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Sample records for pathological gambling five-year

  1. Pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG.

  2. [Pathological gambling: literature revue].

    PubMed

    Filteau, M J; Baruch, P; Vincent, P

    1992-03-01

    This paper summarizes the current literature on pathological gambling. Interest in gambling has been present in every society but treated as an object of sociopolitical or literary interest. It is only from the beginning of this century that psychiatry began to look at pathological gambling, first with Freud and his writing on Dostoïevsky then with other theories like the learning theory, studies on substance dependence, the links with affective syndromes and the psychobiological studies. These studies are presented and discussed. Finally, the authors offer some guidelines for an approach to a pathological gambler.

  3. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    PubMed

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be

  4. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  5. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  6. The neurobiology of pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Potenza, M N

    2001-07-01

    Despite relatively high prevalence rates and significant morbidity and mortality associated with pathological gambling (PG), our understanding of the neurobiological basis of PG lags in comparison to that for other psychiatric illnesses of comparable magnitude. An improved understanding of the neurobiology of PG would facilitate targeted investigations into more effective treatments. Emerging data suggest shared neurobiological features determine in part pathological gambling and substance use disorders. These findings both challenge current conceptualizations of addictions and provide a substantial basis of knowledge on which to design investigations into the understanding and treatment of pathological gambling. The findings that substance use disorders and the behavioral "addiction" of PG share common causative features raise the question as to what extent other compulsive disorders (eg, compulsive shopping, compulsive sexual behaviors, compulsive computer use) might be biologically related.

  7. [Treatment prevalence in pathological gambling].

    PubMed

    Queri, S; Erbas, B; Soyka, M

    2007-08-01

    Based on American studies lifetime prevalence of 'Pathological Gambling' (ICD-10, F 63.0) in Germany can be estimated at 0.5 %. That means about 400,000 gamblers requiring treatment. Epidemiological studies showed that only a little proportion is actually seeking treatment. Reliable knowledge about treatment prevalence does not exist for Germany. The study at hand using secondary data was performed to validate the estimation of the 'Deutsche Suchthilfestatistik' regarding inpatient and outpatient treatment prevalence in 'Pathological Gambling' with data from service providers (cost unit). The analysis proves the estimation of the German Addiction Statistics ('Deutsche Suchthilfestatistik') that the inpatient treatment prevalence has considerably risen. In spite of the consideration that treatment of pathological gambling is not limited to specialized hospitals there is still a considerable gap between estimated prevalence and treatment prevalence.

  8. Pathological gambling in a psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Aragay, Núria; Roca, Alba; Garcia, Berta; Marqueta, Cristina; Guijarro, Silvina; Delgado, Luís; Garolera, Maite; Alberni, Joan; Vallès, Vicenç

    2012-01-01

    This study determines the prevalence of gambling difficulties in a consecutive sample of psychiatric inpatients and compares it with a nonpsychiatric inpatient sample. In addition, the gambling prevalence among all psychiatric disorders is analyzed. An observational study was conducted in psychiatric patients and sex- and age-matched nonpsychiatric patients. The psychiatric group (n = 100) included all consecutive patients admitted to the psychiatric unit of our hospital. The nonpsychiatric group (n = 100) included psychiatrically healthy inpatients from any other hospital unit. The National Opinion Research Center Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Screen for Gambling Problems was used to screen for gambling behavior. Gambling difficulties were experienced by 3% (2% pathological gambling and 1% problem gambling) of nonpsychiatric inpatients and 9% (8% pathological gambling and 1% problem gambling) of psychiatric inpatients, including 6 with psychotic disorders, 1 with mood disorder, 1 with adjustment disorder, and 1 with eating disorder. There were no statistical differences in gambling prevalence between groups. In terms of comorbidity, patients with psychotic disorder had a higher prevalence of gambling problems than other psychiatric disorders (P = .045). A higher prevalence of gambling disorders was found in psychiatric inpatients than in nonpsychiatric inpatients. It may be advisable for therapists to routinely assess for gambling difficulties as part of the psychiatric evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacological treatments in pathological gambling

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behaviour. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean dose of medication administered was documented in an effort to determine a preferred medication choice in this population. A variety of medication classes have been examined in the treatment of PG with varying results. Antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizers have demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonists and glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behaviour. Given that several studies have demonstrated their efficacy in treating the symptoms associated with PG, opioid antagonists should be considered the first line treatment for PG at this time. Most published studies, however, have employed relatively small sample sizes, are of limited duration and involve possibly non-representative clinical groups (e.g. those without co-occurring psychiatric disorders). Response measures have varied across studies. Heterogeneity of PG treatment samples may also complicate identification of effective treatments. Identification of factors related to treatment response will help inform future studies and advance treatment strategies for PG. PMID:22979951

  10. Pharmacological treatments in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2014-02-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behaviour. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean dose of medication administered was documented in an effort to determine a preferred medication choice in this population. A variety of medication classes have been examined in the treatment of PG with varying results. Antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizers have demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonists and glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behaviour. Given that several studies have demonstrated their efficacy in treating the symptoms associated with PG, opioid antagonists should be considered the first line treatment for PG at this time. Most published studies, however, have employed relatively small sample sizes, are of limited duration and involve possibly non-representative clinical groups (e.g. those without co-occurring psychiatric disorders). Response measures have varied across studies. Heterogeneity of PG treatment samples may also complicate identification of effective treatments. Identification of factors related to treatment response will help inform future studies and advance treatment strategies for PG. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Evaluation and treatment of pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    González-Ibáñez, Angels; Rosel, Pilar; Moreno, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article was to describe a model for evaluating and implementing cognitive-behavioral treatment for pathological gambling. The model takes into account the fact that pathological gamblers form a heterogeneous group with varied biopsychosocial characteristics.

  12. Egocentric Social Network Analysis of Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Matthew K.; Clifton, Allan D.; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Goodie, Adam S.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To apply social network analysis (SNA) to investigate whether frequency and severity of gambling problems were associated with different network characteristics among friends, family, and co-workers. is an innovative way to look at relationships among individuals; the current study was the first to our knowledge to apply SNA to gambling behaviors. Design Egocentric social network analysis was used to formally characterize the relationships between social network characteristics and gambling pathology. Setting Laboratory-based questionnaire and interview administration. Participants Forty frequent gamblers (22 non-pathological gamblers, 18 pathological gamblers) were recruited from the community. Findings The SNA revealed significant social network compositional differences between the two groups: pathological gamblers (PGs) had more gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks than did nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). PGs had more individuals in their network with whom they personally gambled, smoked, and drank with than those with who were NPG. Network ties were closer to individuals in their networks who gambled, smoked, and drank more frequently. Associations between gambling severity and structural network characteristics were not significant. Conclusions Pathological gambling is associated with compositional but not structural differences in social networks. Pathological gamblers differ from non-pathological gamblers in the number of gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks. Homophily within the networks also indicates that gamblers tend to be closer with other gamblers. This homophily may serve to reinforce addictive behaviors, and may suggest avenues for future study or intervention. PMID:23072641

  13. Pathological Gambling: Neuropsychopharmacology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Scott A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.2–2% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best. PMID:24349964

  14. Treatment of pathological gambling - integrative systemic model.

    PubMed

    Mladenović, Ivica; Lažetić, Goran; Lečić-Toševski, Dušica; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Pathological gambling was classified under impulse control disorders within the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) (WHO 1992), but the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-V), (APA 2013), has recognized pathological gambling as a first disorder within a new diagnostic category of behavioral addictions - Gambling disorder. Pathological gambling is a disorder in progression, and we hope that our experience in the treatment of pathological gambling in the Daily Hospital for Addictions at The Institute of Mental Health, through the original "Integrative - systemic model" would be of use to colleagues, dealing with this pathology. This model of treatment of pathological gambling is based on multi-systemic approach and it primarily represents an integration of family and cognitive-behavioral therapy, with traces of psychodynamic, existential and pharmacotherapy. The model is based on the book "Pathological gambling - with self-help manual" by Dr Mladenovic and Dr Lazetic, and has been designed in the form of a program that lasts 10 weeks in the intensive phase, and then continues for two years in the form of "extended treatment" ("After care"). The intensive phase is divided into three segments: educational, insight with initial changes and analysis of the achieved changes with the definition of plans and areas that need to be addressed in the extended treatment. "Extended treatment" lasts for two years in the form of group therapy, during which there is a second order change of the identified patient, but also of other family members. Pathological gambling has been treated in the form of systemic-family therapy for more than 10 years at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH), in Belgrade. For second year in a row the treatment is carried out by the modern "Integrative-systemic model". If abstinence from gambling witihin the period of one year after completion of the intensive phase of treatment is taken as the main criterion of

  15. Psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling.

    PubMed

    Cowlishaw, Sean; Merkouris, Stephanie; Dowling, Nicki; Anderson, Christopher; Jackson, Alun; Thomas, Shane

    2012-11-14

    Various psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling have been evaluated in randomised trials. A synthesis of best-quality evidence is required. The objective was to synthesise evidence from randomised trials of psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling (cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT), motivational interviewing therapy, integrative therapy, other psychological therapy), in order to indicate the efficacy of therapies and durability of therapy effects, relative to control conditions. We conducted a search of the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR), which includes relevant randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) (all years), EMBASE (1974 -), MEDLINE (1950 -) and PsycINFO (1967 -). We also carried out complementary searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, LILACS and CENTRAL for studies published between January 1980 and October 2011. We examined the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov and also conducted manual searches of selected journals and reference lists of included studies. Included studies were clinical trials using random allocation to groups, considering pathological or problem gamblers, and evaluating a psychological therapy for pathological or problem gambling. Control conditions included 'no treatment' controls, referral to Gamblers Anonymous and non-specific treatment component controls. We systematically extracted data on the characteristics and results of studies. Primary outcomes were measures of gambling symptom severity, financial loss from gambling and frequency of gambling. Secondary outcomes were occurrence of pathological gambling diagnoses and depression and anxiety symptoms. Treatment effects were defined by comparisons between therapy and control conditions at post-treatment assessments (conducted from 0 to 3 months

  16. Pathological Gambling and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wareham, Justin D.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) has been considered as a behavioral addiction having similarities with substance use disorders (SUDs). Shared features exist in diagnostic, clinical, physiological, and behavioral domains. Current conceptualizations of addiction, as well as experimental studies of PG and SUDs, are reviewed in order to provide a perspective on the areas of convergence between addictive behaviors in PG and SUDs. PMID:20575651

  17. A case of pathological gambling--its features and mangement.

    PubMed

    Lim, K D

    2001-05-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) represents the end spectrum of gambling behaviours. It is characterised by constantly recurring gambling behaviour which is maladaptive. This case illustrates how an Asian woman pathological gambler progresses through the different stages of development of the gambling habit, and how a multi-modal treatment approach has helped her regain psychosocial function. In addition, the maintenance factors, typical and atypical associated features, and difficulties in the management of such a case are highlighted.

