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Sample records for pathogen campylobacter lari

  1. Comparative genomics of the Campylobacter lari group

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Campylobacter lari group is a phylogenetic clade within the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is part of the thermotolerant campylobacters, a division within the genus that includes the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The lari group is currently composed of five validly-named sp...

  2. Comparative Genomics of the Campylobacter lari Group

    PubMed Central

    Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Chapman, Mary H.; Smith, Timothy P.L.; Bono, James L.; Huynh, Steven; Parker, Craig T.; Vandamme, Peter; Luong, Khai; Korlach, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The Campylobacter lari group is a phylogenetic clade within the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is part of the thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., a division within the genus that includes the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The C. lari group is currently composed of five species (C. lari, Campylobacter insulaenigrae, Campylobacter volucris, Campylobacter subantarcticus, and Campylobacter peloridis), as well as a group of strains termed the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) and other C. lari-like strains. Here we present the complete genome sequences of 11 C. lari group strains, including the five C. lari group species, four UPTC strains, and a lari-like strain isolated in this study. The genome of C. lari subsp. lari strain RM2100 was described previously. Analysis of the C. lari group genomes indicates that this group is highly related at the genome level. Furthermore, these genomes are strongly syntenic with minor rearrangements occurring only in 4 of the 12 genomes studied. The C. lari group can be bifurcated, based on the flagella and flagellar modification genes. Genomic analysis of the UPTC strains indicated that these organisms are variable but highly similar, closely related to but distinct from C. lari. Additionally, the C. lari group contains multiple genes encoding hemagglutination domain proteins, which are either contingency genes or linked to conserved contingency genes. Many of the features identified in strain RM2100, such as major deficiencies in amino acid biosynthesis and energy metabolism, are conserved across all 12 genomes, suggesting that these common features may play a role in the association of the C. lari group with coastal environments and watersheds. PMID:25381664

  3. Genome sequence of a urease-positive Campylobacter lari strain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter lari is frequently isolated from shore birds and can cause illness in humans. Here we report the draft whole genome sequence of an urease-positive strain of C. lari that was isolated in estuarial water on the coast of Delaware, USA....

  4. Differentiation of Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter upsaliensis by a Multiplex PCR Developed from the Nucleotide Sequence of the Lipid A Gene lpxA

    PubMed Central

    Klena, John D.; Parker, Craig T.; Knibb, Krista; Ibbitt, J. Claire; Devane, Phillippa M. L.; Horn, Sharon T.; Miller, William G.; Konkel, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a multiplex PCR assay to identify and discriminate between isolates of Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter upsaliensis. The C. jejuni isolate F38011 lpxA gene, encoding a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase, was identified by sequence analysis of an expression plasmid that restored wild-type lipopolysaccharide levels in Escherichia coli strain SM105 [lpxA(Ts)]. With oligonucleotide primers developed to the C. jejuni lpxA gene, nearly full-length lpxA amplicons were amplified from an additional 11 isolates of C. jejuni, 20 isolates of C. coli, 16 isolates of C. lari, and five isolates of C. upsaliensis. The nucleotide sequence of each amplicon was determined, and sequence alignment revealed a high level of species discrimination. Oligonucleotide primers were constructed to exploit species differences, and a multiplex PCR assay was developed to positively identify isolates of C. coli, C. jejuni, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis. We characterized an additional set of 41 thermotolerant isolates by partial nucleotide sequence analysis to further demonstrate the uniqueness of each species-specific region. The multiplex PCR assay was validated with 105 genetically defined isolates of C. coli, C. jejuni, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis, 34 strains representing 12 additional Campylobacter species, and 24 strains representing 19 non-Campylobacter species. Application of the multiplex PCR method to whole-cell lysates obtained from 108 clinical and environmental thermotolerant Campylobacter isolates resulted in 100% correlation with biochemical typing methods. PMID:15583280

  5. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter coli in Different Ecological Guilds and Taxa of Migrating Birds†

    PubMed Central

    Waldenström, Jonas; Broman, Tina; Carlsson, Inger; Hasselquist, Dennis; Achterberg, René P.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Olsen, Björn

    2002-01-01

    A total of 1,794 migrating birds trapped at a coastal site in southern Sweden were sampled for detection of Campylobacter spp. All isolates phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni and a subset of those identified as non-C. jejuni were identified to the species level by PCR-based techniques. C. jejuni was found in 5.0% of the birds, Campylobacter lari was found in 5.6%, and Campylobacter coli was found in 0.9%. An additional 10.7% of the tested birds were infected with hippurate hydrolysis-negative Campylobacter spp. that were not identified to the species level. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed significantly between ecological guilds of birds. Shoreline-foraging birds feeding on invertebrates and opportunistic feeders were most commonly infected (76.8 and 50.0%, respectively). High prevalence was also shown in other ground-foraging guilds, i.e., ground-foraging invertebrate feeders (11.0%), ground-foraging insectivores (20.3%), and plant-eating species (18.8%). Almost no Campylobacter spp. were found in ground-foraging granivores (2.3%), arboreal insectivores (0.6%), aerial insectivores (0%), or reed- and herbaceous plant-foraging insectivores (3.5%). During the autumn migration, a high proportion of samples from juveniles were positive (7.1% in passerines, 55.0% in shorebirds), indicating transmission on the breeding grounds or during the early part of migration. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was associated with increasing body mass among passerine bird species. Furthermore, prevalence was higher in short-distance migrants wintering in Europe than in long-distance migrants wintering in Africa, the Middle East, or Asia. Among ground-foraging birds of the Muscicapidae, those of the subfamily Turdinae (i.e., Turdus spp.) showed a high prevalence of Campylobacter spp., while the organism was not isolated in any member of the subfamily Muscicapinae (i.e., Erithacus and Luscinia). The prevalence of Campylobacter infection in wild birds thus

  6. Campylobacter ornithocola sp. nov., a novel member of the Campylobacter lari group isolated from wild bird faecal samples.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Alberto; Muñoz, Ivo; Iraola, Gregorio; Díaz-Viraqué, Florencia; Collado, Luis

    2017-06-01

    During a study on the prevalence and diversity of campylobacteria in wild birds faecal samples from the city of Valdivia (southern Chile) 17 Gram-stain-negative, curved-rod-shaped isolates, were initially identified as Campylobacter lari by PCR-RFLP. Further identification by 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that they formed a distinct group in the genus Campylobacter. This unique position was confirmed by the results of analysis of rpoB, atpA and cpn60 gene sequences. The average nucleotide identity between the representative strain WBE38T and the type strain of the most closely related taxon C. larisubsp.concheus (LMG 11760) was 90.8 %. The oxidase and urease activity of the novel isolates enabled them to be phenotypically differentiated from species of the genus Campylobacter with validly published names. Therefore, on the basis of phenotypic, genetic and genomic characterizations, the results of this study clearly indicate that these strains represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter ornithocola sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain WBE38T (=CECT 9147T=LMG 29815T).

  7. Prevalence of three campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, using multilocus sequence typing in wild birds of the Mid-Atlantic region, USA.

    PubMed

    Keller, Judith I; Shriver, W Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for the majority of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis in the US, usually due to the consumption of undercooked poultry. Research on which avian species transmit the bacterium is limited, especially in the US. We sampled wild birds in three families-Anatidae, Scolopacidae, and Laridae-in eastern North America to determine the prevalence and specific strains of Campylobacter. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 9.2% for all wild birds sampled (n = 781). Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species (8.1%), while Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari prevalence estimates were low (1.4% and 0.3%, respectively). We used multilocus sequence typing PCR specific to C. jejuni to characterize clonal complexes and sequence types isolated from wild bird samples and detected 13 novel sequence types, along with a clonal complex previously only associated with human disease (ST-658). Wild birds share an increasing amount of habitat with humans as more landscapes become fragmented and developed for human needs. Wild birds are and will remain an important aspect of public health due to their ability to carry and disperse emerging zoonotic pathogens or their arthropod vectors. As basic information such as prevalence is limited or lacking from a majority of wild birds in the US, this study provides further insight into Campylobacter epidemiology, host preference, and strain characterization of C. jejuni.

  8. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari in Fresh Chicken Meat and By-Products in Bangkok, Thailand, Using Modified Multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Saiyudthong, S; Phusri, K; Buates, S

    2015-07-01

    A multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari was developed and validated to assess the occurrence of these bacteria in fresh chicken meat and by-products in Bangkok, Thailand, by using a new combination of four previously published PCR primers for C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and a universal 16S rDNA gene as an internal control. The specificity was determined by using 13 strains of other bacteria. With pure culture DNA, the detection limit was 0.017 ng/PCR for C. jejuni and C. coli and was 0.016 ng/PCR for C. lari. It can detect 10 CFU of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in 2 g of chicken meat within a 16-h enrichment time. Our multiplex PCR assay was applied for identification of Campylobacter spp. in 122 supermarket samples and 108 fresh market samples. Of the 230 samples evaluated by multiplex PCR, 54.0, 3.3, and 10.7% of supermarket samples were positive for C. jejuni, C. coli, and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively, and 56.5 and 33.3% of fresh market samples were positive for C. jejuni and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. No sample was positive for C. lari. Fresh market samples had significantly higher C. jejuni and C. coli contamination than those from supermarkets (relative risk: 1.3; P = 0.0001). Compared with the culture method (a gold standard), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of multiplex PCR were 97.7, 86.8, 96.1, 92.0, and 95.2%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between results from two methods (P = 0.55). Therefore, the established multiplex PCR was not only rapid and easy to perform but had a high sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, even in samples containing mixed contamination. Our study indicated that fresh chicken meat and by-products from fresh markets were significantly less hygienic than those

  9. Probiotics against Campylobacter Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sorokulova; Kirik; Pinchuk

    1997-12-01

    Background: The subject matter of this study was to investigate, for the first time, the immediate-preventive effect of probiotics, composed of bacillus species, in a murine model of Campylobacter infection. Methods: An established model of Campylobacter infection in mice with a defined LD50 was utilized to assess the protective effect of probiotics. Results: The results obtained demonstrate that the level of animal protection, after a single administration of the new probiotics biosporin and subalin, reached 90-100% at LD50 and 80% at LD100. Conclusions: Such efficacy of probiotics is considered to be due to their high antagonistic activity against those pathogens registered in vitro. Antagonistic activity of other tested probiotics (bactisubtil and cereobiogen) to different cultures of Campylobacter was not manifested.

  10. Detection, identification and quantification of Campylobacter jejuni, coli and lari in food matrices all at once using multiplex qPCR

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thermotolerant Campylobacter jejuni, coli and lari are recognized as leading food-borne pathogens causing an acute bacterial enteritis worldwide. Due to narrow spectrum of their biochemical activity, it is very complicated to distinguish between individual species. For reliable risk assessment, proper incidence evaluation or swift sample analysis regarding individual species, a demand for simple and rapid method for their distinguishing is reasonable. In this study, we evaluated a reliable and simple approach for their simultaneous detection, species identification and quantification using multiplex qPCR. Results Species specific primers and hydrolysis probes are directed to hippuricase gene of C. jejuni, serine hydroxymethyltransferase gene of C. coli and peptidase T gene of C. lari. Efficiencies of reactions were 90.85% for C. jejuni, 96.97% for C. coli and 92.89% for C. lari. At 95.00% confidence level and when cut off is set to 38 cycles, limits of detection are in all cases under 10 genome copies per reaction which is very appreciated since it is known that infectious doses are very low. Conclusions Proposed assay was positively validated on different food matrices (chicken wing rinses, chicken juice and homogenized fried chicken strips). No inhibition of PCR reaction occurred. Assay was evaluated in accordance with MIQE handbook. PMID:25057300

  11. Molecular analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA internal spacer region (ISR) and truncated tRNA(Ala) gene segments in Campylobacter lari.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Tazumi, A; Nakanishi, S; Nakajima, T; Matsubara, K; Ueno, H; Moore, J E; Millar, B C; Matsuda, M

    2012-06-01

    Following PCR amplification and sequencing, nucleotide sequence alignment analyses demonstrated the presence of two kinds of 16S-23S rDNA internal spacer regions (ISRs), namely, long length ISRs of 837-844 base pair (bp) [n = six for urease-negative (UN) Campylobacter lari isolates, UN C. lari JCM2530(T), RM2100, 176, 293, 299 and 448] and short length ISRs of 679-725 bp [n = six for UN C. lari: n = 14 for urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) isolates]. The analyses also indicated that the short length ISRs mainly lacked the 156 bp sequence from the nucleotide positions 122-277 bp in long length ISRs for UN C. lari JCM2530(T). The 156 bp sequences shared 94.9-96.8 % sequence similarity among six isolates. Surprisingly, atypical tRNA(Ala) gene segment (5' end 35 bp), which was extremely truncated, occurred within the 156 bp sequences in the long length ISRs, as an unexpected tRNA(Ala) pseudogene. An order of the intercistronic tRNA genes within the short nucleotide spacer of 5'-16S rDNA-tRNA(Ala)-tRNA(Ile)-23S rDNA-3' occurred in all the C. lari isolates examined.

  12. A PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. lari, C. helveticus and C. upsaliensis.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Kazumasa; Asakura, Masahiro; Somroop, Srinuan; Hatanaka, Noritoshi; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Nagita, Akira; Misawa, Naoaki; Matsuda, Motoo; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2014-05-01

    Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of human gastrointestinal diseases, other Campylobacter species are also involved in human and animal infections. In this study, we developed a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of C. jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. lari, C. helveticus and C. upsaliensis. Previously designed common primers, which can amplify the cdtB gene of C. jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus, were used for detecting seven Campylobacter species and differentiating between them by restriction digestion. The PCR-RFLP assay was validated with 277 strains, including 35 C. jejuni, 19 C. coli, 20 C. fetus, 24 C. hyointestinalis, 13 C. lari, 2 C. helveticus, 22 C. upsaliensis, 3 other Campylobacter spp. and 17 other species associated with human diseases. Sensitivity and specificity of the PCR-RFLP assay were 100 % except for C. hyointestinalis (88 % sensitivity). Furthermore, the PCR-RFLP assay successfully detected and differentiated C. jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus in clinical and animal samples. The results indicate that the PCR-RFLP assay is useful for the detection and differentiation of seven Campylobacter species important for human and animal diseases.

  13. Development of a rapid and specific colony-lift immunoassay for detection and enumeration of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, B E; Lamichhane, C; Joseph, S W; Rollins, D M

    1996-01-01

    Contamination of retail poultry by Campylobacter spp. is a significant source of human diarrheal disease. We have developed a colony-lift immunoassay (CLI) for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari isolated from such sources and grown on selective agar medium or on filter membranes. This technique has been successfully utilized to quantify Campylobacter colonies within 18 to 28 h after sampling. Hydrophobic, high-protein-binding membranes were prewet with methanol and used to imprint bacterial cells from the agar or filter membrane, while leaving colonies intact and viable. The membranes were air dried, peroxidase neutralized, blocked with bovine serum albumin in phosphate-buffered saline, and hybridized for 5 min with an affinity-purified, horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-Campylobacter antibody preparation (Kirkegaard and Perry Laboratories). The membranes were washed briefly, exposed to a 3,'5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine membrane substrate, rinsed in deionized water, and allowed to dry. Lifted colonies of Campylobacter were identified by a blue color reaction on the membrane. Replicas of the membranes were made by marking the location of the Campylobacter colonies on clear transparencies, which were subsequently utilized to locate the original colony on the filter membrane or agar plate. The specificity of this antibody preparation has been evaluated against a wide range of Campylobacter spp., including American Type Culture Collection type and references strains, retail poultry isolates, and isolates obtained from cloacal swabs of live commercial broiler chickens. Specificity against numerous non-Campylobacter spp. obtained from the same sources was also evaluated. The CLI provided a rapid and simple means for detection and enumeration of enteropathogenic Campylobacter organisms. We have successfully combined this CLI procedure with methods recently developed in our laboratories for retail meat and poultry sampling. Potentially, broader

  14. Pathogenic Potential of Campylobacter ureolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Portugal, Jose A.; Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Raftery, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    The recent detection and isolation of the aflagellate Campylobacter ureolyticus (previously known as Bacteroides ureolyticus) from intestinal biopsy specimens and fecal samples of children with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease led us to investigate the pathogenic potential of this bacterium. Adherence and gentamicin protection assays were employed to quantify the levels of adherence to and invasion into host cells. C. ureolyticus UNSWCD was able to adhere to the Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell line with a value of 5.341% ± 0.74% but was not able to invade the Caco-2 cells. The addition of two proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), to the cell line did not affect attachment or invasion, with attachment levels being 4.156% ± 0.61% (P = 0.270) for TNF-α and 6.472% ± 0.61% (P = 0.235) for IFN-γ. Scanning electron microscopy visually confirmed attachment and revealed that C. ureolyticus UNSWCD colonizes and adheres to intestinal cells, inducing cellular damage and microvillus degradation. Purification and identification of the C. ureolyticus UNSWCD secretome detected a total of 111 proteins, from which 29 were bioinformatically predicted to be secretory proteins. Functional classification revealed three putative virulence and colonization factors: the surface antigen CjaA, an outer membrane fibronectin binding protein, and an S-layer RTX toxin. These results suggest that C. ureolyticus has the potential to be a pathogen of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:22124656

  15. Validation according to ISO 16140:2003 of a commercial real-time PCR-based method for detecting Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in foods.

    PubMed

    Vencia, W; Nogarol, C; Bianchi, D M; Gallina, S; Zuccon, F; Adriano, D; Gramaglia, M; Decastelli, L

    2014-05-02

    Campylobacteriosis was the most frequently reported zoonosis in the European Union (EU) in 2010, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari as the most frequently reported species in foodborne outbreaks (FBOs). Relatively sensitive to environmental factors, these species may be present in low numbers. In line with EU policy for food control and FBO detection and in view of the need to reduce response time, we validated an alternative molecular method according to ISO 16140:2003 which establishes the general principle and technical protocol for the validation of alternative methods in the microbiological analysis of food. We used a qualitative real-time PCR commercial kit for the detection of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in two food categories "fruit and vegetable-based products" and "dairy products". The validation protocol comprises two phases: the first is a method comparison study of the alternative method against the reference method, and the second is an interlaboratory study of each of the two methods. In the first step, ISO 16140:2003 validation examines the following parameters: limit of detection (LOD); relative accuracy, relative specificity and sensitivity; relative detection level (RDL); and inclusivity and exclusivity. Except for LOD, inclusivity and exclusivity, the other steps were performed against the reference method (ISO 10272:2006). The LOD of the real-time PCR method was set at 4CFU/25g or mL for both food categories. Relative accuracy (98.33%), specificity (96.77%), and sensitivity (100%) were recorded for the food category "fruit and vegetable-based products" and 93.3%, 88.24%, 100%, respectively, for "dairy products". The RDL according to Fisher's exact test was p=1 for both food categories, for each level, and each food/strain combination. The interlaboratory study results showed correct identification of all 24 blind samples with both methods by all the participating laboratories. The results show that this

  16. Lipopolysaccharide characteristics of pathogenic campylobacters.

    PubMed Central

    Perez Perez, G I; Blaser, M J

    1985-01-01

    Most Campylobacter jejuni strains are sensitive and most Campylobacter fetus strains are resistant to the bactericidal activity in normal human serum. We purified lipopolysaccharides from Campylobacter strains to determine whether their composition and structure relate to serum susceptibility. The lipopolysaccharide of two serum-sensitive strains was best isolated by the Galanos procedure, but for two serum-resistant strains a cold-ethanol extraction was optimal. For each lipopolysaccharide preparation, the ratio of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate to protein was increased by 100 to 1,000-fold over that of whole cells. For serum-resistant strains, total carbohydrates was a high proportion of lipopolysaccharide weight; for serum-sensitive strains, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctanate was a high proportion of total carbohydrates. By polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the lipopolysaccharide of serum-sensitive strains appeared rough, but for serum-resistant strains a smooth-type ladder was seen, with a minimal core region and several high-molecular-weight complexes. Proteinase K-treated whole-cell lysates showed polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles similar to that of pure lipopolysaccharide. Proteinase K-treated whole-cell lysates from seven serum-sensitive C. jejuni strains all had rough profiles, and five serum-resistant C. fetus strains all had smooth profiles. These studies indicate that lipopolysaccharide composition may be an important determinant of serum susceptibility among Campylobacter species and that serum resistance is usually associated with a smooth-type lipopolysaccharide. Images PMID:3967920

  17. Antimicrobial drug resistance as determined by the E-test in Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari isolates from the ceca of broiler and layer chickens in Grenada.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Harry; Sharma, Shilpa; Chikweto, Alfred; Matthew, Vanessa; DeAllie, Claude

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and twenty five chickens from Grenada, consisting of 77 broilers and 48 layers were examined for carriage of thermophilic campylobacters in their ceca by culture. Seventy nine percent of chickens were positive for campylobacters, with an isolation rate of 93.5% for broilers and 56.3% for layers, the difference being significant. Sixty-four pure cultures comprising 39 Campylobacter coli, 21 Campylobacter jejuni, and 4 Campyilobacter lari isolates were tested for their resistance against 7 antibiotics using the E-test. None of the isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol and gentamicin. Resistance rates to other drugs were: ampicillin, 9.4%; ciprofloxacin, 12.5%; erythromycin, 3.1%; metronidazole, 9.4%, and tetracycline, 50% with MICs of >or=256 microg/mL for tetracycline. There were no significant differences in resistance rates between C. coli and C. jejuni. Multiple resistance to >or=2 drugs was seen in 15.6% of total isolates. All C. lari isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 3 of 4 isolates had multiple drug resistance. Overall, erythromycin, which is the drug of choice for treatment of Campylobacter infections in humans, is effective in vitro against 97% of chicken isolates in Grenada.

  18. Post-genome Analysis of the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Emily J.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Wren, Brendan

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is part of the genus Campylobacter that lies within the epsilon proteobacteria subclass of bacteria. The nearest family in phylogenetic terms is the Helicobacteraceae which includes the Helicobacter and Wolinella genuses. Campylobacter species are Gram-negative, curved rod shaped or spiral and are motile (via polar flagella).

  19. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in chickens by multiplex real-time PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A multiplex real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed to detect and differentiate the three most commonly found and harmful species of Campylobacter in a single PCR reaction. The qPCR primers and TaqMan probes were designed to amplify the unique DNA sequences of hipO, cdtA, and pepT genes which are s...

  20. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  1. Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging for Detecting a Foodborne Pathogen: Campylobacter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (...

  2. Specific pathogen-free pig herds also free from Campylobacter?

    PubMed

    Kolstoe, E M; Iversen, T; Østensvik, Ø; Abdelghani, A; Secic, I; Nesbakken, T

    2015-03-01

    As Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) pig herds are designed and managed to prevent specific pig diseases, it might be feasible to expand the list of micro-organisms also including zoonotic pathogens such as Campylobacter coli as this agent has its origin in pigs. In a previous survey, 15 of 16 of SPF herds were found free from human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. Accordingly, three nucleus and seven multiplying herds were surveyed for Campylobacter to investigate whether the Norwegian SPF pig pyramid also might be free from this agent. In conclusion, the intervention of Campylobacter at the herd level might be possible as four of 10 SPF herds tested negative in two sets of samples from both autumn 2008 and summer/early autumn 2010. The four negative herds were all located in remote areas several kilometres away from conventional pig farming while the positive SPF farms were all situated in neighbourhoods with conventional pig production. It seems more difficult to control Campylobacter than some specific animal disease agents and another significant zoonotic agent, Y. enterocolitica, in pig herds. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Campylobacter jejuni--an emerging foodborne pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Altekruse, S. F.; Stern, N. J.; Fields, P. I.; Swerdlow, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most commonly reported bacterial cause of foodborne infection in the United States. Adding to the human and economic costs are chronic sequelae associated with C. jejuni infection--Guillian-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis. In addition, an increasing proportion of human infections caused by C. jejuni are resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Mishandling of raw poultry and consumption of undercooked poultry are the major risk factors for human campylobacteriosis. Efforts to prevent human illness are needed throughout each link in the food chain. PMID:10081669

  4. Campylobacter jejuni--an emerging foodborne pathogen.

    PubMed

    Altekruse, S F; Stern, N J; Fields, P I; Swerdlow, D L

    1999-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most commonly reported bacterial cause of foodborne infection in the United States. Adding to the human and economic costs are chronic sequelae associated with C. jejuni infection--Guillian-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis. In addition, an increasing proportion of human infections caused by C. jejuni are resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Mishandling of raw poultry and consumption of undercooked poultry are the major risk factors for human campylobacteriosis. Efforts to prevent human illness are needed throughout each link in the food chain.

  5. Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Collette

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacter continues to be one of the most common bacterial causes of diarrheal illness in the United States and worldwide. Infection with Campylobacter causes a spectrum of diseases including acute enteritis, extraintestinal infections, and postinfectious complications. The most common species of Campylobacter associated with human illness is Campylobacter jejuni, but other Campylobacter species can also cause human infections. This comprehensive review includes discussion of the taxonomy, clinical manifestations of infection, epidemiology and the different methods of laboratory detection of Campylobacter. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Genomic evidence for the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences in the genus Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Pastor, Eugenia; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Calleros, Lucía; Velilla, Alejandra; Hernández, Martín; Morsella, Claudia

    2014-09-04

    The genus Campylobacter includes some of the most relevant pathogens for human and animal health; the continuous effort in their characterization has also revealed new species putatively involved in different kind of infections. Nowadays, the available genomic data for the genus comprise a wide variety of species with different pathogenic potential and niche preferences. In this work, we contribute to enlarge this available information presenting the first genome for the species Campylobacter sputorum bv. sputorum and use this and the already sequenced organisms to analyze the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences among Campylobacter species. We found that campylobacters can be unequivocally distinguished in established and putative pathogens depending on their repertory of virulence genes, which have been horizontally acquired from other bacteria because the nonpathogenic Campylobacter ancestor emerged, and posteriorly interchanged between some members of the genus. Additionally, we demonstrated the role of both horizontal gene transfers and diversifying evolution in niche preferences, being able to distinguish genetic features associated to the tropism for oral, genital, and gastrointestinal tissues. In particular, we highlight the role of nonsynonymous evolution of disulphide bond proteins, the invasion antigen B (CiaB), and other secreted proteins in the determination of niche preferences. Our results arise from assessing the previously unmet goal of considering the whole available Campylobacter diversity for genome comparisons, unveiling notorious genetic features that could explain particular phenotypes and set the basis for future research in Campylobacter biology.

  7. Genomic Evidence for the Emergence and Evolution of Pathogenicity and Niche Preferences in the Genus Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Pastor, Eugenia; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Calleros, Lucía; Velilla, Alejandra; Hernández, Martín; Morsella, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The genus Campylobacter includes some of the most relevant pathogens for human and animal health; the continuous effort in their characterization has also revealed new species putatively involved in different kind of infections. Nowadays, the available genomic data for the genus comprise a wide variety of species with different pathogenic potential and niche preferences. In this work, we contribute to enlarge this available information presenting the first genome for the species Campylobacter sputorum bv. sputorum and use this and the already sequenced organisms to analyze the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences among Campylobacter species. We found that campylobacters can be unequivocally distinguished in established and putative pathogens depending on their repertory of virulence genes, which have been horizontally acquired from other bacteria because the nonpathogenic Campylobacter ancestor emerged, and posteriorly interchanged between some members of the genus. Additionally, we demonstrated the role of both horizontal gene transfers and diversifying evolution in niche preferences, being able to distinguish genetic features associated to the tropism for oral, genital, and gastrointestinal tissues. In particular, we highlight the role of nonsynonymous evolution of disulphide bond proteins, the invasion antigen B (CiaB), and other secreted proteins in the determination of niche preferences. Our results arise from assessing the previously unmet goal of considering the whole available Campylobacter diversity for genome comparisons, unveiling notorious genetic features that could explain particular phenotypes and set the basis for future research in Campylobacter biology. PMID:25193310

  8. Temporal variation in the prevalence and species richness of Campylobacter spp. in a prairie watershed impacted by urban and agricultural mixed inputs.

    PubMed

    Tambalo, Dinah D; Boa, Tyler; Aryal, Bijaya; Yost, Christopher K

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a substantial cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Human infection can result from ingestion of contaminated food or water from a variety of sources, including the consumption of fresh produce that is contaminated with the pathogen via the use of contaminated irrigation water. Using molecular methods, we investigated the occurrence of Campylobacter in the Qu'Appelle River watershed, an important source of irrigation water for vegetable producers in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. Water samples were collected from 7 sampling sites from April to September 2009 (145 samples), and from 5 sampling sites from May to October 2013 (116 samples). Campylobacter was detected in 57% and 16% of the samples collected in 2009 and 2013, respectively. Campylobacter detection was highest in May and June for both sampling years. In 2009, the predominant species were Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter jejuni, with prevalences of 84% and 41%, respectively. Other Campylobacter spp. were detected less frequently. Only C. lari was detected in 2013. The results in 2009 demonstrate the species richness of Campylobacter in water sources within the watershed. The occurrence of Campylobacter in the study area also underscores the importance of monitoring irrigation water used to irrigate fresh produce from a public health prospective.

  9. Genomic Investigation into Strain Heterogeneity and Pathogenic Potential of the Emerging Gastrointestinal Pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Bullman, Susan; Lucid, Alan; Corcoran, Daniel; Sleator, Roy D.; Lucey, Brigid

    2013-01-01

    The recent detection and isolation of C. ureolyticus from patients with diarrhoeal illness and inflammatory bowel diseases warrants further investigation into its role as an emerging pathogen of the human gastrointestinal tract. Regarding the pathogenic mechanisms employed by this species we provide the first whole genome analysis of two C. ureolyticus isolates including the type strain. Comparative analysis, subtractive hybridisation and gene ontology searches against other Campylobacter species identifies the high degree of heterogenicity between C. ureolyticus isolates, in addition to the identification of 106 putative virulence associated factors, 52 of which are predicted to be secreted. Such factors encompass each of the known virulence tactics of pathogenic Campylobacter spp. including adhesion and colonisation (CadF, PEB1, IcmF and FlpA), invasion (ciaB and 16 virB-virD4 genes) and toxin production (S-layer RTX and ZOT). Herein, we provide the first virulence catalogue for C. ureolyticus, the components of which theoretically provide this emerging species with sufficient arsenal to establish pathology. PMID:24023611

  10. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. relative to other enteric pathogens in grow-finish pigs with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Burrough, Eric; Terhorst, Samantha; Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella spp., Lawsonia intracellularis, and Brachyspira spp. are pathogens commonly associated with diarrhea in growing and finishing pigs. Brachyspira spp. infection has recently reemerged as a significant concern due to an increase in the incidence of swine dysentery; however, the mechanisms underlying this increase in dysentery remain largely unknown. Pigs are also well-recognized as potential carriers of Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter coli, yet enteric disease in swine associated with infection by these bacteria is considered uncommon and diagnosis has historically been based upon exclusion of other causes. Accordingly, Campylobacter culture is often excluded in routine diagnostic testing of cases of porcine enterocolitis and the incidence of infection is therefore largely unknown. In this study, feces from 155 cases of clinical diarrhea in grow-finish pigs submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory were cultured for Campylobacter spp. in addition to other testing as indicated for routine diagnostic investigation. Campylobacter culture was positive from 82.6% (128/155) of samples with C. coli accounting for 75% of isolates and Campylobacter jejuni for the remaining 25%. In 14.8% (23/155) of cases a Campylobacter spp. was the sole infectious agent detected; however, there was no association with any particular Campylobacter spp. Interestingly, for those cases with a laboratory diagnosis of Brachyspira-associated disease, 100% (15/15) were also culture positive for Campylobacter spp. suggesting a possible interrelationship between these bacteria in the pig gut. No association was noted between Campylobacter culture results and infection with either Salmonella spp. or L. intracellularis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Campylobacter spp. as a Foodborne Pathogen: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Joana; Leite, Daniela; Fernandes, Mariana; Mena, Cristina; Gibbs, Paul Anthony; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. Intestinal colonization results in healthy animals as carriers. In contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this broad review aims at elucidating and discussing the (i) genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; (ii) detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; (iii) campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors; and (iv) colonization of poultry and control strategies. PMID:21991264

  12. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of campylobacter isolates from free-living, human-commensal american crows.

    PubMed

    Weis, Allison M; Miller, Woutrina A; Byrne, Barbara A; Chouicha, Nadira; Boyce, Walter M; Townsend, Andrea K

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested a potential role for wild birds in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. In this study, we detected Campylobacter spp. in 66.9% (85/127) of free-ranging American crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos) sampled in the Sacramento Valley of California in 2012 and 2013. Biochemical testing and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed that 93% of isolates (n = 70) were C. jejuni, with cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and flagellin A genes detected by PCR in 20% and 46% of the C. jejuni isolates (n = 59), respectively. The high prevalence of C. jejuni, coupled with the occurrence of known virulence markers CDT and flagellin A, demonstrates that crows shed Campylobacter spp. in their feces that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and thus further study to determine their role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter will inform public health.

  13. Prevalence and Pathogenic Potential of Campylobacter Isolates from Free-Living, Human-Commensal American Crows

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Allison M.; Miller, Woutrina A.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Chouicha, Nadira; Boyce, Walter M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested a potential role for wild birds in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. In this study, we detected Campylobacter spp. in 66.9% (85/127) of free-ranging American crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos) sampled in the Sacramento Valley of California in 2012 and 2013. Biochemical testing and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed that 93% of isolates (n = 70) were C. jejuni, with cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and flagellin A genes detected by PCR in 20% and 46% of the C. jejuni isolates (n = 59), respectively. The high prevalence of C. jejuni, coupled with the occurrence of known virulence markers CDT and flagellin A, demonstrates that crows shed Campylobacter spp. in their feces that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and thus further study to determine their role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter will inform public health. PMID:24375131

  14. Campylobacter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Modernization Act Challenges in Food Safety Antibiotic Resistance and Food Safety Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests Food ... FDA, USDA, and health departments, tracks changes in antibiotic resistance among Campylobacter from humans, retail meats, and food ...

  15. Prevalence, numbers and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. in retail poultry in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lay, Kruy Sun; Vuthy, Yith; Song, Ping; Phol, Khem; Sarthou, Jean Louis

    2011-03-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastro-enteritis; and raw poultry is considered to be an important source of these bacteria. To evaluate whether the Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. bacteria could be monitored for the purpose of microbial presence, enumeration and antimicrobial resistance in raw poultry, 152 poultry carcasses were randomly selected from 10 markets in retail outlets of Phnom Penh during March 2006 to February 2007. The majority of poultry samples was contaminated by Salmonella serovars (88.2%) and Campylobacter spp. (80.9%). A very high contamination of Salmonella was found at 3-4 log₁₀ CFU/g for 22.4% of samples and of Campylobacter at 7-8 log₁₀ CFU/g for 1.3% of samples. Fifty nine different Salmonella serovars contaminated 134 poultry carcasses; five most prevalent serovars covered 29.1% of serovars isolates (Anatum, Typhimurium, Corvallis, Stanley and Enteritidis). Three Campylobacter species contaminating 123 raw poultry were Campylobacter jejuni (50.0%), Campylobacter coli (29.0%) and Campylobacter lari (21.0%). High antibiotic resistance percentages were found among Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. isolates. This study revealed that raw poultry at the retail outlets in Phnom Penh markets are contaminated with high prevalences of food-borne pathogens, and communicating the importance of minimizing this risk in reducing human infections.

  16. Monitoring chicken flock behaviour provides early warning of infection by human pathogen Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    Colles, Frances M.; Cain, Russell J.; Nickson, Thomas; Smith, Adrian L.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Lunn, Daniel; Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the commonest bacterial cause of gastrointestinal infection in humans, and chicken meat is the major source of infection throughout the world. Strict and expensive on-farm biosecurity measures have been largely unsuccessful in controlling infection and are hampered by the time needed to analyse faecal samples, with the result that Campylobacter status is often known only after a flock has been processed. Our data demonstrate an alternative approach that monitors the behaviour of live chickens with cameras and analyses the ‘optical flow’ patterns made by flock movements. Campylobacter-free chicken flocks have higher mean and lower kurtosis of optical flow than those testing positive for Campylobacter by microbiological methods. We show that by monitoring behaviour in this way, flocks likely to become positive can be identified within the first 7–10 days of life, much earlier than conventional on-farm microbiological methods. This early warning has the potential to lead to a more targeted approach to Campylobacter control and also provides new insights into possible sources of infection that could transform the control of this globally important food-borne pathogen. PMID:26740618

  17. Monitoring chicken flock behaviour provides early warning of infection by human pathogen Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; Cain, Russell J; Nickson, Thomas; Smith, Adrian L; Roberts, Stephen J; Maiden, Martin C J; Lunn, Daniel; Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2016-01-13

    Campylobacter is the commonest bacterial cause of gastrointestinal infection in humans, and chicken meat is the major source of infection throughout the world. Strict and expensive on-farm biosecurity measures have been largely unsuccessful in controlling infection and are hampered by the time needed to analyse faecal samples, with the result that Campylobacter status is often known only after a flock has been processed. Our data demonstrate an alternative approach that monitors the behaviour of live chickens with cameras and analyses the 'optical flow' patterns made by flock movements. Campylobacter-free chicken flocks have higher mean and lower kurtosis of optical flow than those testing positive for Campylobacter by microbiological methods. We show that by monitoring behaviour in this way, flocks likely to become positive can be identified within the first 7-10 days of life, much earlier than conventional on-farm microbiological methods. This early warning has the potential to lead to a more targeted approach to Campylobacter control and also provides new insights into possible sources of infection that could transform the control of this globally important food-borne pathogen. © 2016 The Authors.

  18. Pathogenic potential and genotypic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni: a neglected food-borne pathogen in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Frazão, Miliane Rodrigues; Medeiros, Marta Inês Cazentini; Duque, Sheila da Silva; Falcão, Juliana Pfrimer

    2017-03-01

    Purpose and methodology.Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen that causes food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. However, there are only a few studies available that have molecularly characterized C. jejuni strains isolated in Brazil. The aim of this study was to genotype 111 C. jejuni strains isolated from sick humans (43), monkey faeces (19), chicken faeces (14), chicken meat (33) and sewage (2) between 1996 and 2016 in Brazil using flaA-SVR (short variable region) sequencing and PFGE. Furthermore, the presence of 16 virulence genes was analysed by PCR. Using PFGE and flaA-SVR sequencing, the 111 C. jejuni strains studied were grouped into three and two clusters, respectively, and some strains of different origin presented a similarity of ≥80 %. In total, 35 flaA-SVR alleles were detected. Alleles gt45, gt49 and gt57 were the most prevalent, in contrast with those frequently described in the PubMLST database. All 111 C. jejuni strains contained the genes flaA, flhA, cadF, docA, cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, iamA, ciaB, sodB, dnaJ, pldA, racR and csrA. The wlaN gene was detected in 11 strains (9.9 %), and the virB11 in just one strain (0.9 %). In conclusion, the pathogenic potential of the C. jejuni strains studied was highlighted by the high frequency of the majority of the virulence genes searched. The flaA-SVR sequencing and PFGE results showed that some of the strains studied presented a high genotypic similarity, suggesting potential for transmission between animal sources and humans in this country. Altogether, the results characterize further C. jejuni isolates from Brazil, an important producer and exporter of chicken meat.

  19. Large-Scale Release of Campylobacter Draft Genomes: Resources for Food Safety and Public Health from the 100K Pathogen Genome Project

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bihua C.; Storey, Dylan B.; Kong, Nguyet; Chen, Poyin; Arabyan, Narine; Gilpin, Brent; Mason, Carl; Townsend, Andrea K.; Smith, Woutrina A.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Taff, Conor C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter is a food-associated bacterium and a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide, being associated with poultry in the food supply. This is the initial public release of 202 Campylobacter genome sequences as part of the 100K Pathogen Genome Project. These isolates represent global genomic diversity in the Campylobacter genus. PMID:28057746

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for thermotolerant species of Campylobacter in poultry meat at retail in Europe.

    PubMed

    Osimani, Andrea; Aquilanti, Lucia; Pasquini, Marina; Clementi, Francesca

    2017-09-01

    The thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis are the causative agents of the human illness called campylobacteriosis. This infection represents a threat for the health of consumers in Europe. It is well known that poultry meat is an important food vehicle of Campylobacter infection. As emerged from the reported scientific literature published between 2006 and 2016, poultry meat sold at retail level in Europe represents an important source of the pathogen. The contamination level of poultry meat sold at retail can vary depending on pre- and post-harvest factors. Among the pre-harvest measures, strict biosecurity practices must be guaranteed; moreover, among post-harvest control measures scalding, chilling and removal of faecal residues can reduce the contamination level of Campylobacter. An additional issue is represented by increasing proportion of Campylobacter isolates resistant to tetracyclines, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid, thus feeding a serious concern on the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment for human campylobacteriosis in a near future. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Molecular identification and characterisation of catalase and catalase-like protein genes in urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC).

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T; Kuribayashi, T; Moore, J E; Millar, B C; Yamamoto, S; Matsuda, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter are important bacterial pathogens of foodborne diseases worldwide. These organisms' physiology requires a microaerophilic atmosphere. To date, little is known about the protective catalase mechanism in urease-positive thermophilic campylobacters (UPTC); hence, it was the aim of this study to identify and characterise catalase and catalase-like protein genes in these organisms. Catalase (katA) and catalase (Kat)-like protein genes from the Japanese UPTC CF89-12 strain were molecularly analysed and compared with C. lari RM2100 and other C. lari and thermophilic Campylobacter reference isolates. A possible open reading frame of 1,422 base pairs, predicted to encode a peptide of 474 amino acid residues, with calculated molecular weight of 52.7 kilo Daltons for katA, was identified within UPTC CF89-12. A probable ribosome binding site, two putative promoters and a putative ρ-independent transcription terminator were also identified within katA. A similar katA cluster also existed in the C. lari RM2100 strain, except that this strain carries no DcuB genes. However, the Kat-like protein gene or any other homologue(s) were never identified in the C. lari RM2100 strain, or in C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis. This study demonstrates the presence of catalase/catalase-like protein genes in UPTC organisms. These findings are significant in that they suggest that UPTC organisms have the protective genetic capability of helping protect the organisms from toxic oxygen stress, which may help them to survive in physiologically harsh environments, both within human and animal hosts, as well as in the natural environment.

  2. Amoebae and algae can prolong the survival of Campylobacter species in co-culture.

    PubMed

    Axelsson-Olsson, Diana; Olofsson, Jenny; Svensson, Lovisa; Griekspoor, Petra; Waldenström, Jonas; Ellström, Patrik; Olsen, Björn

    2010-09-01

    Several species of free-living amoebae can cause disease in humans. However, in addition to the direct pathogenicity of e.g. Acanthamoebae and Naegleria species, they are recognized as environmental hosts, indirectly involved in the epidemiology of many pathogenic bacteria. Although several studies have demonstrated intracellular survival of many different bacteria in these species, the extent of such interactions as well as the implications for the epidemiology of the bacterial species involved, are largely unknown and probably underestimated. In this study, we evaluated eight different unicellular eukaryotic organisms, for their potential to serve as environmental hosts for Campylobacter species. These organisms include four amoebozoas (Acanthamoeba polyphaga, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba rhysodes and Hartmanella vermiformis), one alveolate (Tetrahymena pyriformis), one stramenopile (Dinobryon sertularia), one eugoenozoa (Euglena gracilis) and one heterolobosea (Naegleria americana). Campylobacter spp. including Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari are the most common cause of gastroenteritis in the western world. Survival and replication of these three species as well as Campylobacter hyointestinalis were assessed in co-cultures with the eukaryotic organisms. Campylobacter spp. generally survived longer in co-cultures, compared to when incubated in the corresponding growth media. The eukaryotic species that best promoted bacterial survival was the golden algae D. sertularia. Three species of amoebozoas, of the genus Acanthamoeba promoted both prolonged survival and replication of Campylobacter spp. The high abundance in lakes, ponds and water distribution networks of these organisms indicate that they might have a role in the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis, possibly contributing to survival and dissemination of these intestinal pathogens to humans and other animals. The results suggest that not only C. jejuni, but a

  3. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  4. Does whipworm increase the pathogenicity of Campylobacter jejuni? A clinical correlate of an experimental observation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jennifer L; Gardiner, Geoffrey W; Deitel, Wayne; Kandel, Gabor

    2004-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of acute diarrhea worldwide, usually mild and self-limiting. No adequate hypothesis has yet been formulated to explain why in an otherwise healthy host this infection is occasionally severe. In a pig model, C jejuni has been shown to be pathogenic only in the presence of swine whipworm. A human case of life-threatening C jejuni colitis leading to toxic megacolon and acute renal failure, associated with concomitant whipworm (Trichuris suis) ova in the feces, is reported. The potential of T suis to potentiate C jejuni in humans deserves further study.

  5. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter and Salmonella strains isolated from decoys and raptors.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Tarifa, E; Torralbo, A; Borge, C; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Ayats, T; Carbonero, A; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-10-01

    Infections caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the leading causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds can act as reservoirs of both pathogens. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of thermotolerant Campylobacter and Salmonella in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The overall prevalence detected for Campylobacter was 5.9% (18/306; CI95%: 3.25-8.52) in decoys and 2.3% (9/387; CI95%: 0.82-3.83) in wild raptors. Isolates were identified as C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari in both bird groups. Salmonella was isolated in 3.3% (10/306; CI95%: 2.3-4.3) and 4.6% (18/394; CI95%: 3.5-5.6) of the decoys and raptors, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium were the most frequently identified serovars, although Salmonella serovars Anatum, Bredeney, London and Mikawasima were also isolated. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates showed higher genetic diversity within Campylobacter species compared to Salmonella serovars. Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, while resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was found in Salmonella isolates. The results indicate that both decoys and raptors can act as natural carriers of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Spain, which may have important implications for public and animal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial and Virulence-Modulating Effects of Clove Essential Oil on the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Judit K.; Felső, Péter; Makszin, Lilla; Pápai, Zoltán; Horváth, Györgyi; Ábrahám, Hajnalka; Palkovics, Tamás; Böszörményi, Andrea; Emődy, Levente

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Our study investigated the antimicrobial action of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil (EO) on the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. After confirming the clove essential oil's general antibacterial effect, we analyzed the reference strain Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168. Phenotypic, proteomic, and transcriptomic methods were used to reveal changes in cell morphology and functions when exposed to sublethal concentrations of clove EO. The normally curved cells showed markedly straightened and shrunken morphology on the scanning electron micrographs as a result of stress. Although, oxidative stress, as a generally accepted response to essential oils, was also present, the dominance of a general stress response was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The results of RT-PCR and two-dimensional (2D) PAGE revealed that clove oil perturbs the expression of virulence-associated genes taking part in the synthesis of flagella, PEB1, PEB4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and serine protease. Loss of motility was also detected by a phenotypic test. Bioautographic analysis revealed that besides its major component, eugenol, at least four other spots of clove EO possessed bactericidal activity against C. jejuni. Our findings show that clove EO has a marked antibacterial and potential virulence-modulating effect on C. jejuni. IMPORTANCE This study demonstrates that the components of clove essential oil influence not only the expression of general stress genes but also the expression of virulence-associated genes. Based on this finding, alternative strategies can be worked on to control this important foodborne pathogen. PMID:27520816

  7. Antimicrobial and Virulence-Modulating Effects of Clove Essential Oil on the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Judit K; Felső, Péter; Makszin, Lilla; Pápai, Zoltán; Horváth, Györgyi; Ábrahám, Hajnalka; Palkovics, Tamás; Böszörményi, Andrea; Emődy, Levente; Schneider, György

    2016-10-15

    Our study investigated the antimicrobial action of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil (EO) on the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni After confirming the clove essential oil's general antibacterial effect, we analyzed the reference strain Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168. Phenotypic, proteomic, and transcriptomic methods were used to reveal changes in cell morphology and functions when exposed to sublethal concentrations of clove EO. The normally curved cells showed markedly straightened and shrunken morphology on the scanning electron micrographs as a result of stress. Although, oxidative stress, as a generally accepted response to essential oils, was also present, the dominance of a general stress response was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The results of RT-PCR and two-dimensional (2D) PAGE revealed that clove oil perturbs the expression of virulence-associated genes taking part in the synthesis of flagella, PEB1, PEB4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and serine protease. Loss of motility was also detected by a phenotypic test. Bioautographic analysis revealed that besides its major component, eugenol, at least four other spots of clove EO possessed bactericidal activity against C. jejuni Our findings show that clove EO has a marked antibacterial and potential virulence-modulating effect on C. jejuni IMPORTANCE: This study demonstrates that the components of clove essential oil influence not only the expression of general stress genes but also the expression of virulence-associated genes. Based on this finding, alternative strategies can be worked on to control this important foodborne pathogen.

  8. Regulation of oxidative stress resistance in Campylobacter jejuni, a microaerophilic foodborne pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Chul; Oh, Euna; Kim, Jinyong; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis. Due to the increasing rates of human campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is considered as a serious public health concern worldwide. C. jejuni is a microaerophilic, fastidious bacterium. C. jejuni must overcome a wide range of stress conditions during foodborne transmission to humans, such as food preservation and processing conditions, and even in infection of the gastrointestinal tracts of humans. Particularly, this microaerophilic foodborne pathogen must survive in the atmospheric conditions prior to the initiation of infection. C. jejuni possesses unique regulatory mechanisms for oxidative stress resistance. Lacking OxyR and SoxRS that are highly conserved in other Gram-negative foodborne pathogens, C. jejuni modulates the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance mainly via the peroxide resistance regulator and Campylobacter oxidative stress regulator. Based on recent findings of ours and others, in this review, we described how C. jejuni regulates the expression of oxidative stress defense. PMID:26284041

  9. Detection and quantification of 14 Campylobacter species in pet dogs reveals an increase in species richness in feces of diarrheic animals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The genus Campylobacter includes many species, some of which are known human and animal pathogens. Even though studies have repeatedly identified domestic dogs as a risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, our understanding of Campylobacter ecology in this reservoir is limited. Work to date has focused primarily on a limited number of species using culture-based methods. To expand our understanding of Campylobacter ecology in dogs, a collection of fecal samples from 70 healthy and 65 diarrheic pet dogs were examined for the presence and levels of 14 Campylobacter species using quantitative PCR. Results It was found that 58% of healthy dogs and 97% of diarrheic dogs shed detectable levels of Campylobacter spp., with C. coli, C. concisus, C. fetus, C. gracilis, C. helveticus, C. jejuni, C. lari, C. mucosalis, C. showae, C. sputorum and C. upsaliensis levels significantly higher in the diarrheic population. Levels of individual Campylobacter species detected ranged from 103 to 108 organisms per gram of feces. In addition, many individual samples contained multiple species of Campylobacter, with healthy dogs carrying from 0-7 detectable species while diarrheic dogs carried from 0-12 detectable species. Conclusions These findings represent the largest number of Campylobacter species specifically tested for in animals and is the first report to determine quantifiable levels of Campylobacter being shed from dogs. This study demonstrates that domestic dogs can carry a wide range of Campylobacter species naturally and that there is a notable increase in species richness detectable in the diarrheic population. With several of the detected Campylobacter species known or emerging pathogens, these results are relevant to both ecological and public health discussions. PMID:20219122

  10. Prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens in a population of zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Stirling, J; Griffith, M; Blair, I; Cormican, M; Dooley, J S G; Goldsmith, C E; Glover, S G; Loughrey, A; Lowery, C J; Matsuda, M; McClurg, R; McCorry, K; McDowell, D; McMahon, A; Cherie Millar, B; Nagano, Y; Rao, J R; Rooney, P J; Smyth, M; Snelling, W J; Xu, J; Moore, J E

    2008-04-01

    Faecal prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens, including Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, as well as Arcobacter, were examined in 317 faecal specimens from 44 animal species in Belfast Zoological Gardens, during July-September 2006. Thermophilic campylobacters including Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari, were the most frequently isolated pathogens, where members of this genus were isolated from 11 animal species (11 of 44; 25%). Yersinia spp. were isolated from seven animal species (seven of 44; 15.9%) and included, Yersinia enterocolitica (five of seven isolates; 71.4%) and one isolate each of Yersinia frederiksenii and Yersinia kristensenii. Only one isolate of Salmonella was obtained throughout the entire study, which was an isolate of Salmonella dublin (O 1,9,12: H g, p), originating from tiger faeces after enrichment. None of the animal species found in public contact areas of the zoo were positive for any gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens. Also, water from the lake in the centre of the grounds, was examined for the same bacterial pathogens and was found to contain C. jejuni. This study is the first report on the isolation of a number of important bacterial pathogens from a variety of novel host species, C. jejuni from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), C. lari from a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), Y. kristensenii from a vicugna (Vicugna vicugna) and Y. enterocolitica from a maned wolf and red panda (Ailurus fulgens). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the faeces of animals in public contact areas of the zoo were not positive for the bacterial gastrointestinal pathogens examined. This is reassuring for the public health of visitors, particularly children, who enjoy this educational and recreational resource.

  11. ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC Escherichia coli AND Campylobacter jejuni IN FERAL PIGEONS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE CITY OF LIMA, PERU.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Moisés; Rivera, Isabel; Jara, Luis M; Ulloa-Stanojlovic, Francisco M; Shiva, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni of urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacter by filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coli and Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coli were isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC) type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents.

  12. Sialoadhesin Promotes Rapid Proinflammatory and Type I IFN Responses to a Sialylated Pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Klaas, Mariliis; Oetke, Cornelia; Lewis, Leanne E.; Erwig, Lars P.; Heikema, Astrid P.; Easton, Alistair; Willison, Hugh J.

    2012-01-01

    Sialoadhesin (Sn) is a macrophage (Mϕ)-restricted receptor that recognizes sialylated ligands on host cells and pathogens. Although Sn is thought to be important in cellular interactions of Mϕs with cells of the immune system, the functional consequences of pathogen engagement by Sn are unclear. As a model system, we have investigated the role of Sn in Mϕ interactions with heat-killed Campylobacter jejuni expressing a GD1a-like, sialylated glycan. Compared to Sn-expressing bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild-type mice, BMDM from mice either deficient in Sn or expressing a non-glycan–binding form of Sn showed greatly reduced phagocytosis of sialylated C. jejuni. This was accompanied by a strong reduction in MyD88-dependent secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-10. In vivo studies demonstrated that functional Sn was required for rapid TNF-α and IFN-β responses to i.v.-injected sialylated C. jejuni. Bacteria were captured within minutes after i.v. injection and were associated with Mϕs in both liver and spleen. In the spleen, IFN-β–reactive cells were localized to Sn+ Mϕs and other cells in the red pulp and marginal zone. Together, these studies demonstrate that Sn plays a key role in capturing sialylated pathogens and promoting rapid proinflammatory cytokine and type I IFN responses. PMID:22851711

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail chicken in two health units in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Deckert, Anne; Valdivieso-Garcia, Alfonso; Reid-Smith, Richard; Tamblyn, Susan; Seliske, Patrick; Irwin, Rebecca; Dewey, Cate; Boerlin, Patrick; McEwen, Scott A

    2010-07-01

    Campylobacter is an important enteric pathogen of humans and can cause diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. Campylobacter infections have frequently been associated with the handling and consumption of raw and undercooked poultry. Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter strains is of concern in the treatment of campylobacteriosis in vulnerable populations. A 2-year multidisciplinary study was conducted in the Perth and Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph public health units in Ontario, Canada, to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. in retail chicken. Retail chicken samples were collected from randomly selected stores in these health units. Resulting Campylobacter isolates were tested for susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC), ampicillin (AMP), chloramphenicol (CHL), ciprofloxacin (CIP), clindamycin (CLI), erythromycin (ERY), gentamicin (GEN), nalidixic acid (NAL), tetracycline (TCY), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) using the E test. The prevalence of Campylobacter in 1,256 retail chicken samples was 59.6%. Of these positive samples, 9% contained Campylobacter coli, 1% contained Campylobacter lari, and 90% contained Campylobacter jejuni. Of the chicken isolates that were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents, 301 isolates (40%) were resistant to one agent, 374 (50%) were resistant to two, 39 (5%) were resistant to three, 20 (3%) were resistant to four, and 6 (1%) were resistant to five. Nine isolates (1%) were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. All isolates were susceptible to AMC, CHL, and GEN. Less than 10% of isolates were resistant to NAL, CIP, CLI, ERY, and AMP. Resistance to TCY was common (56%). No isolates had a resistance pattern that included all three antimicrobials important in the treatment of human campylobacteriosis (CIP, ERY, and TCY); however, 24 isolates (3.2%) were resistant to at least two of these antimicrobials.

  14. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hodon; Grond, Kirsten; Verheijen, Bram; Elk, Michael; Buehler, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in red knot (Calidris canutus; n = 40), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres; n = 35), and semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla; n = 22) fecal samples collected during a migratory stopover in Delaware Bay. Additionally, we studied the occurrence of Campylobacter spp., enterococci, and waterfowl fecal source markers using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Of 3,889 16S rRNA clone sequences analyzed, the bacterial community was mostly composed of Bacilli (63.5%), Fusobacteria (12.7%), Epsilonproteobacteria (6.5%), and Clostridia (5.8%). When epsilonproteobacterium-specific 23S rRNA gene clone libraries (i.e., 1,414 sequences) were analyzed, the sequences were identified as Campylobacter (82.3%) or Helicobacter (17.7%) spp. Specifically, 38.4%, 10.1%, and 26.0% of clone sequences were identified as C. lari (>99% sequence identity) in ruddy turnstone, red knot, and semipalmated sandpiper clone libraries, respectively. Other pathogenic species of Campylobacter, such as C. jejuni and C. coli, were not detected in excreta of any of the three bird species. Most Helicobacter-like sequences identified were closely related to H. pametensis (>99% sequence identity) and H. anseris (92% sequence identity). qPCR results showed that the occurrence and abundance of Campylobacter spp. was relatively high compared to those of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Enterococcus spp., E. faecalis, and Catellicoccus marimammalium. Overall, the results provide insights into the complexity of the shorebird gut microbial community and suggest that these migratory birds are important reservoirs of pathogenic Campylobacter species. PMID:24413599

  15. Campylobacter ureolyticus

    PubMed Central

    O'Donovan, Dylan; Corcoran, Gerard D; Lucey, Brigid; Sleator, Roy D

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we provide a brief overview of the emerging bacterial pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus. We describe the identification of the pathogen by molecular as opposed to classical culture based diagnostics and discuss candidate reservoirs of infection. We also review the available genomic data, outlining some of the major virulence factors, and discuss how these mechanisms likely contribute to pathogenesis of the organism. PMID:24717836

  16. Comparative genotypic and pathogenic examination of Campylobacter concisus isolates from diarrheic and non-diarrheic humans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Campylobacter concisus is an emerging enteric pathogen, yet it is commonly isolated from feces and the oral cavities of healthy individuals. This genetically complex species is comprised of several distinct genomospecies which may vary in pathogenic potential. Results We compared pathogenic and genotypic properties of C. concisus fecal isolates from diarrheic and healthy humans residing in the same geographic region. Analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles delineated two main clusters. Isolates assigned to AFLP cluster 1 belonged to genomospecies A (based on genomospecies-specific differences in the 23S rRNA gene) and were predominantly isolated from healthy individuals. This cluster also contained a reference oral strain. Isolates assigned to this cluster induced greater expression of epithelial IL-8 mRNA and more frequently contained genes coding for the zonnula occludins toxin and the S-layer RTX. Furthermore, isolates from healthy individuals induced greater apoptotic DNA fragmentation and increased metabolic activity than those from diarrheic individuals, and isolates assigned to genomospecies A (of which the majority were from healthy individuals) exhibited higher haemolytic activity compared to genomospecies B isolates. In contrast, AFLP cluster 2 was predominated by isolates belonging to genomospecies B and those from diarrheic individuals. Isolates from this cluster displayed greater mean epithelial invasion and translocation than cluster 1 isolates. Conclusion Two main genetically distinct clusters (i.e., genomospecies) were identified among C. concisus fecal isolates from healthy and diarrheic individuals. Strains within these clusters differed with respect to clinical presentation and pathogenic properties, supporting the hypothesis that pathogenic potential varies between genomospecies. ALFP cluster 2 isolates were predominantly from diarrheic patients, and exhibited higher levels of epithelial invasion and

  17. Construction, Expression, and Characterization of Flagellar Proteins for the Food-borne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the leading etiologic agent of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The source of this bacterium for human infection has been implicated as consumption and handling of poultry where Campylobacter jejuni is a commensal in th...

  18. Identification and Characterization of a Putative Chemotaxis Protein, CheY, from the Oral Pathogen Campylobacter rectus

    PubMed Central

    LaGier, Michael J.; Bilokopytov, Ihor; Cockerill, Bradley; Threadgill, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter rectus is an understudied oral bacterium that contributes to periodontitis. Processes that contribute to the disease-causing capabilities of pathogens, such as chemotaxis, are largely unknown in C. rectus. The aim of this study was to better understand C. rectus chemotaxis, by examining the C. rectus genome for the presence of a cheY gene. CheY proteins play a part in chemotaxis by acting as two-component response regulators. Significantly, CheY proteins from several pathogens, including the related species Campylobacter jejuni, have been shown to contribute to bacterial virulence. Degenerate PCR, RT-PCR, sequence analyses, and structural modeling showed that C. rectus encodes a gene (Cr-CheY) which shares significant homology with previously characterized CheY proteins. Functional studies of a recombinant form of the protein supports a likely role of Cr-CheY in C. rectus chemotaxis. Cr-CheY is the first CheY characterized from the oral campylobacters. PMID:25598863

  19. Detection of pathogenic Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in wastewater by PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Bonetta, Si; Pignata, C; Lorenzi, E; De Ceglia, M; Meucci, L; Bonetta, Sa; Gilli, G; Carraro, E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the occurrence of pathogenic Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, E. coli virulence genes and Salmonella spp. in different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) using a method based on an enrichment step and PCR. This method was sensitive enough to detect low levels (∼2 CFU100 ml(-1) of raw sewage) of all the investigated pathogens. In the WWTP samples, E. coli O157:H7 DNA and the eae gene were never found, but 33 % of influents and effluents exhibited amplicons corresponding to Shiga-like toxin I. Twenty-five percent of the influent and 8 % of the effluent exhibited the presence of Shiga-like toxin II. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli DNA were identified in 50 and 25 % of the influents and in 8 and 25 % of the effluents, respectively. Salmonella spp. DNA was present in all the samples. Considering the results obtained, the method tested here offers a reliable and expeditious tool for evaluating the efficiency of the effluent treatment in order to mitigate contamination risk. Influent contamination by Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. provides indirect information about their circulation; moreover, their presence in effluents underlines the role of WWTPs in the contamination of the receiving surface waters, which affects public health directly or indirectly.

