prevention and intervention methods to curb violence in schools have been proposed.

  20. Theoretical Analysis of Electromechanical Coupling Coefficient of Lamb Waves in ZnO/Si Multilayered Piezoelectric Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung-Yu Chen,

    2010-07-01

    Lamb wave devices have been widely used in electro-acoustic and microfluidic devices. In order to improve their performances, the phase velocity dispersion and electromechanical coupling coefficient (ECC) of the Lamb wave should be calculated exactly during designing. Accordingly, this paper aims at analyzing exactly Lamb waves in multilayered piezoelectric plates with distinct electrode arrangements. First, the formulae of effective permittivity were derived based on the transfer matrix method and further was employed to calculate the phase velocity dispersion. The ZnO/Si multilayered plate was taken as the calculation example. The ECCs under distinct electrical boundary conditions were calculated by the Green’s function method. Finally, the influences of the silicon thickness on the phase velocity dispersion and ECC are further discussed. Results show that the coupling coefficients deeply depends on the electrode arrangement, and the S0 mode with the electrode arrangements of type D is a better due to its larger velocity and higher coupling coefficient. Moreover, the ECC can be enlarged by reducing the nonpiezoelectric membrane thickness.

  1. Theoretical Analysis of Electromechanical Coupling Coefficient of Lamb Waves in ZnO/Si Multilayered Piezoelectric Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-Yu

    2010-07-01

    Lamb wave devices have been widely used in electro-acoustic and microfluidic devices. In order to improve their performances, the phase velocity dispersion and electromechanical coupling coefficient (ECC) of the Lamb wave should be calculated exactly during designing. Accordingly, this paper aims at analyzing exactly Lamb waves in multilayered piezoelectric plates with distinct electrode arrangements. First, the formulae of effective permittivity were derived based on the transfer matrix method and further was employed to calculate the phase velocity dispersion. The ZnO/Si multilayered plate was taken as the calculation example. The ECCs under distinct electrical boundary conditions were calculated by the Green's function method. Finally, the influences of the silicon thickness on the phase velocity dispersion and ECC are further discussed. Results show that the coupling coefficients deeply depends on the electrode arrangement, and the S0 mode with the electrode arrangements of type D is a better due to its larger velocity and higher coupling coefficient. Moreover, the ECC can be enlarged by reducing the nonpiezoelectric membrane thickness.

  2. Light extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED with pyramid texture by using ray path analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jui-Wen; Wang, Chia-Shen

    2012-09-10

    We study three different gallium-nitride (GaN) based light emitting diode (LED) cases based on the different locations of the pyramid textures. In case 1, the pyramid texture is located on the sapphire top surface, in case 2, the pyramid texture is locate on the P-GaN top surface, while in case 3, the pyramid texture is located on both the sapphire and P-GaN top surfaces. We study the relationship between the light extraction efficiency (LEE) and angle of slant of the pyramid texture. The optimization of total LEE was highest for case 3 among the three cases. Moreover, the seven escape paths along which most of the escaped photon flux propagated were selected in a simulation of the LEDs. The seven escape paths were used to estimate the slant angle for the optimization of LEE and to precisely analyze the photon escape path.

  3. A one- and two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path of the AARE (Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering) modular code system

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Higgs, C.E.; Stepanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    AARE, a code package to perform Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering, is a linked modular system for fission reactor core and shielding, as well as fusion blanket, analysis. Its cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path presently includes the cross-section processing and reformatting code TRAMIX, cross-section homogenization and library reformatting code MIXIT, the 1-dimensional transport code ONEDANT, the 2-dimensional transport code TRISM, and the 1- and 2- dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty code SENSIBL. IN the present work, a short description of the whole AARE system is given, followed by a detailed description of the cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Perfecting a method of micro-analysis of water and acetic acid in a cocoa bean in the course of drying: applying to determine transportation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nganhou, J.; Njomo, D.; Bénet, J. C.; Augier, F.; Berthomieu, G.

    2003-09-01

    This article is about the study of the diffusion of water and acetic acid in a grain of cocoa in course of drying. The authors present a method of microanalysis which enables the analysis of each little slice of the grain : a precise measurement of each slice is realised in view of the analysis from the centre to the surface of the grain with the aid of a cutting apparatus, designed and realised to this effect. At each instant of the drying process, the profiles of water and acetic acid contents are then determined. A one dimensional diffusion model enables a shell by shell evaluation of the diffusion of water and acid in the cocoa grain. The results obtained show an augmentation of transport coefficients in course of drying. We however observe a decrease of the diffusion coefficient of water to the low moisture content : what makes us think of the appearance of crusting phenomenon.

  5. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  6. Global Uncertainty Propagation and Sensitivity Analysis in the CH3OCH2 + O2 System: Combining Experiment and Theory To Constrain Key Rate Coefficients in DME Combustion.

    PubMed

    Shannon, R J; Tomlin, A S; Robertson, S H; Blitz, M A; Pilling, M J; Seakins, P W

    2015-07-16

    Statistical rate theory calculations, in particular formulations of the chemical master equation, are widely used to calculate rate coefficients of interest in combustion environments as a function of temperature and pressure. However, despite the increasing accuracy of electronic structure calculations, small uncertainties in the input parameters for these master equation models can lead to relatively large uncertainties in the calculated rate coefficients. Master equation input parameters may be constrained further by using experimental data and the relationship between experiment and theory warrants further investigation. In this work, the CH3OCH2 + O2 system, of relevance to the combustion of dimethyl ether (DME), is used as an example and the input parameters for master equation calculations on this system are refined through fitting to experimental data. Complementing these fitting calculations, global sensitivity analysis is used to explore which input parameters are constrained by which experimental conditions, and which parameters need to be further constrained to accurately predict key elementary rate coefficients. Finally, uncertainties in the calculated rate coefficients are obtained using both correlated and uncorrelated distributions of input parameters.

  7. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

  8. Testing the Choice Model of Social Cognitive Career Theory across Holland Themes: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheu, Hung-Bin; Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steven D.; Miller, Matthew J.; Hennessy, Kelly D.; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) seeks to explain the factors that shape educational and vocational interests and choices. We used meta-analytic path analyses to synthesize data (from 1981 to 2008) relevant to SCCT's interest and choice hypotheses, organizing the literature according to Holland's (1997) broad…

  9. Identification of 'carbon hot-spots' and quantification of GHG intensities in the biodiesel supply chain using hybrid LCA and structural path analysis.

    PubMed

    Acquaye, Adolf A; Wiedmann, Thomas; Feng, Kuishang; Crawford, Robert H; Barrett, John; Kuylenstierna, Johan; Duffy, Aidan P; Koh, S C Lenny; McQueen-Mason, Simon

    2011-03-15

    It is expected that biodiesel production in the EU will remain the dominant contributor as part of a 10% minimum binding target for biofuel in transportation fuel by 2020 within the 20% renewable energy target in the overall EU energy mix. Life cycle assessments (LCA) of biodiesel to evaluate its environmental impacts have, however, remained questionable, mainly because of the adoption of a traditional process analysis approach resulting in system boundary truncation and because of issues regarding the impacts of land use change and N(2)O emissions from fertilizer application. In this study, a hybrid LCA methodology is used to evaluate the life cycle CO(2) equivalent emissions of rape methyl ester (RME) biodiesel. The methodology uses input-output analysis to estimate upstream indirect emissions in order to complement traditional process LCA in a hybrid framework. It was estimated that traditional LCA accounted for 2.7 kg CO(2)-eq per kg of RME or 36.6% of total life cycle emissions of the RME supply chin. Further to the inclusion of upstream indirect impacts in the LCA system (which accounted for 23% of the total life cycle emissions), emissions due to direct land use change (6%) and indirect land use change (16.5%) and N(2)O emissions from fertilizer applications (17.9%) were also calculated. Structural path analysis is used to decompose upstream indirect emissions paths of the biodiesel supply chain in order to identify, quantify, and rank high carbon emissions paths or 'hot-spots' in the biodiesel supply chain. It was shown, for instance, that inputs from the 'Other Chemical Products' sector (identified as phosphoric acid, H(3)PO(4)) into the biodiesel production process represented the highest carbon emission path (or hot-spot) with 5.35% of total upstream indirect emissions of the RME biodiesel supply chain.

  10. Effect of electron collisions on transport coefficients induced by the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bendib, A.; Tahraoui, A.; Bendib, K.; Mohammed El Hadj, K.; Hueller, S.

    2005-03-01

    The transport coefficients of fully ionized plasmas under the influence of a high-frequency electric field are derived solving numerically the electron Fokker-Planck equation using a perturbation method, parametrized as a function of the electron mean-free-path {lambda}{sub ei} compared to the spatial scales L. The isotropic and anisotropic contributions of the inverse bremsstrahlung heating are considered. Electron-electron collision terms are kept in the analysis, which allows us to consider with sufficient accuracy to describe plasmas with arbitrary atomic number Z. Practical numerical fits of the transport coefficients are proposed as functions of Z and the collisionality parameter {lambda}{sub ei}/L.

  11. Analyzing the role of soil and rice cadmium pollution on human renal dysfunction by correlation and path analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Jie-Ying; Jia, Wen-Jing; Ji, Feng-Min; Yan, Qiong; Xu, Qing; Ke, Shen; Ke, Jin-Shan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of soil and rice pollution on human renal dysfunction. The participants were 97 inhabitants (46 men and 51 women) who are aged 50 to 60 years old and have been living in Xiaogan (Hubei, China) from birth. We collected samples of soil, rice, and urinary correspondingly. Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and β-2-microglobulin (β2MG) were used as indicators of renal dysfunction, and urinary cadmium (U-Cd) was used as indicator of total internal cadmium exposure. We made a hypothesis that soil cadmium concentration (S-Cd) and rice cadmium concentration (R-Cd) could be used as indicators of environmental cadmium exposure. Correlation and path analysis were used to estimate the relationships among the levels of rice cadmium (R-Cd), soil cadmium (S-Cd), urinary cadmium (U-Cd), and renal damage indicators (NAG and β2MG). Our results showed that there was positive significant relationship between S-Cd (R-Cd, U-Cd), and U-NAG (U-β2MG). The standard multiple regression describing the relationship between S-Cd (R-Cd, U-Cd) and U-NAG was Y1 = 1.26X1-6.53X2 + 9.32, where Y is U-NAG, X1 is U-Cd, X2 is S-Cd. The equation of U-β2MG was Y = 49.32X1 + 3085.99X2 + 143.42, where Y is U-β2MG, X1 is U-Cd, X2 is R-Cd. It is obvious that the effect of S-Cd and R-Cd on NAG or U-β2MG cannot be ignored. Through our study, we can find that the effects of S-Cd on renal health even as significant as R-Cd. To protect people from the damage of cadmium pollution, it is vital to monitor the situation of soil and rice cadmium pollution.

  12. PathMaster

    PubMed Central

    Mattie, Mark E.; Staib, Lawrence; Stratmann, Eric; Tagare, Hemant D.; Duncan, James; Miller, Perry L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Currently, when cytopathology images are archived, they are typically stored with a limited text-based description of their content. Such a description inherently fails to quantify the properties of an image and refers to an extremely small fraction of its information content. This paper describes a method for automatically indexing images of individual cells and their associated diagnoses by computationally derived cell descriptors. This methodology may serve to better index data contained in digital image databases, thereby enabling cytologists and pathologists to cross-reference cells of unknown etiology or nature. Design: The indexing method, implemented in a program called PathMaster, uses a series of computer-based feature extraction routines. Descriptors of individual cell characteristics generated by these routines are employed as indexes of cell morphology, texture, color, and spatial orientation. Measurements: The indexing fidelity of the program was tested after populating its database with images of 152 lymphocytes/lymphoma cells captured from lymph node touch preparations stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Images of “unknown” lymphoid cells, previously unprocessed, were then submitted for feature extraction and diagnostic cross-referencing analysis. Results: PathMaster listed the correct diagnosis as its first differential in 94 percent of recognition trials. In the remaining 6 percent of trials, PathMaster listed the correct diagnosis within the first three “differentials.” Conclusion: PathMaster is a pilot cell image indexing program/search engine that creates an indexed reference of images. Use of such a reference may provide assistance in the diagnostic/prognostic process by furnishing a prioritized list of possible identifications for a cell of uncertain etiology. PMID:10887168

  13. Using path analysis to examine causal relationships among balanced scorecard performance indicators for general hospitals: the case of a public hospital system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Chin; Tung, Yu-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Examining whether the causal relationships among the performance indicators of the balanced scorecard (BSC) framework exist in hospitals is the aim of this article. Data were collected from all twenty-one general hospitals in a public hospital system and their supervising agency for the 3-year period, 2000-2002. The results of the path analyses identified significant causal relationships among four perspectives in the BSC model. We also verified the relationships among indicators within each perspective, some of which varied as time changed. We conclude that hospital administrators can use path analysis to help them identify and manage leading indicators when adopting the BSC model. However, they should also validate causal relationships between leading and lagging indicators periodically because the management environment changes constantly.

  14. Sensing polarization effects through the analysis of the effective C{sub 6} dispersion coefficients in NaCl solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Guevara-García, Alfredo Ireta, Joel; Galván, Marcelo

    2015-01-07

    Density functional theory based ab initio molecular dynamics is used to obtain microscopic details of the interactions in sodium chloride solutions. By following the changes in the atomic C{sub 6} coefficients under the Tkatchenko-Scheffler’s scheme, we were able to identify two different coordination situations for the Cl{sup −} ion with significant different capabilities to perform dispersion interactions. This capability is enhanced when the ion-ion distance corresponds to the contact ion-pair situation. Also, the oxygen and hydrogen atoms of the water molecules change their aptitudes to interact through van der Waals like terms when they are close to the cation region of the ion-pair. These results have interesting implications on the design of force fields to model electrolyte solutions.

  15. PATH: a work sampling-based approach to ergonomic job analysis for construction and other non-repetitive work.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, B; Paquet, V; Punnett, L; Lee, D; Moir, S

    1996-06-01

    A high prevalence and incidence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been reported in construction work. Unlike industrial production-line activity, construction work, as well as work in many other occupations (e.g. agriculture, mining), is non-repetitive in nature; job tasks are non-cyclic, or consist of long or irregular cycles. PATH (Posture, Activity, Tools and Handling), a work sampling-based approach, was developed to characterize the ergonomic hazards of construction and other non-repetitive work. The posture codes in the PATH method are based on the Ovako Work Posture Analysing System (OWAS), with other codes included for describing worker activity, tool use, loads handled and grasp type. For heavy highway construction, observations are stratified by construction stage and operation, using a taxonomy developed specifically for this purpose. Observers can code the physical characteristics of the job reliably after about 30 h of training. A pilot study of six construction laborers during four road construction operations suggests that laborers spend large proportions of time in nonneutral trunk postures and spend approximately 20% of their time performing manual material handling tasks. These results demonstrate how the PATH method can be used to identify specific construction operations and tasks that are ergonomically hazardous.

  16. Efficient path-based computations on pedigree graphs with compact encodings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Cheng, En; Özsoyoğlu, Z Meral

    2012-03-21

    A pedigree is a diagram of family relationships, and it is often used to determine the mode of inheritance (dominant, recessive, etc.) of genetic diseases. Along with rapidly growing knowledge of genetics and accumulation of genealogy information, pedigree data is becoming increasingly important. In large pedigree graphs, path-based methods for efficiently computing genealogical measurements, such as inbreeding and kinship coefficients of individuals, depend on efficient identification and processing of paths. In this paper, we propose a new compact path encoding scheme on large pedigrees, accompanied by an efficient algorithm for identifying paths. We demonstrate the utilization of our proposed method by applying it to the inbreeding coefficient computation. We present time and space complexity analysis, and also manifest the efficiency of our method for evaluating inbreeding coefficients as compared to previous methods by experimental results using pedigree graphs with real and synthetic data. Both theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that our method is more scalable and efficient than previous methods in terms of time and space requirements.

  17. Tracking hurricane paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakaran, Nagarajan; Rishe, Naphtali; Athauda, Rukshan

    1997-01-01

    The South East coastal region experiences hurricane threat for almost six months in every year. To improve the accuracy of hurricane forecasts, meteorologists would need the storm paths of both the present and the past. A hurricane path can be established if we could identify the correct position of the storm at different times right from its birth to the end. We propose a method based on both spatial and temporal image correlations to locate the position of a storm from satellite images. During the hurricane season, the satellite images of the Atlantic ocean near the equator are examined for the hurricane presence. This is accomplished in two steps. In the first step, only segments with more than a particular value of cloud cover are selected for analysis. Next, we apply image processing algorithms to test the presence of a hurricane eye in the segment. If the eye is found, the coordinate of the eye is recorded along with the time stamp of the segment. If the eye is not found, we examine adjacent segments for the existence of hurricane eye. It is probable that more than one hurricane eye could be found from different segments of the same period. Hence, the above process is repeated till the entire potential area for hurricane birth is exhausted. The subsequent/previous position of each hurricane eye will be searched in the appropriate adjacent segments of the next/previous period to mark the hurricane path. The temporal coherence and spatial coherence of the images are taken into account by our scheme in determining the segments and the associated periods required for analysis.

  18. Age dating of shallow groundwater with chlorofluorocarbons, tritium/helium 3, and flow path analysis, southern New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Z.; Rice, D.E.; Plummer, L.N.; Busenberg, E.; Drenkard, S.; Schlosser, P.

    1996-01-01

    Groundwater age dating through the combination of transient tracer methods (chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and tritium/helium 3 (3H/3He)) and groundwater flow path analysis is useful for investigating groundwater travel times, flow patterns, and recharge rates, as demonstrated by this study of the homogeneous shallow, unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the southern New Jersey coastal plain. Water samples for age dating were collected from three sets of nested observation wells (10 wells) with 1.5-m-long screens located near groundwater divides. Three steady state finite difference groundwater flow models were calibrated by adjusting horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities to match measured heads and head differences (range, 0.002-0.23 m) among the nested wells, with a uniform recharge rate of 0.46 m per year and porosities of 0.35 (sand) and 0.45 (silt) that were assumed constant for all model simulations and travel time calculations. The simulated groundwater travel times increase with depth in the aquifer, ranging from about 1.5 to 6.5 years for the shallow wells (screen bottoms 3-4 m below the water table), from about 10 to 25 years for the medium-depth wells (screen bottoms 8-19 m below the water table), and from about 30 to more than 40 years for the deep wells (screen bottoms 24-26 m below the water table). Apparent groundwater ages based on CFC- and 3H/3He-dating techniques and model-based travel times could not be statistically differentiated, and all were strongly correlated with depth. Confinement of 3He was high because of the rapid vertical flow velocity (of the order of 1 m/yr), resulting in clear delineation of groundwater travel times based on the 3H/3He-dating technique. The correspondence between the 3H/3He and CFC ages indicates that dispersion has had a minimal effect on the tracer-based ages of water in this aquifer. Differences between the tracer-based apparent ages for seven of the 10 samples were smaller than the error values

  19. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  20. Electrochemical analysis of the alterations in copper pigments using charge transfer coefficient/peak potential diagrams. Application to microsamples of baroque wall paintings attached to polymer film electrodes.