  18. Pathological Gambling: Biological and Clinical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Topf, Jocelyn L.; Yip, Sarah W.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is categorized as an impulse control disorder (ICD). Phenomenological, neurobiological and pharmacological data suggest similarities in the pathophysiologies of substance use disorders (SUDs) and PG. Both behavioral and pharmacological approaches, including those that have been empirically validated for SUDs, have shown promise in the treatment of PG. Findings from biological studies of PG are reviewed, and treatment approaches based on controlled studies are summarized. PMID:20161094

  19. Clinical and pathological features of five-year survivors after pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kenjiro; Amano, Ryosuke; Nakata, Bunzo; Yamazoe, Sadaaki; Hirata, Keiichiro; Murata, Akihiro; Miura, Kotaro; Nishio, Kohei; Hirakawa, Toshiki; Ohira, Masaichi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2014-11-27

    Clinical factors determining short-term survival after pancreatectomy have been well studied, but factors predicting long-term survival with curative resection are poorly understood in pancreatic carcinoma. Our objective was to identify clinical and pathological features of five-year disease-free survivors after surgical resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The clinical and pathological data from 147 patients who underwent a potentially curative resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma at our institution between 1988 and 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Of 147 patients, 18 survived for more than five years after surgery without disease recurrence. A univariate analyses demonstrated that: two or fewer lymph node metastases (P=0.014), a preoperative serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) level of 40 U/mL or less (P=0.0018), an absence of intrapancreatic nerve invasion (P=0.028), and undergoing an R0 resection (P=0.011) were significantly associated with five-year survival. A logistic regression model identified the following independent cancer-related predictors of five-year survivors: having two or fewer lymph node metastases (odds ratio (OR): 6.02; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08 to 112.98; P=0.0385), a preoperative serum CA19-9 level of 40 U/mL or less (OR: 5.02; 95% CI: 1.68 to 16.48; P=0.0036), and undergoing an R0 resection (OR: 3.63; 95% CI: 1.12 to 14.28; P=0.0316). We conclude that number of lymph node metastases being two or less, a preoperative serum CA19-9 level of 40 U/mL or less, and undergoing an R0 resection may be independent predictive factors to identify actual five-year survivors after pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  20. Pathological gambling: understanding relapses and dropouts.

    PubMed

    Aragay, Núria; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Ramos-Grille, Irene; Cardona, Sara; Garrido, Gemma; Anisul Islam, Mohammed; Menchón, José M; Vallès, Vicenç

    2015-02-01

    There is little available information on the factors that influence relapses and dropouts during therapy for pathological gambling (PG). The aim of this study was to determine socio-demographic, clinical, personality, and psychopathological predictors of relapse and dropout in a sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. A total of 566 consecutive outpatients diagnosed with PG according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were included. All patients underwent an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment program. We analyzed predictors of relapse during 6months of treatment and during the subsequent 6months of follow-up, and predictors of dropout over the entire therapeutic program. Eighty patients (14.1%) experienced at least one relapse during the entire follow-up of the study: 50 (8.8%) within the treatment period and 12 (2.1%) during the subsequent 6-month follow-up period. The main predictors of relapse were single marital status, spending less than 100euros/week on gambling, active gambling behavior at treatment inclusion, and high scores on the TCI-R Harm Avoidance personality dimension. One hundred fifty-seven patients (27.8%) missed 3 or more therapeutic sessions over the entire therapeutic program. The main predictors of dropout were single marital status, younger age, and high scores on the TCI-R Novelty Seeking personality dimension. The presence of these factors at inclusion should be taken into account by physicians dealing with PG patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Is pathological gambling moderated by age?

    PubMed

    Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Stinchfield, Randy; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Fröberg, Frida; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Pérez-Serrano, Miriam; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2014-06-01

    The age of a patient is a strong moderator of both the course and the evolution of disorders/diseases. However, the effects of current age in pathological gambling (PG) have rarely been examined. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating effects of the patients' current age in relation to personality traits and clinical outcomes of PG. A total sample of 2,309 treatment-seeking patients for PG, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study and were assessed with the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pathological Gambling according to DSM-IV criteria, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom Checklist, the Temperament and Character Inventory-R, and other clinical and psychopathological measures. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed linear trends in the relationship between age and PG: the older the patient, the more comorbid health problems were visible. The presence of additional quadratic trends also suggests that age plays a significant role in moderating the possibility of existing PG problems and general psychopathology. No interaction term was found between age and sex, but it was present for age and some personality traits: self-transcendence and reward dependence (these two traits were only relevant to the level of impairment due to PG at specific ages). This study suggests that the patients' age influences psychopathological and clinical aspects associated to PG. Intervention in the earliest manifestations of this complex problem is essential in order to better address the need of successful treatment planning.

  2. The Role of Metacognition in Pathological Gambling: A Mediation Model.

    PubMed

    Mansueto, Giovanni; Pennelli, Michele; De Palo, Valeria; Monacis, Lucia; Sinatra, Maria; De Caro, Maria Fara

    2016-03-01

    Pathological gambling involves multitudinous costs related to financial, legal, and public health care aspects, as well as to specific psychological disorders. Despite the overall evidence suggesting that comorbid disorders represent a risk factor for pathological gambling, there is scant evidence on the appropriate treatments for gamblers with such disorders. In this context, metacognitive therapy is an interesting approach because it considers psychological disorders as a result of the activation of perseverative cognitive processes and attentional strategies in response to inner events. Several studies report that metacognition is associated with different psychological problems. This study investigated the relationship among comorbid disorders, metacognition, and pathological gambling. 69 pathological gamblers at the first hospital admission and 58 controls drawn from general population (matched for age, gender, education) completed a battery of self report instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-R, Metacognition Questionnaire 30, South Oaks Gambling Scale. Compared to controls, pathological gamblers showed higher level of comorbid symptomatology and metacognition. Correlation analyses showed that: comorbid symptomatology and metacognition were positively and significantly correlated with pathological gambling; metacognition was positively and significantly associated with comorbid symptomatology. Mediation analysis indicated that dysfunctional metacognitive strategies could have an indirect effect on pathological gambling mediated by concurrent psychological disorders. These findings provide some implications for gambling treatment programs: pathological gamblers should be screened for psychiatric disorders, and metacognitive therapy could be considered a correct treatment of pathological gamblers. Metacognitive therapy might lead to the reduction of the pathological gambling by the diminishing of the concurrent psychological disorders.

  3. Should pathological gambling be considered an addictive disorder?

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Avasthi, Ajit; Benegal, Vivek

    2012-09-01

    Although pathological gambling is a relatively common disorder, there are only limited data available about the validity of its diagnosis as an impulse control disorder. Interestingly, there is no single conceptual widely accepted model that adequately accounts for the multiple biological, psychological and ecological variables contributing to the development of pathological gambling. In this paper, the authors demonstrate aspects of addictive behavior of pathological gambling. It is suggested that despite conceptual difficulties associated with the variable of self-control, contemporary research into the addictive behavior of gambling has clearly demonstrated its closeness to addictions as compared to impulse control disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. To gamble or not to gamble: at risk for craving and relapse--learned motivated attention in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Wölfling, Klaus; Mörsen, Chantal P; Duven, Eva; Albrecht, Ulrike; Grüsser, Sabine M; Flor, Herta

    2011-05-01

    In recent research similarities between pathological gambling and drug addiction have been identified, suggesting excessive gambling to constitute an addiction. So far, we have insufficient knowledge concerning the psychophysiological mechanisms underlying this kind of non-substance-related addiction. The objective of the study was to investigate emotional processing of gambling-relevant and -irrelevant stimuli in pathological gamblers and non-gambling controls using an EEG cue-reactivity paradigm. Whereas gambling-irrelevant stimuli were processed similarly in non-gambling controls (HC) and pathological gamblers (PG), PG showed significantly stronger gambling-relevant stimulus-induced psychophysiological cue-reactivity (larger gambling stimulus-induced late positive potential, LPP, higher arousal and more positively toned valence ratings as well as higher stimulus-induced craving for gambling cues compared to HC--but not the expectable increase of general craving over time and after stimulus presentation). Our findings suggest enhanced cue-reactivity in pathological gamblers indicative of learned motivated attention that may induce subjective craving and relapse.