  20. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular characterization of Campylobacter spp. in bulk tank milk and milk filters from US dairies.

    PubMed

    Del Collo, Laura P; Karns, Jeffrey S; Biswas, Debabrata; Lombard, Jason E; Haley, Bradd J; Kristensen, R Camilla; Kopral, Christine A; Fossler, Charles P; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S

    2017-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are frequently isolated from dairy cows as commensal organisms. Sporadic Campylobacter infections in humans in the United States are generally attributed to poultry, but outbreaks are also commonly associated with dairy products, particularly unpasteurized or raw milk. Bulk tank milk samples and milk filters from US dairy operations were collected during the National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy 2014 study and analyzed using real-time PCR and traditional culture techniques for the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter species. The weighted prevalence of operations from which we detected Campylobacter spp. in either bulk tank milk or milk filters was 24.9%. We detected Campylobacter spp. in a higher percentage of operations with 100-499 cows (42.8%) and 500 or more cows (47.5%) than in operations with 30-99 cows (6.5%). Campylobacter spp. were also more frequently detected in operations in the west than the east (45.9 and 22.6%, respectively). We isolated Campylobacter spp. from approximately half of PCR-positive samples, representing 12.5% (weighted prevalence) of operations. The majority (91.8%) of isolates were C. jejuni, but C. lari and C. coli were also isolated. We detected resistance to tetracycline in 68.4% of C. jejuni isolates, and resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in 13.2% of C. jejuni isolates. Based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found that dairy-associated C. jejuni were genotypically diverse, although clonal strains were isolated from different geographic regions. These results suggest that bulk tank milk can be contaminated with pathogenic Campylobacter spp., and that the consumption of unpasteurized or raw milk presents a potential human health risk. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Noroviruses, and Indicator Organisms in Surface Water in Southwestern Finland, 2000-2001

    PubMed Central

    Hörman, Ari; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Torvela, Niina; Heikinheimo, Annamari; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2004-01-01

    A total of 139 surface water samples from seven lakes and 15 rivers in southwestern Finland were analyzed during five consecutive seasons from autumn 2000 to autumn 2001 for the presence of various enteropathogens (Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and noroviruses) and fecal indicators (thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and F-RNA bacteriophages) and for physicochemical parameters (turbidity and temperature); this was the first such systematic study. Altogether, 41.0% (57 of 139) of the samples were positive for at least one of the pathogens; 17.3% were positive for Campylobacter spp. (45.8% of the positive samples contained Campylobacter jejuni, 25.0% contained Campylobacter lari, 4.2% contained Campylobacter coli, and 25.0% contained Campylobacter isolates that were not identified), 13.7% were positive for Giardia spp., 10.1% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., and 9.4% were positive for noroviruses (23.0% of the positive samples contained genogroup I and 77.0% contained genogroup II). The samples were positive for enteropathogens significantly (P < 0.05) less frequently during the winter season than during the other sampling seasons. No significant differences in the prevalence of enteropathogens were found when rivers and lakes were compared. The presence of thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, and C. perfringens had significant bivariate nonparametric Spearman's rank order correlation coefficients (P < 0.001) with samples that were positive for one or more of the pathogens analyzed. The absence of these indicators in a logistic regression model was found to have significant predictive value (odds ratios, 1.15 × 108, 7.57, and 2.74, respectively; P < 0.05) for a sample that was negative for the pathogens analyzed. There were no significant correlations between counts or count levels for thermotolerant coliforms or E. coli or the presence of F-RNA phages and pathogens in the samples analyzed. PMID

  2. Enteric Pathogens and Reactive Arthritis: A Systematic Review of Campylobacter, Salmonella and Shigella-associated Reactive Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ajene, Anuli N.; Black, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive arthritis (ReA) is a spondyloarthropathic disorder characterized by inflammation of the joints and tissues occurring after gastrointestinal or genitourinary infections. Diagnostic criteria for ReA do not exist and, therefore, it is subject to clinical opinion resulting in cases with a wide range of symptoms and definitions. Using standardized diagnostic criteria, we conducted a systematic literature review to establish the global incidence of ReA for each of the three most commonly-associated enteric pathogens : Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella. The weighted mean incidence of reactive arthritis was 9, 12, and 12 cases per 1,000 cases of Campylobacter, Salmonella and Shigella infections respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of worldwide data that use well-defined criteria to characterize diarrhoea-associated ReA. This information will aid in determining the burden of disease and act as a planning tool for public-health programmes. PMID:24288942

  3. A reference pan-genome approach to comparative bacterial genomics: identification of novel epidemiological markers in pathogenic Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Méric, Guillaume; Yahara, Koji; Mageiros, Leonardos; Pascoe, Ben; Maiden, Martin C J; Jolley, Keith A; Sheppard, Samuel K

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of hundreds of whole bacterial genomes provides opportunities for enhanced understanding of the genes and alleles responsible for clinically important phenotypes and how they evolved. However, it is a significant challenge to develop easy-to-use and scalable methods for characterizing these large and complex data and relating it to disease epidemiology. Existing approaches typically focus on either homologous sequence variation in genes that are shared by all isolates, or non-homologous sequence variation--focusing on genes that are differentially present in the population. Here we present a comparative genomics approach that simultaneously approximates core and accessory genome variation in pathogen populations and apply it to pathogenic species in the genus Campylobacter. A total of 7 published Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli genomes were selected to represent diversity across these species, and a list of all loci that were present at least once was compiled. After filtering duplicates a 7-isolate reference pan-genome, of 3,933 loci, was defined. A core genome of 1,035 genes was ubiquitous in the sample accounting for 59% of the genes in each isolate (average genome size of 1.68 Mb). The accessory genome contained 2,792 genes. A Campylobacter population sample of 192 genomes was screened for the presence of reference pan-genome loci with gene presence defined as a BLAST match of ≥ 70% identity over ≥ 50% of the locus length--aligned using MUSCLE on a gene-by-gene basis. A total of 21 genes were present only in C. coli and 27 only in C. jejuni, providing information about functional differences associated with species and novel epidemiological markers for population genomic analyses. Homologs of these genes were found in several of the genomes used to define the pan-genome and, therefore, would not have been identified using a single reference strain approach.

  4. Novel Sampling Method for Assessing Human-Pathogen Interactions in the Natural Environment Using Boot Socks and Citizen Scientists, with Application to Campylobacter Seasonality.

    PubMed

    Jones, Natalia R; Millman, Caroline; van der Es, Mike; Hukelova, Miroslava; Forbes, Ken J; Glover, Catherine; Haldenby, Sam; Hunter, Paul R; Jackson, Kathryn; O'Brien, Sarah J; Rigby, Dan; Strachan, Norval J C; Williams, Nicola; Lake, Iain R

    2017-07-15

    This paper introduces a novel method for sampling pathogens in natural environments. It uses fabric boot socks worn over walkers' shoes to allow the collection of composite samples over large areas. Wide-area sampling is better suited to studies focusing on human exposure to pathogens (e.g., recreational walking). This sampling method is implemented using a citizen science approach: groups of three walkers wearing boot socks undertook one of six routes, 40 times over 16 months in the North West (NW) and East Anglian (EA) regions of England. To validate this methodology, we report the successful implementation of this citizen science approach, the observation that Campylobacter bacteria were detected on 47% of boot socks, and the observation that multiple boot socks from individual walks produced consistent results. The findings indicate higher Campylobacter levels in the livestock-dominated NW than in EA (55.8% versus 38.6%). Seasonal differences in the presence of Campylobacter bacteria were found between the regions, with indications of winter peaks in both regions but a spring peak in the NW. The presence of Campylobacter bacteria on boot socks was negatively associated with ambient temperature (P = 0.011) and positively associated with precipitation (P < 0.001), results consistent with our understanding of Campylobacter survival and the probability of material adhering to boot socks. Campylobacter jejuni was the predominant species found; Campylobacter coli was largely restricted to the livestock-dominated NW. Source attribution analysis indicated that the potential source of C. jejuni was predominantly sheep in the NW and wild birds in EA but did not differ between peak and nonpeak periods of human incidence.IMPORTANCE There is debate in the literature on the pathways through which pathogens are transferred from the environment to humans. We report on the success of a novel method for sampling human-pathogen interactions using boot socks and citizen science

  5. Novel Sampling Method for Assessing Human-Pathogen Interactions in the Natural Environment Using Boot Socks and Citizen Scientists, with Application to Campylobacter Seasonality

    PubMed Central

    Millman, Caroline; van der Es, Mike; Hukelova, Miroslava; Forbes, Ken J.; Glover, Catherine; Haldenby, Sam; Hunter, Paul R.; Jackson, Kathryn; O'Brien, Sarah J.; Rigby, Dan; Strachan, Norval J. C.; Williams, Nicola; Lake, Iain R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper introduces a novel method for sampling pathogens in natural environments. It uses fabric boot socks worn over walkers' shoes to allow the collection of composite samples over large areas. Wide-area sampling is better suited to studies focusing on human exposure to pathogens (e.g., recreational walking). This sampling method is implemented using a citizen science approach: groups of three walkers wearing boot socks undertook one of six routes, 40 times over 16 months in the North West (NW) and East Anglian (EA) regions of England. To validate this methodology, we report the successful implementation of this citizen science approach, the observation that Campylobacter bacteria were detected on 47% of boot socks, and the observation that multiple boot socks from individual walks produced consistent results. The findings indicate higher Campylobacter levels in the livestock-dominated NW than in EA (55.8% versus 38.6%). Seasonal differences in the presence of Campylobacter bacteria were found between the regions, with indications of winter peaks in both regions but a spring peak in the NW. The presence of Campylobacter bacteria on boot socks was negatively associated with ambient temperature (P = 0.011) and positively associated with precipitation (P < 0.001), results consistent with our understanding of Campylobacter survival and the probability of material adhering to boot socks. Campylobacter jejuni was the predominant species found; Campylobacter coli was largely restricted to the livestock-dominated NW. Source attribution analysis indicated that the potential source of C. jejuni was predominantly sheep in the NW and wild birds in EA but did not differ between peak and nonpeak periods of human incidence. IMPORTANCE There is debate in the literature on the pathways through which pathogens are transferred from the environment to humans. We report on the success of a novel method for sampling human-pathogen interactions using boot socks and citizen

  6. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Campylobacter Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Campylobacter Infections Print A ... Doctor? en español Infecciones por campylobacter What Are Campylobacter Infections? Campylobacter bacteria are one of the main ...

  7. Fate and transport of faecal contamination microbial indicators, pathogenic protozoa and Campylobacter in the artificially recharged fractured aquifer of Salento, Italy.

    PubMed

    La Mantia, R; Masciopinto, C; Levantesi, C; Tandoi, V

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates the fate and transport of microorganisms introduced by artificial groundwater recharge at the Nardò fractured aquifer in Salento, Italy. Microbial indicators of faecal contamination, parasitic protozoa (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) and pathogenic bacteria (Campylobacter spp.), were monitored into injected water and groundwater to test the efficiency of the "natural disinfection" into the fractured aquifer. A remarkable decrease of microbial indicators and pathogens was observed suggesting that pathogens removal or inactivation may be possible during water flow in fractured aquifer. The recently described PNA probe CJE195 (Lehtola et al. 2005) was utilised for the rapid and specific detection of Campylobacter spp. by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) after enrichment. FISH results were consistent with those of traditional cultural method (ISO 17995) applied in parallel: time required for Campylobacter identification was reduced of 4 days. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  8. Novel Drug Targets for Food-Borne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni: An Integrated Subtractive Genomics and Comparative Metabolic Pathway Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehla, Kusum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Campylobacters are a major global health burden and a cause of food-borne diarrheal illness and economic loss worldwide. In developing countries, Campylobacter infections are frequent in children under age two and may be associated with mortality. In developed countries, they are a common cause of bacterial diarrhea in early adulthood. In the United States, antibiotic resistance against Campylobacter is notably increased from 13% in 1997 to nearly 25% in 2011. Novel drug targets are urgently needed but remain a daunting task to accomplish. We suggest that omics-guided drug discovery is timely and worth considering in this context. The present study employed an integrated subtractive genomics and comparative metabolic pathway analysis approach. We identified 16 unique pathways from Campylobacter when compared against H. sapiens with 326 non-redundant proteins; 115 of these were found to be essential in the Database of Essential Genes. Sixty-six proteins among these were non-homologous to the human proteome. Six membrane proteins, of which four are transporters, have been proposed as potential vaccine candidates. Screening of 66 essential non-homologous proteins against DrugBank resulted in identification of 34 proteins with drug-ability potential, many of which play critical roles in bacterial growth and survival. Out of these, eight proteins had approved drug targets available in DrugBank, the majority serving crucial roles in cell wall synthesis and energy metabolism and therefore having the potential to be utilized as drug targets. We conclude by underscoring that screening against these proteins with inhibitors may aid in future discovery of novel therapeutics against campylobacteriosis in ways that will be pathogen specific, and thus have minimal toxic effect on host. Omics-guided drug discovery and bioinformatics analyses offer the broad potential for veritable advances in global health relevant novel therapeutics. PMID:26061459

  9. Rapid identification of Campylobacter spp. by melting peak analysis of biprobes in real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Logan, J M; Edwards, K J; Saunders, N A; Stanley, J

    2001-06-01

    We describe rapid PCR-biprobe identification of Campylobacter spp. This is based on real-time PCR with product analysis in the same system. The assay identifies enteropathogenic campylobacters to the species level on the basis of their degree of hybridization to three 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) biprobes. First-round symmetric PCR is performed with genus-specific primers which selectively target and amplify a portion of the 16S rRNA gene common to all Campylobacter species. Second-round asymmetric PCR is performed in a LightCycler in the presence of one of three biprobes; the identity of an amplified DNA-biprobe duplex is established after determination of the species-specific melting peak temperature. The biprobe specificities were determined by testing 37 reference strains of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Arcobacter spp. and 59 Penner serotype reference strains of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. From the combination of melting peak profiles for each probe, an identification scheme was devised which accurately detected the five taxa pathogenic for humans (C. jejuni/C. coli, C. lari, C. upsaliensis, C. hyointestinalis, and C. fetus), as well as C. helveticus and C. lanienae. The assay was evaluated with 110 blind-tested field isolates; when the code was broken their previous phenotypic species identification was confirmed in every case. The PCR-biprobe assay also identified campylobacters directly from fecal DNA. PCR-biprobe testing of stools from 38 diarrheic subjects was 100% concordant with PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay identification (13, 20) and thus more sensitive than phenotypic identification following microaerobic culture.

  10. Rapid Identification of Campylobacter spp. by Melting Peak Analysis of Biprobes in Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Logan, J. M. J.; Edwards, K. J.; Saunders, N. A.; Stanley, J.

    2001-01-01

    We describe rapid PCR-biprobe identification of Campylobacter spp.. This is based on real-time PCR with product analysis in the same system. The assay identifies enteropathogenic campylobacters to the species level on the basis of their degree of hybridization to three 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) biprobes. First-round symmetric PCR is performed with genus-specific primers which selectively target and amplify a portion of the 16S rRNA gene common to all Campylobacter species. Second-round asymmetric PCR is performed in a LightCycler in the presence of one of three biprobes; the identity of an amplified DNA-biprobe duplex is established after determination of the species-specific melting peak temperature. The biprobe specificities were determined by testing 37 reference strains of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Arcobacter spp. and 59 Penner serotype reference strains of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. From the combination of melting peak profiles for each probe, an identification scheme was devised which accurately detected the five taxa pathogenic for humans (C. jejuni/C. coli, C. lari, C. upsaliensis, C. hyointestinalis, and C. fetus), as well as C. helveticus and C. lanienae. The assay was evaluated with 110 blind-tested field isolates; when the code was broken their previous phenotypic species identification was confirmed in every case. The PCR-biprobe assay also identified campylobacters directly from fecal DNA. PCR-biprobe testing of stools from 38 diarrheic subjects was 100% concordant with PCR–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay identification (13, 20) and thus more sensitive than phenotypic identification following microaerobic culture. PMID:11376061

  11. Evidence of land-sea transfer of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter to a wildlife marine sentinel species.

    PubMed

    Baily, Johanna L; Méric, Guillaume; Bayliss, Sion; Foster, Geoffrey; Moss, Simon E; Watson, Eleanor; Pascoe, Ben; Mikhail, Jane; Pizzi, Romain; Goldstone, Robert J; Smith, David G E; Willoughby, Kim; Hall, Ailsa J; Sheppard, Samuel K; Dagleish, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution often accompanies the expansion and urbanization of human populations where sewage and wastewaters commonly have an impact on the marine environments. Here, we explored the potential for faecal bacterial pathogens, of anthropic origin, to spread to marine wildlife in coastal areas. The common zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter was isolated from grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), an important sentinel species for environmental pollution, and compared to isolates from wild birds, agricultural sources and clinical samples to characterize possible transmission routes. Campylobacter jejuni was present in half of all grey seal pups sampled (24/50 dead and 46/90 live pups) in the breeding colony on the Isle of May (Scotland), where it was frequently associated with histological evidence of disease. Returning yearling animals (19/19) were negative for C. jejuni suggesting clearance of infection while away from the localized colony infection source. The genomes of 90 isolates from seals were sequenced and characterized using a whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach and compared to 192 published genomes from multiple sources using population genetic approaches and a probabilistic genetic attribution model to infer the source of infection from MLST data. The strong genotype-host association has enabled the application of source attribution models in epidemiological studies of human campylobacteriosis, and here assignment analyses consistently grouped seal isolates with those from human clinical samples. These findings are consistent with either a common infection source or direct transmission of human campylobacter to grey seals, raising concerns about the spread of human pathogens to wildlife marine sentinel species in coastal areas.

  12. A cross-sectional study examining Campylobacter and other zoonotic enteric pathogens in dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario and risk factors for shedding of Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-05-01

    An estimated 6 million pet dogs live in Canadian households with the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans. Dogs have been identified as carriers of Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter upsaliensis, but little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for these pathogens in pet dogs that visit dog parks. This study examined the prevalence of these organisms in the faeces of dogs visiting dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, as well as risk factors for shedding Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including age, diet and activities in which the dog participates. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 questionnaires were completed. Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp. were present in 1.2%, 6.4% and 43.0% of faecal samples, respectively. Of the Campylobacter spp. detected, 86.1% were C. upsaliensis, 13% were C. jejuni and 0.9% were C. coli. Statistically significant sparing factors associated with the shedding of Campylobacter spp. included the feeding of a commercial dry diet and the dog's exposure to compost. Age of dog had a quadratic effect, with young dogs and senior dogs having an increased probability of shedding Campylobacter spp. compared with adult dogs. The only statistically significant risk factor for shedding C. upsaliensis was outdoor water access including lakes and ditches, while dogs >1 year old were at a lower risk than young dogs. Understanding the pet-related risk factors for Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis shedding in dogs may help in the development of awareness and management strategies to potentially reduce the risk of transmitting this pathogen from dogs to humans. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  14. ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC Escherichia coli AND Campylobacter jejuni IN FERAL PIGEONS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE CITY OF LIMA, PERU

    PubMed Central

    CABALLERO, Moisés; RIVERA, Isabel; JARA, Luis M.; ULLOA-STANOJLOVIC, Francisco M.; SHIVA, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni of urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacter by filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coli and Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coliwere isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC) type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents. PMID:26603225

  15. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods for the emerging Campylobacter species C. hyointestinalis, C. lanienae, C. sputorum, C. concisus and C. curvus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) systems have been reported previously for multiple food- and food animal-associated Campylobacter species (e.g. C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus) to both differentiate strains and identify clonal lineages. These MLST methods focused primarily on campylobact...

  16. Cross-reactivity of outer membrane proteins of Campylobacter species with cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Albert, M John

    2011-02-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen and a leading cause of diarrhoea worldwide. It is believed that a cholera toxin-like toxin (CTLT) produced by C. jejuni may mediate watery diarrhoea. However, the production of a CTLT by C. jejuni is controversial. A cholera toxin gene (ctx) homologue has not been identified in Campylobacter species. We investigated the identity of the CT cross-reactive antigen from Campylobacter species previously and the results are reviewed here. Filtrates of C. jejuni grown in four different liquid media, reported to promote CTLT production, were tested by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell elongation assay for functional toxin and for reactivity with CT antibody using GM1 ganglioside ELISA (GM1 ELISA) and immunoblotting. Protein sequence of the CT antibody-reactive band was determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI TOF-TOF). Non-jejuni species (C. coli, C. lari, C. foetus, C. hyointestinalis and C. upsaliensis) were investigated by CHO cell assay and immunoblotting. Filtrates from seven C. jejuni reference strains reported to produce CTLT and from 80 clinical strains were negative in the CHO cell assay. However, filtrates from three reference strains and 16 clinical strains were positive by GM1 ELISA. All strains irrespective of GM1 ELISA reactivity, possessed a 53-kDa protein which reacted with CT antibody by immunoblotting. This band was identified as the major outer membrane protein (PorA) of C. jejuni. CT antibody reacted with a C. jejuni recombinant PorA on immunoblotting. All non-C. jejuni strains were negative by CHO cell assay, but the common 53-kDa proteins reacted with CT antibody on immunoblots. The cross-reactivity of PorAs of Campylobacter species with CT may lead to the erroneous conclusion that Campylobacter species produce a functional CTLT.

  17. Detection of Campylobacter Species and Arcobacter butzleri in Stool Samples by Use of Real-Time Multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Alewijn; Güren, Pınar; van Zanten, Evert; van Belkum, Alex; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M. D.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of Campylobacter (or Campylobacter-like) species in stools from patients suspected of infectious gastroenteritis (n = 493) was investigated using real-time PCR for detection of Arcobacter butzleri (hsp60 gene), Campylobacter coli (ceuE gene), Campylobacter jejuni (mapA), five acknowledged pathogenic Campylobacter spp. (C16S_Lund assay), and the Campylobacter genus (C16S_LvI assay). In total, 71.4% of the samples were positive for Campylobacter DNA (n = 352) by a Campylobacter genus-specific (C16S_LvI) assay. A total of 23 samples (4.7%) were positive in the C16S_Lund assay, used for detection of C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, C. upsaliensis, and C. hyointestinalis. Subsequent identification of these samples yielded detection frequencies (DF) of 4.1% (C. jejuni), 0.4% (C. coli), and 0.4% (C. upsaliensis). The DF of A. butzleri was 0.4%. Interestingly, sequencing of a subgroup (n = 46) of C16S_LvI PCR-positive samples resulted in a considerable number of Campylobacter concisus-positive samples (n = 20). PCR-positive findings with the C16S_Lund and C. jejuni/C. coli-specific assays were associated with more serious clinical symptoms (diarrhea and blood). Threshold cycle (CT) values of C. jejuni/C. coli PCR-positive samples were comparable to those of the C16S_Lund PCR (P = 0.21). CT values for both assays were significantly lower than those of the C16S_LvI assay (P < 0.001 and P < 0.00001, respectively). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that in combination, the C. jejuni/C coli-specific assays and the C16S_Lund assay are both useful for routine screening purposes. Furthermore, the DF of the emerging pathogen C. concisus was at least similar to the DF of C. jejuni. PMID:23152553

  18. Genome analysis of Campylobacter concisus strains from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and gastroenteritis provides new insights into pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Heung Kit Leslie; Tay, Alfred; Octavia, Sophie; Chen, Jieqiong; Liu, Fang; Ma, Rena; Lan, Ruiting; Riordan, Stephen M; Grimm, Michael C.; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter concisus is an oral bacterium that is associated with inflammatory bowel disease. C. concisus has two major genomospecies, which appear to have different enteric pathogenic potential. Currently, no studies have compared the genomes of C. concisus strains from different genomospecies. In this study, a comparative genome analysis of 36 C. concisus strains was conducted including 27 C. concisus strains sequenced in this study and nine publically available C. concisus genomes. The C. concisus core-genome was defined and genomospecies-specific genes were identified. The C. concisus core-genome, housekeeping genes and 23S rRNA gene consistently divided the 36 strains into two genomospecies. Two novel genomic islands, CON_PiiA and CON_PiiB, were identified. CON_PiiA and CON_PiiB islands contained proteins homologous to the type IV secretion system, LepB-like and CagA-like effector proteins. CON_PiiA islands were found in 37.5% of enteric C. concisus strains (3/8) isolated from patients with enteric diseases and none of the oral strains (0/27), which was statistically significant. This study reports the findings of C. concisus genomospecies-specific genes, novel genomic islands that contain type IV secretion system and putative effector proteins, and other new genomic features. These data provide novel insights into understanding of the pathogenicity of this emerging opportunistic pathogen. PMID:27910936

  19. The hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni: The diarrheal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and other gastrointestinal bacteria encounter changes in osmolarity in the environment, through exposure to food processing, or upon entering host organisms, where osmotic adaptation can be associa...

  20. Fluoroquinolone resistance in campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Smith, James L; Fratamico, Pina M

    2010-06-01

    Campylobacter is a commensal in poultry, and therefore, poultry and poultry products are major sources of Campylobacter infections in humans. Fluoroquinolones inhibit the growth of Campylobacter and other microorganisms by binding to bacterial DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV. These enzymes are associated with bacterial transcription, replication, and chromosome condensation and segregation. Selection pressure in the presence of fluoroquinolones rapidly leads to resistance in Campylobacter, due to the selection for mutations in DNA gyrase. Fluoroquinolone-resistant campylobacters have been found in poultry feces and carcasses, and in retail poultry meat products in most areas of the world. In addition, other food animals and the meat products from those animals have been shown contaminated with fluoroquinolone-resistant campylobacters. Even the removal of fluoroquinolones from use in treating animal diseases has not entirely eliminated the presence of resistant Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from animals and animal products. Human exposure to Campylobacter infection could be reduced by using strategies that decrease colonization of chickens by the pathogen.

  1. Analysis of evolutionary patterns of genes in campylobacter jejuni and C. coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: In order to investigate the population genetics structure of thermophilic Campylobacter spp., we extracted a set of 1029 core gene families (CGF) from 25 sequenced genomes of C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari. Based on these CGFs we employed different approaches to reveal the evolutionary ...

  2. Effect of hot water spray on broiler carcasses for reduction of loosely attached, intermediately attached, and tightly attached pathogenic (Salmonella and Campylobacter) and mesophilic aerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Singh, P; Lee, H C; Kang, I

    2013-03-01

    Chickens are known to harbor many bacteria, including pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of hot water spray (HWS, 71°C for 1 min) in reducing bacterial contamination of prechilled broiler carcasses. For each of 4 replications, skin samples from 5 broilers were collected at 3 processing stages: after bleeding (feathers removed manually), after evisceration (with/without HWS), and after water chilling. Broiler skin was quantitatively assessed for loosely attached (by rinsing the skin), intermediately attached (by stomaching the rinsed skin), and tightly attached (by grinding the rinsed/stomached skin) mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) and Campylobacter as well as for the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter. Broiler skins possessed 6.4 to 6.6 log cfu/g, 3.8 to 4.1 log cfu/g, and 2.8 to 3.5 log cfu/g of MAB populations after bleeding, evisceration, and chilling, respectively. The HWS resulted in more than 1 log unit of reduction in MAB immediately after evisceration and immediately after chilling regardless of microbial sampling method. Compared with MAB, the contamination of Campylobacter was low (1.7 to 2.6 log cfu/g) after bleeding, but the level was not reduced throughout the processing steps regardless of HWS. The application of HWS reduced the prevalence of Salmonella after chilling, but not for Campylobacter except for loosely attached cells. After hot water exposure, a partially cooked appearance was seen on both broiler skin and skinless breast surface. More research is required to effectively eliminate pathogenic organisms during processing and suppress any recovery of bacteria regardless of attachment type after chilling.

  3. Extreme Heat Resistance of Food Borne Pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium on Chicken Breast Fillet during Cooking

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Aarieke E. I.; van Asselt, Esther D.; Zwietering, Marcel H.; Nauta, Maarten J.; de Jonge, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the decimal reduction times of bacteria present on chicken fillet in boiling water. The experiments were conducted with Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli. Whole chicken breast fillets were inoculated with the pathogens, stored overnight (4°C), and subsequently cooked. The surface temperature reached 70°C within 30 sec and 85°C within one minute. Extremely high decimal reduction times of 1.90, 1.97, and 2.20 min were obtained for C. jejuni, E. coli, and S. typhimurium, respectively. Chicken meat and refrigerated storage before cooking enlarged the heat resistance of the food borne pathogens. Additionally, a high challenge temperature or fast heating rate contributed to the level of heat resistance. The data were used to assess the probability of illness (campylobacteriosis) due to consumption of chicken fillet as a function of cooking time. The data revealed that cooking time may be far more critical than previously assumed. PMID:22389647

  4. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part II: Vaccines for Shigella, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) enterohemorragic E. coli (EHEC) and Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Carlos Salazar, Juan; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    In Part II we discuss the following bacterial pathogens: Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic) and Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast to the enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae discussed in Part I of this series, for the bacterial pathogens described here there is only one licensed vaccine, developed primarily for Vibrio cholerae and which provides moderate protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (Dukoral(®)), as well as a few additional candidates in advanced stages of development for ETEC and one candidate for Shigella spp. Numerous vaccine candidates in earlier stages of development are discussed.

  5. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part II: Vaccines for Shigella, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) enterohemorragic E. coli (EHEC) and Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    O’Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Carlos Salazar, Juan; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    In Part II we discuss the following bacterial pathogens: Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic) and Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast to the enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae discussed in Part I of this series, for the bacterial pathogens described here there is only one licensed vaccine, developed primarily for Vibrio cholerae and which provides moderate protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (Dukoral®), as well as a few additional candidates in advanced stages of development for ETEC and one candidate for Shigella spp. Numerous vaccine candidates in earlier stages of development are discussed. PMID:25715096

  6. Specific detection and confirmation of Campylobacter jejuni by DNA hybridization and PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, L K; Kingombe, C I; Yan, W; Taylor, D E; Hiratsuka, K; Malik, N; Garcia, M M

    1997-01-01

    Conventional detection and confirmation methods for Campylobacter jejuni are lengthy and tedious. A rapid hybridization protocol in which a 1,475-bp chromogen-labelled DNA probe (pDT1720) and Campylobacter strains filtered and grown on 0.22-micron-pore-size hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) are used was developed. Among the environmental and clinical isolates of C. jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei, Campylobacter lari, and Arcobacter nitrofigilis and a panel of 310 unrelated bacterial strains tested, only C. jejuni and C. jejuni subsp. doylei isolates hybridized with the probe under stringent conditions. The specificity of the probe was confirmed when the protocol was applied to spiked skim milk and chicken rinse samples. Based on the nucleotide sequence of pDT1720, a pair of oligonucleotide primers was designed for PCR amplification of DNA from Campylobacter spp. and other food pathogens grown overnight in selective Mueller-Hinton broth with cefoperazone and growth supplements. All C. jejuni strains tested, including DNase-producing strains and C. jejuni subsp. doylei, produced a specific 402-bp amplicon, as confirmed by restriction and Southern blot analysis. The detection range of the assay was as low as 3 CFU per PCR to as high as 10(5) CFU per PCR for pure cultures. Overnight enrichment of chicken rinse samples spiked initially with as little as approximately 10 CFU/ml produced amplicons after the PCR. No amplicon was detected with any of the other bacterial strains tested or from the chicken background microflora. Since C. jejuni is responsible for 99% of Campylobacter contamination in poultry, PCR and HGMF hybridization were performed on naturally contaminated chicken rinse samples, and the results were compared with the results of conventional cultural isolation on Preston agar. All samples confirmed to be culture positive for C. jejuni were also identified by DNA hybridization and PCR amplification, thus confirming that

  7. Specific detection and confirmation of Campylobacter jejuni by DNA hybridization and PCR.

    PubMed

    Ng, L K; Kingombe, C I; Yan, W; Taylor, D E; Hiratsuka, K; Malik, N; Garcia, M M

    1997-11-01

    Conventional detection and confirmation methods for Campylobacter jejuni are lengthy and tedious. A rapid hybridization protocol in which a 1,475-bp chromogen-labelled DNA probe (pDT1720) and Campylobacter strains filtered and grown on 0.22-micron-pore-size hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) are used was developed. Among the environmental and clinical isolates of C. jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei, Campylobacter lari, and Arcobacter nitrofigilis and a panel of 310 unrelated bacterial strains tested, only C. jejuni and C. jejuni subsp. doylei isolates hybridized with the probe under stringent conditions. The specificity of the probe was confirmed when the protocol was applied to spiked skim milk and chicken rinse samples. Based on the nucleotide sequence of pDT1720, a pair of oligonucleotide primers was designed for PCR amplification of DNA from Campylobacter spp. and other food pathogens grown overnight in selective Mueller-Hinton broth with cefoperazone and growth supplements. All C. jejuni strains tested, including DNase-producing strains and C. jejuni subsp. doylei, produced a specific 402-bp amplicon, as confirmed by restriction and Southern blot analysis. The detection range of the assay was as low as 3 CFU per PCR to as high as 10(5) CFU per PCR for pure cultures. Overnight enrichment of chicken rinse samples spiked initially with as little as approximately 10 CFU/ml produced amplicons after the PCR. No amplicon was detected with any of the other bacterial strains tested or from the chicken background microflora. Since C. jejuni is responsible for 99% of Campylobacter contamination in poultry, PCR and HGMF hybridization were performed on naturally contaminated chicken rinse samples, and the results were compared with the results of conventional cultural isolation on Preston agar. All samples confirmed to be culture positive for C. jejuni were also identified by DNA hybridization and PCR amplification, thus confirming that

  8. Metabolic and fitness determinants for in vitro growth and intestinal colonization of the bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Claudia; Lara-Tejero, Maria; Mohr, Juliane; Goodman, Andrew L.; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Hofreuter, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading infectious causes of food-borne illness around the world. Its ability to persistently colonize the intestinal tract of a broad range of hosts, including food-producing animals, is central to its epidemiology since most infections are due to the consumption of contaminated food products. Using a highly saturated transposon insertion library combined with next-generation sequencing and a mouse model of infection, we have carried out a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the fitness determinants for growth in vitro and in vivo of a highly pathogenic strain of C. jejuni. A comparison of the C. jejuni requirements to colonize the mouse intestine with those necessary to grow in different culture media in vitro, combined with isotopologue profiling and metabolic flow analysis, allowed us to identify its metabolic requirements to establish infection, including the ability to acquire certain nutrients, metabolize specific substrates, or maintain intracellular ion homeostasis. This comprehensive analysis has identified metabolic pathways that could provide the basis for the development of novel strategies to prevent C. jejuni colonization of food-producing animals or to treat human infections. PMID:28542173

  9. Metabolic and fitness determinants for in vitro growth and intestinal colonization of the bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Gao, Beile; Vorwerk, Hanne; Huber, Claudia; Lara-Tejero, Maria; Mohr, Juliane; Goodman, Andrew L; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Galán, Jorge E; Hofreuter, Dirk

    2017-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading infectious causes of food-borne illness around the world. Its ability to persistently colonize the intestinal tract of a broad range of hosts, including food-producing animals, is central to its epidemiology since most infections are due to the consumption of contaminated food products. Using a highly saturated transposon insertion library combined with next-generation sequencing and a mouse model of infection, we have carried out a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the fitness determinants for growth in vitro and in vivo of a highly pathogenic strain of C. jejuni. A comparison of the C. jejuni requirements to colonize the mouse intestine with those necessary to grow in different culture media in vitro, combined with isotopologue profiling and metabolic flow analysis, allowed us to identify its metabolic requirements to establish infection, including the ability to acquire certain nutrients, metabolize specific substrates, or maintain intracellular ion homeostasis. This comprehensive analysis has identified metabolic pathways that could provide the basis for the development of novel strategies to prevent C. jejuni colonization of food-producing animals or to treat human infections.

  10. Campylobacter jejuni is not an Important Pathogen as a Cause of Diarrhea in U.S. Travelers to Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Nicolas A.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Flores-Figueroa, Jose; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Paredes, Mercedes; Mohamed, Jamal A.; Nair, Parvathy; Carlin, Lily; DuPont, Herbert L.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an unusual cause of travelers’ diarrhea acquired in Mexico but previous studies have relied only on stool culture for diagnosis. We conducted a cohort study to determine if antibody seroconversion to Campylobacter jejuni would better reflect the occurrence of infection acquired in Mexico. Serum IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies to Campylobacter seroconverted in only 2 of 353 participants (0.6%). These data further support that C. jejuni infection is an unusual cause of travelers’ diarrhea in US visitors to Mexico. PMID:21199144

  11. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Three Species of Antarctic Penguins in Different Geographic Locations.

    PubMed

    García-Peña, F J; Llorente, M T; Serrano, T; Ruano, M J; Belliure, J; Benzal, J; Herrera-León, S; Vidal, V; D'Amico, V; Pérez-Boto, D; Barbosa, A

    2017-03-01

    The presence of Campylobacter species was studied in three Antarctic penguin species, Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua). A total of 390 penguins were captured in 12 different rookeries along the Antarctic Peninsula with differences in the amount of human visitation: six colonies were highly visited [Stranger Point, King George Island (P. papua and P. adeliae); Hannah Point, Livingston Island (P. papua and P. antarctica); Deception Island (P. antarctica); and Paradise Bay, Antarctic Peninsula (P. papua)], and six colonies were rarely visited [Devil's Point, Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island (P. papua); Cierva Cove, Antarctic Peninsula (P. papua); Rongé Island (P. papua and P. antarctica); Yalour Island (P. adeliae); and Avian Island (P. adeliae)]. A total of 23 strains were isolated from penguins from nine different rookeries. Campylobacter lari subsp. lari was isolated from eight samples (seven from P. papua and one from P. adeliae); C. lari subsp. concheus from 13 (ten from P. adeliae and three from P. antarctica) and C. volucris from two samples (both from P. papua). We did not find any significant differences in the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. between the populations in highly and rarely visited areas. This is the first report of C. lari subsp. concheus and C. volucris isolation from penguins in the Antarctic region.

  12. Gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter concisus.

    PubMed

    Hess, D L J; Pettersson, A M; Rijnsburger, M C; Herbrink, P; van den Berg, H P; Ang, C W

    2012-05-01

    We describe a case of gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter concisus. The pathogenic potential of C. concisus has yet to be elucidated. Recent studies indicate an association with enteric disease in immunocompromised patients and inflammatory bowel disease in children. Molecular identification methods may be necessary for identifying certain Campylobacter species because of phenotypic similarity.

  13. Comparative Proteomics Reveals Differences in Host-Pathogen Interaction between Infectious and Commensal Relationship with Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Ayllón, Nieves; Jiménez-Marín, Ángeles; Argüello, Héctor; Zaldívar-López, Sara; Villar, Margarita; Aguilar, Carmen; Moreno, Angela; De La Fuente, José; Garrido, Juan J

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading food-borne poisoning in industrialized countries. While the bacteria causes disease in humans, it merely colonizes the gut in poultry or pigs, where seems to establish a commensal relationship. Until now, few studies have been conducted to elucidate the relationship between C. jejuni and its different hosts. In this work, a comparative proteomics approach was used to identify the underlying mechanisms involved in the divergent outcome following C. jejuni infection in human and porcine host. Human (INT-407) and porcine (IPEC-1) intestinal cell lines were infected by C. jejuni for 3 h (T3h) and 24 h (T24h). C. jejuni infection prompted an intense inflammatory response at T3h in human intestinal cells, mainly characterized by expression of proteins involved in cell spreading, cell migration and promotion of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Proteomic analysis evidenced significantly regulated biofunctions in human cells related with engulfment and endocytosis, and supported by canonical pathways associated to infection such as caveolar- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis signaling. In porcine IPEC-1 cells, inflammatory response as well as signaling pathways that control cellular functions such as cell migration, endocytosis and cell cycle progression resulted downregulated. These differences in the host response to infection were supported by the different pattern of adhesion and invasion proteins expressed by C. jejuni in human and porcine cells. No marked differences in expression of virulence factors involved in adaptive response and iron acquisition functions were observed. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that both host and pathogen factors are responsible for commensal or infectious character of C. jejuni in different hosts.

  14. Comparative phylogenomics of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni reveals genetic markers predictive of infection source

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Olivia L.; Gaunt, Michael W.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Elmi, Abdi; Witney, Adam A.; Hinds, Jason; Dorrell, Nick; Wren, Brendan W.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the predominant cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, but traditional typing methods are unable to discriminate strains from different sources that cause disease in humans. We report the use of genomotyping (whole-genome comparisons of microbes using DNA microarrays) combined with Bayesian-based algorithms to model the phylogeny of this major food-borne pathogen. In this study 111 C. jejuni strains were examined by genomotyping isolates from humans with a spectrum of C. jejuni-associated disease (70 strains), chickens (17 strains), bovines (13 strains), ovines (5 strains), and the environment (6 strains). From these data, the Bayesian phylogeny of the isolates revealed two distinct clades unequivocally supported by Bayesian probabilities (P = 1); a livestock clade comprising 31/35 (88.6%) of the livestock isolates and a “nonlivestock” clade comprising further clades of environmental isolates. Several genes were identified as characteristic of strains in the livestock clade. The most prominent was a cluster of six genes (cj1321 to cj1326) within the flagellin glycosylation locus, which were confirmed by PCR analysis as genetic markers in six additional chicken-associated strains. Surprisingly these studies show that the majority (39/70, 55.7%) of C. jejuni human isolates were found in the nonlivestock clade, suggesting that most C. jejuni infections may be from nonlivestock (and possibly nonagricultural) sources. This study has provided insight into a previously unidentified reservoir of C. jejuni infection that may have implications in disease-control strategies. The comparative phylogenomics approach described provides a robust methodological prototype that should be applicable to other microbes. PMID:16230626

  15. Comparative studies of Campylobacter jejuni genomic diversity reveal the importance of core and dispensable genes in the biology of this enigmatic food-borne pathogen.

    PubMed

    Duong, Tri; Konkel, Michael E

    2009-04-01

    MLST, DNA microarrays, and genome sequencing has allowed for a greater understanding of the metabolic capacity and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni. While strain-specific genes may provide an isolate a selective advantage in environments and contribute to the organism's pathogenicity, recent work indicates that C. jejuni pathogenicity is dictated by variations in the nucleotide sequence of core genes. Challenges facing C. jejuni researchers include determining (a) the degree to which genomic diversity enables this bacterium to persist in particular environments; (b) if C. jejuni virulence and disease severity can be predicted on the basis of genotype; (c) the set of core and variable genes whose products contribute to virulence; and (d) the genes in which nucleotide changes can affect a strain's pathogenicity.

  16. Comparative studies of Campylobacter jejuni genomic diversity reveal the importance of core and dispensable genes in the biology of this enigmatic food-borne pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Tri; Konkel, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary of recent events MLST, DNA microarrays, and genome sequencing has allowed for a greater understanding of the metabolic capacity and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni. While strain-specific genes may provide an isolate a selective advantage in environments and contribute to the organism's pathogenicity, recent work indicates that C. jejuni pathogenicity is dictated by variations in the nucleotide sequence of core genes. Challenges facing C. jejuni researchers include determining: a) the degree to which genomic diversity enables this bacterium to persist in particular environments; b) if C. jejuni virulence and disease severity can be predicted based on genotype; c) the set of core and variable genes whose products contribute to virulence; and d) the genes in which nucleotide changes can affect a strain's pathogenicity. PMID:19346123

  17. Eleutherine americana: a candidate for the control of Campylobacter species.

    PubMed

    Sirirak, T; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2011-04-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of selected Thai medicinal plants (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk., Quercus infectoria G. Olivier, and Eleutherine americana Merr.) against Campylobacter spp. was investigated. Sixty-five Campylobacter, including 39 isolates from humans and 26 isolates from chicken samples, were tested. Reference Campylobacter spp. that are commonly encountered in gastroenteritis were included. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated good antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates. Inhibition zones ranged from 10 to 37 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against Campylobacter isolates from humans and chicken samples ranged from 31.25 to 500 μg/mL and 62.50 to 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 31.25 to 1,000 μg/mL for isolates from humans and 125 to 1,000 μg/mL from chicken isolates. The bactericidal activity of the ethanolic extracts of E. americana against important Campylobacter spp., including Campylobacter coli MUMT 18630, Campylobacter fetus ATCC 27374, Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 81176, Campylobacter lari ATCC 43675, and Campylobacter upsaliensis DMST 19055, were assessed at MIC, 2 MIC, and 4 MIC by counting viable cells after various time intervals. At 4 MIC, the level of the tested isolates decreased by 2 to 5 log-fold within 8 h. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated antibacterial activity against all Campylobacter spp. from both human and chicken isolates. Further investigation of this plant species may provide an alternative medicine for Campylobacter infection and an effective food additive to prevent the infection.

  18. Description and sources of contamination by Campylobacter spp. of river water destined for human consumption in Brittany, France.

    PubMed

    Denis, M; M Tanguy; Chidaine, B; Laisney, M-J; Mégraud, F; Fravalo, P

    2011-10-01

    Presence or absence of Campylobacter spp. in water of five rivers upstream from an intake point for drinking water production was investigated, and isolates genetically compared with human, pig and poultry isolates in order to determine their source. River water and drinking water obtained from these rivers were sampled one time per month, over a period of one year, and tested for Campylobacter. Isolates were typed by PFGE. Campylobacter was not detected in treated drinking water, but 50% of the river samples were contaminated. Contamination was observed on the four seasons. In total, 297 Campylobacter isolates were collected and generated 46 PFGE profiles. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequently detected species in samples (74.1% of the isolates), followed by Campylobacter coli (17.8%) and Campylobacter lari (8.1%). Forty-two of the 46 PFGE profiles were unique. Only one genotype was detected three times in a river during the year and four genotypes in two different rivers. When compared to animal and human Campylobacter PFGE profiles, 14, 11 and one Campylobacter genotypes from water were genetically closed to human, poultry, and pig Campylobacter genotypes, respectively. The Campylobacter population displayed a high level of genetic diversity, suggesting that contamination originated from various origins. Human, poultry and pig were sources of contamination of the river by Campylobacter. Finally, no Campylobacter were detected in drinking water, indicating that the risk of outbreaks due to consumption of drinking water is low. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detecting Major Bacterial Enteric Pathogens in Fecal Specimens: Intestinal Inflammation and Bacterial Load Are Correlated in Campylobacter Infections

    PubMed Central

    Wohlwend, Nadia; Tiermann, Sacha; Risch, Lorenz; Risch, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A total of 1,056 native or Cary-Blair-preserved stool specimens were simultaneously tested by conventional stool culturing and by enteric bacterial panel (EBP) multiplex real-time PCR for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella spp., and shigellosis disease-causing agents (Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli [EIEC]). Overall, 143 (13.5%) specimens tested positive by PCR for the targets named above; 3 coinfections and 109 (10.4%) Campylobacter spp., 17 (1.6%) Salmonella spp., and 20 (1.9%) Shigella spp./EIEC infections were detected. The respective positive stool culture rates were 75 (7.1%), 14 (1.3%), and 7 (0.7%). The median threshold cycle (CT) values of culture-positive specimens were significantly lower than those of culture-negative ones (CT values, 24.3 versus 28.7; P < 0.001), indicating that the relative bacterial load per fecal specimen was significantly associated with the culture results. In Campylobacter infections, the respective median fecal calprotectin concentrations in PCR-negative/culture-negative (n = 40), PCR-positive/culture-negative (n = 14), and PCR-positive/culture-positive (n = 15) specimens were 134 mg/kg (interquartile range [IQR], 30 to 1,374 mg/kg), 1,913 mg/kg (IQR, 165 to 3,813 mg/kg), and 5,327 mg/kg (IQR, 1,836 to 18,213 mg/kg). Significant differences were observed among the three groups (P < 0.001), and a significant linear trend was identified (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the fecal calprotectin concentrations and CT values were found to be correlated (r = −0.658). Our results demonstrate that molecular screening of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp./EIEC using the BD Max EBP assay will result in timely diagnosis and improved sensitivity. The determination of inflammatory markers, such as calprotectin, in fecal specimens may aid in the interpretation of PCR results, particularly for enteric pathogens associated with mucosal damage and colonic inflammation. PMID:27307458

  20. Evaluation of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detecting Major Bacterial Enteric Pathogens in Fecal Specimens: Intestinal Inflammation and Bacterial Load Are Correlated in Campylobacter Infections.

    PubMed

    Wohlwend, Nadia; Tiermann, Sacha; Risch, Lorenz; Risch, Martin; Bodmer, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    A total of 1,056 native or Cary-Blair-preserved stool specimens were simultaneously tested by conventional stool culturing and by enteric bacterial panel (EBP) multiplex real-time PCR for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella spp., and shigellosis disease-causing agents (Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli [EIEC]). Overall, 143 (13.5%) specimens tested positive by PCR for the targets named above; 3 coinfections and 109 (10.4%) Campylobacter spp., 17 (1.6%) Salmonella spp., and 20 (1.9%) Shigella spp./EIEC infections were detected. The respective positive stool culture rates were 75 (7.1%), 14 (1.3%), and 7 (0.7%). The median threshold cycle (CT) values of culture-positive specimens were significantly lower than those of culture-negative ones (CT values, 24.3 versus 28.7; P < 0.001), indicating that the relative bacterial load per fecal specimen was significantly associated with the culture results. In Campylobacter infections, the respective median fecal calprotectin concentrations in PCR-negative/culture-negative (n = 40), PCR-positive/culture-negative (n = 14), and PCR-positive/culture-positive (n = 15) specimens were 134 mg/kg (interquartile range [IQR], 30 to 1,374 mg/kg), 1,913 mg/kg (IQR, 165 to 3,813 mg/kg), and 5,327 mg/kg (IQR, 1,836 to 18,213 mg/kg). Significant differences were observed among the three groups (P < 0.001), and a significant linear trend was identified (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the fecal calprotectin concentrations and CT values were found to be correlated (r = -0.658). Our results demonstrate that molecular screening of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp./EIEC using the BD Max EBP assay will result in timely diagnosis and improved sensitivity. The determination of inflammatory markers, such as calprotectin, in fecal specimens may aid in the interpretation of PCR results, particularly for enteric pathogens associated with mucosal damage and colonic inflammation.

  1. Toward an International Standard for PCR-Based Detection of Food-Borne Thermotolerant Campylobacters: Assay Development and Analytical Validation

    PubMed Central

    Lübeck, P. S.; Wolffs, P.; On, S. L. W.; Ahrens, P.; Rådström, P.; Hoorfar, J.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene were tested in all possible pairwise combinations, as well as two published primers targeting the 23S rRNA gene. A panel of 150 strains including target and nontarget strains was used in an in-house validation. Only one primer pair, OT1559 plus 18-1, was found to be selective. The inclusivity and exclusivity were 100 and 97%, respectively. In an attempt to find a thermostable DNA polymerase more resistant than Taq to PCR inhibitors present in chicken samples, three DNA polymerases were evaluated. The DNA polymerase Tth was not inhibited at a concentration of 2% (vol/vol) chicken carcass rinse, unlike both Taq DNA polymerase and DyNAzyme. Based on these results, Tth was selected as the most suitable enzyme for the assay. The standardized PCR test described shows potential for use in large-scale screening programs for food-borne Campylobacter species under the assay conditions specified. PMID:12957958

  2. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You get it from eating raw or undercooked poultry. You ... whether you need to take antibiotics. To prevent campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  3. Campylobacter jejuni is not an important pathogen as a cause of diarrhea in US travelers to Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villa, Nicolas A; Okhuysen, Pablo C; Flores-Figueroa, Jose; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Paredes, Mercedes; Mohamed, Jamal A; Nair, Parvathy; Carlin, Lily; DuPont, Herbert L

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an unusual cause of travelers' diarrhea acquired in Mexico, but previous studies have relied only on stool culture for diagnosis. We conducted a cohort study to determine if antibody seroconversion to C jejuni would better reflect the occurrence of infection acquired in Mexico. Serum IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies to Campylobacter seroconverted in only 2 of 353 participants (0.6%). These data further support that C jejuni infection is an unusual cause of travelers' diarrhea in US visitors to Mexico. © 2010 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  4. Campylobacter jejuni, other campylobacters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For approximately three decades, the genus Campylobacter has had increased focus as a threat to food safety, due to the rise in enteritis in humans caused by consumption or handling of foods contaminated with the organism. For this reason, numerous research studies have been conducted and books wri...

  5. Campylobacter volucris sp. nov., isolated from black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus).

    PubMed

    Debruyne, Lies; Broman, Tina; Bergström, Sven; Olsen, Björn; On, Stephen L W; Vandamme, Peter

    2010-08-01

    During a study of the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus) in Sweden, three isolates, strains LMG 24379, LMG 24380T and LMG 24381, were initially identified as Campylobacter lari. Further characterization by both AFLP and whole-cell protein SDS-PAGE analyses revealed that they formed a distinct group in the genus Campylobacter. This unique position was confirmed by phenotypic characterization, 16S rRNA and hsp60 gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridizations. The combined data confirm that these isolates represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter volucris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMG 24380T (=CCUG 57498T).

  6. Biofilm spatial organization by the emerging pathogen Campylobacter jejuni: comparison between NCTC 11168 and 81-176 strains under microaerobic and oxygen-enriched conditions

    PubMed Central

    Turonova, Hana; Briandet, Romain; Rodrigues, Ramila; Hernould, Mathieu; Hayek, Nabil; Stintzi, Alain; Pazlarova, Jarmila; Tresse, Odile

    2015-01-01

    During the last years, Campylobacter has emerged as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne infections in developed countries. Described as an obligate microaerophile, Campylobacter has puzzled scientists by surviving a wide range of environmental oxidative stresses on foods farm to retail, and thereafter intestinal transit and oxidative damage from macrophages to cause human infection. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to explore the biofilm development of two well-described Campylobacter jejuni strains (NCTC 11168 and 81-176) prior to or during cultivation under oxygen-enriched conditions. Quantitative and qualitative appraisal indicated that C. jejuni formed finger-like biofilm structures with an open ultrastructure for 81-176 and a multilayer-like structure for NCTC 11168 under microaerobic conditions (MAC). The presence of motile cells within the biofilm confirmed the maturation of the C. jejuni 81-176 biofilm. Acclimation of cells to oxygen-enriched conditions led to significant enhancement of biofilm formation during the early stages of the process. Exposure to these conditions during biofilm cultivation induced an even greater biofilm development for both strains, indicating that oxygen demand for biofilm formation is higher than for planktonic growth counterparts. Overexpression of cosR in the poorer biofilm-forming strain, NCTC 11168, enhanced biofilm development dramatically by promoting an open ultrastructure similar to that observed for 81-176. Consequently, the regulator CosR is likely to be a key protein in the maturation of C. jejuni biofilm, although it is not linked to oxygen stimulation. These unexpected data advocate challenging studies by reconsidering the paradigm of fastidious requirements for C. jejuni growth when various subpopulations (from quiescent to motile cells) coexist in biofilms. These findings constitute a clear example of a survival strategy used by this emerging human pathogen. PMID:26217332

  7. Biofilm spatial organization by the emerging pathogen Campylobacter jejuni: comparison between NCTC 11168 and 81-176 strains under microaerobic and oxygen-enriched conditions.

    PubMed

    Turonova, Hana; Briandet, Romain; Rodrigues, Ramila; Hernould, Mathieu; Hayek, Nabil; Stintzi, Alain; Pazlarova, Jarmila; Tresse, Odile

    2015-01-01

    During the last years, Campylobacter has emerged as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne infections in developed countries. Described as an obligate microaerophile, Campylobacter has puzzled scientists by surviving a wide range of environmental oxidative stresses on foods farm to retail, and thereafter intestinal transit and oxidative damage from macrophages to cause human infection. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to explore the biofilm development of two well-described Campylobacter jejuni strains (NCTC 11168 and 81-176) prior to or during cultivation under oxygen-enriched conditions. Quantitative and qualitative appraisal indicated that C. jejuni formed finger-like biofilm structures with an open ultrastructure for 81-176 and a multilayer-like structure for NCTC 11168 under microaerobic conditions (MAC). The presence of motile cells within the biofilm confirmed the maturation of the C. jejuni 81-176 biofilm. Acclimation of cells to oxygen-enriched conditions led to significant enhancement of biofilm formation during the early stages of the process. Exposure to these conditions during biofilm cultivation induced an even greater biofilm development for both strains, indicating that oxygen demand for biofilm formation is higher than for planktonic growth counterparts. Overexpression of cosR in the poorer biofilm-forming strain, NCTC 11168, enhanced biofilm development dramatically by promoting an open ultrastructure similar to that observed for 81-176. Consequently, the regulator CosR is likely to be a key protein in the maturation of C. jejuni biofilm, although it is not linked to oxygen stimulation. These unexpected data advocate challenging studies by reconsidering the paradigm of fastidious requirements for C. jejuni growth when various subpopulations (from quiescent to motile cells) coexist in biofilms. These findings constitute a clear example of a survival strategy used by this emerging human pathogen.

  8. Isolation and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Campylobacter Species among Diarrheic Children at Jimma, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tassew, Haimanot; Asrat, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Campylobacter is one of the leading bacterial causes of food-borne disease. The prevalence of Campylobacter species resistant to antimicrobial agents is increasing. This study is intended to determine prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Campylobacter species among under-five children with diarrhea. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 227 under-five children with diarrhea from July to October 2012 at Jimma town. Isolation and identification of Campylobacter species were performed using standard bacteriological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed following standard protocol. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for analysis. Results. From 227 under-five children, 16.7% were positive for Campylobacter spp.; isolates, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, accounted for 71.1%, 21.1%, and 7.9%, respectively. Higher rate of resistance was observed to ampicillin 76.3%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (68.4%), tetracycline (39.5%), chloramphenicol (31.6%), clindamycin (26.3%), and doxycycline (23.7%). Erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, and nalidixic acid were effective for more than 80% of the isolates. Multiple drug resistance was observed among 78.9% of all the three spp. Conclusions. Isolation rate of Campylobacter spp. was high. C. lari was reported for the first time at this study area. Higher rate of resistance was observed to the commonly used drugs. PMID:26904735

  9. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and enteric bacterial pathogens among hospitalized HIV infected versus non-HIV infected patients with diarrhoea in southern India.

    PubMed

    Kownhar, Hayath; Shankar, Esaki Muthu; Rajan, Ramachandran; Vengatesan, Appasamy; Rao, Usha Anand

    2007-01-01

    A prevalence study on Campylobacter jejuni and other enteric bacterial pathogens was carried out in 200 HIV infected and 200 non-HIV infected subjects with diarrhoeal symptoms at an AIDS Hospital in southern India. Diarrhoeal specimens were inoculated onto standard culture media as well as onto Columbia and Campylobacter blood agar media for C. jejuni isolation. All the C. jejuni isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using Kirby-Bauer's method. A significant difference in recovery rates was observed between the 2 groups in relation to C. jejuni (p < or = 0.02; 95% CI 5.5 (1-10) and Shigella spp. (p < or = 0.02; 95% CI 6.5 (1-12). 21 isolates of Shigella spp., 16 C. jejuni, 5 Salmonella typhi, 3 Arcobacter spp., 3 Yersinia enterocolitica, and 2 Aeromonas hydrophila were recovered from the HIV infected cases. All the C. jejuni isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin whereas 1 strain was resistant to nalidixic acid. Interestingly, all the 29 Shigella spp. (21 from HIV and 8 from non-HIV cases) were resistant to erythromycin and most were resistant to many other antibiotics used. Our observations underline the need for epidemiological investigations to screen C. jejuni and Shigella spp. in HIV infected subjects with diarrhoea and analyse their antibiograms periodically to minimize disease burden in HIV/AIDS.

  10. The CprS sensor kinase of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni influences biofilm formation and is required for optimal chick colonization.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Sarah L; Davis, Lindsay M; MacKichan, Joanna K; Allan, Brenda J; Pajaniappan, Mohanasundari; Thompson, Stuart A; Gaynor, Erin C

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, must adapt to different environments to be a successful pathogen. We previously identified a C. jejuni two-component regulatory system (Cj1226/7c) as upregulated during cell infections. Analyses described herein led us to designate the system CprRS (Campylobacter planktonic growth regulation). While the response regulator was essential, a cprS sensor kinase mutant was viable. The Delta cprS mutant displayed an apparent growth defect and formed dramatically enhanced and accelerated biofilms independent of upregulation of previously characterized surface polysaccharides. Delta cprS also displayed a striking dose-dependent defect for colonization of chicks and was modestly enhanced for intracellular survival in INT407 cells. Proteomics analyses identified changes consistent with modulation of essential metabolic genes, upregulation of stress tolerance proteins, and increased expression of MOMP and FlaA. Consistent with expression profiling, we observed enhanced motility and secretion in Delta cprS, and decreased osmotolerance and oxidative stress tolerance. We also found that C. jejuni biofilms contain a DNase I-sensitive component and that biofilm formation is influenced by deoxycholate and the metabolic substrate fumarate. These results suggest that CprRS influences expression of factors important for biofilm formation, colonization and stress tolerance, and also add to our understanding of C. jejuni biofilm physiology.

  11. Distribution and seasonality of microbial indicators and thermophilic campylobacters in two freshwater bathing sites on the River Lune in northwest England.