    PubMed

    Doménech-Carbó, A; Doménech-Carbó, M T; Gimeno-Adelantado, J V; Bosch-Reig, F; Saurí-Peris, M C; Casas-Catalán, M J

    2001-04-01

    The alteration of copper pigments in art samples was studied by linear scan and cyclic voltammetry using sample-modified Elvacite 2044 film electrodes on the basis of two-dimensional diagrams of charge transfer coefficients calculated from Tafel plots of reductive dissolution processes vs. peak potential. Characteristic voltammetric peaks were obtained for pigments used in the baroque vault frescoes of the Basílica de la Virgen de los Desamparados painted by Antonio Palomino. Results obtained by voltammetric techniques were compared with those from SEM/EDX and FT-IR analysis obtaining a good agreement and leaving to an unambiguous identification of pigments used by Palomino and their alteration products.

  1. Recommended Distribution Coefficients, Kd Values, for Special Analysis Risk Calculations Related to Waste Disposal and Tank Closure on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D

    2005-08-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide a technically defensible list of distribution coefficients, or Kd values, for use in performance assessment (PA) and special analysis (SA) calculations on the SRS. Only Kd values for radionuclides that have new information related to them or that have recently been recognized as being important are discussed in this report. Some 150 Kd values are provided in this report for various waste-disposal or tank-closure environments: soil, corrosion in grout, oxidizing grout waste, gravel, clay, and reducing concrete environments. Documentation and justification for the selection of each Kd value is provided.

  2. Completely automated open-path FT-IR spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Peter R; Shao, Limin; Leytem, April B

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric analysis by open-path Fourier-transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry has been possible for over two decades but has not been widely used because of the limitations of the software of commercial instruments. In this paper, we describe the current state-of-the-art of the hardware and software that constitutes a contemporary OP/FT-IR spectrometer. We then describe advances that have been made in our laboratory that have enabled many of the limitations of this type of instrument to be overcome. These include not having to acquire a single-beam background spectrum that compensates for absorption features in the spectra of atmospheric water vapor and carbon dioxide. Instead, an easily measured "short path-length" background spectrum is used for calculation of each absorbance spectrum that is measured over a long path-length. To accomplish this goal, the algorithm used to calculate the concentrations of trace atmospheric molecules was changed from classical least-squares regression (CLS) to partial least-squares regression (PLS). For calibration, OP/FT-IR spectra are measured in pristine air over a wide variety of path-lengths, temperatures, and humidities, ratioed against a short-path background, and converted to absorbance; the reference spectrum of each analyte is then multiplied by randomly selected coefficients and added to these background spectra. Automatic baseline correction for small molecules with resolved rotational fine structure, such as ammonia and methane, is effected using wavelet transforms. A novel method of correcting for the effect of the nonlinear response of mercury cadmium telluride detectors is also incorporated. Finally, target factor analysis may be used to detect the onset of a given pollutant when its concentration exceeds a certain threshold. In this way, the concentration of atmospheric species has been obtained from OP/FT-IR spectra measured at intervals of 1 min over a period of many hours with no operator intervention.

  3. [Research on the blood components detecting by multi-optical path length spectroscopy technique].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhao, Zhe; Liu, Rui; Wang, Hui-quan; Wu, Hong-jie; Lin, Ling

    2010-09-01

    To discuss the feasibility of using the serum's multi-optical path length spectroscopy information for measuring the concentration of the human blood components, the automatic micro-displacement measuring device was designed, which can obtain the near-infrared multi-optical path length from 0 to 4.0 mm (interval is 0.2 mm) spectra of 200 serum samples with multioptical path length spectrum of serum participated in building the quantitative analysis model of four components of the human blood: glucose (GLU), total cholesterol (TC), total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB), by mean of the significant non-linear spectral characteristic of blood. Partial least square (PLS) was used to set up the calibration models of the multi-optical path length near-infrared absorption spectrum of 160 experimental samples against the biochemical analysis results of them. The blood components of another 40 samples were predicted according to the model. The prediction effect of four blood components was favorable, and the correlation coefficient (r) of predictive value and biochemical analysis value were 0.9320, 0.9712, 0.9462 and 0.9483, respectively. All of the results proved the feasibility of the multi-optical path length spectroscopy technique for blood components analysis. And this technique established the foundation of detecting the components of blood and other liquid conveniently and rapidly.

  4. Summation Paths in Clenshaw-Curtis Quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, S.; Adam, Gh.

    2016-02-01

    Two topics concerning the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature within the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of Riemann integrals are considered. First, it is found that the efficient floating point computation of the coefficients of the Chebyshev series expansion of the integrand is to be done within a mathematical structure consisting of the union of coefficient families ordered into complete binary trees. Second, the scrutiny of the decay rates of the involved even and odd rank Chebyshev expansion coefficients with the increase of their rank labels enables the definition of Bayesian decision paths for the advancement to the numerical output.

  5. A multi-Gaussian model for apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis of Wilms' tumour subtype and response to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hales, Patrick W; Olsen, Øystein E; Sebire, Neil J; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Clark, Chris A

    2015-08-01

    Wilms' tumours (WTs) are large heterogeneous tumours, which typically consist of a mixture of histological cell types, together with regions of chemotherapy-induced regressive change and necrosis. The predominant cell type in a WT is assessed histologically following nephrectomy, and used to assess the tumour subtype and potential risk. The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model to identify subregions within WTs with distinct cellular environments in vivo, determined using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). We recorded the WT subtype from the histopathology of 32 tumours resected in patients who received DWI prior to surgery after pre-operative chemotherapy had been administered. In 23 of these tumours, DWI data were also available prior to chemotherapy. Histograms of ADC values were analysed using a multi-Gaussian model fitting procedure, which identified 'subpopulations' with distinct cellular environments within the tumour volume. The mean and lower quartile ADC values of the predominant viable tissue subpopulation (ADC(1MEAN), ADC(1LQ)), together with the same parameters from the entire tumour volume (ADC(0MEAN), ADC(0LQ)), were tested as predictors of WT subtype. ADC(1LQ) from the multi-Gaussian model was the most effective parameter for the stratification of WT subtype, with significantly lower values observed in high-risk blastemal-type WTs compared with intermediate-risk stromal, regressive and mixed-type WTs (p < 0.05). No significant difference in ADC(1LQ) was found between blastemal-type and intermediate-risk epithelial-type WTs. The predominant viable tissue subpopulation in every stromal-type WT underwent a positive shift in ADC(1MEAN) after chemotherapy. Our results suggest that our multi-Gaussian model is a useful tool for differentiating distinct cellular regions within WTs, which helps to identify the predominant histological cell type in the tumour in vivo. This shows potential for

  6. Suite of Benchmark Tests to Conduct Mesh-Convergence Analysis of Nonlinear and Non-constant Coefficient Transport Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, K.; Bombardelli, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    Verification of geophysics codes is imperative to avoid serious academic as well as practical consequences. In case that access to any given source code is not possible, the Method of Manufactured Solution (MMS) cannot be employed in code verification. In contrast, employing the Method of Exact Solution (MES) has several practical advantages. In this research, we first provide four new one-dimensional analytical solutions designed for code verification; these solutions are able to uncover the particular imperfections of the Advection-diffusion-reaction equation, such as nonlinear advection, diffusion or source terms, as well as non-constant coefficient equations. After that, we provide a solution of Burgers' equation in a novel setup. Proposed solutions satisfy the continuity of mass for the ambient flow, which is a crucial factor for coupled hydrodynamics-transport solvers. Then, we use the derived analytical solutions for code verification. To clarify gray-literature issues in the verification of transport codes, we designed a comprehensive test suite to uncover any imperfection in transport solvers via a hierarchical increase in the level of tests' complexity. The test suite includes hundreds of unit tests and system tests to check vis-a-vis the portions of the code. Examples for checking the suite start by testing a simple case of unidirectional advection; then, bidirectional advection and tidal flow and build up to nonlinear cases. We design tests to check nonlinearity in velocity, dispersivity and reactions. The concealing effect of scales (Peclet and Damkohler numbers) on the mesh-convergence study and appropriate remedies are also discussed. For the cases in which the appropriate benchmarks for mesh convergence study are not available, we utilize symmetry. Auxiliary subroutines for automation of the test suite and report generation are designed. All in all, the test package is not only a robust tool for code verification but it also provides comprehensive

  7. Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals

    SciTech Connect

    Sofo, J. O.; Mahan, G. D.

    2000-07-15

    Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  8. Identification of Variables Associated with Group Separation in Descriptive Discriminant Analysis: Comparison of Methods for Interpreting Structure Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Holmes

    2010-01-01

    Discriminant Analysis (DA) is a tool commonly used for differentiating among 2 or more groups based on 2 or more predictor variables. DA works by finding 1 or more linear combinations of the predictors that yield maximal difference among the groups. One common goal of researchers using DA is to characterize the nature of group difference by…

  9. Relationships between the quality of blended learning experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students: a path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kassab, Salah Eldin; Al-Shafei, Ahmad I; Salem, Abdel Halim; Otoom, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the relationships between the different aspects of students’ course experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students in a blended learning curriculum. Methods Perceptions of medical students (n=171) from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain), on the blended learning experience were measured using the Student Course Experience Questionnaire (SCEQ), with an added e-Learning scale. In addition, self-regulated learning was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Academic achievement was measured by the scores of the students at the end of the course. A path analysis was created to test the relationships between the different study variables. Results Path analysis indicated that the perceived quality of the face-to-face component of the blended experience directly affected the motivation of students. The SCEQ scale “quality of teaching” directly affected two aspects of motivation: control of learning and intrinsic goal orientation. Furthermore, appropriate course workload directly affected the self-efficacy of students. Moreover, the e-Learning scale directly affected students’ peer learning and critical thinking but indirectly affected metacognitive regulation. The resource management regulation strategies, time and study environment, and effort regulation directly affected students’ examination scores (17% of the variance explained). However, there were no significant direct relationships between the SCEQ scales and cognitive learning strategies or examination scores. Conclusion The results of this study will have important implications for designing blended learning courses in medical schools. PMID:25610011

  10. Stress-related psychological symptoms contribute to axial pain persistence after motor vehicle collision: path analysis results from a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Rose K; Hu, JunMei; Weaver, Mark A; Fillingim, Roger B; Swor, Robert A; Peak, David A; Jones, Jeffrey S; Rathlev, Niels K; Lee, David C; Domeier, Robert M; Hendry, Phyllis L; Liberzon, Israel; McLean, Samuel A

    2017-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and pain after traumatic events such as motor vehicle collision (MVC) have been proposed to be mutually promoting. We performed a prospective multicenter study that enrolled 948 individuals who presented to the emergency department within 24 hours of MVC and were discharged home after evaluation. Follow-up evaluations were completed 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after MVC. Path analysis results supported the hypothesis that axial pain after MVC consistently promotes the maintenance of hyperarousal and intrusive symptoms, from the early weeks after injury through 1 year. In addition, path analysis results supported the hypothesis that one or more PTSD symptom clusters had an influence on axial pain outcomes throughout the year after MVC, with hyperarousal symptoms most influencing axial pain persistence in the initial months after MVC. The influence of hyperarousal symptoms on pain persistence was only present among individuals with genetic vulnerability to stress-induced pain, suggesting specific mechanisms by which hyperarousal symptoms may lead to hyperalgesia and allodynia. Further studies are needed to better understand the specific mechanisms by which pain and PTSD symptoms enhance one another after trauma, and how such mechanisms vary among specific patient subgroups, to better inform the development of secondary preventive interventions.

  11. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy.

  12. Analysis of the Perceptions of CPM (Critical Path Method) as a Project Management Tool on Base Level Civil Engineering Projects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    PATH 2/2 METHOD) AS A PROJECT MA (U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF SYST R 0 REAY UNCLASSIFIED SEP 86 AFIT/GEN/DEM/86S-2i F /O...OF SYST R D REAY UNLSIID SEP 86 AFIT/GEM/DEM/86S-2i F /G 15/5 N EEEEohmhEEEEEE smmhEmhEEEEEmh EEEEEEEEmhhEEE EEEEEEEEEEEmhE EEE10hEEEEEEEEI 1.0 Us 1o15...MANAGEMENT TOOL ON BASE LEVEL CIUIL ENGINEERING PROJECTS THESIS Roderick 0. Reag Captain, USAF AFIT/GEM/DEM/BS-21 DTIC r -c - ,’ r ,u ; . F DEPARTMENT OF THE

  13. Photon path distribution and optical responses of turbid media: theoretical analysis based on the microscopic Beer-Lambert law.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Y

    2001-08-01

    A concise theoretical treatment has been developed to describe the optical responses of a highly scattering inhomogeneous medium using functions of the photon path distribution (PPD). The treatment is based on the microscopic Beer-Lambert law and has been found to yield a complete set of optical responses by time- and frequency-domain measurements. The PPD is defined for possible photons having a total zigzag pathlength of l between the points of light input and detection. Such a distribution is independent of the absorption properties of the medium and can be uniquely determined for the medium under quantification. Therefore, the PPD can be calculated with an imaginary reference medium having the same optical properties as the medium under quantification except for the absence of absorption. One of the advantages of this method is that the optical responses, the total attenuation, the mean pathlength, etc are expressed by functions of the PPD and the absorption distribution.

  14. A Shortest-Path-Based Method for the Analysis and Prediction of Fruit-Related Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fangchu; Chen, Lei; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Biologically, fruits are defined as seed-bearing reproductive structures in angiosperms that develop from the ovary. The fertilization, development and maturation of fruits are crucial for plant reproduction and are precisely regulated by intrinsic genetic regulatory factors. In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana as a model organism and attempted to identify novel genes related to fruit-associated biological processes. Specifically, using validated genes, we applied a shortest-path-based method to identify several novel genes in a large network constructed using the protein-protein interactions observed in Arabidopsis thaliana. The described analyses indicate that several of the discovered genes are associated with fruit fertilization, development and maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27434024

  15. Positive alcohol expectancies mediate the influence of the behavioral activation system on alcohol use: a prospective path analysis.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Colder, Craig R; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-04-01

    Gray's (1975, 1987) behavioral activation (BAS) and behavioral inhibition systems (BIS) are thought to underlie sensitivity to reinforcement and punishment, respectively. Consistent with Gray's theory and the Acquired Preparedness model, BAS may facilitate the learning of positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs) over time, leading to increases in drinking. Yet, no prospective tests of this pathway have been reported. The present study investigated whether BAS prospectively predicted PAEs and whether PAEs mediated the association between BAS and subsequent alcohol use. We hypothesized that BAS would influence drinking specifically via enhancement-related PAEs. We also explored the role of BIS in PAEs and drinking. College students (N=557) completed online BAS, PAE, and alcohol use measures in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. We conducted autoregressive path analyses with three BAS subscales and BIS (T1) as predictors, four PAE types (T2) as mediators, and quantity and frequency of drinking (T3) as outcomes. The BAS Fun-Seeking scale was prospectively associated with PAEs, and there was a significant indirect path from Fun-Seeking to alcohol use mediated specifically through activity enhancement PAEs. BIS was positively associated with some PAE types, but did not have indirect effects on drinking. Findings are consistent with both the theory of the BAS and the Acquired Preparedness model, as individuals high on BAS Fun-Seeking may find the rewarding properties of alcohol more reinforcing, leading to stronger enhancement PAEs and increased drinking over time. The prospective design helps establish the temporal association between BAS and alcohol-related learning, and points to the need for prevention efforts that target these at-risk students.

  16. Dissolved organic carbon dynamics in a UK podzolic moorland catchment: linking storm hydrochemistry, flow path analysis and sorption experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutter, M. I.; Dunn, S. M.; Lumsdon, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    Better knowledge of spatial and temporal delivery of dissolved organic Carbon (DOC) in small catchments is required to understand the mechanisms behind reported long-term changes in C fluxes from some peatlands. We monitored two storms with contrasting seasons and antecedent conditions in a small upland UK moorland catchment. We examined DOC concentrations and specific UV absorbance (SUVA at 285 nm), together with solute concentrations required to undertake end member mixing analyses to define dominant flow paths contributing to streamflow. This was combined with laboratory soil-solution equilibrations. We aimed to resolve how seasonal biogeochemical processing of DOC and flowpath changes in organo-mineral soils combine to affect DOC exported via the stream. An August storm following a dry period gave maximum DOC concentration of 10 mg l-1. Small DOC:DON ratios (16-28) and SUVA (2.7-3.6 l mg-1 m-1) was attributed to filtration of aromatic compounds associated with up to 53% B horizon flow contributions. This selective filtration of high SUVA DOC was reproduced in the experimental batch equilibration system. For a November storm, wetter antecedent soil conditions led to enhanced soil connectivity with the stream and seven times greater DOC stream-load (maximum concentration 16 mg l-1). This storm had a 63% O horizon flow contribution at its peak, limited B horizon buffering and consequently more aromatic DOC (SUVA 3.9-4.5 l mg-1 m-1 and DOC:DON ratio 35-43). We suggest that simple mixing of waters from different flow paths cannot alone explain the differences in DOC compositions between August and November and biogeochemical processing of DOC is required to fully explain the observed stream DOC dynamics. This is in contrast to other studies proposing hydrological controls and provides evidence that DOC biogeochemistry must be incorporated in modelling to predict the impacts of changes in DOC delivery to aquatic systems.