  5. [Meta-analysis of pathological gambling 1997-2007].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Molina, Yaromir

    2008-01-01

    Determining the prevalence of pathological gambling related to variables such as age and sex; furthermore, identifying the most current tools used for measuring it and the kind of gaming associated with this type of obsessive behavior. A meta-analysis of studies concerning pathological gambling published between 1997 and 2007 was carried out. Inclusion criteria for papers consisted of having a probabilistic sample, indicating the tool used for measuring it and presenting the prevalence rate. It was observed that pathological gambling affects men more than women; furthermore, there are differences amongst adults and adolescents related to this type of behaviour, the latter group having the higher prevalence rate. Video lottery terminals are the most frequently occurring type of game associated with pathological gambling. Pathological gambling deserves more attention by public health managers. Prevalence studies help to understand it better.

  6. Reviewing two types of addiction - pathological gambling and substance use.

    PubMed

    Jazaeri, Seyed Amir; Habil, Mohammad Hussain Bin

    2012-01-01

    Gambling, including pathological gambling and problem gambling, has received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world. Gambling disorders affect 0.2-5.3% of adults worldwide, although measurement and prevalence varies according to the screening instruments and methods used, and availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favorably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioral and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported. Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. This article reviews definition, causes and associated features with substance abuse, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches.

  7. Pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease: subthalamic oscillations during economics decisions.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Manuela; Fumagalli, Manuela; Giannicola, Gaia; Marceglia, Sara; Lucchiari, Claudio; Servello, Domenico; Franzini, Angelo; Pacchetti, Claudio; Romito, Luigi; Albanese, Alberto; Porta, Mauro; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Priori, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Pathological gambling develops in up to 8% of patients with Parkinson's disease. Although the pathophysiology of gambling remains unclear, several findings argue for a dysfunction in the basal ganglia circuits. To clarify the role of the subthalamic nucleus in pathological gambling, we studied its activity during economics decisions. We analyzed local field potentials recorded from deep brain stimulation electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus while parkinsonian patients with (n = 8) and without (n = 9) pathological gambling engaged in an economics decision-making task comprising conflictual trials (involving possible risk-taking) and non conflictual trials. In all parkinsonian patients, subthalamic low frequencies (2-12 Hz) increased during economics decisions. Whereas, in patients without gambling, low-frequency oscillations exhibited a similar pattern during conflictual and non conflictual stimuli, in those with gambling, low-frequency activity increased significantly more during conflictual than during non conflictual stimuli. The specific low-frequency oscillatory pattern recorded in patients with Parkinson's disease who gamble could reflect a subthalamic dysfunction that makes their decisional threshold highly sensitive to risky options. When parkinsonian patients process stimuli related to an economics task, low-frequency subthalamic activity increases. This task-related change suggests that the cognitive-affective system that drives economics decisional processes includes the subthalamic nucleus. The specific subthalamic neuronal activity during conflictual decisions in patients with pathological gambling supports the idea that the subthalamic nucleus is involved in behavioral strategies and in the pathophysiology of gambling. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Pathological gambling and couple: towards an integrative systemic model.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Diana; Relvas, Ana Paula

    2014-06-01

    This article is a critical literature review of pathological gambling focused in the family factors, particularly in the couple dynamics. Its main goal is to develop an explicative integrative systemic model of pathological gambling, based in these couple dynamics. To achieve that aim, a bibliography search was made, using on-line data bases (e.g., EBSCO Host) and recognized books in pathological gambling subject, as well as in the systemic approach in general. This process privileged the recent works (about 70 % of the reviewed literature was published in the last decade), however, also considered some classic works (the oldest one dates back to 1970). The guiding focus of this literature search evolves according to the following steps: (1) search of general comprehension of pathological gambling (19 references), (2) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and family" (24 references), (3) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and couple"(11 references), (4) search of systemic information which integrates the evidence resulted in the previous steps (4 references). The developed model is constituted by different levels of systemic complexity (social context, family of origin, couple and individual) and explains the problem as a signal of perturbation in the marital subsystem vital functions (e.g., power and control) though the regularities of marital dynamics of pathological gamblers. Furthermore, it gives theoretical evidence of the systemic familiar intervention in the pathological gambling.

  9. [Pathological gambling and its consequences for public health].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Paula Magalhães Tavares de; Silveira, Dartiu Xavier da; Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo

    2008-06-01

    The article aimed to characterize pathological gambling, showing the main consequences of this disorder. Bibliographic survey on this theme was conducted, covering both national and international literature. Publications whose main findings emphasized related prevalence, social and economic costs, gambling legalization and resulting impact on public health, were selected. High suicide rate, comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, family and work problems, and illicit behavior were consequences reported. The prevalence of this disorder is higher in countries that have legalized gambling and in Brazil there is evidence of growth in the number of pathological gamblers. The development of national research is fundamental to define public policies that are adequate for the Brazilian context.

  10. [Pathological gambling: review of the recent research trends].

    PubMed

    Körmendi, Attila; Kuritárné, Ildikmó Szabó

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reduce a significant gap in the gambling literature in Hungary by presenting existing models and available treatments. Although theoretical models of pathological gambling all have strengths and weaknesses, they do provide valuable insights into the development of pathological gambling. Evidence now exist that psychological, biological and social factors are all relevant in pathological gambling but as yet a comprehensive theoretical model that could adequately account for the complex interaction of the factors has to be developed. Some methodological problems in the area of research are highlighted, and suggestions for future research are included. It is hoped this paper will stimulate future research work in this field and support the work of clinical psychologists.

  11. Quality of web-based information on pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Jermann, Françoise; Osiek, Christian; Bondolfi, Guido; Zullino, Daniele

    2008-09-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the quality of web-based information on gambling and to investigate potential content quality indicators. The following key words: gambling, pathological gambling, excessive gambling, gambling problem and gambling addiction were entered into two popular search engines: Google and Yahoo. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed to rate sites on the basis of "accountability", "presentation", "interactivity", "readability" and "content quality". "Health on the Net" (HON) quality label, and DISCERN scale scores aiding people without content expertise to assess quality of written health publication were used to verify their efficiency as quality indicators. Of the 200 links identified, 75 websites were included. The results of the study indicate low scores on each of the measures. A composite global score appeared as a good content quality indicator. While gambling-related education websites for patients are common, their global quality is poor. There is a need for useful evidence-based information about gambling on the web. As the phenomenon has greatly increased, it could be relevant for Internet sites to improve their content by using global score as a quality indicator.

  12. Pathological gambling and the loss of willpower: a neurocognitive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to gain more insight on the neurocognitive processes involved in the maintenance of pathological gambling. Firstly, we describe structural factors of gambling games that could promote the repetition of gambling experiences to such an extent that some individuals may become unable to control their gambling habits. Secondly, we review findings of neurocognitive studies on pathological gambling. As a whole, poor ability to resist gambling is a product of an imbalance between any one or a combination of three key neural systems: (1) an hyperactive ‘impulsive’ system, which is fast, automatic, and unconscious and promotes automatic and habitual actions; (2) a hypoactive ‘reflective’ system, which is slow and deliberative, forecasting the future consequences of a behavior, inhibitory control, and self-awareness; and (3) the interoceptive system, translating bottom-up somatic signals into a subjective state of craving, which in turn potentiates the activity of the impulsive system, and/or weakens or hijacks the goal-driven cognitive resources needed for the normal operation of the reflective system. Based on this theoretical background, we focus on certain clinical interventions that could reduce the risks of both gambling addiction and relapse. PMID:24693357

  13. [Pathological gambling: a clinical and therapeutic-evolutive study of a group of pathologic gamblers].

    PubMed

    Saiz Ruiz, J; Moreno Oliver, I; López-Ibor Aliño, J J

    1992-01-01

    Gambling dependence or pathological gambling is a psychiatric disorder, recognised as such by the North American Psychiatric Association since 1980. Since 1981 we are carrying out a treatment program for patients who suffer from pathological gambling at the Psychiatric Service of "Ramón y Cajal" Hospital. There is an individualized treatment for each patient and their inclusion in group therapy discussions. We present a descriptive study of the most representative socio-demographic, clinical and therapeutic-evolutive data of 46 patients following treatment in our program. All fulfill the diagnostic criteria of DSM III-R for pathological gambling. They were 37 males and 9 females, with an average age of 39 years. More than half of the patients (58%) were consumers of alcoholic beverages; the drug consumption index found was 4% and practically they all were smokers (87%). The excessive drinking and pathological gambling incidence found among family were 35% and 20% respectively. Our therapeutic results support the idea that pathological gambling is a treatable disorder. After an average of two years following treatment 46% of our patients stopped or notably reduced its impulse to gamble. The high incidence of alcohol or drugs consumption among pathological gamblers and their families suggest a biological and psychological relationship between pathological gambling and the classical addictive disorders.

  14. Impulsivity in internet addiction: a comparison with pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Woo; Choi, Jung-Seok; Shin, Young-Chul; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2012-07-01

    Internet addiction has been considered to be associated with poor impulse control. The aim of this study is to compare the trait impulsivity of those suffering from Internet addiction with that of individuals suffering from pathological gambling. Twenty-seven patients diagnosed with Internet addiction (age: 24.78±4.37 years), 27 patients diagnosed with pathological gambling (age: 25.67±3.97 years), and 27 healthy controls (age: 25.33±2.79 years) were enrolled in this study. All patients were men seeking treatment. Trait impulsivity and the severity of the Internet addiction and pathological gambling were measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the Young's Internet Addiction Test, and the South Oaks Gambling Screen, respectively. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were also administered to all subjects. Our results show that those suffering from Internet addiction showed increased levels of trait impulsivity which were comparable to those of patients diagnosed with pathological gambling. Additionally, the severity of Internet addiction was positively correlated with the level of trait impulsivity in patients with Internet addiction. These results state that Internet addiction can be conceptualized as an impulse control disorder and that trait impulsivity is a marker for vulnerability to Internet addiction.