    PubMed

    Obiri-Danso, K; Jones, K

    1999-12-01

    Two freshwater bathing sites, the Crook O'Lune and the University Boathouse, on the River Lune in the north-west of England, were monitored over a 2 year period for the faecal indicators, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci, the pathogens, Salmonella and Campylobacter, and compliance with the EU Directive on Bathing Water Quality. Faecal indicator numbers showed no seasonal variation, with numbers in the bathing season similar to those in the non-bathing season. They were consistently above the EU Guideline and Imperative standards so that if the EU Bathing Water Quality Directive (76/160/EEC) were applied, neither site would comply. Faecal indicator numbers in the sediments were an order of magnitude higher than in the overlying water. Campylobacter numbers showed seasonal variation in the water with higher counts in winter than in the summer, although numbers were low. Higher numbers were found in the sediments but there was no seasonal variation. Analysis of various inputs showed that indicators and campylobacters came from a mixture of sources, namely a sewage treatment works, agricultural run-off, streams and mallards. Microbial numbers in the water at the Crook O'Lune, which is closer to the sources of pollution, were twice those at the Boathouse. In the sediments they were six to eight times higher. Faecal coliforms were all identified as Escherichia coli of which 80% were a single biotype. Faecal streptococci were all enterococci of which 55% were E. avium, 38% E. faecalis and 7% E. durans. Salmonella was not isolated from either the water column or the sediments. Campylobacters were mainly Camp. jejuni, followed by Camp. coli, UPTC and Camp. lari.

  12. Prevalence, antibiotic resistance and RAPD typing of Campylobacter species isolated from ducks, their rearing and processing environments in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Adzitey, Frederick; Rusul, Gulam; Huda, Nurul; Cogan, Tristan; Corry, Janet

    2012-03-15

    We report for the first time on the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and RAPD types of Campylobacter species in ducks and duck related environmental samples in Malaysia. Samples were examined by enrichment in Bolton Broth followed by plating onto modified Charcoal Cefoperazone Deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and/or plating directly onto mCCDA. A total of 643 samples were screened, and the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in samples from different sources ranged from 0% to 85%. The method of isolation had a significant (P<0.05) effect on the isolation rate. One hundred and sixteen Campylobacter isolates, comprising of 94 Campylobacter jejuni, 19 Campylobacter coli and three Campylobacter lari, were examined for their sensitivity to 13 antibiotics. Majority of the C. jejuni isolates were resistant to cephalothin (99%), tetracycline (96%), suphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (96%), and very few were resistant to gentamicin (5%), chloramphenicol (7%) and erythromycin (1%). All C. coli isolates were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and tetracycline but susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin. The three C. lari isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics tested except chloramphenicol and gentamicin (1/3 and 2/3 susceptible, respectively). Genetic diversity of Campylobacter isolates were determined using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). C. jejuni and C. coli isolates belong to fifty-eight and twelve RAPD types, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from Ontario sheep flocks and associations between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Scott, L; Menzies, P; Reid-Smith, R J; Avery, B P; McEwen, S A; Moon, C S; Berke, O

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in faecal Campylobacter spp. from lambs and adult sheep and associations between antimicrobial use (AMU) and AMR. A total of 275 faecal samples collected during initial and final visits from 51 sheep flocks, including one feedlot, across southern Ontario were tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni was detected in 52% (143/275) of the faecal samples, Campylobacter coli in 7% (19/275), Campylobacter lari in 1% (2/275) and 2% (4/275) were non-speciated Campylobacter. Broth microdilution was used to test antimicrobial susceptibility of 162 isolates to nine antimicrobials. Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 142) were resistant to tetracycline (39%), ciprofloxacin (4%), nalidixic acid (4%) and telithromycin (1%). C. coli isolates (n = 19) were resistant to tetracycline (74%), and azithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, and telithromycin (5%). The C. lari isolate displayed resistance to nalidixic acid. No statistically significant associations were found between AMU and AMR during multivariate modelling in this study.

  14. Prevalence and pathogen load of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157/O145 serogroup in sheep faeces collected at sale yards and in abattoir effluent in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Yang, R; Abraham, S; Gardner, G E; Ryan, U; Jacobson, C

    2017-05-01

    Develop a multiplex quantitative PCR assay to investigate the prevalence and shedding of Escherichia coli O157/O145, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in sheep at sale yards and abattoirs. A qPCR for E. coli O157/O145 was developed, validated and multiplexed with an existing qPCR for Campylobacter and Salmonella enterica. The absolute numbers of E. coli O157/O145, Campylobacter and Salmonella in control samples was determined using droplet digital PCR. These were then used as the controls in the multiplex qPCR on a total of 474 sheep faecal samples collected from two saleyards over a 4-month period (April-July 2014) and 96 effluent samples from an abattoir. The mutiplex qPCR was specific with a sensitivity of 5 organisms/μL faecal DNA extract for Campylobacter, S. enterica and E. coli O157/O145. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter, S. enterica and E. coli O157/O145 in faecal samples was 5.7%, 3.6% and 8.4% and in effluent samples was 18.8%, 6.3% and 5.2%, respectively. The pathogen loads of Campylobacter, S. enterica and E. coli O157/O145 in faecal and effluent samples was also determined via mutiplex qPCR. The overall prevalences of Campylobacter, S. enterica and E. coli O157/O145 were generally low (<6%), but point prevalences ranged considerably in healthy sheep (up to 26% for E. coli O157/O145). Further work to determine risk factors for shedding of bacterial organisms in meat sheep in the pre-slaughter period (on-farm, sale yards and lairage at abattoirs) could further reduce the risk of contamination of meat products. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Assessing the intra-species genetic variability in the clonal pathogen Campylobacter fetus: CRISPRs are highly polymorphic DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Calleros, Lucía; Betancor, Laura; Iraola, Gregorio; Méndez, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Paolicchi, Fernando; Silveyra, Silvia; Velilla, Alejandra; Pérez, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that infects animals and humans. The subspecies Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus (Cff) affects a broad range of vertebrate hosts and induces abortion in cows and sheep. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) is restricted to cattle and causes the endemic disease bovine genital campylobacteriosis, which triggers reproductive problems and is responsible for major economic losses. Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft) has been isolated mostly from apparently healthy reptiles belonging to different species but also from ill snakes and humans. Genotypic differentiation of Cff and Cfv is difficult, and epidemiological information is scarce because there are few methods to study the genetic diversity of the strains. We analyze the efficacy of MLST, ribosomal sequences (23S gene and internal spacer region), and CRISPRs to assess the genetic variability of C. fetus in bovine and human isolates. Sequences retrieved from complete genomes were included in the analysis for comparative purposes. MLST and ribosomal sequences had scarce or null variability, while the CRISPR-cas system structure and the sequence of CRISPR1 locus showed remarkable diversity. None of the sequences here analyzed provided evidence of a genetic differentiation of Cff and Cfv in bovine isolates. Comparison of bovine and human isolates with Cft strains showed a striking divergence. Inter-host differences raise the possibility of determining the original host of human infections using CRISPR sequences. CRISPRs are the most variable sequences analyzed in C. fetus so far, and constitute excellent representatives of a dynamic fraction of the genome. CRISPR typing is a promising tool to characterize isolates and to track the source and transmission route of C. fetus infections.

  16. Ability of lactate and pyruvate to stimulate aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with fumarate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter spp. are human, foodborne, and bacterial pathogens that are frequently isolated from live poultry and processed poultry products. These pathogens are classified as microaerophiles; therefore, Campylobacter cultures are generally grown in atmospheres with reduced oxygen levels and elev...

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from humans, pigs, cattle, and broilers in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Aarestrup, F M; Nielsen, E M; Madsen, M; Engberg, J

    1997-01-01

    The MICs of 16 antimicrobial agents were determined for 202 Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 123 Campylobacter coli isolates, and 6 Campylobacter lari isolates from humans and food animals in Denmark. The C. jejuni isolates originated from humans (75), broilers (95), cattle (29), and pigs (3); the C. coli isolates originated from humans (7), broilers (17), and pigs (99); and the C. lari isolates originated from broilers (5) and cattle (1). All isolates were susceptible to apramycin, neomycin, and gentamicin. Only a few C. jejuni isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to tetracycline was more common among C. jejuni isolates from humans (11%) than among C. jejuni isolates from animals (0 to 2%). More resistance to streptomycin was found among C. jejuni isolates from cattle (10%) than among those from humans (4%) or broilers (1%). A greater proportion of C. coli than of C. jejuni isolates were resistant to the other antimicrobial agents tested. Isolates were in most cases either coresistant to tylosin, spiramycin, and erythromycin or susceptible to all three antibiotics. More macrolide-resistant isolates were observed among C. coli isolates from swine (79%) than among C. coli isolates from broilers (18%) and humans (14%). Twenty-four percent of C. coli isolates from pigs were resistant to enrofloxacin, whereas 29% of C. coli isolates from humans and none from broilers were resistant. More resistance to streptomycin was observed among C. coli isolates from swine (48%) than among C. coli isolates from broilers (6%) or humans (0%). The six C. lari isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents except ampicillin and nalidixic acid. This study showed that antimicrobial resistance was found only at relatively low frequencies among C. jejuni and C. lari isolates. Among C. coli isolates, especially from swine, there was a high level of resistance to macrolides and streptomycin. Furthermore, this study showed differences in the resistance

  18. Occurrence of campylobacter species in healthy well-nourished and malnourished children.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Heriberto; Vera, Fernando; Villanueva, María Paz; García, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of Campylobacter species in healthy, well-nourished and healthy, malnourished children of low socioeconomic level in Southern Chile was determined. Campylobacter carriers were significantly most frequent among malnourished (31.4%) than among well-nourished (9.9%) children. Six species were isolated from malnourished children whereas four were found among well-nourished children. C. upsaliensis was the most frequent (13.3%) species isolated from malnourished children, followed by C. lari (7.6%) and C. fetus ssp. fetus (1.9%).

  19. Effect of Incubation Temperature on the Detection of Thermophilic Campylobacter Species from Freshwater Beaches, Nearby Wastewater Effluents, and Bird Fecal Droppings

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Stephen; Nowak, Eva; Edge, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This large-scale study compared incubation temperatures (37°C versus 42°C) to study the detection of thermophilic Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, in various surface water samples and bird fecal droppings around Hamilton Harbor, Lake Ontario. The putative culture isolates obtained from incubation temperatures of 37 and 42°C were confirmed by Campylobacter genus- and species-specific triplex PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. A total of 759 water, wastewater, and bird fecal dropping samples were tested. Positive amplification reactions for the genus Campylobacter were found for 454 (60%) samples incubated at 37°C, compared to 258 (34%) samples incubated at 42°C. C. jejuni (16%) and C. lari (12%) were detected significantly more frequently at the 42°C incubation temperature than at 37°C (8% and 5%, respectively). In contrast, significantly higher rates of C. coli (14%) and other Campylobacter spp. (36%) were detected at the 37°C incubation temperature than at 42°C (8% and 7%, respectively). These results were consistent across surface water, wastewater, and bird fecal dropping samples. At times, Campylobacter spp. were recovered and detected at 37°C (3% for C. jejuni, 10% for C. coli, and 3% for C. lari) when the same samples incubated at 42°C were negative. A significantly higher rate of other Campylobacter spp. was detected only at 37°C (32%) than only at 42°C (3%). These results indicate that incubation temperature can significantly influence the culturability and detection of thermophilic and other fastidious Campylobacter spp. and that a comprehensive characterization of the Campylobacter spp. in surface water, wastewaters, or bird fecal droppings will require incubation at both 37 and 42°C. PMID:24077717

  20. Isolation, identification and differentiation of Campylobacter spp. using multiplex PCR assay from goats in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elbrissi, Atif; Sabeil, Y A; Khalifa, Khalda A; Enan, Khalid; Khair, Osama M; El Hussein, A M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize thermophilic Campylobacter species in faecal samples from goats in Khartoum State, Sudan, by application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease of global concern, and the organisms can be transmitted to human via food, water and through contact with farm animals and pets. There are five clinically related Campylobacter species: Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni). Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter fetus. Conventional cultural methods to diagnose campylobacteriosis are tedious and time consuming. Wide ranges of genes have been reported to be used for PCR-based identification of Campylobacter spp. We used a multiplex PCR assay to simultaneously detect genes from the major five clinically significant Campylobacter spp. The genes selected were hipO (hippuricase) and 23S rRNA from glyA (serine hydroxymethyl transferase) from each of C. jejuni. C. coli, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis; and sapB2 (surface layer protein) from C. fetus subsp. fetus. The assay was used to identify Campylobacter isolates recovered from 336 cultured faecal samples from goats in three localities in Khartoum State. C. coli was the most predominant isolate (234; 69.6%), followed by C. jejuni (19; 5.7%), C. upsaliensis (13; 3.9%), C. fetus subsp. fetus (7; 2.1%) and C. lari (6; 1.8%). Twenty-nine goats showed mixed infection with Campylobacter spp., 21 of which harbored two Campylobacter spp., while eight animals were infected with three species. Ten out of twelve goats that displayed diarrhea harbored C. coli only. C. coli, C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis showed significant variation with localities. The prevalence of C. coli was significantly higher (87; 25.9%) in goats from Omdurman, whereas C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis were significantly higher (11; 3.3%, 9; 2.7%) in goats from Khartoum. The multiplex PCR assay was found to be rapid and easy to perform and

  1. A comparison of different culture methods for the recovery of Campylobacter species from pets.

    PubMed

    Acke, E; McGill, K; Golden, O; Jones, B R; Fanning, S; Whyte, P

    2009-11-01

    Five culture methods for the recovery of Campylobacter species (spp.) were evaluated on 361 rectal swabs collected from cats and dogs in Ireland. Speciation using PCR methods was performed on all isolates to assess the sensitivity of each culture method for isolation of Campylobacter spp., and to establish the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. upsaliensis, C. lari and C. helveticus. Overall 163 of 361 (45.2%) samples were confirmed Campylobacter spp. positive. Direct plating onto modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) with cefoperazone, amphotericin and teicoplanin (CAT) selective supplement yielded a significantly higher prevalence of Campylobacter spp. (33.0%) than each of the other four methods (P < or = 0.05). This method was also the most sensitive method for isolation of C. upsaliensis compared with any of the other four methods used in the current study (P < or = 0.05). A direct plating method onto mCCDA agar with CCDA selective supplement and a filtration method onto blood agar after pre-enrichment in CAT supplemented broth yielded lower Campylobacter spp. prevalences of 19.7% and 17.5% respectively. A filtration method onto CAT agar and pre-enrichment in Preston broth before plating onto mCCDA agar were less sensitive for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. Speciation results of Campylobacter isolates revealed the majority of Campylobacter isolates were C. upsaliensis (50.0%) and C. jejuni (41.9%). A small number of isolates were C. coli (2.6%), C. lari (1.5%) and C. helveticus (1.1%). The overall detection of Campylobacter spp. in the 361 pets sampled was significantly increased by using a combination of isolation methods (P < or = 0.05), producing a more accurate determination of the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in pets in Ireland and of the actual Campylobacter species. As the majority of Campylobacter spp. were recovered by direct plating onto mCCDA agar with CAT supplement, this method is the method of choice if

  2. Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter: emergence, transmission and persistence

    PubMed Central

    Luangtongkum, Taradon; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Han, Jing; Plummer, Paul; Logue, Catherine M; Zhang, Qijing

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading foodborne bacterial pathogen, which causes gastroenteritis in humans. This pathogenic organism is increasingly resistant to antibiotics, especially fluoroquinolones and macrolides, which are the most frequently used antimicrobials for the treatment of campylobacteriosis when clinical therapy is warranted. As a zoonotic pathogen, Campylobacter has a broad animal reservoir and infects humans via contaminated food, water or milk. Antibiotic usage in both animal agriculture and human medicine, can influence the development of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter. This review will describe the trend in fluoroquinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter, summarize the mechanisms underlying the resistance to various antibiotics and discuss the unique features associated with the emergence, transmission and persistence of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter. Special attention will be given to recent findings and emphasis will be placed on Campylobacter resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides. A future perspective on antibiotic resistance and potential approaches for the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter, will also be discussed. PMID:19257846

  3. Detection of virulence, antibiotic resistance and toxin (VAT) genes in Campylobacter species using newly developed multiplex PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Laprade, Natacha; Cloutier, Michel; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward; Wilkes, Graham; Villemur, Richard; Khan, Izhar U H

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. This twofold study was sought to: i) develop and optimize four single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR) assays for the detection of six virulence (ciaB, dnaJ, flaA, flaB, pldA and racR), three toxin (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) and one antibiotic resistance tet(O) genes in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and ii) apply and evaluate the developed mPCR assays by testing 470 previously identified C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari isolates from agricultural water. In each mPCR assay, a combination of two or three sets of primer pairs for virulence, antibiotic resistance and toxin (VAT) genes was used and optimized. Assay 1 was developed for the detection of dnaJ, racR and cdtC genes with expected amplification sizes of 720, 584 and 182bp. Assay 2 generated PCR amplicons for tet(O) and cdtA genes of 559 and 370bp. Assay 3 amplified cdtB ciaB, and pldA genes with PCR amplicon sizes of 620, 527 and 385bp. Assay 4 was optimized for flaA and flaB genes that generated PCR amplicons of 855 and 260bp. The primer pairs and optimized PCR protocols did not show interference and/or cross-amplification with each other and generated the expected size of amplification products for each target VAT gene for the C. jejuni ATCC 33291 reference strain. Overall, all ten target VAT genes were detected at a variable frequency in tested isolates of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. where cdtC, flaB, ciaB, cdtB, cdtA and pldA were commonly detected compared to the flaA, racR, dnaJ and tet(O) genes which were detected with less frequency. The developed mPCR assays are simple, rapid, reliable and sensitive tools for simultaneously assessing potential pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance profiling in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. The mPCR assays will be useful in diagnostic and analytical settings for routine screening of VAT characteristics of Campylobacter spp. as well as being applicable in epidemiological

  4. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to colonize the chicken varies significantly not only between Campylobacter strains but also depending on the original source of the infecting isolate. The data provides circumstantial evidence that early immune mechanisms in the gut may play an important role in the fate of Campylobacter in the host. PMID:24611122

  5. Dynamics of Campylobacter colonization of a natural host, Sturnus vulgaris (European starling).

    PubMed

    Colles, F M; McCarthy, N D; Howe, J C; Devereux, C L; Gosler, A G; Maiden, M C J

    2009-01-01

    Wild European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) shed Campylobacter at high rates, suggesting that they may be a source of human and farm animal infection. A survey of Campylobacter shedding of 957 wild starlings was undertaken by culture of faecal specimens and genetic analysis of the campylobacters isolated: shedding rates were 30.6% for Campylobacter jejuni, 0.6% for C. coli and 6.3% for C. lari. Genotyping by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antigen sequence typing established that these bacteria were distinct from poultry or human disease isolates with the ST-177 and ST-682 clonal complexes possibly representing starling-adapted genotypes. There was seasonal variation in both shedding rate and genotypic diversity, both exhibiting a maximum during the late spring/early summer. Host age also affected Campylobacter shedding, which was higher in younger birds, and turnover was rapid with no evidence of cross-immunity among Campylobacter species or genotypes. In nestlings, C. jejuni shedding was evident from 9 days of age but siblings were not readily co-infected. The dynamics of Campylobacter infection of starlings differed from that observed in commercial poultry and consequently there was no evidence that wild starlings represent a major source of Campylobacter infections of food animals or humans.

  6. Dynamics of Campylobacter colonization of a natural host, Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)

    PubMed Central

    Colles, F M; McCarthy, N D; Howe, J C; Devereux, C L; Gosler, A G; Maiden, M C J

    2009-01-01

    Wild European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) shed Campylobacter at high rates, suggesting that they may be a source of human and farm animal infection. A survey of Campylobacter shedding of 957 wild starlings was undertaken by culture of faecal specimens and genetic analysis of the campylobacters isolated: shedding rates were 30.6% for Campylobacter jejuni, 0.6% for C. coli and 6.3% for C. lari. Genotyping by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antigen sequence typing established that these bacteria were distinct from poultry or human disease isolates with the ST-177 and ST-682 clonal complexes possibly representing starling-adapted genotypes. There was seasonal variation in both shedding rate and genotypic diversity, both exhibiting a maximum during the late spring/early summer. Host age also affected Campylobacter shedding, which was higher in younger birds, and turnover was rapid with no evidence of cross-immunity among Campylobacter species or genotypes. In nestlings, C. jejuni shedding was evident from 9 days of age but siblings were not readily co-infected. The dynamics of Campylobacter infection of starlings differed from that observed in commercial poultry and consequently there was no evidence that wild starlings represent a major source of Campylobacter infections of food animals or humans. PMID:18826435

  7. Isolation and identification of thermophilic Campylobacter species in faecal samples from Swedish dogs.

    PubMed

    Engvall, Eva Olsson; Brändstrom, Boel; Andersson, Linda; Båverud, Viveca; Trowald-Wigh, Gunilla; Englund, Lena

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the role of Swedish dogs as potential reservoirs of thermophilic Campylobacter species, faecal samples were analysed from 91 dogs in 2001. The majority of dogs (n = 84) were healthy family dogs. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 51 of the 91 dogs (56%). A significant difference in isolation rates was observed between younger and older dogs: 76% of the younger dogs (5-12 months) were positive, compared with 39% of dogs > or = 13 months (p < 0.01). Two different selective media, Preston and CAT, were used for isolation of Campylobacter species. 104 Campylobacter isolates were identified to species level using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis techniques. Campylobacter upsaliensis predominated and was isolated from 39 dogs, C. jejuni from 10, C. coli from 2, C. helveticus from 2 and C. lari from 1 dog. Four dogs had mixed flora with 2 different Campylobacter species. These data clearly show that younger dogs in particular frequently shed thermophilic Campylobacter spp, which could be of impact for public health. To establish the zoonotic potential of canine Campylobacter isolates, both human and canine isolates have to be further characterized and compared.

  8. 76 FR 15282 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... announced the forthcoming implementation of new performance standards for the pathogenic micro-organisms... implementation of new performance standards for the pathogenic micro- organisms Salmonella and Campylobacter...

  9. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ... Sometimes, particularly when a Campylobacter infection is severe, antibiotics may be given. If taken early in the ...

  10. Modification of the LaryButton for Tracheoesophageal Speech

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Jan S.; Montgomery, Patti C.; Hutcheson, Katherine A.; Chambers, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Tracheoesophageal (TE) speech using a voice prosthesis and hands-free speaking valve with intraluminal attachment is the gold standard for voice restoration after total laryngectomy. Modification of a standard self-retaining silicone cannula or button often aids in the attachment of a speaking valve within the tracheal lumen for hands-free TE speech production. An increased number of laryngectomized individuals are able to achieve hands-free TE speech when the standard length, flange, and diameter of a silicone button is customized to accommodate individual tracheostomal contours. A technique is presented for modification of a standard silicone button, the LaryButton, to facilitate hands-free TE speech after total laryngectomy. PMID:19853175

  11. Cj1411c Encodes for a Cytochrome P450 Involved in Campylobacter jejuni 81-176 Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Luis A. J.; Bourke, Billy; Pircalabioru, Gratiela; Georgiev, Atanas Y.; Knaus, Ulla G.; Daff, Simon; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s are b-heme-containing enzymes that are able to introduce oxygen atoms into a wide variety of organic substrates. They are extremely widespread in nature having diverse functions at both biochemical and physiological level. The genome of C. jejuni 81-176 encodes a single cytochrome P450 (Cj1411c) that has no close homologues. Cj1411c is unusual in its genomic location within a cluster involved in the biosynthesis of outer surface structures. Here we show that E. coli expressed and affinity-purified C. jejuni cytochrome P450 is lipophilic, containing one equivalent Cys-ligated heme. Immunoblotting confirmed the association of cytochrome P450 with membrane fractions. A Cj1411c deletion mutant had significantly reduced ability to infect human cells and was less able to survive following exposure to human serum when compared to the wild type strain. Phenotypically following staining with Alcian blue, we show that a Cj1411c deletion mutant produces significantly less capsular polysaccharide. This study describes the first known membrane-bound bacterial cytochrome P450 and its involvement in Campylobacter virulence. PMID:24086558

  12. Better Campylobacter Detection: Furthering our understanding of Campylobacter ecology in poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter is an important human pathogen and consumption of undercooked poultry has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are in development. For more than a decade, there has been an ongoing na...

  13. Presence of antibodies against campylobacter flagellar capping proteins versus campylobacter jejuni isolation in broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading foodborne pathogen that causes human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Human cases have been linked to consumption and/or handling of contaminated poultry products. Although Campylobacter jejuni is commonly regarded as a commensal in broiler cecal micro...

  14. Campylobacter bacteriophages and bacteriophage therapy.

    PubMed

    Connerton, P L; Timms, A R; Connerton, I F

    2011-08-01

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease with occasionally very serious outcomes. Much of this disease burden is thought to arise from consumption of contaminated poultry products. More than 80% of poultry in the UK harbour Campylobacter as a part of their intestinal flora. To address this unacceptably high prevalence, various interventions have been suggested and evaluated. Among these is the novel approach of using Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages, which are natural predators of the pathogen. To optimize their use as therapeutic agents, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of the bacteriophages that infect Campylobacter, and how they can affect their host bacteria. This review will focus on many aspects of Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages including: their first isolation in the 1960s, their use in bacteriophage typing schemes, their isolation from the different biological sources and genomic characterization. As well as their use as therapeutic agents to reduce Campylobacter in poultry their future potential, including their use in bio-sanitization of food, will be explored. The evolutionary consequences of naturally occurring bacteriophage infection that have come to light through investigations of bacteriophages in the poultry ecosystem will also be discussed.

  15. Investigation of the Enteric Pathogenic Potential of Oral Campylobacter concisus Strains Isolated from Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Octavia, Sophie; Day, Andrew S.; Riordan, Stephen M.; Grimm, Michael C.; Lan, Ruiting; Lemberg, Daniel; Tran, Thi Anh Tuyet; Zhang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Background Campylobacter concisus, a bacterium colonizing the human oral cavity, has been shown to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study investigated if patients with IBD are colonized with specific oral C. concisus strains that have potential to cause enteric diseases. Methodology Seventy oral and enteric C. concisus isolates obtained from eight patients with IBD and six controls were examined for housekeeping genes by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), Caco2 cell invasion by gentamicin-protection-assay, protein analysis by mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE, and morphology by scanning electron microscopy. The whole genome sequenced C. concisus strain 13826 which was isolated from an individual with bloody diarrhea was included in MLST analysis. Principal Findings MLST analysis showed that 87.5% of individuals whose C. concisus belonged to Cluster I had inflammatory enteric diseases (six IBD and one with bloody diarrhea), which was significantly higher than that in the remaining individuals (28.6%) (P<0.05). Enteric invasive C. concisus (EICC) oral strain was detected in 50% of patients with IBD and none of the controls. All EICC strains were in Cluster 1. The C. concisus strain colonizing intestinal tissues of patient No. 1 was closely related to the oral C. concisus strain from patient No. 6 and had gene recombination with the patient’s own oral C. concisus. The oral and intestinal C. concisus strains of patient No. 3 were the same strain. Some individuals were colonized with multiple oral C. concisus strains that have undergone natural recombination. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that patients with IBD are colonized with specific oral C. concisus strains, with some being EICC strains. C. concisus colonizing intestinal tissues of patients with IBD at least in some instances results from an endogenous colonization of the patient’s oral C. concisus and that C. concisus strains undergo natural recombination. PMID

  16. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from domestic animals and poultry in south of Iran.

    PubMed

    Baserisalehi, M; Bahador, N; Kapadnis, B P

    2007-05-01

    A total of 455 domestic animals (cow, horse and camel) and poultry from south of Iran were surveyed for fecal carriage of Campylobacter spp. Out of all collected fecal samples, the highest isolation rate of Campylobacter was recorded among poultry (35%), followed by horse (27%) and cow (21%) while, lowest isolation rate was recorded among camel. Of the 85 Campylobacter strains isolated, 76 were classified as catalase positive Campylobacter. Out of them, high frequency of occurrence was belonged to Campy. jejuni. Furthermore, catalase positive Campylobacter spp. were isolated from all the sources of investigation, other than camel. The results obtained from biotyping of the isolates indicated Camp. lari biotype I followed by Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli biotypes I existed in high frequency; while Camp. jejuni biotype II and untypable Campylobacter existed in low frequency. Overall, domestic animals and poultry other than camels are vehicle of Campylobacter in the area of investigation therefore, the people who living in this area may be infected via feces of domestic animals and poultry.

  17. Accurate detection of Campylobacter spp. antigens by immunochromatography and enzyme immunoassay in routine microbiological laboratory.

    PubMed

    Regnath, Thomas; Ignatius, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms, and their detection by culture depends on the freshness of the stool sample and the skills of the laboratory staff. To improve laboratory diagnosis, assays for the detection of specific antigens have been developed. Here, we evaluated two assays for the detection of Campylobacter spp.-specific antigens, i.e., one immunochromatographic test and one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA), in 38 frozen Campylobacter spp.-positive specimens and prospectively in 533 fresh stool samples with a conventional enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and culture. Both assays were positive for 36 samples with Campylobacter jejuni and one with Campylobacter coli among 38 Campylobacter spp.-positive frozen samples. One Campylobacter lari-positive sample was identified by the immunochromatographic assay (ICA) only. In a prospective study performed within the course of routine microbiology, both assays were positive for 24/25 C. jejuni culture-positive samples (positive percent agreement, 96.0% [95% CI: 78.9-100%]). ICA and EIA also were positive for 14 and 10 culture-negative samples, respectively (negative percent agreement: ICA, 97.2% [95% CI: 95.4-98.4%]; EIA, 98.0% [95% CI: 96.4-99.0%]). In conclusion, the high agreement between both antigen-detection assays and culture indicates that both assays may be initially performed followed by culture only upon a positive test result.

  18. Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus spondylodiscitis.

    PubMed

    Chaillon, Antoine; Baty, Gaelle; Lauvin, Marie Agnès; Besnier, Jean Marc; Goudeau, Alain; Lanotte, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    Campylobacter spp. are common causes of gastrointestinal infections. Campylobacter fetus is a much rarer pathogen in humans, and usually causes bacteraemia and systemic complications in patients with predisposing conditions. We report a case of spondylodiscitis caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus as revealed by vertebral biopsy culture. This identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and by phylogenetic analysis. Treatment consisted of 6 weeks antimicrobial therapy combined with a strict initial immobilization, followed by a re-education program. The patient's recovery was uneventful.

  19. Roles of the twin-arginine translocase and associated chaperones in the biogenesis of the electron transport chains of the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Andrew; Hall, Stephen J; Myers, Jonathan D; Mulholland, Francis; Jones, Michael A; Kelly, David J

    2010-10-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 uses a complex set of electron transport chains to ensure growth with a variety of electron donors and alternative electron acceptors, some of which are known to be important for host colonization. Many of the key redox proteins essential for electron transfer in this bacterium have N-terminal twin-arginine translocase (TAT) signal sequences that ensure their transport across the cytoplasmic membrane in a folded state. By comparisons of 2D gels of periplasmic extracts, gene fusions and specific enzyme assays in wild-type, tatC mutant and complemented strains, we experimentally verified the TAT dependence of 10 proteins with an N-terminal twin-arginine motif. NrfH, which has a TAT-like motif (LRRKILK), was functional in nitrite reduction in a tatC mutant, and was correctly rejected as a TAT substrate by the tatfind and TatP prediction programs. However, the hydrogenase subunit HydA is also rejected by tatfind, but was shown to be TAT-dependent experimentally. The YedY homologue Cj0379 is the only TAT translocated molybdoenzyme of unknown function in C. jejuni; we show that a cj0379c mutant is deficient in chicken colonization and has a nitrosative stress phenotype, suggestive of a possible role for Cj0379 in the reduction of reactive nitrogen species in the periplasm. Only two potential TAT chaperones, NapD and Cj1514, are encoded in the genome. Surprisingly, despite homology to TorD, Cj1514 was shown to be specifically required for the activity of formate dehydrogenase, not trimethylamine N-oxide reductase, and was designated FdhM.

  20. Contribution of the stereospecific methionine sulphoxide reductases MsrA and MsrB to oxidative and nitrosative stress resistance in the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Atack, John M; Kelly, David J

    2008-08-01

    The microaerophilic food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is exposed to highly variable oxygen concentrations during its life cycle and employs a variety of protection mechanisms to resist oxidative stress. However, not all of the enzymes that mediate such protection have yet been identified. Two genes in strain NCTC 11168, Cj0637c and Cj1112c, are predicted to encode unrelated methionine sulphoxide reductases, which may repair oxidized methionine residues in proteins and thus contribute to oxidative stress defence. Cj0637 and Cj1112 were overexpressed, purified and shown by a coupled thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase-NADPH assay to catalyse the stereospecific reduction of the S and R diastereoisomers, respectively, of the model compound methyl p-tolyl sulphoxide. Cj0637 is thus identified as MsrA and Cj1112 as MsrB. The contribution of these enzymes to oxidative and nitrosative stress resistance in C. jejuni was assessed by phenotypic analysis of a set of isogenic msrA, msrB and msrA/B insertion mutants. As RT-PCR data suggested a polar effect on Cj1111c in the msrB mutant, an msrB/msrB(+) merodiploid complementation strain was also constructed. The msrA/B strain was severely growth inhibited under standard microaerobic conditions, whereas the msrA and msrB strains grew normally. Agar plate disc diffusion assays showed that all mutants displayed increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, organic peroxide, superoxide, and nitrosative and disulphide stress, but quantitative cell viability assays showed that the msrA/B double mutant was markedly more sensitive to both oxidative and nitrosative stress. All of the stress-sensitivity phenotypes observed for the msrB mutant were restored to wild-type in the msrB/msrB(+) merodiploid. It is concluded that MsrA and MsrB make a significant contribution to the protection of C. jejuni against oxidative and nitrosative stress.

  1. Campylobacter enteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, M A; Fleming, P C

    1979-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni/coli has recently become recognized as a common bacterial cause of diarrhea. Infection can occur at any age. The usual incubation period of campylobacter enteritis is 2 to 5 days. Fever, diarrhea and abdominal pain are the most common clinical features. The stools frequently contain mucus and, a few days after the onset of symptoms, frank blood. Significant vomiting and dehydration are uncommon. A rapid presumptive laboratory diagnosis may be made during the acute phase of the illness by direct phase-contrast microscopy of stools. Isolation of the organism from stools requires culture in a selective medium containing antibiotics and incubation under reduced oxygen tension at 42 degrees C. The organism persists in the stools of untreated patients for up to 7 weeks following the onset of symptoms. Erythromycin may produce a rapid clinical and bacteriologic cure, and should be used to treat moderately to severely ill patients as well as patients with compromised host defences. The emergence of erythromycin-resistant strains requires close monitoring. The epidemiologic aspects of campylobacter enteritis will be fully understood only when methods become available for differentiating strains of C. jejuni/coli. The historical background and current knowledge of campylobacter enteritis are reviewed in this paper. Images FIG. 1 PMID:455209

  2. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... feces (poop), which can lead to infection in humans via contaminated food, meats (especially chicken), water taken from contaminated sources (streams or rivers near where animals graze), and milk products that haven't been ... the human digestive system, Campylobacter infects and attacks the lining ...

  3. Anti-Campylobacter Activities and Resistance Mechanisms of Natural Phenolic Compounds in Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    Klančnik, Anja; Možina, Sonja Smole; Zhang, Qijing

    2012-01-01

    Background Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and alternative antimicrobials are needed to prevent or decrease Campylobacter contamination in foods or food producing animals. The objectives of this study are to define the anti-Campylobacter activities of natural phenolic compounds of plant origin and to determine the roles of bacterial drug efflux systems in the resistance to these natural phenolics in Campylobacter jejuni. Methodology/Principal Findings Anti-Campylobacter activities were evaluated by an MIC assay using microdilution coupled with ATP measurement. Mutants of the cmeB and cmeF efflux genes and the cmeR transcriptional repressor gene were compared with the wild-type strain for their susceptibilities to phenolics in the absence and presence of efflux-pump inhibitors (EPIs). The phenolic compounds produced significant, but variable activities against both antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic resistant Campylobacter. The highest anti-Campylobacter activity was seen with carnosic and rosmarinic acids in their pure forms or in enriched plant extracts. Inactivation of cmeB rendered C. jejuni significantly more susceptible to the phenolic compounds, while mutation of cmeF or cmeR only produced a moderate effect on the MICs. Consistent with the results from the efflux pump mutants, EPIs, especially phenylalanine-arginine β-naphthylamide and NMP, significantly reduced the MICs of the tested phenolic compounds. Further reduction of MICs by the EPIs was also observed in the cmeB and cmeF mutants, suggesting that other efflux systems are also involved in Campylobacter resistance to phenolic compounds. Conclusion/Significance Natural phenolic compounds of plant origin have good anti-Campylobacter activities and can be further developed for potential use in controlling Campylobacter. The drug efflux systems in Campylobacter contribute significantly to its resistance to the phenolics and EPIs potentiate the anti-Campylobacter activities of plant phenolic

  4. Campylobacter sugars sticking out.

    PubMed

    Guerry, Patricia; Szymanski, Christine M

    2008-09-01

    The amazing repertoire of glycoconjugates that are found in Campylobacter jejuni includes lipooligosaccharides mimicking human glycolipids, capsular polysaccharides with complex and unusual sugars, and proteins that are post-translationally modified with either O- or N-linked glycans. Thus, the glycome of this important food-borne pathogen is an excellent toolbox for glycobiologists to understand the fundamentals of these pathways and their role in host-microbe interactions, develop new techniques for glycobiology and exploit these pathways for novel diagnostics and therapeutics. The exciting surge in recent research activities will be summarized in this review.

  5. Global Epidemiology of Campylobacter Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of the last century. The incidence and prevalence of campylobacteriosis have increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The dramatic increase in North America, Europe, and Australia is alarming, and data from parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East indicate that campylobacteriosis is endemic in these areas, especially in children. In addition to C. jejuni, there is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter ureolyticus. Poultry is a major reservoir and source of transmission of campylobacteriosis to humans. Other risk factors include consumption of animal products and water, contact with animals, and international travel. Strategic implementation of multifaceted biocontrol measures to reduce the transmission of this group of pathogens is paramount for public health. Overall, campylobacteriosis is still one of the most important infectious diseases that is likely to challenge global health in the years to come. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the global epidemiology, transmission, and clinical relevance of Campylobacter infection. PMID:26062576

  6. Campylobacter contamination of broiler caeca and carcasses at the slaughterhouse and correlation with Salmonella contamination.

    PubMed

    Hue, Olivier; Allain, Virginie; Laisney, Marie-José; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Lalande, Françoise; Petetin, Isabelle; Rouxel, Sandra; Quesne, Ségolène; Gloaguen, Pierre-Yves; Picherot, Mélanie; Santolini, Julien; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Salvat, Gilles; Chemaly, Marianne

    2011-08-01

    In order to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. on broiler chicken carcasses and the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in caeca, 58 French slaughterhouses were investigated in 2008. Enumeration of Campylobacter spp. was also performed in order to study the relation between caeca and carcass contamination. A pool of 10 caeca and one carcass were collected from 425 different batches over a 12-month period in 2008. Salmonella was isolated on 32 carcasses leading to a prevalence of 7.5% ([5.0-10.0](95%CI)). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 77.2% ([73.2-81.2](95%CI)) in caeca and 87.5% ([84.4-90.7](95%CI)) on carcasses. No significant correlation was found between Campylobacter and Salmonella. Positive values of Campylobacter were normally distributed and the average level was 8.05 log(10) cfu/g ([7.94-8.16](95%CI)) in caeca and 2.39 cfu/g ([2.30-2.48](95%CI)) on carcasses. A positive correlation (r = 0.59) was found between the mean of Campylobacter in caeca and on carcasses (p < 0.001). Thus, carcasses from batches with Campylobacter-positive caeca had significantly (p < 0.001) higher numbers of Campylobacter per gram than batches with negative caeca. These results show that Campylobacter can be present in both matrices and reduction in caeca could be a possible way to reduce the amount of bacteria on carcasses. Of the 2504 identifications performed, 3 species of Campylobacter (Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari) were identified. The main species recovered were C. jejuni and C. coli, which were isolated in 55.3% and 44.5% of positive samples, respectively. These two species were equally represented in caeca but C. jejuni was the most frequently isolated on carcasses with 57.1% and 42.5% of positive carcasses for C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. This study underlines that target a reduction of Campylobacter on final products requires a decrease of contamination in caeca. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd

  7. Influence of high gas production during thermophilic anaerobic digestion in pilot-scale and lab-scale reactors on survival of the thermotolerant pathogens Clostridium perfringens and Campylobacter jejuni in piggery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Skillman, L C; Bajsa, O; Ho, L; Santhanam, B; Kumar, M; Ho, G

    2009-07-01

    Safe reuse of animal wastes to capture energy and nutrients, through anaerobic digestion processes, is becoming an increasingly desirable solution to environmental pollution. Pathogen decay is the most important safety consideration and is in general, improved at elevated temperatures and longer hydraulic residence times. During routine sampling to assess pathogen decay in thermophilic digestion, an inversely proportional relationship between levels of Clostridium perfringens and gas production was observed. Further samples were collected from pilot-scale, bench-scale thermophilic reactors and batch scale vials to assess whether gas production (predominantly methane) could be a useful indicator of decay of the thermotolerant pathogens C. perfringens and Campylobacter jejuni. Pathogen levels did appear to be lower where gas production and levels of methanogens were higher. This was evident at each operating temperature (50, 57, 65 degrees C) in the pilot-scale thermophilic digesters, although higher temperatures also reduced the numbers of pathogens detected. When methane production was higher, either when feed rate was increased, or pH was lowered from 8.2 (piggery wastewater) to 6.5, lower numbers of pathogens were detected. Although a number of related factors are known to influence the amount and rate of methane production, it may be a useful indicator of the removal of the pathogens C. perfringens and C. jejuni.

  8. 75 FR 27288 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young... performance standards for the pathogenic micro-organisms Salmonella and Campylobacter for use in young chicken... Campylobacter in poultry and a compliance guide on pre-harvest management to reduce E. coli O157:H7...

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of thermotolerant Campylobacter strains isolated from food animals in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Tesfaye; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Asrat, Daniel

    2007-01-17

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are frequent causes of diarrhoea in humans worldwide mostly originating from poultry. It has been suggested that extensive veterinary use of antibiotics is largely responsible for resistance in human isolates. During a 4-month period from January to April 2004, 192 Campylobacter spp. were isolated from fecal samples of 485 healthy food animals. The in vitro susceptibility to 12 antibiotics was determined by the agar disk diffusion method. Among the 192 Campylobacter spp. isolated, 135 (70.3%) were identified to be C. jejuni, 51 (26.6%) were C. coli and 6 (3.1%) were C. lari. C. jejuni was the most prevalent species in chickens (80.8%) versus 16.2% C. coli and 3.0% C. lari. All isolates found in pigs were C. coli. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin and all were resistant to cephalothin. More than 90% of the strains were sensitive to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, streptomycin and tetracycline. Resistance was found against ampicillin in 20% and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole in 37.5%. Resistance was not statistically different among C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari (p>0.05). Multidrug resistance to two or more drugs was detected in 14.5% of strains. In conclusion, the study showed that antimicrobial resistance is found only at relatively low frequencies for most antimicrobial agents tested except for ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. The low percentages of resistance to most antimicrobial agents tested in this study may be the result of low/no usage of these agents as a growth promoters or treatment in the Ethiopian animal farm setting. The detection of multidrug resistant isolates may pose a threat to humans and further limits therapeutic options.

  10. Structural insights from random mutagenesis of Campylobacter jejuni oligosaccharyltransferase PglB.

    PubMed

    Ihssen, Julian; Kowarik, Michael; Wiesli, Luzia; Reiss, Renate; Wacker, Michael; Thöny-Meyer, Linda

    2012-09-24

    Protein glycosylation is of fundamental importance in many biological systems. The discovery of N-glycosylation in bacteria and the functional expression of the N-oligosaccharyltransferase PglB of Campylobacter jejuni in Escherichia coli enabled the production of engineered glycoproteins and the study of the underlying molecular mechanisms. A particularly promising application for protein glycosylation in recombinant bacteria is the production of potent conjugate vaccines where polysaccharide antigens of pathogenic bacteria are covalently bound to immunogenic carrier proteins. In this study capsular polysaccharides of the clinically relevant pathogen Staphylococcus aureus serotype 5 (CP5) were expressed in Escherichia coli and linked in vivo to a detoxified version of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin (EPA). We investigated which amino acids of the periplasmic domain of PglB are crucial for the glycosylation reaction using a newly established 96-well screening system enabling the relative quantification of glycoproteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A random mutant library was generated by error-prone PCR and screened for inactivating amino acid substitutions. In addition to 15 inactive variants with amino acid changes within the previously known, strictly conserved WWDYG motif of N-oligosaccharyltransferases, 8 inactivating mutations mapped to a flexible loop in close vicinity of the amide nitrogen atom of the acceptor asparagine as revealed in the crystal structure of the homologous enzyme C. lari PglB. The importance of the conserved loop residue H479 for glycosylation was confirmed by site directed mutagenesis, while a change to alanine of the adjacent, non-conserved L480 had no effect. In addition, we investigated functional requirements in the so-called MIV motif of bacterial N-oligosaccharyltransferases. Amino acid residues I571 and V575, which had been postulated to interact with the acceptor peptide, were subjected to cassette saturation mutagenesis

  11. Structural insights from random mutagenesis of Campylobacter jejuni oligosaccharyltransferase PglB

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein glycosylation is of fundamental importance in many biological systems. The discovery of N-glycosylation in bacteria and the functional expression of the N-oligosaccharyltransferase PglB of Campylobacter jejuni in Escherichia coli enabled the production of engineered glycoproteins and the study of the underlying molecular mechanisms. A particularly promising application for protein glycosylation in recombinant bacteria is the production of potent conjugate vaccines where polysaccharide antigens of pathogenic bacteria are covalently bound to immunogenic carrier proteins. Results In this study capsular polysaccharides of the clinically relevant pathogen Staphylococcus aureus serotype 5 (CP5) were expressed in Escherichia coli and linked in vivo to a detoxified version of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin (EPA). We investigated which amino acids of the periplasmic domain of PglB are crucial for the glycosylation reaction using a newly established 96-well screening system enabling the relative quantification of glycoproteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A random mutant library was generated by error-prone PCR and screened for inactivating amino acid substitutions. In addition to 15 inactive variants with amino acid changes within the previously known, strictly conserved WWDYG motif of N-oligosaccharyltransferases, 8 inactivating mutations mapped to a flexible loop in close vicinity of the amide nitrogen atom of the acceptor asparagine as revealed in the crystal structure of the homologous enzyme C. lari PglB. The importance of the conserved loop residue H479 for glycosylation was confirmed by site directed mutagenesis, while a change to alanine of the adjacent, non-conserved L480 had no effect. In addition, we investigated functional requirements in the so-called MIV motif of bacterial N-oligosaccharyltransferases. Amino acid residues I571 and V575, which had been postulated to interact with the acceptor peptide, were subjected to cassette

  12. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Review of Bacteriocins to Control Campylobacter spp. in Poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  14. Bacteriocins to Control Campylobacter spp. in Poultry—a Review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  15. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions.

  16. Nonpeptidic mimics of host defense proteins as antimicrobial agents for E. coli O104:H4, campylobacter spp. and other foodborne pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Foodborne illness is a serious public health problem. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial diarrheal illness in the United States, causing more disease than Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. combined. The CDC estima...

  17. Use of Comparative Genomics and Eukaryotic Cell Adherence/Invasion Assays of the Food-Borne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni for the Identification of Putative Virulence Factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter, the leading bacterial etiology of acute humans gastroenteritis, is commonly associated with the handling/consumption of poultry. Eukaryotic cell adhesion/invasion assays were performed on fifty-one C. jejuni isolates. A range of adhesion/invasion abilities was exhibited. To identify ...

  18. Relationship between Presence of Anti-Campylobacter FliD Protein Antibodies and Campylobacter jejuni Isolation from Broiler Chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Poultry products are regarded as a major source of this bacterium for human infection. Although this bacterium is a commensal in chicken cecal microbiome, Campylobacte...

  19. Enhancement of viable Campylobacter detection by chemotactic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Wisessombat, Sueptrakool; Kittiniyom, Kanokwan; Srimanote, Potjanee; Wonglumsom, Wijit; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2010-08-01

    The effects of chemotactic stimuli on motility ability of viable Campylobacter to pass through a 0.45 microm pore size filter in viscous condition were investigated. Reference strains including C. jejuni ATCC 33291, C. coli MUMT 18407, C. lari ATCC 43675, and C. upsaliensis DMST 19055 were used. The initial numbers of artificially-inoculated viable cells per g of chicken meat were approximately 10 to 10(4). Constituents of mucin plus bile (1:1), varieties of amino acids, and sodium salts were added into a soft-agar-coated membrane filter and incubated at both 37 degrees C and 42 degrees C for 24h. The drop plate method was used to determine numbers of viable Campylobacter at 6, 12, 18, and 24h. After 6h, constituents of mucin plus bile at the concentrations of 1, 5, and 10% demonstrated significant increases in numbers of viable cells (p<0.05). The numbers of the organisms at 42 degrees C were higher than those at 37 degrees C. In contrast, no significant difference in cell numbers was observed by adding amino acids or sodium salts. In addition, the role of starvation on chemotactic responses was also studied. Starved cells showed lower chemotactic response than non-starved cells. This method permitted rapid detection of viable thermophilic Campylobacter.

  20. Increased intracellular calcium level and impaired nutrient absorption are important pathogenicity traits in the chicken intestinal epithelium during Campylobacter jejuni colonization.

    PubMed

    Awad, Wageha A; Smorodchenko, Alina; Hess, Claudia; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Molnár, Andor; Dublecz, Károly; Khayal, Basel; Pohl, Elena E; Hess, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Although a high number of chickens carry Campylobacter jejuni, the mechanistic action of colonization in the intestine is still poorly understood. The current study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of C. jejuni on glucose uptake, amino acids availability in digesta, and intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i signaling in the intestines of broiler chickens. For this, we compared: control birds (n = 60) and C. jejuni-infected birds (n = 60; infected orally with 1 × 10(8) CFU of C. jejuni NCTC 12744 at 14 days of age). Our results showed that glucose uptake was reduced due to C. jejuni infection in isolated jejunal, but not in cecal mucosa at 14 days postinfection (dpi). The decrease in intestinal glucose absorption coincided with a decrease in body weight gain during the 2-week post-infectious period. A reduction in the amount of the amino acids (serine, proline, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, arginine, histidine, and lysine) in ileal digesta of the infected birds at 2 and/or 7 dpi was found, indicating that Campylobacter utilizes amino acids as a carbon source for their multiplication. Applying the cell-permeable Ca(2+) indicator Fluo-4 and two-photon microscopy, we revealed that [Ca(2+)]i was increased in the jejunal and cecal mucosa of infected birds. The muscarinic agonist carbachol induced an increase in [Ca(2+)]i in jejunum and cecum mucosa of control chickens, a response absent in the mucosa of infected chickens, demonstrating that the modulation of [Ca(2+)]i by Campylobacter might be involved in facilitating the necessary cytoskeletal rearrangements that occur during the bacterial invasion of epithelial cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the multifaceted interactions of C. jejuni with the gastrointestinal mucosa of broiler chickens. For the first time, it could be shown that a Campylobacter infection could interfere with intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and nutrient absorption in the small intestine with consequences on

  1. Occurrence of thermotolerant campylobacters in fresh vegetables sold at farmers' outdoor markets and supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Park, C E; Sanders, G W

    1992-04-01

    A total of 1564 fresh samples of 10 vegetable types from two different retail levels (533 samples from farmers' outdoor markets and 1031 samples from supermarkets) were surveyed for the occurrence of thermotolerant campylobacters. In samples from the outdoor markets, campylobacters were detected on six types of vegetables; the detection rates were spinach, 3.3; lettuce, 3.1; radish, 2.7; green onions, 2.5; parsley, 2.4; and potatoes, 1.6%. Campylobacter jejuni was the predominant species (88%), with the remainder being C. lari (8%) and C. coli (4%). When the outdoor market samples were thoroughly washed with chlorinated water, all were negative for campylobacters. Of the samples from supermarkets, all were negative for campylobacters whether purchased in summer or winter. These results suggest that vegetables sold at farmers' outdoor markets are produced and (or) stored under less sanitary conditions than those sold at supermarkets, and they could constitute health hazards. Therefore, vegetables (e.g., potatoes and spinach) from farmers' markets must be decontaminated by washing with chlorinated water or cooked thoroughly before consumption.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolates from retail meat in the United States between 2002 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S; Young, S R; Tong, E; Abbott, J W; Womack, N; Friedman, S L; McDermott, P F

    2010-12-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. has been a growing public health concern globally. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter spp. recovered by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) retail meat program. Retail meat samples (n = 24,566) from 10 U.S. states collected between 2002 and 2007, consisting of 6,138 chicken breast, 6,109 ground turkey, 6,171 ground beef, and 6,148 pork chop samples, were analyzed. A total of 2,258 Campylobacter jejuni, 925 Campylobacter coli, and 7 Campylobacter lari isolates were identified. Chicken breast samples showed the highest contamination rate (49.9%), followed by ground turkey (1.6%), whereas both pork chops and ground beef had <0.5% contamination. The most common resistance was to doxycycline/tetracycline (46.6%), followed by nalidixic acid (18.5%), ciprofloxacin (17.4%), azithromycin and erythromycin (2.8%), telithromycin (2.4%), clindamycin (2.2%), and gentamicin (<0.1%). In a subset of isolates tested, no resistance to meropenem and florfenicol was seen. C. coli isolates showed higher resistance rates to antimicrobials, with the exception of doxycycline/tetracycline, than those seen for C. jejuni. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting resulted in 1,226 PFGE profiles among the 2,318 isolates, with many clones being widely dispersed throughout the 6-year sampling period.

  3. Campylobacter jejuni organism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Campylobacter jejuni infection causes cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever within 2 to 5 days after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial ...

  4. Campylobacter serology test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003530.htm Campylobacter serology test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look ...

  5. BACTERIOPHAGE THERAPY AND CAMPYLOBACTER

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The book chapter reports efforts to exploit Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages to reduce the numbers of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli colonizing poultry and contaminating poultry meat products. Controlling campylobacters in poultry represents one of the greatest challenges to the agriculture a...

  6. Screening and rapid identification of Campylobacter spp. DNA by FlaA PCR based method on chicken and human fecal samples in Egypt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter is a foodborne pathogen which has a potential public health concern worldwide. Due to discriminatory problems encountered by conventional isolation of Campylobacter spp. and its genetic similarities, rapid molecular techniques for its genetic characterization are useful. In this study,...

  7. Multiplex PCR assay for the detection and quantification of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella serotypes in water samples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three pathogens, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), are leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and worldwide. For example, Campylobacter species are responsible for 17% of all hospitalizations related to illness, and although Campy...

  8. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Client-Owned Dogs and Cats, and Retail Raw Meat Pet Food in the Manawatu, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bojanić, K; Midwinter, A C; Marshall, J C; Rogers, L E; Biggs, P J; Acke, E

    2017-09-01

    Campylobacter causes acute gastroenteritis in people worldwide and is frequently isolated from food, animals and the environment. The disease is predominately food-borne but many routes of transmission and sources of infection have been described, including contact with pets. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs and cats varies widely, and data on New Zealand pets are limited. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs, cats and retail raw meat pet food products in New Zealand and to characterize Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ninety dogs and 110 cats examined at the Massey University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for elective procedures, and fifty locally purchased retail raw meat pet diets were sampled. Two culture protocols combining Bolton broth enrichment and mCCDA and CAT agars in a microaerobic atmosphere at 42°C and 37°C with species identification using PCR were performed. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni, Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter helveticus was 36%, 13%, 23% and 1% in dogs and 16%, 5%, 5% and 7% in cats, respectively. One dog had Campylobacter lari confirmed, and three dogs and one cat had multiple Campylobacter spp. detected. Significantly more animals tested positive using CAT than mCCDA agar (P < 0.001). Being neutered, vaccinated for Bordetella bronchiseptica, fed dry diets and brought in for neutering were protective factors for dogs, whereas attendance for dental treatment was a risk factor for cats. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 28%, C. jejuni 22%, C. lari 6% and Campylobacter coli 6% of food samples. Six isolates positive by Campylobacter genus PCR were identified as Arcobacter butzleri. Poultry meat was more likely to be positive than non-poultry meat (P = 0.006). Of the 13 C. jejuni pet isolates with full MLST profiles, eight were of different sequence types (ST) and all nine food isolates were of different STs.

  9. Ciliate ingestion and digestion: flow cytometric measurements and regrowth of a digestion-resistant campylobacter jejuni

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We developed a method to measure ingestion and digestion rates of bacterivorous protists feeding on pathogenic bacteria. We tested this method using the enteric bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and a freshwater colpodid ciliate. Campylobacter and a non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from the environment ...

  10. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Large-scale survey of Campylobacter species in human gastroenteritis by PCR and PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Lawson, A J; Logan, J M; O'neill, G L; Desai, M; Stanley, J

    1999-12-01

    A PCR-based study of the incidence of enteropathogenic campylobacter infection in humans was done on the basis of a detection and identification algorithm consisting of screening PCRs and species identification by PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This was applied to DNA extracted from 3,738 fecal samples from patients with sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis, submitted by seven regional Public Health Laboratories in England and Wales over a 2-year period. The sending laboratories had cultured "Campylobacter spp." from 464 samples. The PCR methodologies detected 492 Campylobacter-positive samples, and the combination of culture and PCR yielded 543 Campylobacter-positive samples. There was identity (overlap) for 413 samples, but 79 PCR-positive samples were culture negative, and 51 culture-positive samples were PCR negative. While there was no statistically significant difference between PCR and culture in detection of C. jejuni-C. coli (PCR, 478 samples; culture, 461 samples), PCR provided unique data about mixed infections and non-C. jejuni and non- C. coli campylobacters. Mixed infections with C. jejuni and C. coli were found in 19 samples, and mixed infection with C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis was found in one sample; this was not apparent from culture. Eleven cases of gastroenteritis were attributed to C. upsaliensis by PCR, three cases were attributed to C. hyointestinalis, and one case was attributed to C. lari. This represents the highest incidence of C. hyointestinalis yet reported from human gastroenteritis, while the low incidence of C. lari suggests that it is less important in this context.

  12. Large-Scale Survey of Campylobacter Species in Human Gastroenteritis by PCR and PCR–Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, A. J.; Logan, J. M. J.; O'neill, G. L.; Desai, M.; Stanley, J.

    1999-01-01

    A PCR-based study of the incidence of enteropathogenic campylobacter infection in humans was done on the basis of a detection and identification algorithm consisting of screening PCRs and species identification by PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This was applied to DNA extracted from 3,738 fecal samples from patients with sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis, submitted by seven regional Public Health Laboratories in England and Wales over a 2-year period. The sending laboratories had cultured “Campylobacter spp.” from 464 samples. The PCR methodologies detected 492 Campylobacter-positive samples, and the combination of culture and PCR yielded 543 Campylobacter-positive samples. There was identity (overlap) for 413 samples, but 79 PCR-positive samples were culture negative, and 51 culture-positive samples were PCR negative. While there was no statistically significant difference between PCR and culture in detection of C. jejuni-C. coli (PCR, 478 samples; culture, 461 samples), PCR provided unique data about mixed infections and non-C. jejuni and non- C. coli campylobacters. Mixed infections with C. jejuni and C. coli were found in 19 samples, and mixed infection with C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis was found in one sample; this was not apparent from culture. Eleven cases of gastroenteritis were attributed to C. upsaliensis by PCR, three cases were attributed to C. hyointestinalis, and one case was attributed to C. lari. This represents the highest incidence of C. hyointestinalis yet reported from human gastroenteritis, while the low incidence of C. lari suggests that it is less important in this context. PMID:10565897

  13. Thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Tomoyuki; Urata, Teruo; Nemoto, Daisuke; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus, an organism considered as a periodontal pathogen but rarely recovered from extraoral specimens. The patient fully recovered through drainage of purulent pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics. The present case illustrates that C. rectus can be a cause of not only periodontal disease but also pulmonary infection.

  14. Hybrid speciation in agricultural Campylobacter coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction Hybridization between distantly related organisms can facilitate rapid adaptation but is constrained by epistatic fitness interactions. The zoonotic pathogens Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni differ from each other at an average of nearly 40 amino acids per gene. Nevertheless, they have...

  15. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia in an Immunocompetent Traveler

    PubMed Central

    Mikals, Kyle; Masel, Jennifer; Gleeson, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is a rare human infection that occurs almost exclusively in the setting of advanced age, immunosuppression, human immunodeficiency virus infection, alcoholism, or recent gastrointestinal surgery. This report of C. fetus bacteremia in a 39-year-old immunocompetent traveler who ate raw beef identifies C. fetus as a potential emerging pathogen in normal hosts. PMID:25071002

  16. The single-domain globin from the pathogenic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni: novel D-helix conformation, proximal hydrogen bonding that influences ligand binding, and peroxidase-like redox properties.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Mark; Barynin, Vladimir; Lu, Changyuan; Bernhardt, Paul V; Wu, Guanghui; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Egawa, Tsuyoshi; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E; Rice, David W; Wilson, Jayne Louise; Poole, Robert K

    2010-04-23

    The food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni possesses a single-domain globin (Cgb) whose role in detoxifying nitric oxide has been unequivocally demonstrated through genetic and molecular approaches. The x-ray structure of cyanide-bound Cgb has been solved to a resolution of 1.35 A. The overall fold is a classic three-on-three alpha-helical globin fold, similar to that of myoglobin and Vgb from Vitreoscilla stercoraria. However, the D region (defined according to the standard globin fold nomenclature) of Cgb adopts a highly ordered alpha-helical conformation unlike any previously characterized members of this globin family, and the GlnE7 residue has an unexpected role in modulating the interaction between the ligand and the TyrB10 residue. The proximal hydrogen bonding network in Cgb demonstrates that the heme cofactor is ligated by an imidazolate, a characteristic of peroxidase-like proteins. Mutation of either proximal hydrogen-bonding residue (GluH23 or TyrG5) results in the loss of the high frequency nu(Fe-His) stretching mode (251 cm(-1)), indicating that both residues are important for maintaining the anionic character of the proximal histidine ligand. Cyanide binding kinetics for these proximal mutants demonstrate for the first time that proximal hydrogen bonding in globins can modulate ligand binding kinetics at the distal site. A low redox midpoint for the ferrous/ferric couple (-134 mV versus normal hydrogen electrode at pH 7) is consistent with the peroxidase-like character of the Cgb active site. These data provide a new insight into the mechanism via which Campylobacter may survive host-derived nitrosative stress.