  17. Scenario Analysis on Global Hydropower Development Paths and Their Contribution to GHG Mitigation Utilizing a Dynamic CGE Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Z.; Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, hydropower accounts for 16% of the worldwide electricity power supply and 86% of the total renewable electricity energy source due to its low cost, low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and relatively high reliability. It is well known that the global hydropower has not yet been fully developed, but the future paths of development and corresponding contribution to GHG mitigation in each region combined with socioeconomic activities are less known. Here we investigated following three questions. How much will hydropower generation increase in the future? Will hydropower generation reach the economically exploitable capability (EEC)? If this will be the case, when and where will it occur? How much GHG emission will be reduced by adding new hydropower? In order to address these questions, we used the AIM/CGE model, a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to quantify the global hydropower development paths and corresponding GHG mitigation contribution for 17 regions in the world associated with a socio-economic scenario termed SSP2. We compared two scenarios with different assumptions on EEC. One is BAU which takes EEC from the report of "World Energy Resources", the other is FIX_BAU which fix EEC at the current hydropower generation amount throughout the research period (2005-2100) or no additional installation of hydropower plants. The comparison between two scenarios indicated that promoting hydropower development contributed to GHG emission reduction globally but the magnitude varied by region. For example we found that in North Africa, hydropower development grew fast because of the rapid economic development, but it reached EEC as soon as in 2040 because of limitation in EEC due to its climatic and geographical conditions. Conversely, in Brazil, it grew steadily and did not reach its abundant EEC. Consequently, GHG mitigation contribution of North Africa is far less than Brazil. This research provides important information for policy makers to

  18. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Study and analysis of coefficient mismatch in a MASH21 sigma-delta modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binjie, Ge; Xin'an, Wang; Xing, Zhang; Xiaoxing, Feng; Qingqin, Wang

    2010-01-01

    The quantization noise leakage of the first stage in a MASH21 sigma-delta modulator is analyzed. The results show that the finite DC gain of the opamp is the main reason for noise leakage, and finite GBW and SR only generate harmonic distortion. The relationship between DC gain and leakage is modeled and conclusions on design criteria are reached. As an example, a MASH21 modulator for a digital audio application is realized. This modulator, fabricated in an 0.18 μm mixed signal process, achieves an SNDR of 91 dB with 1.8 V supply, which verifies the analysis and design criteria.

  19. Path-based network unfolding: A solution for the problem of mixed trophic and non-trophic processes in trophic dynamic analysis

    PubMed

    Whipple

    1998-02-07

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a quantitative method of trophic dynamic analysis derived from a systems ecology theoretical foundation. This method was devised to provide a solution for the problem of how to deal with mixed trophic and non-trophic processes in cyclic ecosystem networks, a problem that has vexed trophic ecology since Lindeman first presented a formal concept of trophic dynamics in 1942. The author's initial attempt to solve this problem was presented in Whipple & Patten (1993, J. theor. Biol. 163, 393-411). The path-based network unfolding method described in this paper provides a quantitative method for conducting trophic dynamic analysis of cyclic ecosystems containing non-living storages and non-trophic flows to produce a true energy-transformation trophic macrochain. This method solves the "trophic-level inflation" problem described in Whipple & Patten (193, J. theor. Biol. 163, 393-411). The results of the analysis of an oyster reef ecosystem model demonstrate that the dual trophic macrochain produced by path-based network unfolding may be used to compare the relative contribution of grazing and detrital sub-webs to the trophic dynamics of ecosystems. It was found that the standing stock and flow contribution of the detrital sub-web was quantitatively dominant in the oyster reef ecosystem model. This method might be used to compare the contribution of grazing and detrital sub-webs for models of different ecosystem types. Because a true energy transformation trophic chain is produced, the progressive efficiency concept of the Lindeman-Hutchinson paradigm may be applied in comparative trophic analyses of ecosystems. In comparing the oyster reef model results of three quantitative trophic analysis methods, the path-based network unfolding method was found to produce a trophic macrochain with progressive efficiencies intermediate between those produced by the original Higashi et al. method and the Burns et al. unfolding analysis of a

  20. [New analysis algorithm for regional cerebral blood flow and partition coefficient with dynamic SPECT and N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine: graphical plot method].

    PubMed

    Yokoi, T; Iida, H; Kanno, I

    1991-07-01

    We developed a new analysis algorithm based on multiple-time graphical plot to estimate the regional cerebral blood flow and partition coefficient using dynamic SPECT and N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP). By assuming the 2-compartment model of the kinetic for 123I-IMP, we derived a linear relationship between the ratio of the tissue activity concentration at the times to the time-integral arterial concentration at the respective times (formula; see text) and the ratio of the time-integral tissue concentration to the time-integral arterial concentration (formula; see text), and demonstrated that the Y-intercept and X-intercept of the plot line represent the regional cerebral blood flow (K1) and partition coefficient (lambda), respectively. The slope of the line represents a clearance constant k2. The present method was applied to data on four normal subjects measured by dynamic SPECT. Values of the K1 and lambda for the gray matter were obtained 40.8 +/- 6.5 ml/100 g/min and 28.8 +/- 5.3 ml/g, respectively, and the corresponding values for the white matter were 29.1 +/- 4.7 ml/100 g/min and 28.1 +/- 7.1 ml/g. The new method enabled a rapid estimation of both K1 and lambda.

  1. Senstitivity analysis of horizontal heat and vapor transfer coefficients for a cloud-topped marine boundary layer during cold-air outbreaks. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Y. V.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of external parameters on the surface heat and vapor fluxes into the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) during cold-air outbreaks are investigated using the numerical model of Stage and Businger (1981a). These fluxes are nondimensionalized using the horizontal heat (g1) and vapor (g2) transfer coefficient method first suggested by Chou and Atlas (1982) and further formulated by Stage (1983a). In order to simplify the problem, the boundary layer is assumed to be well mixed and horizontally homogeneous, and to have linear shoreline soundings of equivalent potential temperature and mixing ratio. Modifications of initial surface flux estimates, time step limitation, and termination conditions are made to the MABL model to obtain accurate computations. The dependence of g1 and g2 in the cloud topped boundary layer on the external parameters (wind speed, divergence, sea surface temperature, radiative sky temperature, cloud top radiation cooling, and initial shoreline soundings of temperature, and mixing ratio) is studied by a sensitivity analysis, which shows that the uncertainties of horizontal transfer coefficients caused by changes in the parameters are reasonably small.

  2. Separation of cucurbitane triterpenoids from bitter melon drinks and determination of partition coefficients using vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-phase microextraction followed by UHPLC analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuang; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Mei; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-03-31

    A rapid, effective method applying vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction before ultra high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and evaporative light scattering detection was developed for the analysis of four cucurbitane triterpenoids (momordicoside L, momordicoside K, momordicoside F2 , and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxy cucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al) in bitter melon juices. Variables affecting the extraction efficiency including different extraction solvents, volume of extraction solvent, salt amount, acid condition, vortex speed and time were optimized thoroughly. Under the optimum conditions, precision was determined by the intra- and inter-day tests in a range of 1.1-5.7% and 2.9-4.0% (RSD), respectively, with recoveries between 95.7 and 106.1%. The calibration curves showed good linearity with square correlation coefficient of 0.9936-0.9991 (evaporative light scattering detection) and 0.9858-0.9989 (MS). The detection limits ranged from 0.8-1.9 ng/mL (MS) to 3-10 ng/mL(evaporative light scattering detection) for these compounds. Enrichment factors of four target compounds were between 27 and 63 times. The proposed method was also used to determine the apparent solvent/water partition coefficients of analytes within the range of 53-120. The developed method can effectively enrich and quantify cucurbitane triterpenoids from bitter melon drinks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Helium diffusion coefficient measurements in R7T7 nuclear glass by 3He(d,α) 1H nuclear reaction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamssedine, F.; Sauvage, T.; Peuget, S.; Fares, T.; Martin, G.

    2010-05-01

    The immobilization of fission products and minor actinides by vitrification is the reference process for industrial management of high-level radioactive wastes generated by spent fuel reprocessing. Radiation damage and radiogenic helium accumulation must be specifically studied to evaluate the effects of minor actinide alpha decay on the glass long-term behavior under repository conditions. A specific experimental study was conducted for a comprehensive evaluation of the behavior of helium and its diffusion mechanisms in borosilicate nuclear waste glass. Helium production was simulated by external implantation with 3He ions at a concentration (≈1 at.%) 30 times higher than obtained after 10,000 years of storage. Helium diffusion coefficients as a function of temperature were extracted from the depth profiles after annealing. The 3He(d,α) 1H nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) technique was successfully adopted for low-temperature in situ measurements of depth profiles. Its high depth resolution revealed helium mobility at temperatures as low as 253 K and the presence of a trapped helium fraction. The diffusion coefficients of un-trapped helium atoms follow an Arrhenius law between 253 K and 323 K. An activation energy of 0.55 ± 0.03 eV was determined, which is consistent with a process controlled by diffusion in the glass free volume.

  4. 757 Path Loss Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Kent; Huffman, Mitch; Eppic, Brian; White, Harrison

    2005-01-01

    Path Loss Measurements were obtained on three (3) GPS equipped 757 aircraft. Systems measured were Marker Beacon, LOC, VOR, VHF (3), Glide Slope, ATC (2), DME (2), TCAS, and GPS. This data will provide the basis for assessing the EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) safety margins of comm/nav (communication and navigation) systems to portable electronic device emissions. These Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) include all devices operated in or around the aircraft by crews, passengers, servicing personnel, as well as the general public in the airport terminals. EMI assessment capability is an important step in determining if one system-wide PED EMI policy is appropriate. This data may also be used comparatively with theoretical analysis and computer modeling data sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and others.

  5. Modified Biserial Correlation Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, Helena Chmura

    1981-01-01

    Asymptotic distribution theory of Brogden's form of biserial correlation coefficient is derived and large sample estimates of its standard error obtained. Its relative efficiency to the biserial correlation coefficient is examined. Recommendations for choice of estimator of biserial correlation are presented. (Author/JKS)

  6. Dissolved organic carbon dynamics in a UK podzolic moorland catchment: linking storm hydrochemistry, flow path analysis and sorption experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutter, M. I.; Dunn, S. M.; Lumsdon, D. G.

    2012-06-01

    Better knowledge of spatial and temporal delivery of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in small catchments is required to understand the mechanisms behind reported long-term changes in C fluxes from some peatlands. We monitored two storms with contrasting seasons and antecedent conditions in a small upland UK moorland catchment. We examined DOC concentrations and specific UV absorbance (SUVA at 285 nm), together with solute concentrations required to undertake end-member mixing analyses to define dominant flow paths contributing to streamflow. This was combined with laboratory soil-solution equilibrations. We aimed to resolve how seasonal biogeochemical processing of DOC and flowpath changes in organo-mineral soils combine to affect DOC exported via the stream. An August storm following a dry period gave maximum DOC concentration of 10 mg l-1. Small DOC:DON ratios (16-28) and SUVA (2.7-3.6 l mg-1 m-1) was attributed to filtration of aromatic compounds associated with up to 53% B horizon flow contributions. This selective filtration of high SUVA DOC was reproduced in the experimental batch equilibration system. For a November storm, wetter antecedent soil conditions led to enhanced soil connectivity with the stream and seven times greater DOC stream-load (maximum concentration 16 mg l-1). This storm had a 63% O horizon flow contribution at its peak, limited B horizon buffering and consequently more aromatic DOC (SUVA 3.9-4.5 l mg-1 m-1 and DOC:DON ratio 35-43). We suggest that simple mixing of waters from different flow paths cannot alone explain the differences in DOC compositions between August and November and biogeochemical processing of DOC is required to fully explain the observed stream DOC dynamics. This preliminary evidence is in contrast to other studies proposing hydrological controls on the nature of DOC delivered to streams. Although our study is based only on two storms of very different hydrological and biogeochemical periods, this should promote wider

  7. Element analysis and calculation of the attenuation coefficients for gold, bronze and water matrixes using MCNP, WinXCom and experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfandiari, M.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Medhat, M. E.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, element analysis and the mass attenuation coefficient for matrixes of gold, bronze and water with various impurities and the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are evaluated and calculated by the MCNP simulation code for photons emitted from Barium-133, Americium-241 and sources with energies between 1 and 100 keV. The MCNP data are compared with the experimental data and WinXCom code simulated results by Medhat. The results showed that the obtained results of bronze and gold matrix are in good agreement with the other methods for energies above 40 and 60 keV, respectively. However for water matrixes with various impurities, there is a good agreement between the three methods MCNP, WinXCom and the experimental one in low and high energies.

  8. Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Atun, Rifat

    2013-05-10

    The role of multilateral donor agencies in global health is a new area of research, with limited research on how these agencies differ in terms of their governance arrangements, especially in relation to transparency, inclusiveness, accountability, and responsiveness to civil society. We argue that historical analysis of the origins of these agencies and their coalition formation processes can help to explain these differences. We propose an analytical approach that links the theoretical literature discussing institutional origins to path dependency and institutional theory relating to proto institutions in order to illustrate the differences in coalition formation processes that shape governance within four multilateral agencies involved in global health. We find that two new multilateral donor agencies that were created by a diverse coalition of state and non-state actors, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and GAVI, what we call proto-institutions, were more adaptive in strengthening their governance processes. This contrasts with two well-established multilateral donor agencies, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, what we call Bretton Woods (BW) institutions, which were created by nation states alone; and hence, have different origins and consequently different path dependent processes.

  9. Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The role of multilateral donor agencies in global health is a new area of research, with limited research on how these agencies differ in terms of their governance arrangements, especially in relation to transparency, inclusiveness, accountability, and responsiveness to civil society. We argue that historical analysis of the origins of these agencies and their coalition formation processes can help to explain these differences. We propose an analytical approach that links the theoretical literature discussing institutional origins to path dependency and institutional theory relating to proto institutions in order to illustrate the differences in coalition formation processes that shape governance within four multilateral agencies involved in global health. We find that two new multilateral donor agencies that were created by a diverse coalition of state and non-state actors, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and GAVI, what we call proto-institutions, were more adaptive in strengthening their governance processes. This contrasts with two well-established multilateral donor agencies, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, what we call Bretton Woods (BW) institutions, which were created by nation states alone; and hence, have different origins and consequently different path dependent processes. PMID:23663485

  10. An Application of Calculus: Optimum Parabolic Path Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atasever, Merve; Pakdemirli, Mehmet; Yurtsever, Hasan Ali

    2009-01-01

    A practical and technological application of calculus problem is posed to motivate freshman students or junior high school students. A variable coefficient of friction is used in modelling air friction. The case in which the coefficient of friction is a decreasing function of altitude is considered. The optimum parabolic path for a flying object…

  11. Review and analysis of VHF/UHF field strength measurements: Measurements at VHF over path lengths greater than 100 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandell, R. S.; Bell, C. P.; Taplin, D. W.

    1986-12-01

    In 1983 CCIRIWP 5/5 put forward a number of proposals for improvements to the field strength prediction methods of CCIR Recommendation 370 and associated Report 239, as used for international planning negotiations in the VHF and UHF Broadcast Bands. Described are the results of studies carried out by the BBC, in conjunction with other propagation investigations, to assess the validity of those proposals of IWP 5/5 which relate to propagation over path lengths in excess of about 100 km in the VHF Bands. It is concluded that these proposals can be supported with only one exception, relating to an addition of 7 dB to beyond-horizon oversea curves. Subsequently, the VHF proposals (excepting the one relating to the 7 dB correction) have been endorsed by CCIR Study Group 5 and adopted by the Plenar Meeting in 1986 for inclusion as modifications to Recommendation 370. Even so, limitations in the exsiting methods are identified and further work is proposed.

  12. Effect of the shape on the spin state and exchange in quantum dots. Feynman path integral analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shevkunov, S. V.

    2015-05-15

    The ab initio computer simulation of the mixed quantum states of 1–5-nm model ellipsoid quantum dots with “soft” walls containing two and three quantum-indistinguishable nonrelativistic electrons has been performed by the path integral method. The calculation has been carried out beyond the single-electron and mean-field approximations with the fundamentally exact inclusion of Coulomb and exchange correlations of all orders and the spin variable. Distributions over the eigenfunctions of the spin-squared operator, as well as the equilibrium spin numbers, have been obtained depending on the shape of a quantum dot and the temperature. The complete set of basis functions symmetrized in permutations according to the spin of the system has been obtained by application of the Young symmetry operators. The dependence of the energy on the shape of the quantum dot corresponds to the negative sign of the surface tension at its boundary. The calculation indicates that the spin magnetic susceptibility in the system of two electrons decreases strongly for spherical quantum dots (“pairing” of spins) and the temperature dependences have a pronounced maximum whose position depends on the shape of the quantum dot. For three electrons in an oblate quantum dot, the inversion of the energy levels of spin states is observed and affects the spin magnetic susceptibility. The results indicate a strong dependence of the energy of collective spin states of electrons on the detailed inclusion of exchange and Coulomb spatial correlations.

  13. Energy landscape analysis of native folding of the prion protein yields the diffusion constant, transition path time, and rates.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Gupta, Amar Nath; Liu, Xia; Neupane, Krishna; Brigley, Angela M; Sosova, Iveta; Woodside, Michael T

    2012-09-04

    Protein folding is described conceptually in terms of diffusion over a configurational free-energy landscape, typically reduced to a one-dimensional profile along a reaction coordinate. In principle, kinetic properties can be predicted directly from the landscape profile using Kramers theory for diffusive barrier crossing, including the folding rates and the transition time for crossing the barrier. Landscape theory has been widely applied to interpret the time scales for protein conformational dynamics, but protein folding rates and transition times have not been calculated directly from experimentally measured free-energy profiles. We characterized the energy landscape for native folding of the prion protein using force spectroscopy, measuring the change in extension of a single protein molecule at high resolution as it unfolded/refolded under tension. Key parameters describing the landscape profile were first recovered from the distributions of unfolding and refolding forces, allowing the diffusion constant for barrier crossing and the transition path time across the barrier to be calculated. The full landscape profile was then reconstructed from force-extension curves, revealing a double-well potential with an extended, partially unfolded transition state. The barrier height and position were consistent with the previous results. Finally, Kramers theory was used to predict the folding rates from the landscape profile, recovering the values observed experimentally both under tension and at zero force in ensemble experiments. These results demonstrate how advances in single-molecule theory and experiment are harnessing the power of landscape formalisms to describe quantitatively the mechanics of folding.

  14. Nano-structural analysis of effective transport paths in fuel-cell catalyst layers by using stochastic material network methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seungho; Kim, Ah-Reum; Um, Sukkee

    2016-02-01

    A two-dimensional material network model has been developed to visualize the nano-structures of fuel-cell catalysts and to search for effective transport paths for the optimal performance of fuel cells in randomly-disordered composite catalysts. Stochastic random modeling based on the Monte Carlo method is developed using random number generation processes over a catalyst layer domain at a 95% confidence level. After the post-determination process of the effective connectivity, particularly for mass transport, the effective catalyst utilization factors are introduced to determine the extent of catalyst utilization in the fuel cells. The results show that the superficial pore volume fractions of 600 trials approximate a normal distribution curve with a mean of 0.5. In contrast, the estimated volume fraction of effectively inter-connected void clusters ranges from 0.097 to 0.420, which is much smaller than the superficial porosity of 0.5 before the percolation process. Furthermore, the effective catalyst utilization factor is determined to be linearly proportional to the effective porosity. More importantly, this study reveals that the average catalyst utilization is less affected by the variations of the catalyst's particle size and the absolute catalyst loading at a fixed volume fraction of void spaces.