  15. Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, M; Baron, E

    2000-08-01

    The recent healthy increase in research into all aspects of gambling is noted. The dominant theme accounting for most of this research is the mental disorder model of pathological gambling and measures that have been derived from this conceptualization. It is suggested that an alternative approach focusing on the construct of choice or subjective control over gambling may be a research direction that will ensure that progress is maintained. In this paper a context for the discussion is provided by first identifying briefly fundamental conceptual and methodological issues associated with the mental disorder model. In particular it is argued that the heterogeneity of the diagnosis of pathological gambling makes the research task of assessing truly independent variables extremely difficult. Subsequently an illustrative schema is presented that demonstrates both the potential advantages and some of the complexities associated with the dependent variable of self-control over gambling behaviour. The main advantages are argued to be (a) the focus of research is narrowed to one potential cause of harmful impacts rather than the great diversity of impacts themselves, (b) prospective studies of regular gamblers in real gambling venues may be a key source of insight into the development of pathological gambling and (c) it promotes the development of theoretical links with the mainstream of the discipline of psychology. Despite the conceptual difficulties that may be associated with the variable of self-control, it is suggested that these may be overcome because contemporary research into the addictive behaviours has demonstrated considerable success in the definition and measurement of control and related themes such as craving, restraint and temptation.

  16. Towards a comprehensive developmental model of pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Carlos; Hanania, Joan; Petry, Nancy M; Wall, Melanie M; Wang, Shuai; Jin, Chelsea J; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2015-08-01

    To develop a comprehensive etiological model of pathological gambling (PG) for men and women based on Kendler's development model for major depression, which groups 22 risk factors into five developmental tiers (childhood, early adolescence, late adolescence, adulthood, last year). We hypothesized that: (1) all risk factors would be associated significantly with PG; (2) the effect of risk factors in earlier developmental tiers would be accounted for by later tiers; and (3) there would be few gender differences. Separate models were built for life-time gambling and for 12-month PG among those with life-time gambling. Data drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) in the United States. Respondents to NESARC wave 1 (n = 43 093). Odds ratios (OR) and adjusted OR (AOR) were used to determine the risk factors in multiple models. After mutually adjusting for other risk factors, family history of substance use disorders (SUD) or depression, impulsivity, childhood-onset anxiety, number of Axis I and II disorders, history of SUD, nicotine dependence, social deviance in adulthood, and past-year history of SUD, nicotine dependence and independent stressful life events predicted life-time gambling. Past history of PG, number of personality disorders and past year nicotine dependence were associated significantly with 12-month PG (all P < 0.05). There were no significant gender interactions for 12-month PG. A modification of Kendler's model for major depression provides a foundation for the development of a comprehensive developmental model of pathological gambling. Life-time history of gambling and 12-month pathological gambling appear to be determined by risk factors in several developmental levels, with the effect of earlier development tiers accounted for by later ones. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Internet poker websites and pathological gambling prevention policy.

    PubMed

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Bouvard, Audrey; Khiari, Hiba; Achab, Sophia; Zullino, Daniele

    2013-03-01

    Despite the widespread increase in online poker playing and the risk related to excessive poker playing, research on online poker websites is still lacking with regard to pathological gambling prevention strategies offered by the websites. The aim of the present study was to assess the pathological gambling-related prevention strategies of online poker websites. Two keywords ("poker" and "poker help") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. The first 20 links related to French and English online poker websites were assessed. Seventy-four websites were assessed with a standardized tool designed to rate sites on the basis of accountability, interactivity, prevention strategies, marketing, and messages related to poker strategies. Prevention strategies appeared to be lacking. Whereas a substantial proportion of the websites offered incitation to gambling such as betting "tips," few sites offered strategies to prevent or address problem gambling. Furthermore, strategies related to poker, such as probability estimation, were mostly reported without acknowledging their limitations. Results of this study suggest that more adequate prevention strategies for risky gambling should be developed for online poker.

  18. Remission from pathological gambling among Hispanics and Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Canive, Jose; Thuras, Paul; Kim, Suk W; Crosby, Ross; Thompson, James; Garrard, Judith

    2006-12-01

    This community survey studied remission from pathological gambling (PG) among American Indian (AI) and Hispanic American (HA) veterans. Remission was defined as having a lifetime diagnosis of PG, but no gambling symptoms in the last year. Sample consisted of 1624 AI and Hispanic veterans. Instruments included demographic data, the computer-based algorithmic Quick Diagnostic Interview Schedule Symptom, and three symptom checklists, one each for substance related problems (MAST/AD), anxiety and depressive symptoms (BSI-57), and combat-related post-trauma symptoms (PCL/M). Remission was associated with absence of a current Axis 1 diagnosis, especially absence of a current post-traumatic stress disorder.

  19. BEHAVIORAL TREATMENT FOR PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING IN PERSONS WITH ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Guercio, John M; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week one-on-one client–patient format, a treatment program was developed in which the patient learned about the antecedents, consequences, and motivating operations that controlled the emission of gambling behavior. Data were collected on both self-report of gambling urges and behavior following therapy and during in situ gambling opportunities. The therapy program reduced urges to gamble and actual gambling for all patients. The potential of behavior-analytic therapy for reducing the pathological gambling of patients with and without brain injury is discussed. PMID:23060663

  20. Prevention of pathological gambling: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Jason P; Nicki, Richard M

    2007-01-01

    Although the gambling industry is expanding rapidly throughout North America and around the world, there are only a few empirically evaluated programs aimed at the prevention of pathological gambling (PG). The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of a new prevention program aimed at PG. The Stop & Think! program was designed to teach at-risk video lottery terminal (VLT) gamblers cognitive restructuring and problem-solving skills that may help to prevent the development of PG. These skills were taught through a variety of methods - including an automated educational presentation, video and text vignettes, audio training tapes, and skill rehearsal. The program was evaluated using a randomized, 2-group experimental design with a wait-list control group and pre-, post-, and follow-up measures. Results indicated that, compared with the control group, the experimental group was less at risk for developing a gambling problem after the program. The experimental group endorsed fewer gambling-related cognitive distortions, engaged in less VLT gambling, and had lower scores on a measure of PG. The results of this study provide the basis for the implementation of the Stop & Think! program in the province of Prince Edward Island, Canada, and perhaps other jurisdictions too.

  1. Behavioral Treatment for Pathological Gambling in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guercio, John M.; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week…

  2. Behavioral Treatment for Pathological Gambling in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guercio, John M.; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week…

  3. The effect of pathological gambling on families, marriages, and children.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Martha C; Forbush, Kelsie T; Schlinder, Jessica; Rosenman, Eugene; Black, Donald W

    2007-08-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is widely reported to have negative consequences on marriages, families, and children. Empirical evidence is only now accumulating but when put together with anecdotal information, the extent of these problems is clear. PG contributes to chaos and dysfunction within the family unit, disrupts marriages, leading to high rates of separation and divorce, and is associated with child abuse and neglect. Divorce rates are high, not surprising in light of reports that these marriages are often abusive. Research shows that the families of pathological gamblers are filled with members who gamble excessively, suffer from depressive or anxiety disorders, and misuse alcohol, drugs, or both. Families of persons with PG are also large, a variable independently related to family dysfunction. The authors review the evidence on the impact of PG on families, marriages, and offspring, and make recommendations for future research targeting these problems.

  4. Pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease: disease related or drug related?

    PubMed

    Calandrella, Daniela; Antonini, Angelo

    2011-06-01

    Pathological gambling and other impulse-control disorders occur in susceptible Parkinson's disease patients during dopaminergic therapy, particularly in association with dopamine agonists. Additional factors such as age at onset play an important role, and predisposing personality traits have been identified both in treated patients, as well as in patients even before therapy is initiated. The contributions of specific allelic polymorphisms of the dopamine receptor and transporter genes were also tested as predictors of adverse effects of dopaminergic therapy but results are not conclusive. Recent imaging studies have shed light on the mechanism underlying pathological gambling. Resting-state brain perfusion of Parkinson's disease gamblers showed higher activity in 'limbic' areas associated with addictive processes. More importantly, severity of this behavior is associated with the impaired functioning of brain regions that are involved in 'top-down' cognitive monitoring and inhibition of inappropriate behaviors. This evidence is consistent with a significant contribution of disease-related factors.

  5. Pathological Gambling Associated With Aripiprazole or Dopamine Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Sauvaget, Anne; Perrouin, Fanny; Leboucher, Juliette; Etcheverrigaray, François; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Gaboriau, Louise; Derkinderen, Pascal; Jolliet, Pascale; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Background In the last 10 years, dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) has become a well-known risk factor for developing an impulse control disorder, such as gambling disorder (GD). Another medication, aripiprazole (ARI), has been more recently identified as another risk factor. Dopamine replacement therapy and ARI share a dopamine agonist action. Our work aimed at comparing patients with PG according to their treatment with DRT or ARI. Methods Two methods were combined—a systematic review concentrated on case reports and the analysis of a French disordered gamblers cohort focused on patients using ARI or DRT at inclusion. Results We reported 48 cases of GD possibly due to DRT and 17 cases of GD possibly due to ARI. Because of their standardized assessment, only the EVALJEU patients could be compared. Two clinical patterns emerged. Patients in the ARI group were young, impulsive, and high novelty seekers and had a history of substance misuse. Their first gambling experience occurred during adolescence. Conversely, patients in the DRT group were old, and they began gambling late in life. They showed low levels of gambling-related cognition. Conclusions Patients in the ARI group seemed to be more severe pathological gamblers than patients in the DRT group. Aripiprazole is a partial D2 receptor agonist, whereas DRT includes full D2 receptor agonist. The trigger mechanism of PG development is complex and cannot only be attributed only to the pharmacodynamic effects of dopaminergic drugs. Indeed, individual vulnerability factors and environmental factors need to be considered. PMID:26658263

  6. Extensive abnormality of brain white matter integrity in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Joutsa, Juho; Saunavaara, Jani; Parkkola, Riitta; Niemelä, Solja; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2011-12-30

    Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in substance use disorders have shown brain white matter integrity abnormalities, but there are no studies in pathological gambling, a form of behavioral addiction. Our objective was to investigate possible changes in regional brain gray and white matter volumes, and axonal white matter integrity in pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. Twenty-four subjects (12 clinically diagnosed male pathological gamblers and 12 age-matched healthy male volunteers) underwent structural and diffusion weighted brain MRI scans, which were analyzed with voxel-based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics. In pathological gamblers, widespread lower white matter integrity (lower fractional anisotropy, higher mean diffusivity) was seen in multiple brain regions including the corpus callosum, the cingulum, the superior longitudinal fascicle, the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, the anterior limb of internal capsule, the anterior thalamic radiation, the inferior longitudinal fascicle and the uncinate/inferior fronto-occipital fascicle. There were no volumetric differences in gray or white matter between pathological gamblers and controls. The results suggest that pathological gambling is associated with extensive lower integrity of several brain white matter tracts. The diffusion abnormality closely resembles previous findings in individuals with substance addictions.