  17. Formation of Biofilms by Foodborne Pathogens and Development of Laboratory In Vitro Model for the Study of Campylobacter Genus Bacteria Based on These Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Efimochkina, N R; Bykova, I B; Markova, Yu M; Korotkevich, Yu V; Stetsenko, V V; Minaeva, L P; Sheveleva, S A

    2017-02-01

    We analyzed the formation of biofilms by 7 strains of Campylobacter genus bacteria and 18 strains of Enterobacteriaceae genus bacteria that were isolated from plant and animal raw materials, from finished products, and swabs from the equipment of the food industry. Biofilm formation on glass plates, slides and coverslips, microtubes made of polymeric materials and Petri dishes, and polystyrene plates of different profiles were analyzed. When studying the process of films formation, different effects on bacterial populations were simulated, including variation of growth factor composition of culture media, technique of creating of anaerobiosis, and biocide treatment (active chlorine solutions in a concentration of 100 mg/dm(3)). The formation of biofilms by the studied cultures was assessed by the formation of extracellular matrix stained with aniline dyes on glass and polystyrene surfaces after incubation; 0.1% crystal violet solution was used as the dye. The presence and density of biomatrix were assessed by staining intensity of the surfaces of contact with broth cultures or by optical density of the stained inoculum on a spectrophotometer. Biofilms were formed by 57% Campylobacter strains and 44% Enterobacteriaceae strains. The intensity of the film formation depended on culturing conditions and protocols, species and genus of studied isolates, and largely on adhesion properties of abiotic surfaces. In 30% of Enterobacteriaceae strains, the biofilm formation capacity tended to increase under the influence of chlorine-containing biocide solutions. Thus, we developed and tested under laboratory conditions a plate version of in vitro chromogenic model for evaluation of biofilm formation capacity of C. jejuni strains and studied stress responses to negative environmental factors.

  18. Quo vadis? – Monitoring Campylobacter in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stingl, K.; Knüver, M.-T.; Vogt, P.; Buhler, C.; Krüger, N.-J.; Alt, K.; Tenhagen, B.-A.; Hartung, M.; Schroeter, A.; Ellerbroek, L.; Appel, B.; Käsbohrer, A.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is a poorly recognized foodborne pathogen, leading the statistics of bacterially caused human diarrhoea in Europe during the last years. In this review, we present qualitative and quantitative German data obtained in the framework of specific monitoring programs and from routine surveillance. These also comprise recent data on antimicrobial resistances of food isolates. Due to the considerable reduction of in vitro growth capabilities of stressed bacteria, there is a clear discrepancy between the detection limit of Campylobacter by cultivation and its infection potential. Moreover, antimicrobial resistances of Campylobacter isolates established during fattening of livestock are alarming, since they constitute an additional threat to human health. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) discusses the establishment of a quantitative limit for Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses in order to achieve an appropriate level of protection for consumers. Currently, a considerable amount of German broiler carcasses would not comply with this future criterion. We recommend Campylobacter reduction strategies to be focussed on the prevention of fecal contamination during slaughter. Decontamination is only a sparse option, since the reduction efficiency is low and its success depends on the initial contamination concentration. PMID:24611125

  19. Impaired Fitness and Transmission of Macrolide-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni in Its Natural Host

    PubMed Central

    Luangtongkum, Taradon; Shen, Zhangqi; Seng, Virginia W.; Sahin, Orhan; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Liu, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans via the food chain and is prevalent in chickens, a natural reservoir for this pathogenic organism. Due to the importance of macrolide antibiotics in clinical therapy of human campylobacteriosis, development of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand if macrolide resistance affects the fitness and transmission of Campylobacter in its natural host. In this study we conducted pairwise competitions and comingling experiments in chickens using clonally related and isogenic C. jejuni strains, which are either susceptible or resistant to erythromycin (Ery). In every competition pair, Ery-resistant (Eryr) Campylobacter was consistently outcompeted by the Ery-susceptible (Erys) strain. In the comingling experiments, Eryr Campylobacter failed to transmit to chickens precolonized by Erys Campylobacter, while isogenic Erys Campylobacter was able to transmit to and establish dominance in chickens precolonized by Eryr Campylobacter. The fitness disadvantage was linked to the resistance-conferring mutations in the 23S rRNA. These findings clearly indicate that acquisition of macrolide resistance impairs the fitness and transmission of Campylobacter in chickens, suggesting that the prevalence of macrolide-resistant C. jejuni will likely decrease in the absence of antibiotic selection pressure. PMID:22183170

  20. Prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter on broiler chickens from farm to slaughter and efficiency of methods to remove visible fecal contamination.

    PubMed

    Giombelli, Audecir; Gloria, Maria Beatriz Abreu

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter from farm to slaughter. The efficiency of trimming and water spray (490 to 588 kPa pressure) on the removal of visible fecal contamination from broiler carcasses before chilling was also investigated. Drag swabs were used to sample litter from the farm houses. Samples of ceca and carcasses without and with visible fecal contamination before and after trimming or spray washing of fecal contamination were taken during slaughter of the flocks previously visited at the farms. There was a low prevalence of Salmonella on the litter from the farms (5%) and cecum and carcasses (0%). However, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were present in farms' litter (100 and 58.8%, respectively), cecum samples (100 and 70.6%, respectively), and carcasses with (58.8 and 11.6%, respectively) and without (17.6 and 9.8%, respectively) visible fecal contamination. There was high prevalence of C. jejuni but at low counts and low prevalence and high counts of C. coli. Campylobacter lari was not detected in any sample. Trimming the visible fecal contamination decreased the prevalence of C. jejuni but increased occurrence of C. coli. Trimming did not reduce the counts of Campylobacter and of hygiene indicator microorganisms on the carcasses. Water shower reduced the counts of hygiene indicator microorganisms by 20%. Therefore, control measures for preventing introduction of Campylobacter and the use of good hygienic conditions are needed to warrant the microbiological quality and safety of broiler carcasses.

  1. A PCR-DGGE method for detection and identification of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Arcobacter and related Epsilobacteria and its application to saliva samples from humans and domestic pets.

    PubMed

    Petersen, R F; Harrington, C S; Kortegaard, H E; On, S L W

    2007-12-01

    To develop a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method for the detection and identification of Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Arcobacter species (Epsilobacteria) in clinical samples and evaluate its efficacy on saliva samples from humans and domestic pets. A semi-nested PCR was developed to allow sensitive detection of all Epsilobacteria, with species separation undertaken by DGGE. A database was constructed in BioNumerics using 145 strains covering 51 Campylobacter, Arcobacter and Helicobacter taxa; Nineteen distinct DGGE profile-groups were distinguished. This approach detected Epsilobacteria in all saliva samples collected from humans, cats and dogs, and identified Campylobacter concisus and/or Campylobacter gracilis in the human samples. The pet animal samples were taken from individuals with oral/dental diseases; PCR-DGGE identified up to four different species in each sample. The most common species detected included Wolinella succinogenes, Arcobacter butzleri and two hitherto uncultured campylobacters. The enteropathogen Campylobacter lari was also found. PCR combined with DGGE is a useful tool for direct detection and preliminary identification of Epsilobacteria in the oral cavity of humans and small animals. The PCR-DGGE method should allow determination of the true prevalence and diversity of Epsilobacteria in clinical and other samples. Contact with the oral cavity of domestic pets may represent a route of transmission for epsilobacterial enteric diseases.

  2. Validation of the ANSR® for Campylobacter Method for Detection of Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Carcass Rinse and Turkey Sponge Samples.

    PubMed

    Viator, Ryan; Alles, Susan; Le, Quynh-Nhi; Hosking, Edan; Biswas, Preetha; Zhang, Lei; Tolan, Jerry; Meister, Evan; Tovar, Eric; Pinkava, Lisa; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer; Chen, Yi; Odumeru, Joseph; Ziemer, Wayne

    2016-11-01

    A performance validation of the ANSR® for Campylobacter method was conducted in selected matrixes. This assay used selective nicking enzyme amplification technology to amplify target genes. Samples were enriched for 20 to 24 h and then lysed. The assay was completed within 50 min using real-time detection in a combination incubator/fluorescence detector and software. When 50 distinct strains of Campylobacter jejuni, C. lari, or C. coli were tested for inclusivity, all 50 strains produced positive results. In exclusivity testing, 31 strains of related organisms, including seven nontarget Campylobacter strains and other common species, were evaluated. All 31 species generated negative ANSR assay results, including the nontarget Campylobacter strains. The ANSR for Campylobacter method was compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference method using naturally contaminated chicken carcass rinse or turkey carcass sponge samples. ANSR method performance was not statistically different from the reference method using two different enrichment options. Equivalent results were observed at both time points (20 and 24 h) and in both atmospheres (microaerobic and aerobic) to reference methods. Method performance with chicken carcass rinse was confirmed in an independent laboratory study. Additionally, in robustness testing, small, deliberate changes to the assay parameters minimally affected ANSR method performance. Finally, accelerated stability results from three independently manufactured lots supported a shelf life of 6 months when stored at 4°C. The ANSR assay offered greater efficiency and flexibility when compared to the reference method with a 20-24 h single-step enrichment in a microaerobic or an aerobic atmosphere.

  3. Application of beta-resorcylic acid as potential antimicrobial feed additive to reduce campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter is one of the major foodborne pathogens that result in severe gastroenteritis in humans, primarily through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Chickens are the reservoir host of Campylobacter, where the pathogen colonizes the ceca, thereby leading to contamination of carcass ...

  4. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are common in animals because of the use of fluoroquinolones as therapeutic agents in animal husbandry, particularly in chickens and other poultry. Campylobacter is a commensal in poultry, and therefore, poultry and poultry products are the...

  5. Campylobacter Antimicrobial Resistance in Peru: A Ten-year Observational Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-16

    Laboratorio Gastrolab, Lima, Peru 9 Hospital Apoyo de Iquitos, Iquitos, Peru 10 Hospital Regional, Iquitos, Peru 11 Facultad de Medicina ... Veterinaria , Universidad de San Marcos, San Marcos, Peru Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are food-borne pathogens of

  6. The ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide and is often associated with consumption and/or mishandling of contaminated poultry products. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing other enteric foodborne pathogens but not consistently for Campylobacter...

  7. Effect of distillers feedstuffs and lasolocid on Campylobacter carriage in feedlot cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter are foodborne pathogens that can colonize the gut of food animals. Limited in their ability to ferment sugars, Campylobacter can derive energy for growth via amino acid catabolism. In cattle, dietary amino acids can be extensively catabolized in the rumen and cattlemen often suppleme...

  8. Applications and consequences of bacteriocins to control Campylobacter spp. in poultry production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Campylobacter jejuni Strains That Cause Abortion in Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Allison M.; Clothier, Kristin A.; Huang, Bihua C.; Kong, Nguyet

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an intestinal bacterium that can cause abortion in livestock. This publication announces the public release of 15 Campylobacter jejuni genome sequences from isolates linked to abortion in livestock. These isolates are part of the 100K Pathogen Genome Project and are from clinical cases at the University of California (UC) Davis. PMID:27908990

  10. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni YH001 from beef liver which contains a novel plasmid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans and is commonly found in poultry and meat products. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a Campylobacter jejuni strain recently isolated from retail beef liver. The genome size was 1,712,361 bp, ...

  11. Prevalence, quantification and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. on chicken neck-skins at points of slaughter in 5 major cities located on 4 continents.

    PubMed

    Garin, Benoit; Gouali, Malika; Wouafo, Marguerite; Perchec, Anne-Marie; Pham, Minh Thu; Ravaonindrina, Noro; Urbès, Florence; Gay, Manu; Diawara, Abdoulaye; Leclercq, Alexandre; Rocourt, Jocelyne; Pouillot, Régis

    2012-06-15

    Quantitative data on Campylobacter contamination of food are lacking, notably in developing countries. We assessed Campylobacter contamination of chicken neck-skins at points of slaughter in 5 major cities in Africa (Dakar in Senegal, Yaounde in Cameroon), Oceania (Noumea in New Caledonia), the Indian Ocean (Antananarivo in Madagascar) and Asia (Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam. One hundred and fifty slaughtered chickens were collected in each of the 5 major cities from semi-industrial abattoirs or markets (direct slaughter by the seller), and 65.5% (491/750) were found to be Campylobacter-positive. Two cities, Yaounde and Noumea, demonstrated high prevalence Campylobacter detection rates (92.7% and 96.7% respectively) in contrast with HCMC (15.3%). Four species were identified among 633 isolates, namely C. jejuni (48.3%), C. coli (37.3%), C. lari (11.7%) and C. upsaliensis (1%). HCMC was the only city with C. lari isolation as was Antananarivo for C. upsaliensis. C. coli was highly prevalent only in Yaounde (69.5%). Among the 491 samples positive in Campylobacter detection, 329 were also positive with the enumeration method. The number of Campylobacter colony-forming units (CFU) per gram of neck-skin in samples positive in enumeration was high (mean of the log(10): 3.2 log(10) CFU/g, arithmetic mean: 7900CFU/g). All the cities showed close enumeration means except HCMC with a 1.81 log(10) CFU/g mean for positive samples. Semi-industrial abattoir was linked to a significant lower count of Campylobacter contamination than direct slaughter by the seller (p=0.006). On 546 isolates (546/633, 86.3%) tested for antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin was observed for respectively 11%, 19% and 50%. HCMC was the city where antibiotic resistant rates were the highest (95%, p=0.014). Considering the 329 positive chickens in Campylobacter enumeration, the mean number of resistant isolates to at least 2 different antibiotic

  12. Quantitative effects of in-line operations on Campylobacter and Escherichia coli through two Australian broiler processing plants.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Lesley L; Blackall, Patrick J; Cobbold, Rowland N; Fegan, Narelle

    2014-10-01

    Campylobacter is an important food borne pathogen, mainly associated with poultry. A lack of through-chain quantitative Campylobacter data has been highlighted within quantitative risk assessments. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively measure Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentration on chicken carcasses through poultry slaughter. Chickens (n=240) were sampled from each of four flocks along the processing chain, before scald, after scald, before chill, after chill, after packaging and from individual caeca. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter after packaging was 83% with a median concentration of 0.8log10CFU/mL. The processing points of scalding and chilling had significant mean reductions of both Campylobacter (1.8 and 2.9log10CFU/carcase) and E. coli (1.3 and 2.5log10CFU/carcase). The concentration of E. coli and Campylobacter was significantly correlated throughout processing indicating that E. coli may be a useful indicator organism for reductions in Campylobacter concentration. The carriage of species varied between flocks, with two flocks dominated by Campylobacter coli and two flocks dominated by Campylobacter jejuni. Current processing practices can lead to significant reductions in the concentration of Campylobacter on carcasses. Further understanding of the variable effect of processing on Campylobacter and the survival of specific genotypes may enable more targeted interventions to reduce the concentration of this poultry associated pathogen.

  13. Lipooligosaccharide of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Houliston, R. Scott; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Li, Jianjun; St. Michael, Frank; Karwaski, Marie-France; Brochu, Denis; Jarrell, Harold C.; Parker, Craig T.; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Mandrell, Robert E.; Gilbert, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is well known for synthesizing ganglioside mimics within the glycan component of its lipooligosaccharide (LOS), which have been implicated in triggering Guillain-Barré syndrome. We now confirm that this pathogen is capable of synthesizing a much broader spectrum of host glycolipid/glycoprotein mimics within its LOS. P blood group and paragloboside (lacto-N-neotetraose) antigen mimicry is exhibited by RM1221, a strain isolated from a poultry source. RM1503, a gastroenteritis-associated strain, expresses lacto-N-biose and sialyl-Lewis c units, the latter known as the pancreatic tumor-associated antigen, DU-PAN-2 (or LSTa). C. jejuni GC149, a Guillain-Barré syndrome-associated strain, expresses an unusual sialic acid-containing hybrid oligosaccharide with similarity to both ganglio and Pk antigens and can, through phase variation of its LOS biosynthesis genes, display GT1a or GD3 ganglioside mimics. We show that the sialyltransferase CstII and the galactosyltransferase CgtD are involved in the synthesis of multiple mimic types, with LOS structural diversity achieved through evolving allelic substrate specificity. PMID:21257763

  14. Review of Campylobacter spp. in drinking and environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Tarja

    2013-10-01

    Consumption of contaminated drinking water is a significant cause of Campylobacter infections. Drinking water contamination is known to result from septic seepage and wastewater intrusion into non-disinfected sources of groundwater and occasionally from cross-connection into drinking water distribution systems. Wastewater effluents, farm animals and wild birds are the primary sources contributing human-infectious Campylobacters in environmental waters, impacting on recreational activities and drinking water sources. Culturing of Campylobacter entails time-consuming steps that often provide qualitative or semi-quantitative results. Viable but non-culturable forms due to environmental stress are not detected, and thus may result in false-negative assessments of Campylobacter risks from drinking and environmental waters. Molecular methods, especially quantitative PCR applications, are therefore important to use in the detection of environmental Campylobacter spp. Processing large volumes of water may be required to reach the desired sensitivity for either culture or molecular detection methods. In the future, applications of novel molecular techniques such as isothermal amplification and high-throughput sequencing applications are awaited to develop and become more affordable and practical in environmental Campylobacter research. The new technologies may change the knowledge on the prevalence and pathogenicity of the different Campylobacter species in the water environment. © 2013.

  15. A Quantitative Real-Time PCR Approach for Assessing Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Colonization in Broiler Herds.

    PubMed

    Haas, Katrin; Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is a major public health concern in developed countries, with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry recognized as the main source of human infection. Identification of Campylobacter-positive broiler herds before slaughter is essential for implementing measures to avoid carryover of pathogens via the slaughter process into the food chain. However, appropriate methods that have been validated for testing poultry flocks antemortem are lacking for Campylobacter. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) that allows simultaneous detection and quantification of C. jejuni and C. coli was adapted and optimized to be applied on boot socks. The adjusted qPCR serves as an easy, sensitive, and quantitative method for Campylobacter detection in poultry flocks antemortem by analysis of boot socks. An adequate correlation was found between qPCR and culture, as well as between boot socks and cecal samples, which are regarded as the "gold standard." Therefore, boot sock sampling followed by qPCR analysis provides a reliable and simple method for assessing Campylobacter load within a flock prior to slaughter. The approach allows categorization of broiler herds into negative, low, moderate, or high Campylobacter colonization. Based on the results of this new approach, risk assessment models, such as evaluating the possible effect of sorting flocks before slaughter, can be easily implemented. Similarly, targeted identification of highly colonized flocks for improvement of biosecurity measures at the farm level will become feasible, presenting an opportunity to increase food safety.

  16. Salmonella Amager, Campylobacter jejuni, and urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter found in free-flying peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Palmgren, Helena; Broman, Tina; Waldenström, Jonas; Lindberg, Peter; Aspán, Anna; Olsen, Björn

    2004-07-01

    Rare species with small population sizes are vulnerable to perturbations such as disease, inbreeding, or random events. The threat arising from microbial pathogens could be large and other species could act as reservoirs for pathogens. We report finding three enteric bacterial species, Salmonella Amager, Campylobacter jejuni, and urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter, in nestling free-flying peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) in Sweden in 2000. Campylobacter jejuni isolates exhibited marked genetic similarities to an isolate from a human, providing a possible association between a human-associated strain of this bacterium and peregrine falcons.

  17. Healthy puppies and kittens as carriers of Campylobacter spp., with special reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Hald, B; Madsen, M

    1997-01-01

    Living in a household with a dog or cat has previously been identified as a significant risk factor for acquiring campylobacteriosis, in particular, with reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis infection. In a cross-sectional study carried out in Denmark between August and December 1996, 72 healthy puppies and 42 healthy kittens, aged between 11 and 17 weeks, were sampled for fecal campylobacter shedding by culture of rectal swab specimens on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 32 mg/liter and amphotericin at 10 mg/liter and on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 8 mg/liter, teicoplanin at 4 mg/liter, and amphotericin at 10 mg/liter. Additionally, with respect to the C. upsaliensis transmission potential of poultry, a chicken cloacal swab sample from each of 100 different broiler flocks was included in the study for comparison. We found 21 (29%) of the puppies positive for Campylobacter spp., with a species distribution of 76% C. jejuni, 5% C. coli, and 19% C. upsaliensis. Of the kittens examined, two (5%) excreted campylobacters; both strains were C. upsaliensis. None of the chicken samples examined were found to be positive for C. upsaliensis. We concluded that young puppies and kittens are potential transmitters of human-pathogenic Campylobacter spp., including C. upsaliensis, while poultry seems negligible in C. upsaliensis epidemiology. PMID:9399557

  18. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    PubMed

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Campylobacter fetus bacteremia in an immunocompetent traveler.

    PubMed

    Mikals, Kyle; Masel, Jennifer; Gleeson, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is a rare human infection that occurs almost exclusively in the setting of advanced age, immunosuppression, human immunodeficiency virus infection, alcoholism, or recent gastrointestinal surgery. This report of C. fetus bacteremia in a 39-year-old immunocompetent traveler who ate raw beef identifies C. fetus as a potential emerging pathogen in normal hosts. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Application of MALDI-TOF MS Systems in the Rapid Identification of Campylobacter spp. of Public Health Importance.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ying-Hsin; Wang, Yun F; Moura, Hercules; Miranda, Nancy; Simpson, Steven; Gowrishankar, Ramnath; Barr, John; Kerdahi, Khalil; Sulaiman, Irshad M

    2017-09-12

    Campylobacteriosis is an infectious gastrointestinal disease caused by Campylobacter spp.In most cases, it is either underdiagnosed or underreported due to poor diagnostics and limited databases. Several DNA-based molecular diagnostic techniques, including 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence typing, have been widely used in the species identification of Campylobacter. Nevertheless, these assays are time-consuming and require a high quality of bacterial DNA. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) MS is an emerging diagnostic technology that can provide the rapid identification of microorganisms by using their intact cells without extraction or purification. In this study, we analyzed 24 American Type Culture Collection reference isolates of 16 Campylobacter spp. and five unknown clinical bacterial isolates for rapid identification utilizing two commercially available MADI-TOF MS platforms, namely the bioMérieux VITEK(®) MS and Bruker Biotyper systems. In addition, 16S rRNA sequencing was performed to confirm the species-level identification of the unknown clinical isolates. Both MALDI-TOF MS systems identified the isolates of C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. fetus. The results of this study suggest that the MALDI-TOF MS technique can be used in the identification of Campylobacter spp. of public health importance.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylo-bacter spp. isolated from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Baserisalehi, M; Al-Mahdi, A Y; Kapadnis, B P

    2005-01-01

    Environmental samples were subjected to determine frequency of occurrence of pathogenic campylobacters in the environment. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was tested to evaluate the level of antibiotic sensitive campylobacters in the environment of investigation. In all, 70 Campylobacter isolates were obtained from water and domestic animal faeces samples using Kapadnis-Baseri device and antimicrobial susceptibility of them was determined by disc diffusion test and E- test. The results indicated that all the isolates of Campylobacter were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and resistant to cefotaxime, cephalexin and ampicillin. Lowest MIC values were observed for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin (2 microg/mL) and highest MIC values for ampicillin and chloramphinicol (256 microg/mL). In general, pathogenic Campylobacter spp. were prevalent in large numbers in the environment, however, they were sensitive to ciprofloxacin.

  2. High frequency genetic variation of purine biosynthesis genes is a mechanism of success in Campylobacter jejuni

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenotypic variation is prevalent among progeny of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, the leading agent of enterocolitis in the developed world. Heterogeneity bestows increased survival to bacterial populations because variable phenotypes ensure some cells will be protected against future s...

  3. Advances in Campylobacter biology and implications for biotechnological applications

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Byeonghwa; Muraoka, Wayne T.; Zhang, Qijing

    2010-01-01

    Summary Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen of animal origin and a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. During the past decade, especially since the publication of the first C. jejuni genome sequence, major advances have been made in understanding the pathobiology and physiology of this organism. It is apparent that C. jejuni utilizes sophisticated mechanisms for effective colonization of the intestinal tracts in various animal species. Although Campylobacter is fragile in the environment and requires fastidious growth conditions, it exhibits great flexibility in the adaptation to various habitats including the gastrointestinal tract. This high adaptability is attributable to its genetically, metabolically and phenotypically diverse population structure and its ability to change in response to various challenges. Unlike other enteric pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella, Campylobacter is unable to utilize exogenous glucose and mainly depends on the catabolism of amino acids as a carbon source. Campylobacter proves highly mutable in response to antibiotic treatments and possesses eukaryote‐like dual protein glycosylation systems, which modify flagella and other surface proteins with specific sugar structures. In this review we will summarize the distinct biological traits of Campylobacter and discuss the potential biotechnological approaches that can be developed to control this enteric pathogen. PMID:21255325

  4. Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter Recovered from Faeces and Carcasses of Healthy Livestock.

    PubMed

    Karikari, Akosua B; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Frimpong, Enoch H; Krogfelt, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is of major significance in food safety and human and veterinary medicine. This study highlighted resistance situation in the area of veterinary public health in Ghana. Using selective mCCDA agar, isolates were confirmed phenotypically on API CAMPY and genotypically by multiplex PCR of IpxA gene. The susceptibility profile of species to common and relevant antibiotics was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Cattle, sheep, goat, and pig faecal samples analysed, respectively, yielded 13.2% (16/121), 18.6% (22/102), 18.5% (25/135), and 28.7% (29/101) Campylobacter species while 34.5% (38/110), 35.9% (42/117), 23.9% (32/134), and 36.3% (37/102) were, respectively, recovered from the carcasses. Species identified in faeces were C. jejuni 35.8% (33/92), C. jejuni subsp. doylei 4.3% (4/92), C. coli 47.8% (44/92), and C. lari 12.0% (11/92). Species discovered in carcasses were C. jejuni 83.9% (125/149), C. jejuni subsp. doylei 2.0% (3/149), C. coli 6.0% (9/149), and C. lari 8.1% (12/149). Resistance ranged from 92 to 97% to the β-lactams, 7 to 69% to the quinolones, 0 to 44% to the aminoglycosides, 97 to 100% to erythromycin, 48 to 94% to tetracycline, 45 to 88% to chloramphenicol, and 42 to 86% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole as 0% resistance was observed against imipenem.

  5. Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter Recovered from Faeces and Carcasses of Healthy Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Frimpong, Enoch H.; Krogfelt, Karen A.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is of major significance in food safety and human and veterinary medicine. This study highlighted resistance situation in the area of veterinary public health in Ghana. Using selective mCCDA agar, isolates were confirmed phenotypically on API CAMPY and genotypically by multiplex PCR of IpxA gene. The susceptibility profile of species to common and relevant antibiotics was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Cattle, sheep, goat, and pig faecal samples analysed, respectively, yielded 13.2% (16/121), 18.6% (22/102), 18.5% (25/135), and 28.7% (29/101) Campylobacter species while 34.5% (38/110), 35.9% (42/117), 23.9% (32/134), and 36.3% (37/102) were, respectively, recovered from the carcasses. Species identified in faeces were C. jejuni 35.8% (33/92), C. jejuni subsp. doylei 4.3% (4/92), C. coli 47.8% (44/92), and C. lari 12.0% (11/92). Species discovered in carcasses were C. jejuni 83.9% (125/149), C. jejuni subsp. doylei 2.0% (3/149), C. coli 6.0% (9/149), and C. lari 8.1% (12/149). Resistance ranged from 92 to 97% to the β-lactams, 7 to 69% to the quinolones, 0 to 44% to the aminoglycosides, 97 to 100% to erythromycin, 48 to 94% to tetracycline, 45 to 88% to chloramphenicol, and 42 to 86% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole as 0% resistance was observed against imipenem. PMID:28194411

  6. Large-amplitude rotary induced-strain (LARIS) actuator proof-of-concept demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor; Rogers, Craig A.; McNeil, Shane

    1997-06-01

    Induced-strain materials can produce very large forces and, hence, large energy density, but small actual displacements. A new concept for obtaining large-amplitude rotary displacements from small linear displacements generated by induced-strain material stacks is proposed. The concept utilizes the theory of twist-warping coupling in thin-wall open tubes. The theory of the proposed solid-state axial-to- rotary converter-amplifier, together with the appropriate bibliographical references, is given. A simple formula is generated for estimating the axial-to-rotary conversion- amplification coefficient from the geometrical length, L, and enclosed area, A, of the open tube. A large-displacement induced-strain rotary (LARIS) actuator proof-of-concept demonstrator was built and tested to verify and validate the theoretical developments. The LARIS actuator consisted of a 28 mm diameter, 1.2 m length open tube and a 120 micrometer, -1000 V PZT translator. The experimental set-up and the excitation and measuring equipment are fully described in the paper. A maximum rotary displacement of 8 degrees was measured, and the linear relationship between the rotation coefficient, the tube length, L, and the inverse of the enclosed area, A, was verified. An improved theoretical model, that accounts for the experimentally observed zero off-set, is also given. The theoretical developments and experimental tests presented in this paper show that the proposed LARIS actuator, based on a novel solid-state axial-to-rotary converter-amplifier utilizing the warping-torsion coupling of an open tube, is a viable design option, of great constructive simplicity and very low parts count. This concept can be successfully used in a series of aerospace and mechanical engineering applications, as for example in the actuation of adaptive control surfaces for aircraft wings and helicopter blades. The 8 degree rotary displacement capabilities measured on the proof-of-concept demonstrator can be easily

  7. Impact of changing from staining to culture techniques on detection rates of Campylobacter spp. in routine stool samples in Chile.

    PubMed

    Porte, Lorena; Varela, Carmen; Haecker, Thomas; Morales, Sara; Weitzel, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, but sensitive diagnostic methods such as culture are expensive and often not available in resource limited settings. Therefore, direct staining techniques have been developed as a practical and economical alternative. We analyzed the impact of replacing Campylobacter staining with culture for routine stool examinations in a private hospital in Chile. From January to April 2014, a total of 750 consecutive stool samples were examined in parallel by Hucker stain and Campylobacter culture. Isolation rates of Campylobacter were determined and the performance of staining was evaluated against culture as the gold standard. Besides, isolation rates of Campylobacter and other enteric pathogens were compared to those of past years. Campylobacter was isolated by culture in 46 of 750 (6.1 %) stool samples. Direct staining only identified three samples as Campylobacter positive and reached sensitivity and specificity values of 6.5 and 100 %, respectively. In comparison to staining-based detection rates of previous years, we observed a significant increase of Campylobacter cases in our patients. Direct staining technique for Campylobacter had a very low sensitivity compared to culture. Staining methods might lead to a high rate of false negative results and an underestimation of the importance of campylobacteriosis. With the inclusion of Campylobacter culture, this pathogen became a leading cause of intestinal infection in our patient population.

  8. Antagonistic activities of several bacteria on in vitro growth of 10 strains of Campylobacter jejuni/coli.

    PubMed

    Chaveerach, P; Lipman, L J A; van Knapen, F

    2004-01-01

    Chicken meat contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni can be the source of human enteritis. To decrease the risk of human infection, Campylobacter should be controlled at farm levels. Orally given probiotic bacteria could prevent colonisation of chicken with pathogenic bacteria like Campylobacter. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different bacteria on Campylobacter growth. Our results demonstrated that bacteria isolated from conventional chicken had potential inhibitory activities against Campylobacter. Other bacteria not isolated from chickens but with known antagonistic capacities, e.g. Enterococcus (56 strains) and Escherichia coli (20 strains), did not show any negative effect on Campylobacter. Interestingly, one Lactobacillus (P93) strain isolated from the chicken gut showed bactericidal activity against all tested Campylobacter. The bactericidal effect was characterised as the production of organic acids in combination with probably production of an anti-Campylobacter protein. In a co-culture study of Campylobacter and Lactobacillus (P93), the culturability of Campylobacter was under the detection limit after 48 h of incubation. A chicken experiment is needed to further evaluate the effect of the promising probiotic bacteria against Campylobacter colonisation in chicken.

  9. Role of attachment to surfaces on the prevalence and survival of Campylobacter through food systems.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vu Tuan; Fegan, Narelle; Turner, Mark S; Dykes, Gary A

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter continues to be one of the bacterial pathogens most frequently associated with human gastrointestinal illness worldwide. Because Campylobacter primarily colonizes the intestines of animals used for food production, food products of animal origin can become contaminated with this pathogen and thus represent a significant risk factor. Despite application of numerous physical and chemical interventions to control Campylobacter during food processing, the high isolation rate of this pathogen from some retail meat products indicates that Campylobacter is able to persist from animal slaughterhouses through food systems. Given the fastidious growth requirements and high susceptibility of this pathogen to environmental conditions, the ability of Campylobacter to attach to food and food-related surfaces is likely to play an important role in food contamination and movement through food systems. This review was compiled to (i) describe how the attachment of Campylobacter to surfaces influences the prevalence and survival of the organism through food systems, (ii) examine the potential factors affecting the ability of Campylobacter to attach to surfaces, and (iii) suggest strategies for controlling this attachment process.

  10. Inverse trends of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Swiss surveillance data, 1988-2013.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Claudia; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Jost, Marianne; Baumgartner, Andreas; Mäusezahl-Feuz, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are notifiable in Switzerland. In 1995, Campylobacter replaced Salmonella as the most frequently reported food-borne pathogen. We analysed notification data (1988-2013) for these two bacterial, gastrointestinal pathogens of public health importance in Switzerland. Notification rates were calculated using data for the average resident population. Between 1988 and 2013, notified campylobacteriosis cases doubled from 3,127 to 7,499, while Salmonella case notifications decreased, from 4,291 to 1,267. Case notifications for both pathogens peaked during summer months. Campylobacter infections showed a distinct winter peak, particularly in the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 winter seasons. Campylobacter case notifications showed more frequent infection in males than females in all but 20-24 year-olds. Among reported cases, patients' average age increased for campylobacteriosis but not for salmonellosis. The inverse trends observed in case notifications for the two pathogens indicate an increase in campylobacteriosis cases. It appears unlikely that changes in patients' health-seeking or physicians' testing behaviour would affect Campylobacter and Salmonella case notifications differently. The implementation of legal microbiological criteria for foodstuff was likely an effective means of controlling human salmonellosis. Such criteria should be decreed for Campylobacter, creating incentives for producers to lower Campylobacter prevalence in poultry.

  11. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Kudirkienė, Eglė; Bunevičienė, Jurgita; Šernienė, Loreta; Ramonaitė, Sigita; Olsen, John E; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2013-07-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes of these pathogens on raw broiler meat products from different producers were examined. Out of 312 broiler meat product samples examined, 46.8% were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni was identified in 51.4% and Campylobacter coli in 37.7% of positive samples. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequently found in the warm period (April-October) and C. coli in the cold period (November-March) of the year (P < 0.05). The overall mean count of Campylobacter spp. was 3.55 and 3.50 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) on wings and drumsticks respectively. The occurrence and counts of Campylobacter spp. varied significantly between producers examined (P < 0.05). Analysis of flaA-RFLP genotyping revealed C. jejuni genotypes common to all producers as well as producer-specific genotypes. Both the occurrence and counts of Campylobacter spp. on broiler meat products were producer-dependent, so this should be kept in mind when risk-based control measures at national level are applied. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology.

    PubMed

    He, Yiping; Reed, Sue; Bhunia, Arun K; Gehring, Andrew; Nguyen, Ly-Huong; Irwin, Peter L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requirements of this organism. In this study, a novel biosensor-based detection called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) was developed for high-throughput screening of Campylobacter colonies grown on an agar plate without disrupting the intact colonies. Image pattern characterization and principal component analysis (PCA) of 6909 bacterial colonies showed that the light scatter patterns of C. jejuni and C. coli were strikingly different from those of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Examination of a mixed culture of these microorganisms revealed 85% (34/40) accuracy in differentiating Campylobacter from the other three major foodborne pathogens based on the similarity to the scatter patterns in an established library. The application of BARDOT in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Campylobacter spiked ground chicken and naturally contaminated fresh chicken pieces. Combined with real-time PCR verification, BARDOT was able to identify Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken. Moreover, applying passive filtration to food samples facilitated the isolation of pure Campylobacter colonies and therefore overcame the interference of the food matrix on BARDOT analysis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Resistance mechanisms in Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Iovine, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. While mortality is low, morbidity imparted by post-infectious sequelae such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, Reiter syndrome/reactive arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome is significant. In addition, the economic cost is high due to lost productivity. Food animals, particularly poultry, are the main reservoirs of C. jejuni. The over-use of antibiotics in the human population and in animal husbandry has led to an increase in antibiotic-resistant infections, particularly with fluoroquinolones. This is problematic because C. jejuni gastroenteritis is clinically indistinguishable from that caused by other bacterial pathogens, and such illnesses are usually treated empirically with fluoroquinolones. Since C. jejuni is naturally transformable, acquisition of additional genes imparting antibiotic resistance is likely. Therefore, an understanding of the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in C. jejuni is needed to provide proper therapy both to the veterinary and human populations. PMID:23406779

  14. The globins of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Shepherd, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that is exposed to reactive nitrogen species, such as nitric oxide, from a variety of sources. To combat the toxic effects of this nitrosative stress, C. jejuni upregulates a small regulon under the control of the transcriptional activator NssR, which positively regulates the expression of a single-domain globin protein (Cgb) and a truncated globin protein (Ctb). Cgb has previously been shown to detoxify nitric oxide, but the role of Ctb remains contentious. As C. jejuni is amenable to genetic manipulation, and its globin proteins are easily expressed and purified, a combination of mutagenesis, complementation, transcriptomics, spectroscopic characterisation and structural analyses has been used to probe the regulation, function and structure of Cgb and Ctb. This ability to study Cgb and Ctb with such a multi-pronged approach is a valuable asset, especially since only a small fraction of known globin proteins have been functionally characterised.

  15. Campylobacter concisus pathotypes are present at significant levels in patients with gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Alexander P; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Sodhi, Nidhi; Merif, Juan; Seah Lee, Way; Riordan, Stephen M; Rawlinson, William D; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2016-03-01

    Given that Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, recent findings showing comparable levels of Campylobacter concisus in patients with gastroenteritis would suggest that this bacterium is clinically important. The prevalence and abundance of Campylobacter concisus in stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The associated virulence determinants exotoxin 9 and zonula occludens toxin DNA were detected for Campylobacter concisus-infected samples using real-time PCR. Campylobacter concisus was detected at high prevalence in patients with gastroenteritis (49.7 %), higher than that observed for Campylobacter jejuni (∼5 %). The levels of Campylobacter concisus were putatively classified into clinically relevant and potentially transient subgroups based on a threshold developed using Campylobacter jejuni levels, as the highly sensitive real-time PCR probably detected transient passage of the bacterium from the oral cavity. A total of 18 % of patients were found to have clinically relevant levels of Campylobacter concisus, a significant number of which also had high levels of one of the virulence determinants. Of these patients, 78 % were found to have no other gastrointestinal pathogen identified in the stool, which strongly suggests a role for Campylobacter concisus in the aetiology of gastroenteritis in these patients. These results emphasize the need for diagnostic laboratories to employ identification protocols for emerging Campylobacter species. Clinical follow-up in patients presenting with high levels of Campylobacter concisus in the intestinal tract is needed, given that it has been associated with more chronic sequelae.

  16. Establishment of a non-human primate Campylobacter disease model for the pre-clinical evaluation of Campylobacter vaccine formulations.

    PubMed

    Islam, Dilara; Lewis, Michael D; Srijan, Apichai; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Aksomboon, Ajchara; Gettayacamin, Montip; Baqar, Shahida; Scott, Daniel; Mason, Carl J

    2006-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of enteritis worldwide. The mechanisms by which C. jejuni causes disease are unclear. Challenge studies in humans are currently considered unethical due to the possibility of severe complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Campylobacter infection in non-human primates closely mimics the disease and immune response, seen in humans. In this study, we attempted to determine the minimal dose of a pathogenic C. jejuni 81-176 strain required for clinical signs and symptoms of disease (> or = 80% attack rate) in Macaca mulatta monkeys using an escalating dosage (three doses for three monkey groups: 10(7), 10(9) and 10(11) cfu). Eighty percent of the monkeys challenged with highest dose (10(11) cfu) had mild disease, but the 80% attack rate (moderate diarrhea in 80% of the monkeys) was not achieved. However, 100% of monkeys showed IgA seroconversions (three-fold over pre-challenge titers). The elicited immune response was challenge dose-dependent. Campylobacter antigen specific fecal s-IgA responses were observed in all challenged groups but the response was not dose-dependent. Only IgM antibody secreting cells response was observed against Campylobacter antigens. The elicited immune response in three groups of rhesus monkeys was dose-dependent, indicating this monkey model can be used for pre-clinical evaluation of Campylobacter candidate vaccines, however these adult rhesus monkeys are less prone to Campylobacter infection.

  17. Occurrence and molecular analysis of Campylobacter in wildlife on livestock farms.

    PubMed

    Sippy, Rachel; Sandoval-Green, Claudette M J; Sahin, Orhan; Plummer, Paul; Fairbanks, W Sue; Zhang, Qijing; Blanchong, Julie A

    2012-06-15

    Wildlife harbor a variety of Campylobacter spp. and may play a significant role in the transmission of Campylobacter to livestock. Although studies have been conducted on wildlife-associated Campylobacter isolates from farms in other countries, there are little data available for livestock farms in the United States. In addition, the critical questions of whether wildlife harbor Campylobacter that is pathogenic to ruminants and/or antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter have yet to be addressed. We captured wild small mammals (n=142) and small birds (n=188) at livestock farms in central Iowa and sampled them for thermophilic Campylobacter during autumn 2009, spring 2010, and autumn 2010. Overall prevalence was 4.79%, with isolates found only in wild birds. Molecular typing revealed four multilocus sequence types (STs), three of which are novel. The remaining ST (ST-806) was found in two house sparrows and is an ST previously associated with ruminant abortion cases. Further analysis of ST-806 wild bird and ruminant abortion isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, resistance gene location, and antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that the isolates are nearly identical. This is the first account of isolation of Campylobacter types from wild birds that are known to be pathogenic to ruminants. Furthermore, these same two wild bird isolates are resistant to the antibiotic fluoroquinolone. Our results indicate there is an overall low prevalence of Campylobacter in selected wildlife in Iowa, but suggest that wildlife may play a role in the epidemiology of pathogenic Campylobacter for domestic livestock, and may also serve as a reservoir for antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter.

  18. Complete Genome Sequences of Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Strain 14980A (Turkey Feces) and Campylobacter coli Strain 14983A (Housefly from a Turkey Farm), Harboring a Novel Gentamicin Resistance Mobile Element

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Steven; Parker, Craig T.; Niedermeyer, Jeffrey A.; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in foodborne pathogens is a major food safety and public health issue. Here we describe whole-genome sequences of two MDR strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from turkey feces and a housefly from a turkey farm. Both strains harbor a novel chromosomal gentamicin resistance mobile element. PMID:27795285

  19. Complete genome sequences of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni 14980A (turkey feces) and Campylobacter coli 14983A (housefly from turkey farm), harboring a novel gentamicin resistance mobile element.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in foodborne pathogens is a major food safety and public health issue. Here we describe whole-genome sequences of two MDR strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from turkey feces and a housefly in a turkey farm. Both strains harbor a novel chromosomal genta...

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and molecular typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from ducks in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bai; Cha, Se-Yeoun; Kang, Min; Roh, Jae-Hee; Seo, Hye-Suk; Yoon, Ran-Hee; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2014-12-01

    Campylobacter is a food-borne zoonotic pathogen that causes human gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter bacteria are commensal in the intestines of many food production animals, including ducks and chickens. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter species in domestic ducks, and the agar dilution method was used to determine resistance of the isolates to eight antibiotics. In addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to determine the sequence types (STs) of selected Campylobacter isolates. Between May and September 2012, 58 duck farms were analyzed, and 56 (96.6%) were positive for Campylobacter. Among the isolates, 82.1% were Campylobacter jejuni, 16.1% were C. coli, and one was unidentified by PCR. Of the 46 C. jejuni isolates, 87.0%, 10.9%, and 21.7% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and azithromycin, respectively. Among the C. coli isolates, all 9 strains were resistant to ampicillin, and 77.8% and 33.3% were resistant to ciprofloxacin and azithromycin, respectively. The majority of the Campylobacter isolates were classified as multidrug resistant. Twenty-eight STs were identified, including 20 STs for C. jejuni and 8 STs for C. coli. The most common clonal complexes in C. jejuni were the ST-21 complex and the ST-45 complex, while the ST-828 complex predominated in C. coli. The majority of isolates were of STs noted in ducks and humans from earlier studies, along with seven STs previously associated only with human disease. These STs overlapped between duck and human isolates, indicating that Campylobacter isolates from ducks should be considered potential sources of human infection.

  1. A Comparison of Performance of Endotracheal Intubation Using the Levitan FPS Optical Stylet or Lary-Flex Videolaryngoscope in Morbidly Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Tomasz; Gaszynska, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The use of videolaryngoscopes is recommended for morbidly obese patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Levitan FPS optical stylet (Levitan) vs Lafy-Flex videolaryngoscope (Lary-Flex) in a group of MO patients. Methods. Seventy-nine MO (BMI > 40 kg m−2) patients scheduled for bariatric surgery were included in the study and randomly allocated to the Levitan FPS or Lary-Flex group. The primary endpoint was time to intubation and evaluation laryngoscopic of glottic view. Anesthesiologists were asked to evaluate the glottic view first under direct laryngoscopy using the videolaryngoscope as a standard laryngoscope (monitor display was excluded from use) and then using devices. The secondary endpoint was the cardiovascular response to intubation and the participant's evaluation of such devices. Results. The time to intubation was 8.572.66 sec. versus 5.790.2 sec. for Levitan and Lary-Flex, respectively (P < 0.05). In all cases of CL grade >1 under direct laryngoscopy, the study devices improved CL grade to 1. The Levitan FPS produced a greater cardiovascular response than the Lary-Flex videolaryngoscope. Conclusion. The Lary-Flex videolaryngoscope and the Levitan FPS optical stylet improve the laryngeal visualization in morbidly obese patients, allowing for fast endotracheal intubation, but Lary-Flex produces less cardiovascular response to intubation attempt. PMID:24967423

  2. The occurrence of campylobacters in water sources in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Diergaardt, S M; Venter, S N; Spreeth, A; Theron, J; Brözel, V S

    2004-05-01

    Campylobacter spp., mainly C. jejuni and C. coli, are recognized as significant human bacterial pathogens, being responsible for increasing numbers of gastroenteritis cases worldwide. Several reports have indicated that environmental waters are potential reservoirs and transmitting vehicles for these bacteria. The purpose of this study was thus to examine the occurrence of campylobacters in drinking and environmental water sources of South Africa, a country with a warmer climate and higher microbial pollution levels than those previously addressed in the Northern Hemisphere where similar investigations have been undertaken. Various types of water samples (five drinking water, four ground water, 11 surface water and four raw sewage) were collected from different parts of South Africa. Detection was by enrichment in Bolton broth prior to plating on both selective mCCDA or through a 0.6microm membrane filter on non-selective blood agar isolation media. Out of 100 initially selected Campylobacter-like isolates, only 22 did not grow aerobically and were subsequently identified as Campylobacter spp. by biochemical tests. However, the results obtained by 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that only three of these strains (13.6%) were Campylobacter jejuni and the remaining 19 strains were identified as Arcobacter butzleri. The spread of Arcobacter via water warrants further investigation, especially in view of the higher levels of detection and pathogenic nature of these bacteria.

  3. Survival with a Helping Hand: Campylobacter and Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Indikova, Ivana; Humphrey, Tom J.; Hilbert, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most important bacterial food-borne disease in the developed world. Consumption of chicken meat, beef or raw milk, direct contact with ruminants and exposure to contaminated surface water or even consumption of tap water have been identified as risk factors for human disease. However, the most important risk factor is consumption of and/or handling contaminated chicken. Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms but must somehow survive outside the host, especially in food and agricultural environments and also resist the innate and humoral immune responses inside the host. In this paper we hypothesize that other microorganisms in mixed populations with Campylobacter may act to improve survival outside the host and may also protect the pathogen against the intestinal immune system. Our evidence for this hypothesis is based on: 1. newly generated microbial community analysis; 2. the prolonged survival of Campylobacter in mixed species biofilms and in co-culture with environmental bacteria; 3. improved survival in amoebae and rumen fluid; 4. sulfur release and iron uptake systems within the intestinal lumen. This would make Campylobacter an exceptional food-borne pathogen. With this in mind, new strategies are necessary to combat Campylobacter along the total food chain. PMID:26617600

  4. Prevalence of cytolethal distending toxin production in Campylobacter jejuni and relatedness of Campylobacter sp. cdtB gene.

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, C L; Pesci, E C; Cottle, D L; Russell, G; Erdem, A N; Zeytin, H

    1996-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni produces a toxin called cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). The genes encoding this toxin in C. jejuni 81-176 were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of the genes revealed that there are three genes, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC, encoding proteins with predicted sizes of 30,11-6, 28,989, and 21,157 Da, respectively. All three proteins were found to be related to the Escherichia coli CDT proteins, yet the amino acid sequences have diverged significantly. All three genes were required for toxic activity in a HeLa cell assay. HeLa cell assays of a variety of C. jejuni and C. coli strains suggested that most C. jejuni strains produce significantly higher CDT titers than do C. coli strains. Southern hybridization experiments demonstrated that the cdtB gene is present on a 6.0-kb ClaI fragment in all but one of the C. jejuni strains tested; the cdtB gene was on a 6.9-kb ClaI fragment in one strain. The C. jejuni 81-176 cdtB probe hybridized weakly to DNAs from C. coli strains. The C. jejuni 81-176 cdtB probe did not hybridize to DNAs from representative C. fetus, C. lari, C. "upsaliensis," and C. hyointestinalis strains, although the HeLa cell assay indicated that these strains make CDT. PCR experiments indicated the probable presence of cdtB sequences in all of these Campylobacter species. PMID:8675309

  5. In vitro selection of enteric microflora for potential use as a probiotic culture against Campylobacter in poultry.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter is one of the most commonly reported bacterial causes of human foodborne illness and epidemiological evidence indicates poultry and poultry products as significant sources of human Campylobacter infection. In an effort to reduce colonization of enteric pathogens in poultry, scientists...

  6. Trans-cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, and eugenol reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization factors and expression of virulence genes in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe gastroenteritis in humans characterized by fever, diarrhea and abdominal cramps. In the human gut, Campylobacter adheres and invades the intestinal epithelium followed by cytolethal distending toxin mediated cell death, and enteri...

  7. Two cases of Campylobacter mucosalis enteritis in children.

    PubMed Central

    Figura, N; Guglielmetti, P; Zanchi, A; Partini, N; Armellini, D; Bayeli, P F; Bugnoli, M; Verdiani, S

    1993-01-01

    Two cases of Campylobacter mucosalis enteritis in children are reported. The patients recovered without antimicrobial therapy. Strains were isolated only by the feces filtration technique. In one child, bactericidal antibodies to the homologous strain were detected in a convalescent-phase serum sample. C. mucosalis should be considered a primary intestinal pathogen. PMID:8458973

  8. Inactivation of Campylobacter jejuni on poultry by ultraviolet light

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen which is commonly associated with poultry, and is responsible for many foodborne illness outbreaks. Ultraviolet light (UV-C) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved technology that can be used to treat foods and food contact surfaces. In this stud...

  9. Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in northern elephant seals, California.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Robyn A; Gulland, M D Frances; Atwill, E Rob; Lawrence, Judy; Jang, Spencer; Conrad, Patricia A

    2005-12-01

    Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. prevalence and antimicrobial drug sensitivity were determined in northern elephant seals that had not entered the water and seals that were stranded on the California coast. Stranded seals had a higher prevalence of pathogenic bacteria, possibly from terrestrial sources, which were more likely to be resistant.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter gracilis ATCC 33236T

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The human oral pathogen Campylobacter gracilis has been isolated from periodontal and endodontal infections, and also from non-oral head, neck or lung infections. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the human periodontal isolate ATCC 33236T (=FDC 1084), which is the first closed genome...

  11. Reactions of Chicken Sera to Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni Flagellar Proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative rod bacterium and is the leading but under-reported bacterial food-borne pathogen that causes human campylobacteriosis worldwide. Raw or undercooked poultry products are regarded as a major source for human infection. C. jejuni flagella have been implicated ...

  12. Campylobacter in: Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Industrial Food Processing Environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter species are enteric pathogens and are considered one of the leading foodborne disease agents in the United States causing an estimated 2.1 to 2.4 million cases of gastroenteritis annually. This chapter, intended for inclusion in the book, Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Indust...

  13. Routes of transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter in breeder turkeys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are frequent colonizers of the intestinal tracts of poultry and have often been associated with human foodborne illness. The entry, transmission and prevalence of both pathogens have been extensively studied in chickens but little information is available for turkeys. ...

  14. Development and stability of bacteriocin resistance 1 in Campylobacter spp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aims: Several bacteriocins (BCNs) identified from chicken commensal bacteria dramatically reduced Campylobacter colonization in poultry and aredirected toward on farm control of this important food-borne human pathogen. BCN resistance in C. jejuni is very difficult to develop in vitro. In this study...

  15. Progressive genome-wide introgression in agricultural Campylobacter coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hybridization between distantly related organisms can facilitate rapid adaptation but is constrained by epistatic fitness interactions. The zoonotic pathogens Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni differ from each other at an average of nearly 40 amino acids per gene. Nevertheless, they have started to e...

  16. Antibacterial effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol on Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in chicken cecal contents in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni are two major food-borne pathogens that are transmitted through poultry products. These pathogens colonize the chicken cecum leading, to contamination of carcasses during slaughter and subsequent processing operations. We investigated the antimicrobial...

  17. Occurrence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in ducks and duck eggs in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nor Faiza, S; Saleha, A A; Jalila, A; Fauziah, N

    2013-03-01

    The importance of Campylobacter and Salmonella as foodborne pathogens is well recognised globally. A recent work in Penang found ducks in commercial farms were infected with these organisms. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in ducks and Salmonella in duck eggs in farms in a small part of Selangor. Cloacal swabs were obtained from 75 ducks and 30 duck eggs from three farms. The isolation and identification of Campylobacter and Salmonella were done using conventional methods. Twelve percent of Campylobacter and 16.0% of Salmonella were isolated from the ducks sampled. Salmonella was absent on and in eggs. Campylobacter isolates consisted of 22% Campylobacter jejuni and the remaining was Campylobacter coli. Three Salmonella serovars identified were Salmonella Agona, S. Braenderup and S. Corvallis. The presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in ducks may cause contamination of the meat during processing and handling which can constitute public health hazard. Moreover, the farm workers may be exposed to the organisms through contact with the infected animals.

  18. Evidence for a lineage of virulent bacteriophages that target Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Timms, Andrew R; Cambray-Young, Joanna; Scott, Andrew E; Petty, Nicola K; Connerton, Phillippa L; Clarke, Louise; Seeger, Kathy; Quail, Mike; Cummings, Nicola; Maskell, Duncan J; Thomson, Nicholas R; Connerton, Ian F

    2010-03-30

    Our understanding of the dynamics of genome stability versus gene flux within bacteriophage lineages is limited. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the use of bacteriophages as 'therapeutic' agents; a prerequisite for their use in such therapies is a thorough understanding of their genetic complement, genome stability and their ecology to avoid the dissemination or mobilisation of phage or bacterial virulence and toxin genes. Campylobacter, a food-borne pathogen, is one of the organisms for which the use of bacteriophage is being considered to reduce human exposure to this organism. Sequencing and genome analysis was performed for two Campylobacter bacteriophages. The genomes were extremely similar at the nucleotide level (> or = 96%) with most differences accounted for by novel insertion sequences, DNA methylases and an approximately 10 kb contiguous region of metabolic genes that were dissimilar at the sequence level but similar in gene function between the two phages. Both bacteriophages contained a large number of radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) genes, presumably involved in boosting host metabolism during infection, as well as evidence that many genes had been acquired from a wide range of bacterial species. Further bacteriophages, from the UK Campylobacter typing set, were screened for the presence of bacteriophage structural genes, DNA methylases, mobile genetic elements and regulatory genes identified from the genome sequences. The results indicate that many of these bacteriophages are related, with 10 out of 15 showing some relationship to the sequenced genomes. Two large virulent Campylobacter bacteriophages were found to show very high levels of sequence conservation despite separation in time and place of isolation. The bacteriophages show adaptations to their host and possess genes that may enhance Campylobacter metabolism, potentially advantaging both the bacteriophage and its host. Genetic conservation has been shown to extend to other

  19. Campylobacter--a tale of two protein glycosylation systems.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Christine M; Logan, Susan M; Linton, Dennis; Wren, Brendan W

    2003-05-01

    Post-translational glycosylation is a universal modification of proteins in eukarya, archaea and bacteria. Two recent publications describe the first confirmed report of a bacterial N-linked glycosylation pathway in the human gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. In addition, an O-linked glycosylation pathway has been identified and characterized in C. jejuni and the related species Campylobacter coli. Both pathways have similarity to the respective N- and O-linked glycosylation processes in eukaryotes. In bacteria, homologues of the genes in both pathways are found in other organisms, the complex glycans linked to the glycoproteins share common biosynthetic precursors and these modifications could play similar biological roles. Thus, Campylobacter provides a unique model system for the elucidation and exploitation of glycoprotein biosynthesis.

  20. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Ferro, I D; Benetti, T M; Oliveira, T C R M; Abrahão, W M; Farah, S M S S; Luciano, F B; Macedo, R E F

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter strains (C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari) isolated from broiler carcasses processed in the State of Paraná, Brazil. 2. Rates of microbial resistance and susceptibility were assessed by both Disk Diffusion (DD) and Etest (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) techniques. Antibiotics were tested using DD (12 antibiotics) and/or MIC (7 antibiotics) methods. 3. A total of 95.8% of the strains were resistant to at least two agents. In terms of multidrug resistance, 75% of strains were resistant to three or more groups of antibiotics. The highest rates of resistance were detected for cefalotin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and nalidixic acid. A high rate of susceptibility of the strains to erythromycin (95.8%) was found confirming that this is considered the agent of choice for treating campylobacteriosis. Comparison of the microbial resistance and susceptibility, as determined simultaneously by the two methods, found the techniques to be statistically equivalent for 5 out of the 6 antibiotics tested. 4. The results of this study suggest the need for adopting measures to control the use of antibiotics in broiler production to prevent multidrug resistance of Campylobacter strains and reduce the risk of serious human diseases caused by the consumption of contaminated chicken meat.

  1. Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain.

    PubMed

    Franz, E; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Thissen, J; van Asselt, E D

    2012-09-01

    Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages of the broiler supply chain. Three different sampling points were considered: departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, and the end of the slaughterline. Strong associations were found between Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence at a particular sampling point and their prevalence at the preceding point of the chain. Statistical analyses showed that the country of origin of the broiler farm had a significant effect on the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter at slaughterhouse arrival. The feeding company delivering to the farm also showed a significant effect on the occurrence of both pathogens at departure from the broiler farm. The prevalence of Campylobacter decreased with an increasing number of birds per flock, whereas the prevalence of Salmonella increased with an increasing number of birds per flock. The number of flocks processed within a specific slaughterhouse was not associated with an increased or decreased prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella. The results provide more insight into factors related to the occurrence of both pathogens and in understanding their epidemiology. The results can be supportive in decision making on measures to reduce the contamination of broiler products with Salmonella and Campylobacter.

  2. Relationship of Campylobacter isolated from poultry and from darkling beetles in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bates, C; Hiett, K L; Stern, N J

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacter, a foodborne pathogen closely associated with poultry, is considered to be an important agent of human gastroenteritis in New Zealand. The pathways involved in the contamination of poultry flocks remain unclear; however, many vectors, such as insects, rodents, and wild birds, have been implicated. Infestation of poultry houses by insects, particularly darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus), is difficult to control. Furthermore, darkling beetles are known vectors for a variety of pathogens that include Salmonella, infectious bursal disease virus, Aspergillus, Escherichia coli, and Marek's disease virus. In this investigation, the relationship between darkling beetles and Campylobacter contamination of poultry flocks was investigated. A New Zealand breeder flock and four of its progeny broiler flocks were included in the study. Samples of beetles and of intestinal excreta of the birds were cultured for the presence of Campylobacter spp. A subset of the recovered isolates was subsequently genotyped using flaA short variable region (SVR) DNA sequence analysis. A large number of Campylobacter subtypes were isolated, indicating that Campylobacter colonization of poultry is likely to arise from a number of different reservoirs. However, a set of genetically distinct isolates were found to be common to the broiler flocks and to the beetles. This research provides data that indicates that Alphitobius diaperinus may serve as a source of Campylobacter contamination of poultry. A more thorough understanding of the relationship between beetle infestation and the Campylobacter status of poultry flocks should enable progress in further development of biosecurity control measures.

  3. In vitro selection of enteric microflora for potential use as a competitive exclusion culture against Campylobacter in poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The administration of nonpathogenic microflora in neonatal poultry has been employed to reduce or eliminate the colonization of enteric pathogens. This concept, also called competitive exclusion (CE), although effective against Salmonella, has not consistently worked against Campylobacter. Most CE...