  15. Parameter identifiability and Extended Multiple Studies Analysis of a compartmental model for human vitamin A kinetics: fixing fractional transfer coefficients for the initial steps in the absorptive process.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunjin; Green, Michael H

    2014-03-28

    In the existing compartmental models of human vitamin A metabolism, parameters related to the absorption of the isotopic oral dose have not been well identified. We hypothesised that fixing some poorly identified parameters related to vitamin A absorption would improve parameter identifiability and add statistical certainty to such models. In the present study, data for serum vitamin A kinetics in nine subjects given [2H8]retinyl acetate orally and a model with absorption fixed at 75 % were used to test this hypothesis. In addition to absorption efficiency, we fixed two other fractional transfer coefficients: one representing the initial processing of the ingested dose and the other representing the direct secretion of retinol bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP) from enterocytes into the plasma. The Windows version of Simulation, Analysis and Modeling software (WinSAAM) was used to fit serum tracer data v. time for each subject. Then, a population model was generated by WinSAAM's Extended Multiple Studies Analysis. All the parameters had fractional standard deviations < 0·5, and none of the pairs of parameters had a correlation coefficient >0·8 (accepted criteria for well-identified parameters). Similar to the values predicted by the original model, total traced mass for retinol was 1160 (sd 468) μmol, and the time for retinol to appear in the plasma bound to RBP was 31·3 (sd 4·4) h. In conclusion, we suggest that this approach holds promise for advancing compartmental modelling of vitamin A kinetics in humans when the dose must be administered orally.

  16. The universal path integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth; Dreyer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Path integrals calculate probabilities by summing over classical configurations of variables such as fields, assigning each configuration a phase equal to the action of that configuration. This paper defines a universal path integral, which sums over all computable structures. This path integral contains as sub-integrals all possible computable path integrals, including those of field theory, the standard model of elementary particles, discrete models of quantum gravity, string theory, etc. The universal path integral possesses a well-defined measure that guarantees its finiteness. The probabilities for events corresponding to sub-integrals can be calculated using the method of decoherent histories. The universal path integral supports a quantum theory of the universe in which the world that we see around us arises out of the interference between all computable structures.

  17. Structural model of self‐care agency in patients with diabetes: A path analysis of the Instrument of Diabetes Self‐Care Agency and body self‐awareness

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Yasuko; Uchiumi, Kyoko; Asou, Kawai; Kuroda, Kumiko; Murakado, Naoko; Seto, Natsuko; Masaki, Harue; Ishii, Hidetoki

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to examine a causal model of self‐care agency by exploring the relationship between the structure of “body self‐awareness” and the structure of the Instrument of Diabetes Self‐Care Agency (IDSCA). Methods The participants were 353 patients with diabetes. The internal consistency of the six items for body self‐awareness was examined by calculating the factor structure using principal factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. In order to examine the relationship between the seven factors in the IDSCA, a path analysis was conducted. Results With regard to the factor structure, the factor loading of these five items was 0.511–0.743 (α = 0.739). In the path analysis, “body self‐awareness” was influenced by the “ability to acquire knowledge” and had a direct effect (0.33) on the “motivation to self‐manage”, while “motivation to self‐manage” had an effect (−0.32) on the “ability to self‐manage”. The Goodness‐of‐Fit Index was 0.974. Conclusion “Body self‐awareness” plays a part in the self‐care operation process and serves as an intermediary factor to enable the performance of self‐care operations by making the most use of self‐care agency. Moreover, striking a proper balance between self‐management that is focused on the treatment of diabetes and a person's ability for self‐management of diabetes was found to be important. PMID:27224894

  18. Optical tomography with discretized path integral

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Bingzhi; Tamaki, Toru; Kushida, Takahiro; Mukaigawa, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Hiroyuki; Raytchev, Bisser; Kaneda, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We present a framework for optical tomography based on a path integral. Instead of directly solving the radiative transport equations, which have been widely used in optical tomography, we use a path integral that has been developed for rendering participating media based on the volume rendering equation in computer graphics. For a discretized two-dimensional layered grid, we develop an algorithm to estimate the extinction coefficients of each voxel with an interior point method. Numerical simulation results are shown to demonstrate that the proposed method works well. PMID:26839903

  19. Optical tomography with discretized path integral.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bingzhi; Tamaki, Toru; Kushida, Takahiro; Mukaigawa, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Hiroyuki; Raytchev, Bisser; Kaneda, Kazufumi

    2015-07-01

    We present a framework for optical tomography based on a path integral. Instead of directly solving the radiative transport equations, which have been widely used in optical tomography, we use a path integral that has been developed for rendering participating media based on the volume rendering equation in computer graphics. For a discretized two-dimensional layered grid, we develop an algorithm to estimate the extinction coefficients of each voxel with an interior point method. Numerical simulation results are shown to demonstrate that the proposed method works well.

  20. Path Integrals and Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2014-03-01

    1. Synopsis; Part I. Fundamental Principles: 2. The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics; 3. Operators; 4. The Feynman path integral; 5. Hamiltonian mechanics; 6. Path integral quantization; Part II. Stochastic Processes: 7. Stochastic systems; Part III. Discrete Degrees of Freedom: 8. Ising model; 9. Ising model: magnetic field; 10. Fermions; Part IV. Quadratic Path Integrals: 11. Simple harmonic oscillators; 12. Gaussian path integrals; Part V. Action with Acceleration: 13. Acceleration Lagrangian; 14. Pseudo-Hermitian Euclidean Hamiltonian; 15. Non-Hermitian Hamiltonian: Jordan blocks; 16. The quartic potential: instantons; 17. Compact degrees of freedom; Index.

  1. Improved 3D-QSPR analysis of the predictive octanol-air partition coefficients of hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxia; Shi, Jiaqi; Liu, Hui; Wang, Zunyao

    2013-10-01

    The octanol/air partition coefficient (KOA) is a key physicochemical parameter for describing the partition of organic pollutants between air and environment organic phase. The development of appropriate method to estimate KOA is of great importance. In the present study, the steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor and acceptor descriptors were computed by comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). On the basis of these parameters, the statistically quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models for logKOA of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) congeners were developed using partial least-squares (PLS) analysis, of which the R2 is about 0.980, 0.952 respectively. The electrostatic field was found to be main factors governing the logKOA. The results of validation indicate the models of this study exhibit optimum stability, and thus it is feasible to predict logKOA.

  2. Coefficients of Effective Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions, a validity Coefficient of Effective Length (CEL) can produce highly misleading results. A modified coefficent is suggested for use when empirical studies indicate that underlying assumptions have been violated. (Author/BW)

  3. Intercomparison and coupling of magnesium-induced co-precipitation and long-path liquid-waveguide capillary cell techniques for trace analysis of phosphate in seawater.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian P; Hansell, Dennis A

    2008-03-17

    Currently, two common techniques for nanomolar-level phosphate measurements in seawater are magnesium-induced co-precipitation (MAGIC) and long-path liquid-waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) spectrophotometry. These techniques have been applied in the open ocean, and our understanding of phosphate distributions in oligotrophic subtropical gyres is based on those data. However, intercomparison of these methods has not previously been performed at nanomolar levels. Here, we report experimental results directly comparing the MAGIC and LWCC techniques. We also evaluated the impact of various commonly employed filters on phosphate determinations, as well as interferences from dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) and arsenate. Our results find agreement between these methods at phosphate concentrations <100nM. We found that filter selection is important for accurate determinations of phosphate, and that DOP hydrolysis affects both techniques similarly. Finally, we demonstrate the advantage of combining MAGIC preconcentration and LWCC spectrophotometry for analysis of very low nanomolar concentrations.

  4. Disclosure appraisal mediating the association between perceived stigma and HIV disclosure to casual sex partners among HIV+ MSM: a path model analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Haochu; Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    HIV stigma is widely believed to be related to HIV disclosure. However, there is a dearth of studies examining the mechanisms that link stigma to disclosure. This is a specific study to assess the relationship between perceived stigma and HIV disclosure to casual sex partners based on a social cognitive theory. HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM) from two US cities (N = 297) completed questionnaires administered using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing. Path modeling analysis was used to assess the theory-based structural relationships. Perceived stigma was negatively associated with attitudes, intention and behavior of HIV disclosure to casual sex partners. The association was fully mediated by disclosure appraisal, including disclosure outcome expectations, costs and self-efficacy. Findings of this study add new knowledge regarding HIV stigma and disclosure, and provide timely data supporting more effective behavioral interventions to encourage HIV disclosure among MSM.

  5. Social, cultural, and land use determinants of the health and well-being of Aboriginal peoples of Canada: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Kant, Shashi; Vertinsky, Ilan; Zheng, Bin; Smith, Peggy M

    2013-08-01

    We explored the contributions of social, cultural, and land use (SCLU) factors to Aboriginal well-being and health using path analysis and data collected from 2 of 614 First Nations in Canada. Information gathered from a structured questionnaire with questions related to seven domains of well-being and contributing factors led to key findings: (i) the SCLU domain is the most important; (ii) the most important SCLU factors are the percentage of household meals of traditional diets and the impact of government regulations on land use; (iii) the most important Health domain factors are the prevalence of mental and psychological problems and the quality of health services; and (iv) the SCLU factors of access to cultural sites, the freedom to participate in spiritual activities, and the impact of government regulations on social and cultural life have a profound effect on mental health. Improving Aboriginal well-being and health may depend on incorporating SCLU factors into new, holistic policies.

  6. Social, cultural, and land use determinants of the health and well-being of Aboriginal peoples of Canada: A path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Shashi; Vertinsky, Ilan; Zheng, Bin; Smith, Peggy M

    2013-01-01

    We explored the contributions of social, cultural, and land use (SCLU) factors to Aboriginal well-being and health using path analysis and data collected from 2 of 614 First Nations in Canada. Information gathered from a structured questionnaire with questions related to seven domains of well-being and contributing factors led to key findings: (i) the SCLU domain is the most important; (ii) the most important SCLU factors are the percentage of household meals of traditional diets and the impact of government regulations on land use; (iii) the most important Health domain factors are the prevalence of mental and psychological problems and the quality of health services; and (iv) the SCLU factors of access to cultural sites, the freedom to participate in spiritual activities, and the impact of government regulations on social and cultural life have a profound effect on mental health. Improving Aboriginal well-being and health may depend on incorporating SCLU factors into new, holistic policies. PMID:23760133

  7. Analysis of the effects of ionospheric sampling of reflection points near-path, for high-frequency single-site-location direction finding systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Filho, C.A.

    1990-12-01

    This thesis suggests a method to estimate the current value of an ionospheric parameter. The proposed method is based on the known variability of the observed current values near path and utilizes data derived from ionospheric sampling measurements. Analysis of errors is provided in Single-Site-Location High-Frequency Direction Finding (SSL-HFDF), arising from ionospheric irregularities such as Es (sporadic E), ionospheric tilts, and traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). The characteristics of Es, tilts and TIDs for mid-latitudes are summarized in tables. The spatial and temporal coherence of ionospheric variabilities and irregularities is analyzed over the electron density. Practical results, measurements, and studies are presented on SSL-HFDF. A survey of characteristics of the ionosphere in the equatorial region is also provided. Finally, some recommendations are given to maximize the applicability of the proposed method.

  8. Optimizing Thermal-Optical Analysis for Atmospheric Black Carbon (BC): Determining the Beer-Lambert Mass Without a Fixed Mass Absorption Coefficient for BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conny, J. M.; Norris, G.

    2007-12-01

    In thermal-optical transmission analysis (TOT), laser light passing through a particle-laden filter is monitored while carbonaceous material is removed in several heating steps and measured by flame ionization detection. In a helium atmosphere, the laser signal is attenuated by the pyrolysis of organic carbon (OC). Later, while carbon is removed in an oxidizing atmosphere, the laser signal returns to its value prior to pyrolysis (split point), whereupon the amount of carbon equivalent to the native BC is measured. Since pyrolyzed OC may actually evolve beyond the split point, the specific absorption cross sections of pyrolyzed OC and native BC must be equivalent. Moreover, OC pyrolysis must be sufficient so that unpyrolyzed OC is not measured as BC beyond the split point. Using response surfaces models of the apparent specific absorption cross sections for pyrolyzed OC and what the instrument measures as native BC, we determined the thermal conditions for establishing the equivalence of the apparent cross sections while insuring sufficient pyrolysis of OC. In this way, we have optimized TOT for BC mass based on the Beer-Lambert Law but without the need for an absolute mass absorption coefficient (or an absolute attenuation coefficient) for BC. Optimal thermal conditions for the equivalence of the cross sections were indicated by the intersection of the response surfaces. Concurrently, optimal conditions for sufficient pyrolysis of OC were indicated by a plateau in the response surface for the BC cross section. Modeling was based on extensive analyses of PM2.5 samples collected from Atlanta, Los Angeles, and Seattle. Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

  9. Innovative development path of ethnomedicines: the interpretation of the path.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhaoyun; Fu, Dehuan; Gui, Yali; Cui, Tao; Wang, Jingkun; Wang, Ting; Yang, Zhizhong; Niu, Yanfei; She, Zhennan; Wang, Li

    2017-03-01

    One of the primary purposes of the innovative development of ethnomedicines is to use their excellent safety and significant efficacy to serve a broader population. To achieve this purpose, modern scientific and technological means should be referenced, and relevant national laws and regulations as well as technical guides should be strictly followed to develop standards and to perform systemic research in producing ethnomedicines. Finally, ethnomedicines, which are applied to a limited extent in ethnic areas, can be transformed into safe, effective, and quality-controllable medical products to relieve the pain of more patients. The innovative development path of ethnomedicines includes the following three primary stages: resource study, standardized development research, and industrialization of the achievements and efforts for internationalization. The implementation of this path is always guaranteed by the research and development platform and the talent team. This article is based on the accumulation of long-term practice and is combined with the relevant disciplines, laws and regulations, and technical guidance from the research and development of ethnomedicines. The intention is to perform an in-depth analysis and explanation of the major research thinking, methods, contents, and technical paths involved in all stages of the innovative development path of ethnomedicines to provide useful references for the development of proper ethnomedicine use.

  10. [Research on error reduction of path change of liquid samples based on near infrared trans-reflective spectra measurement].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Hong; Dong, Da-Ming; Zhou, Ping; Zheng, Wen-Gang; Ye, Song; Wang, Wen-Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Based on sucrose solution as the research object, this paper measured the trans-reflective spectrum of sucrose solution of different concentration by the technique of near infrared spectrum in three optical path (4, 5, 6 mm). Five kinds of pretreatment method (vector normalization, baseline offset correction, multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate transformation, a derivative) were used to eliminate the influence of the optical path difference, and to establish model of the calibration set in combination with the PLS (Partial Least Squares)method. Five kinds of pretreatment method could restrain the inter ference of light path in varying degrees. Compared with the PLS model of original spectra, the model of multiple scattering correction combined with PLS method is the optimal model. The results of quantitative analysis of original spectra: the number of principal component PC= 6, the determination coefficient R2 = 0.891 278, the determination coefficient of cross validation R2CV = 0.888 374, root mean square error of calibration RMSEC = 1.704%, root mean square error of cross validation RMSECV = 1.827%; The results of quantitative analysis of spectra after MSC pretreatment: the number of principal component PC = 3, the determination coefficient R2 = 0.987 535, the determination coefficient of cross validation R2CV = 0.983 343, root mean square er- ror of calibration RMSEC = 0.89%, root mean square error of cross validation RMSECV = 1.05%. The correlation coefficient of the prediction set is as much as 0.976 22. root mean square error of prediction is 0.01, lesser than 0.014 36. The results show that the MSC can eliminate the influence of optical path difference, improve the prediction precision and improve the stability.

  11. Combining the least correlation design, wavelet packet transform and correlation coefficient test to reduce the size of calibration set for NIR quantitative analysis in multi-component systems.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chen-Bo; Xu, Lu; Han, Qing-Juan; Wu, Hai-Long; Nie, Jin-Fang; Fu, Hai-Yan; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2010-05-15

    The paper focuses on solving a common and important problem of NIR quantitative analysis in multi-component systems: how to significantly reduce the size of the calibration set while not impairing the predictive precision. To cope with the problem orthogonal discrete wavelet packet transform (WPT), the least correlation design and correlation coefficient test (r-test) have been combined together. As three examples, a two-component carbon tetrachloride system with 21 calibration samples, a two-component aqueous system with 21 calibration samples, and a two-component aqueous system with 41 calibration samples have been treated with the proposed strategy, respectively. In comparison with some previous methods based on much more calibration samples, the results out of the strategy showed that the predictive ability was not obviously decreased for the first system while being clearly strengthened for the second one, and the predictive precision out of the third one was even satisfactory enough for most cases of quantitative analysis. In addition, all important factors and parameters related to our strategy are discussed in detail.

  12. Absorption and Attenuation Coefficients Using the WET Labs ac-s in the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Field Measurements and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.

    2008-01-01

    Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.

  13. Orbital Path of the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Don Pettit, Andre Kuipers and Dan Burbank explain the orbital path of the International Space Station. Earth video credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA's Johnson Space Cen...

  14. Investigating bias in squared regression structure coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Nimon, Kim F.; Zientek, Linda R.; Thompson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The importance of structure coefficients and analogs of regression weights for analysis within the general linear model (GLM) has been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate bias in squared structure coefficients in the context of multiple regression and to determine if a formula that had been shown to correct for bias in squared Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination could be used to correct for bias in squared regression structure coefficients. Using data from a Monte Carlo simulation, this study found that squared regression structure coefficients corrected with Pratt's formula produced less biased estimates and might be more accurate and stable estimates of population squared regression structure coefficients than estimates with no such corrections. While our findings are in line with prior literature that identified multicollinearity as a predictor of bias in squared regression structure coefficients but not coefficients of determination, the findings from this study are unique in that the level of predictive power, number of predictors, and sample size were also observed to contribute bias in squared regression structure coefficients. PMID:26217273

  15. Investigating bias in squared regression structure coefficients.

    PubMed

    Nimon, Kim F; Zientek, Linda R; Thompson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The importance of structure coefficients and analogs of regression weights for analysis within the general linear model (GLM) has been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate bias in squared structure coefficients in the context of multiple regression and to determine if a formula that had been shown to correct for bias in squared Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination could be used to correct for bias in squared regression structure coefficients. Using data from a Monte Carlo simulation, this study found that squared regression structure coefficients corrected with Pratt's formula produced less biased estimates and might be more accurate and stable estimates of population squared regression structure coefficients than estimates with no such corrections. While our findings are in line with prior literature that identified multicollinearity as a predictor of bias in squared regression structure coefficients but not coefficients of determination, the findings from this study are unique in that the level of predictive power, number of predictors, and sample size were also observed to contribute bias in squared regression structure coefficients.