  7. Type of gambling as an independent risk factor for suicidal events in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; Bischof, Gallus; John, Ulrich; Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Thon, Natasha; Lucht, Michael; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with pathological gambling have an increased risk for suicidal events. Additionally, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders is high among pathological gamblers. This study analyzes whether the type of gambling is associated with suicidal events in pathological gamblers independently from comorbidity. Participants were recruited in 4 different ways: via random telephone sample from the general population, via individual invitation for study participation in gambling locations, through various media and the distribution of a leaflet in various settings, and via inpatient treatment facilities for pathological gambling. The final sample included 442 participants with a lifetime diagnosis of pathological gambling. A standardized clinical interview was conducted. High financial losses were associated with suicidal events (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, 95% 95% confidence interval [CI], [1.11, 3.37]), as were mood disorders (OR = 7.70, 95% CI, [4.44, 13.37]) and female gender (OR = 2.52, 95% CI, [1.20, 5.28]). Gambling on electronic gambling machines in gambling halls or bars was associated with increased odds of suicidal events (OR = 2.94, 95% CI, [1.38, 6.24]). Other types of gambling, such as casino games or betting on sports, or the number of DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling were not associated independently with suicidal events. Our findings suggest that gambling on electronic gambling machines in gambling halls or bars is associated with suicidal events in pathological gamblers independently of comorbidity. This result shows that the type of gambling needs to be considered as a relevant factor in gambling research.

  8. Cognitive distortions, anxiety, and depression among regular and pathological gambling online poker players.

    PubMed

    Barrault, Servane; Varescon, Isabelle

    2013-03-01

    The aims were to assess cognitive distortions and psychological distress (anxiety and depression) among online poker players of different levels of gambling intensity (non-pathological gamblers [NPG], problem gamblers [PbG], and pathological gamblers [PG]), and to examine the relationship between these variables and gambling pathology. Overall, 245 regular online poker players recruited on an Internet forum completed online self-report scales assessing pathological gambling (South Oaks Gambling Screen [SOGS]), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]) and cognitive distortions (Gambling-Related Cognition Scale). Based on their SOGS scores, poker players were ranked into three groups: NPG (n=146), PbG (n=55), and PG (n=44). All poker players appeared to be more anxious than depressive. PG exhibited higher levels of depression and anxiety than did PbG and NPG. Cognitive distortions also significantly discriminated PG from PbG and NPG. A regression model showed that the perceived inability to stop gambling, the illusion of control, depression (HADS D), and anxiety were good predictors for pathological gambling among poker players. Our results suggest that cognitive distortions play an important role in the development and maintenance of gambling pathology. This study also underlines the role of anxiety and depression in pathological gambling among poker players. It seems relevant to take these elements into account in the research, prevention, and treatment of pathological gambling poker players.

  9. Social Strain, Self-Control, and Juvenile Gambling Pathology: Evidence From Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Nicole W. T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent concerns over youthful problem gambling, few gambling studies have looked into Asian adolescent populations. This study of a stratified, random sample of high school students in Hong Kong is designed to estimate the prevalence of gambling pathology among Chinese adolescents and to examine the relationships between social strain,…

  10. Social Strain, Self-Control, and Juvenile Gambling Pathology: Evidence From Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Nicole W. T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent concerns over youthful problem gambling, few gambling studies have looked into Asian adolescent populations. This study of a stratified, random sample of high school students in Hong Kong is designed to estimate the prevalence of gambling pathology among Chinese adolescents and to examine the relationships between social strain,…

  11. Deficits in emotion regulation associated with pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alishia D; Grisham, Jessica R; Erskine, Alicia; Cassedy, Eva

    2012-06-01

    The concept of emotion regulation features in many models of psychopathology and it has been proposed that individuals with poorly regulated emotions often engage in maladaptive behaviours to escape from or down-regulate their emotions, creating risk for a range of disorders. One such disorder may be pathological gambling. To our knowledge, no study had assessed the use of emotion-regulation strategies in this population. The goal of the present study was therefore to examine emotion-regulation difficulties among a sample of pathological gamblers (n= 56), a mixed clinical comparison group (n= 50), and a sample of healthy community controls (n= 49). Multivariate analysis of variance controlling for age. Participants were recruited from the community and a gambling treatment unit in Australia and completed clinical diagnostic interviews (ADIS-IV; SCIP), self-report measures of psychopathology (DASS-21), substance use (AUDIT), and emotion-regulation difficulties (DERS; ERQ). Pathological gamblers and the clinical comparison group reported significantly less use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion-regulation strategy, and reported a greater lack of emotional clarity and more impulsivity than individuals in the healthy community comparison group. Pathological gamblers reported a greater lack of emotional awareness compared to the healthy control group and reported differences in access to effective emotion-regulation strategies compared to both comparison groups. The results support specific deficits of emotion regulation in pathological gamblers and emphasize the need to address these underlying vulnerabilities in addition to directly targeting gambling behaviours in therapy. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Amantadine in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pettorruso, Mauro; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Nicola, Marco; Onofrj, Marco; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Conte, Gianluigi; Janiri, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Despite almost a decade of intense research, effective treatment strategies for Pathological Gambling (PG) remain very challenging. This paper details a case report suggesting that the treatment of PG may benefit from the use of the non-specific glutamate blocker amantadine. The drug was well-tolerated and effective, leading to a 43–64% reduction in severity of gambling symptoms (as measured with G-SAS). Our result is discussed in the context of the glutamatergic hypothesis of addiction and in light of previous observations on the potential impact of glutamatergic agents in the treatment of PG. The role of the dopaminergic system, and its interaction with the glutamatergic system, is also explored. Further studies are required to define the true benefits of amantadine for the treatment of PG. PMID:23205015

  13. A direct, controlled, blind family study of DSM-IV pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William H; Crowe, Raymond R; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha C; Allen, Jeff

    2014-03-01

    Pathological gambling is a major public health problem. We sought to examine the familiality of pathological gambling and determine patterns of familial aggregation of disorders. We assessed probands with DSM-IV pathological gambling, controls, and their first-degree relatives. Detailed family history information was collected on relatives who were deceased or unavailable. Ninety-five pathological gambling probands, 91 controls, and their 1,075 first-degree relatives over age 18 (537 relatives of pathological gambling probands, 538 relatives of controls) were evaluated between February 2005 and June 2010. Relatives were assessed blind to proband status. Best estimate diagnoses were assigned. Rates of lifetime pathological gambling (definite/probable) was significantly greater among the first-degree relatives of probands with pathological gambling than among comparison relatives (11% vs 1%, OR = 8.19, P < .001). The prevalence of pathological gambling and subclinical pathological gambling combined was 16% and 3% in case and control relatives, respectively (OR = 6.57, P < .001). Pathological gambling relatives had higher rates of major depression (OR = 1.49, P < .05), bipolar disorder (OR = 3.82, P < .05), any mood disorder (OR = 1.59, P < .05), social anxiety disorder (OR = 4.76, P < .01), any substance use disorder (OR = 1.47, P < .05), posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 2.59, P < .05), and antisocial personality disorder (OR = 3.72, P < .001). Antisocial personality disorder (OR = 3.12, P < .01), social anxiety disorder (OR = 4.15, P < .01), and posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 2.85, P < .05) were more frequent in case relatives independent of the presence of pathological gambling. Age at onset of pathological gambling in case probands (< 40 years/≥ 40 years) was not related to familiality in their first-degree relatives (OR = 1.03, P = .927). Pathological gambling is familial. Mood and substance use disorders may emerge as a consequence of the pathological

  14. Mesolimbic dopamine release is linked to symptom severity in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Joutsa, Juho; Johansson, Jarkko; Niemelä, Solja; Ollikainen, Antti; Hirvonen, Mika M; Piepponen, Petteri; Arponen, Eveliina; Alho, Hannu; Voon, Valerie; Rinne, Juha O; Hietala, Jarmo; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2012-05-01