  4. The occurrence of Salmonella, Campylobacter and Yersinia spp. in river and lake waters.

    PubMed

    Arvanitidou, M; Stathopoulos, G A; Constantinidis, T C; Katsouyannopoulos, V

    1995-05-01

    In order to assess Salmonella, Campylobacter and Yersinia spp. occurrence in surface waters and to compare it with the standard faecal indicator bacteria, 86 river and lake samples, from eight sampling sites in Northern Greece were examined for the presence of these pathogens in parallel to total and faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci. A total of 17 Salmonellae, 14 Campylobacters and 9 Yersiniae were isolated. Only in Salmonella positive samples the geometric means of total and faecal coliforms were found significantly higher (p < 0.01) than in the negative samples, whereas the presence of Campylobacters and Yersiniae may not be predicted by the standard indicator bacteria.

  5. Genetic Characterization of Campylobacter Jejuni and C. coli Isolated From Broilers Using flaA PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khoshbakht, Rahem; Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Seifi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thermophilic campylobacters, particularly Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the main agents of human campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter contaminated chicken products is the most important source of foodborne gastroenteritis. Evaluation of genetic diversity among Campylobacter population is critical for understanding the epidemiology of this bacterium and developing effective control strategies against Campylobacter infections and other related disorders. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of thermophilic Campylobacter isolated from broiler fecal samples in Shiraz, southern Iran. Materials and Methods: Ninety Campylobacter isolates were recovered from broiler feces using enrichment process followed by cultivation method. The isolates were species typing on the basis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of 16SrRNA and multiplex PCR for determining two thermophilic species. To evaluate strain diversity of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, flaA PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) was performed using DdeI restriction enzyme. Results: All 90 Campylobacter isolates confirmed by m-PCR were successfully typed using flaA-PCR-RFLP. Eleven different types were defined according to flaA-typing method and the RFLP patterns were located at three separate clusters in RFLP image analysis dendrogram. Conclusions: Campylobacter jejuni isolates significantly showed more variety than C. coli isolates. A relatively low genetic diversity existed among C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from broilers in Shiraz, southern Iran. In our knowledge, this was the first report of genetic diversity among broiler originated human pathogen thermophilic campylobacters in Shiraz, southern Iran. PMID:26060566

  6. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    PubMed

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation of Campylobacter and Salmonella from houseflies (Musca domestica) in a university campus and a poultry farm in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Choo, L C; Saleha, A A; Wai, S S; Fauziah, N

    2011-04-01

    Insects, in particular house flies and cockroaches, have been shown to be associated with the spread of pathogens in livestock farms and in human disease outbreaks: among these pathogens are salmonellae and campylobacters. A total of 60 flies were caught in three locations: an animal teaching facility and a cafeteria in a university campus, and a poultry farm. Five percent (5%) and 13.3% of flies sampled were found to carry Campylobacter and Salmonella, respectively.

  8. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Retail Chicken, Turkey, Pork, and Beef Meat in Poland between 2009 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Korsak, Dorota; Maćkiw, Elżbieta; Rożynek, Elżbieta; Żyłowska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter in poultry, pork, and beef meat at the retail level and to identify the main categories of meat representing the most significant reservoirs of Campylobacter. A monitoring study was conducted throughout Poland from 2009 to 2013. A total of 1,700 fresh meat samples were collected from supermarkets, large retail outlets, and smaller stores. Thermophilic Campylobacter species were detected in 690 (49.3%) of 1,400 poultry samples collected from retail trade. Strains were isolated from 50.2 and 41.1% of raw chicken and turkey meat samples, respectively, and from 50.1 and 42.6% of raw chicken and turkey giblets. The incidence of Campylobacter spp. on pork (10.6%) and beef (10.1%) was significantly lower than on poultry. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent Campylobacter species in chicken (46.6%), pork (68.6%), and beef (66.7%), and Campylobacter coli was the most frequently isolated Campylobacter species in turkey meat (71.2%). This study revealed that retail raw meats are often contaminated with Campylobacter; however, the prevalence of these pathogens is markedly different in different meats. Raw retail meats are potential vehicles for transmitting foodborne diseases, and our findings stress the need for increased implementation of hazard analysis critical control point programs and consumer food safety education efforts.

  9. Media for the aerobic growth of campylobacter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium was examined. The broth medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with 106 CFU/ml of Campylobacter coli 33559, Campylobacter fetus 27349, Campylobacter...

  10. Comprehensive Genomic Characterization of Campylobacter Genus Reveals Some Underlying Mechanisms for its Genomic Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yizhuang; Bu, Lijing; Guo, Min; Zhou, Chengran; Wang, Yongdong; Chen, Liyu; Liu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter species.are phenotypically diverse in many aspects including host habitats and pathogenicities, which demands comprehensive characterization of the entire Campylobacter genus to study their underlying genetic diversification. Up to now, 34 Campylobacter strains have been sequenced and published in public databases, providing good opportunity to systemically analyze their genomic diversities. In this study, we first conducted genomic characterization, which includes genome-wide alignments, pan-genome analysis, and phylogenetic identification, to depict the genetic diversity of Campylobacter genus. Afterward, we improved the tetranucleotide usage pattern-based naïve Bayesian classifier to identify the abnormal composition fragments (ACFs, fragments with significantly different tetranucleotide frequency profiles from its genomic tetranucleotide frequency profiles) including horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) to explore the mechanisms for the genetic diversity of this organism. Finally, we analyzed the HGTs transferred via bacteriophage transductions. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use single nucleotide polymorphism information to construct liable microevolution phylogeny of 21 Campylobacter jejuni strains. Combined with the phylogeny of all the collected Campylobacter species based on genome-wide core gene information, comprehensive phylogenetic inference of all 34 Campylobacter organisms was determined. It was found that C. jejuni harbors a high fraction of ACFs possibly through intraspecies recombination, whereas other Campylobacter members possess numerous ACFs possibly via intragenus recombination. Furthermore, some Campylobacter strains have undergone significant ancient viral integration during their evolution process. The improved method is a powerful tool for bacterial genomic analysis. Moreover, the findings would provide useful information for future research on Campylobacter genus. PMID:23940551

  11. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based colony blot immunoassay for detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter species.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongsheng; Phipps-Todd, Beverley; McMahon, Tanis; Elmgren, Catherine L; Lutze-Wallace, Cheryl; Todd, Zoe A; Garcia, Manuel M

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., such as C. jejuni, are major human foodborne pathogens. Culture methods have been routinely used for the detection of this organism in various types of samples. An alternative, simple and rapid confirmation test(s) without further tedious biochemical tests would be useful. Meanwhile, Campylobacter-like colonies can be difficult to identify on agar plates overgrown with competitive bacteria, which can lead to false-negative results. This study was to develop a simple colony blot immunoassay using a new monoclonal antibody (Mab) produced in the present study for rapid screening, confirmation and quantification of campylobacters on culture agar plates. The procedure developed in this study was able to specifically detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., but not other non-thermotolerant Campylobacter and non-Campylobacter reference strains tested. This assay could detect 10(5) cells in a single dot. This assay showed 100% correlation with the culture method for the blotted membranes from 21 either chicken meat or vegetable samples experimentally inoculated with thermotolerant campylobacters. Among 101 natural samples of chicken meat (n=44), chicken feces (n=20) and vegetables (n=37), this assay also showed positive for 23 chicken meat and 14 fecal samples that were positive for thermotolerant campylobacters by culture method, and identified four additional suspects that were culture negative. Membranes stored at 4°C for at least 4years could also be used for this assay. The assay developed in this study can be used in quantitative study for immediate or archival usage, and for diagnostic test to preliminarily confirm the presence of thermotolerant Campylobacter on agar plates. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter in rumen contents and feces in pasture and feedlot-fed cattle.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Nathan A; Anderson, Robin C; Krueger, Wimberley K; Horne, Willy J; Wesley, Irene V; Callaway, Todd R; Edrington, Tom S; Carstens, Gordon E; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J

    2008-10-01

    Campylobacter are important human foodborne pathogens known to colonize the gastrointestinal tract of cattle. The incidence of Campylobacter in cattle may be seasonal and may vary among age groups and type (beef versus dairy). Less is known about other factors that could influence the prevalence, colonization site, and shedding of Campylobacter in cattle. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and enumerate Campylobacter at two sites along the digestive tract of beef and dairy type cattle consuming either grass or feedlot diets. In an initial study, Campylobacter was not recovered from rumen samples of any of 10 ruminally cannulated (six dairy and four beef type) pasture-reared cattle and there was no difference (p > 0.05) between cattle types on fecal Campylobacter recovery, with 50% of each type yielding culture-positive feces (overall mean +/- SE, 0.75 +/- 0.001 SEM log(10) colony-forming units [CFU]/g feces). When calculated from Campylobacter culture-positive animals only, mean fecal concentrations were 1.50 +/- 0.001 SEM log(10) CFU/g. In a follow-up study with feedlot and pasture-reared cattle (n = 18 head each), 78% of rumen and 94% of fecal samples from pastured cattle were positive for Campylobacter while 50% of the rumen and 72% of the fecal samples were positive in concentrate-fed animals. Overall mean concentration of Campylobacter was greater in feces than ruminal fluid (p < 0.05). When only Campylobacter-positive animals were analyzed, concentrations recovered from feces were higher (p < 0.05) in concentrate-fed than in pasture-fed cattle (4.29 vs. 3.34 log(10) CFU/g, respectively; SEM = 0.29). Our results suggest that the rumen environment and its microbial population are less favorable for the growth of Campylobacter and that concentrate diets may provide a more hospitable lower gastrointestinal tract for Campylobacter.

  13. Bibliometric analysis of publications on Campylobacter: (2000-2015).

    PubMed

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F; AbuTaha, Adham S; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2016-11-29

    Campylobacter species are widespread zoonotic pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni causes a form of gastroenteritis called campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter drug resistance is considered a serious threat. In order to better understand national and international research output on Campylobacter, we conducted this bibliometric overview of publications on Campylobacter. This study can be used to assess extent of interaction and response of researchers, food regulators, and health policy makers to global burden of campylobacateriosis. Scopus database was used to retrieve publications with the following keywords (Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni, C. coli). The study period was set from 2000 to 2015. All types of journal documents, excluding errata, were considered. Bibliometric indicators such as annual growth of publications, country contribution, international collaboration, and citation analysis were presented. The quality of retrieved data was indirectly assessed by Hirsch index and impact factor of journals. A total of 5522 documents were retrieved with median (Q1-Q3) citations of 9 (2-23) and h-index of 113. Annual number of publications showed a fluctuating increase. The core leading journals were Applied and Environmental Microbiology journal and Journal of Food Protection with 246 (4.46%) publications for each. The USA (1309; 23.6%) was the most productive country while Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (150; 2.7%) was the most productive institution. Half of the top ten productive countries were European. France had the lowest percentage (33.5%) of articles with international collaboration while Netherlands (57.7%) had the highest percentage of articles with international collaboration. Approximately half (50.1%) of retrieved articles were published in journals under the subject area of "immunology/microbiology". Main themes in highly cited articles were molecular biology/genetics and public health burden of campylobacteriosis. There were 728 (13

  14. Campylobacter Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... and Disease / Campylobacter Q and Answers Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  15. Pathophysiology of Campylobacter Enteritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    proliferate in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes . The involvement of C. jejauni with the mesen- DISEASE IN MAN teric lymph nodes is well...translocates to the mesenteric lymph nodes . Evidence indi- The incubation period is variable (1 to 7 days). and the cates that translocation is a mechanism...influencing translocation of Campylobacter jejuni to mesen. Am. J. Vet. Res. 27:653-658. teric lymph nodes in gotobiotic mice, p. 136. In A. D. 189

  16. In-water supplementation of Trans-cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion reduces Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe gastroenteritis in humans. Chickens act as the reservoir host for C. jejuni, wherein the pathogen colonizes the ceca thereby leading to contamination of the carcass during slaughter. Reducing C. jejuni cecal colonization could pot...

  17. Chemotaxis in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Zautner, A E; Tareen, A Malik; Groß, U; Lugert, R

    2012-03-01

    Chemotaxis is the common way of flagellated bacteria to direct their locomotion to sites of most favourable living conditions, that are sites with the highest concentrations of energy sources and the lowest amounts of bacteriotoxic substances. The general prerequisites for chemotaxis are chemoreceptors, a chemosensory signal-transduction system and the flagellar apparatus. Epsilonproteobacteria like Campylobacter sp. show specific variations of the common chemotaxis components. CheV, a CheW-like linking-protein with an additional response regulator (RR) domain, was identified as commonly used coupling scaffold protein of Campylobacter jejuni. It attaches the histidine autokinase (CheAY), which also has an additional RR-domain, to the chemoreceptors signalling domains. These additional RR-domains seem to play an important role in the regulation of the CheAY-phosphorylation state and thereby in sensory adaptation. The Campylobacter-chemoreceptors are arranged into the three groups A, B, and C. Group A contains membrane-anchored receptors sensing periplasmic signals, group B consists only of one receptor with two cytoplasmic ligand-proteins representing a bipartite energy taxis system that senses pyruvate and fumarate, and group C receptors are cytoplasmic signalling domains with mostly unknown cytoplasmic ligand-binding proteins as sensory constituents. Recent findings demonstrating different alleles of the TLP7 chemoreceptor, specific for formic acid, led to an amendment of this grouping.

  18. Chemotaxis in Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Zautner, A. E.; Tareen, A. Malik; Groß, U.; Lugert, R.

    2012-01-01

    Chemotaxis is the common way of flagellated bacteria to direct their locomotion to sites of most favourable living conditions, that are sites with the highest concentrations of energy sources and the lowest amounts of bacteriotoxic substances. The general prerequisites for chemotaxis are chemoreceptors, a chemosensory signal-transduction system and the flagellar apparatus. Epsilonproteobacteria like Campylobacter sp. show specific variations of the common chemotaxis components. CheV, a CheW-like linking-protein with an additional response regulator (RR) domain, was identified as commonly used coupling scaffold protein of Campylobacter jejuni. It attaches the histidine autokinase (CheAY), which also has an additional RR-domain, to the chemoreceptors signalling domains. These additional RR-domains seem to play an important role in the regulation of the CheAY-phosphorylation state and thereby in sensory adaptation. The Campylobacter-chemoreceptors are arranged into the three groups A, B, and C. Group A contains membrane-anchored receptors sensing periplasmic signals, group B consists only of one receptor with two cytoplasmic ligand-proteins representing a bipartite energy taxis system that senses pyruvate and fumarate, and group C receptors are cytoplasmic signalling domains with mostly unknown cytoplasmic ligand-binding proteins as sensory constituents. Recent findings demonstrating different alleles of the TLP7 chemoreceptor, specific for formic acid, led to an amendment of this grouping. PMID:24611118

  19. Analytical Utility of Campylobacter Methodologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF, or the Committee) was asked to address the analytical utility of Campylobacter methodologies in preparation for an upcoming United States Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) baseline study to enumerate Campylobacter...

  20. Campylobacter Fetus Meningitis in Adults

    PubMed Central

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults. We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the Netherlands and performed a review of the literature. Two patients with C fetus meningitis were identified from January 2006 through May 2015. The calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per million adults. Combined with the literature, we identified 22 patients with a median age of 48 years. An immunocompromised state was present in 16 patients (73%), mostly due to alcoholism (41%) and diabetes mellitus (27%). The source of infection was identified in 13 out of 19 patients (68%), consisting of regular contact with domestic animals in 5 and working on a farm in 4. Recurrent fever and illness was reported in 4 patients (18%), requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment. Two patients died (9%) and 3 survivors (15%) had neurological sequelae. C fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with an immunocompromised state. Based on the apparent slow clinical response seen in this limited number of cases, the authors of this study recommend a prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy when C fetus is identified as a causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Cases appeared to do best with carbapenem therapy. PMID:26937916

  1. Inflammasome Activation by Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Bouwman, Lieneke I.; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M.C.; Flavell, Richard A.; van Putten, Jos P.M

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The mechanisms that lead to bacterial invasion of eukaryotic cells and massive intestinal inflammation are still unknown. Here we report that C. jejuni infection of mouse macrophages induces up-regulation of pro-IL-1β transcript and secretion of IL-1β without eliciting cell death. Immunoblotting indicated cleavage of caspase-1 and IL-1β in infected cells. In bone-marrow-derived macrophages from different knock-out mice, IL-1β secretion was found to require NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1/11, but not NLRC4. In contrast to NLRP3 activation by ATP, C. jejuni activation did not require priming of these macrophages. C. jejuni also activated the NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages as indicated by the presence of ASC foci and FLICA-positive cells. Analysis of a vast array of C. jejunimutants with defects in capsule formation, LOS biosynthesis, chemotaxis, flagella synthesis and flagellin (-like) secretion, T6SS needle protein or cytolethal distending toxin revealed a direct correlation between the number of intracellular bacteria and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The C. jejuni invasion related activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome without cytotoxicity and even in non-primed cells extends the known repertoire of bacterial inflammasome activation and likely contributes to C. jejuni-induced intestinal inflammation. PMID:25267974

  2. Occurrence and enumeration of Campylobacter spp. during the processing of Chilean broilers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Thermotolerant Campylobacter is among the more prevalent bacterial pathogens that cause foodborne diseases. This study aimed at evaluating the occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination in chicken carcasses and processing plant stations (chilling water, scalding water, defeathering machinery, evisceration machine, and transport crates) in two of the Chilean main slaughterhouses. In addition, the isolation rates of thermotolerant Campylobacter during evisceration and following chiller processing were compared. Results The overall slaughterhouse contamination with thermotolerant Campylobacter was 54%. Differences were evident when the results from each plant were compared (plant A and plant B was 72% and 36%, respectively). The sampling points with the greatest contamination rates in both plants were after evisceration (90% and 54%, for plants A and B respectively). The decrease of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination after chilling was significant (2 and 1.6 logs for plant A and B respectively P < 0.05). Conclusion Our findings indicate that chilling process has a limited effect in the final products Campylobacter contamination because poultry enter the slaughter processing with high counts of contamination. This may represent a health risk to consumers, if proper cooking practices are not employed. The levels and frequencies of Campylobacter found during the processing of Chilean poultry appear to be similar to those reported elsewhere in the world. PMID:19445680

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility in thermophilic Campylobacter species isolated from pigs and chickens in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jonker, A; Picard, J A

    2010-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of sporadic food-borne bacterial disease in humans. In intensive poultry and pig rearing systems the use of oral antibiotics is essential to maintain health. Consequently, there is a high risk for the thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli resident in the intestinal tract of food animals to develop resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Contamination of meat or eggs with pathogenic strains of resistant Campylobacter could, therefore, result in a form of campylobacteriosis in humans that is difficult to treat. The aim of this investigation was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from pigs and poultry by the broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. A total of 482 samples from the Western Cape and Gauteng provinces was collected and analysed. Thirty-eight Campylobacter isolates were obtained. Analysis of data revealed that C. jejuni strains mainly of poultry origin were more resistant to the fluoroquinolones, macrolides and tetracyclines and the C. coli strains were more resistant to the macrolides and lincosamides. Multi-resistance was also detected in 4 Campylobacter strains from the Western Cape. With the exception of tetracyclines, strains from high health Gauteng broiler farms were susceptible to antibiotics used to treat Campylobacter infections.

  4. Colonisation of a Phage Susceptible Campylobacter jejuni Population in Two Phage Positive Broiler Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Kittler, Sophie; Fischer, Samuel; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Glünder, Gerhard; Klein, Günter

    2014-01-01

    The pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are commensals in the poultry intestine and campylobacteriosis is one of the most frequent foodborne diseases in developed and developing countries. Phages were identified to be effective in reducing intestinal Campylobacter load and this was evaluated, in the first field trials which were recently carried out. The aim of this study was to further investigate Campylobacter population dynamics during phage application on a commercial broiler farm. This study determines the superiority in colonisation of a Campylobacter type found in a field trial that was susceptible to phages in in vitro tests. The colonisation factors, i.e. motility and gamma glutamyl transferase activity, were increased in this type. The clustering in phylogenetic comparisons of MALDI-TOF spectra did not match the ST, biochemical phenotype and phage susceptibility. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni strains and phage susceptibility types with different colonisation potential seem to play a very important role in the success of phage therapy in commercial broiler houses. Thus, mechanisms of both, phage susceptibility and Campylobacter colonisation should be further investigated and considered when composing phage cocktails. PMID:24733154

  5. Development of a PCR ELISA assay for the identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed

    Sails, A D; Fox, A J; Bolton, F J; Wareing, D R; Greenway, D L; Borrow, R

    2001-10-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed based on a solution-hybridization colorimetric end-point detection format (PCR ELISA) for the identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. PCR primers were designed to target a gene sequence with species-specific motifs. Five biotin-labelled probes targeted to the species-specific motifs were investigated for the detection of digoxygenin-labelled PCR products from C. jejuni and C. coli using the PCR ELISA format. Two probes were identified, one which reacts with both the C. jejuni and C. coli target sequences (probe CC2) and one probe which reacts with the C. jejuni target sequence only (probe CJ2). The specificity of the assay with the CJ2 and CC2 probes was investigated with a range of Campylobacter spp., Arcobacter spp., Helicobacter spp. and a range of unrelated organisms. The PCR ELISA assay and probes were demonstrated to be specific for C. jejuni and C. coli. The sensitivity of the PCR ELISA assay was demonstrated to be 10-100-fold more sensitive than a gel-based PCR method using the same primers. This PCR ELISA assay is sensitive, specific and significantly reduces the time needed for the identification of C. jejuni and C. coli and has the potential to facilitate early detection of these important gastro-intestinal pathogens. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. Economic Cost of Campylobacter, Norovirus and Rotavirus Disease in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Clarence C; O’Brien, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the annual cost to patients, the health service and society of infectious intestinal disease (IID) from Campylobacter, norovirus and rotavirus. Design Secondary data analysis. Setting The United Kingdom population, 2008–9. Main outcome measures Cases and frequency of health services usage due to these three pathogens; associated healthcare costs; direct, out-of-pocket expenses; indirect costs to patients and caregivers. Results The median estimated costs to patients and the health service at 2008–9 prices were: Campylobacter £50 million (95% CI: £33m–£75m), norovirus £81 million (95% CI: £63m–£106m), rotavirus £25m (95% CI: £18m–£35m). The costs per case were approximately £30 for norovirus and rotavirus, and £85 for Campylobacter. This was mostly borne by patients and caregivers through lost income or out-of-pocket expenditure. The cost of Campylobacter-related Guillain-Barré syndrome hospitalisation was £1.26 million (95% CI: £0.4m–£4.2m). Conclusions Norovirus causes greater economic burden than Campylobacter and rotavirus combined. Efforts to control IID must prioritise norovirus. For Campylobacter, estimated costs should be considered in the context of expenditure to control this pathogen in agriculture, food production and retail. Our estimates, prior to routine rotavirus immunisation in the UK, provide a baseline vaccine cost-effectiveness analyses. PMID:26828435

  7. Economic Cost of Campylobacter, Norovirus and Rotavirus Disease in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Tam, Clarence C; O'Brien, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the annual cost to patients, the health service and society of infectious intestinal disease (IID) from Campylobacter, norovirus and rotavirus. Secondary data analysis. The United Kingdom population, 2008-9. Cases and frequency of health services usage due to these three pathogens; associated healthcare costs; direct, out-of-pocket expenses; indirect costs to patients and caregivers. The median estimated costs to patients and the health service at 2008-9 prices were: Campylobacter £50 million (95% CI: £33m-£75m), norovirus £81 million (95% CI: £63m-£106m), rotavirus £25m (95% CI: £18m-£35m). The costs per case were approximately £30 for norovirus and rotavirus, and £85 for Campylobacter. This was mostly borne by patients and caregivers through lost income or out-of-pocket expenditure. The cost of Campylobacter-related Guillain-Barré syndrome hospitalisation was £1.26 million (95% CI: £0.4m-£4.2m). Norovirus causes greater economic burden than Campylobacter and rotavirus combined. Efforts to control IID must prioritise norovirus. For Campylobacter, estimated costs should be considered in the context of expenditure to control this pathogen in agriculture, food production and retail. Our estimates, prior to routine rotavirus immunisation in the UK, provide a baseline vaccine cost-effectiveness analyses.

  8. Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and adenoviruses in Finnish bathing waters and purified sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria; Pitkänen, Tarja; Siljanen, Henri M P; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Torvinen, Eila; Siitonen, Anja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2013-03-01

    A total of 50 Finnish bathing water samples and 34 sewage effluent samples originating from 17 locations were studied in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Campylobacter were present in 58% and adenoviruses in 12% of all bathing water samples; 53% of all sewage effluent samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 59% for adenoviruses. C. jejuni was the most common Campylobacter species found and human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most common identified adenovirus type. Bathing water temperature displayed a significant negative relationship with the occurrence of Campylobacter. One location had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of C. coli isolates in the bathing water and in sewage effluent, suggesting that sewage effluent was the source of C. coli at this bathing site. The counts of faecal indicator bacteria were not able to predict the presence of Campylobacter spp. or adenoviruses in the bathing waters. Thus the observed common presence of these pathogens in Finnish sewage effluents and bathing waters may represent a public health risk. The low water temperature in Finland may enhance the prevalence of Campylobacter in bathing waters. More attention needs to be paid to minimizing the concentrations of intestinal pathogens in bathing waters.

  9. Influence of measurement and control of microaerobic gaseous atmospheres in methods for Campylobacter growth studies.

    PubMed

    Macé, Sabrina; Haddad, Nabila; Zagorec, Monique; Tresse, Odile

    2015-12-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial enteritis in the world. For this reason, this pathogen is widely studied. As a microaerophilic and capnophilic microorganism, this foodborne pathogen requires an atmosphere with reduced oxygen (O2) and elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations for its optimal growth in vitro. According to the procedure for Campylobacter spp. isolation and cultivation from food products and environmental samples, European and American standards recommend gas proportions of 5% O2 and 10% CO2, complemented with nitrogen (N2). However, in the literature, the reported proportion of O2 for microaerobic growth conditions of Campylobacter spp. can range from 2.5% to 15% and the reason for this variation is usually not explained. The use of different gas generating systems and media to detect and to grow Campylobacter from foodstuff and the lack of information about gas producing systems are the main sources of the loss of consistancy between data. In this review, the relevance, strengths and weaknesses of these methods and their impact on Campylobacter biology are discussed. In conclusion the minimum information concerning microaerobic gaseous atmospheres are suggested in order to better harmonize data obtained from research studies for a better understanding of Campylobacter features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection and characterization of foodborne pathogenic bacteria with hyperspectral microscope imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rapid detection and identification of pathogenic microorganisms naturally occurring during food processing are important in developing intervention and verification strategies. In the poultry industry, contamination of poultry meat with foodborne pathogens (especially, Salmonella and Campylobacter) ...

  11. Comparison between the biofilm initiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains to an inert surface using BioFilm Ring Test.

    PubMed

    Sulaeman, S; Le Bihan, G; Rossero, A; Federighi, M; Dé, E; Tresse, O

    2010-04-01

    The adhesion to an inert surface (the first step of biofilm formation) of the two main pathogenic Campylobacter species, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, isolated from diverse origins, was compared. Adhesion assays were conducted in 96-well, polystyrene microtiter plates using the BioFilm Ring Test method. This new technique, based on magnetic bead entrapment, was shown to be suitable for analysing the adhesion of Campylobacter sp. strains by comparing the adhesion of four C. jejuni strains as revealed by the BioFilm Ring Test and immunodetection. Among the 46 strains tested, C. jejuni and C. coli displayed different adhesion capabilities ranging from no adhesion to strong adhesion. However, no strain of C. coli was strongly adherent, and statistically, C. coli adhered less to an inert surface than C. jejuni. In addition, strains isolated from animals or carcasses were less adherent than those isolated from food-processing and clinical cases. These observations suggest that the food environment and the human body could have selected strains with greater adhesion. The adhesion capability of strains could partly explain the cross-contamination or re-contamination of food products by Campylobacter. This property could provide a mode of survival for Campylobacter in the food chain.

  12. Stable concentrated emulsions of the 1-monoglyceride of capric acid (monocaprin) with microbicidal activities against the food-borne bacteria Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Thormar, Halldor; Hilmarsson, Hilmar; Bergsson, Gudmundur

    2006-01-01

    Of 11 fatty acids and monoglycerides tested against Campylobacter jejuni, the 1-monoglyceride of capric acid (monocaprin) was the most active in killing the bacterium. Various monocaprin-in-water emulsions were prepared which were stable after storage at room temperature for many months and which retained their microbicidal activity. A procedure was developed to manufacture up to 500 ml of 200 mM preconcentrated emulsions of monocaprin in tap water. The concentrates were clear and remained stable for at least 12 months. They were active against C. jejuni upon 160- to 200-fold dilution in tap water and caused a >6- to 7-log(10) reduction in viable bacterial count in 1 min at room temperature. The addition of 0.8% Tween 40 to the concentrates as an emulsifying agent did not change the microbicidal activity. Emulsions of monocaprin killed a variety of Campylobacter isolates from humans and poultry and also killed strains of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari, indicating a broad anticampylobacter activity. Emulsions of 1.25 mM monocaprin in citrate-lactate buffer at pH 4 to 5 caused a >6- to 7-log(10) reduction in viable bacterial counts of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli in 10 min. C. jejuni was also more susceptible to monocaprin emulsions at low pH. The addition of 5 and 10 mM monocaprin emulsions to Campylobacter-spiked chicken feed significantly reduced the bacterial contamination. These results are discussed in view of the possible utilization of monocaprin emulsions in controlling the spread of food-borne bacteria from poultry to humans.

  13. Stable Concentrated Emulsions of the 1-Monoglyceride of Capric Acid (Monocaprin) with Microbicidal Activities against the Food-Borne Bacteria Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Thormar, Halldor; Hilmarsson, Hilmar; Bergsson, Gudmundur

    2006-01-01

    Of 11 fatty acids and monoglycerides tested against Campylobacter jejuni, the 1-monoglyceride of capric acid (monocaprin) was the most active in killing the bacterium. Various monocaprin-in-water emulsions were prepared which were stable after storage at room temperature for many months and which retained their microbicidal activity. A procedure was developed to manufacture up to 500 ml of 200 mM preconcentrated emulsions of monocaprin in tap water. The concentrates were clear and remained stable for at least 12 months. They were active against C. jejuni upon 160- to 200-fold dilution in tap water and caused a >6- to 7-log10 reduction in viable bacterial count in 1 min at room temperature. The addition of 0.8% Tween 40 to the concentrates as an emulsifying agent did not change the microbicidal activity. Emulsions of monocaprin killed a variety of Campylobacter isolates from humans and poultry and also killed strains of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari, indicating a broad anticampylobacter activity. Emulsions of 1.25 mM monocaprin in citrate-lactate buffer at pH 4 to 5 caused a >6- to 7-log10 reduction in viable bacterial counts of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli in 10 min. C. jejuni was also more susceptible to monocaprin emulsions at low pH. The addition of 5 and 10 mM monocaprin emulsions to Campylobacter-spiked chicken feed significantly reduced the bacterial contamination. These results are discussed in view of the possible utilization of monocaprin emulsions in controlling the spread of food-borne bacteria from poultry to humans. PMID:16391087

  14. Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter in Organically and Conventionally Raised Layer Chickens.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Issmat I; Kehinde, Olugbenga; Kumar, Anand; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2017-01-01

    Poultry is a major source of Campylobacter, which can cause foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Additionally, poultry-associated Campylobacter can develop resistance to important antimicrobials, which increases the risk to public health. While broiler chickens have been the focus of many studies, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on layer farms has not received equal attention. However, the growing popularity of cage-free and organic layer farming necessitates a closer assessment of (1) the impact of these farming practices on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter and (2) layers as a potential source for the transmission of these pathogens. Here, we showed that the prevalence of Campylobacter on organic and conventional layer farms was statistically similar (p > 0.05). However, the average number of Campylobacter jejuni-positive organically grown hens was lower (p < 0.05) in comparison to conventionally grown hens. Campylobacter isolated from both production systems carried antimicrobial resistance genes. The tet(O) and cmeB were the most frequently detected genes, while the occurrence of aph-3-1 and blaOXA-61 was significantly lower (p < 0.05). Farming practices appeared to have an effect on the antimicrobial resistance phenotype, because the isolates from organically grown hens on two farms (OF-2 and OF-3) exhibited significantly lower resistance (p < 0.05) to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tylosin. However, on one of the sampled organic farms (OF-1), a relatively high number of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter were isolated. We conclude that organic farming can potentially impact the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter. Nevertheless, this impact should be regularly monitored to avoid potential relapses.

  15. Prevalence of Campylobacter among goats and retail goat meat in Congo.

    PubMed

    a Mpalang, Rosette Kabwang; Boreux, Raphaël; Melin, Pierrette; Akir Ni Bitiang, Khang'Mate; Daube, Georges; De Mol, Patrick

    2014-02-13

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was determined in goat and goat meat sold at retail outlets in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). A total of 644 samples, including 177 goat meat, 86 goat stomachs, 139 ready to eat (RTE) goat skewers, and 242 goat faecal samples were examined for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli using polymerase chain reaction. Overall, Campylobacter spp. were found in 34.6% of the examined samples. C. jejuni was isolated in 10.1% and C. coli in 26.7% of samples. Only 2.2% of all samples were positive for both species. There was a significant association between the prevalence of C. coli and the type of sample (p < 0.05). The overall prevalence of Campylobacter in different sample groups was 41.2%, 37.2%, 23.7%, and 35.1% for goat meat, goat stomachs, RTE goat skewers, and goat faecal samples, respectively. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the prevalence observed in the rainy season (16.7%) and the dry season (20.0%). Moreover, the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in slaughter sites, open-air markets, warehouses, and semi-open-air markets was 28.2%, 34.2%, 35.4%, and 42.9%, respectively. Statistically, there was no influence of the sample collection site on the frequency of isolation of Campylobacter (p > 0.05). This study shows that, considering the relatively high prevalence of this pathogen, live goat and goat meat are major sources of human and environmental contamination by Campylobacter spp. in Lubumbashi.

  16. Effects of carcass washers on Campylobacter contamination in large broiler processing plants.

    PubMed

    Bashor, M P; Curtis, P A; Keener, K M; Sheldon, B W; Kathariou, S; Osborne, J A

    2004-07-01

    Campylobacter, a major foodborne pathogen found in poultry products, remains a serious problem facing poultry processors. Campylobacter research has primarily focused on detection methods, prevalence, and detection on carcasses; limited research has been conducted on intervention. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of carcass washing systems in 4 large broiler-processing plants in removing Campylobacter species. Washing systems evaluated included combinations of inside/outside carcass washers and homemade cabinet washers. Processing aids evaluated were trisodium phosphate (TSP) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC). The washer systems consisted of 1 to 3 carcass washers and used from 2.16 to 9.73 L of water per carcass. The washer systems used chlorinated water with 25 to 35 ppm of total chlorine. These washer systems on average reduced Campylobacter populations by log 0.5 cfu/mL from log 4.8 cfu/mL to log 4.3 cfu/mL. Washer systems with TSP or ASC reduced Campylobacter populations on average by an additional log 1.03 to log 1.26, respectively. Total average reductions in Campylobacter populations across the washer system and chill tank were log 0.76 cfu/mL. Washer systems that included antimicrobial systems had total average reductions in Campylobacter populations of log 1.53 cfu/mL. These results suggest that carcass washer systems consisting of multiple washers provide minimal reductions in Campylobacter populations found on poultry in processing plants. A more effective treatment of reducing Campylobacter populations is ASC or TSP treatment; however, these reductions, although significant, will not eliminate the organism from raw poultry.

  17. Occurrence and molecular characterization of reptilian Campylobacter fetus strains isolated in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Min; Shia, Wei-Yau; Jhou, Yi-Jyun; Shyu, Ching-Lin

    2013-05-31

    The number of people who raise reptiles as pets has increased, but information about zoonotic Campylobacter carried by reptiles is limited. A survey of zoonotic Campylobacter species isolated from reptiles was undertaken to understand the possibility of this zoonotic bacterial pathogen causing human infection. A total of 179 fresh reptile fecal samples were collected from human-raised, pet shop and wild reptiles to survey the Campylobacter species. Basic biochemical reactions and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to identify the Campylobacter species. In the 179 fecal samples, 6.7% (12/179) were Campylobacter positive; all positive samples were identified as Campylobacter fetus. For the different reptile species, the prevalence of C. fetus in turtles was 9.7% (10/103), 1.7% (1/56) in lizards and 5.0% (1/20) in snakes. Based on published C. fetus subspecies-specific sequences, 9 of the C. fetus bacterial isolates were identified as C. fetus subsp. fetus by multiplex PCR. In addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to analyze the Campylobacter epidemiology and population genetics. Most of the C. fetus strains isolated from the reptiles were genetically distinct from classical mammalian C. fetus. Only the new type of ST-43, isolated from Chelonoidis carbonaria (turtle), was closely related to mammalian strains. Strain Campy-pet-3 possesses a urease activity in this study is the first to be described in C. fetus and this strain is the only one of lizard origin. This study provides the first information of Campylobacter species distribution in reptilian feces and supports the possibility of zoonotic Campylobacter infectious diseases caused by reptiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence and species level diagnostics of Campylobacter spp., enteric Helicobacter spp. and Anaerobiospirillum spp. in healthy and diarrheic dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, M; Hänninen, M L; Revez, J; Hannula, M; Zanoni, R G

    2008-06-22

    In order to study the occurrence and co-infection of different species of Campylobacter, enteric Helicobacter and Anaerobiospirillum in dogs and cats and define a possible association between these microrganisms and gastrointestinal disorders, 190 dogs and 84 cats, either healthy or with diarrhea, were sampled between 2002 and 2003. Thirty-three C. upsaliensis, 17 C. jejuni, 2 C. helveticus, 1 C. lari isolates from dogs and 14 C. helveticus, 7 C. jejuni, 6 C. upsaliensis isolates from cats were identified using species-specific PCR and phenotypic tests. Whole cell protein profile analysis, phenotypic tests, PCR-RFLP of gyrB and a phylogenetic study of partial groEL and 16S rRNA sequences were used to identify 37 H. bilis, 22 H. canis and 14 H. cinaedi in dogs and 12 H. canis, 5 H. bilis and 2 H. cinaedi in cats. Whole cell protein profile analysis, phenotypic tests and species-specific PCR of 16S rRNA were used to identify 14 A. succiniciproducens, 12 A. thomasii isolates and one unidentified Anaerobiospirillum sp. isolate in dogs and 3 A. thomasii isolates in cats. Fifty-two animals (19%) were positive for the isolation of more than one genus. No significant statistical correlation was found between any isolates of Campylobacter, Helicobacter or Anaerobiospirillum spp. or the various co-infection rates, and the presence of diarrhea in either dogs or cats. Campylobacter isolates were also tested for antibiotic resistance using the agar dilution method.

  19. Bacteraemia caused by Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Ladrón de Guevara, C; Gonzalez, J; Peña, P

    1994-01-01

    The genus Campylobacter has become increasingly recognised as the cause of various infections. Campylobacter jejuni and C coli cause acute gastroenteritis in man all over the world. C jejuni enteritis can lead to bacteraemia, but its actual incidence remains unknown. Seven cases of bacteraemia caused by C jejuni or C coli are reported, from the blood of seven patients: five immune deficient adults; a newborn baby; and a patient who had had abdominal surgery. Patients who develop diarrhoea as a result of Campylobacter infection are at risk of bacteraemia thereafter. PMID:8132835

  20. Association of Campylobacter spp. levels between chicken grow-out environmental samples and processed carcasses.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Matthew W; Eifert, Joseph D; Ponder, Monica A; Schmale, David G

    2014-03-01

    Campylobacter spp. have been isolated from live poultry, production environments, processing facilities, and raw poultry products. Environmental sampling in a poultry grow-out house, combined with carcass rinse sampling from the same flock, may provide a relative relationship between pre- and postharvest Campylobacter contamination. Air samples, fecal/litter samples, and feed/drink line samples were collected from 4 commercial chicken grow-out houses in western Virginia between September 2011 and January 2012. Birds from each sampled house were the first flock slaughtered the following day and were then sampled by postchill carcass rinses. Campylobacter, from postenrichment samples, was detected in 27% (32/120) of house environmental samples and 37.5% (45/120) of carcass rinse samples. All environmental sample types from each house included at least one positive sample except the house 2 air samples. The sponge sample method was found to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) proportion of Campylobacter-positive samples (45%) than the fecal/litter samples (20%) and air samples (15%) when sample types of all the houses were compared. The proportion positive for the fecal/litter samples postenrichment, for each flock, had the highest correlation (0.85) to the proportion of positive carcass rinse samples for each flock. Environmental samples from house 1 and associated carcass rinses accounted for the largest number of Campylobacter positives (29/60). The fewest number of Campylobacter positives, based on both house environmental (4/30) and carcass rinse samples (8/30), was detected from flock B. The results of this study suggest that environmental sampling in a poultry grow-out house, combined with carcass rinse sampling from the same flock, have the potential to provide an indication of Campylobacter contamination and transmission. Campylobacter qualitative levels from house and processing plant samples may enable the scheduled processing of flocks with lower

  1. Case of acute pancreatitis associated with Campylobacter enteritis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Rumiko; Matsumoto, Satohiro; Yoshida, Yukio

    2014-06-21

    A 25-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaints of right flank pain, watery diarrhea, and fever. Blood tests revealed high levels of inflammatory markers, and infectious enteritis was diagnosed. A stool culture obtained on admission revealed no growth of any significant pathogens. Conservative therapy was undertaken with fasting and fluid replacement. On day 2 of admission, the fever resolved, the frequency of defecation reduced, the right flank pain began to subside, and the white blood cell count started to decrease. On hospital day 4, the frequency of diarrhea decreased to approximately 5 times per day, and the right flank pain resolved. However, the patient developed epigastric pain and increased blood levels of the pancreatic enzymes. Abdominal computed tomography revealed mild pancreatic enlargement. Acute pancreatitis was diagnosed, and conservative therapy with fasting and fluid replacement was continued. A day later, the blood levels of the pancreatic enzymes peaked out. On hospital day 7, the patient passed stools with fresh blood, and Campylobacter jejuni/coli was detected by culture. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy performed on hospital day 8 revealed diffuse aphthae extending from the terminal ileum to the entire colon. Based on the findings, pancreatitis associated with Campylobacter enteritis was diagnosed. In the present case, a possible mechanism of onset of pancreatitis was invasion of the pancreatic duct by Campylobacter and the host immune responses to Campylobacter.

  2. The in vivo efficacy of two administration routes of a phage cocktail to reduce numbers of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Poultry meat is one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, an acute bacterial enteritis which is a major problem worldwide. Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni are the most common Campylobacter species associated with this disease. These pathogens live in the intestinal tract of most avian species and under commercial conditions they spread rapidly to infect a high proportion of the flock, which makes their treatment and prevention very difficult. Bacteriophages (phages) are naturally occurring predators of bacteria with high specificity and also the capacity to evolve to overcome bacterial resistance. Therefore phage therapy is a promising alternative to antibiotics in animal production. This study tested the efficacy of a phage cocktail composed of three phages for the control of poultry infected with C. coli and C. jejuni. Moreover, it evaluated the effectiveness of two routes of phage administration (by oral gavage and in feed) in order to provide additional information regarding their future use in a poultry unit. Results The results indicate that experimental colonisation of chicks was successful and that the birds showed no signs of disease even at the highest dose of Campylobacter administered. The phage cocktail was able to reduce the titre of both C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces by approximately 2 log10 cfu/g when administered by oral gavage and in feed. This reduction persisted throughout the experimental period and neither pathogen regained their former numbers. The reduction in Campylobacter titre was achieved earlier (2 days post-phage administration) when the phage cocktail was incorporated in the birds' feed. Campylobacter strains resistant to phage infection were recovered from phage-treated chickens at a frequency of 13%. These resistant phenotypes did not exhibit a reduced ability to colonize the chicken guts and did not revert to sensitive types. Conclusions Our findings provide further evidence of the

  3. The in vivo efficacy of two administration routes of a phage cocktail to reduce numbers of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in chickens.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Carla M; Gannon, Ben W; Halfhide, Deborah E; Santos, Silvio B; Hayes, Christine M; Roe, John M; Azeredo, Joana

    2010-09-01

    Poultry meat is one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, an acute bacterial enteritis which is a major problem worldwide. Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni are the most common Campylobacter species associated with this disease. These pathogens live in the intestinal tract of most avian species and under commercial conditions they spread rapidly to infect a high proportion of the flock, which makes their treatment and prevention very difficult. Bacteriophages (phages) are naturally occurring predators of bacteria with high specificity and also the capacity to evolve to overcome bacterial resistance. Therefore phage therapy is a promising alternative to antibiotics in animal production. This study tested the efficacy of a phage cocktail composed of three phages for the control of poultry infected with C. coli and C. jejuni. Moreover, it evaluated the effectiveness of two routes of phage administration (by oral gavage and in feed) in order to provide additional information regarding their future use in a poultry unit. The results indicate that experimental colonisation of chicks was successful and that the birds showed no signs of disease even at the highest dose of Campylobacter administered. The phage cocktail was able to reduce the titre of both C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces by approximately 2 log10 cfu/g when administered by oral gavage and in feed. This reduction persisted throughout the experimental period and neither pathogen regained their former numbers. The reduction in Campylobacter titre was achieved earlier (2 days post-phage administration) when the phage cocktail was incorporated in the birds' feed. Campylobacter strains resistant to phage infection were recovered from phage-treated chickens at a frequency of 13%. These resistant phenotypes did not exhibit a reduced ability to colonize the chicken guts and did not revert to sensitive types. Our findings provide further evidence of the efficacy of phage therapy for the

  4. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in environmental waters by PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Sails, A D; Bolton, F J; Fox, A J; Wareing, D R A; Greenway, D L A

    2002-03-01

    A PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay was applied to the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in environmental water samples after enrichment culture. Bacterial cells were concentrated from 69 environmental water samples by using filtration, and the filtrates were cultured in Campylobacter blood-free broth. After enrichment culture, DNA was extracted from the samples by using a rapid-boiling method, and the DNA extracts were used as a template in a PCR ELISA assay. A total of 51 samples were positive by either PCR ELISA or culture; of these, 43 were found to be positive by PCR ELISA and 43 were found to be positive by culture. Overall, including positive and negative results, 59 samples were concordant in both methods. Several samples were positive in the PCR ELISA assay but were culture negative; therefore, this assay may be able to detect sublethally damaged or viable nonculturable forms of campylobacters. The method is rapid and sensitive, and it significantly reduces the time needed for the detection of these important pathogens by 2 to 3 days.

  5. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Environmental Waters by PCR Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Sails, A. D.; Bolton, F. J.; Fox, A. J.; Wareing, D. R. A.; Greenway, D. L. A.

    2002-01-01

    A PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay was applied to the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in environmental water samples after enrichment culture. Bacterial cells were concentrated from 69 environmental water samples by using filtration, and the filtrates were cultured in Campylobacter blood-free broth. After enrichment culture, DNA was extracted from the samples by using a rapid-boiling method, and the DNA extracts were used as a template in a PCR ELISA assay. A total of 51 samples were positive by either PCR ELISA or culture; of these, 43 were found to be positive by PCR ELISA and 43 were found to be positive by culture. Overall, including positive and negative results, 59 samples were concordant in both methods. Several samples were positive in the PCR ELISA assay but were culture negative; therefore, this assay may be able to detect sublethally damaged or viable nonculturable forms of campylobacters. The method is rapid and sensitive, and it significantly reduces the time needed for the detection of these important pathogens by 2 to 3 days. PMID:11872483

  6. Susceptibility to Campylobacter infection is associated with the species composition of the human fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Dicksved, Johan; Ellström, Patrik; Engstrand, Lars; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-09-16

    The gut microbiota is essential for human health, but very little is known about how the composition of this ecosystem can influence and respond to bacterial infections. Here we address this by prospectively studying the gut microbiota composition before, during, and after natural Campylobacter infection in exposed poultry abattoir workers. The gut microbiota composition was analyzed with 16S amplicon sequencing of fecal samples from poultry abattoir workers during the peak season of Campylobacter infection in Sweden. The gut microbiota compositions were compared between individuals who became culture positive for Campylobacter and those who remained negative. Individuals who became Campylobacter positive had a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.007) and Escherichia (P = 0.002) species than those who remained culture negative. Furthermore, this group had a significantly higher abundance of Phascolarctobacterium (P = 0.017) and Streptococcus (P = 0.034) sequences than the Campylobacter-negative group, which had an overrepresentation of Clostridiales (P = 0.017), unclassified Lachnospiraceae (P = 0.008), and Anaerovorax (P = 0.015) sequences. Intraindividual comparisons of the fecal microbiota compositions yielded small differences over time in Campylobacter-negative participants, but significant long-term changes were found in the Campylobacter-positive group (P < 0.005). The results suggest that the abundance of specific genera in the microbiota reduces resistance to Campylobacter colonization in humans and that Campylobacter infection can have long-term effects on the composition of the human fecal microbiota. Studies using mouse models have made important contributions to our understanding of the role of the gut microbiota in resistance to bacterial enteropathogen colonization. The relative abundances of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides species have been pointed out as important determinants of susceptibility to Gram-negative pathogens in

  7. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed.

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms among Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed. PMID:23865047

  9. A capsule conjugate vaccine approach to prevent diarrheal disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Maue, Alexander C; Poly, Frédéric; Guerry, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of diarrheal disease and results in high levels of morbidity and economic loss in both industrialized and developing regions of the world. To date, prior vaccine approaches have failed to confer protection against this enteric pathogen. Key challenges to the development of a practical Campylobacter vaccine for human use include a lack of understanding of Campylobacter pathogenesis and well-defined immune correlates of protection. With the discovery that C. jejuni expresses a capsule polysaccharide associated with virulence, a conjugate vaccine approach is currently being evaluated. Conjugate vaccines have been successfully developed and implemented against other invasive mucosal pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis,and Hemophilus influenzae. Furthermore, Shigella-based conjugate vaccines based on lipopolysaccharide have shown promising results in field trials. A prototype C. jejuni conjugate vaccine is currently entering human testing. PMID:24632556

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry carcasses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Kania, Iwona; Osek, Jacek

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in poultry carcasses at slaughter in Poland. For the isolated strains, resistance to selected antibiotics and the associated genetic determinants were identified. A total of 498 Campylobacter isolates were obtained from 802 poultry samples during the 2-year study period. Strains were identified to species with the PCR method; 53.6% of the strains were Campylobacter jejuni and 46.4% were Campylobacter coli. A high percentage of the tested Campylobacter strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (74.1 and 73.5%, respectively) followed by tetracycline (47.4%) and streptomycin (20.5%). Only one C. jejuni and two C. coli isolates were resistant to gentamicin. Seventy-nine (15.9%) of the 498 strains were resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics examined. Higher levels of resistance, irrespective of the antimicrobial agent tested, were found within the C. coli group. Almost all strains resistant to quinolones (99.5%) and to tetracycline (99.6%) carried the Thr-86-to-Ile mutation in the gyrA gene and possessed the tet(O) marker, respectively. All isolates resistant to erythromycin had the A2075G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. These results reveal that poultry carcasses in Poland are a reservoir of potentially pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter strains for humans, which may pose a public health risk.

  11. Campylobacter contamination in retail poultry meats and by-products in the world: a literature survey.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hodaka; Yamamoto, Shigeki

    2009-03-01

    Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In North America, Europe and Japan, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial illnesses and the consumption of poultry meats and/or by-products is suspected a major cause of the illness. In this survey, we summarized the research papers describing Campylobacter contamination of retail poultry meats and by-products in various countries of the world. In most of the countries, a majority of retail poultry meats and by-products were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni was usually the dominant Campylobacter species isolated from retail poultry and C. coli was less frequently isolated, although the ratio of C. coli to C. jejuni was considerably different among the countries. However, in Thailand and South Africa, C. coli was the dominant Campylobacter species isolated from retail poultry. A large portion of retail poultry was contaminated with Campylobacter spp. in the world; therefore, further trials are required for finding proper countermeasures and attention should be paid for the sanitary handling of poultry products.

  12. Key Role of Mfd in the Development of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; Sahin, Orhan; Barton, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Qijing

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen and a common causative agent of human enterocolitis. Fluoroquinolones are a key class of antibiotics prescribed for clinical treatment of enteric infections including campylobacteriosis, but fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter readily emerges under the antibiotic selection pressure. To understand the mechanisms involved in the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter, we compared the gene expression profiles of C. jejuni in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin using DNA microarray. Our analysis revealed that multiple genes showed significant changes in expression in the presence of a suprainhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. Most importantly, ciprofloxacin induced the expression of mfd, which encodes a transcription-repair coupling factor involved in strand-specific DNA repair. Mutation of the mfd gene resulted in an approximately 100-fold reduction in the rate of spontaneous mutation to ciprofloxacin resistance, while overexpression of mfd elevated the mutation frequency. In addition, loss of mfd in C. jejuni significantly reduced the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter in culture media or chickens treated with fluoroquinolones. These findings indicate that Mfd is important for the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter, reveal a previously unrecognized function of Mfd in promoting mutation frequencies, and identify a potential molecular target for reducing the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter. PMID:18535657

  13. Real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp.: A comparison to classic culturing and enrichment.

    PubMed

    de Boer, P; Rahaoui, H; Leer, R J; Montijn, R C; van der Vossen, J M B M

    2015-10-01

    The major disadvantage of the current gold standard for detection of the food pathogen Campylobacter, i.e. culturing, is the lengthy procedure. In this study we assessed the use of real-time PCR for detection of Campylobacter. To this end, 926 poultry samples, taken from transport containers and broiler caeca in The Netherlands in 2007, were subjected to three different real-time PCR detection methods: one targeting the Campylobacter jejuni hipO gene, one targeting the Campylobacter coli glyA gene, and one generically targeting Campylobacter spp. 16S rDNA sequence. The PCR results from the three different PCR protocols were compared to the work of Nauta et al. (2009) who analyzed the same set of samples collected from 62 broiler flocks by means of enrichment culturing. The results indicate that the generic 16S campylobacter PCR detection is equally reliable but much faster (4 h instead of ≥2 days) than detection by means of culturing. Moreover, PCR detection targeting the hipO and the glyA gene provide the possibility of C. jejuni and C. coli species discrimination. The generic Campylobacter spp. PCR analysis also confirmed the high incidence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry samples (∼90%) and the species specific PCR showed the simultaneous presence of C. jejuni and C. coli in ∼24% of the samples. Furthermore, the results from the three PCR analyses suggested the occurrence of alternative Campylobacter species in almost 10% of the samples. The campylobacter PCR detection methods reported here can replace traditional culturing because of being quicker and more reliable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transfer of Campylobacter from a Positive Batch to Broiler Carcasses of a Subsequently Slaughtered Negative Batch: A Quantitative Approach.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Gisbert Algaba, Ignacio; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify Campylobacter cross-contamination from a positive batch of broiler chicken carcasses to a negative batch at selected processing steps and to evaluate the duration of this cross-contamination. During each of nine visits conducted in three broiler slaughterhouses, Campylobacter levels were determined on broiler carcasses originating from Campylobacter-negative batches processed immediately after Campylobacter-positive batches. Data were collected after four steps during the slaughter process (scalding, plucking, evisceration, and washing) at 1, 10, and 20 min after the start of the slaughter of the batches. Campylobacter levels in ceca of birds from Campylobacter-positive batches ranged from 5.62 to 9.82 log CFU/g. When the preceding positive batch was colonized at a low level, no (enumerable) carcass contamination was found in a subsequent negative batch. However, when Campylobacter levels were high in the positive batch, Campylobacter was found on carcasses of the subsequent negative batch but at levels significantly lower than those found on carcasses from the preceding positive batch. The scalding and the evisceration process contributed the least (< 1.5 log CFU/g) and the most (up to 4 log CFU/ g), respectively, to the Campylobacter transmission from a positive batch to a negative batch. Additionally, the number of Campylobacter cells transferred from positive to negative batches decreased over the first 20 min of sampling time. However, the reduction was slower than previously estimated in risk assessment studies, suggesting that pathogen transfer during crosscontamination is a complex process.

  15. Sensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni using nanoparticles enhanced QCM sensor.

    PubMed

    Masdor, Noor Azlina; Altintas, Zeynep; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2016-04-15

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor platform was used to develop an immunosensor for the detection of food pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies and commercially available mouse monoclonal antibodies against C. jejuni were investigated to construct direct, sandwich and gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) amplified sandwich assays. The performance of the QCM immunosensor developed using sandwich assay by utilising the rabbit polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and conjugated to AuNPs as the detection antibody gave the highest sensitivity. This sensor achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 150 colony forming unit (CFU)mL(-1) of C. jejuni in solution. The QCM sensor showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for Campylobacter detection with low cross reactivity for other foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, (7%) Listeria monocytogenes (3%) and Escherichia coli (0%). The development of this biosensor would help in the sensitive detection of Campylobacter which can result in reducing pre-enrichment steps; hence, reducing assay time. This work demonstrates the potential of this technology for the development of a rapid and sensitive detection method for C. jejuni. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of distillers feedstuffs and lasalocid on Campylobacter carriage in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robin C; Harvey, Roger B; Wickersham, Tryon A; MacDonald, Jim C; Ponce, Christian H; Brown, Mike; Pinchak, William E; Osterstock, Jason B; Krueger, Nathan; Nisbet, David J

    2014-11-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are foodborne pathogens that can colonize the gut of food animals. Limited in their ability to ferment sugars, Campylobacter can derive energy for growth via amino acid catabolism. The objectives of the present studies were to test whether supplemental distillers grains containing high amounts of rumen-undegradable intake protein or supplemental lasalocid may, by promoting amino acid flow to the lower bovine gut, increase intestinal carriage of Campylobacter. In study one, 10 steers (5 per treatment) were adapted to diets formulated to achieve 0 or 30% dried distillers grains. After an initial 14-day adaptation to the basal diet, control and treated steers were fed their respective diets for 23 days, after which time they were fed supplemental lasalocid for an additional 8 days, followed by a 5-day withdrawal. In study two, 24 steers preacclimated to a basal diet were adapted via 3-day periodic increases to dietary treatments formulated to achieve 0, 30, or 60% wet corn distillers grains with solubles. Analysis of Campylobacter bacteria cultured from duodenal and fecal samples in study one and from fecal samples in study two revealed no effect of dried distillers grains or wet corn distillers grains with solubles on the prevalence or concentrations of duodenal or fecal Campylobacter. The results from study one indicated that colonized steers, regardless of treatment, harbored higher Campylobacter concentrations when transitioned to the basal diet than when coming off pasture. Campylobacter carriage was unaffected by lasalocid. These results provide no evidence that feeding distillers grains high in rumen-undegradable intake protein or supplemental lasalocid contributes to increased intestinal carriage of Campylobacter in fed cattle.

  17. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes in ducks: a review.

    PubMed

    Adzitey, Frederick; Huda, Nurul; Ali, Gulam Rusul Rahmat

    2012-06-01

    Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes are important bacterial pathogens associated with gastroenteritis. The consumption of poultry meat and their products is considered as a major and leading source of human infection. While surveys of chicken meat and products, and its association with foodborne pathogens are widely available, such information on ducks is scarce. This survey examines the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes isolated from ducks. Data obtained from key surveys are summarized. The observed prevalence of these pathogens and their resistance to various antibiotics varies from one study to the other. The mean prevalence (and range means from individual surveys) are duck 53.0% (0.0-83.3%), duck meat and parts 31.6% (12.5-45.8%), and duck rearing and processing environment 94.4% (92.0-96.7%) for Campylobacter spp. For Salmonella spp., the mean prevalence data are duck 19.9% (3.3-56.9%), duck meat and parts 28.4% (4.4-75.6%), duck egg, shell, and content 17.5% (0-4.17%), and duck rearing and processing environment 32.5% (10.5-82.6%). Studies on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of L. monocytogenes in ducks are by far very rare compared to Campylobacter and Salmonella, although ducks have been noted to be a potential source for these foodborne pathogens. From our survey, ducks were more frequently contaminated with Campylobacter than Salmonella. Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. also exhibited varying resistance to multiple antibiotics.

  18. The effects of 405-nm visible light on the survival of Campylobacter on chicken skin and stainless steel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter spp. are major food-borne pathogens responsible for a significant portion of the human cases of bacterial mediated gastrointestinal disease, and poultry products are an important source of infections. Reducing the numbers of this pathogen on poultry products should lower the incidence...

  19. Prevalence, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in white stork Ciconia ciconia in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szczepańska, Bernadeta; Kamiński, Piotr; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Śpica, Dorota; Kartanas, Edmund; Ulrich, Werner; Jerzak, Leszek; Kasprzak, Mariusz; Bocheński, Marcin; Klawe, Jacek J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of white stork Ciconia ciconia as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Antimicrobial resistance and the presence of putative virulence genes of the isolates were also examined. A total of 398 white stork chicks sampled in Western Poland in habitats with high density of breeding were examined. Rectal swabs were collected during breeding season 2009-2012 from storks developing in a relatively pure environment (Odra meadows), in polluted areas (a copper mining-smelting complex), and in suburbs. Of the anal swabs collected, 7.6% were positive for Campylobacter among chicks (5.3% samples positive for C. jejuni and 2.3% samples positive for C. coli). Samples from polluted areas had the highest prevalence of Campylobacter (12.2%). The prevalence of resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from young storks was as follows: to ciprofloxacin (52.4%, 44.4%), and to tetracycline (19%, 77.8%). All of the analyzed isolates were susceptible to macrolides. The resistance to both classes of antibiotics was found in the 23.3% of Campylobacter spp. All Campylobacter spp. isolates had cadF gene and flaA gene responsible for adherence and motility. CdtB gene associated with toxin production was present in 88.9% of C. coli isolates and 57.1% of C. jejuni isolates. The iam marker was found more often in C. coli strains (55.6%) compared to C. jejuni isolates (42.9%). Our results confirm the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the white stork in natural conditions and, because it lives in open farmlands with access to marshy wetlands, the environmental sources such as water reservoirs and soil-water can be contaminated from white stork feces and the pathogens can be widely disseminated. We can thus conclude that Campylobacter spp. may easily be transmitted to waterfowl, other birds, and humans via its environmental sources and/or by immediate contact.