  16. Apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis stratifies progression-free and overall survival in patients with recurrent GBM treated with bevacizumab: a multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Pope, Whitney B; Qiao, Xin Joe; Kim, Hyun J; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh; Xue, Xi; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Schiff, David; Aregawi, Dawit; Cha, Soonmee; Puduvalli, Vinay K; Wu, Jing; Yung, Wai-Kwan A; Young, Geoffrey S; Vredenburgh, James; Barboriak, Dan; Abrey, Lauren E; Mikkelsen, Tom; Jain, Rajan; Paleologos, Nina A; Rn, Patricia Lada; Prados, Michael; Goldin, Jonathan; Wen, Patrick Y; Cloughesy, Timothy

    2012-07-01

    We have tested the predictive value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis in stratifying progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in bevacizumab-treated patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) from the multi-center BRAIN study. Available MRI's from patients enrolled in the BRAIN study (n = 97) were examined by generating ADC histograms from areas of enhancing tumor on T1 weighted post-contrast images fitted to a two normal distribution mixture curve. ADC classifiers including the mean ADC from the lower curve (ADC-L) and the mean lower curve proportion (LCP) were tested for their ability to stratify PFS and OS by using Cox proportional hazard ratios and the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test. Mean ADC-L was 1,209 × 10(-6)mm(2)/s ± 224 (SD), and mean LCP was 0.71 ± 0.23 (SD). Low ADC-L was associated with worse outcome. The hazard ratios for 6-month PFS, overall PFS, and OS in patients with less versus greater than mean ADC-L were 3.1 (95 % confidence interval: 1.6, 6.1; P = 0.001), 2.3 (95 % CI: 1.3, 4.0; P = 0.002), and 2.4 (95 % CI: 1.4, 4.2; P = 0.002), respectively. In patients with ADC-L <1,209 and LCP >0.71 versus ADC-L >1,209 and LCP <0.71, there was a 2.28-fold reduction in the median time to progression, and a 1.42-fold decrease in the median OS. The predictive value of ADC histogram analysis, in which low ADC-L was associated with poor outcome, was confirmed in bevacizumab-treated patients with recurrent GBM in a post hoc analysis from the multi-center (BRAIN) study.

  17. A Comparison of Approaches for the Analysis of Interaction Effects between Latent Variables Using Partial Least Squares Path Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henseler, Jorg; Chin, Wynne W.

    2010-01-01

    In social and business sciences, the importance of the analysis of interaction effects between manifest as well as latent variables steadily increases. Researchers using partial least squares (PLS) to analyze interaction effects between latent variables need an overview of the available approaches as well as their suitability. This article…

  18. Measuring Seebeck Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus and method with various features to minimize typical sources of errors is described. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement errors which may impact accurate measurement are identified and reduced. Applying the identified principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus and method employing a uniaxial, four-point geometry is described to operate from room temperature up to 1300K. These techniques for non-destructive Seebeck coefficient measurements are simple to operate, and are suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.

  19. JKTLD: Limb darkening coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, John

    2015-11-01

    JKTLD outputs theoretically-calculated limb darkening (LD) strengths for equations (LD laws) which predict the amount of LD as a function of the part of the star being observed. The coefficients of these laws are obtained by bilinear interpolation (in effective temperature and surface gravity) in published tables of coefficients calculated from stellar model atmospheres by several researchers. Many observations of stars require the strength of limb darkening (LD) to be estimated, which can be done using theoretical models of stellar atmospheres; JKTLD can help in these circumstances.

  20. Performance analysis of a continuous serpentine flow reactor for electrochemical oxidation of synthetic and real textile wastewater: Energy consumption, mass transfer coefficient and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Indu M Sasidharan; Gupta, Ashok K

    2017-05-15

    A continuous flow electrochemical reactor was developed, and its application was tested for the treatment of textile wastewater. A parallel plate configuration with serpentine flow was chosen for the continuous flow reactor. Uniparameter optimization was carried out for electrochemical oxidation of synthetic and real textile wastewater (collected from the inlet of the effluent treatment plant). Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency of 90% was achieved for synthetic textile wastewater (initial COD - 780 mg L(-1)) at a flow rate of 500 mL h(-1) (retention time of 6 h) and a current density of 1.15 mA cm(-2) and the energy consumption for the degradation was 9.2 kWh (kg COD)(-1). The complete degradation of real textile wastewater (initial COD of 368 mg L(-1)) was obtained at a current density of 1.15 mA cm(-2), NaCl concentration of 1 g L(-1) and retention time of 6 h. Energy consumption and mass transfer coefficient of the reactions were calculated. The continuous flow reactor performed better than batch reactor with reference to energy consumption and economy. The overall treatment cost for complete COD removal of real textile wastewater was 5.83 USD m(-3).

  1. Histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient for monitoring early response in patients with advanced cervical cancers undergoing concurrent chemo-radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jie; Zhu, Lijing; Zhu, Li; Ge, Yun; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Background Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis has been widely used in determining tumor prognosis. Purpose To investigate the dynamic changes of ADC histogram parameters during concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with advanced cervical cancers. Material and Methods This prospective study enrolled 32 patients with advanced cervical cancers undergoing CCRT who received diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before CCRT, at the end of the second and fourth week during CCRT and one month after CCRT completion. The ADC histogram for the entire tumor volume was generated, and a series of histogram parameters was obtained. Dynamic changes of those parameters in cervical cancers were investigated as early biomarkers for treatment response. Results All histogram parameters except AUClow showed significant changes during CCRT (all P < 0.05). There were three variable trends involving different parameters. The mode, 5th, 10th, and 25th percentiles showed similar early increase rates (33.33%, 33.99%, 34.12%, and 30.49%, respectively) at the end of the second week of CCRT. The pre-CCRT 5th and 25th percentiles of the complete response (CR) group were significantly lower than those of the partial response (PR) group. Conclusion A series of ADC histogram parameters of cervical cancers changed significantly at the early stage of CCRT, indicating their potential in monitoring early tumor response to therapy.

  2. Analysis of selected designer benzodiazepines by UHPLC with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and the estimation of their partition coefficients by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tomková, Jana; Švidrnoch, Martin; Maier, Vítězslav; Ondra, Peter

    2017-03-07

    A new ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method for the selective and sensitive separation, identification and determination of selected designer benzodiazepines (namely, pyrazolam, phenazepam, etizolam, flubromazepam, diclazepam, deschloroetizolam, bentazepam, nimetazepam and flubromazolam) in human serum was developed. The separation of the studied designer benzodiazepines was achieved on C18 chromatographic column using gradient elution within 6 min without any significant matrix interferences. Liquid-liquid extraction with butyl acetate was applied for serum samples clean-up and preconcentration of studied designer benzodiazepines. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, matrix effects, specificity, precision, accuracy, recovery and sample stability. The limit of detection values were in range 0.10-0.15 ng/mL. The method was applied on spiked serum sample to demonstrate its applicability for systematic toxicology analysis. Furthermore, a capillary chromatographic method with micellar electrokinetic chromatography was used for the estimation of partition coefficients of studied designer benzodiazepines as important parameters to evaluate their pharmacological and toxicological properties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Piezo-optic coefficients of CaWO4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mytsyk, B. G.; Kost', Ya. P.; Demyanyshyn, N. M.; Andrushchak, A. S.; Solskii, I. M.

    2015-01-01

    All components of the piezo-optic coefficient matrix of calcium tungstate crystals, belonging to the 4/ m symmetry class, are determined. The reliability of the piezo-optic effect measurements in CaWO4 crystals is achieved by determining each piezo-optic coefficient from several experimental geometries and is also based on the correlation of the absolute piezo-electric coefficients and the path-difference coefficients. The rotation-shear diagonal coefficients π44 and π66 and three principal piezo-optic coefficients π11, π13, and π31 are refined by the polarization-optical method. It is confirmed that both the interferometric and polarization-optical methods should be used to study the piezo-optic effect with high accuracy. The results show that calcium tungstate is a promising material for acousto-optical and photoelastic modulation.

  4. Non-small cell lung cancer: Whole-lesion histogram analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient for assessment of tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion and pleural invasion

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Naoko; Doai, Mariko; Usuda, Katsuo; Uramoto, Hidetaka

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Investigating the diagnostic accuracy of histogram analyses of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for determining non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor grades, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion. Materials and methods We studied 60 surgically diagnosed NSCLC patients. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in the axial plane using a navigator-triggered single-shot, echo-planar imaging sequence with prospective acquisition correction. The ADC maps were generated, and we placed a volume-of-interest on the tumor to construct the whole-lesion histogram. Using the histogram, we calculated the mean, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles of ADC, skewness, and kurtosis. Histogram parameters were correlated with tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion. We performed a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to assess the diagnostic performance of histogram parameters for distinguishing different pathologic features. Results The ADC mean, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles showed significant differences among the tumor grades. The ADC mean, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were significant histogram parameters between high- and low-grade tumors. The ROC analysis between high- and low-grade tumors showed that the 95th percentile ADC achieved the highest area under curve (AUC) at 0.74. Lymphovascular invasion was associated with the ADC mean, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles, skewness, and kurtosis. Kurtosis achieved the highest AUC at 0.809. Pleural invasion was only associated with skewness, with the AUC of 0.648. Conclusions ADC histogram analyses on the basis of the entire tumor volume are able to stratify NSCLCs' tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion and pleural invasion. PMID:28207858

  5. A Path to Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegemoller, William; Stegemoller, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    The path taken and the turns made as a turtle traces a polygon are examined to discover an important theorem in geometry. A unique tool, the Angle Adder, is implemented in the investigation. (Contains 9 figures.)

  6. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wheeler, David R.; Simonson, Robert J.

    2010-09-21

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  7. Density-dependent analysis of nonequilibrium paths improves free energy estimates II. A Feynman-Kac formalism.

    PubMed

    Minh, David D L; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan

    2011-01-21

    The nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems have paved the way for estimating equilibrium thermodynamic properties, such as free energy differences, using trajectories from driven nonequilibrium processes. While many statistical estimators may be derived from these identities, some are more efficient than others. It has recently been suggested that trajectories sampled using a particular time-dependent protocol for perturbing the Hamiltonian may be analyzed with another one. Choosing an analysis protocol based on the nonequilibrium density was empirically demonstrated to reduce the variance and bias of free energy estimates. Here, we present an alternate mathematical formalism for protocol postprocessing based on the Feynmac-Kac theorem. The estimator that results from this formalism is demonstrated on a few low-dimensional model systems. It is found to have reduced bias compared to both the standard form of Jarzynski's equality and the previous protocol postprocessing formalism.

  8. Thermal analysis of pad-on-disc contact under tribological solicitations: a coupled numerical-experimental approach to identify surface temperatures and flow partition coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellami, Amira; Kchaou, Mohamed; Elleuch, Riadh; Desplanques, Yannick

    2016-09-01

    Aiming to provide a better understanding of thermal phenomena occurring in a sliding contact under tribological solicitation, a numerical model of pad-on-disc tribometer has been proposed. This study deals with an inverse problem concerning the identification of the heat exchange coefficient "h". The method used allows the sequential estimation of the thermal boundary conditions by minimizing an error function between numerical and experimental temperature values. Coupled with the identification of the heat flux partition coefficient, the proposed model is validated.

  9. Mouse organ coefficient and abnormal sperm rate analysis with exposure to tap water and source water in Nanjing reach of Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongfei; Zhang, Liujun; Jiang, Dongsheng; Zheng, Kai; Cui, Yibin; Li, Mei; Wu, Bing; Cheng, Shupei

    2014-05-01

    Organ coefficients (including kidney, testis, liver and spleen coefficient) and abnormal sperm rate were used in our study to reflect the exposure to the Yangzte River water. The concentrations of total dissolved metals and semi-volatile organic compounds in tap and source water were measured by ICP-OES and GC-MS, respectively. After mice were fed with purified water (CK), Nanjing tap water (NJT) and Nanjing source water (NJS) for 90 day, the individual and organs (including kidney, testis, liver and spleen) of each mouse were weighted. And abnormal sperm types (such as hook less, banana-like form, amorphous, folded and two tails) were determined by microscope. The results showed that significant differences of liver coefficient between experimental group (NJT, NJS) and control group (CK) were observed; furthermore liver coefficient is positive correlation with the concentrations of total dissolved metals. However, no significant differences of abnormal sperm rates between experimental group (NJT, NJS) and control group (CK) were noted. So liver coefficient might be more sensitive than other organ coefficients to reflect the exposure to tap water and source water, while abnormal sperm rate could not be used to reveal the exposure to them.

  10. Paths of Effects from Preschool to Adult Well-Being: A Confirmatory Analysis of the Child-Parent Center Program

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the contribution of five hypotheses to the estimated effects of preschool in the Child-Parent Centers on occupational prestige, felony arrest, and depressive symptoms in adulthood in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. An alternative-intervention, quasi-experimental design included over 1,400 low-income participants (93% of whom were black) who attended preschool for 1–2 years or the usual early educational intervention and were traced to age 24. LISREL analysis of five hypotheses (cognitive advantage, family support, school support, motivational advantage, and social adjustment) indicated that while each individually accounted for part of the estimated direct effect of preschool on adult well-being, the best-fitting model across outcomes included indicators of all five hypotheses. The full model completely accounted for the direct effect of preschool on occupational prestige and official felony arrest, and 79% on depression symptoms. Key mediators included cognitive skills at school entry, school quality in the elementary grades, juvenile arrest, and school completion. The identified processes may help establish, strengthen, and sustain effects in other programs and settings. PMID:21410923

  11. A new graphic plot analysis for cerebral blood flow and partition coefficient with iodine-123-iodoamphetamine and dynamic SPECT validation studies using oxygen-15-water and PET.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, T; Iida, H; Itoh, H; Kanno, I

    1993-03-01

    To estimate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and brain-blood partition coefficient (lambda) using a dynamic measurement, a new graphic plot analysis is proposed. By assuming a two-compartment model for tracer kinetics, we derived the linear relationship as Y(t) = K1 - k2 X(t), where Y(t) is the ratio of brain tissue activity-to-time-integrated arterial blood activity and X(t) is the ratio of time-integrated brain tissue activity-to-time-integrated arterial blood activity. A plot of Y(t) against X(t) yields a straight line and the y- and x-intercept of the regression line represent rCBF (K1) and lambda, respectively. The slope is a washout constant (-k2). This method was applied to 14 subjects with N-isopropyl-p-iodine-123 iodoamphetamine ([123I]IMP). The mean values of K1 and lambda for normal subjects were 41.3 +/- 6.7 ml/100 g/min and 29.6 +/- 6.5 ml/g, respectively, in the gray matter. A comparative study with positron emission tomography (PET) using an H2(15)O autoradiographic method revealed good correlation between IMP K1 and PET rCBF [r = 0.822; K1 = 0.842 rCBF + 0.030 (ml/g/min)]. The values of K1 using the graphical method were in excellent agreement with those using a nonlinear least-squares fitting technique (r = 0.992 for K1; r = 0.941 for lambda). The estimated K1 values in the graphical method were not changed when scanning times were varied. We conclude that a two-compartment model is acceptable for IMP kinetics within a scan time of 60 min. The graphical method gives a reliable and rapid estimation of rCBF when applied to dynamic data.

  12. Effects of optimism, social support, fighting spirit, cancer worry and internal health locus of control on positive affect in cancer survivors: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Kayleigh; Winstanley, Sue

    2012-12-01

    The psychological impact of a cancer diagnosis can extend through treatment, well into cancer survivorship and can be influenced by a range of psychosocial resources. At different stages in this trajectory, optimism is known to affect well-being directly. This study focusing upon the potential to flourish after cancer, investigates the relationship between optimism and positive affect during cancer survivorship together with four possible mediators: social support, fighting spirit, internal health locus of control and cancer worry, all of which have been shown to be important predictors of well-being in cancer patients. Participants (n = 102) from online cancer forums completed standardized questionnaires, and path analysis confirmed that optimism had a direct effect on positive affect in cancer survivors. Social support and fighting spirit were also shown to be significant mediators of this relationship, accounting collectively for 50% of the variance in positive affect. Whilst cancer worry and internal health locus of control could be predicted from levels of optimism, they did not mediate the optimism-positive affect relationship. Efforts to promote optimism and thus encourage fighting spirit at diagnosis through treatment may be worthwhile interventions, as would ensuring appropriate social support through the trajectory.

  13. A Multiple-Group Path Analysis of the Role of Everyday Discrimination on Self-Rated Physical Health among Latina/os in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kristine M.; Alegría, Margarita; Mahalingam, Ramaswami

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the psychosocial mechanisms through which self-reported discrimination may influence the health status of Latinos. Purpose This study examined the mediating role of subjective social status in the US and psychological distress on the relation between everyday discrimination and self-rated physical health, and the moderating role of gender and ethnicity. Methods A US population-based sample of Latinos (N= 2,554) was drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed measures of everyday discrimination, subjective social status, psychological distress, and self-rated physical health. Results Path analysis revealed that among the total sample, subjective social status and psychological distress sequentially mediated the effect of everyday discrimination on self-rated physical health. Psychological distress was a more consistent mediator across Latino subgroups. Gender and ethnicity moderated the mediation model. Conclusions This study provides a systematic examination of how psychosocial mechanisms may operate differently or similarly across Latino subgroups. PMID:23054945

  14. First-principles mode-by-mode analysis for electron-phonon scattering channels and mean free path spectra in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Te-Huan; Zhou, Jiawei; Liao, Bolin; Singh, David J.; Chen, Gang

    2017-02-01

    We present a first-principles framework to investigate the electron scattering channels and transport properties for polar materials by combining the exact solution of the linearized electron-phonon (e-ph) Boltzmann transport equation in its integral-differential form associated with the e-ph coupling matrices obtained from the polar Wannier interpolation scheme. No ad hoc parameter is required throughout this calculation, and GaAs, a well-studied polar material, is used as an example to demonstrate this method. In this work, the long-range and short-range contributions as well as the intravalley and intervalley transitions in the e-ph interactions (EPIs) have been quantitatively addressed. Promoted by such mode-by-mode analysis, we find that in GaAs, the piezoelectric scattering is comparable to deformation-potential scattering for electron scatterings by acoustic phonons in EPI even at room temperature, and it makes a significant contribution to mobility. Furthermore, we achieved good agreement with experimental data for the mobility, and we identified that electrons with mean free paths between 130 and 210 nm provide the dominant contribution to the electron transport at 300 K. Such information provides a deeper understanding of the electron transport in GaAs, and the presented framework can be readily applied to other polar materials.