    Brain dopamine neurons code rewarding environmental stimuli by releasing endogenous dopamine, a transmission signal that is important for reinforcement learning. Human reward-seeking gambling behavior, and especially pathological gambling, has been presumed to be modulated by brain dopamine. Striatal dopamine release was studied with [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) during gambling with an ecologically valid slot machine gambling task. Twenty-four males with and without pathological gambling (DSM-IV) were scanned three times, and the effects of different gambling outcomes (high-reward and low-reward vs. control task) on dopamine release were evaluated. Striatal dopamine was released in both groups during high-reward but also low-reward tasks. The dopamine release during the low-reward task was located in the associative part of the caudate nucleus. During the high-reward task, the effect was also seen in the ventral striatum and the magnitude of dopamine release was associated with parallel gambling "high". Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between dopamine release during the low-reward and the high-reward task. There was no general difference in the magnitude of dopamine release between pathological gamblers and controls. However, in pathological gamblers, dopamine release correlated positively with gambling symptom severity. Striatal dopamine is released during gambling irrespective of gambling outcome suggesting that the mere expectation/prediction of reward is sufficient to induce dopaminergic changes. Although dopamine release during slot machine gambling is comparable between healthy controls and pathological gamblers, greater gambling symptom severity is associated with greater dopaminergic responses. Thus, as the dopamine reward deficiency theory predicts blunted mesolimbic dopamine responses to gambling in addicted individuals, our results question the validity of the reward deficiency hypothesis in pathological gambling

  15. Neurobiological correlates of internet gaming disorder: Similarities to pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Fauth-Bühler, M; Mann, K

    2017-01-01

    The number of massively multiplayer online games (MMOs) is on the rise worldwide along with the fascination that they inspire. Problems occur when the use of MMOs becomes excessive at the expense of other life domains. Although not yet formally included as disorder in common diagnostic systems, internet gaming disorder (IGD) is considered a "condition for further study" in section III of the DSM-5. The current review aims to provide an overview of cognitive and neurobiological data currently available on IGD, with a particular focus on impulsivity, compulsivity, and sensitivity to reward and punishment. Additionally, we also compare these findings on IGD with data from studies on pathological gambling (PG)-so far the only condition officially classified as a behavioral addiction in the DSM-5. Multiple similarities have been observed in the neurobiology of IGD and PG, as measured by alterations in brain function and behavior. Both patients with IGD and those with PG exhibited decreased loss sensitivity; enhanced reactivity to gaming and gambling cues, respectively; enhanced impulsive choice behavior; aberrant reward-based learning; and no changes in cognitive flexibility. In conclusion, the evidence base on the neurobiology of gaming and gambling disorders is beginning to illuminate the similarities between the two. However, as only a few studies have addressed the neurobiological basis of IGD, and some of these studies suffer from significant limitations, more research is required before IGD's inclusion as a second behavioral addiction in the next versions of the ICD and DSM can be justified.

  16. Impulsivity, implicit attitudes and explicit cognitions, and alcohol dependence as predictors of pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Flórez, Gerardo; Saiz, Pilar A; Santamaría, Emilia M; Álvarez, Sandra; Nogueiras, Luis; Arrojo, Manuel

    2016-11-30

    Impulsivity, implicit attitudes and explicit cognitions regarding gambling, and alcohol abuse have been pointed out by past research as significant contributors to the development and maintenance of gambling disorders. In this study, we tested the relationship among these contributors and pathological gambling. Forty-four pathological gamblers (DSM-5 criteria), of whom 23 were active gamblers and 17 were alcohol dependent, were compared with 100 controls, consisting of patients with a lifetime history of alcohol use disorder in remission for at least 2 years. The following protocol was used for the comparison: National Opinion Research Center Diagnostic Screen for Gambling Disorders, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Version 11 (BIS-11), Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS), Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and Gambling Implicit Association Test (IAT). Impulsivity (BIS-11) and changes in implicit attitudes (IAT) were able to discriminate between pathological gamblers and controls, the latter being less impulsive and having fewer implicit attitudes towards gambling. Cognitive impulsivity (BIS-11), explicit gambling cognitions (GRCS), and alcohol dependence were able to discriminate between active and non-active pathological gamblers, the latter having less cognitive impulsivity and less explicit gambling cognitions and alcohol dependence. Using these simple tools can help clinicians in the assessment of pathological gambling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship between universal human values and adolescent problem and pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Chan, Victor K Y

    2012-01-01

    This article derives statistical models relating adolescents' universal human values with their problem and pathological gambling. An adolescent's values are measured by the priority accorded to each value using the Schwartz Values Inventory, whereas problem or pathological gambling, if any, is indicated by his or her answers to the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Among other complex results, statistical analysis suggests that the value subtypes of "non-faith tradition," "faith tradition," and "macro-universalism" and the value type "stimulation" are associated with less problem and pathological gambling. Among other uses, such findings help identify high-risk adolescents.

  18. Pathological gambling associated with cabergoline in a case of recurrent depression.

    PubMed

    Miura, J; Kikuchi, A; Fujii, A; Tateishi, T; Kaneko, S

    2009-08-01

    Pathological gambling has been described frequently in patients with Parkinson disease or other movement disorders who were treated with dopamine agonists. Here, we report a patient with recurrent depression who developed pathological gambling after administration of the dopamine agonist cabergoline. A 36-year-old male Japanese patient presented with his third episode of depression. His depressive symptoms responded minimally to fluvoxamine. Cabergoline was then added to augment the antidepressant's efficacy. Although this regimen resulted in dramatic improvement, he started to spend considerable money and time every day in pachinko parlors and go to the horse racing track every weekend. He spent more than twenty thousand US dollars in total. He tried to stop gambling many times but failed to control his urge. His gambling behavior did not stop even though he was experiencing a marital crisis. He had not displayed any manic symptoms during this entire period. This complication fulfilled the criteria for pathological gambling according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of MentalDisorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision edition. The patient's perplexing behavior did not end until cabergoline was discontinued. Thus far, pathological gambling associated with cabergoline has rarely been reported while gambling associated with pramipexole and ropinirole, dopamine agonists, has frequently been documented. In addition, this is the first case of depression in which the patient developed pathological gambling during treatment with a dopamine agonist. In conclusion, clinicians should be aware of the potential for pathological gambling when prescribing cabergoline to patients with depression.

  19. A Latent Class Analysis of Pathological-Gambling Criteria Among High School Students: Associations With Gambling, Risk and Health/Functioning Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify subtypes of adolescent gamblers based on the 10 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria for pathological gambling and the 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition criteria for gambling disorder and to examine associations between identified subtypes with gambling, other risk behaviors, and health/functioning characteristics. Methods Using cross-sectional survey data from 10 high schools in Connecticut (N = 3901), we conducted latent class analysis to classify adolescents who reported past-year gambling into gambling groups on the basis of items from the Massachusetts Gambling Screen. Adolescents also completed questions assessing demographic information, substance use (cigarette, marijuana, alcohol, and other drugs), gambling behaviors (relating to gambling formats, locations, motivations, and urges), and health/functioning characteristics (eg, extracurricular activities, mood, aggression, and body mass index). Results The optimal solution consisted of 4 classes that we termed low-risk gambling (86.4%), at-risk chasing gambling (7.6%), at-risk negative consequences gambling (3.7%), and problem gambling (PrG) (2.3%). At-risk and PrG classes were associated with greater negative functioning and more gambling behaviors. Different patterns of associations between at-risk and PrG classes were also identified. Conclusions Adolescent gambling classifies into 4 classes, which are differentially associated with demographic, gambling patterns, risk behaviors, and health/functioning characteristics. Early identification and interventions for adolescent gamblers should be sensitive to the heterogeneity of gambling subtypes. PMID:25275877

  20. A latent class analysis of pathological-gambling criteria among high school students: associations with gambling, risk and health/functioning characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A; Hoff, Rani A; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-01-01

    To identify subtypes of adolescent gamblers based on the 10 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria for pathological gambling and the 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition criteria for gambling disorder and to examine associations between identified subtypes with gambling, other risk behaviors, and health/functioning characteristics. Using cross-sectional survey data from 10 high schools in Connecticut (N = 3901), we conducted latent class analysis to classify adolescents who reported past-year gambling into gambling groups on the basis of items from the Massachusetts Gambling Screen. Adolescents also completed questions assessing demographic information, substance use (cigarette, marijuana, alcohol, and other drugs), gambling behaviors (relating to gambling formats, locations, motivations, and urges), and health/functioning characteristics (eg, extracurricular activities, mood, aggression, and body mass index). The optimal solution consisted of 4 classes that we termed low-risk gambling (86.4%), at-risk chasing gambling (7.6%), at-risk negative consequences gambling (3.7%), and problem gambling (PrG) (2.3%). At-risk and PrG classes were associated with greater negative functioning and more gambling behaviors. Different patterns of associations between at-risk and PrG classes were also identified. Adolescent gambling classifies into 4 classes, which are differentially associated with demographic, gambling patterns, risk behaviors, and health/functioning characteristics. Early identification and interventions for adolescent gamblers should be sensitive to the heterogeneity of gambling subtypes.

  1. Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling. The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments…

  2. Pathological gambling, problem gambling and sleep complaints: an analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey: Replication (NCS-R).

    PubMed

    Parhami, Iman; Siani, Aaron; Rosenthal, Richard J; Fong, Timothy W

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between sleep disturbances and gambling behavior. Data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R) was used to examine the relationship between three specific sleep complaints (difficulty initiating sleep [DIS], difficulty maintaining sleep [DMS], and early morning awakening [EMA]) and gambling behavior. Bivariate logistic regression models were used to control for potentially confounding psychiatric disorders and age. Almost half of respondents with problem gambling behavior (45.9%) and two thirds (67.7%) of respondents with pathological gambling behavior reported at least one sleep compliant. Compared to respondents with no gambling pathology, respondents with pathological gambling were significantly more likely to report at least one sleep complaint (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 3.444, 95% CI = 1.538-7.713), to report all sleep complaints (AOR = 3.449, 95% CI = 1.503-7.914), and to report any individual complaint (DIS: OR = 2.300, 95% CI = 1.069-4.946; DMS: AOR = 4.604, 95% CI = 2.093-10.129; EMA: AOR = 3.968, 95% CI = 1.856-8.481). The relationship between problem gambling and sleep complaints were more modest (any sleep complaint: AOR = 1.794, 95% CI = 1.142-2.818; all three sleep complaints: AOR = 2.144, 95% CI = 1.169-3.931; DIS: AOR = 1.961, 95% CI = 1.204-3.194; DMS: AOR = 1.551, 95% CI = 0.951-2.529; EMA: AOR = 1.796, 95% CI = 1.099-2.935). Given the individual and societal ramifications linked with the presence of sleep problems, this study presents another health-related repercussion associated with gambling pathology rarely discussed in the literature.