  20. Campylobacter spp. Prevalence and Levels in Raw Milk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Christidis, T; Pintar, K D M; Butler, A J; Nesbitt, A; Thomas, M K; Marshall, B; Pollari, F

    2016-10-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the leading bacterial gastrointestinal disease internationally, contributing significantly to the enteric illness burden. Cases have been associated with the consumption of raw milk, a behavior that has garnered attention recently. Estimates of the prevalence and levels of Campylobacter spp. in raw milk are lacking, which hinders risk assessment attempts. This article is a systematic review and meta-analysis of reported prevalence and levels of zoonotic Campylobacter spp. in the raw milk of cows, goats, and sheep in Canada, the United States, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. The relevant literature was reviewed, and trained reviewers examined the results for inclusion of articles in the meta-analysis. Relevant data (prevalence and/or level of Campylobacter in raw milk, country of origin, animal species, sample source, Campylobacter species identified, etc.) were extracted, and a meta-analysis was performed in Stata v. 12 (Metaprop command). The weighted mean prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw milk samples was 1.18%. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine how prevalence varied by study characteristics, with the highest prevalence values in studies from the United Kingdom (by country, 6.4%), about cows (by animal species, 1.3%), and including samples taken from inline filters (by sample source, 1.75%) and in studies that included species that are not pathogenic to humans (by Campylobacter species, 1.14%). Two articles each included a single Campylobacter level, 0.16 ± 0.3 and approximately 0.047 most probable number per ml. Despite a relatively low prevalence, consumption of raw milk is inherently risky because no treatment has been used to inactivate pathogens. This potential risk further supports maintaining regulations to limit the sales of raw milk.

  1. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

    PubMed

    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey.

  2. Genome Reduction for Niche Association in Campylobacter Hepaticus, A Cause of Spotty Liver Disease in Poultry.

    PubMed

    Petrovska, Liljana; Tang, Yue; Jansen van Rensburg, Melissa J; Cawthraw, Shaun; Nunez, Javier; Sheppard, Samuel K; Ellis, Richard J; Whatmore, Adrian M; Crawshaw, Tim R; Irvine, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    The term "spotty liver disease" (SLD) has been used since the late 1990s for a condition seen in the UK and Australia that primarily affects free range laying hens around peak lay, causing acute mortality and a fall in egg production. A novel thermophilic SLD-associated Campylobacter was reported in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2015. Subsequently, similar isolates occurring in Australia were formally described as a new species, Campylobacter hepaticus. We describe the comparative genomics of 10 C. hepaticus isolates recovered from 5 geographically distinct poultry holdings in the UK between 2010 and 2012. Hierarchical gene-by-gene analyses of the study isolates and representatives of 24 known Campylobacter species indicated that C. hepaticus is most closely related to the major pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. We observed low levels of within-farm variation, even between isolates collected over almost 3 years. With respect to C. hepaticus genome features, we noted that the study isolates had a ~140 Kb reduction in genome size, ~144 fewer genes, and a lower GC content compared to C. jejuni. The most notable reduction was in the subsystem containing genes for iron acquisition and metabolism, supported by reduced growth of C. hepaticus in an iron depletion assay. Genome reduction is common among many pathogens and in C. hepaticus has likely been driven at least in part by specialization following the occupation of a new niche, the chicken liver.

  3. Methods for detecting pathogens in the beef food chain: detecting particular pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The main food-borne pathogens of concern in the beef food chain are Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella spp.; however, the presence of other pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Clostridium spp., Bacillus cereus, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. par...

  4. Pyrosequencing-based validation of a simple cell-suspension polymerase chain reaction assay for Campylobacter... of high-processivity polymerase with novel internal amplification controls for rapid and specific detection.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although Campylobacter is an important food-borne human pathogen, there remains a lack of molecular diagnostic assays that are simple to use, cost-effective, and provide rapid results in research, clinical, or regulatory laboratories. Of the numerous Campylobacter assays that do exist, to our knowl...

  5. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter helveticus type strain ATCC 51209T

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter helveticus has been isolated from domestic dogs and cats. Although C. helveticus is closely related to the emerging human pathogen C. upsaliensis, no C. helveticus-associated cases of human illness have been reported. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. helveticus ...

  6. Comparative genomic analysis of clinical strains of Campylobacter jejuni from South Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bacterial foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis and is also associated with the postinfectious neuropathies, Guillain-Barré (GBS) and Miller Fisher (MFS) syndromes. This study described the use of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and DNA microarrays ...

  7. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter ureolyticus clinical isolate RIGS 9880

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The emerging pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus has been isolated from human and animal genital infections, human periodontal infections, domestic and food animals, and from cases of human gastroenteritis. We report the whole-genome sequence of the human clinical isolate RIGS 9880, which is the firs...

  8. Diversity in the protein N-glycosylation pathways among campylobacter species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The foodborne bacterial pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, possesses an N-linked protein glycosylation (pgl) pathway involved in adding conserved heptasaccharides to asparaginecontaining motifs of >60 proteins, and releasing the same glycan into its periplasm as free oligosaccharides. In this study, co...

  9. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  10. Antimicrobial wash with Trans-cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion reduces Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe enteritis in humans largely due to consumption of contaminated poultry products. Reducing C. jejuni contamination on chicken carcasses would reduce subsequent human infections. This study investigated the efficacy of Trans-cinnama...

  11. A simplified dilution method for detection of Campylobacter in broiler ceca

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter species, a leading foodborne pathogen, is linked to poultry. Development of intervention strategies depends on the ability to rapidly and consistently recover and estimate the number of bacteria present. The objective of this experim ent was to validate a semi-quantitative method for d...

  12. Landscape and seasonal factors influence salmonella and campylobacter prevalence in a rural mixed use watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence in stream networks of the Satilla River Basin (SRB) were monitored monthly from August 2007 to August 2009 to study relationships between these pathogens and land use, presence of poultry houses and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge. Salmonella and ...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of the Enteropathogenic Bacterium Campylobacter jejuni Strain cj255.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Fariha Masood; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Noureen, Nighat; Noreen, Zobia; Titball, Richard W; Champion, Olivia L; Wren, Brendan W; Studholme, David; Bokhari, Habib

    2015-10-22

    The enteropathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a global health disaster, being one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of C. jejuni strain cj255, isolated from a chicken source in Islamabad, Pakistan. The draft genome sequence will aid in epidemiological studies and quarantine of this broad-host-range pathogen.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the Enteropathogenic Bacterium Campylobacter jejuni Strain cj255

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Fariha Masood; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Noureen, Nighat; Noreen, Zobia; Titball, Richard W.; Champion, Olivia L.; Wren, Brendan W.

    2015-01-01

    The enteropathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a global health disaster, being one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of C. jejuni strain cj255, isolated from a chicken source in Islamabad, Pakistan. The draft genome sequence will aid in epidemiological studies and quarantine of this broad-host-range pathogen. PMID:26494669

  15. Antimicrobial growth promoters and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. in poultry and swine, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mary C; Wegener, Henrik C

    2003-04-01

    The use of antimicrobial growth promoters in Danish food animal production was discontinued in 1998. Contrary to concerns that pathogen load would increase; we found a significant decrease in Salmonella in broilers, swine, pork, and chicken meat and no change in the prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers.

  16. Characterization and Antigenicity of Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni Flagellar Capping Protein FliD

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni, a flagellated, spiral-rod Gram-negative bacterium, is the leading pathogen of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and chickens are regarded as a major reservoir of this microorganism. Bacterial flagella, composed of more than 35 proteins, play important roles in c...

  17. The Campylobacter jejuni RacRS system regulates fumarate utilization in a low oxygen environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The natural environment of the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the gastrointestinal tract of warm blooded animals. In the gut, the availability of oxygen is limited; therefore, less efficient electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate are used by C. jejuni. C. jejuni has a highly branched...

  18. An optimized binary typing panel improves the typing capability for Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bixing; Zhao, Dong; Fang, Ning-Xia; Hall, Ashleigh; Eglezos, Sofroni; Blair, Barry

    2013-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent bacterial pathogen causing gastroenteritis worldwide. We report here a mathematically optimized combination of 10 loci selected from 2 previously published binary typing panels. The optimized combination offers advantages of higher differentiation capability, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and portability for routine surveillance and outbreak investigations of C. jejuni.

  19. Ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne enteritis worldwide and is primarily caused by consumption/mishandling of contaminated poultry. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing many enteric pathogens, but has not demonstrated consistent reduction against Campylobac...

  20. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in bulk tank milk and filters from US dairies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter spp. is an important zoonotic microaerophilic bacterial pathogen that caused the majority of US outbreaks associated with nonpasteurized milk from 2007 to 2012. Bulk tank milk and milk filter samples were collected from 236 dairy operations in 17 top dairy states from March through Jul...

  1. Comparative quantification of Campylobacter jejuni from environmental samples using traditional and molecular biological techniques

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis in the world. Given the potential risks to human, animal and environmental health the development and optimization of methods to quantify this important pathogen in environmental samples is essential. Two of the mos...

  2. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter cuniculorum type strain LMG 24588

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter cuniculorum has been isolated from rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Although C. cuniculorum is highly prevalent in rabbits farmed for human consumption, the pathogenicity of this organism in humans is still unknown. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. cuniculorum t...

  3. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  4. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni RM1285 a rod-shaped morphological variant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni is a spiral-shaped Gram-negative food-borne human pathogen found on poultry products. Strain RM1285 is a rod-shaped variant of this species. The genome of RM1285 was determined to be 1,635,803 bp with a G+C content of 30.5%....

  5. Beyond gangliosides: Multiple forms of glycan mimicry exhibited by Campylobacter jejuni in its lipooligosaccharide (LOS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni is well known for synthesizing ganglioside mimics within the glycan component of its lipooligosaccharide (LOS), which have been implicated in triggering Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We now confirm that this pathogen is capable of synthesizing a much broader spectrum of host g...

  6. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in waterborne protozoa.

    PubMed

    Snelling, W J; McKenna, J P; Lecky, D M; Dooley, J S G

    2005-09-01

    The failure to reduce the Campylobacter contamination of intensively reared poultry may be partially due to Campylobacter resisting disinfection in water after their internalization by waterborne protozoa. Campylobacter jejuni and a variety of waterborne protozoa, including ciliates, flagellates, and alveolates, were detected in the drinking water of intensively reared poultry by a combination of culture and molecular techniques. An in vitro assay showed that C. jejuni remained viable when internalized by Tetrahymena pyriformis and Acanthamoeba castellanii for significantly longer (up to 36 h) than when they were in purely a planktonic state. The internalized Campylobacter were also significantly more resistant to disinfection than planktonic organisms. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that protozoa in broiler drinking water systems can delay the decline of Campylobacter viability and increase Campylobacter disinfection resistance, thus increasing the potential of Campylobacter to colonize broilers.

  7. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in Waterborne Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, W. J.; McKenna, J. P.; Lecky, D. M.; Dooley, J. S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The failure to reduce the Campylobacter contamination of intensively reared poultry may be partially due to Campylobacter resisting disinfection in water after their internalization by waterborne protozoa. Campylobacter jejuni and a variety of waterborne protozoa, including ciliates, flagellates, and alveolates, were detected in the drinking water of intensively reared poultry by a combination of culture and molecular techniques. An in vitro assay showed that C. jejuni remained viable when internalized by Tetrahymena pyriformis and Acanthamoeba castellanii for significantly longer (up to 36 h) than when they were in purely a planktonic state. The internalized Campylobacter were also significantly more resistant to disinfection than planktonic organisms. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that protozoa in broiler drinking water systems can delay the decline of Campylobacter viability and increase Campylobacter disinfection resistance, thus increasing the potential of Campylobacter to colonize broilers. PMID:16151149

  8. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in milk and milk products, their virulence gene profile and anti-bio gram.

    PubMed

    Modi, Shivani; Brahmbhatt, M N; Chatur, Y A; Nayak, J B

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, number of food poisoning cases due to Campylobacter occurred, immensely. After poultry, raw milk acts as a second main source of Campylobacter. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of Campylobacters in milk and milk products and to know the antibiotic sensitivity and virulence gene profile of Campylobacter spp. in Anand city, Gujarat, India. A total of 240 samples (85 buffalo milk, 65 cow milk, 30 cheese, 30 ice-cream and 30 paneer) were collected from the different collection points in Anand city. The samples were processed by microbiological culture method, and presumptive isolates were further confirmed by genus and species-specific polymerase chain reaction using previously reported primer. The isolates were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility assay and virulence gene detection. Campylobacter species were detected in 7 (2.91%) raw milk samples whereas none of the milk product was positive. All the isolate identified were Campylobacter jejuni. Most of the isolates showed resistance against nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclin. All the isolates have three virulence genes cadF, cdtB and flgR whereas only one isolate was positive for iamA gene and 6 isolates were positive for fla gene. The presence of Campylobacter in raw milk indicates that raw milk consumption is hazardous for human being and proper pasteurization of milk and adaptation of hygienic condition will be necessary to protect the consumer from this zoonotic pathogen.

  9. Interaction between Campylobacter and intestinal epithelial cells leads to a different proinflammatory response in human and porcine host.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Carmen; Jiménez-Marín, Ángeles; Martins, Rodrigo Prado; Garrido, Juan J

    2014-11-15

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the leading causes of human diarrheal disease throughout the development world. Unlike human beings, gastrointestinal tract of pigs are frequently colonized by Campylobacter to a high level in a commensal manner. The aim of this study was to identify the differences underlying the divergent outcome following Campylobacter challenge in porcine versus human host. In order to address this, a comparative in vitro infection model was combined with microscopy, gentamicin protection assay, ELISA and quantitative PCR techniques. Invasion assays revealed that Campylobacter invaded human cells up to 10-fold more than porcine cells (p<0.05). In addition, gene expression of proinflammatory genes encoding for IL1α, IL6, IL8, CXCL2 and CCL20 were strongly up-regulated by Campylobacter in human epithelial cell at early times of infection, whereas a very reduced cytokine gene expression was detected in porcine epithelial cells. These data indicate that Campylobacter fails to invade porcine cells compared to human cells, and this leads to a lack of proinflammatory response induction, probably due to its pathogenic or commensal behavior in human and porcine host, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Ana L; Casabona, Luis M; Viñas, María R; Asato, Valeria; Hoffer, Alicia; Farace, María I; Lucero, María C; Corso, Alejandra; Pichel, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens) owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (65 %) and tetracycline (32 %) was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient's chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the pathogen.

  11. Evaluation of frequency of isolation and trends in antibiotic resistance among Campylobacter isolates over 11 year period.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, N G; Zafar, A; Hasan, R

    2004-06-01

    To analyze frequency of isolation and trends in antibiotic resistance among Campylobacter isolates over 11 year period in Microbiology Laboratory, Aga Khan University from the year 1992-2002. Total 52,777 stool specimens were processed during the study period. Enteric pathogens isolated from 8,483 stool samples were further analyzed for frequency of isolation and antimicrobial resistance. Statistical Analysis was done by using descriptive statistics of SPSS version 10. Values were expressed as percentages, mean and rates. Campylobacter species were third in frequency of isolation with an isolation rate of 24.8%. C. jejuni was the predominant pathogen followed by C.coli. Isolation rate of Campylobacter was higher (45.7%) among children under 2 years of age as compared to other age groups. A steady rise in resistance among Campylobacter isolates against ampicillin; tetracycline and ofloxacin has been noted whereas resistance against erythromycin remained fairly low. The isolation of Campylobacter is higher from stool specimens of children of less than two years of age rendering Campylobacteriosis to be an important cause of gastroenteritis in pediatric population. This study also demonstrates a steady rise in antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter isolates especially against quinolones with fall in resistance against erythromycin throughout the study period.

  12. Divergent distribution of the sensor kinase CosS in non-thermotolerant campylobacter species and its functional incompatibility with the response regulator CosR of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sunyoung; Miller, William G; Ryu, Sangryeol; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2014-01-01

    Two-component signal transduction systems are commonly composed of a sensor histidine kinase and a cognate response regulator, modulating gene expression in response to environmental changes through a phosphorylation-dependent process. CosR is an OmpR-type response regulator essential for the viability of Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne pathogenic species causing human gastroenteritis. Although CosR is a response regulator, its cognate sensor kinase has not been identified in C. jejuni. In this study, DNA sequence analysis of the cosR flanking regions revealed that a gene encoding a putative sensor kinase, which we named cosS, is prevalent in non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., but not in thermotolerant campylobacters. Phosphorylation assays indicated that C. fetus CosS rapidly autophosphorylates and then phosphorylates C. fetus CosR, suggesting that the CosRS system constitutes a paired two-component signal transduction system in C. fetus. However, C. fetus CosS does not phosphorylate C. jejuni CosR, suggesting that CosR may have different regulatory cascades between thermotolerant and non-thermotolerant Campylobacter species. Comparison of CosR homolog amino acid sequences showed that the conserved phosphorylation residue (D51), which is present in all non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., is absent from the CosR homologs of thermotolerant Campylobacter species. However, C. jejuni CosR was not phosphorylated by C. fetus CosS even after site-directed mutagenesis of N51D, implying that C. jejuni CosR may possibly function phosphorylation-independently. In addition, the results of cosS mutational analysis indicated that CosS is not associated with the temperature dependence of the Campylobacter spp. despite its unique divergent distribution only in non-thermotolerant campylobacters. The findings in this study strongly suggest that thermotolerant and non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have different signal sensing mechanisms associated with the Cos

  13. Description of Sarcocystis lari sp. n. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the great black-backed gull, Larus marinus (Charadriiformes: Laridae), on the basis of cyst morphology and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Prakas, Petras; Kutkiené, Liuda; Butkauskas, Dalius; Sruoga, Aniolas; Zalakevicius, Mecislovas

    2014-02-01

    A morphological type of Sarcocystis cysts found in one of two examined great black-backed gull, Larus marinus (Linnaeus) (Laridae), is considered to represent a new species for which the name Sarcocystis lari sp. n. is proposed and its description is provided. The cysts are ribbon-shaped, very long (the largest fragment found was 6 mm long) and relatively narrow (up to 75 microm). Under a light microscope the cyst wall reaches up to 1 microm and seems to be smooth. Using a computerized image analysis system, knolls, which resemble protrusions on the wall surface, are visible. Lancet-shaped cystozoites measure in average 6.9 x 1.4 microm (range 6.3-7.9 microm x 1.2-1.5 microm) in length. Observed using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the cyst wall is wavy and measures up to 1.2 microm in thickness. The parasitophorous vacuolar membrane has regularly arranged small invaginations. Cyst content is divided into large chambers by septa. Sarcocystis lari sp. n. has type-1 tissue cyst wall and is morphologically indistinguishable from other bird Sarcocystis species characterized by the same type of the wall. On the basis of 18S rRNA gene, 28S rRNA gene and ITS-1 region sequences, S. lari is a genetically distinct species, being most closely related to avian Sarcocystis species whose definitive hosts are predatory birds.

  14. Method of Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA)-Mediated Antisense Inhibition of Gene Expression in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Oh, Euna; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2017-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is an oligonucleotide mimic that recognizes and binds to nucleic acids. The strong binding affinity of PNA to mRNA coupled with its high sequence specificity enable antisense PNA to selectively inhibit (i.e., knockdown) the protein synthesis of a target gene. This novel technology provides a powerful tool for Campylobacter studies because molecular techniques have been relatively less well-developed for this bacterium as compared to other pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella. This chapter describes a protocol for PNA-mediated antisense inhibition of gene expression in Campylobacter jejuni.

  15. Cell Wall Anchoring of the Campylobacter Antigens to Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Kobierecka, Patrycja A.; Olech, Barbara; Książek, Monika; Derlatka, Katarzyna; Adamska, Iwona; Majewski, Paweł M.; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K.; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka K.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of human food-borne gastroenteritis and chicken meat is the main source of infection. Recent studies showed that broiler chicken immunization against Campylobacter should be the most efficient way to lower the number of human infections by this pathogen. Induction of the mucosal immune system after oral antigen administration should provide protective immunity to chickens. In this work we tested the usefulness of Lactococcus lactis, the most extensively studied lactic acid bacterium, as a delivery vector for Campylobacter antigens. First we constructed hybrid protein – CjaA antigen presenting CjaD peptide epitopes on its surface. We showed that specific rabbit anti-rCjaAD serum reacted strongly with both CjaA and CjaD produced by a wild type C. jejuni strain. Next, rCjaAD and CjaA were fused to the C-terminus of the L. lactis YndF containing the LPTXG motif. The genes expressing these proteins were transcribed under control of the L. lactis Usp45 promoter and their products contain the Usp45 signal sequences. This strategy ensures a cell surface location of both analyzed proteins, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In order to evaluate the impact of antigen location on vaccine prototype efficacy, a L. lactis strain producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD was also generated. Animal experiments showed a decrease of Campylobacter cecal load in vaccinated birds as compared with the control group and showed that the L. lactis harboring the surface-exposed rCjaAD antigen afforded greater protection than the L. lactis producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to employ Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains as a mucosal delivery vehicle for chicken immunization. Although the observed reduction of chicken colonization by Campylobacter resulting from vaccination was rather moderate, the experiments showed that LAB strains can be considered as an alternative vector to

  16. The epidemiology of non-typhoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis and Campylobacter gastroenteritis in pediatric inpatients in northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chien-Fang; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Huang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning; Chang, Lung; Kung, Yen-Hsin; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Chi, Hsin

    2017-09-27

    Campylobacter and Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are the two most common bacterial pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis in children. This study aims to elucidate the epidemiology of Campylobacter and NTS gastroenteritis and develop a scoring system to differentiate them. This retrospective study enrolled 886 children ≤18 years of age, hospitalized due to acute gastroenteritis with stool culture-proven Campylobacter or NTS infection from July 2012 to December 2015. Pearson's chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare clinical manifestations and laboratory data. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to evaluate the scoring system. Seasonality was found in NTS gastroenteritis from May to September, but no seasonality in Campylobacter gastroenteritis. Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella serogroup B were the most common pathogens. The median ages were 68.2 and 18.5 months and the incidence rates of bacteremia were 0.6% and 7.1% in the Campylobacter and NTS groups, respectively. Salmonella serogroup C2 infection had the highest risk of bacteremia (OR: 5.9, 95% CI: 2.8-12.7, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed significant differences in sex, age, fever, dehydration, immature WBC, CRP and Na between the two groups. A score of ≥2 points indicated Campylobacter gastroenteritis, with sensitivity 75%, specificity 77%. The positive and negative predictive values were of 73.3% and 93.9% after validation. Campylobacter gastroenteritis is associated with older age and male sex, while NTS gastroenteritis is associated with moderate to severe dehydration and bacteremia. Salmonella serogroup C2 infection has the highest risk of bacteremia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Biochemical characterization of Campylobacter fetus lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed Central

    Moran, A P; O'Malley, D T; Kosunen, T U; Helander, I M

    1994-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of five strains of the human and animal pathogen Campylobacter fetus were electrophoretically and chemically characterized. Analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that all the strains produced smooth-form LPS with O side chains of relatively constant chain length. Upon extraction, LPS partitioned into both the water and phenol phases of phenol-water extracts, which showed that two chemical species of LPS were present in each C. fetus strain. Constituents common to all the LPS, though differing in molar ratios, were L-rhamnose, L-fucose, D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose, L-glycero-D-manno-heptose, and D-glycero-D-manno-heptose. L-Acofriose (3-O-methyl-L-rhamnose) was present in only two of the C. fetus strains. On the basis of these differences, it was possible to distinguish between LPS from strains of different serotypes and biotypes. Furthermore, chemical analysis indicated that the phenol phase LPS had a lower level of substitution by certain neutral sugars than did water phase LPS. N-Acetylneuraminic (sialic) acid and D-galactosamine were present in all the C. fetus LPS. Constituents normally found in the core and lipid A regions of LPS, 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid, D-glucosamine, ethanolamine and its phosphorylated derivatives, and fatty acids [14:0, 16:0 14:0(3-OH), and 16:0(3-OH)] were detected. Unlike Campylobacter jejuni, in which 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucose occurs as a constituent of the lipid A backbone, this amino sugar was absent from C. fetus LPS, indicating major structural differences in the lipid A's of these species. Images PMID:8063409

  18. Distribution and Polymorphism of the Flagellin Genes from Isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    American Society for Microbioloc% Distribution and Polymorphism of the Flagellin Genes from Isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni RICHARD...in Campylobacter jejuni . serogroups both the flaA and flaB genes are extremely Mol. M;crobiol. 5:1151-1158. z homologous. Within most LIO heat-labile...irllwn hungatei. J1. Bacteriol. 123:-28 proteins of Campylobacter jejuni 81116. Infect. Immun. 59: 42. Thomashow, L S., and S. C. Rittenberg. 198

  19. Alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L.; Cummings, Nicola J.; Connerton, Ian F.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cycle (CSLC), where bacteria and bacteriophages remain associated in equilibrium. Significant phenotypic changes include improved aerotolerance under nutrient-limited conditions that would confer an advantage to survive in extra-intestinal environments, but a lack in motility eliminated their ability to colonize chickens. Under these circumstances, phages can remain associated with a compatible host and continue to produce free virions to prospect for new hosts. Moreover, we demonstrate that CSLC host bacteria can act as expendable vehicles for the delivery of bacteriophages to new host bacteria within pre-colonized chickens. The CSLC represents an important phase in the ecology of Campylobacter bacteriophage. PMID:24671947

  20. Alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L; Cummings, Nicola J; Connerton, Ian F

    2014-03-26

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cycle (CSLC), where bacteria and bacteriophages remain associated in equilibrium. Significant phenotypic changes include improved aerotolerance under nutrient-limited conditions that would confer an advantage to survive in extra-intestinal environments, but a lack in motility eliminated their ability to colonize chickens. Under these circumstances, phages can remain associated with a compatible host and continue to produce free virions to prospect for new hosts. Moreover, we demonstrate that CSLC host bacteria can act as expendable vehicles for the delivery of bacteriophages to new host bacteria within pre-colonized chickens. The CSLC represents an important phase in the ecology of Campylobacter bacteriophage.

  1. Protozoa: a novel Campylobacter reservoir?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In previous in vitro studies we found that Campylobacter jejuni remained viable for longer periods of time when they were cultivated in the presence of Tetrahymena pyriformis (ciliate) and Acanthamoeba castellanii (amoeba) than when they were in an independent planktonic state. Increased survival t...

  2. Bacteriophages to combat foodborne infections caused by food contamination by bacteria of the Campylobacter genus.

    PubMed

    Myga-Nowak, Magdalena; Godela, Agnieszka; Głąb, Tomasz; Lewańska, Monika; Boratyński, Janusz

    2016-09-26

    It is estimated that each year more than 2 million people suffer from diarrheal diseases, resulting from the consumption of contaminated meat. Foodborne infections are most frequently caused by small Gram-negative rods Campylobacter. The hosts of these bacteria are mainly birds wherein they are part of the normal intestinal flora. During the commercial slaughter, there is a likelihood of contamination of carcasses by the bacteria found in the intestinal content. In Europe, up to 90% of poultry flocks can be a reservoir of the pathogen. According to the European Food Safety Authority report from 2015, the number of reported and confirmed cases of human campylobacteriosis exceeds 200 thousands per year, and such trend remains at constant level for several years. The occurrence of growing antibiotic resistance in bacteria forces the limitation of antibiotic use in the animal production. Therefore, the European Union allows only using stringent preventive and hygienic treatment on farms. Achieving Campylobacter free chickens using these methods is possible, but difficult to implement and expensive. Utilization of bacterial viruses - bacteriophages, can be a path to provide the hygienic conditions of poultry production and food processing. Formulations applied in the food protection should contain strictly lytic bacteriophages, be non-pyrogenic and retain long lasting biological activity. Currently, on the market there are available commercial bacteriophage preparations for agricultural use, but neither includes phages against Campylobacter. However, papers on the application of bacteriophages against Campylobacter in chickens and poultry products were published in the last few years. In accordance with the estimates, 2-logarithm reduction of Campylobacter in poultry carcases will contribute to the 30-fold reduction in the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans. Research on bacteriophages against Campylobacter have cognitive and economic importance. The paper

  3. Chicken Anti-Campylobacter Vaccine - Comparison of Various Carriers and Routes of Immunization.

    PubMed

    Kobierecka, Patrycja A; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka K; Gubernator, Jerzy; Kuczkowski, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Oskar; Maruszewska, Marta; Wojtania, Anna; Derlatka, Katarzyna E; Adamska, Iwona; Godlewska, Renata; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp, especially the species Campylobacter jejuni, are important human enteropathogens responsible for millions of cases of gastro-intestinal disease worldwide every year. C. jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and poultry meat that has been contaminated by microorganisms is recognized as a key source of human infections. Although numerous strategies have been developed and experimentally checked to generate chicken vaccines, the results have so far had limited success. In this study, we explored the potential use of non-live carriers of Campylobacter antigen to combat Campylobacter in poultry. First, we assessed the effectiveness of immunization with orally or subcutaneously delivered Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix (GEM) particles carrying two Campylobacter antigens: CjaA and CjaD. These two immunization routes using GEMs as the vector did not protect against Campylobacter colonization. Thus, we next assessed the efficacy of in ovo immunization using various delivery systems: GEM particles and liposomes. The hybrid protein rCjaAD, which is CjaA presenting CjaD epitopes on its surface, was employed as a model antigen. We found that rCjaAD administered in ovo at embryonic development day 18 by both delivery systems resulted in significant levels of protection after challenge with a heterologous C. jejuni strain. In practice, in ovo chicken vaccination is used by the poultry industry to protect birds against several viral diseases. Our work showed that this means of delivery is also efficacious with respect to commensal bacteria such as Campylobacter. In this study, we evaluated the protection after one dose of vaccine given in ovo. We speculate that the level of protection may be increased by a post-hatch booster of orally delivered antigens.

  4. Chicken Anti-Campylobacter Vaccine – Comparison of Various Carriers and Routes of Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Kobierecka, Patrycja A.; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka K.; Gubernator, Jerzy; Kuczkowski, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Oskar; Maruszewska, Marta; Wojtania, Anna; Derlatka, Katarzyna E.; Adamska, Iwona; Godlewska, Renata; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp, especially the species Campylobacter jejuni, are important human enteropathogens responsible for millions of cases of gastro-intestinal disease worldwide every year. C. jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and poultry meat that has been contaminated by microorganisms is recognized as a key source of human infections. Although numerous strategies have been developed and experimentally checked to generate chicken vaccines, the results have so far had limited success. In this study, we explored the potential use of non-live carriers of Campylobacter antigen to combat Campylobacter in poultry. First, we assessed the effectiveness of immunization with orally or subcutaneously delivered Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix (GEM) particles carrying two Campylobacter antigens: CjaA and CjaD. These two immunization routes using GEMs as the vector did not protect against Campylobacter colonization. Thus, we next assessed the efficacy of in ovo immunization using various delivery systems: GEM particles and liposomes. The hybrid protein rCjaAD, which is CjaA presenting CjaD epitopes on its surface, was employed as a model antigen. We found that rCjaAD administered in ovo at embryonic development day 18 by both delivery systems resulted in significant levels of protection after challenge with a heterologous C. jejuni strain. In practice, in ovo chicken vaccination is used by the poultry industry to protect birds against several viral diseases. Our work showed that this means of delivery is also efficacious with respect to commensal bacteria such as Campylobacter. In this study, we evaluated the protection after one dose of vaccine given in ovo. We speculate that the level of protection may be increased by a post-hatch booster of orally delivered antigens. PMID:27242755

  5. Transmission OF Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Daise Aparecida; Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Felipe, Gutembergue da Silva; da Silva, Paulo Lourenço; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Filgueiras, Ana Luzia Lauria; Beletti, Marcelo Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples. PMID:24031861

  6. Detection and typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and analysis of indicator organisms in three waterborne outbreaks in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Haajanen, H; Pummi, T; Wermundsen, K; Katila, M-L; Sarkkinen, H; Miettinen, I; Rautelin, H

    2003-03-01

    Waterborne outbreaks associated with contamination of drinking water by Campylobacter jejuni are rather common in the Nordic countries Sweden, Norway, and Finland, where in sparsely populated districts groundwater is commonly used without disinfection. Campylobacters, Escherichia coli, or other coliforms have rarely been detected in potential sources. We studied three waterborne outbreaks in Finland caused by C. jejuni and used sample volumes of 4,000 to 20,000 ml for analysis of campylobacters and sample volumes of 1 to 5,000 ml for analysis of coliforms and E. coli, depending on the sampling site. Multiple samples obtained from possible sources (water distribution systems and environmental water sources) and the use of large sample volumes (several liters) increased the chance of detecting the pathogen C. jejuni in water. Filtration of a large volume (1,000 to 2,000 ml) also increased the rate of detection of coliforms and E. coli. To confirm the association between drinking water contamination and illness, a combination of Penner serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (digestion with SmaI and KpnI) was found to be useful. This combination reliably verified similarity or dissimilarity of C. jejuni isolates from patient samples, from drinking water, and from other environmental sources, thus confirming the likely reservoir of an outbreak.

  7. Isolation of Campylobacters from the canals of Bangkok metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Dhamabutra, N; Kamol-Rathanakul, P; Pienthaweechai, K

    1992-06-01

    The 100 ml of canal water samples of 36 canals in Bangkok Metropolitan Area were examined in three periods starting from July-September 1988, November 1988-January 1989 and February-April 1989. Each time the 52 water samples were checked. Of 156 water samples, 116 strains of Campylobacter species were isolated. They were 63.79 per cent (74 strains) of C. cryaerophila and 36.21 per cent (42 strains) of C. cryaerophila-like organisms. The differentiation was determined by urease activity test. C. cryaerophila was isolated from 44.23 per cent (23 strains), 51.19 per cent (27 strains) and 46.15 per cent (24 strains) and also C. cryaerophila-like organism from 28.85 per cent (15 strains), 19.23 per cent (10 strains) and 32.69 per cent (17 strains) of the 52 samples during each period respectively. Since C. cryaerophila and C. cryaerophila-like are aerotolerant Campylobacter, they grow well in aerobic conditions at 25 degrees-36 degrees C. On the contrary, thermophilic Campylobacter such as C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis require atmosphere containing 5 per cent O2, 10 per cent CO2, 85 per cent N2 and temperature at 36 degrees-42 degrees C, so the environment in the canals is unfavorable for their growth. The etiological role of C. cryaerophila in pathogenesis in humans is still unknown, and requires furthers study. This study shows that canals can be an important source of these two Campylobacter species that might be potential pathogens in the future.

  8. Development and stability of bacteriocin resistance in Campylobacter spp

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoang, Ky; Stern, Norman J.; Lin, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Aims Several bacteriocins (BCNs) that were identified from chicken commensal bacteria dramatically reduced Campylobacter colonization in poultry and are being directed toward on-farm control of this important foodborne human pathogen. A recent study has shown that BCN resistance in C. jejuni is very difficult to develop in vitro. In this study, in vivo development and stability of BCN resistance in Campylobacter was examined. Methods and Results Chickens infected with C. jejuni NCTC 11168 were treated with BCN E-760 at the dose of 5 mg/kg body weight/day via oral gavages for three consecutive days, which selected BCN-resistant (BCNr) mutants in the treated birds. However, all the in vivo-selected mutants only displayed low-levels of resistance to BCN (MIC = 2–8 mg/L) when compared to parent strain (MIC = 0.5 mg/L). Inactivation of CmeABC efflux pump of the BCNr mutants led to increased susceptibility to BCN (8–32 fold MIC reduction). Three different BCNr Campylobacter strains (in vitro- or in vivo-derived) were examined for the stability of BCN resistance using both in vitro and in vivo systems. The low-level of BCN resistance in these strains was not stable in vitro or in vivo in the absence of BCN selection pressure. Conclusions Usage of BCN E-760 only selected low-level BCNr C. jejuni mutants in vivo and the low-level BCN resistance was not stable in vitro and in vivo. Significance and Impact of the Study The study provides helpful information for risk assessment of the future practical application of the anti-Campylobacter BCNs in animals. PMID:21973216

  9. Campylobacter, from obscurity to celebrity.

    PubMed

    Butzler, J-P

    2004-10-01

    After its successful isolation from stools in the 1970s, Campylobacter jejuni has rapidly become the most commonly recognised cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in man. Reported cases of human campylobacteriosis represent only a small fraction of the actual number. In industrialised countries, the incidence of C. jejuni/Campylobacter coli infections peaks during infancy, and again in young adults aged 15-44 years. Acute self-limited gastrointestinal illness, characterised by diarrhoea, fever and abdominal cramps, is the most common presentation of C. jejuni/C. coli infection. The introduction of selective media has made the diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis a simple procedure. In general, Campylobacter enteritis is a self-limiting disease which seldom requires antimicrobial therapy, although one in 1000 infections may lead to the Guillain-Barré syndrome. In industrialised countries, most infections are acquired through the handling and consumption of poultry meat. In developing countries, where the disease is confined to young children, inadequately treated water and contact with farm animals are the most important risk factors. Many infections are acquired during travel. Fluoroquinolone resistance has been reported in C. jejuni since the late 1980s in Europe and Asia, and since 1995 in the USA. The use of fluoroquinolones to treat animals used for food has accelerated this trend of resistance. In Australia, where fluoroquinolones have not been licensed for use in food production animals, C. jejuni remains susceptible to fluoroquinolones. The public health burden of Campylobacter spp. other than C. jejuni/C. coli remains unmeasured. Better diagnostic methods may reveal the true health burden of these organisms.

  10. Does Campylobacter jejuni form biofilms in food-related environments?

    PubMed

    Teh, Amy Huei Teen; Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most frequent causes of bacterial gastrointestinal food-borne infection worldwide. This species is part of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tracts of animals used for food production, including poultry, which is regarded as the primary source of human Campylobacter infections. The survival and persistence of C. jejuni in food processing environments, especially in poultry processing plants, represent significant risk factors that contribute to the spread of this pathogen through the food chain. Compared to other food-borne pathogens, C. jejuni is more fastidious in its growth requirements and is very susceptible to various environmental stressors. Biofilm formation is suggested to play a significant role in the survival of C. jejuni in the food production and processing environment. The aims of this minireview were (i) to examine the evidence that C. jejuni forms biofilms and (ii) to establish the extent to which reported and largely laboratory-based studies of C. jejuni biofilms provide evidence for biofilm formation by this pathogen in food processing environments. Overall existing studies do not provide strong evidence for biofilm formation (as usually defined) by most C. jejuni strains in food-related environments under the combined conditions of atmosphere, temperature, and shear that they are likely to encounter. Simple attachment to and survival on surfaces and in existing biofilms of other species are far more likely to contribute to C. jejuni survival in food-related environments based on our current understanding of this species.

  11. Human Volunteer Studies with Campylobacter jejuni

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    AD-A271 892 1 April 1993 Reprint Human Volunteer Studies with Campylobacter jejuni Army Project Order 90PP0820 Robert E. Black, Daniel Perlman, Mary...the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development Approved for public release; distribution unlimited NTxxeISfl RFor...8217?- NTIS CRA&I ILI •. O C T 2 9 19 9 3 E; . ... ~~~......................• * ....v ,. Ly Codes •27c 5-t Spcial Campylobacter , Vaccines, Biotechnology, ID

  12. The susceptibility of Campylobacter concisus to the bactericidal effects of normal human serum.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Karina Frahm; Nielsen, Hans Linde; Nielsen, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    Campylobacter concisus is an emerging pathogen of the gastrointestinal tract that has been associated with Barrett's oesophagus, enteritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite having invasive potential in intestinal epithelial cells in-vitro, bacteraemic cases with C. concisus are extremely scarce, having only been reported once. Therefore, we conducted a serum resistance assay to investigate the bactericidal effects of human complement on C. concisus in comparison to some other Campylobacter species. In total, 22 Campylobacter strains were tested by incubation with normal human serum and subsequent cultivation in microaerobic conditions for 48 hours. Killing time was evaluated by decrease in total CFU over time for incubation with different serum concentrations. Faecal isolates of C. concisus showed inoculum reduction to less than 50% after 30 min. Campylobacter jejuni was sensitive to serum, but killing was delayed and a bacteraemic Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus isolate was completely serum resistant. Interestingly, sensitivity of enteric C. concisus to human serum was not associated to different faecal-calprotectin levels. We find that faecal isolates of C. concisus are sensitive to the bactericidal effects of serum, which may explain why C. concisus is not associated to bacteraemia.

  13. Salmonella and campylobacter contamination of raw retail chickens from different producers: a six year survey.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, I. G.

    2002-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2000, a prospective survey was undertaken to investigate the levels of contamination of raw retail chickens (n = 1,127) with salmonella and campylobacter. The levels of contamination over the 6-year period were 11 % (95 % CI +/- 6.5%) for salmonella, and 57% (95% CI +/- 95%) for campylobacter. S. Bredeney (20%) and S. Enteritidis (18%) were the dominant serovars. Although salmonella contamination was higher than in an earlier survey we conducted (7%), since 1998 it has declined to 6%. Many S. Enteritidis isolates (43%) were associated with one large integrated poultry organization that appears to have successfully managed the contamination, and the serovar has not been isolated since 1998. Contamination ranged from 0 to 44% between different producers. There was no significant difference between producers contributing large and small numbers of samples, although some small producers had much poorer contamination rates than others. S. Bareilly, S. Bredeney, S. Enteritidis and S. Virchow showed associations with particular producers. Campylobacter contamination remains high. Contamination ranged from 47 to 81% between different producers. This study did not show a temporal association between contamination of chickens and human campylobacter infections, indicating that many cases of human campylobacteriosis, particularly during seasonal peaks, do not originate from chickens. Control measures that have reduced salmonella contamination have been largely ineffective against campylobacter and new interventions are needed. Most raw chickens are contaminated with these pathogens, and communicating the importance of minimizing this risk to caterers and the public is vital in reducing human infections. PMID:12558349

  14. An Improved Culture Method for Selective Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyong; Oh, Euna; Banting, Graham S.; Braithwaite, Shannon; Chui, Linda; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Neumann, Norman F.; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading foodborne pathogens worldwide. C. jejuni is isolated from a wide range of foods, domestic animals, wildlife, and environmental sources. The currently available culture-based isolation methods are not highly effective for wastewater samples due to the low number of C. jejuni in the midst of competing bacteria. To detect and isolate C. jejuni from wastewater samples, in this study, we evaluated a few different enrichment conditions using five different antibiotics (i.e., cefoperazone, vancomycin, trimethoprim, polymyxin B, and rifampicin), to which C. jejuni is intrinsically resistant. The selectivity of each enrichment condition was measured with Ct value using quantitative real-time PCR, and multiplex PCR to determine Campylobacter species. In addition, the efficacy of Campylobacter isolation on different culture media after selective enrichment was examined by growing on Bolton and Preston agar plates. The addition of polymyxin B, rifampicin, or both to the Bolton selective supplements enhanced the selective isolation of C. jejuni. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing also revealed that Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major competing bacteria in the enrichment conditions. Although it is known to be difficult to isolate Campylobacter from samples with heavy contamination, this study well exhibited that the manipulation of antibiotic selective pressure improves the isolation efficiency of fastidious Campylobacter from wastewater. PMID:27617011

  15. Salmonella and campylobacter contamination of raw retail chickens from different producers: a six year survey.

    PubMed

    Wilson, I G

    2002-12-01

    Between 1995 and 2000, a prospective survey was undertaken to investigate the levels of contamination of raw retail chickens (n = 1,127) with salmonella and campylobacter. The levels of contamination over the 6-year period were 11 % (95 % CI +/- 6.5%) for salmonella, and 57% (95% CI +/- 95%) for campylobacter. S. Bredeney (20%) and S. Enteritidis (18%) were the dominant serovars. Although salmonella contamination was higher than in an earlier survey we conducted (7%), since 1998 it has declined to 6%. Many S. Enteritidis isolates (43%) were associated with one large integrated poultry organization that appears to have successfully managed the contamination, and the serovar has not been isolated since 1998. Contamination ranged from 0 to 44% between different producers. There was no significant difference between producers contributing large and small numbers of samples, although some small producers had much poorer contamination rates than others. S. Bareilly, S. Bredeney, S. Enteritidis and S. Virchow showed associations with particular producers. Campylobacter contamination remains high. Contamination ranged from 47 to 81% between different producers. This study did not show a temporal association between contamination of chickens and human campylobacter infections, indicating that many cases of human campylobacteriosis, particularly during seasonal peaks, do not originate from chickens. Control measures that have reduced salmonella contamination have been largely ineffective against campylobacter and new interventions are needed. Most raw chickens are contaminated with these pathogens, and communicating the importance of minimizing this risk to caterers and the public is vital in reducing human infections.

  16. A Flagellar Glycan-Specific Protein Encoded by Campylobacter Phages Inhibits Host Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Muhammad Afzal; Sacher, Jessica C.; van Alphen, Lieke B.; Patry, Robert T.; Szymanski, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    We previously characterized a carbohydrate binding protein, Gp047, derived from lytic Campylobacter phage NCTC 12673, as a promising diagnostic tool for the identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. We also demonstrated that this protein binds specifically to acetamidino-modified pseudaminic acid residues on host flagella, but the role of this protein in the phage lifecycle remains unknown. Here, we report that Gp047 is capable of inhibiting C. jejuni growth both on solid and liquid media, an activity, which we found to be bacteriostatic. The Gp047 domain responsible for bacterial growth inhibition is localized to the C-terminal quarter of the protein, and this activity is both contact- and dose-dependent. Gp047 gene homologues are present in all Campylobacter phages sequenced to date, and the resulting protein is not part of the phage particle. Therefore, these results suggest that either phages of this pathogen have evolved an effector protein capable of host-specific growth inhibition, or that Campylobacter cells have developed a mechanism of regulating their growth upon sensing an impending phage threat. PMID:26694450

  17. Identification of an arsenic resistance and arsenic-sensing system in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing

    2009-08-01

    Arsenic is commonly present in the natural environment and is also used as a feed additive for animal production. Poultry is a major reservoir for Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne human pathogen causing gastroenteritis. It has been shown that Campylobacter isolates from poultry are highly resistant to arsenic compounds, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistance have not been determined, and it is unclear if the acquired arsenic resistance affects the susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. to other antimicrobials. In this study, we identified a four-gene operon that contributes to arsenic resistance in Campylobacter. This operon encodes a putative membrane permease (ArsP), a transcriptional repressor (ArsR), an arsenate reductase (ArsC), and an efflux protein (Acr3). PCR analysis of various clinical C. jejuni isolates indicated a significant association of this operon with elevated resistance to arsenite and arsenate. Gene-specific mutagenesis confirmed the role of the ars operon in conferring arsenic resistance. It was further shown that this operon is subject to regulation by ArsR, which directly binds to the ars promoter and inhibits the transcription of the operon. Arsenite inhibits the binding of ArsR to the ars promoter DNA and induces the expression of the ars genes. Mutation of the ars genes did not affect the susceptibility of C. jejuni to commonly used antibiotics. These results identify the ars operon as an important mechanism for arsenic resistance and sensing in Campylobacter.

  18. Rising fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter isolated from feedlot cattle in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yizhi; Sahin, Orhan; Pavlovic, Nada; LeJeune, Jeff; Carlson, James; Wu, Zuowei; Dai, Lei; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-03-29

    Antibiotic resistance, particularly to fluoroquinolones and macrolides, in the major foodborne pathogen Campylobacter is considered a serious threat to public health. Although ruminant animals serve as a significant reservoir for Campylobacter, limited information is available on antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter of bovine origin. Here, we analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 320 C. jejuni and 115 C. coli isolates obtained from feedlot cattle farms in multiple states in the U.S. The results indicate that fluoroquinolone resistance reached to 35.4% in C. jejuni and 74.4% in C. coli, which are significantly higher than those previously reported in the U.S. While all fluoroquinolone resistant (FQ(R)) C. coli isolates examined in this study harbored the single Thr-86-Ile mutation in GyrA, FQ(R) C. jejuni isolates had other mutations in GyrA in addition to the Thr-86-Ile change. Notably, most of the analyzed FQ(R) C. coli isolates had similar PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis) patterns and the same MLST (multilocus sequence typing) sequence type (ST-1068) regardless of their geographic sources and time of isolation, while the analyzed C. jejuni isolates were genetically diverse, suggesting that clonal expansion is involved in dissemination of FQ(R) C. coli but not C. jejuni. These findings reveal the rising prevalence of FQ(R) Campylobacter in the U.S. and provide novel information on the epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter in the ruminant reservoir.

  19. Application of β-Resorcylic Acid as Potential Antimicrobial Feed Additive to Reduce Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wagle, Basanta R.; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Arsi, Komala; Shrestha, Sandip; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Donoghue, Annie M.; Donoghue, Dan J.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the major foodborne pathogens that result in severe gastroenteritis in humans, primarily through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Chickens are the reservoir host of Campylobacter, where the pathogen colonizes the ceca, thereby leading to contamination of carcass during slaughter. A reduction in cecal colonization by Campylobacter would directly translate into reduced product contamination and risk of human infections. With increasing consumer demand for antibiotic free chickens, significant research is being conducted to discover natural, safe and economical antimicrobials that can effectively control Campylobacter colonization in birds. This study investigated the efficacy of in-feed supplementation of a phytophenolic compound, β-resorcylic acid (BR) for reducing Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens. In two separate, replicate trials, day-old-chicks (Cobb500; n = 10 birds/treatment) were fed with BR (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1%) in feed for a period of 14 days (n = 40/trial). Birds were challenged with a four-strain mixture of Campylobacter jejuni (∼106 CFU/ml; 250 μl/bird) on day 7 and cecal samples were collected on day 14 for enumerating surviving Campylobacter in cecal contents. In addition, the effect of BR on the critical colonization factors of Campylobacter (motility, epithelial cell attachment) was studied using phenotypic assay, cell culture, and real-time quantitative PCR. Supplementation of BR in poultry feed for 14 days at 0.5 and 1% reduced Campylobacter populations in cecal contents by ∼2.5 and 1.7 Log CFU/g, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant differences in feed intake and body weight gain were observed between control and treatment birds fed the compound (P > 0.05). Follow up mechanistic analysis revealed that sub-inhibitory concentration of BR significantly reduced Campylobacter motility, attachment to and invasion of Caco-2 cells. In addition, the expression of C. jejuni genes coding for motility

  20. Epidemiology and RAPD-PCR typing of thermophilic campylobacters from children under five years and chickens in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chuma, Idrissa S; Nonga, Hezron E; Mdegela, Robinson H; Kazwala, Rudovick R

    2016-11-21

    Campylobacter species are gram negative and flagellated bacteria under the genus Campylobacter, family Campylobacteriaceae. These pathogens cause zoonotic infections among human and animal populations. This study was undertaken between December 2006 and May 2007 to determine prevalence, risk factors and genetic diversity of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates from children less than 5 years and chickens in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. The Skirrow's protocol was used for isolation and identification of Campylobacter from 268 human stool specimens and 419 chicken cloacal swabs. Patient biodata and risk factors associated with human infection were also collected. Genetic diversity of Campylobacter isolates was determined by a RAPD-PCR technique using OPA 11 primer (5'-CAA TCG CCG T-3'). Phylogenetic analysis and band pattern comparison were done by Bionumerics software and visual inspection. Stool samples from 268 children and 419 cloacal swabs from chickens were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacters in children was 19% with higher isolation frequency (p = 0.046) in males (23.5%) than females (13.8%). Campylobacter jejuni (78.4%) was more isolated (p = 0.000) than C. coli (19.6%) and 2% were unidentified isolates. In chickens, the prevalence was 42.5% with higher isolation rate (p = 0.000) of C. jejuni (87%) than C. coli (13%). Campylobacters were more frequently recovered (p = 0.000) from indigenous/ local chickens (75.0%) followed by cockerels (52.2%), broilers (50.0%) and lowest in layers (22.7%). Keeping chickens without other domestic animals concurrently (p = 0.000), chicken types (p = 0.000) and flock size (p = 0.007) were risk factors for infection in chickens. One hundred and fifty two (152) thermophillic Campylobacter isolates were genotyped by RAPD-PCR of which 114 were C. jejuni (74 from chickens and 40 humans) and 38 C. coli (28 from chickens and 10 humans). Comparison of Campylobacter isolates from children

  1. Application of β-Resorcylic Acid as Potential Antimicrobial Feed Additive to Reduce Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wagle, Basanta R; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Arsi, Komala; Shrestha, Sandip; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Donoghue, Annie M; Donoghue, Dan J

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the major foodborne pathogens that result in severe gastroenteritis in humans, primarily through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Chickens are the reservoir host of Campylobacter, where the pathogen colonizes the ceca, thereby leading to contamination of carcass during slaughter. A reduction in cecal colonization by Campylobacter would directly translate into reduced product contamination and risk of human infections. With increasing consumer demand for antibiotic free chickens, significant research is being conducted to discover natural, safe and economical antimicrobials that can effectively control Campylobacter colonization in birds. This study investigated the efficacy of in-feed supplementation of a phytophenolic compound, β-resorcylic acid (BR) for reducing Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens. In two separate, replicate trials, day-old-chicks (Cobb500; n = 10 birds/treatment) were fed with BR (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1%) in feed for a period of 14 days (n = 40/trial). Birds were challenged with a four-strain mixture of Campylobacter jejuni (∼10(6) CFU/ml; 250 μl/bird) on day 7 and cecal samples were collected on day 14 for enumerating surviving Campylobacter in cecal contents. In addition, the effect of BR on the critical colonization factors of Campylobacter (motility, epithelial cell attachment) was studied using phenotypic assay, cell culture, and real-time quantitative PCR. Supplementation of BR in poultry feed for 14 days at 0.5 and 1% reduced Campylobacter populations in cecal contents by ∼2.5 and 1.7 Log CFU/g, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant differences in feed intake and body weight gain were observed between control and treatment birds fed the compound (P > 0.05). Follow up mechanistic analysis revealed that sub-inhibitory concentration of BR significantly reduced Campylobacter motility, attachment to and invasion of Caco-2 cells. In addition, the expression of C. jejuni genes coding for

  2. Fitness of macrolide resistant Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Zeitouni, Salman; Collin, Olivier; Andraud, Mathieu; Ermel, Gwennola; Kempf, Isabelle

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness of macrolide resistant Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni. The in vitro growth, the survival on food matrix, and the in vivo colonization of C. jejuni and C. coli susceptible isolates and their isogenic resistant mutants were studied. In vitro experiments demonstrated that macrolide resistance imposed a fitness cost when the susceptible strains and their isogenic resistant mutants were cultured in competition. When inoculated in food matrix, the resistant C. jejuni mutant was no longer detectable after 3 to 5 days but the susceptible strain remained detectable for over 18 days. No difference in survival in food matrix was observed between susceptible and resistant C. coli. When inoculated in vivo in chickens, the macrolide susceptible and resistant C. coli displayed similar levels of colonization, both in separated inoculations and during competitive assays. Strikingly, when mono-inoculated or co-inoculated into chickens, macrolide susceptible C. jejuni outcompeted the macrolide resistant population. However, a spontaneous mutant that evolved in vivo showed a colonization capacity similar to the susceptible strain. Our findings demonstrate the effect of macrolide resistance on the fitness of Campylobacter but suggest that evolved mutants may be as fit as susceptible strains.

  3. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates from free range domestic duck (Cairina moschata) in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel; Muhairwa, A P

    2010-02-01

    Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter isolated from free-ranging ducks was determined in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. Ninety intestinal contents from ducks were screened for thermophilic Campylobacter using Skirrow's protocol. Of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 50 were tested for sensitivity to 12 antibiotics. Overall prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter was 80%. The prevalence of Campylobacter in adult ducks (91.3%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than ducklings (68.2%). The isolation rate of C. jejuni (81.9%) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than C. coli (18.1%). All C. jejuni isolates were susceptible to streptomycin, nitrofurantoin and amikacin. Forty eight percent, 74% and 82% of isolates were resistant to cefuroxime sodium, tetracycline and ampicillin respectively. Between 20-50% of isolates were resistant to erythromycin, gentamicin, cloxacillin and amoxicillin. Norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin had lower C. jejuni resistance of 10% and 16% respectively. C. jejuni isolates from adult ducks showed significantly higher rates of resistance (p < 0.05) to most antibiotics than did duckling isolates. High prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter in ducks could be of public health significance in Morogoro municipality. The observed multidrug resistance in this study poses a threat of transfer of antibiotic resistance to human pathogens because of the close contact between ducks and human.

  4. Molecular identification of Campylobacter jejuni and coli from chicken, calves and dogs to determine its potential threat on human being

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Sonuwara; Sekar, M.; Gunaseelan, L.; Gawande, Monica; Suganya, G.; Malar, P. Annal Selva; Karthikeyan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Campylobacter is an emerging zoonotic pathogen and one of the leading cause of foodborne infection worldwide and it has been isolated from a variety of animal species. The aim of this study was to identify Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from dogs, calves, and poultry using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methodology: A total of 104 number of samples comprising cloacal swab from poultry (38), a rectal swab from dogs (40), and calves (26) were collected for the isolation of thermophilic Campylobacters using conventional culture method. PCR was used for identification of mapA gene for C.jejuni and ceuE for C.coli. Results: The overall presence of Campylobacter was found to be 67(64.42%) from the samples, out of which 6 isolates belongs to C. jejuni species, were 5(18.51%) from chicken and 1(4.17%) from dog was recorded and about 17 isolates belongs to C. coli species were 9(33.33%), 6 (25%), and 1(9.09%) from chicken, dog and calves was recorded. Conclusion: Results suggested that Campylobacter reservoirs chicken, calves and pet dogs can play a role as the source of infection to human beings and PCR can be an ideal tool for molecular confirmation at the species level. PMID:27047055

  5. Cardamom, Cumin, and Dill Weed Essential Oils: Chemical Compositions, Antimicrobial Activities, and Mechanisms of Action against Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Mutlu-Ingok, Aysegul; Karbancioglu-Guler, Funda

    2017-07-15

    Natural antimicrobials as well as essential oils (EOs) have gained interest to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms and to control food borne diseases. Campylobacter spp. are one of the most common causative agents of gastroenteritis. In this study, cardamom, cumin, and dill weed EOs were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using agar-well diffusion and broth microdilution methods, along with the mechanisms of antimicrobial action. Chemical compositions of EOs were also tested by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that cardamom and dill weed EOs possess greater antimicrobial activity than cumin with larger inhibition zones and lower minimum inhibitory concentrations. The permeability of cell membrane and cell membrane integrity were evaluated by determining relative electric conductivity and release of cell constituents into supernatant at 260 nm, respectively. Moreover, effect of EOs on the cell membrane of Campylobacter spp. was also investigated by measuring extracellular ATP concentration. Increase of relative electric conductivity, extracellular ATP concentration, and cell constituents' release after treatment with EOs demonstrated that tested EOs affected the membrane integrity of Campylobacter spp. The results supported high efficiency of cardamom, cumin, and dill weed EOs to inhibit Campylobacter spp. by impairing the bacterial cell membrane.

  6. Host attachment, invasion, and stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines by Campylobacter concisus and other non-Campylobacter jejuni Campylobacter species.

    PubMed

    Man, Si Ming; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Leach, Steven T; Nahidi, Lily; Lu, Hao K; Norman, Jennifer; Day, Andrew S; Zhang, Li; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2010-12-15

    Campylobacter concisus and other non-Campylobacter jejuni Campylobacter species have been implicated in the initiation of gastrointestinal diseases. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between these bacteria and the human intestinal epithelium and immune cells. The ability of C. concisus, Campylobacter showae, Campylobacter hominis, and Bacteroides ureolyticus to invade epithelial cells was examined using scanning electron microscopy and gentamicin protection assays. Proinflammatory cytokines generated by epithelial and immune cells in response to these bacteria were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ussing Chamber, immunofluorescent stain, and Western blot were used to further elucidate the impact of C. concisus on intestinal barrier integrity and functions. Attachment of non-C. jejuni Campylobacter species to Caco-2 or HT-29 cells was mediated by flagellum-dependent and/or -independent processes. C. concisus was able to invade Caco-2 cells, generate a membrane-ruffling effect on the epithelial surface on entry, and damage epithelial barrier functions by preferential attachment to the cell-cell junctions. Proinflammatory cytokine profiles exhibited by epithelial cells, monocytes, and macrophages in response to C. concisus and other non-C. jejuni Campylobacter species were species and strain specific. These findings demonstrate that C. concisus and other non-C. jejuni Campylobacter species may play a role in initiating gastrointestinal diseases.

  7. Campylobacter Polysaccharide Capsules: Virulence and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Guerry, Patricia; Poly, Frédéric; Riddle, Mark; Maue, Alexander C.; Chen, Yu-Han; Monteiro, Mario A.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with numerous sequelae, including Guillain Barré Syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. C. jejuni is unusual for an intestinal pathogen in its ability to coat its surface with a polysaccharide capsule (CPS). These capsular polysaccharides vary in sugar composition and linkage, especially those involving heptoses of unusual configuration and O-methyl phosphoramidate linkages. This structural diversity is consistent with CPS being the major serodeterminant of the Penner scheme, of which there are 47 C. jejuni serotypes. Both CPS expression and expression of modifications are subject to phase variation by slip strand mismatch repair. Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. However, perhaps the most compelling evidence for a role in pathogenesis are data that CPS conjugate vaccines protect against diarrheal disease in non-human primates. A CPS conjugate vaccine approach against this pathogen is intriguing, but several questions need to be addressed, including the valency of CPS types required for an effective vaccine. There have been numerous studies of prevalence of CPS serotypes in the developed world, but few studies from developing countries where the disease incidence is higher. The complexity and cost of Penner serotyping has limited its usefulness, and a recently developed multiplex PCR method for determination of capsule type offers the potential of a more rapid and affordable method. Comparative studies have shown a strong correlation of the two methods and studies are beginning to ascertain CPS-type distribution worldwide, as well as examination of correlation of severity of illness with specific CPS types. PMID:22919599

  8. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance patterns and detection of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Zilli, Katiuscia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Garofolo, Giuliano; Aprea, Giuseppe; Marotta, Francesca

    2014-02-19

    Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis). The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%), tetracycline (55.86%) and nalidixic acid (55.17%). Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations.