  15. Diffusion coefficients of energetic water group ions near Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Richardson, I. G.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1993-03-01

    Data from the ultralow-energy charge analyzer and energetic particle anisotropy spectrometer sensors, acquired when the ICE spacecraft flew past Comet Giacobini-Zinner on September 11, 1985, are combined, and a single, self-consistent analysis technique is applied to derive a single-particle spectrum from about 200 to 1600 km/s. This information, together with the deduced bulk flow speed of the ions, is used to calculate a parallel diffusion coefficient in the transition region downstream of the bow wave (2.3 +/- 0.5) x 10 exp 17 sq cm/s; the corresponding scattering mean free path is (6 +/- 1) x 10 exp 4 km. The parallel diffusion coefficient is found to depend on the collision frequency of water group ions with Alfven waves, which are assumed to be propagating parallel (antiparallel) to the magnetic field.

  16. Infrared absorption by pure CO2 near 3340 cm-1: Measurements and analysis of collisional coefficients and line-mixing effects at subatmospheric pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshvar, L.; Földes, T.; Buldyreva, J.; Vander Auwera, J.

    2014-12-01

    High resolution Fourier transform spectra of the 21102-00001 band of 12C16O2 near 3340 cm-1 have been recorded and analyzed to extract isolated-line intensities and collisional parameters, and first-order line-mixing coefficients. Voigt, hard-collision Rautian and Sobel'man, and quadratic-speed-dependent Voigt profiles have been used. The line-mixing coefficients measured for the three branches have also been evaluated using an Energy-Corrected Sudden approach employing a symmetric metric in the Liouville space. These coefficients compare very favorably with the experimental results and estimations with an algorithm available in the literature. Results of straightforward ECS-modeling of complete band shapes have been compared to the recorded spectra and future improvements of this model required at subatmospheric pressures have been outlined.

  17. Mobile transporter path planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul; Wang, Lui

    1990-01-01

    The use of a genetic algorithm (GA) for solving the mobile transporter path planning problem is investigated. The mobile transporter is a traveling robotic vehicle proposed for the space station which must be able to reach any point of the structure autonomously. Elements of the genetic algorithm are explored in both a theoretical and experimental sense. Specifically, double crossover, greedy crossover, and tournament selection techniques are examined. Additionally, the use of local optimization techniques working in concert with the GA are also explored. Recent developments in genetic algorithm theory are shown to be particularly effective in a path planning problem domain, though problem areas can be cited which require more research.

  18. Seismic Imaging, One-Way Wave Equations, Pseudodifferential Operators, Path Integrals, and all that Jazz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artoun, Ojenie; David-Rus, Diana; Emmett, Matthew; Fishman, Lou; Fital, Sandra; Hogan, Chad; Lim, Jisun; Lushi, Enkeleida; Marinov, Vesselin

    2006-05-01

    In this report we summarize an extension of Fourier analysis for the solution of the wave equation with a non-constant coefficient corresponding to an inhomogeneous medium. The underlying physics of the problem is exploited to link pseudodifferential operators and phase space path integrals to obtain a marching algorithm that incorporates the backward scattering into the evolution of the wave. This allows us to successfully apply single-sweep, one-way marching methods in inherently two-way environments, which was not achieved before through other methods for this problem.

  19. Analysis of the Dielectric constant of saline-alkali soils and the effect on radar backscattering coefficient: a case study of soda alkaline saline soils in Western Jilin Province using RADARSAT-2 data.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-yang; Zhao, Kai; Ren, Jian-hua; Ding, Yan-ling; Wu, Li-li

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is a global problem, especially in developing countries, which affects the environment and productivity of agriculture areas. Salt has a significant effect on the complex dielectric constant of wet soil. However, there is no suitable model to describe the variation in the backscattering coefficient due to changes in soil salinity content. The purpose of this paper is to use backscattering models to understand behaviors of the backscattering coefficient in saline soils based on the analysis of its dielectric constant. The effects of moisture and salinity on the dielectric constant by combined Dobson mixing model and seawater dielectric constant model are analyzed, and the backscattering coefficient is then simulated using the AIEM. Simultaneously, laboratory measurements were performed on ground samples. The frequency effect of the laboratory results was not the same as the simulated results. The frequency dependence of the ionic conductivity of an electrolyte solution is influenced by the ion's components. Finally, the simulated backscattering coefficients measured from the dielectric constant with the AIEM were analyzed using the extracted backscattering coefficient from the RADARSAT-2 image. The results show that RADARSAT-2 is potentially able to measure soil salinity; however, the mixed pixel problem needs to be more thoroughly considered.

  20. Analysis of the Dielectric Constant of Saline-Alkali Soils and the Effect on Radar Backscattering Coefficient: A Case Study of Soda Alkaline Saline Soils in Western Jilin Province Using RADARSAT-2 Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang-yang; Zhao, Kai; Ren, Jian-hua; Ding, Yan-ling; Wu, Li-li

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is a global problem, especially in developing countries, which affects the environment and productivity of agriculture areas. Salt has a significant effect on the complex dielectric constant of wet soil. However, there is no suitable model to describe the variation in the backscattering coefficient due to changes in soil salinity content. The purpose of this paper is to use backscattering models to understand behaviors of the backscattering coefficient in saline soils based on the analysis of its dielectric constant. The effects of moisture and salinity on the dielectric constant by combined Dobson mixing model and seawater dielectric constant model are analyzed, and the backscattering coefficient is then simulated using the AIEM. Simultaneously, laboratory measurements were performed on ground samples. The frequency effect of the laboratory results was not the same as the simulated results. The frequency dependence of the ionic conductivity of an electrolyte solution is influenced by the ion's components. Finally, the simulated backscattering coefficients measured from the dielectric constant with the AIEM were analyzed using the extracted backscattering coefficient from the RADARSAT-2 image. The results show that RADARSAT-2 is potentially able to measure soil salinity; however, the mixed pixel problem needs to be more thoroughly considered. PMID:25101317

  1. An Unplanned Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarvey, Lynn M.; Sterenberg, Gladys Y.; Long, Julie S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors elucidate what they saw as three important challenges to overcome along the path to becoming elementary school mathematics teacher leaders: marginal interest in math, low self-confidence, and teaching in isolation. To illustrate how these challenges were mitigated, they focus on the stories of two elementary school teachers--Laura and…

  2. Gas path seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.; Johnson, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A gas path seal suitable for use with a turbine engine or compressor is described. A shroud wearable or abradable by the abrasion of the rotor blades of the turbine or compressor shrouds the rotor bades. A compliant backing surrounds the shroud. The backing is a yieldingly deformable porous material covered with a thin ductile layer. A mounting fixture surrounds the backing.

  3. Bead-Fourier path integral molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Sergei D.; Lyubartsev, Alexander P.; Laaksonen, Aatto

    2003-06-01

    Molecular dynamics formulation of Bead-Fourier path integral method for simulation of quantum systems at finite temperatures is presented. Within this scheme, both the bead coordinates and Fourier coefficients, defining the path representing the quantum particle, are treated as generalized coordinates with corresponding generalized momenta and masses. Introduction of the Fourier harmonics together with the center-of-mass thermostating scheme is shown to remove the ergodicity problem, known to pose serious difficulties in standard path integral molecular dynamics simulations. The method is tested for quantum harmonic oscillator and hydrogen atom (Coulombic potential). The simulation results are compared with the exact analytical solutions available for both these systems. Convergence of the results with respect to the number of beads and Fourier harmonics is analyzed. It was shown that addition of a few Fourier harmonics already improves the simulation results substantially, even for a relatively small number of beads. The proposed Bead-Fourier path integral molecular dynamics is a reliable and efficient alternative to simulations of quantum systems.

  4. Current SPE Hydrodynamic Modeling and Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban

    2012-08-14

    Extensive work has been conducted on SPE analysis efforts: Fault effects Non-uniform weathered layer analysis MUNROU: material library incorporation, parallelization, and development of non-locking tets Development of a unique continuum-based-visco-plastic strain-rate-dependent material model With corrected SPE data path is now set for a multipronged approach to fully understand experimental series shot effects.

  5. The Influence of Localized Glacial Erosion on Exhumation Paths in Accreting Coulomb Wedges: Insights from Particle Velocimetry Analysis of Sandbox Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, P. J.; Davis, K.; Haq, S. S. B.; Ridgway, K.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial erosion can have an impact on the location and development of faults in mountain belts. The rapid removal and deposition of rock, in some cases, is thought to affect the initiation of slip on older fault structures, or cause the development of new structures within the older part of the wedge. We present cross-sectional data from both erosional and non-erosional sandbox models of Coulomb wedges in order to quantify the impact of localized erosion on the location of and slip on deformational structures, as well as the general path of material through a wedge. To do this, we employ Lagrangian particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) using the open-source Python PTV toolkit trackpy, among a suite of other data analysis tools. We are able to extract robust and reliable sets of particle trajectories from a series of images without the need for predefined markers or marker-beds, instead identifying and tracking natural variations in sand color as individual particles. By comparing the motion of particles in cross-section to the local surface topography over an entire experiment, we determine a high-resolution record of exhumation rates, in addition to simple uplift rates. These comparisons are further informed by the use of high-definition Eulerian particle image velocimetry (PIV), which provides quantitative data about the distribution of deformation and instantaneous material displacements throughout a cross-sectional view of a Coulomb wedge. This allows us to interpret these pathways in relation to the behavior of active structures and general wedge morphology. In our experiments, we observe that localized glacial erosion has an impact on material pathways, in the form of an increased rate of exhumation locally, more vertical trajectories towards surface below the zone of erosion, and reactivation of older structures to maintain force balance within the entire wedge.

  6. Using chemical, hydrologic, and age dating analysis to delineate redox processes and flow paths in the riparian zone of a glacial outwash aquifer-stream system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, L.J.; Cowdery, T.K.; McMahon, P.B.; Tornes, L.H.; Stoner, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    A combination of chemical and dissolved gas analyses, chlorofluorocarbon age dating, and hydrologic measurements were used to determine the degree to which biogeochemical processes in a riparian wetland were responsible for removing NO3- from groundwaters discharging to the Otter Tail River in west central Minnesota. An analysis of river chemistry and flow data revealed that NO3- concentrations in the river increased in the lower half of the 8.3 km study reach as the result of groundwater discharge to the river. Groundwater head measurements along a study transect through the riparian wetland revealed a zone of groundwater discharge extending out under the river. On the basis of combined chemical, dissolved gas, age date, and hydrologic results, it was determined that water chemistry under the riparian wetland was controlled largely by upgradient groundwaters that followed flow paths up to 16 m deep and discharged under the wetland, creating a pattern of progressively older, more chemically reduced, low NO3- water the farther one progressed from the edge of the wetland toward the river. These findings pose challenges for researchers investigating biogeochemical processes in riparian buffer zones because the progressively older groundwaters entered the aquifer in earlier years when less NO3- fertilizer was being used. NO3- concentrations originally present in the groundwater had also decreased in the upgradient aquifer as a result of denitrification and progressively stronger reducing conditions there. The resulting pattern of decreasing NO3- concentrations across the riparian zone may be incorrectly interpreted as evidence of denitrification losses there instead of in the upgradient aquifer. Consequently, it is important to understand the hydrogeologic setting and age structure of the groundwaters being sampled in order to avgid misinterpreting biogeochemical processes in riparian zones.

  7. Ancient DNA Analysis of Mid-Holocene Individuals from the Northwest Coast of North America Reveals Different Evolutionary Paths for Mitogenomes

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yinqiu; Lindo, John; Hughes, Cris E.; Johnson, Jesse W.; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Kemp, Brian M.; Ma, Jian; Cunningham, Ryan; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycellyn; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome S.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2013-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of North American population history, complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) were generated from four ancient and three living individuals of the northern Northwest Coast of North America, specifically the north coast of British Columbia, Canada, current home to the indigenous Tsimshian, Haida, and Nisga’a. The mitogenomes of all individuals were previously unknown and assigned to new sub-haplogroup designations D4h3a7, A2ag and A2ah. The analysis of mitogenomes allows for more detailed analyses of presumed ancestor–descendant relationships than sequencing only the HVSI region of the mitochondrial genome, a more traditional approach in local population studies. The results of this study provide contrasting examples of the evolution of Native American mitogenomes. Those belonging to sub-haplogroups A2ag and A2ah exhibit temporal continuity in this region for 5000 years up until the present day. Of possible associative significance is that archaeologically identified house structures in this region maintain similar characteristics for this same period of time, demonstrating cultural continuity in residence patterns. The individual dated to 6000 years before present (BP) exhibited a mitogenome belonging to sub-haplogroup D4h3a. This sub-haplogroup was earlier identified in the same general area at 10300 years BP on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, and may have gone extinct, as it has not been observed in any living individuals of the Northwest Coast. The presented case studies demonstrate the different evolutionary paths of mitogenomes over time on the Northwest Coast. PMID:23843972

  8. Maximum-Path Leaves Relative to Vertices and the Vertex One Center of a Spanning Tree: An Enumeration and Analysis of Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, L.J.

    1998-10-01

    This paper enumerates the configurations of a pair of vertices (one of which is a leaf) relative to the unique vertex one center and the leaf of greatest path length from this center in a spanning tree of a graph. From this enumeration, it demonstrates that the vertex one center is between the vertex and the leaf of greatest path length from the vertex for every such pair of vertices. Using this result this paper develops an algorithm for the optimal reconfiguration of a tree infrastructure required to recover from the failure of a network element.

  9. Time-domain analysis of spin-torque induced switching paths in nanoscale CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction devices

    SciTech Connect

    Heindl, R.; Rippard, W. H.; Russek, S. E.; Pufall, M. R.

    2014-12-28

    We performed thousands of single-shot, real-time measurements of spin-transfer-torque induced switching in nanoscale CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions having in-plane magnetizations. Our investigation discovered a variety of switching paths occurring in consecutive, nominally identical switching trials of a single device. By mapping the voltage as a function of time to an effective magnetization angle, we determined that reversal of a single device occurs via a variety of thermally activated paths. Our results show a complex switching behavior that has not been captured by previous observations and cannot be fully explained within the simple macrospin model.

  10. Transonic Blunt Body Aerodynamic Coefficients Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, Jorge; Vargas, M.; Gonzalez, Ezequiel; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2011-05-01

    In the framework of EXPERT (European Experimental Re-entry Test-bed) accurate transonic aerodynamic coefficients are of paramount importance for the correct trajectory assessment and parachute deployment. A combined CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modelling and experimental campaign strategy was selected to obtain accurate coefficients. A preliminary set of coefficients were obtained by CFD Euler inviscid computation. Then experimental campaign was performed at DNW facilities at NLR. A profound review of the CFD modelling was done lighten up by WTT results, aimed to obtain reliable values of the coefficients in the future (specially the pitching moment). Study includes different turbulence modelling and mesh sensitivity analysis. Comparison with the WTT results is explored, and lessons learnt are collected.

  11. Watershed model calibration framework developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and a genetic algorithm and analysis of pollutant discharge characteristics and load reduction in a TMDL planning area.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Heon; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-11-01

    Manual calibration is common in rainfall-runoff model applications. However, rainfall-runoff models include several complicated parameters; thus, significant time and effort are required to manually calibrate the parameters individually and repeatedly. Automatic calibration has relative merit regarding time efficiency and objectivity but shortcomings regarding understanding indigenous processes in the basin. In this study, a watershed model calibration framework was developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and genetic algorithm (WMCIG) to automatically calibrate the distributed models. The optimization problem used to minimize the sum of squares of the normalized residuals of the observed and predicted values was solved using a genetic algorithm (GA). The final model parameters were determined from the iteration with the smallest sum of squares of the normalized residuals of all iterations. The WMCIG was applied to a Gomakwoncheon watershed located in an area that presents a total maximum daily load (TMDL) in Korea. The proportion of urbanized area in this watershed is low, and the diffuse pollution loads of nutrients such as phosphorus are greater than the point-source pollution loads because of the concentration of rainfall that occurs during the summer. The pollution discharges from the watershed were estimated for each land-use type, and the seasonal variations of the pollution loads were analyzed. Consecutive flow measurement gauges have not been installed in this area, and it is difficult to survey the flow and water quality in this area during the frequent heavy rainfall that occurs during the wet season. The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model was used to calculate the runoff flow and water quality in this basin. Using the water quality results, a load duration curve was constructed for the basin, the exceedance frequency of the water quality standard was calculated for each hydrologic condition class, and the percent reduction

  12. Entanglement by Path Identity.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Mario; Hochrainer, Armin; Lahiri, Mayukh; Zeilinger, Anton

    2017-02-24

    Quantum entanglement is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and forms the basis of quantum information technologies. Here we present a novel method for the creation of quantum entanglement in multipartite and high-dimensional systems. The two ingredients are (i) superposition of photon pairs with different origins and (ii) aligning photons such that their paths are identical. We explain the experimentally feasible creation of various classes of multiphoton entanglement encoded in polarization as well as in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces-starting only from nonentangled photon pairs. For two photons, arbitrary high-dimensional entanglement can be created. The idea of generating entanglement by path identity could also apply to quantum entities other than photons. We discovered the technique by analyzing the output of a computer algorithm. This shows that computer designed quantum experiments can be inspirations for new techniques.

  13. Entanglement by Path Identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, Mario; Hochrainer, Armin; Lahiri, Mayukh; Zeilinger, Anton

    2017-02-01

    Quantum entanglement is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and forms the basis of quantum information technologies. Here we present a novel method for the creation of quantum entanglement in multipartite and high-dimensional systems. The two ingredients are (i) superposition of photon pairs with different origins and (ii) aligning photons such that their paths are identical. We explain the experimentally feasible creation of various classes of multiphoton entanglement encoded in polarization as well as in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces—starting only from nonentangled photon pairs. For two photons, arbitrary high-dimensional entanglement can be created. The idea of generating entanglement by path identity could also apply to quantum entities other than photons. We discovered the technique by analyzing the output of a computer algorithm. This shows that computer designed quantum experiments can be inspirations for new techniques.

  14. Nonadiabatic transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase.

  15. Mean free paths of energetic particles at very large heliodistances (Pioneer 11 at 20 AU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moussas, X.; Quenby, J. J.; Theodossiou-Ekaterinidi, Z.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.; Drillia, A. G.; Roulias, D.; Smith, E. J.

    1992-01-01

    The parallel mean free path and the diffusion coefficient parallel to the magnetic field line are derived from magnetic field data at 20 AU to characterize heliospheric modulation and energetic-particle/magnetic-field interaction. The computational method of Moussas et al. (1975, 1982) is employed, and the values of the parallel mean free path are shown to be significantly larger than the values estimated in studies of up to 6 AU. The distance dependence of the parallel diffusion mean free path is found to follow a power law, and the diffusion coefficient dependence upon energy is determined by a constant mean free path and the velocity of the particle. The contribution of the diffusion coefficient perpendicular to the magnetic field is expected to dominate the radial diffusion coefficient of cosmic rays, although the contribution of the diffusion parallel to the field is important with respect to the small-scale structure of intensity gradients.