  3. Gambling motivation and passion: a comparison study of recreational and pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Back, Ki-Joon; Lee, Choong-Ki; Stinchfield, Randy

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the structural relationship among gambling motivation, gambling passion, and behavioral intentions to gamble between recreational and pathological gamblers. Specifically, this study aimed to shed light on the different ways in which gambling motivation and affective attitude are associated with recreational and pathological gamblers. Using a purposive sampling method, 400 subjects were selected for and participated in this study during their visits to a casino. Study results echoed the notion of distinctive and separate gambling motivations and passions between recreational and pathological gamblers. Also, results identified specific areas to which casino operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling.

  4. Desensitization of triggers and urge reprocessing for pathological gambling: a case series.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hwallip; Han, Changwoo; Kim, Daeho

    2015-03-01

    This case series introduces the desensitization of triggers and urge reprocessing (DeTUR), as a promising adjunctive therapy in addition to comprehensive treatment package for pathological gambling. This addiction protocol of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing was delivered to four male inpatients admitted to a 10-week inpatient program for pathological gambling. The therapist gave three 60-min weekly sessions of the DeTUR using bilateral stimulation (horizontal eye movements or alternative tactile stimuli) focusing on the hierarchy of triggering situations and the urge to initiate gambling behaviors. After treatment, self-reported gambling symptoms, depression, anxiety, and impulsiveness were all improved, and all the participants reported satisfaction with the therapy. They were followed up for 6 months and all maintained their abstinence from gambling and their symptomatic improvements. Given the efficiency (i.e., brevity and efficacy) of the treatment, a controlled study to confirm the effects of the DeTUR on pathological gambling would be justified.

  5. Abstinence versus Moderation Goals in Brief Motivational Treatment for Pathological Gambling.

    PubMed

    Stea, Jonathan N; Hodgins, David C; Fung, Tak

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined the nature and impact of participant goal selection (abstinence versus moderation) in brief motivational treatment for pathological gambling via secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial. The results demonstrated that the pattern of goal selection over time could be characterized by both fluidity and stability, whereby almost half of participants switched their goal at least one time, over 25% of participants selected an unchanging goal of 'quit most problematic type of gambling', almost 20% selected an unchanging goal of 'quit all types of gambling', and approximately 10% selected an unchanging goal of 'gamble in a controlled manner.' The results also demonstrated that pretreatment goal selection was uniquely associated with three variables, whereby compared to participants who selected the goal to 'cut back on problem gambling', those who selected the goal to 'quit problem gambling' were more likely to have greater gambling problem severity, to have identified video lottery terminal play as problematic, and to have greater motivation to overcome their gambling problem. Finally, the results demonstrated that goal selection over time had an impact on the average number of days gambled over the course of treatment, whereby those with abstinence-based goals gambled significantly fewer days than those with moderation-based goals. Nevertheless, goal selection over time was not related to dollars gambled, dollars per day gambled, or perceived goal achievement. The findings do not support the contention that abstinence-based goals are more advantageous than moderation goals and are discussed in relation to the broader alcohol treatment literature.

  6. Comparative neuropsychological profile of pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and compulsive eating in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Carmine; Santangelo, Gabriella; Trojano, Luigi; Verde, Francesca; Rocco, Mariangela; Grossi, Dario; Barone, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs), in particular pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and compulsive eating, are being increasingly identified in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Pathological gambling has been associated with frontal/executive dysfunctions, whereas hypersexuality and compulsive eating, and their relation with cognitive dysfunctions, have not been investigated in PD. We investigated cognitive correlates underpinning pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and compulsive eating in PD. PD outpatients were screened for pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and compulsive eating. Based on clinical criteria, we identified 13 patients with hypersexuality, 12 with compulsive eating, 14 with pathological gambling, and 10 with multiple ICDs. Fourteen PD patients matched for age and education without ICDs served as controls. Clinical features and neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological functioning were assessed in the 5 groups. Demographic, clinical, neuropsychiatric, and neurological aspects did not differ among groups. All 4 groups of ICD patients were impaired on tasks exploring spatial-planning and set-shifting tasks compared with the controls. The main difference among patients with pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and compulsive eating was that patients with hypersexuality were more impaired on the Stroop test than patients with pathological gambling. Individuals with hypersexuality, compulsive eating, and multiple ICDs performed worse on verbal learning and memory tests than did patients with pathological gambling. ICDs are associated with impaired cognitive functions; the severity of impairment decreased in the order multiple ICDs and hypersexuality > compulsive eating > pathological gambling. Our findings support the idea that hypersexuality is associated with prefrontal and memory dysfunctions, whereas pathological gambling seems to be related only to frontal dysfunction. NS065070 Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Metacognition in Pathological Gambling and Its Relationship with Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Paula; Urbiola, Irache; Estevez, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Gambling disorder is associated with elevated comorbidity with depressive and anxious disorders, and one variable that might help in the understanding of this association is metacognition. In the present study, the relationship between gambling and metacognition and the mediating role of metacognition in the relationship between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology were assessed. The sample comprised 124 pathological gamblers from centers that assist pathological gamblers and 204 participants from the general population. The results showed that pathological gamblers had higher levels of depressive and anxious symptomatology. Additionally, pathological gamblers had higher scores for positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs of uncontrollability and danger, and beliefs about the need to control thoughts; these factors were also positively correlated with depressive and anxious symptomatology. Metacognition also fully mediated the association between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology. These results suggest that metacognition could contribute to explaining gambling disorder and the symptomatology associated with it.

  8. Associations between Pathological Gambling and Psychiatric Comorbidity among Help-Seeking Populations in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Chan, Elda M. L.; Wong, Ryan H. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Problem gambling is complex and often comorbid with other mental health problems. Unfortunately, gambling studies on comorbid psychiatric disorders among Chinese communities are extremely limited. The objectives of this study were to (a) determine the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers; (b) compare the demographic profiles and clinical features of pathological gamblers with and without comorbid psychiatric disorders; (c) explore the associations between pathological gambling and psychiatric disorders and their temporal relationship. Participants (N = 201) who sought gambling counseling were examined by making Axis-I diagnoses including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, and adjustment disorder. Results showed that 63.7% of participants had lifetime comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common comorbid psychiatric mental disorders were mood disorders, adjustment disorder, and substance use disorders. Pathological gamblers with psychiatric comorbidities were significantly more severe in psychopathology, psychosocial functioning impairment, and gambling problems than those without the disorders. PMID:22778700

  9. Pathological and problem gambling in substance use treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cowlishaw, Sean; Merkouris, Stephanie; Chapman, Anna; Radermacher, Harriet

    2014-02-01

    Pathological and problem gambling refer to a class of disorders, including those meeting criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis (i.e., pathological gambling), and others comprising a spectrum of severity defined by significant personal and social harm (i.e., problem gambling), that may be common in substance use treatment but are frequently unrecognized. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of available evidence indicating the prevalence of such gambling disorders in substance use treatment. It provides weighted mean estimates from across studies of clinical samples of substance users, and suggests around 14% of patients that demonstrate comorbid pathological gambling. Around 23% suffer conditions along the broader spectrum of problem gambling. The review also highlights important limitations of existing evidence, including scant data on current versus lifetime comorbidity, as well as reliance on convenience samples and self-administered measures of gambling problems. Notwithstanding a concomitant need for caution when applying these results, the findings suggest a strong need to identify and manage gambling comorbidity in substance use treatment. Strategies for identification of gambling disorders, and therapies that may provide useful adjunctive interventions in substance use treatment are discussed. © 2013.

  10. Gambling pathology is associated with dampened cortisol response among men and women.

    PubMed

    Paris, J J; Franco, C; Sodano, R; Frye, C A; Wulfert, E

    2010-02-09

    Pathological gambling has many similarities to pharmacological addiction. Notably, both pathological gambling and drug addiction are characterized by aberrations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responding. As well, there are indications that gender differences may play a role in these processes. Whether gender and/or HPA response are associated with pathological gambling was of interest. Recreational and pathological gamblers (15 men and 6 women per group) had the HPA factor, cortisol, assessed in saliva before and after watching a video of their preferred mode of gambling (slot machines, horse race betting, scratch-off tickets, blackjack, video poker, craps, sports betting, online casino games, or lottery tickets), and a video of neutral stimuli (a rollercoaster ride). Basal levels of salivary cortisol did not significantly differ among recreational and pathological gamblers. However, recreational gamblers demonstrated significantly increased salivary cortisol levels after the gambling and rollercoaster videos, whereas pathological gamblers demonstrated no salivary cortisol increase in response to either video stimulus. There was also a non-significant trend for women to have a greater cortisol response to video stimuli compared to men. These data suggest that pathological gambling is associated with hypoactive HPA response to gambling stimuli, similar to chronic drug exposure, and gender may contribute to this effect. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Gambling Pathology is Associated with Dampened Cortisol Response Among Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Paris, J.J.; Franco, C.; Sodano, R.; Frye, C.A.; Wulfert, E.