  9. [Campylobacter and Salmonella control in chickens and the role of fermented food].

    PubMed

    Heres, Lourens

    2004-05-15

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are undesirable pathogens on poultry. Therefore the effect of fermented feed on the colonization in the gastro-intestinal tract of the chicken, the introduction of both bacteria in a chicken flocks, and the transmission between chickens was studied. Broilers that were fed with fermented feed were significantly less susceptible for Salmonella and Campylobacter than chickens on a standard chicken feed. The spread of Salmonella between broiler chickens was reduced. However, the results also showed, like for other known control measures, that this feed can not absolutely guarantee the absence of Salmonella and Campylobacter. Therefore fermented feed must be seen as one of the hurdles in a so called multiple hurdle strategy. The combination of different hurdles should prevent the introduction and transmission. The effect of fermented feed on Campylobacter and Salmonella is partially caused by the presence of high concentrations of organic acids. In chickens fed with liquid feed the acidic barrier in the first part of the GI-tract was clearly improved. Besides organic acids there are other changes in the GI-tract. Changes in colonization levels of indicator organisms, changes in levels of organic acids and an increased pH in ileum and ceacum. These changes indicate a stabilised GI-flora in fermented feed fed poultry. The research confirmed that by changes in the composition of the feed (carbohydrates, acids, or micro-organisms) the GI-health can be promoted and therewith can contribute to the control of food pathogens in farmed animals.

  10. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Zilli, Katiuscia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Garofolo, Giuliano; Aprea, Giuseppe; Marotta, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis). The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%), tetracycline (55.86%) and nalidixic acid (55.17%). Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations. PMID:24556669

  11. Toxin production by Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Wassenaar, T M

    1997-01-01

    Of all the virulence factors that were proposed for Campylobacter jejuni and related species to cause disease in humans, the discovery of toxin production was the most promising but led to a rather confusing and even disappointing stream of data. The discussion of whether proteinaceous exotoxins are relevant in disease remains open. One important reason for this lack of consensus is the anecdotal nature of the literature reports. To provide a basis for an unbiased opinion, this review compiles all described exotoxins, compares their reported properties, and provides a summary of animal model studies and clinical data. The toxins are divided into enterotoxins and cytotoxins and are sorted according to their biochemical properties. Since many Campylobacter toxins have been compared with toxins of other species, some key examples of the latter are also discussed. Future directions of toxin research that appear promising are defined. PMID:9227862

  12. Molecular Characterization, Antimicrobial Resistance and Caco-2 Cell Invasion Potential of Campylobacter jejuni/coli from Young Children with Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haijian; Ge, Yanling; Xu, Hao; Zhang, Jianmin; Kuang, Dai; Yang, Xiaowei; Su, Xudong; Huang, Zheng; Shi, Xianming; Xu, Xuebin; Meng, Jianghong

    2016-03-01

    Campylobacter is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Young children represent a particular age group affected by Campylobacter infection because of their limited diets and weak immune systems. In this study, a total of 110 Campylobacter (80 Campylobacter jejuni and 30 Campylobacter coli) isolated from children younger than 5 years of age with diarrhea in Shanghai, China in 2011 were examined for their genetic relationship and antimicrobial susceptibility. The presence of virulence genes and its association with invasion potential in Caco-2 cell were also determined. Multilocus sequence typing revealed 62 sequence types (STs) under 14 clonal complexes from C. jejuni and 15 STs under 2 clonal complexes from C. coli. High resistance rates among the 110 isolates were observed to nalidixic acid (88.2%), ciprofloxacin (87.3%) and tetracycline (87.3%), followed by ampicillin (30.9%), gentamicin (28.2%), clindamycin (21.8%), erythromycin (21.8%) and chloramphenicol (8.2%). Compared with that of C. jejuni (32.5%), a larger proportion of C. coli (83.3%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobials, including 16 isolates of ST-828 complex resistant to 6 antimicrobials: ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Furthermore, 57 Campylobacter isolates were selected based on their distinct STs and the presence of virulence genes to determine their abilities to adhere to and invade Caco-2 cells. The level of invasion varied widely among isolates and had relatively weak correlation with the genotype data. Our findings provided baseline data on Campylobacter among young children. Active surveillance of Campylobacter is needed to better understand the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance trends of this significant pathogen to help control and protect young children from such infections.

  13. Campylobacter concisus – A New Player in Intestinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaakoush, Nadeem Omar; Mitchell, Hazel Marjory

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade Campylobacter concisus, a highly fastidious member of the Campylobacter genus has been described as an emergent pathogen of the human intestinal tract. Historically, C. concisus was associated with the human oral cavity and has been linked with periodontal lesions, including gingivitis and periodontitis, although currently its role as an oral pathogen remains contentious. Evidence to support the role of C. concisus in acute intestinal disease has come from studies that have detected or isolated C. concisus as sole pathogen in fecal samples from diarrheic patients. C. concisus has also been associated with chronic intestinal disease, its prevalence being significantly higher in children with newly diagnosed Crohn’s disease (CD) and adults with ulcerative colitis than in controls. Further C. concisus has been isolated from biopsy specimens of patients with CD. While such studies support the role of C. concisus as an intestinal pathogen, its isolation from healthy individuals, and failure of some studies to show a significant difference in C. concisus prevalence in subjects with diarrhea and healthy controls has raised contention as to its role in intestinal disease. Such findings could argue against the role of C. concisus in intestinal disease, however, the fact that C. concisus strains are genetically diverse raises the possibility that differences exist in their pathogenic potential. Evidence to support this view comes from studies showing strain specific differences in the ability of C. concisus to attach to and invade cells and produce virulence factors, including toxins and hemolytic phospholipase A. Further, sequencing of the genome of a C. concisus strain isolated from a child with CD (UNSWCD) and comparison of this with the only other fully sequenced strain (BAA-1457) would suggest that major differences exist in the genetic make-up of this species which could explain different outcomes of C. concisus infection. PMID:22919596

  14. Campylobacter hyointestinalis: an opportunistic enteropathogen?

    PubMed Central

    Minet, J; Grosbois, B; Megraud, F

    1988-01-01

    A new case of Campylobacter hyointestinalis-associated diarrhea in a human is reported. The medical history of the patient was significant for immunodeficiency because of an evolutive chronic myeloid leukemia. The diarrhea rapidly stopped after administration of oral erythromycin. No other enteropathogenic agent was found by routine examination of stools. Although neither serology nor autopsy was available, this observation appears to be suggestive of the possible enteropathogenicity of C. hyointestinalis for patients at risk. PMID:3230140

  15. Rapid identification and quantification of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by real-time PCR in pure cultures and in complex samples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp., especially Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and Campylobacter coli (C. coli), are recognized as the leading human foodborne pathogens in developed countries. Livestock animals carrying Campylobacter pose an important risk for human contamination. Pigs are known to be frequently colonized with Campylobacter, especially C. coli, and to excrete high numbers of this pathogen in their faeces. Molecular tools, notably real-time PCR, provide an effective, rapid, and sensitive alternative to culture-based methods for the detection of C. coli and C. jejuni in various substrates. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool supporting Campylobacter epidemiology, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR method for species-specific detection and quantification of C. coli and C. jejuni directly in faecal, feed, and environmental samples. Results With a sensitivity of 10 genome copies and a linear range of seven to eight orders of magnitude, the C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays allowed a precise quantification of purified DNA from C. coli and C. jejuni. The assays were highly specific and showed a 6-log-linear dynamic range of quantification with a quantitative detection limit of approximately 2.5 × 102 CFU/g of faeces, 1.3 × 102 CFU/g of feed, and 1.0 × 103 CFU/m2 for the environmental samples. Compared to the results obtained by culture, both C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays exhibited a specificity of 96.2% with a kappa of 0.94 and 0.89 respectively. For faecal samples of experimentally infected pigs, the coefficients of correlation between the C. coli or C. jejuni real-time PCR assay and culture enumeration were R2 = 0.90 and R2 = 0.93 respectively. Conclusion The C. coli and C. jejuni real-time quantitative PCR assays developed in this study provide a method capable of directly detecting and quantifying C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces, feed, and environmental samples. These assays represent a new diagnostic tool for studying

  16. Detection of Campylobacter Colonies using Hyperspectral Imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Isolation and detection of Campylobacter in foods via direct plating involves lengthy laboratory procedures including enrichments and microaerobic incubations, which take several days to a week. The incubation time for growing Campylobacter colonies in agar media is typically 24 hours to 48 hours. F...

  17. [Campylobacter fetus endocarditis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Désidéri-Vaillant, Catherine; Guichon, Jean-Michel; Noyer, Vincent; Nedelec, Yolande; Galinat, Hubert; Sapin-Lory, Jeanne; Di Costanzo, Laurence; Le Guen, Patrick; Nicolas, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter are known to be a cause of enteritidic infections but Campylobacter fetus is more often a cause of systemic infections, mainly in fragilized patients. We report a C. fetus endocarditis. The prognosis seemstobe improved by a prolonged betalactam antibiotic treatment.

  18. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains were isolated from lizards and chelonians not belonging to any of the established taxa. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campy...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species. PMID:25146144

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-08-21

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species.

  1. The first closed genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter fetus venerealis biovar intermedius is a variant of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis. In contrast to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis which is restricted to the genital tract of cattle, Campylobacter fetus subsp. vener...

  2. Detection and molecular analysis of Campylobacter ureolyticus in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Koziel, Monika; Corcoran, Gerard D; Sleator, Roy D; Lucey, Brigid

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed the presence of Campylobacter ureolyticus in a large proportion of diarrhoeal samples from patients in Ireland. This emerging gastrointestinal pathogen was the second most common Campylobacter species detected in patients presenting with gastroenteritis, surpassed only by C. jejuni. However, the source of C. ureolyticus infections in humans remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. ureolyticus in a range of domestic animals. Over a period of 6 months, 164 samples collected from various domestic animals were tested using molecular method based on detection of the C. ureolyticus specific hsp60 gene. These included canine faeces (n = 44), feline faeces (n = 31) and porcine faeces (n = 89). C. ureolyticus was detected in 32% (10/31) of feline faeces, 9% (4/44) of canine faeces and 18% (16/89) of porcine faeces. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of C. ureolyticus isolates showed that an isolate from a cat is genetically similar to a strain isolated from a patient presenting with gastroenteritis. This study reports the first detection and isolation of this organism in domestic animals in Ireland, with a potential source for human infection. Together with the previously reported detection of C. ureolyticus in bovine samples, it is likely that this emerging pathogen has a zoonotic potential.

  3. Transformation and characterization of an arsenic gene operon from urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, M; Kuribayashi, T; Yamamoto, S; Millar, B C; Moore, J E

    2016-01-01

    An arsenate susceptibility test was performed with transformed and cultured Escherichia coli DH5α cells, which carried recombinant DNA of full-length arsenic (ars) operon, namely a putative membrane permease, ArsP; a transcriptional repressor, ArsR; an arsenate reductase, ArsC; and an arsenical-resistance membrane transporter, Acr3, from the Japanese urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter lari (UPTC) CF89-12. The E. coli DH5α transformant showed reduced susceptibility to arsenate (~1536 μg/mL), compared to the control. Thus, these ars four-genes from the UPTC CF89-12 strain cells could confer a reduced susceptibility to arsenate in the transformed and E. coli DH5α cells. E. coli transformants with truncated ars operons, acr3 (acr3) and arsC-acr3 (∆arsC-acr3), of the ars operon, showed an MIC value of 384 μg/mL (~384 μg/mL), similar to the E. coli cells which carried the pGEM-T vector (control). Reverse transcription PCR confirmed in vivo transcription of recombinant full-length ars operon and deletion variants (∆acr3 and ∆arsC-acr3) in the transformed E. coli cells.

  4. The Campylobacter jejuni CprRS two-component regulatory system regulates aspects of the cell envelope

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis, Campylobacter jejuni is a significant human pathogen. C. jejuni lives commensally in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, but tolerates variable environments during transit to a susceptible host. A two-component regulatory system, CprRS, w...

  5. Relaxation of DNA supercoiling leads to increased invasion of epithelial cells and protein secretion by Campylobacter jejuni

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells by Campylobacter jejuni is a critical step during infection of the human intestine by this important human pathogen. In this study we investigated the role played by DNA supercoiling in the regulation of invasion of epithelial cells and the mechanism by which ...

  6. Seroprevalence in chickens against campylobacter jejuni flagellar capping protein (FliD) in selected areas of the U.S

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis. Poultry products are regarded as a major source for human infection with this microorganism. We have demonstrated that the flagellar capping protein (FliD) of C. jejuni is highl...

  7. Comparative effect of thymol or its glucose conjugate, thymol-beta-D-glucopyranoside, on Campylobacter in avian gut contents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important human foodborne pathogen that can contaminate meat and poultry during processing. Consequently, strategies are sought to reduce the carriage of C. jejuni in animals before they arrive to the abattoir. Thymol is a natural product that reduces survivability of Ca...

  8. Generation of the membrane potential and its impact on the motility, ATP production and growth in Campylobacter jejuni

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The generation of an electrical membrane potential (''), the major constituent of the proton motive force (pmf) is crucial for the ATP synthesis, bacterial growth and motility. The pmf drives the rotation of flagella and is vital for the microaerophilic human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni to coloniz...

  9. Distinct Campylobacter jejuni capsular types are related to Guillain-Barré syndrome in The Netherlands and Bangladesh

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An infection with the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni leads to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in around one in thousand cases. It is established that sialylated lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of C. jejuni are a crucial virulence factor in GBS development. Frequent detection of C. jejuni with sia...

  10. Epitope mapping of campylobacter jejuni flagellar capping protein (FliD) by chicken (gallus gallus domesticus) sera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The flagellum, composed of more than 35 proteins, is responsible for colonization of C. jejuni in the host gastrointestinal tract as well as inducing protective antibod...

  11. Nutrient Acquisition and Metabolism by Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Martin; Butcher, James; Stintzi, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is able to colonize numerous different hosts and compete against the gut microbiota. To do this, it must be able to efficiently acquire sufficient nutrients from its environment to support its survival and rapid growth in the intestine. However, despite almost 50 years of research, many aspects as to how C. jejuni accomplishes this feat remain poorly understood. C. jejuni lacks many of the common metabolic pathways necessary for the use of glucose, galactose, or other carbohydrates upon which most other microbes thrive. It does however make efficient use of citric acid cycle intermediates and various amino acids. C. jejuni readily uses the amino acids aspartate, glutamate, serine, and proline, with certain strains also possessing additional pathways allowing for the use of glutamine and asparagine. More recent work has revealed that some C. jejuni strains can metabolize the sugar l-fucose. This finding has upset years of dogma that C. jejuni is an asaccharolytic organism. C. jejuni also possesses diverse mechanisms for the acquisition of various transition metals that are required for metabolic activities. In particular, iron acquisition is critical for the formation of iron–sulfur complexes. C. jejuni is also unique in possessing both molybdate and tungsten cofactored proteins and thus has an unusual regulatory scheme for these metals. Together these various metabolic and acquisition pathways help C. jejuni to compete and thrive in wide variety of hosts and environments. PMID:22919597

  12. Experimental study of the impact of antimicrobial treatments on Campylobacter, Enterococcus and PCR-capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism profiles of the gut microbiota of chickens.

    PubMed

    Mourand, Gwenaëlle; Jouy, Eric; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Dheilly, Alexandra; Kérouanton, Annaëlle; Zeitouni, Salman; Kempf, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the impact of antimicrobial treatments on the susceptibility of Campylobacter, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, and on the diversity of broiler microbiota. Specific-pathogen-free chickens were first orally inoculated with strains of Campylobacter and Enterococcus faecium. Birds were then orally treated with recommended doses of oxytetracycline, sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim, amoxicillin or enrofloxacin. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after antimicrobial treatment. The susceptibility of Campylobacter, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated on supplemented or non-supplemented media was studied and PCR-capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) profiles of the gut microbiota were analysed. Enrofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter were selected in the enrofloxacin-treated group and showed the Thr86Ile mutation in the gyrA gene. Acquisition of the tetO gene in Campylobacter coli isolates was significantly more frequent in birds given oxytetracycline. No impact of amoxicillin treatment on the susceptibility of Campylobacter could be detected. Ampicillin- and sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim-resistant Enterococcus faecium were selected in amoxicillin-treated broilers, but no selection of the inoculated vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium could be detected, although it was also resistant to tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim. PCR-CE-SSCP revealed significant variations in a few peaks in treated birds as compared with non-treated chickens. In conclusion, antimicrobial treatments perturbed chicken gut microbiota, and certain antimicrobial treatments selected or co-selected resistant strains of Campylobacter and Enterococcus.

  13. A comparative study of conventional and molecular techniques in diagnosis of campylobacter gastroenteritis in children.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Roumi; Uppal, Beena; Aggarwal, Prabhav; Chakravarti, Anita; Jha, Arun Kumar; Dubey, A P

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter species are a significant cause of gastroenteritis among children worldwide. Conventional methods for detection of Campylobacter spp. based on cultural isolation and biochemical tests are cumbersome and time consuming. Because of their superior sensitivity and cost effectiveness, molecular methods are often used for identification of the pathogens. To evaluate different diagnostic methods for identification of Campylobacter. Faecal samples were collected from 585 children (age ≤ 12 years) with acute diarrhoea admitted in a tertiary-care hospital, excluding children already on antimicrobial therapy. All samples were examined by four methods: Grams' staining, culture methods, Enzyme-Immuno Assay, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). After Grams' staining, samples were inoculated on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar. ProSpecT™ Microplate Assay® and PCR assay using cadF gene was done for detection of Campylobacter specific antigen and DNA, respectively, in faecal samples. McNemar's test was used to compare the results wherever applicable. 197 cases (33.67%) were found to be positive for Campylobacter by at least one method. But only 121 (20.78%) out of the 585 stool specimens tested fulfilled the positivity criteria, i.e., positive either by culture or by any two tests among other three. Culture had very low sensitivity (37.19%), whereas PCR had the highest (96.69%) sensitivity but lowest positive predictive value (86.03%). Rapid Grams' staining technique (sensitivity 63.64%) was found to be better than culture. Detection by PCR and ELISA was significantly better than by culture on selective media and Grams' staining (p<0.0001). Molecular techniques significantly increased detection rates of Campylobacter in children with diarrhoea. However, enzyme-immuno assay with high accuracy has the advantage of applicability in resource-poor settings.

  14. Hyperspectral imaging for detecting pathogens grown on agar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seung Chul; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Line, John E.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.

    2007-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth pattern, color, etc.) of colonies grown on agar plates has been widely used to tentatively differentiate organisms. However, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate target organisms like Campylobacters from other contaminants grown together on the same agar plates. A hyperspectral imaging system operating at the visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectral region from 400 nm to 900 nm was set up to measure spectral signatures of 17 different Campylobacter and non-Campylobacter subspecies. Protocols for culturing, imaging samples and for calibrating measured data were developed. The VNIR spectral library of all 17 organisms commonly encountered in poultry was established from calibrated hyperspectral images. A classification algorithm was developed to locate and identify Campylobacters, non-Campylobacter contaminants, and background agars with 99.29% accuracy. This research has a potential to be expanded to detect other pathogens grown on agar media.

  15. Evaluation of Various Campylobacter-Specific Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assays for Detection and Enumeration of Campylobacteraceae in Irrigation Water and Wastewater via a Miniaturized Most-Probable-Number–qPCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Banting, Graham S.; Braithwaite, Shannon; Scott, Candis; Kim, Jinyong; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Ruecker, Norma; Tymensen, Lisa; Charest, Jollin; Pintar, Katarina; Checkley, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and water is increasingly seen as a risk factor in transmission. Here we describe a most-probable-number (MPN)–quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay in which water samples are centrifuged and aliquoted into microtiter plates and the bacteria are enumerated by qPCR. We observed that commonly used Campylobacter molecular assays produced vastly different detection rates. In irrigation water samples, detection rates varied depending upon the PCR assay and culture method used, as follows: 0% by the de Boer Lv1-16S qPCR assay, 2.5% by the Van Dyke 16S and Jensen glyA qPCR assays, and 75% by the Linton 16S endpoint PCR when cultured at 37°C. Primer/probe specificity was the major confounder, with Arcobacter spp. routinely yielding false-positive results. The primers and PCR conditions described by Van Dyke et al. (M. I. Van Dyke, V. K. Morton, N. L. McLellan, and P. M. Huck, J Appl Microbiol 109:1053–1066, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04730.x) proved to be the most sensitive and specific for Campylobacter detection in water. Campylobacter occurrence in irrigation water was found to be very low (<2 MPN/300 ml) when this Campylobacter-specific qPCR was used, with the most commonly detected species being C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Campylobacters in raw sewage were present at ∼102/100 ml, with incubation at 42°C required for reducing microbial growth competition from arcobacters. Overall, when Campylobacter prevalence and/or concentration in water is reported using molecular methods, considerable validation is recommended when adapting methods largely developed for clinical applications. Furthermore, combining MPN methods with molecular biology-based detection algorithms allows for the detection and quantification of Campylobacter spp. in environmental samples and is potentially suited to quantitative microbial risk assessment for improved public health disease

  16. Evaluation of Various Campylobacter-Specific Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assays for Detection and Enumeration of Campylobacteraceae in Irrigation Water and Wastewater via a Miniaturized Most-Probable-Number-qPCR Assay.

    PubMed

    Banting, Graham S; Braithwaite, Shannon; Scott, Candis; Kim, Jinyong; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Ruecker, Norma; Tymensen, Lisa; Charest, Jollin; Pintar, Katarina; Checkley, Sylvia; Neumann, Norman F

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and water is increasingly seen as a risk factor in transmission. Here we describe a most-probable-number (MPN)-quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay in which water samples are centrifuged and aliquoted into microtiter plates and the bacteria are enumerated by qPCR. We observed that commonly used Campylobacter molecular assays produced vastly different detection rates. In irrigation water samples, detection rates varied depending upon the PCR assay and culture method used, as follows: 0% by the de Boer Lv1-16S qPCR assay, 2.5% by the Van Dyke 16S and Jensen glyA qPCR assays, and 75% by the Linton 16S endpoint PCR when cultured at 37°C. Primer/probe specificity was the major confounder, with Arcobacter spp. routinely yielding false-positive results. The primers and PCR conditions described by Van Dyke et al. (M. I. Van Dyke, V. K. Morton, N. L. McLellan, and P. M. Huck, J Appl Microbiol 109:1053-1066, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04730.x) proved to be the most sensitive and specific for Campylobacter detection in water. Campylobacter occurrence in irrigation water was found to be very low (<2 MPN/300 ml) when this Campylobacter-specific qPCR was used, with the most commonly detected species being C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari Campylobacters in raw sewage were present at ∼10(2)/100 ml, with incubation at 42°C required for reducing microbial growth competition from arcobacters. Overall, when Campylobacter prevalence and/or concentration in water is reported using molecular methods, considerable validation is recommended when adapting methods largely developed for clinical applications. Furthermore, combining MPN methods with molecular biology-based detection algorithms allows for the detection and quantification of Campylobacter spp. in environmental samples and is potentially suited to quantitative microbial risk assessment for improved public health disease prevention

  17. Insights into Campylobacter jejuni colonization and enteritis using a novel infant rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yuwei; Ren, Fangzhe; Song, Zhaojun; Li, Qiuchun; Zhou, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Zhonglan; Bao, Guangyu; Wan, Ting; Lei, Tianyao; Wang, Nan; Jiao, Xin-an; Huang, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    A lack of relevant disease models for Campylobacter jejuni has long been an obstacle to research into this common enteric pathogen. Here we used an infant rabbit to study C. jejuni infection, which enables us to define several previously unknown but key features of the organism. C. jejuni is capable of systemic invasion in the rabbit, and developed a diarrhea symptom that mimicked that observed in many human campylobacteriosis. The large intestine was the most consistently colonized site and produced intestinal inflammation, where specific cytokines were induced. Genes preferentially expressed during C. jejuni infection were screened, and acs, cj1385, cj0259 seem to be responsible for C. jejuni invasion. Our results demonstrates that the infant rabbit can be used as an alternative experimental model for the study of diarrheagenic Campylobacter species and will be useful in exploring the pathogenesis of other related pathogens. PMID:27357336

  18. Quantification of campylobacter species cross-contamination during handling of contaminated fresh chicken parts in kitchens.

    PubMed

    Luber, Petra; Brynestad, Sigrid; Topsch, Daniela; Scherer, Kathrin; Bartelt, Edda

    2006-01-01

    Numerous outbreak investigations and case-control studies for campylobacteriosis have provided evidence that handling Campylobacter-contaminated chicken products is a risk factor for infection and illness. There is currently extremely limited quantitative data on the levels of Campylobacter cross-contamination in the kitchen, hindering risk assessments for the pathogen commodity combination of Campylobacter and chicken meat. An exposure assessment needs to quantify the transfer of the bacteria from chicken to hands and the kitchen environment and from there onto ready-to-eat foods. We simulated some typical situations in kitchens and quantified the Campylobacter transfer from naturally contaminated chicken parts most commonly used in Germany. One scenario simulated the seasoning of five chicken legs and the reuse of the same plate for cooked meat. In another, five chicken breast filets were cut into small slices on a wooden board where, without intermediate cleaning, a cucumber was sliced. We also investigated the transfer of the pathogen from chicken via hands to a bread roll. The numbers of Campylobacter present on the surfaces of the chicken parts, hands, utensils, and ready-to-eat foods were detected by using Preston enrichment and colony counting after surface plating on Karmali agar. The mean transfer rates from legs and filets to hands were 2.9 and 3.8%. The transfer from legs to the plate (0.3%) was significantly smaller (P < 0.01) than the percentage transferred from filets to the cutting board and knife (1.1%). Average transfer rates from hands or kitchen utensils to ready-to-eat foods ranged from 2.9 to 27.5%.

  19. Quantification of Campylobacter Species Cross-Contamination during Handling of Contaminated Fresh Chicken Parts in Kitchens

    PubMed Central

    Luber, Petra; Brynestad, Sigrid; Topsch, Daniela; Scherer, Kathrin; Bartelt, Edda

    2006-01-01

    Numerous outbreak investigations and case-control studies for campylobacteriosis have provided evidence that handling Campylobacter-contaminated chicken products is a risk factor for infection and illness. There is currently extremely limited quantitative data on the levels of Campylobacter cross-contamination in the kitchen, hindering risk assessments for the pathogen commodity combination of Campylobacter and chicken meat. An exposure assessment needs to quantify the transfer of the bacteria from chicken to hands and the kitchen environment and from there onto ready-to-eat foods. We simulated some typical situations in kitchens and quantified the Campylobacter transfer from naturally contaminated chicken parts most commonly used in Germany. One scenario simulated the seasoning of five chicken legs and the reuse of the same plate for cooked meat. In another, five chicken breast filets were cut into small slices on a wooden board where, without intermediate cleaning, a cucumber was sliced. We also investigated the transfer of the pathogen from chicken via hands to a bread roll. The numbers of Campylobacter present on the surfaces of the chicken parts, hands, utensils, and ready-to-eat foods were detected by using Preston enrichment and colony counting after surface plating on Karmali agar. The mean transfer rates from legs and filets to hands were 2.9 and 3.8%. The transfer from legs to the plate (0.3%) was significantly smaller (P < 0.01) than the percentage transferred from filets to the cutting board and knife (1.1%). Average transfer rates from hands or kitchen utensils to ready-to-eat foods ranged from 2.9 to 27.5%. PMID:16391026

  20. Campylobacter Reactive Arthritis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Janet E.; Krizova, Adriana; Garg, Amit X.; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Ouimet, Janine M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on the epidemiology of Campylobacter associated ReA. Methods A Medline (PubMed) search identified studies from 1966–2006 that investigated the epidemiology of Campylobacter associated ReA. Search terms included: “reactive arthritis”, “spondyloarthropathy”, “Reiter’s syndrome”, “gastroenteritis”, “diarrhea”, “epidemiology”, “incidence”, “prevalence”, and “Campylobacter”. Results The literature available to date suggests that the incidence of Campylobacter reactive arthritis may occur in 1 to 5% of those infected. The annual incidence of ReA after Campylobacter or Shigella may be 4.3 and 1.3 respectively per 100,000. The duration of acute ReA varies considerably between reports, and the incidence and impact of chronic reactive arthritis from Campylobacter infection is virtually unknown. Conclusions Campylobacter associated ReA incidence and prevalence varies widely from reviews such as: case ascertainment differences, exposure differences, lack of diagnostic criteria for ReA and perhaps genetics and ages of exposed individuals. At the population level it may not be associated with HLA-B27 and inflammatory back involvement is uncommon. Follow up for long-term sequelae is largely unknown. Five percent of Campylobacter ReA may be chronic or relapsing (with respect to musculoskeletal symptoms). PMID:17360026

  1. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  2. CmeABC multidrug efflux pump contributes to antibiotic resistance and promotes Campylobacter jejuni survival and multiplication in Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ana; Ramesh, Amritha; Seddon, Alan M; Karlyshev, Andrey V

    2017-09-15

    Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen recognized as the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis. The wide use of antibiotics in medicine and in animal husbandry has led to an increased incidence of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter In addition to a role in multidrug resistance, the Campylobacter CmeABC RND-type efflux pump, which is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR), may also be involved in virulence. As a vehicle of pathogenic microorganisms, the protozoan Acanthamoeba is a good model for the investigation of bacterial survival in the environment and molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity. The interaction between C. jejuni 81-176 and A. polyphaga was investigated in this study by using a modified gentamicin protection assay. In addition, a possible role for the CmeABC MDR pump in this interaction was explored. Here we report that this MDR pump is beneficial for the intracellular survival and multiplication of C. jejuni in A. polyphaga, but is dispensable for biofilm formation and motility.Importance The endosymbiotic relationship between amoebae and microbial pathogens may contribute to persistence and spreading of the latter in the environment, which has significant implications to human health. In this study we found that Campylobacter jejuni was able to survive and multiply inside Acanthamoeba. polyphaga Since these microorganisms can co-exist in the same environment (e.g. in poultry farms), the latter may increase the risk of infection with Campylobacter Our data suggests that, in addition to its role in antibiotic resistance, the CmeABC MDR efflux pump also plays a role in bacterial survival within amoebae. Furthermore, we demonstrated a synergistic effect of the CmeABC MDR efflux pump and TetO on bacterial resistance to tetracycline. Due to its role both in antibiotic resistance and virulence of C. jejuni, the CmeABC MDR efflux pump could be considered as a good target for the development of antibacterial drugs against this

  3. Campylobacter spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, and Salmonella enterica and their simultaneous occurrence in German fattening pig herds and their environment.

    PubMed

    Nathues, C; Grüning, P; Fruth, A; Verspohl, J; Blaha, T; Kreienbrock, L; Merle, R

    2013-10-01

    Campylobacter spp., Salmonella enterica, and Yersinia enterocolitica are common causes of foodborne infections in humans with pork as a potential source. Monitoring programs at farm level are, to date, only implemented for S. enterica, while epidemiological knowledge of the other two pathogens is still lacking. This study aimed to assess the pathogen load (in the pigs' environment) in fattening pig herds, their simultaneous occurrence, and the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. and Y. enterocolitica in herds in different Salmonella risk categories. In 50 fattening pig herds in northern Germany, four pooled fecal samples and 10 swab samples from the pigs' direct environment (pen walls, nipple drinkers), indirect environment (hallways, drive boards), and flies and rodent droppings were collected from each herd and submitted for cultural examination. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 38.1% of fecal, 32.7% of direct environment, 5.3% of indirect environment, and 4.6% of flies/pests samples collected, and Y. enterocolitica in 17.1, 8.1, 1.2, and 3.1% and S. enterica in 11.2, 7.7, 4.1, and 1.5%, respectively. For Campylobacter spp., Y. enterocolitica, and S. enterica, 80, 48, and 32% of herds were positive, respectively; 22 herds were positive for both Campylobacter spp. and Y. enterocolitica, 12 for Campylobacter spp. and S. enterica, and 7 for Y. enterocolitica and S. enterica. There was no significant association between the pathogens at herd level. Campylobacter spp. and Y. enterocolitica were found more often in samples from the low Salmonella risk category (odds ratio, 0.51; confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.73, and 0.3, 0.17 to 0.57), and this was also the case for Y. enterocolitica at herd level (odds ratio, 0.08; confidence interval, 0.02 to 0.3). This study provides evidence that the pigs' environment should be accounted for when implementing control measures on farms against Campylobacter spp. and Y. enterocolitica. An extrapolation from the current Salmonella

  4. Detection of non-jejuni and -coli Campylobacter Species from Stool Specimens with an Immunochromatographic Antigen Detection Assay

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Brianne A.; Couturier, Marc Roger; Kalp, Kim J.

    2013-01-01

    The STAT! Campy immunochromatographic assay for Campylobacter antigen was compared to culture for 500 clinical stool specimens. Antigen was detected in six culture-negative, PCR-positive specimens. C. upsaliensis, a pathogenic species that is traditionally difficult to recover in routine stool cultures, was detected in two of these culture-negative specimens. This study provides evidence that antigen testing may cross-react with at least one additional non-jejuni and -coli Campylobacter species that may be missed by routine culture for campylobacteriosis. PMID:23554192

  5. Campylobacter carcass contamination throughout the slaughter process of Campylobacter-positive broiler batches.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-02-02

    Campylobacter contamination on broiler carcasses of Campylobacter colonized flocks was quantified at seven sampling sites throughout the slaughter process. For this purpose, in four slaughterhouses samples were collected from twelve Campylobacter positive batches. Broilers from all visits carried high numbers of campylobacters in their caeca (≥7.9log10cfu/g). Campylobacter counts on feathers (up to 6.8log10cfu/g), positively associated with the breast skin contamination of incoming birds and carcasses after plucking, were identified as an additional source of carcass contamination. A high variability in Campylobacter carcass contamination on breast skin samples within batches and between batches in the same slaughterhouse and between slaughterhouses was observed. In slaughterhouses A, B, C and D Campylobacter counts exceeded a limit of 1000cfu/g on 50%, 56%, 78% and 11% of carcasses after chilling, respectively. This finding indicates that certain slaughterhouses are able to better control Campylobacter contamination than others. Overall, the present study focuses on the descriptive analysis of Campylobacter counts in different slaughterhouses, different batches within a slaughterhouse and within a batch at several sampling locations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of climate change on runoff of Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium from land to surface water.

    PubMed

    Sterk, Ankie; Schijven, Jack; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; de Nijs, Ton

    2016-05-15

    Faeces originating from wildlife, domestic animals or manure-fertilized fields, is considered an important source of zoonotic pathogens to which people may be exposed by, for instance, bathing or drinking-water consumption. An increase in runoff, and associated wash-off of animal faeces from fields, is assumed to contribute to the increase of disease outbreaks during periods of high precipitation. Climate change is expected to increase winter precipitation and extreme precipitation events during summer, but has simultaneously also other effects such as temperature rise and changes in evapotranspiration. The question is to what extent the combination of these effects influence the input of zoonotic pathogens to the surface waters. To quantitatively analyse the impacts of climate change on pathogen runoff, pathogen concentrations reaching surface waters through runoff were calculated by combining an input model for catchment pathogen loads with the Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS). Runoff of Cryptosporidium and Campylobacter was evaluated under different climate change scenarios and by applying different scenarios for sources of faecal pollution in the catchments, namely dairy cows and geese and manure fertilization. Model evaluation of these scenarios shows that climate change has little overall impact on runoff of Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium from land to the surface waters. Even though individual processes like runoff fluxes, pathogen release and dilution are affected, either positively or negatively, the net effect on the pathogen concentration in surface waters and consequently also on infection risks through recreation seems limited. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia in a Healthy Patient Returning from a Trip to the Ecuadorian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Chávez, A C; Barrera, S; Leon, A; Trueba, G

    2016-12-27

    Campylobacter fetus is an opportunistic pathogen which causes bacteremia and other invasive infections in immunocompromised patients who have been exposed to livestock or ingested animal products (uncooked meat or unpasteurized milk). The present report describes a C. fetus infection in a healthy adult (immunocompetent) who returned from a visit to the Ecuadorian Amazonia and who did not report exposure to the typical sources of infection.

  8. Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. at different stages of the poultry meat supply chain in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zbrun, M V; Romero-Scharpen, A; Olivero, C; Rossler, E; Soto, L P; Rosmini, M R; Sequeira, G J; Signorini, M L; Frizzo, L S

    2013-11-01

    -positive samples found in this preliminary study indicate that a large proportion of the cases of human gastroenteritis in Argentina may be due to this pathogen. Human cases of gastroenteritis should be studied in greater detail and measures should be developed to reduce the proportion of poultry products that are contaminated by Campylobacter species.

  9. Antigenic Variation of Campylobacter Flagella

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    Cultures were grown at 37"C zation, the flagellum is a major antigen of the campylobacter in anaerobic jars on chocolate -blood agar plates. An atmo- cell...Protein epitopes to the serospecificity of the LIO 8 serogroup. This solubilized in sample buffer was stacked in 4.5% acrylamide thermolabile serogroup...were grown for 24 h and then streaked ELISA. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on one side of a chocolate -blood agar plate from which a was

  10. Septic abortion caused by Campylobacter jejuni bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Skuhala, Tomislava; Škerk, Višnja; Markotić, Alemka; Bukovski, Suzana; Desnica, Boško

    2016-08-01

    A 20-year-old female patient, 14 weeks pregnant, was admitted to hospital with anamnestic and clinical features of acute pyelonephritis. Clinical signs of septic abortion developed and after obstetric examination the therapy was changed to ampicillin, gentamicin and clindamycin. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from blood cultures. Pathohistological findings confirmed diagnosis of purulent chorioamnionitis. After 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin administration the patient fully recovered. Campylobacter jejuni was not isolated from stool culture and no signs of acute enteritis were registered during the illness. Invasive forms of Campylobacter disease without enteritis are not unusual in immunocompromised hosts but they are restricted to C. fetus rather than C. jejuni isolates.

  11. Bacteriophage-Mediated Dispersal of Campylobacter jejuni Biofilms ▿

    PubMed Central

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L.; Payne, Robert J. H.; Connerton, Ian F.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria in their natural environments frequently exist as mixed surface-associated communities, protected by extracellular material, termed biofilms. Biofilms formed by the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni may arise in the gastrointestinal tract of animals but also in water pipes and other industrial situations, leading to their possible transmission into the human food chain either directly or via farm animals. Bacteriophages are natural predators of bacteria that usually kill their prey by cell lysis and have potential application for the biocontrol and dispersal of target bacteria in biofilms. The effects of virulent Campylobacter specific-bacteriophages CP8 and CP30 on C. jejuni biofilms formed on glass by strains NCTC 11168 and PT14 at 37°C under microaerobic conditions were investigated. Independent bacteriophage treatments (n ≥ 3) led to 1 to 3 log10 CFU/cm2 reductions in the viable count 24 h postinfection compared with control levels. In contrast, bacteriophages applied under these conditions effected a reduction of less than 1 log10 CFU/ml in planktonic cells. Resistance to bacteriophage in bacteria surviving bacteriophage treatment of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 biofilms was 84% and 90% for CP8 and CP30, respectively, whereas bacteriophage resistance was not found in similarly recovered C. jejuni PT14 cells. Dispersal of the biofilm matrix by bacteriophage was demonstrated by crystal violet staining and transmission electron microscopy. Bacteriophage may play an important role in the control of attachment and biofilm formation by Campylobacter in situations where biofilms occur in nature, and they have the potential for application in industrial situations leading to improvements in food safety. PMID:21441325

  12. Campylobacter jejuni in hospitalized children with diarrhoea in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Poocharoen, L; Bruin, C W

    1986-03-01

    In this hospital based study, Campylobacter jejuni, although endemic in Northern Thailand was not found in a significantly higher percentage of diarrhoea than in control children. It was isolated from the stools of 14 of 208 diarrhoea (6.7%) and 6 of 108 (5.5%) control patients. Ten of the 14 positive diarrhoea cases were mixed infections, other pathogens isolated simultaneously were enteropathogenic E. coli 4x, Shigella spp. 3x, Salmonella spp. 4x, rotavirus 3x, Plesiomonas shigelloides 1x and parasites 3x. Infection with Campylobacter jejuni occurred mainly in the 1-2 year age group and was not found in patients over 5. It was distributed over the year without seasonal peaks. In four of the 14 positive C. jejuni cases no other pathogens were found. One of these suffered 2nd degree malnutrition with measles and one was a chronic diarrhoea case with a history of antibiotic use and past Salmonella and Shigella infections. The remaining two cases had no underlying or associated illnesses. It was concluded that Campylobacter jejuni may be important as an associated pathogen in complicated diarrhoea infections but is rare as a sole causative agent.

  13. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in rectal swab samples from Rousettus amplexicaudatus in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    HATTA, Yuki; OMATSU, Tsutomu; TSUCHIAKA, Shinobu; KATAYAMA, Yukie; TANIGUCHI, Satoshi; MASANGKAY, Joseph S; PUENTESPINA, Roberto; ERES, Eduardo; COSICO, Edison; UNE, Yumi; YOSHIKAWA, Yasuhiro; MAEDA, Ken; KYUWA, Shigeru; MIZUTANI, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Bats are the second diversity species of mammals and widely distributed in the world. They are thought to be reservoir and vectors of zoonotic pathogens. However, there is scarce report of the evidence of pathogenic bacteria kept in bats. The precise knowledge of the pathogenic bacteria in bat microbiota is important for zoonosis control. Thus, metagenomic analysis targeting the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA of the rectal microbiota in Rousettus amplexicaudatus was performed using high throughput sequencing. The results revealed that 103 genera of bacteria including Camplyobacter were detected. Campylobacter was second predominant genus, and Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni were identified in microbiome of R. amplexicaudatus. Campylobacteriosis is one of the serious bacterial diarrhea in human, and the most often implicated species as the causative agent of campylobacteriosis is C. jejuni. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of C. jejuni in 91 wild bats with PCR. As a result of PCR assay targeted on 16S-23S intergenic spacer, partial genome of C. jejuni was detected only in five R. amplexicaudatus. This is the first report that C. jejuni was detected in bat rectal swab samples. C. jejuni is the most common cause of campylobacteriosis in humans, transmitted through water and contact with livestock animals. This result indicated that R. amplexicaudatus may be a carrier of C. jejuni. PMID:27109214

  14. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in rectal swab samples from Rousettus amplexicaudatus in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Yuki; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Katayama, Yukie; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Masangkay, Joseph S; Puentespina, Roberto; Eres, Eduardo; Cosico, Edison; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Ken; Kyuwa, Shigeru; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    Bats are the second diversity species of mammals and widely distributed in the world. They are thought to be reservoir and vectors of zoonotic pathogens. However, there is scarce report of the evidence of pathogenic bacteria kept in bats. The precise knowledge of the pathogenic bacteria in bat microbiota is important for zoonosis control. Thus, metagenomic analysis targeting the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA of the rectal microbiota in Rousettus amplexicaudatus was performed using high throughput sequencing. The results revealed that 103 genera of bacteria including Camplyobacter were detected. Campylobacter was second predominant genus, and Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni were identified in microbiome of R. amplexicaudatus. Campylobacteriosis is one of the serious bacterial diarrhea in human, and the most often implicated species as the causative agent of campylobacteriosis is C. jejuni. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of C. jejuni in 91 wild bats with PCR. As a result of PCR assay targeted on 16S-23S intergenic spacer, partial genome of C. jejuni was detected only in five R. amplexicaudatus. This is the first report that C. jejuni was detected in bat rectal swab samples. C. jejuni is the most common cause of campylobacteriosis in humans, transmitted through water and contact with livestock animals. This result indicated that R. amplexicaudatus may be a carrier of C. jejuni.

  15. Molecular and Statistical Analysis of Campylobacter spp. and Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter Carriage in Wildlife and Livestock from Ontario Farms.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, M; Pearl, D L; Taboada, E N; Parmley, E J; Mutschall, S; Jardine, C M

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the carriage of Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter among livestock and mammalian wildlife on Ontario farms, and (ii) investigate the potential sharing of Campylobacter subtypes between livestock and wildlife. Using data collected from a cross-sectional study of 25 farms in 2010, we assessed associations, using mixed logistic regression models, between Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter carriage and the following explanatory variables: animal species (beef, dairy, swine, raccoon, other), farm type (swine, beef, dairy), type of sample (livestock or wildlife) and Campylobacter species (jejuni, coli, other). Models included a random effect to account for clustering by farm where samples were collected. Samples were subtyped using a Campylobacter-specific 40 gene comparative fingerprinting assay. A total of 92 livestock and 107 wildlife faecal samples were collected, and 72% and 27% tested positive for Campylobacter, respectively. Pooled faecal samples from livestock were significantly more likely to test positive for Campylobacter than wildlife samples. Relative to dairy cattle, pig samples were at significantly increased odds of testing positive for Campylobacter. The odds of isolating Campylobacter jejuni from beef cattle samples were significantly greater compared to dairy cattle and raccoon samples. Fifty unique subtypes of Campylobacter were identified, and only one subtype was found in both wildlife and livestock samples. Livestock Campylobacter isolates were significantly more likely to exhibit antimicrobial resistance (AMR) compared to wildlife Campylobacter isolates. Campylobacter jejuni was more likely to exhibit AMR when compared to C. coli. However, C. jejuni isolates were only resistant to tetracycline, and C.  coli isolates exhibited multidrug resistance patterns. Based on differences in prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and resistant Campylobacter between

  16. Control strategies against Campylobacter at the poultry production level: biosecurity measures, feed additives and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Meunier, M; Guyard-Nicodème, M; Dory, D; Chemaly, M

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union, and ranks second in the United States only behind salmonellosis. In Europe, there are about nine million cases of campylobacteriosis every year, making the disease a major public health issue. Human cases are mainly caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The main source of contamination is handling or consumption of poultry meat. Poultry constitutes the main reservoir of Campylobacter, substantial quantities of which are found in the intestines following rapid, intense colonization. Reducing Campylobacter levels in the poultry chain would decrease the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. As primary production is a crucial step in Campylobacter poultry contamination, controlling the infection at this level could impact the following links along the food chain (slaughter, retail and consumption). This review describes the control strategies implemented during the past few decades in primary poultry production, including the most recent studies. In fact, the implementation of biosecurity and hygiene measures is described, as well as the immune strategy with passive immunization and vaccination trials and the nutritional strategy with the administration of organic and fatty acids, essential oil and plant-derived compound, probiotics, bacteriocins and bacteriophages. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Campylobacter Enteritis on Hopi and Navajo Indian Reservations—Clinical and Epidemiologic Features

    PubMed Central

    Engleberg, N. Cary; Correa-Villaseñor, Adolfo; North, Charles Q.; Crow, Thomas; Wells, Joy G.; Blake, Paul A.

    1984-01-01

    From June 22 through September 30, 1981, stool specimens from 522 Hopi and Navajo outpatients were cultured because of diarrheal illnesses at the Keams Canyon Indian Health Service Hospital, Arizona. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from the specimens of 26 (5%) of the patients. This pathogen was found as frequently as Shigella in patients younger than 2 years or older than 20 years, but was significantly less common in the 2 to 20-year age group (P<.000001). Campylobacter enteritis was indistinguishable clinically from shigellosis in adult patients, but in children younger than 5 years, a rectal temperature higher than 38°C (100.5°F) was significantly more common with Shigella than with Campylobacter infection (P=.003). In a field study of 20 families, we found that households with a case of Campylobacter enteritis were more likely than age- and community-matched controls to own farm animals (P=.05), but were not more likely to own household pets. C jejuni is less common than Shigella as a cause of summer seasonal diarrhea and dysentery among the Hopi and Navajos; the striking differences in the age-specific rates of these two infections suggest different routes of transmission. PMID:6475040

  18. Campylobacter enteritis on Hopi and Navajo Indian reservations. Clinical and epidemiologic features.

    PubMed

    Engleberg, N C; Correa-Villaseñor, A; North, C Q; Crow, T; Wells, J G; Blake, P A

    1984-07-01

    From June 22 through September 30, 1981, stool specimens from 522 Hopi and Navajo outpatients were cultured because of diarrheal illnesses at the Keams Canyon Indian Health Service Hospital, Arizona. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from the specimens of 26 (5%) of the patients. This pathogen was found as frequently as Shigella in patients younger than 2 years or older than 20 years, but was significantly less common in the 2 to 20-year age group (P<.000001). Campylobacter enteritis was indistinguishable clinically from shigellosis in adult patients, but in children younger than 5 years, a rectal temperature higher than 38 degrees C (100.5 degrees F) was significantly more common with Shigella than with Campylobacter infection (P=.003). In a field study of 20 families, we found that households with a case of Campylobacter enteritis were more likely than age- and community-matched controls to own farm animals (P=.05), but were not more likely to own household pets. C jejuni is less common than Shigella as a cause of summer seasonal diarrhea and dysentery among the Hopi and Navajos; the striking differences in the age-specific rates of these two infections suggest different routes of transmission.

  19. Influence of process parameter on Campylobacter spp. counts on poultry meat in a slaughterhouse environment.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Y; Reich, F; Klein, G

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. are the most important food-borne pathogens in broilers. Exposure of the consumer can be influenced by the reduction of contaminated broiler meat at various steps along the production line. This study was performed at a poultry slaughterhouse in Germany. Steps within the slaughter process were defined by the slaughterhouse quality control for potential Campylobacter reduction. Their impact was tested for two process variations. The first process variation was the increase of the temperature of the scalding water from 53.0 to 53.9 °C. The second step was the application of an additional outside sprayer which was placed after plucking. The increase of the scalding water temperature was the most effective measure (>2 log reduction), but resulted in defects to the broiler skin. This would limit marketing of fresh broiler meat with skin. The additional water spray after plucking had no additional effect. In fact, numbers of Campylobacter were lower before introduction of the sprayer. In conclusion, modifications of the processing technology have to be evaluated carefully, but can have additional effects for Campylobacter reduction.

  20. Campylobacter-induced interleukin-8 responses in human intestinal epithelial cells and primary intestinal chick cells.

    PubMed

    Borrmann, Erika; Berndt, Angela; Hänel, Ingrid; Köhler, Heike

    2007-09-20

    Campylobacter (C.) jejuni and C. coli can cause gastrointestinal disorders in humans characterized by acute inflammation. Inflammatory signals are initiated during interaction between these pathogens and human intestinal cells, but nothing is known about the stimulation of avian intestinal cells by Campylobacter. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) as a proinflammatory chemokine plays an important role in mobilizing cellular defence mechanism. IL-8 mRNA expression in both human intestinal cells (INT 407) and primary intestinal chick cells (PIC) was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The secretion of IL-8 protein by INT407 was measured using ELISA. Although C. jejuni and C. coli are considered to be harmless commensals in the gut of birds, the avian Campylobacter isolates investigated were able to induce the proinflammatory IL-8 in PIC as well as in INT407. In an in vitro system, C. jejuni as well as C. coli were able to induce IL-8 mRNA in PIC. Relation between the virulence properties like toxin production, the ability to invade and to survive in Caco-2 cells and the level of IL-8 mRNA produced by INT 407 and PIC after infection with Campylobacter strains was also investigated.

  1. Motility of Campylobacter concisus isolated from saliva, feces, and gut mucosal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Ovesen, Sandra; Kirk, Karina Frahm; Nielsen, Hans Linde; Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-03-01

    Campylobacter concisus is an emerging pathogen associated with gastrointestinal disorders such as gastroenteritis and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but the species is also found in healthy subjects. The heterogeneous genome of C. concisus increases the likelihood of varying virulence between strains. Flagella motility is a crucial virulence factor for the well-recognized Campylobacter jejuni; therefore, this study aimed to analyze the motility of C. concisus isolated from saliva, gut biopsies, and feces of patients with IBD, gastroenteritis, and healthy subjects. The motility zones of 63 isolates from 52 patients were measured after microaerobic growth in soft-agar plates for 72 hours. The motility of C. concisus was significantly lower than that of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus. The motility of C. concisus varied between isolates (4-22 mm), but there was no statistical significant difference between isolates from IBD patients and healthy subjects (p = 0.14). A tendency of a larger motility zones was observed for IBD gut mucosa isolates, although it did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.13), and no difference was found between oral or fecal isolates between groups. In conclusion, the varying motility of C. concisus could not be related to disease outcome or colonization sites. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Effects of 405-nm Visible Light on the Survival of Campylobacter on Chicken Skin and Stainless Steel.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Nereus W; Phillips, John G; Sommers, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are foodborne pathogens responsible for a significant portion of human cases of bacterial-mediated gastrointestinal disease. A primary method for the introduction of Campylobacter into the food supply is through poultry products. Reducing the number of Campylobacter on poultry products may reduce the incidence of human disease. Research has been conducted on the use of light to inactivate Campylobacter on poultry products and processing environments. More recently, the use of high intensity visible 405-nm light has been proposed for the elimination of pathogenic bacteria. This study investigated the ability of 405-nm light to reduce Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in poultry products. Campylobacter in chicken exudate were placed onto chicken skin or food-grade stainless steel before treatment with 405-nm light. A range of 405-nm light doses were applied to cocktails of six C. jejuni or six C. coli strains in exudate at 10°C to minimize thermal effects. Little difference was observed between inactivation of C. jejuni and C. coli on poultry skin with only minor average reductions of 1.7 logs and 2.1 logs, respectively, at the maximal dose of 184-186 J/cm(2). More noticeable differences were observed when the samples were placed on stainless steel and treated with a dose of 89 J/cm(2), producing an average reduction of 3.0 logs for C. coli but only 1.1 logs for C. jejuni. The maximal dose (181-183 J/cm(2)) applied to Campylobacter on stainless steel produced significant (p ≤ 0.05) reductions for C. jejuni and C. coli of 4.9 logs and 5.1 logs, respectively. However, significant 405-nm-mediated reductions in Campylobacter numbers required exposure times to achieve necessary dose levels that might be impractical under processing conditions. In addition, the most potent exposure times likely produced secondary thermal effects by raising sample surface temperatures above 48°C.

  3. Survival of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations subjected to freezing, refrigeration, minor salt concentration, and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Sampers, Imca; Habib, Ihab; De Zutter, Lieven; Dumoulin, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-02-28

    The survival of Campylobacter spp. under defined conditions of freezing (-22 degrees C) was studied in naturally contaminated chicken skin and minced chicken meat. A decline of approximately one log(10) cfu/g was observed after 1 day of freezing. No further significant reduction was achieved by prolonged storage in the freezer, although a tendency for further gradual reduction of the numbers of Campylobacter spp. present was noted. Campylobacter spp. could still be detected qualitatively (per 0.1g) after 84 days. In a second part of this study, the survival of Campylobacter spp. in a typical minced meat preparation (minced meat supplemented with 1.5% salt (NaCl)) stored at refrigeration (4 degrees C) or frozen (-22 degrees C) was studied. No significant reduction of the pathogen was observed if the minced chicken meat was kept at 4 degrees C for 14 days, opposite to approximately one log(10) cfu/g reduction after 1 day when the minced meat preparation was stored in the freezer (-22 degrees C) for 14 days. The latter reduction is imputed to the effect of freezing as mentioned above and not due to the supplementation of NaCl to minced meat or the combination of NaCl and freezing, because similar reductions of Campylobacter spp. were noticed when minced meat (without addition of NaCl) was frozen. Finally, in a third part of the study, the survival of Campylobacter spp. subjected to a heat treatment, conform to consumer-based pan-frying, in inoculated (4.5+/-0.2 cfu/g) as well as naturally contaminated chicken burgers (2.1+/-0.1 cfu/g) was studied. The Campylobacter spp. numbers declined after 2 min (internal temperature reached circa 38 degrees C), where after 4 min (internal temperature reached circa 57.5 degrees C) they dropped below detectable levels (<10 cfu/g).

  4. Genotypic and Phenotypic Properties of Cattle-Associated Campylobacter and Their Implications to Public Health in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Sanad, Yasser M.; Kassem, Issmat I.; Abley, Melanie; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; LeJeune, Jeffrey T.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2011-01-01

    Since cattle are a major source of food and the cattle industry engages people from farms to processing plants and meat markets, it is conceivable that beef-products contaminated with Campylobacter spp. would pose a significant public health concern. To better understand the epidemiology of cattle-associated Campylobacter spp. in the USA, we characterized the prevalence, genotypic and phenotypic properties of these pathogens. Campylobacter were detected in 181 (19.2%) out of 944 fecal samples. Specifically, 71 C. jejuni, 132 C. coli, and 10 other Campylobacter spp. were identified. The prevalence of Campylobacter varied regionally and was significantly (P<0.05) higher in fecal samples collected from the South (32.8%) as compared to those from the North (14.8%), Midwest (15.83%), and East (12%). Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were genotypically diverse and certain genotypes were shared across two or more of the geographic locations. In addition, 13 new C. jejuni and two C. coli sequence types (STs) were detected by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). C. jejuni associated with clinically human health important sequence type, ST-61 which was not previously reported in the USA, was identified in the present study. Most frequently observed clonal complexes (CC) were CC ST-21, CC ST-42, and CC ST-61, which are also common in humans. Further, the cattle associated C. jejuni strains showed varying invasion and intracellular survival capacity; however, C. coli strains showed a lower invasion and intracellular survival potential compared to C. jejuni strains. Furthermore, many cattle associated Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to several antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of cattle as a potential reservoir for clinically important Campylobacter. PMID:22046247

  5. Transfer of Campylobacter and Salmonella from Poultry Meat onto Poultry Preparation Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sarjit, Amreeta; Dykes, Gary A

    2017-03-30

    Thermophilic Campylobacter and Salmonella enterica are major causes of gastrointestinal foodborne infection. Survival of these pathogens on food-associated surfaces is a risk contributing to their spread through the food system. This study examined the transfer of two strains each of C. jejuni , C. coli , Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium from chicken meat to a knife or scissors used on either a plastic or wooden cutting board. Each strain of Campylobacter and Salmonella at ∼10(8) CFU mL(-1) was inoculated (5 mL) onto 25 g of chicken meat with skin and allowed to attach (for 10 min). The meat was then cut (20 times per implement) into 1-cm(2) pieces with either a knife or scissors on either a plastic or wooden cutting board. The numbers of pathogens transferred from meat onto cutting implements and cutting board surfaces were enumerated. The surfaces were subsequently either rinsed with water or rinsed with water and wiped with a kitchen towel to mimic commonly used superficial cleaning practices for these implements, and the numbers of pathogens were enumerated again. The bacterial numbers for both pathogens were determined on thin-layer agar. The attachment of the Salmonella strains to chicken meat (∼7.0 to 7.8 log CFU cm(-2)) was higher than the attachment of the Campylobacter strains (∼4.6 to 6.6 log CFU cm(-2)). All four Salmonella strains transferred in higher numbers (∼1.9 to 6.3 log CFU cm(-2)) to all surfaces than did the Campylobacter strains (∼1.1 to 3.9 log CFU cm(-2)). The transfer rates of both pathogens from the chicken meat to all the surfaces examined varied substantially between ∼0 and 21.1%. The highest rate of transfer (∼21.1%) observed was for C. coli 2875 when transferred from the chicken meat to the scissors. Most cleaning treatments reduced the numbers of both pathogens (∼0.3 to 4.1 log CFU cm(-2)) transferred to all the surfaces. Our study gives insights into the risks associated with the transfer of

  6. Increased risk for Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infection of pet origin in dog owners and evidence for genetic association between strains causing infection in humans and their pets.

    PubMed

    Mughini Gras, L; Smid, J H; Wagenaar, J A; Koene, M G J; Havelaar, A H; Friesema, I H M; French, N P; Flemming, C; Galson, J D; Graziani, C; Busani, L; VAN Pelt, W

    2013-12-01

    We compared Campylobacter jejuni/coli multilocus sequence types (STs) from pets (dogs/cats) and their owners and investigated risk factors for pet-associated human campylobacteriosis using a combined source-attribution and case-control analysis. In total, 132/687 pet stools were Campylobacter-positive, resulting in 499 strains isolated (320 C. upsaliensis/helveticus, 100 C. jejuni, 33 C. hyointestinalis/fetus, 10 C. lari, 4 C. coli, 32 unidentified). There were 737 human and 104 pet C. jejuni/coli strains assigned to 154 and 49 STs, respectively. Dog, particularly puppy, owners were at increased risk of infection with pet-associated STs. In 2/68 cases vs. 0.134/68 expected by chance, a pet and its owner were infected with an identical ST (ST45, ST658). Although common sources of infection and directionality of transmission between pets and humans were unknown, dog ownership significantly increased the risk for pet-associated human C. jejuni/coli infection and isolation of identical strains in humans and their pets occurred significantly more often than expected.