  16. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  17. Influences on the Motivation of Low-Income, First-Generation Students on the Path to College: A Cross-Case Analysis Using Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchall, Allison Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Low-income, first-generation students face numerous barriers on the path to college. However, millions of these students persevere and ultimately enroll. How do these students remain motivated on the road to higher education despite these challenges? This collective case study explored influences on the motivation of low-income, first generation…

  18. The path exchange method for hybrid LCA.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, Manfred; Crawford, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid techniques for Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provide a way of combining the accuracy of process analysis and the completeness of input-output analysis. A number of methods have been suggested to implement a hybrid LCA in practice, with the main challenge being the integration of specific process data with an overarching input-output system. In this work we present a new hybrid LCA method which works at the finest input-output level of detail: structural paths. This new Path Exchange method avoids double-counting and system disturbance just as previous hybrid LCA methods, but instead of a large LCA database it requires only a minimum of external information on those structural paths that are to be represented by process data.

  19. MinePath: Mining for Phenotype Differential Sub-paths in Molecular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Koumakis, Lefteris; Kartsaki, Evgenia; Chatzimina, Maria; Zervakis, Michalis; Vassou, Despoina; Marias, Kostas; Moustakis, Vassilis; Potamias, George

    2016-01-01

    Pathway analysis methodologies couple traditional gene expression analysis with knowledge encoded in established molecular pathway networks, offering a promising approach towards the biological interpretation of phenotype differentiating genes. Early pathway analysis methodologies, named as gene set analysis (GSA), view pathways just as plain lists of genes without taking into account either the underlying pathway network topology or the involved gene regulatory relations. These approaches, even if they achieve computational efficiency and simplicity, consider pathways that involve the same genes as equivalent in terms of their gene enrichment characteristics. Most recent pathway analysis approaches take into account the underlying gene regulatory relations by examining their consistency with gene expression profiles and computing a score for each profile. Even with this approach, assessing and scoring single-relations limits the ability to reveal key gene regulation mechanisms hidden in longer pathway sub-paths. We introduce MinePath, a pathway analysis methodology that addresses and overcomes the aforementioned problems. MinePath facilitates the decomposition of pathways into their constituent sub-paths. Decomposition leads to the transformation of single-relations to complex regulation sub-paths. Regulation sub-paths are then matched with gene expression sample profiles in order to evaluate their functional status and to assess phenotype differential power. Assessment of differential power supports the identification of the most discriminant profiles. In addition, MinePath assess the significance of the pathways as a whole, ranking them by their p-values. Comparison results with state-of-the-art pathway analysis systems are indicative for the soundness and reliability of the MinePath approach. In contrast with many pathway analysis tools, MinePath is a web-based system (www.minepath.org) offering dynamic and rich pathway visualization functionality, with the

  20. The Determination of Soil-plant Transfer Coefficients of Cesium-137 and Other Elements by γ-Ray Measurement and PIXE Analysis, for use in the Remediation of Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Fujita, A.; Toyama, S.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Takyu, S.; Matsuyama, T.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Ito, S.; Kasahara, K.

    Edible wild plants growing in the area around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant remain contaminated. It is important to identify plants with low levels of contamination for the restoration of agriculture in the area. We collected specimens of 10 wild plant species growing in Iitate village which is one of the most highly contaminated areas and also sampled the soil beneath each plant. We measured the specific activity of 137Cs and the concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Rb and Sr in these samples using a germanium detector and PIXE analysis, respectively. We compared the soil-plant transfer coefficient of 137Cs with those of each element and determined their correlation with 137Cs. It was found that a low Sr transfer coefficient could be used to determine the plants with a low 137Cs transfer coefficient. We suggest that PIXE analysis is a useful analysis technique for agricultural remediation projects in highly contaminated areas around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

  1. An AP structure with Finslerian Flavor: Path equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanas, M. I.; Kahil, M. E.; Kamal, Mona M.

    2016-10-01

    The Bazanski approach for deriving paths is applied to Finsler geometry. The approach is generalized and applied to a new developed geometry called "Absolute parallelism with a Finslerian Flavor" (FAP). A sets of path equations is derived for the FAP. This is the horizontal (h) set. A striking feature appears in this set, that is: the coefficient of torsion term, in the set, jumps by a step of one-half from one equation to the other. This is tempting to believe that the h-set admits some quantum features. Comparisons with the corresponding sets in other geometries are given. Conditions to reduce the set of path equations obtained, to well known path equations in some geometries are summarized in a schematic diagram.

  2. Variations in the normal and tangential momentum accommodation coefficients from analysis of atmospheric lift and drag forces on ANS-1 (1974-70A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P.; Sowter, A.

    Studies of aerodynamic lift and drag in hyperthermal free molecular flow regimes usually adopt Schamberg's model for gas-surface interaction, utilising the thermal accommodation coefficient. Most authors assume near-diffuse reflection characteristics with constant re-emission speed for all angles of incidence. For modelling atmospheric forces a more natural approach is to utilise normal and tangential momentum coefficients, σ1 and σ respectively. Experimental laboratory data has yielded qualitatively the dependence on the angle of incidence which to good approximation can be represented as ω ≜ ω ' 0,ω 1≜ ∑ω01 - &lim&ω11 sec ɛi where σ0, σ10 and σ1l are constants and ξi is the angle subtended between the incident flow and the surface normal. Adopting these relationships the effects of atmospheric lift on the satellite inclination, i, and atmospheric drag on the semi-major axis, a, and eccentricity, e, have been investigated. Applications to ANS1 (1974-70A) show that the observed perturbation in i can be ascribed to non-zero σ1l whilst perturbations in a and e produce a constraint equation between the three parameters. Present address: GEC-MARCONI RESEARCH CENTRE, CHELMSFORD, U.K.

  3. Prediction of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds for the interpretation of data in breath gas analysis6

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Christian; Mochalski, Paweł; Unterkofler, Karl; Agapiou, Agapios; Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Liedl, Klaus R

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a database of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients (λb:a and λf:a) is reported for estimating 1678 volatile organic compounds recently reported to appear in the volatilome of the healthy human. For this purpose, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach was applied and a novel method for Henry’s law constants prediction developed. A random forest model based on Molecular Operating Environment 2D (MOE2D) descriptors based on 2619 literature-reported Henry’s constant values was built. The calculated Henry’s law constants correlate very well (R2test = 0.967) with the available experimental data. Blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients were calculated according to the method proposed by Poulin and Krishnan using the estimated Henry’s constant values. The obtained values correlate reasonably well with the experimentally determined ones for a test set of 90 VOCs (R2 = 0.95). The provided data aim to fill in the literature data gap and further assist the interpretation of results in studies of the human volatilome. PMID:26815030

  4. Critical Path Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decisionmaker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its content

  5. Critical Path Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decision maker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its

  6. JAVA PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehhtz, Peter

    2005-01-01

    JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.

  7. Portage and Path Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    We examine portage sites in the U.S. South, Mid-Atlantic, and Midwest, including those on the fall line, a geomorphological feature in the southeastern U.S. marking the final rapids on rivers before the ocean. Historically, waterborne transport of goods required portage around the falls at these points, while some falls provided water power during early industrialization. These factors attracted commerce and manufacturing. Although these original advantages have long since been made obsolete, we document the continuing importance of these portage sites over time. We interpret these results as path dependence and contrast explanations based on sunk costs interacting with decreasing versus increasing returns to scale. PMID:23935217

  8. Gas Path Sealing in Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of gas path seals is presented with particular attention given to sealing clearance effects on engine component efficiency. The effects on compressor pressure ratio and stall margin are pointed out. Various case-rotor relative displacements, which affect gas path seal clearances, are identified. Forces produced by nonuniform sealing clearances and their effect on rotor stability are discussed qualitatively, and recent work on turbine-blade-tip sealing for high temperature is described. The need for active clearance control and for engine structural analysis is discussed. The functions of the internal-flow system and its seals are reviewed.

  9. Theoretical and experimental research on error analysis and optimization of tool path in fabricating aspheric compound eyes by precision micro milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingjun; Xiao, Yong; Tian, Wenlan; Wu, Chunya; Chu, Xin

    2014-05-01

    Structure design and fabricating methods of three-dimensional (3D) artificial spherical compound eyes have been researched by many scholars. Micro-nano optical manufacturing is mostly used to process 3D artificial compound eyes. However, spherical optical compound eyes are less at optical performance than the eyes of insects, and it is difficult to further improve the imaging quality of compound eyes by means of micro-nano optical manufacturing. In this research, nonhomogeneous aspheric compound eyes (ACEs) are designed and fabricated. The nonhomogeneous aspheric structure is applied to calibrate the spherical aberration. Micro milling with advantages in processing three-dimensional micro structures is adopted to manufacture ACEs. In order to obtain ACEs with high imaging quality, the tool paths are optimized by analyzing the influence factors consisting of interpolation allowable error, scallop height and tool path pattern. In the experiments, two kinds of ACEs are manufactured by micro-milling with different too path patterns and cutting parameter on the miniature precision five-axis milling machine tool. The experimental results indicate that the ACEs of high surface quality can be achieved by circularly milling small micro-lens individually with changeable cutting depth. A prototype of the aspheric compound eye (ACE) with surface roughness ( R a) below 0.12 μm is obtained with good imaging performance. This research ameliorates the imaging quality of 3D artificial compound eyes, and the proposed method of micro-milling can improve surface processing quality of compound eyes.

  10. Comparison of an Ultrasonic Phased Array Evaluation with Destructive Analysis of a Documented Leak Path in a Nozzle Removed from Service

    SciTech Connect

    Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Hanson, Brady D.; Mathews, Royce

    2012-09-24

    Non-destructive and destructive testing methods were employed to evaluate a documented boric acid leakage path through an Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) penetration from the North Anna Unit 2 reactor pressure vessel head that was removed from service in 2002. A previous ultrasonic in-service-inspection (ISI) conducted by industry prior to the head removal, identified a probable leakage path in Nozzle 63 located in the interference fit between the penetration tube and the vessel head. In this current examination, Nozzle 63 was examined using phased array (PA) ultrasonic testing with a 5.0-MHz, eight-element annular array; immersion data were acquired from the nozzle inner diameter (ID) surface. A variety of focal laws were employed to evaluate the signal responses from the interference fit region. These responses were compared to responses obtained from a mockup specimen that was used to determine detection limits and characterization capabilities for wastage and boric acid presence in the interference fit region. Nozzle 63 was destructively examined after the completion of the ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) to visually assess the leak paths. These destructive and nondestructive results compared favorably

  11. Scale dependency of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.H.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Zhang, G.

    2003-05-30

    It has been recognized that matrix diffusion is an important process for retarding solute transport in fractured rock. Based on analyses of tracer transport data from a number of field tests, we demonstrate for the first time that the effective matrix-diffusion coefficient may be scale dependent and generally increases with test scale. A preliminary theoretical explanation of this scale dependency is also presented, based on the hypothesis that solute travel paths within a fracture network are fractals.

  12. Optimum flight paths of turbojet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, Angelo

    1955-01-01

    The climb of turbojet aircraft is analyzed and discussed including the accelerations. Three particular flight performances are examined: minimum time of climb, climb with minimum fuel consumption, and steepest climb. The theoretical results obtained from a previous study are put in a form that is suitable for application on the following simplifying assumptions: the Mach number is considered an independent variable instead of the velocity; the variations of the airplane mass due to fuel consumption are disregarded; the airplane polar is assumed to be parabolic; the path curvatures and the squares of the path angles are disregarded in the projection of the equation of motion on the normal to the path; lastly, an ideal turbojet with performance independent of the velocity is involved. The optimum Mach number for each flight condition is obtained from the solution of a sixth order equation in which the coefficients are functions of two fundamental parameters: the ratio of minimum drag in level flight to the thrust and the Mach number which represents the flight at constant altitude and maximum lift-drag ratio.

  13. Chemical composition analysis of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Kurdistan, Iran by HS/SPME method and calculation of the biophysicochemical coefficients of the components.

    PubMed

    Taherpour, Avat Arman; Maroofi, Hossein; Rafie, Zeinab; Larijani, Kambiz

    2012-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the essential oil of wild Melissa officinalis L. obtained from the Kurdistan province of Iran were extracted by headspace/solid-phase micro-extraction and were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Of a total of 14 compounds in the oil, 12 (85.7%) were identified. The main components were as follows: (E)-citral (37.2%), neral (23.9%) and citronellal (20.3%). Some physicochemical properties, such as the logarithm of calculated octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log K (ow))(,) total biodegradation (TB (d) in mol h(-1) and g h(-1)), water solubility (S (w), mg L(-1) at 25°C) and median lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)), were calculated for compounds 1-14 from M. officinalis L.

  14. The path integral for dendritic trees.

    PubMed

    Abbott, L F; Farhi, E; Gutmann, S

    1991-01-01

    We construct the path integral for determining the potential on any dendritic tree described by a linear cable equation. This is done by generalizing Brownian motion from a line to a tree. We also construct the path integral for dendritic structures with spatially-varying and/or time-dependent membrane conductivities due, for example, to synaptic inputs. The path integral allows novel computational techniques to be applied to cable problems. Our analysis leads ultimately to an exact expression for the Green's function on a dendritic tree of arbitrary geometry expressed in terms of a set of simple diagrammatic rules. These rules providing a fast and efficient method for solving complex cable problems.

  15. Distributional properties of stochastic shortest paths for smuggled nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Cuellar, Leticia; Pan, Feng; Roach, Fred; Saeger, Kevin J

    2011-01-05

    The shortest path problem on a network with fixed weights is a well studied problem with applications to many diverse areas such as transportation and telecommunications. We are particularly interested in the scenario where a nuclear material smuggler tries to succesfully reach herlhis target by identifying the most likely path to the target. The identification of the path relies on reliabilities (weights) associated with each link and node in a multi-modal transportation network. In order to account for the adversary's uncertainty and to perform sensitivity analysis we introduce random reliabilities. We perform some controlled experiments on the grid and present the distributional properties of the resulting stochastic shortest paths.

  16. Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.

    2011-01-01

    Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…

  17. Perturbative Methods in Path Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson-Freyd, Theodore Paul

    This dissertation addresses a number of related questions concerning perturbative "path" integrals. Perturbative methods are one of the few successful ways physicists have worked with (or even defined) these infinite-dimensional integrals, and it is important as mathematicians to check that they are correct. Chapter 0 provides a detailed introduction. We take a classical approach to path integrals in Chapter 1. Following standard arguments, we posit a Feynman-diagrammatic description of the asymptotics of the time-evolution operator for the quantum mechanics of a charged particle moving nonrelativistically through a curved manifold under the influence of an external electromagnetic field. We check that our sum of Feynman diagrams has all desired properties: it is coordinate-independent and well-defined without ultraviolet divergences, it satisfies the correct composition law, and it satisfies Schrodinger's equation thought of as a boundary-value problem in PDE. Path integrals in quantum mechanics and elsewhere in quantum field theory are almost always of the shape ∫ f es for some functions f (the "observable") and s (the "action"). In Chapter 2 we step back to analyze integrals of this type more generally. Integration by parts provides algebraic relations between the values of ∫ (-) es for different inputs, which can be packaged into a Batalin--Vilkovisky-type chain complex. Using some simple homological perturbation theory, we study the version of this complex that arises when f and s are taken to be polynomial functions, and power series are banished. We find that in such cases, the entire scheme-theoretic critical locus (complex points included) of s plays an important role, and that one can uniformly (but noncanonically) integrate out in a purely algebraic way the contributions to the integral from all "higher modes," reducing ∫ f es to an integral over the critical locus. This may help explain the presence of analytic continuation in questions like the

  18. Asymptotics of loop quantum gravity fusion coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesci, Emanuele; Bianchi, Eugenio; Magliaro, Elena; Perini, Claudio

    2010-05-01

    The fusion coefficients from SO(3) to SO(4) play a key role in the definition of spin foam models for the dynamics in loop quantum gravity. In this paper we give a simple analytic formula of the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine fusion coefficients. We study the large spin asymptotics and show that they map SO(3) semiclassical intertwiners into SU(2)L × SU(2)R semiclassical intertwiners. This non-trivial property opens the possibility for an analysis of the semiclassical behavior of the model.

  19. Minimal entropy probability paths between genome families.

    PubMed

    Ahlbrandt, Calvin; Benson, Gary; Casey, William

    2004-05-01

    We develop a metric for probability distributions with applications to biological sequence analysis. Our distance metric is obtained by minimizing a functional defined on the class of paths over probability measures on N categories. The underlying mathematical theory is connected to a constrained problem in the calculus of variations. The solution presented is a numerical solution, which approximates the true solution in a set of cases called rich paths where none of the components of the path is zero. The functional to be minimized is motivated by entropy considerations, reflecting the idea that nature might efficiently carry out mutations of genome sequences in such a way that the increase in entropy involved in transformation is as small as possible. We characterize sequences by frequency profiles or probability vectors, in the case of DNA where N is 4 and the components of the probability vector are the frequency of occurrence of each of the bases A, C, G and T. Given two probability vectors a and b, we define a distance function based as the infimum of path integrals of the entropy function H( p) over all admissible paths p(t), 0 < or = t< or =1, with p(t) a probability vector such that p(0)=a and p(1)=b. If the probability paths p(t) are parameterized as y(s) in terms of arc length s and the optimal path is smooth with arc length L, then smooth and "rich" optimal probability paths may be numerically estimated by a hybrid method of iterating Newton's method on solutions of a two point boundary value problem, with unknown distance L between the abscissas, for the Euler-Lagrange equations resulting from a multiplier rule for the constrained optimization problem together with linear regression to improve the arc length estimate L. Matlab code for these numerical methods is provided which works only for "rich" optimal probability vectors. These methods motivate a definition of an elementary distance function which is easier and faster to calculate, works on non

  20. Quantitative molecular thermochemistry based on path integrals.

    PubMed

    Glaesemann, Kurt R; Fried, Laurence E

    2005-07-15

    The calculation of thermochemical data requires accurate molecular energies and heat capacities. Traditional methods rely upon the standard harmonic normal-mode analysis to calculate the vibrational and rotational contributions. We utilize path-integral Monte Carlo for going beyond the harmonic analysis and to calculate the vibrational and rotational contributions to ab initio energies. This is an application and an extension of a method previously developed in our group [J. Chem. Phys. 118, 1596 (2003)].

  1. An analysis of extinction coefficients of particles and water moisture in the stack after flue gas desulfurization at a coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wen-Fu; Lin, Jenn-Der; Wu, Yee-Lin

    2011-08-01

    Two important factors that affect in-stack opacity--light extinction by emitted particles and that by water moisture after a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) unit--are investigated. The mass light extinction coefficients for particles and water moisture, k(p) and k(w), respectively, were determined using the Lambert-Beer law of opacity with a nonlinear least-squares regression method. The estimated k(p) and k(w) values vary from 0.199 to 0.316 m2/g and 0.000345 to 0.000426 m2/g, respectively, and the overall mean estimated values are 0.229 and 0.000397 m2/g, respectively. Although k(w) is 3 orders of magnitude smaller than k(p), experimental results show that the effect on light extinction by water moisture was comparable to that by particles because of the existence of a considerable mass of water moisture after a FGD unit. The mass light extinction coefficient was also estimated using Mie theory with measured particle size distributions and a complex refractive index of 1.5-ni for fly ash particles. The k(p) obtained using Mie theory ranges from 0.282 to 0.286 m2/g and is slightly greater than the averaged estimated k(p) of 0.229 m2/g from measured opacity. The discrepancy may be partly due to a difference in the microstructure of the fly ash from the assumption of solid spheres because the fly ash may have been formed as spheres attached with smaller particles or as hollow spheres that contained solid spheres. Previously reported values of measured k(p) obtained without considering the effects of water moisture are greater than that obtained in this study, which is reasonable because it reflects the effect of extinction by water moisture in the flue gas. Additionally, the moisture absorbed by particulate matter, corresponding to the effect of water moisture on the particulates, was clarified and found to be negligible.

  2. Transmission error and load distribution analysis of spur and double helical gear pairs used in a split path helicopter transmission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochmann, David; Houser, Donald R.; Thomas, Jacob

    1991-05-01

    Because the reduction of gear noise in next-generation rotorcraft depends on the reduction of transmission errors, attention is presently given to the prediction of such errors and the load distributions of both a spur-gear pair and a double helical gear train used in a split-path helicopter transmission. Two cases are examined: (1) the spur gear mesh between the spur shaft and the lower spur/helical shaft, and (2) the double helical gear mesh between the lower spur/helical shaft and the output bull bear shaft.

  3. As-operated heat loss coefficients of residential buildings in the Pacific Northwest: An analysis of empirical space-heating energy data

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.G.; Pratt, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Previous research of residential electrical space-heating data has revealed that the heat loss coefficients obtained from empirical data ( as-operated'' UAs) are, on average, about 25% below the UA calculated from the shell construction of each building. This as-operated UA is obtained from a linear regression of the measured space-heating energy consumption versus the inside-outside temperature difference. This finding indicates that simple steady-state calculation techniques for heating energy consumption utilizing only UAs may be inaccurate in estimating annual consumption. The purpose of this research was to study how climate, construction, and occupant variables may affect the as-operated UA and, therefore, the annual heating energy consumption. Specifically, the goal is to gain a greater understanding of how and why the as-operated UA differs from the construction-based nameplate UA. Multiple seasons of daily heating data from 131 occupied single-family residential sues were analyzed. A multiple linear regression was used to generate a model that utilizes the construction-based UAs and other characteristics of individual residences to predict an as-operated UA that better estimates annual heating energy.

  4. As-operated heat loss coefficients of residential buildings in the Pacific Northwest: An analysis of empirical space-heating energy data

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.G.; Pratt, R.G.

    1992-12-31

    Previous research of residential electrical space-heating data has revealed that the heat loss coefficients obtained from empirical data (``as-operated`` UAs) are, on average, about 25% below the UA calculated from the shell construction of each building. This as-operated UA is obtained from a linear regression of the measured space-heating energy consumption versus the inside-outside temperature difference. This finding indicates that simple steady-state calculation techniques for heating energy consumption utilizing only UAs may be inaccurate in estimating annual consumption. The purpose of this research was to study how climate, construction, and occupant variables may affect the as-operated UA and, therefore, the annual heating energy consumption. Specifically, the goal is to gain a greater understanding of how and why the as-operated UA differs from the construction-based nameplate UA. Multiple seasons of daily heating data from 131 occupied single-family residential sues were analyzed. A multiple linear regression was used to generate a model that utilizes the construction-based UAs and other characteristics of individual residences to predict an as-operated UA that better estimates annual heating energy.

  5. Experimental studies, line-shape analysis and semi-empirical calculations of broadening coefficients for CH335Cl-CO2 submillimeter transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudaryonok, A. S.; Lavrentieva, N. N.; Buldyreva, J.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Rohart, F.

    2014-09-01

    Rotational transitions in CH335Cl mixed with CO2 are recorded at 296 K and total pressures up to 0.6 Torr in the frequency interval 186-901 GHz (1.6-0.3 mm) for J=6→7, 10→11, 17→18, 22→23, 31→32, 33→34 and K=0-6, using the frequency-modulation spectrometer of the Laboratory PhLAM (Lille, France). These line-shapes are analyzed with the commonly used Voigt profile as well as with more refined Speed-Dependent Voigt and Galatry models accounting for the line narrowing induced, respectively, by the speed-dependence of the relaxation parameters and by velocity-changing collisions. Due to the high line intensities, the fitting procedure involves the full implementation of the Bee-Lambert law instead of its traditional linear approximation. The experimentally deduced J- and K-dependences of the pressure-broadening coefficients are further used to obtain the model parameters of a semi-empirical approach allowing massive calculations of line-shape parameters for enlarged ranges of rotational quantum numbers requested by spectroscopic databases.

  6. An analysis of spatiotemporal localized solutions in the variable coefficients (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with six different forms of dispersion parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, K.; Senthilvelan, M.

    2016-07-01

    We construct spatiotemporal localized envelope solutions of a (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with varying coefficients such as dispersion, nonlinearity and gain parameters through similarity transformation technique. The obtained localized rational solutions can serve as prototypes of rogue waves in different branches of science. We investigate the characteristics of constructed localized solutions in detail when it propagates through six different dispersion profiles, namely, constant, linear, Gaussian, hyperbolic, logarithm, and exponential. We also obtain expressions for the hump and valleys of rogue wave intensity profiles for these six dispersion profiles and study the trajectory of it in each case. Further, we analyze how the intensity of another localized solution, namely, breather, changes when it propagates through the aforementioned six dispersion profiles. Our studies reveal that these localized solutions co-exist with the collapsing solutions which are already found in the (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The obtained results will help to understand the corresponding localized wave phenomena in related fields.

  7. Series extension: predicting approximate series coefficients from a finite number of exact coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttmann, Anthony J.

    2016-10-01

    Given the first 20-100 coefficients of a typical generating function of the type that arises in many problems of statistical mechanics or enumerative combinatorics, we show that the method of differential approximants performs surprisingly well in predicting (approximately) subsequent coefficients. These can then be used by the ratio method to obtain improved estimates of critical parameters. In favourable cases, given only the first 20 coefficients, the next 100 coefficients are predicted with useful accuracy. More surprisingly, this is also the case when the method of differential approximants does not do a useful job in estimating the critical parameters, such as those cases in which one has stretched exponential asymptotic behaviour. Nevertheless, the coefficients are predicted with surprising accuracy. As one consequence, significant computer time can be saved in enumeration problems where several runs would normally be made, modulo different primes, and the coefficients constructed from their values modulo different primes. Another is in the checking of newly calculated coefficients. We believe that this concept of approximate series extension opens up a whole new chapter in the method of series analysis.

  8. Multi-Criteria Path Finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, E.; Hunter, A.

    2012-07-01

    Path finding solutions are becoming a major part of many GIS applications including location based services and web-based GIS services. Most traditional path finding solutions are based on shortest path algorithms that tend to minimize the cost of travel from one point to another. These algorithms make use of some cost criteria that is usually an attribute of the edges in the graph network. Providing one shortest path limits user's flexibility when choosing a possible route, especially when more than one parameter is utilized to calculate cost (e.g., when length, number of traffic lights, and number of turns are used to calculate network cost.) K shortest path solutions tend to overcome this problem by providing second, third, and Kth shortest paths. These algorithms are efficient as long as the graphs edge weight does not change dynamically and no other parameters affect edge weights. In this paper we try to go beyond finding shortest paths based on some cost value, and provide all possible paths disregarding any parameter that may affect total cost. After finding all possible paths, we can rank the results by any parameter or combination of parameters, without a substantial increase in time complexity.

  9. An introduction to critical paths.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Richard J; Richards, Janet S; Remmert, Carl S; LeRoy, Sarah S; Schoville, Rhonda R; Baldwin, Phyllis J

    2005-01-01

    A critical path defines the optimal sequencing and timing of interventions by physicians, nurses, and other staff for a particular diagnosis or procedure. Critical paths are developed through collaborative efforts of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and others to improve the quality and value of patient care. They are designed to minimize delays and resource utilization and to maximize quality of care. Critical paths have been shown to reduce variation in the care provided, facilitate expected outcomes, reduce delays, reduce length of stay, and improve cost-effectiveness. The approach and goals of critical paths are consistent with those of total quality management (TQM) and can be an important part of an organization's TQM process.

  10. Photon diffusion in a homogeneous medium bounded externally or internally by an infinitely long circular cylindrical applicator. III. Synthetic study of continuous-wave photon fluence rate along unique spiral paths.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anqi; Piao, Daqing; Bunting, Charles F

    2012-04-01

    This is Part III of the work that examines photon diffusion in a scattering-dominant medium enclosed by a "concave" circular cylindrical applicator or enclosing a "convex" circular cylindrical applicator. In Part II of this work Zhang et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 66 (2011)] predicted that, on the tissue-applicator interface of either "concave" or "convex" geometry, there exists a unique set of spiral paths, along which the steady-state photon fluence rate decays at a rate equal to that along a straight line on a planar semi-infinite interface, for the same line-of-sight source-detector distance. This phenomenon of steady-state photon diffusion is referred to as "straight-line-resembling-spiral paths" (abbreviated as "spiral paths"). This Part III study develops analytic approaches to the spiral paths associated with geometry of a large radial dimension and presents spiral paths found numerically for geometry of a small radial dimension. This Part III study also examines whether the spiral paths associated with a homogeneous medium are a good approximation for the medium containing heterogeneity. The heterogeneity is limited to an anomaly that is aligned azimuthally with the spiral paths and has either positive or negative contrast of the absorption or scattering coefficient over the background medium. For a weak-contrast anomaly the perturbation by it to the photon fluence rate along the spiral paths is found by applying a well-established perturbation analysis in cylindrical coordinates. For a strong-contrast anomaly the change by it to the photon fluence rate along the spiral paths is computed using the finite-element method. For the investigated heterogeneous-medium cases the photon fluence rate along the homogeneous-medium associated spiral paths is macroscopically indistinguishable from, and microscopically close to, that along a straight line on a planar semi-infinite interface.

  11. Photon path length retrieval from GOSAT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremmling, Beke; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Deutschmann, Tim; Wagner, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The influence of clouds on the atmospheric radiation budget is investigated, focussing on the photon path length distributions of the scattered sunlight. Apart from the reflection of incoming solar radiation at the cloud top, clouds can also introduce a large number of additional scattering events causing an enhancement of the photon paths. In certain cloud formations, these scattering events also result in a ``ping-pong`` behaviour between different cloud patches and cloud layers. It has been shown from ground based measurements that it is possible to retrieve photon path lengths by analysis of high resolution oxygen A-band spectra (O. Funk et al.). This study uses similar space based measurements of the oxygen A-band for the path length retrieval. The oxygen A-band spectra are retrieved from the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) which was successfully launched in 2009. The high spectral resolution of the GOSAT TANSO-FTS instrument allows to almost completely resolve the individual absorption lines. The considered spectral range is particularly suitable for this study because it shows clear absorption structures of different strength. From the analysis of the spectral signatures, cloud properties and the underlying path length distributions can be derived. The retrieval is done by analysis and comparison of the extracted TANSO-FTS spectra with simulations from the Monte Carlo radiative transfer Model McArtim. The model permits modelling of altitude dependent oxygen absorption cross sections and three-dimensional cloud patterns. Case studies of clear and cloudy sky scenarios will be presented. Future studies will focus on more complicated cloud structures, especially considering three-dimensional geometries and heterogeneities.

  12. Spectral analysis of ionospheric disturbances in the phase delay and radio signal amplitude at limb paths according to the COSMIC data in periods of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmakov, A. V.; Gorbunov, M. E.

    2016-07-01

    Based on more than 4500 sessions of radio transillumination of Earth's atmosphere along the satellite-atmosphere-satellite path obtained in the COSMIC experiment, the distribution along latitude and over local time of the spatial spectra of variations in the ionospheric phase delay and signal amplitude has been analyzed. The spatial spectra have been calculated for two height ranges, i.e., 60-80 and 80-100 km. In the phase signal spectrum within the height range 80-100 km, the second maximum in the vicinity of a frequency of 7-8 rad/km is clearly seen. Its diurnal and latitudinal behavior and its decrease towards high latitudes in both hemispheres can also be seen. In the height range of 60-80 km, this maximum is hardly observed. Although solar flares can lead to substantial local changes in the electron concentration, no substantial difference in the behavior of the spectral densities of the amplitude and phase delay at long limb paths was observed within these two height ranges on days of active and quiet sun. The latter fact makes it possible to develop a united algorithm of optimal ionospheric correction of the radio occultation data independent of solar activity.

  13. On the relationship between coefficient alpha and composite reliability.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robert A; Kim, Yeolib

    2013-01-01

    Cronbach's coefficient alpha is the most widely used estimator of the reliability of tests and scales. However, it has been criticized as being a lower bound and hence underestimating true reliability. A popular alternative to coefficient alpha is composite reliability, which is usually calculated in conjunction with structural equation modeling. A quantitative analysis of 2,524 pairs of coefficient alpha and composite reliability values derived from empirical investigations revealed that although the average composite reliability value (.86) exceeded the average corresponding coefficient alpha value (.84), the difference was relatively inconsequential for practical applications such as meta-analysis.

  14. Cytoplasmic hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed Central

    al-Baldawi, N F; Abercrombie, R F

    1992-01-01

    The apparent cytoplasmic proton diffusion coefficient was measured using pH electrodes and samples of cytoplasm extracted from the giant neuron of a marine invertebrate. By suddenly changing the pH at one surface of the sample and recording the relaxation of pH within the sample, an apparent diffusion coefficient of 1.4 +/- 0.5 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7) was measured in the acidic or neutral range of pH (6.0-7.2). This value is approximately 5x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the mobile pH buffers (approximately 8 x 10(-6) cm2/s) and approximately 68x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the hydronium ion (93 x 10(-6) cm2/s). A mobile pH buffer (approximately 15% of the buffering power) and an immobile buffer (approximately 85% of the buffering power) could quantitatively account for the results at acidic or neutral pH. At alkaline pH (8.2-8.6), the apparent proton diffusion coefficient increased to 4.1 +/- 0.8 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7). This larger diffusion coefficient at alkaline pH could be explained quantitatively by the enhanced buffering power of the mobile amino acids. Under the conditions of these experiments, it is unlikely that hydroxide movement influences the apparent hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient. PMID:1617134

  15. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive

  16. Reconfigurable data path processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohoe, Gregory (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A reconfigurable data path processor comprises a plurality of independent processing elements. Each of the processing elements advantageously comprising an identical architecture. Each processing element comprises a plurality of data processing means for generating a potential output. Each processor is also capable of through-putting an input as a potential output with little or no processing. Each processing element comprises a conditional multiplexer having a first conditional multiplexer input, a second conditional multiplexer input and a conditional multiplexer output. A first potential output value is transmitted to the first conditional multiplexer input, and a second potential output value is transmitted to the second conditional multiplexer output. The conditional multiplexer couples either the first conditional multiplexer input or the second conditional multiplexer input to the conditional multiplexer output, according to an output control command. The output control command is generated by processing a set of arithmetic status-bits through a logical mask. The conditional multiplexer output is coupled to a first processing element output. A first set of arithmetic bits are generated according to the processing of the first processable value. A second set of arithmetic bits may be generated from a second processing operation. The selection of the arithmetic status-bits is performed by an arithmetic-status bit multiplexer selects the desired set of arithmetic status bits from among the first and second set of arithmetic status bits. The conditional multiplexer evaluates the select arithmetic status bits according to logical mask defining an algorithm for evaluating the arithmetic status bits.

  17. Functional constraints on phenomenological coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klika, Václav; Pavelka, Michal; Benziger, Jay B.

    2017-02-01

    Thermodynamic fluxes (diffusion fluxes, heat flux, etc.) are often proportional to thermodynamic forces (gradients of chemical potentials, temperature, etc.) via the matrix of phenomenological coefficients. Onsager's relations imply that the matrix is symmetric, which reduces the number of unknown coefficients is reduced. In this article we demonstrate that for a class of nonequilibrium thermodynamic models in addition to Onsager's relations the phenomenological coefficients must share the same functional dependence on the local thermodynamic state variables. Thermodynamic models and experimental data should be validated through consistency with the functional constraint. We present examples of coupled heat and mass transport (thermodiffusion) and coupled charge and mass transport (electro-osmotic drag). Additionally, these newly identified constraints further reduce the number of experiments needed to describe the phenomenological coefficient.

  18. Path optimization by a variational reaction coordinate method. I. Development of formalism and algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholz, Adam B.; Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    2015-12-28

    The development of algorithms to optimize reaction pathways between reactants and products is an active area of study. Existing algorithms typically describe the path as a discrete series of images (chain of states) which are moved downhill toward the path, using various reparameterization schemes, constraints, or fictitious forces to maintain a uniform description of the reaction path. The Variational Reaction Coordinate (VRC) method is a novel approach that finds the reaction path by minimizing the variational reaction energy (VRE) of Quapp and Bofill. The VRE is the line integral of the gradient norm along a path between reactants and products and minimization of VRE has been shown to yield the steepest descent reaction path. In the VRC method, we represent the reaction path by a linear expansion in a set of continuous basis functions and find the optimized path by minimizing the VRE with respect to the linear expansion coefficients. Improved convergence is obtained by applying constraints to the spacing of the basis functions and coupling the minimization of the VRE to the minimization of one or more points along the path that correspond to intermediates and transition states. The VRC method is demonstrated by optimizing the reaction path for the Müller-Brown surface and by finding a reaction path passing through 5 transition states and 4 intermediates for a 10 atom Lennard-Jones cluster.

  19. Collabortive Authoring of Walden's Paths

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuanling; Bogen II, Paul Logasa; Pogue, Daniel; Furuta, Richard Keith; Shipman, Frank Major

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of an authoring tool to allow users to collaboratively build, annotate, manage, share and reuse collections of distributed resources from the World Wide Web. This extends on the Walden’s Path project’s work to help educators bring resources found on the World Wide Web into a linear contextualized structure. The introduction of collaborative authoring feature fosters collaborative learning activities through social interaction among participants, where participants can coauthor paths in groups. Besides, the prototype supports path sharing, branching and reusing; specifically, individual participant can contribute to the group with private collections of knowledge resources; paths completed by group can be shared among group members, such that participants can tailor, extend, reorder and/or replace nodes to have sub versions of shared paths for different information needs.

  20. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.