  7. Host adaption to the bacteriophage carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Brathwaite, Kelly J; Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L; Connerton, Ian F

    2015-01-01

    The carrier state of the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni represents an alternative life cycle whereby virulent bacteriophages can persist in association with host bacteria without commitment to lysogeny. Host bacteria exhibit significant phenotypic changes that improve their ability to survive extra-intestinal environments, but exhibit growth-phase-dependent impairment in motility. We demonstrate that early exponential phase cultures become synchronised with respect to the non-motile phenotype, which corresponds with a reduction in their ability to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells. Comparative transcriptome analyses (RNA-seq) identify changes in gene expression that account for the observed phenotypes: downregulation of stress response genes hrcA, hspR and per and downregulation of the major flagellin flaA with the chemotactic response signalling genes cheV, cheA and cheW. These changes present mechanisms by which the host and bacteriophage can remain associated without lysis, and the cultures survive extra-intestinal transit. These data provide a basis for understanding a critical link in the ecology of the Campylobacter bacteriophage.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans. PMID:26733736

  9. Darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and their larvae as potential vectors for the transfer of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi B variant Java between successive broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Hazeleger, Wilma C; Bolder, Nico M; Beumer, Rijkelt R; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F

    2008-11-01

    Broiler flocks often become infected with Campylobacter and Salmonella, and the exact contamination routes are still not fully understood. Insects like darkling beetles and their larvae may play a role in transfer of the pathogens between consecutive cycles. In this study, several groups of beetles and their larvae were artificially contaminated with a mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B Variant Java and three C. jejuni strains and kept for different time intervals before they were fed to individually housed chicks. Most inoculated insects were positive for Salmonella and Campylobacter just before they were fed to the chicks. However, Campylobacter could not be isolated from insects that were kept for 1 week before they were used to mimic an empty week between rearing cycles. All broilers fed insects that were inoculated with pathogens on the day of feeding showed colonization with Campylobacter and Salmonella at levels of 50 to 100%. Transfer of both pathogens by groups of insects that were kept for 1 week before feeding to the chicks was also observed, but at lower levels. Naturally contaminated insects that were collected at a commercial broiler farm colonized broilers at low levels as well. In conclusion, the fact that Salmonella and Campylobacter can be transmitted via beetles and their larvae to flocks in successive rearing cycles indicates that there should be intensive control programs for exclusion of these insects from broiler houses.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans.

  11. Indicator medium for isolation of Campylobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, D M; Mendes, E N; Rocha, G A

    1987-01-01

    The use of a new indicator culture medium, Belo Horizonte medium, is proposed for better colony recognition and a presumptive identification of Campylobacter pylori. This medium, containing brain heart infusion sheep blood agar, was supplemented with 40 mg of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride per liter in addition to vancomycin, nalidixic acid, and amphotericin B. On Belo Horizonte medium, Campylobacter pylori present unique golden colonies. PMID:3429628

  12. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Serovars in Retail Chicken, Turkey, Pork, and Beef from the Greater Washington, D.C., Area

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Cuiwei; Ge, Beilei; De Villena, Juan; Sudler, Robert; Yeh, Emily; Zhao, Shaohua; White, David G.; Wagner, David; Meng, Jianghong

    2001-01-01

    A total of 825 samples of retail raw meats (chicken, turkey, pork, and beef) were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella serovars, and 719 of these samples were also tested for Campylobacter spp. The samples were randomly obtained from 59 stores of four supermarket chains during 107 sampling visits in the Greater Washington, D.C., area from June 1999 to July 2000. The majority (70.7%) of chicken samples (n = 184) were contaminated with Campylobacter, and a large percentage of the stores visited (91%) had Campylobacter-contaminated chickens. Approximately 14% of the 172 turkey samples yielded Campylobacter, whereas fewer pork (1.7%) and beef (0.5%) samples were positive for this pathogen. A total of 722 Campylobacter isolates were obtained from 159 meat samples; 53.6% of these isolates were Campylobacter jejuni, 41.3% were Campylobacter coli, and 5.1% were other species. Of the 212 chicken samples, 82 (38.7%) yielded E. coli, while 19.0% of the beef samples, 16.3% of the pork samples, and 11.9% of the turkey samples were positive for E. coli. However, only 25 (3.0%) of the retail meat samples tested were positive for Salmonella. Significant differences in the bacterial contamination rates were observed for the four supermarket chains. This study revealed that retail raw meats are often contaminated with food-borne pathogens; however, there are marked differences in the prevalence of such pathogens in different meats. Raw retail meats are potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases, and our findings stress the need for increased implementation of hazard analysis of critical control point (HACCP) and consumer food safety education efforts. PMID:11722889

  13. Comparison of Selective Campylobacter Media for Detection and Enumeration of Naturally Occurring Campylobacter spp. on Poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter spp. are among the most common cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal illness; poultry has been linked as a primary source of contamination. Detection and enumeration of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry is difficult due to the presence of competing micro...

  14. Ribosomal operon intergenic sequence region (ISR) heterogeneity in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are closely related species that can not be distinguished by their 16S or 23S rRNA gene sequences. However, the intergenic sequence region (ISR) that is between the 16S and 23S genes is markedly different and characteristic for each species. A peculiarit...

  15. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to macrolides and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Elharrif, Z; Mégraud, F; Marchand, A M

    1985-01-01

    The susceptibility of 105 thermophilic campylobacters from human and swine origins to eight macrolides and related compounds was tested. Erythromycin, josamycin, clindamycin, and ASE 136 BS (a new erythromycin derivative) were the most active against the human strains. The swine strains were highly resistant, except to pristinamycin. The human Campylobacter coli strains (except for two strains) behaved like the C. jejuni strains. PMID:4091531

  16. Microarray on digital versatile disc for identification and genotyping of Salmonella and Campylobacter in meat products.

    PubMed

    Tortajada-Genaro, Luis Antonio; Rodrigo, Alejandro; Hevia, Elizabeth; Mena, Salvador; Niñoles, Regina; Maquieira, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    Highly portable, cost-effective, and rapid-response devices are required for the subtyping of the most frequent food-borne bacteria; thereby the sample rejection strategies and hygienization techniques along the food chain can be tailor-designed. Here, a novel biosensor is presented for the generic detection of Salmonella and Campylobacter and the discrimination between their most prevalent serovars (Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium) and species (Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli), respectively. The method is based on DNA microarray developed on a standard digital versatile disc (DVD) as support for a hybridization assay and a DVD driver as scanner. This approach was found to be highly sensitive (detection limit down to 0.2 pg of genomic DNA), reproducible (relative standard deviation 4-19 %), and high working capacity (20 samples per disc). The inclusivity and exclusivity assays indicated that designed oligonucleotides (primers and probes) were able to discriminate targeted pathogens from other Salmonella serovars, Campylobacter species, or common food-borne pathogens potentially present in the indigenous microflora. One hundred isolates from meat samples, collected in a poultry factory, were analyzed by the DVD microarraying and fluorescent real-time PCR. An excellent correlation was observed for both generic and specific detection (relative sensitivity 93-99 % and relative specificity 93-100 %). Therefore, the developed assay has been shown to be a reliable tool to be used in routine food safety analysis, especially in settings with limited infrastructure due to the excellent efficiency-cost ratio of compact disc technology. Graphical Abstract DNA microarray performed by DVD technology for pathogen genotyping.

  17. Selective medium for growth of Campylobacter in containers incubated aerobically

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction. Campylobacter are traditionally cultured in primary containers inside of secondary containers filled with microaerobic atmospheres. Recent findings indicated that media supplemented with optimal concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, and bicarbonate support Campylobacter growth ...

  18. Campylobacter bacteremia: a rare and under-reported event?

    PubMed Central

    Louwen, R.; van Baarlen, P.; van Vliet, A. H. M.; van Belkum, A.; Hays, J. P.; Endtz, H. P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with both host factors and bacterial factors being involved in the pathogenesis of bacteremia. In the host, age, gender and immune-compromising conditions may predispose for Campylobacter infections, whilst the most important bacterial determinants mentioned in the literature are cytotoxin production and flagellar motility. The role of sialylated lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) and serum resistance in bacteremia is inconclusive at this time, and the clinical significance of Campylobacter bacteremia is not yet fully understood. More emphasis on the detection of Campylobacter species from blood cultures in susceptible patients at risk for Campylobacter infections will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis and the relevance of Campylobacter bacteremia. PMID:24611124

  19. Hyperosmotic Stress Response of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Andrew; Frirdich, Emilisa; Huynh, Steven; Parker, Craig T.

    2012-01-01

    The diarrheal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and other gastrointestinal bacteria encounter changes in osmolarity in the environment, through exposure to food processing, and upon entering host organisms, where osmotic adaptation can be associated with virulence. In this study, growth profiles, transcriptomics, and phenotypic, mutant, and single-cell analyses were used to explore the effects of hyperosmotic stress exposure on C. jejuni. Increased growth inhibition correlated with increased osmotic concentration, with both ionic and nonionic stressors inhibiting growth at 0.620 total osmol liter−1. C. jejuni adaptation to a range of osmotic stressors and concentrations was accompanied by severe filamentation in subpopulations, with microscopy indicating septum formation and phenotypic diversity between individual cells in a filament. Population heterogeneity was also exemplified by the bifurcation of colony morphology into small and large variants on salt stress plates. Flow cytometry of C. jejuni harboring green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the ATP synthase promoter likewise revealed bimodal subpopulations under hyperosmotic stress. We also identified frequent hyperosmotic stress-sensitive variants within the clonal wild-type population propagated on standard laboratory medium. Microarray analysis following hyperosmotic upshift revealed enhanced expression of heat shock genes and genes encoding enzymes for synthesis of potential osmoprotectants and cross-protective induction of oxidative stress genes. The capsule export gene kpsM was also upregulated, and an acapsular mutant was defective for growth under hyperosmotic stress. For C. jejuni, an organism lacking most conventional osmotic response factors, these data suggest an unusual hyperosmotic stress response, including likely “bet-hedging” survival strategies relying on the presence of stress-fit individuals in a heterogeneous population. PMID:22961853

  20. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    PubMed

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares.

  1. [The occurrence of Campylobacter in a mountain brook].

    PubMed

    Stelzer, W; Jacob, J

    1992-01-01

    The mountain river showed fecal water pollution at all sample sites studied. The arithmetic mean values of total coliforms ranged between 28 and 196/ml. Campylobacters were isolated from all sample sites studied, with a maximum value of 1,100 Campylobacter/100 ml river water. The MCCD-medium resulted in significantly higher isolation rates of Campylobacter from water samples than the VTPRC-medium compared. Colony counts, total coliforms and Campylobacter showed numerical relations of 3831:100:1 respectively.

  2. Experimental infection of pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with Campylobacter cinaedi and Campylobacter fennelliae.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, B M; Fennell, C L; Kuller, L; Bronsdon, M A; Morton, W R; Stamm, W E

    1990-01-01

    Campylobacter cinaedi and C. fennelliae have been associated with proctocolitis, bacteremia, and asymptomatic rectal infection, primarily in homosexual men. To more directly assess the pathogenic role of these organisms, we studied their disease-producing potential in 12- to 25-day-old pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Four infant monkeys were challenged with 10(8) to 10(9) C. cinaedi, three were challenged with C. fennelliae, two were challenged with C. jejuni, and one received no microorganisms. Watery or loose stools without associated fever or fecal leukocytes developed 3 to 7 days postinoculation in all of the animals given C. cinaedi, C. fennelliae, and C. jejuni, but not in the control animal. Stool cultures were simultaneously positive and remained so in the animals challenged with C. cinaedi or C. fennelliae for 3 weeks after inoculation despite the resolution of clinical illness. All of the animals challenged with C. cinaedi and C. fennelliae became bacteremic, and three had clinical evidence of septicemia. Histopathologic evaluation of rectal biopsies (five animals) and necropsy (one animal) showed no evidence of mucosal disruption. Specific immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibody responses occurred in all of the animals challenged with C. cinaedi and C. fennelliae, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting. We conclude that C. cinaedi and C. fennelliae consistently produce a diarrheal illness accompanied by bacteremia and followed by prolonged gastrointestinal colonization in M. nemestrina. Images PMID:2254021

  3. Occurrence, Diversity, and Host Association of Intestinal Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter in Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Kik, Marja; Timmerman, Arjen J.; Severs, Tim T.; Kusters, Johannes G.; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species have been isolated from many vertebrate hosts, including birds, mammals, and reptiles. Multiple studies have focused on the prevalence of these Epsilonproteobacteria genera in avian and mammalian species. However, little focus has been given to the presence within reptiles, and their potential zoonotic and pathogenic roles. In this study, occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria were determined for a large variety of reptiles. From 2011 to 2013, 444 cloacal swabs and fecal samples originating from 417 predominantly captive-held reptiles were screened for Epsilonproteobacteria. Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter genus specific PCRs were performed directly on all samples. All samples were also cultured on selective media and screened for the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria. Using a tiered approach of AFLP, atpA, and 16S rRNA sequencing, 432 Epsilonproteobacteria isolates were characterized at the species level. Based on PCR, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter were detected in 69.3% of the reptiles; 82.5% of the chelonians, 63.8% of the lizards, and 58.0% of the snakes were positive for one or more of these genera. Epsilonproteobacteria were isolated from 22.1% of the reptiles and were isolated most frequently from chelonians (37.0%), followed by lizards (19.6%) and snakes (3.0%). The most commonly isolated taxa were Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter skirrowii, reptile-associated Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum, and a putative novel Campylobacter taxon. Furthermore, a clade of seven related putative novel Helicobacter taxa was isolated from lizards and chelonians. This study shows that reptiles carry various intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria taxa, including several putative novel taxa. PMID:24988130

  4. Occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Timmerman, Arjen J; Severs, Tim T; Kusters, Johannes G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species have been isolated from many vertebrate hosts, including birds, mammals, and reptiles. Multiple studies have focused on the prevalence of these Epsilonproteobacteria genera in avian and mammalian species. However, little focus has been given to the presence within reptiles, and their potential zoonotic and pathogenic roles. In this study, occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria were determined for a large variety of reptiles. From 2011 to 2013, 444 cloacal swabs and fecal samples originating from 417 predominantly captive-held reptiles were screened for Epsilonproteobacteria. Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter genus specific PCRs were performed directly on all samples. All samples were also cultured on selective media and screened for the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria. Using a tiered approach of AFLP, atpA, and 16S rRNA sequencing, 432 Epsilonproteobacteria isolates were characterized at the species level. Based on PCR, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter were detected in 69.3% of the reptiles; 82.5% of the chelonians, 63.8% of the lizards, and 58.0% of the snakes were positive for one or more of these genera. Epsilonproteobacteria were isolated from 22.1% of the reptiles and were isolated most frequently from chelonians (37.0%), followed by lizards (19.6%) and snakes (3.0%). The most commonly isolated taxa were Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter skirrowii, reptile-associated Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum, and a putative novel Campylobacter taxon. Furthermore, a clade of seven related putative novel Helicobacter taxa was isolated from lizards and chelonians. This study shows that reptiles carry various intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria taxa, including several putative novel taxa.

  5. Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA

    PubMed Central

    M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.; Dettinger, Lisa A.; Perry, Amanda; Rogers, Paul; Reynolds, Stanley M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, we surveyed 176 clinical laboratories in Pennsylvania regarding stool specimen testing practices for enteropathogens, including Campylobacter spp. Most (96.3%) routinely test for Campylobacter spp. In 17 (15.7%), a stool antigen test is the sole method for diagnosis. We recommend that laboratory practice guidelines for Campylobacter spp. testing be developed. PMID:22377086

  6. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are devices...

  7. Ecological Dynamics of Campylobacter in Integrated Mixed Crop-Livestock Farms and Its Prevalence and Survival Ability in Post-Harvest Products.

    PubMed

    Salaheen, S; Peng, M; Biswas, D

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the ecological distribution of zoonotic bacterial pathogen, Campylobacter, in mixed crop-livestock (MCL) farms compared to conventional farms and their products at pre- and post-harvest levels. A total of 222 Campylobacter isolates were identified. At pre-harvest level, a total of 1287 samples from seven MCL farms, four conventional poultry farms, four organic produce-only and five conventional produce-only farms from Maryland and the DC metropolitan area were analysed from 2012 to 2014. Campylobacter was detected in 11.16% and 3.6% of MCL and conventional farm samples, respectively, but none from produce-only farm samples. Tetracycline resistance was observed in 51.02% of MCL farm isolates but none among conventional farm isolates. For post-harvest analysis, a total of 1281 food products from seven farmers markets, three organic retail supermarkets and three conventional retail supermarkets were collected from the same area. Campylobacter was isolated in 87.5%, 71.43% and 33.33% of whole chicken carcasses in farmers markets, organic and conventional retail supermarkets, respectively. No Campylobacter was detected in post-harvest produce samples due in part to the inability of Campylobacter to survive in absence of sufficient water activity. Overall, this study reveals public health concerns regarding the MCL farm environment and their products that are sold in retail and farmers markets. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Lectin typing of Campylobacter isolates.

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, N; Benjamin, J; Skirrow, M B

    1990-01-01

    Isolates of Campylobacter jejuni, C coli, C fetus and C laridis were tested for agglutination reactions with a panel of five lectins: Arachis hypogaea, Bauhinia purpurea, Solanum tuberosum, Triticum vulgaris and Wisteria floribunda. Twenty three patterns of agglutination (lectin types) were recorded among 376 isolates. Patterns were consistent and reproducible. Only 4.5% of isolates were untypable because of autoagglutination. Some lectin types were found exclusively or predominantly in a species, but others were shared between species. Forty two per cent of C jejuni and 35% of C coli isolates belonged to lectin type 4. There was no apparent correlation between lectin type and serotype; different lectin types were found among strains of single Penner and Lior serotypes. Lectin typing is a simple and economical procedure suitable for use in non-specialist laboratories, either as an adjunct to serogrouping or, after further development, as a sole typing scheme. PMID:2262570

  9. Chemotactic behavior of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Hugdahl, M B; Beery, J T; Doyle, M P

    1988-01-01

    The chemotactic behavior of Campylobacter jejuni was determined in the presence of different amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, and preparations and constituents of mucin and bile. L-Fucose was the only carbohydrate and L-aspartate, L-cysteine, L-glutamate, and L-serine were the only amino acids producing a chemotactic (positive) response. Several salts of organic acids, including pyruvate, succinate, fumarate, citrate, malate, and alpha-ketoglutarate, were also chemoattractants, as were bile (beef, chicken, and oxgall) and mucin (bovine gallbladder and hog gastric). Most constituents of bile tested individually were chemorepellents, but the mucin component was chemoattractant. The chemotactic behavior of C. jejuni toward L-fucose, a constituent of both bile and mucin, may be an important factor in the affinity of the organism for the gallbladder and intestinal tract. Images PMID:3372020

  10. Cryptic ecology among host generalist Campylobacter jejuni in domestic animals

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Samuel K; Cheng, Lu; Méric, Guillaume; de Haan, Caroline P A; Llarena, Ann-Katrin; Marttinen, Pekka; Vidal, Ana; Ridley, Anne; Clifton-Hadley, Felicity; Connor, Thomas R; Strachan, Norval J C; Forbes, Ken; Colles, Frances M; Jolley, Keith A; Bentley, Stephen D; Maiden, Martin C J; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Parkhill, Julian; Hanage, William P; Corander, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination between bacterial strains is theoretically capable of preventing the separation of daughter clusters, and producing cohesive clouds of genotypes in sequence space. However, numerous barriers to recombination are known. Barriers may be essential such as adaptive incompatibility, or ecological, which is associated with the opportunities for recombination in the natural habitat. Campylobacter jejuni is a gut colonizer of numerous animal species and a major human enteric pathogen. We demonstrate that the two major generalist lineages of C. jejuni do not show evidence of recombination with each other in nature, despite having a high degree of host niche overlap and recombining extensively with specialist lineages. However, transformation experiments show that the generalist lineages readily recombine with one another in vitro. This suggests ecological rather than essential barriers to recombination, caused by a cryptic niche structure within the hosts. PMID:24689900

  11. The impact of environmental conditions on Campylobacter jejuni survival in broiler faeces and litter

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shaun; Meade, Joseph; Gibbons, James; McGill, Kevina; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union, and poultry meat is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans. However, there is limited knowledge about how this organism persists in broiler litter and faeces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a number of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and oxygen, on Campylobacter survival in both broiler litter and faeces. Materials and methods Used litter was collected from a Campylobacter-negative broiler house after final depopulation and fresh faeces were collected from transport crates. Samples were confirmed as Campylobacter negative according to modified ISO methods for veterinary samples. Both sample matrices were inoculated with 9 log10 CFU/ml C. jejuni and incubated under high (≥85%) and low (≤70%) relative humidity conditions at three different temperatures (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C) under both aerobic and microaerophilic atmospheres. Inoculated litter samples were then tested for Campylobacter concentrations at time zero and every 2 hours for 12 hours, while faecal samples were examined at time zero and every 24 hours for 120 hours. A two-tailed t-test assuming unequal variance was used to compare mean Campylobacter concentrations in samples under the various temperature, humidity, and atmospheric conditions. Results and discussion C. jejuni survived significantly longer (P≤0.01) in faeces, with a minimum survival time of 48 hours, compared with 4 hours in used broiler litter. C. jejuni survival was significantly enhanced at 20°C in all environmental conditions in both sample matrices tested compared with survival at 25°C and 30°C. In general, survival was greater in microaerophilic compared with aerobic conditions in both sample matrices. Humidity, at the levels examined, did not appear to significantly impact C. jejuni survival in any sample matrix. The persistence of Campylobacter in broiler litter

  12. [Stationary and migratory avifauna as reservoirs of Salmonella, Yersinia and Campylobacter].

    PubMed

    Levrè, E; Valentini, P; Brunetti, M; Sacchelli, F

    1989-01-01

    Domestic and wild animals have been always considered very important as reservoir of agents of human infections. Particularly birds, because of their great mobility from a continent to another or within the limits of the same ecosystem may transfer pathogenic micro-organisms. The present survey was undertaken in order to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter, Yersinia and Salmonella in migratory and permanent birds. During the period October 1986 to March 1988 intestinal loops were collected from a total of 217 birds representing 17 different species shot, during hunting seasons, in the inland of Versilia in the district of Lucca. Each sample was divided into three parts and examined for the presence of Campylobacter, Yersinia and Salmonella. Campylobacter was isolated from 74 of the 217 birds examined (34.10%). Yersinia was recovered from 26 birds (11.98%), while only 8 birds (3.68%) harboured Salmonella. Most of the samples carried only one of the three bacterial genera investigated while 9 harboured at the same time Yersinia and Campylobacter, 1 Salmonella and Campylobacter, and 1 Salmonella, Yersinia and Campylobacter. Campylobacter spp.: On the ground of Lior's biotyping scheme, the 74 strains, isolated from 16 of the 17 species of birds examined, have assigned to three biochemically different species. C. coli was the most commonly isolated followed by C. jejuni and C. laridis. Of the 54 isolates of C. coli 30 belonged to biotype I and 24 to biotype II. 19 C. jejuni organisms were differentiated into 5 belonging to biotype I and 14 to biotype II. The only C. laridis isolated belonged to biotype I. Yersinia spp.: 37 strains belonging to the genus Yersinia were isolated from 26 birds. In 10 samples different types of Yersinia were identified. Most of the strains could be ascribed to Yersinia enterocolitica (28 strains), 3 to Yersinia frederiksenii, 3 to Yersinia intermedia and 1 to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. 2 strains were identified as atypical Yersinia

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Serovars and Campylobacter spp. Isolated from an Opportunistic Gull Species, Yellow-legged Gull ( Larus michahellis ).

    PubMed

    Migura-Garcia, Lourdes; Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife is a natural reservoir of Salmonella and Campylobacter, the most important human foodborne pathogens worldwide. Free-living birds have the potential to transport, over large distances, such zoonotic bacteria that may harbor antimicrobial resistance traits. On the northeastern Iberian coast, we assessed the role of Yellow-legged Gulls ( Larus michahellis ) as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and thermophilic Campylobacter isolates recovered from gulls at three colonies, with varying degrees of dependence on refuse dumps as food sources. Of the 39 Salmonella isolates we tested, 17 were multiresistant (resistance to three antimicrobial families), with eight being Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Other clinically relevant Salmonella serovars showing multiresistance included Hadar, Bredeney, and Virchow. Relevant Campylobacter antimicrobial resistances were detected among three Campylobacter jejuni isolates, of which all three showed resistance to nalidixic acid, two were resistant to ciprofloxacin, one was resistant to enrofloxacin, and one was resistant to tetracycline. Our results highlight the importance of free-living gulls with opportunistic feeding habits in the dissemination of enteric pathogens resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents of public health concern.

  14. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Heriberto; Hitschfeld, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9%) than among dairy cattle (21.3%), being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated. PMID:24031386

  15. Comparative effect of thymol or its glucose conjugate, thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside, on Campylobacter in avian gut contents.

    PubMed

    Epps, Sharon V R; Harvey, Roger B; Byrd, J Allen; Petrujkić, Branko T; Sedej, Ivana; Beier, Ross C; Phillips, Timothy D; Hume, Michael E; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important human food-borne pathogen that can contaminate meat and poultry during processing. Consequently, strategies are sought to reduce the carriage of C. jejuni in food animals before they arrive at the abattoir. Thymol is a natural product that reduces survivability of Campylobacter in vitro, but its rapid absorption from the proximal alimentary tract limits its bactericidal efficacy in vivo. Thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside is more resistant to absorption than free thymol, but its administration to chickens has not been reported. In the present studies, 1 mM thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside was shown to exhibit near equal anti-Campylobacter activity as 1 mM thymol when incubated anaerobically in avian crop or cecal contents in vitro, resulting in reductions of 1.10-2.32 log10 colony forming units mL(-1) in C. jejuni concentrations after 24 h incubation. In a follow-up live animal study, oral administration of thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside, but not free thymol, significantly lowered (>10-fold) recovery of Campylobacter from the crop of market-aged broilers when compared to placebo-treated controls (n = 6 broilers/treatment). Neither thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside nor thymol affected recovery of Campylobacter from cecal contents of the treated broilers. These results indicate that rapid absorption or passage of free thymol from the crop precluded its anti-Campylobacter activity at this site and throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. Conversely, lower recovery of Campylobacter from the crop of birds treated with thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside indicates this conjugate was retained and able to be hydrolyzed to biologically active free thymol at this site as intended, yet was not sufficiently protected to allow passage of efficacious amounts of the intact glycoside to the lower gut. Nevertheless, these results warrant further research to see if higher doses or encapsulation of thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside or similar glycosides may yield an

  16. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in raw milk and some dairy products

    PubMed Central

    El-Zamkan, Mona A.; Hameed, Karima G. Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was accomplished to test raw milk and certain dairy products sold in local markets of Qena, Egypt, for the presence of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples of raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt (50 samples each) were subjected first to enrichment in Bolton broth at 42°C for 2 days under a microaerobic condition, subsequently campylobacter blood free selective agar plates were cultured and incubated in the same condition of the broth. Based on the morphological and biochemical themes of the growing colonies, it was further classified into Campylobacter spp. The identified isolates were later affirmed by polymerase chain reaction using primers that were designed to locate hipO genes in C. jejuni and glyA in C. coli. Results: Of the total 150 examined samples of raw milk and soft cheese samples; 37 (24.6%) samples were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni was dominating in this study in 20%, 14%, and 8% of the examined raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt samples, respectively. No sample harbored C. coli. Conclusion: Campylobacter spp. could be detected in 24.6% of the investigated samples. C. jejuni isolated from 14% of the total tested samples, while C. coli could not be detected from the examined samples. Campylobacter spp. is rampant in the areas of poor hygienic conditions making products made from raw milk of public health hazard. PMID:27847427

  17. Hyperspectral Imaging for Detecting Pathogens Grown on Agar Plates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth...

  18. Pathogen Prevalence From Traditional Cage and Free Range Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Overview: A study was conducted to determine if differences in pathogen prevalence occurred between a sister flock of conventional cage and free range laying hens. Both environmental and egg microbiology was monitored throughout 20 – 79 weeks of age. Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria preval...

  19. Multiplex PCR Assay for Identifi cation and Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Maria R; Dobreva, Elina G; Ivanova, Katucha I; Asseva, Galina D; Ivanov, Ivan N; Petrov, Peter K; Velev, Valeri R; Tomova, Ivelina I; Tiholova, Maida M; Kantardjiev, Todor V

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causative agents of gastrointestinal infections in humans. The most frequently isolated strains of this bacterial genus are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. To date, genetic methods for bacterial identification have not been used in Bulgaria. We optimized the multiplex PSR assay to identify Campylobacter spp. and differentiate C. jejuni from C. coli in clinical isolates. We also compared this method with the routinely used biochemical methods. To identify Campylobacter spp. and discriminate C. coli from C. jejuni in clinical isolates using multiplex PCR assay. Between February 2014 and January 2015 we studied 93 stool samples taken from patients with diarrheal syndrome and identified 40 species of Campylobacter spp. in them. The clinical material was cultured in microaerophilic atmosphere, the isolated strains being biochemically diff erentiated (hydrolysis of sodium hippurate for C. jejuni, and hydrolysis of indoxyl acetate for C. coli). DNA was isolated from the strains using QiaAmp MiniKit (QIAGEN, Germany). Twenty strains were tested with multiplex PCR for the presence of these genes: cadF, characteristic for Campylobacter spp., hipO for C. jejuni and asp for C. coli. The biochemical tests identified 16 strains of C. jejuni, 3 strains of C. coli, and 1 strain of C. upsaliensis. After the multiplex PCR assay the capillary gel electrophoresis confirmed 16 strains of C. jejuni, 2 strains of C. coli and 2 strains of Campylobacter spp. - because of the presence of the gene cadF. C. jejuni has the gene hipO, and it is possible that this gene may not be expressed in the biochemical differentiation yielding a negative reaction as a result. In comparison, we can conclude that the genetic differentiation is a more accurate method than the biochemical tests. The multiplex PCR assay is a fast, accurate method for identifi cation of Campylobacter spp. which makes it quite necessary in the clinical diagnostic practice.

  20. Trisodium phosphate and sodium hypochlorite are more effective as antimicrobials against Campylobacter and Salmonella on duck as compared to chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Sarjit, Amreeta; Dykes, Gary A

    2015-06-16

    Little work has been reported on the use of commercial antimicrobials against foodborne pathogens on duck meat. We investigated the effectiveness of trisodium phosphate (TSP) and sodium hypochlorite (SH) as antimicrobial treatments against Campylobacter and Salmonella on duck meat under simulated commercial water chilling conditions. The results were compared to the same treatments on well-studied chicken meat. A six strain Campylobacter or Salmonella cocktail was inoculated (5 ml) at two dilution levels (10(4) and 10(8) cfu/ml) onto 25 g duck or chicken meat with skin and allowed to attach for 10 min. The meat was exposed to three concentrations of pH adjusted TSP (8, 10 and 12% (w/v), pH 11.5) or SH (40, 50 and 60 ppm, pH 5.5) in 30 ml water under simulated spin chiller conditions (4 °C, agitation) for 10 min. In a parallel experiment the meat was placed in the antimicrobial treatments before inoculation and bacterial cocktails were added to the meat after the antimicrobial solution was removed while all other parameters were maintained. Untreated controls and controls using water were included in all experiments. Bacterial numbers were determined on Campylobacter blood-free selective agar and Mueller Hinton agar or xylose deoxycholate agar and tryptone soya agar using the thin agar layer method for Campylobacter and Salmonella, respectively. All TSP concentrations significantly (p<0.05) reduced numbers of Campylobacter (~1.2-6.4 log cfu/cm(2)) and Salmonella (~0.4-6.6 log cfu/cm(2)) on both duck and chicken meat. On duck meat, numbers of Campylobacter were less than the limit of detection at higher concentrations of TSP and numbers of Salmonella were less than the limit of detection at all concentrations of TSP except one. On chicken meat, numbers of Campylobacter and Salmonella were less than the limit of detection only at the lower inoculum level and higher TSP concentrations. By contrast only some of the concentrations of SH significantly (p<0.05) reduced

  1. The impact of biosecurity and partial depopulation on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broiler flocks with differing levels of hygiene and economic performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shaun; Messam, Locksley L. McV.; Meade, Joseph; Gibbons, James; McGill, Kevina; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union (EU), and poultry meat is the primary route for transmission to humans. Material and methods This study examined the impact of partial depopulation (thinning), season, and farm performance (economic, hygiene, and biosecurity) on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broilers over a 13-month period. Ten caecal samples were taken per flock, for a total of 211 flocks from 23 farms during the duration of the study. Campylobacter was isolated and enumerated according to modified published ISO methods for veterinary samples. Biosecurity was evaluated through a questionnaire based on risk factors for Campylobacter identified in previous studies. Hygiene compliance was assessed from audit records taken over the course of 1 year. All information relating to biosecurity and hygiene was obtained directly from the processing company. This was done to ensure farmers were unaware they were being monitored for Campylobacter prevalence and prevent changes to their behaviour. Results and discussion Farms with high performance were found to have significantly lower Campylobacter prevalence at first depopulation compared with low-performance farms across all seasons (P≤0.01). Peak Campylobacter levels were observed during the summer season at first thin in both the high- and low-performance groups. Campylobacter prevalence was found to increase to ≥85% in both high- and low-performance farms across all seasons at final depopulation, suggesting that Campylobacter was introduced during the first depopulation. On low-performance farms, four biosecurity interventions were found to significantly reduce the odds of a flock being Campylobacter positive (physical step-over barrier OR=0.17, house-specific footwear OR=0.13, absence of water body within 0.5 km OR=0.13, two or more broiler houses on a farm OR=0.16), compared with farms without these interventions. For high-performance farms, no

  2. Evaluating best practices for Campylobacter and Salmonella reduction in poultry processing plants.

    PubMed

    Wideman, N; Bailey, M; Bilgili, S F; Thippareddi, H; Wang, L; Bratcher, C; Sanchez-Plata, M; Singh, M

    2016-02-01

    Poultry processing plants in the United States were surveyed on their current Campylobacter and Salmonella control practices. Following surveys, data were collected to develop a baseline for prevalence rates of Salmonella and Campylobacter; then changes in practices were implemented and evaluated for improvements in pathogen control. Surveys were sent to the plant Quality Assurance managers to determine production levels, antimicrobial interventions, and current pathogen testing practices. Initial sampling was performed at 6 plants with similar production volumes, at sites that included carcass samples before any pre-evisceration intervention, after exiting the inside-outside bird washer (IOBW), after exiting the pre-chiller, after exiting the primary chiller, and after exiting any post-chill intervention, as well as a water sample from each scalder, pre-chiller, primary chiller, and post-chill dip tank or finishing chiller. Enumerations and enrichments were performed for Campylobacter and Salmonella. Following the baseline sampling, changes in practices were suggested for each plant and a second sampling was conducted to determine their effectiveness. Results demonstrated that peracetic acid (PAA) was the most effective (P < 0.05) antimicrobial currently in use. The use of a post-chill antimicrobial immersion tank and/or use of a cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) spray cabinet also displayed a further reduction in microbial levels (P < 0.05) when the primary chiller was not sufficient (P > 0.05). Microbial buildup in the immersion tanks demonstrates the need for effective cleaning, sanitation practices, and chiller maintenance to reduce contamination of poultry with Campylobacter and Salmonella. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Closely related Campylobacter jejuni strains from different sources reveal a generalist rather than a specialist lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are human intestinal pathogens of global importance. Zoonotic transmission from livestock animals or animal-derived food is the likely cause for most of these infections. However, little is known about their general and host-specific mechanisms of colonization, or virulence and pathogenicity factors. In certain hosts, Campylobacter species colonize persistently and do not cause disease, while they cause acute intestinal disease in humans. Results Here, we investigate putative host-specificity using phenotypic characterization and genome-wide analysis of genetically closely related C. jejuni strains from different sources. A collection of 473 fresh Campylobacter isolates from Germany was assembled between 2006 and 2010 and characterized using MLST. A subset of closely related C. jejuni strains of the highly prevalent sequence type ST-21 was selected from different hosts and isolation sources. PCR typing of strain-variable genes provided evidence that some genes differed between these strains. Furthermore, phenotypic variation of these strains was tested using the following criteria: metabolic variation, protein expression patterns, and eukaryotic cell interaction. The results demonstrated remarkable phenotypic diversity within the ST-21 group, which however did not correlate with isolation source. Whole genome sequencing was performed for five ST-21 strains from chicken, human, bovine, and food sources, in order to gain insight into ST-21 genome diversity. The comparisons showed extensive genomic diversity, primarily due to recombination and gain of phage-related genes. By contrast, no genomic features associated with isolation source or host were identified. Conclusions The genome information and phenotypic data obtained in vitro and in a chicken infection model provided little evidence of fixed adaptation to a specific host. Instead, the dominant C. jejuni ST-21 appeared to be characterized by phenotypic

  4. Methods for detecting pathogens in the beef food chain: an overview

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The main food-borne pathogens of concern in the beef chain are Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella. Other pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. may also be present and pose contamination concerns in both the cattle production environment and bee...

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter from Retail Meats and Chicken Carcass Rinses: Results of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS): 2002-2006

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background - Campylobacter is an important foodborne pathogen in the United States and serves as a commensal-like bacterium in many animal species. Illness in humans is thought to occur through cross-contamination during preparation of foods, particularly poultry products. The U.S. National Antimi...

  6. Defense and adaptation: the complex inter-relationship between Campylobacter jejuni and mucus.

    PubMed

    Alemka, Abofu; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Bourke, Billy

    2012-01-01

    Mucus colonization is an essential early step toward establishing successful infection and disease by mucosal pathogens. There is an emerging literature implicating specific mucin sub-types and mucin modifications in protecting the host from Campylobacter jejuni infection. However, mucosal pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to breach the mucus layer and C. jejuni in particular appears to harbor specific adaptations to better colonize intestinal mucus. For example, components of mucus are chemotactic for C. jejuni and the rheological properties of mucus promote motility of the organism. Furthermore, recent studies demonstrate that mucins modulate the pathogenicity of C. jejuni in a species-specific manner and likely help determine whether these bacteria become pathogenic (as in humans), or adopt a commensal mode of existence (as in chickens and other animals). This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the complex interplay between C. jejuni and components of the mucus layer.

  7. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Epps, Sharon V. R.; Harvey, Roger B.; Hume, Michael E.; Phillips, Timothy D.; Anderson, Robin C.; Nisbet, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions. PMID:24287853

  8. Invasion Assays and Genomotyping to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Iceland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be essential for Campylobacter spp. infection. Previous invasion studies with intestinal epithelial cells revealed that the ability of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to inva...

  9. Prevalence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Meat in Croatia and Multilocus Sequence Typing of a Small Subset of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Humski, Andrea; Njari, Bela; Ostović, Mario; Duvnjak, Sanja; Cvetnić, Željko

    2016-01-01

    Summary In order to detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., 241 samples of fresh chicken meat, at retail in Croatia, were analysed according to a standard method, followed by biochemical test and molecular polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme analysis for exact species determination. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 73.86%. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were isolated from 53.53 and 15.35% of the samples, respectively. In 4.98% of isolates thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were not determined. The multilocus sequence typing method was used to evaluate genetic diversity of eight Campylobacter jejuni and four Campylobacter coli isolates. To our knowledge, these results of genotyping provided the first data on the presence of sequence types (STs) and clonal complexes (CCs) of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates in Croatia. By applying the multilocus sequence typing, a new allele of tkt gene locus was discovered and marked tkt508. The C. jejuni ST 6182 and C. coli ST 6183 genotypes were described for the first time, and all other identified genotypes were clustered in the previously described sequence types and clonal complexes. These findings provide useful information on the prevalence and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Croatia. PMID:28115906

  10. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health. PMID:24948916

  11. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  12. Selected Pathogens of Concern to Industrial Food Processors: Infectious, Toxigenic, Toxico-Infectious, Selected Emerging Pathogenic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behling, Robert G.; Eifert, Joseph; Erickson, Marilyn C.; Gurtler, Joshua B.; Kornacki, Jeffrey L.; Line, Erick; Radcliff, Roy; Ryser, Elliot T.; Stawick, Bradley; Yan, Zhinong

    This chapter, written by several contributing authors, is devoted to discussing selected microbes of contemporary importance. Microbes from three categories are described by the following: (1) infectious invasive agents like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter; (2) toxigenic pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Clostridium botulinum; and (3) toxico-infectious agents like enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens. In addition, emerging pathogens, like Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii, Arcobacter spp., and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis are also described.

  13. Occurrence of virulence genes among Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from domestic animals and children.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, M; Klawe, J J; Szczepańska, B; Spica, D

    2011-01-01

    The presence of the flaA, cadF, cdtB and iam genes of Campylobacter spp. was determined with the PCR method. The materials to investigate were 56 C. jejuni and 23 C. coli strains isolated from clinical samples (children and domestic animals). It was found that all of the Campylobacter spp. isolates from children with diarrhoea and domestic animals had cadF gene, responsible for adherence. The flaA gene was present in all Campylobacter spp. isolates derived from children and cats. Occurrence of flaA gene was confirmed in 100% of C. jejuni strains obtained from dogs. The high prevalence of the cdtB gene associated with toxin production was observed in this study (100%-Campylobacter spp. isolates obtained from dogs and cats, 97.9%-Campylobacter spp. isolates from children). The isolates showed a wide variation for the presence of iam gene. The lowest prevalence (23.5%) was detected in Campylobacter spp. obtained from dogs. The highest rates of iam detection (91.6%) were revealed in C. coli isolates from children.

  14. Role of Efflux Pumps and Topoisomerase Mutations in Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Beilei; McDermott, Patrick F.; White, David G.; Meng, Jianghong

    2005-01-01

    Point mutations in the topoisomerase (DNA gyrase A) gene are known to be associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter. Recent studies have shown that an efflux pump encoded by cmeABC is also involved in decreased susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones, as well as other antimicrobials. Genome analysis suggests that Campylobacter jejuni contains at least nine other putative efflux pumps. Using insertional inactivation and site-directed mutagenesis, we investigated the potential contributions of these pumps to susceptibilities to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline in C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Insertional inactivation of cmeB resulted in 4- to 256-fold decreases in the MICs of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline, with erythromycin being the most significantly affected. In contrast, inactivation of all other putative efflux pumps had no effect on susceptibility to any of the four antimicrobials tested. Mutation of gyrA at codon 86 (Thr-Ile) caused 128- and 64-fold increases in the MICs of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid, respectively. The replacement of the mutated gyrA with a wild-type gyrA allele resulted in a 32-fold decrease in the ciprofloxacin MIC and no change in the nalidixic acid MIC. Our findings indicate that CmeABC is the only efflux pump among those tested that influences antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter and that a point mutation (Thr-86-Ile) in gyrA directly causes fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter. These two mechanisms work synergistically in acquiring and maintaining fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter species. PMID:16048946

  15. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Boer, Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-09-15

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44-50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermophilic campylobacters in surface waters around Lancaster, UK: negative correlation with Campylobacter infections in the community.

    PubMed

    Jones, K; Betaieb, M; Telford, D R

    1990-11-01

    The incidence of campylobacter enteritis in Lancaster City Health Authority is three times the UK average for similar sizes of population and has marked seasonal peaks in May and June. Environmental monitoring of surface waters around Lancaster showed that thermophilic campylobacters were absent from drinking water from the fells and from the clean upper reaches of the River Conder but were present in the main rivers entering Morecambe Bay, the lower reaches of the River Conder, the Lancaster canal, and seawater from the Lune estuary and Morecambe Bay. All the surface waters tested showed the same seasonality, namely, higher numbers in the winter months and low numbers or none in May, June and July. The absence of thermophilic campylobacters in the summer months may be due to high sunshine levels because experiments on the effects of light showed that campylobacters in sewage effluent and seawater were eliminated within 60 and 30 min of daylight respectively but survived for 24 h in darkness. As the concentrations of campylobacters in surface waters were at their lowest precisely at the time of peak infections in the community it is unlikely that surface waters form Lancaster's reservoir of campylobacter infection for the community.

  17. Travel-associated salmonella and campylobacter gastroenteritis in England: estimation of under-ascertainment through national laboratory surveillance.

    PubMed

    Zenner, Dominik; Gillespie, Iain

    2011-01-01

    Increased international travel raises the importance of accurate surveillance of travel-associated gastroenteric pathogens to improve treatment and the investigation of cross-border outbreaks. This study found that 45% of Salmonella and 17% of Campylobacter infections in England were travel-associated, but only 29 and 3% of travel histories were accurately identified by national laboratory surveillance. More structured data collection forms and staff training may be needed to address this.

  18. Characterization of Campylobacter from resident Canada geese in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, M Elizabeth; Siletzky, Robin M; Gu, Weimin; Degernes, Laurel A; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S; Kathariou, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    Waterfowl are natural reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens, and abundant resident (nonmigratory) Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in urban and suburban environments pose the potential for transmission of Campylobacter through human contact with fecal deposits and contaminated water. In June 2008 and July 2009, we collected 318 fecal samples from resident Canada Geese at 21 locations in and around Greensboro, North Carolina, to test for Campylobacter. All campylobacter species detected were C. jejuni isolates, and prevalences in 2008 and 2009 were 5.0% and 16.0%, respectively. Prevalence of C. jejuni-positive sampling sites was 21% (3/14) and 40% (6/15) in 2008 and 2009, respectively. All C. jejuni isolates were susceptible to a panel of six antimicrobial agents (tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin). We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and fla-typing to identify several strain types among these isolates. Multilocus sequence typing of representative isolates revealed six sequence types, of which two (ST-3708 and ST-4368) were new, two (ST-702 and ST-4080) had been detected previously among C. jejuni from geese, and two (ST-991 and ST-4071) were first reported in C. jejuni from an environmental water source and a human illness, respectively. These results indicate a diverse population of antibiotic-susceptible C. jejuni in resident Canada Geese in and around Greensboro, North Carolina, and suggest a need for additional assessment of the public health risk associated with resident Canada Geese in urban and suburban areas.

  19. Emergence of a Potent Multidrug Efflux Pump Variant That Enhances Campylobacter Resistance to Multiple Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Shen, Zhangqi; Wang, Yang; Deng, Fengru; Liu, Dejun; Naren, Gaowa; Dai, Lei; Su, Chih-Chia; Wang, Bing; Wang, Shaolin; Wu, Congming; Yu, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial antibiotic efflux pumps are key players in antibiotic resistance. Although their role in conferring multidrug resistance is well documented, the emergence of “super” efflux pump variants that enhance bacterial resistance to multiple drugs has not been reported. Here, we describe the emergence of a resistance-enhancing variant (named RE-CmeABC) of the predominant efflux pump CmeABC in Campylobacter, a major zoonotic pathogen whose resistance to antibiotics is considered a serious antibiotic resistance threat in the United States. Compared to the previously characterized CmeABC transporters, RE-CmeABC is much more potent in conferring Campylobacter resistance to antibiotics, which was shown by increased MICs and reduced intracellular accumulation of antibiotics. Structural modeling suggests that sequence variations in the drug-binding pocket of CmeB possibly contribute to the enhanced efflux function. Additionally, RE-CmeABC expands the mutant selection window of ciprofloxacin, enhances the emergence of antibiotic-resistant mutants, and confers exceedingly high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones, an important class of antibiotics for clinical therapy of campylobacteriosis. Furthermore, RE-CmeABC is horizontally transferable, shifts antibiotic MIC distribution among clinical isolates, and is increasingly prevalent in Campylobacter jejuni isolates, suggesting that it confers a fitness advantage under antimicrobial selection. These findings reveal a new mechanism for enhanced multidrug resistance and an effective strategy utilized by bacteria for adaptation to selection from multiple antibiotics. PMID:27651364

  20. Farm and environmental distribution of Campylobacter and Salmonella in broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Thakur, S; Brake, J; Keelara, S; Zou, M; Susick, E

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in broilers and their distribution in the indoor and outdoor farm environment. Nine hundred samples (400 faecal; 300 indoor environment; 200 outdoor environment), were collected from 10 individual broiler houses on 10 farms. Campylobacter jejuni prevalence was significantly higher (P=0.003) in faeces (29.5%; 118/400) than the environment (0.8%; 4/500) in contrast to Salmonella Typhimurium from faecal (8.8%; 35/400) and environmental (8.4%; n=42/500) sources (P=0.217). S. Typhimurium predominantly exhibited antimicrobial resistance (AR) to streptomycin (46%) and tetracycline (31.5%). C. jejuni isolates exhibited AR only to tetracycline (55.5%). The PFGE profile revealed 100% similarity between S. Typhimurium isolates from faecal and environmental sources. No relationship was detected between C. jejuni isolates. The low prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in the outdoor environment indicates that it may not be a significant reservoir for transmission of these pathogens on broiler farms.

  1. Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Detection of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, F.; Mercado, E. H.; Lluque, A.; Ruiz, J.; Cleary, T. G.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea can be classified based on its clinical presentation as noninflammatory or inflammatory disease. In developing countries, among inflammatory diarrhea cases, Shigella is the most common cause, followed by Campylobacter and Salmonella. Because the time frame in which treatment choices must be made is short and conventional stool cultures lack good sensitivity, there is a need for a rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive detection technique. The purpose of our study was to develop a multiplex real-time PCR procedure to simultaneously identify Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp. Primers were designed to amplify the invA, ipaH, and 16S rRNA genes simultaneously in a single reaction to detect Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter, respectively. Using this approach, we correctly identified 102 of 103 strains of the targeted enteropathogens and 34 of 34 other pathogens. The melting temperatures were 82.96 ± 0.05°C for invA, 85.56 ± 0.28°C for ipaH, and 89.21 ± 0.24°C for 16S rRNA. The limit of accurate quantification for the assay in stool samples was 104 CFU g−1; however, the limit of detection was 103 CFU g−1. This assay is a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and reliable system for the practical detection of these three enteropathogens in clinical specimens. PMID:23761159

  2. L-fucose influences chemotaxis and biofilm formation in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Ritika; Nothaft, Harald; Garber, Jolene; Xin Kin, Lin; Stahl, Martin; Flint, Annika; van Vliet, Arnoud H M; Stintzi, Alain; Szymanski, Christine M

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are zoonotic pathogens once considered asaccharolytic, but are now known to encode pathways for glucose and fucose uptake/metabolism. For C. jejuni, strains with the fuc locus possess a competitive advantage in animal colonization models. We demonstrate that this locus is present in > 50% of genome-sequenced strains and is prevalent in livestock-associated isolates of both species. To better understand how these campylobacters sense nutrient availability, we examined biofilm formation and chemotaxis to fucose. C. jejuni NCTC11168 forms less biofilms in the presence of fucose, although its fucose permease mutant (fucP) shows no change. In a newly developed chemotaxis assay, both wild-type and the fucP mutant are chemotactic towards fucose. C. jejuni 81-176 naturally lacks the fuc locus and is unable to swim towards fucose. Transfer of the NCTC11168 locus into 81-176 activated fucose uptake and chemotaxis. Fucose chemotaxis also correlated with possession of the pathway for C. jejuni RM1221 (fuc+) and 81116 (fuc-). Systematic mutation of the NCTC11168 locus revealed that Cj0485 is necessary for fucose metabolism and chemotaxis. This study suggests that components for fucose chemotaxis are encoded within the fuc locus, but downstream signals only in fuc + strains, are involved in coordinating fucose availability with biofilm development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Genomic variations leading to alterations in cell morphology of Campylobacter spp

    PubMed Central

    Esson, Diane; Mather, Alison E.; Scanlan, Eoin; Gupta, Srishti; de Vries, Stefan P. W.; Bailey, David; Harris, Simon R.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Méric, Guillaume; Berry, Sophia K.; Mastroeni, Pietro; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Christie, Graham; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Parkhill, Julian; Maskell, Duncan J.; Grant, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease, is normally helical. However, it can also adopt straight rod, elongated helical and coccoid forms. Studying how helical morphology is generated, and how it switches between its different forms, is an important objective for understanding this pathogen. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic factors involved in generating the helical shape of Campylobacter. A C. jejuni transposon (Tn) mutant library was screened for non-helical mutants with inconsistent results. Whole genome sequence variation and morphological trends within this Tn library, and in various C. jejuni wild type strains, were compared and correlated to detect genomic elements associated with helical and rod morphologies. All rod-shaped C. jejuni Tn mutants and all rod-shaped laboratory, clinical and environmental C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli contained genetic changes within the pgp1 or pgp2 genes, which encode peptidoglycan modifying enzymes. We therefore confirm the importance of Pgp1 and Pgp2 in the maintenance of helical shape and extended this to a wide range of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. Genome sequence analysis revealed variation in the sequence and length of homopolymeric tracts found within these genes, providing a potential mechanism of phase variation of cell shape. PMID:27910897

  4. Variation in Campylobacter jejuni culturability in presence of Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Girbau, Cecilia; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Liendo, Aitor Rizo; Bethencourt Estrella, Carlos J; García Méndez, Ana B; Chiboub, Olfa; Hajaji, Soumaya; Fernández-Astorga, Aurora; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2017-09-12

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are protozoa that are widely distributed in the environment mainly in water and soil related habitats. These amoebae have also been reported to be associated with some bacterial pathogens for humans such as Campylobacter spp. The species C. jejuni is the causative agent of about 90% of human campylobacteriosis cases worldwide and this disease may even end up in severe autoimmune sequelae as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In this study, the interactions between the strain Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff and Campylobacter jejuni was investigated. Campylobacter jejuni was coincubated with Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff trophozoites at different temperatures, in order to evaluate the C. jejuni ability to grow in presence A. castellanii culture and Acanthamoeba Conditioned Medium (ACM). C. jejuni was coincubated with A. castellanii axenic culture at different temperatures in aerobic conditions. Our results revealed that bacteria were still cultivable (Blood Agar medium, at 37 °C, in microaerophilic atmosphere) after a 14 days C. jejuni - A. castellanii coculture, comparing with C. jejuni alone, which was only cultivable for 24 h. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Application of Campylobacter molecular classification and typing techniques in veterinary medicine: old-established methods and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Laturnus, Claudia; Wieler, Lothar H

    2007-01-01

    In this review the application and usefulness of Campylobacter genotypical classification and typing in veterinary medicine will be discussed.While there is a large area of overlapping applications between the veterinary and the medical field, several differences exist, as the spectrum of veterinary pathogens is different from the human and contaminated food of healthy animal origin may cause disease in man. In general, genotyping in the veterinary field can be applied in three different areas: (a) purely diagnostic purposes for classification of Campylobacter species and subspecies, (b) typing methods useful for monitoring or surveillance of animals as well as food products of animal origin, and (c) typing methods that can be applied during outbreaks and for source tracing. In addition, typing methods applied in areas (b) and (c) should be distinguished in regard to local short-term and global long-term epidemiology, respectively. While a whole plethora of discriminative typing methods are available, classification tools of certain species and subspecies are still missing. Perspectively, as the genomes of many relevant Campylobacter species have now been sequenced, this will help to identify several species specific loci, the products of which should be available to develop easy and fast applicable diagnostic tools. Global cooperation, sharing of strains and databases should close the currently existing gaps in Campylobacter identification tools.

  6. Influence of temperature, oxygen and bacterial strain identity on the association of Campylobacter jejuni with Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Baré, Julie; Sabbe, Koen; Huws, Sharon; Vercauteren, Dries; Braeckmans, Kevin; van Gremberghe, Ineke; Favoreel, Herman; Houf, Kurt

    2010-11-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported foodborne disease in the industrialized world, mainly through consumption of contaminated chicken meat. To date, no information is available on the primary infection sources of poultry. In this study, the ability of five Campylobacter jejuni strains with different invasion potential towards Caco-2 cells to survive and replicate in the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii was tested under simulated in situ conditions (i.e. chicken broiler houses). Results indicate that environmental conditions play a crucial role in C. jejuni-A. castellanii interactions. Co-culture in general did not result in an increase of either bacteria or amoebae. However, co-culture with Acanthamoeba did result in a delayed decline and an increased long-term survival of Campylobacter. Bacterial strain-specific effects were observed, with higher survival rates for low-invasive strains. The presence of C. jejuni in general did not affect A. castellanii viability, except at 37 °C under microaerobic conditions, where the presence of the reference and low-invasive Campylobacter strains resulted in a significant decline in amoebal viability. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that intra-amoebal campylobacters were not always colocated with acidic organelles, suggesting potential bacterial interference with digestive processes. As Acanthamoeba enhances the persistence of C. jejuni, the presence of the amoeba in broiler house environments may have important implications for the ecology and epidemiology of this food pathogen.

  7. Further characterization and independent validation of a DNA aptamer-quantum dot-based magnetic sandwich assay for Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Bruno, John G; Sivils, Jeffrey C

    2017-03-24

    Previously reported DNA aptamers developed against surface proteins extracted from Campylobacter jejuni were further characterized by aptamer-based Western blotting and shown to bind epitopes on proteins weighing ~16 and 60 kD from reduced C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli lysates. Proteins of these approximate weights have also been identified in traditional antibody-based Western blots of Campylobacter spp. Specificity of the capture and reporter aptamers from the previous report was further validated by aptamer-based ELISA-like (ELASA) colorimetric microplate assay. Finally, the limit of detection of the previously reported plastic-adherent aptamer-magnetic bead and aptamer-quantum dot sandwich assay (PASA) was validated by an independent food safety testing laboratory to lie between 5 and 10 C. jejuni cells per milliliter in phosphate buffered saline and repeatedly frozen and thawed chicken rinsate. Such ultrasensitive and rapid (30 min) aptamer-based assays could provide alternative or additional screening tools to enhance food safety testing for Campylobacter and other foodborne pathogens.

  8. Prevalence of Virulence/Stress Genes in Campylobacter jejuni from Chicken Meat Sold in Qatari Retail Outlets.

    PubMed

    Abu-Madi, Marawan; Behnke, Jerzy M; Sharma, Aarti; Bearden, Rebecca; Al-Banna, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat from the shelves of supermarkets in Qatar was tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and the presence of five virulence genes (htrB, cdtB, clpP, cadF and ciaB) was assessed in isolates. Forty eight percent of the chickens provided for supermarkets by Saudi (53%) and Qatari (45.9%) producers were found to be contaminated and the most important factor affecting the overall prevalence of contaminated chickens was the store from which chicken samples originated. Variation in prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken meat from different stores was evident even when the same producer supplied the three stores in our survey. Differences in the prevalence and in the combinations of virulence genes in isolates that can and cannot grow in a classic maintenance medium (Karmali) were identified, providing a starting point for linking presence/absence of particular virulence genes with actual in vivo virulence and pathogenicity. Because of the relatively low infective doses of Campylobacter that are required to initiate infection in humans, it will be important to explore further the relationships we identified between certain Campylobacter virulence genes and their capacity for survival in poultry meat, and hence their contribution to the incidence of campylobacteriosis.

  9. Enteric pathogen sampling of tourist restaurants in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Teague, Nathan S; Srijan, Apichai; Wongstitwilairoong, Boonchai; Poramathikul, Kamonporn; Champathai, Thanaporn; Ruksasiri, Supaporn; Pavlin, Julie; Mason, Carl J

    2010-01-01

    Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is the most prevalent disorder affecting travelers to developing countries. Thailand is considered "moderately risky" for TD acquisition, but the risk by city visited or behavior of the visitor has yet to be definitely defined. Restaurant eating is consistently associated with the acquisition of diarrhea while traveling, and pathogen-free meals serve as a marker of public health success. This study seeks to ascertain a traveler's risk of exposure to certain bacterial gastric pathogens while eating at Bangkok restaurants recommended in popular tourist guide books. A cross-sectional tourist restaurant survey was conducted. Thirty-five restaurants recommended in the two top selling Bangkok guidebooks on Amazon.com were sampled for bacterial pathogens known to cause diarrhea in Thailand, namely Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Arcobacter (a Campylobacter-like organism). A total of 70 samples from two meals at each restaurant were obtained. Suspected bacterial pathogens were isolated by differential culture and tested for antibiotic resistance. Salmonella group E was isolated from one meal (2%), and Arcobacter butzleri from nine meals (13%). Campylobacter spp. were not found. The large majority of A butzleri isolates were resistant to azithromycin but susceptible to ciprofloxacin and an aminoglycoside. A traveler's risk of exposure to established bacterial pathogens, Salmonella and Campylobacter, by eating in recommended restaurants is small. Arcobacter butzleri exposure risk is 13% per meal eaten, and rises to 75% when 10 meals are eaten. All restaurants, regardless of price, appear to be equally "risky." Current evidence points to Arcobacter being pathogenic in humans; however, further research is needed to conclusively define pathogenicity. Routine prophylaxis for diarrhea is not recommended; however, travelers should be aware of the risk and come prepared with adequate and appropriate self-treatment medications.

  10. Campylobacter can remain in various organs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Day old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and inoculated either orally or intracloacally with a characterized strain of Campylobacter jejuni. After 1 hr, 1day and 1wk post inoculation, the thymus, spleen, liver/gallbladder, bursa of Fabricius and ceca were aseptically removed ...

  11. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, metabolism, pathogenesis and resorvoirs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illness worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them...

  12. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms.

    PubMed

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Rahbek, Carsten; Madsen, Jesper Johannes; Wainø, Michael; Chriél, Mariann; Nordentoft, Steen; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Madsen, Mogens

    2016-02-03

    Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp. The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecological guild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured for Campylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119. The highest Campylobacter spp. prevalence was seen in 110 out of 178 thrushes (61.8 %), of which the majority were Common Blackbird (Turdus merula), and in 131 out of 616 sparrows (21.3 %), a guild made up of House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) and Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus). In general, birds feeding on a diet of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin, foraging on the ground and vegetation in close proximity to livestock stables were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. in both summer (P < 0.001) and winter (P < 0.001) than birds foraging further away from the farm or in the air. Age, fat score, gender, and migration range were not found to be associated with Campylobacter spp. carriage. A correlation was found between the prevalence (%) of C. jejuni in wild birds and the proportions (%) of C. jejuni in both manure on cattle farms (R(2) = 0.92) and poultry farms (R(2) = 0.54), and between the prevalence (%) of C. coli in wild birds and the proportions (%) of C. coli in manure on pig farms (R(2) = 0.62). The ecological guild of wild birds influences the prevalence of

  13. Heme Utilization in Campylobacter jejuni▿

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, Kristian A.; Rock, Jonathan D.; Li, Ying; Ketley, Julian M.

    2006-01-01

    A putative iron- and Fur-regulated hemin uptake gene cluster, composed of the transport genes chuABCD and a putative heme oxygenase gene (Cj1613c), has been identified in Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168. Mutation of chuA or Cj1613c leads to an inability to grow in the presence of hemin or hemoglobin as