    2009-01-01

    Pathological gambling has many similarities to pharmacological addiction. Notably, both pathological gambling and drug addiction are characterized by aberrations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responding. As well, there are indications that gender differences may play a role in these processes. Whether gender and/or HPA response are associated with pathological gambling was of interest. Recreational and pathological gamblers (15 men and 6 women per group) had the HPA factor, cortisol, assessed in saliva collected before and after watching a video of their preferred mode of gambling (slot machines, horse race betting, scratch-off tickets, blackjack, video poker, craps, sports betting, online casino games, or lottery tickets), and a video of neutral stimuli (a rollercoaster ride). Basal levels of salivary cortisol did not significantly differ among recreational and pathological gamblers. However, recreational gamblers demonstrated significantly increased salivary cortisol levels after the gambling and rollercoaster videos, whereas pathological gamblers demonstrated no salivary cortisol increase in response to either video stimulus. There was also a non-significant trend for women to have a greater cortisol response to video stimuli compared to men. These data suggest that pathological gambling is associated with hypoactive HPA response to gambling stimuli, similar to chronic drug exposure, and gender may contribute to this effect. PMID:19361537

  12. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in patients with pathological gambling and internet use disorder.

    PubMed

    Geisel, Olga; Panneck, Patricia; Hellweg, Rainer; Wiedemann, Klaus; Müller, Christian A

    2015-03-30

    Alterations in secretion of stress hormones within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have repeatedly been found in substance-related addictive disorders. It has been suggested that glucocorticoids might contribute to the development and maintenance of substance use disorders by facilitatory effects on behavioral responses to substances of abuse. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate HPA axis activity in patients with non-substance-related addictive disorders, i.e. pathological gambling and internet use disorder. We measured plasma levels of copeptin, a vasopressin surrogate marker, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in male patients with pathological gambling (n=14), internet use disorder (n=11) and matched healthy controls for pathological gambling (n=13) and internet use disorder (n=10). Plasma levels of copeptin, ACTH and cortisol in patients with pathological gambling or internet use disorder did not differ among groups. However, cortisol plasma levels correlated negatively with the severity of pathological gambling as measured by the PG-YBOCS. Together with our findings of increased serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in pathological gambling but not internet use disorder, these results suggest that the pathophysiology of pathological gambling shares some characteristics with substance-related addictive disorders on a neuroendocrinological level, whereas those similarities could not be observed in internet use disorder.

  13. Is video-game playing a risk factor for pathological gambling in Australian adolescents?

    PubMed

    Delfabbro, Paul; King, Daniel; Lambos, Chrisi; Puglies, Stan

    2009-09-01

    Very little research has been conducted to examine the relationship between video-game playing and gambling in adolescence. In this study, 2,669 adolescents aged 13-17 years were surveyed to obtained details of their involvement in gambling and video-game playing as well as a measure of pathological gambling (the DSM-IV-J). The results showed that, the frequency of video game playing was significantly related to pathological gambling, but that the effect size was very small and largely accounted for by the greater popularity of both activities amongst boys. There was some evidence for stronger associations between technologically similar activities, namely arcade video games and an interest in gaming machines, but other factors discussed in the paper may also account for this association. In summary, the findings suggested that playing video-games is unlikely to be a significant risk factor for pathological gambling during adolescence.

  14. Retrospective and Prospective Reports of Precipitants to Relapse in Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgins, David C.; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2004-01-01

    A prospective design was used to explore the precipitants of relapse in a naturalistic sample of pathological gamblers (N = 101) who had recently quit gambling. Relapse rates were high; only 8% were entirely free of gambling during the 12-month follow-up. Relapses were highly variable but occurred most frequently in the evening, when the person…

  15. Retrospective and Prospective Reports of Precipitants to Relapse in Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgins, David C.; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2004-01-01

    A prospective design was used to explore the precipitants of relapse in a naturalistic sample of pathological gamblers (N = 101) who had recently quit gambling. Relapse rates were high; only 8% were entirely free of gambling during the 12-month follow-up. Relapses were highly variable but occurred most frequently in the evening, when the person…

  16. Impulsivity as a Moderator and Mediator between Life Stress and Pathological Gambling among Chinese Treatment-Seeking Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-kum; Wu, Anise M. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of impulsivity and its interplay with gambling correlates in influencing the severity of pathological gambling in Chinese societies. It also investigated the extent to which impulsivity would moderate and/or mediate the relationship between life stress and pathological gambling in 94 Chinese treatment-seeking gamblers.…

  17. Impulsivity as a Moderator and Mediator between Life Stress and Pathological Gambling among Chinese Treatment-Seeking Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-kum; Wu, Anise M. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of impulsivity and its interplay with gambling correlates in influencing the severity of pathological gambling in Chinese societies. It also investigated the extent to which impulsivity would moderate and/or mediate the relationship between life stress and pathological gambling in 94 Chinese treatment-seeking gamblers.…

  18. Assessment and management of pathological and problem gambling among older adults.

    PubMed

    Lucke, Sherry; Wallace, Meredith

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of gambling among older adults has risen significantly over the last decade. Pathological and problem gambling disorders among older adults have devastating consequences including stress, alcohol abuse, loss of income and assets, treatment nonadherence, malnutrition, safety risks related to associated alcohol usage and financial losses, and increased psychiatric problems such as depression. This article reviews the theoretical frameworks and literature concerning gambling incidence, prevalence, behavior, diagnostic tools and interventional strategies for older adults, as well as nursing assessment, care planning, and management of gambling disorders.

  19. Marital status, childhood maltreatment, and family dysfunction: a controlled study of pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha C; McCormick, Brett A; Allen, Jeff

    2012-10-01

    Pathological gambling is a prevalent public health problem associated with depression, substance misuse, crime, and suicide. Despite these challenges, little attention has been directed to examining its negative consequences on families and marriages, including divorce rates, childhood maltreatment, and family dysfunction. From February 2005 to June 2010, subjects with DSM-IV-defined pathological gambling and community controls were assessed for marital and family variables and indices of childhood maltreatment. The Family Assessment Device (FAD) was used to evaluate family functioning. Ninety-five subjects with DSM-IV pathological gambling and 91 control subjects without pathological gambling were recruited and assessed. They were similar in age, gender, and employment status. Persons with pathological gambling were more likely than controls to have ≥ 1 divorce (odds ratio [OR] = 2.56; 95% CI, 1.35-4.87; P = .004), to live alone (OR = 4.49; 95% CI, 1.97-10.25; P < .001), and to report any type of childhood maltreatment (OR = 4.02; 95% CI, 2.12-7.64; P < .001). They did not differ on number of siblings or ordinal position among siblings. Pathological gambling subjects reported significantly worse family functioning than control subjects as assessed by all 7 FAD subscales. On the FAD general functioning subscale, 55% of pathological gambling families and 33% of control families were rated "unhealthy" (OR = 2.17; 95% CI, 1.14-4.12; P = .018). Severity of gambling was positively correlated with divorce, childhood maltreatment, and the FAD roles subscale. People with pathological gambling are more likely than controls to have been divorced, to live alone, and to report having experienced childhood maltreatment than controls. They also report greater family dysfunction. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  20. The relationship of pathological gambling to criminality behavior in a sample of Polish male offenders

    PubMed Central

    Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Severe problem gambling is most often related to income producing offences such as larceny and embezzlement. In addition, the high rate of relapse to gambling problems and the link between gambling debts and crime have clinical, forensic and penitentiary implications. Considering the data from the literature presented here I decided to form and empirically verify a hypothesis that incarcerated men with a diagnosis of pathological gambling are characterized by psychopathic personality disorders, alcohol problems and criminality. Material/Methods The groups of participants encompassed 90 men 26–52 years of age, serving a criminal sentence. All participants had to fulfil the following clinical criteria: a) be interviewed by a psychiatrist and diagnosed with pathological gambling and/or antisocial personality disorders b) obtain a result in the PCL-R test; c) estimate the relationship between gambling problems and crime. Taking into consideration the abovementioned criteria three patient test groups were formed: Group 1, which included those for whom gambling had led to crime; Group 2, where gambling was a part of a criminal lifestyle, and Group 3, in which the mutual relationship between gambling and crime was unclear. Results The participants were diagnosed as pathological gamblers (DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10) and psychopaths (PCL-R). Those tested differed with regard to the intensification of the personality disturbance tested, the co-occurrence of other disturbances, particularly psychoactive addictions, the motivations for taking up gambling, and the type of criminal activity. Conclusions The hypothesis was confirmed that incarcerated men with a diagnosis of pathological gambling are characterized by psychopathic personality disorders, alcohol problems and criminality. PMID:22037748

  1. Dimensions and disorder specificity of impulsivity in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Kräplin, Anja; Bühringer, Gerhard; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van den Brink, Wim; Goschke, Thomas; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2014-11-01

    Impulsivity is a core characteristic of pathological gambling (PG), even though the underlying structure and disorder specificity is unclear. This study aimed to explore different dimensions of impulsivity in a clinical sample including PG. Furthermore, we aimed to test which alterations of the impulsivity-related dimensions are disorder specific for PG. Participants were individuals diagnosed with PG (n=51) and two groups also characterized by various impulsive behaviors: an alcohol dependence (AD; n=45) and a Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS; n=49) group. A healthy control (HC; n=53) group was recruited as comparison group. A comprehensive assessment was used including impulsivity-related and antipodal parameters of the Stop Signal Task, Stroop Task, Tower of London Task, Card Playing Task, Iowa Gambling Task and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11. Principal axis factor analysis revealed four impulsivity-related dimensions that were labeled 'self-reported impulsivity', 'prepotent response impulsivity', 'choice impulsivity' and 'motor impulsivity'. The PG group scored significantly higher on all four dimensions compared to the HC group. In contrast, the PG group did not differ on any of the dimensions from the AD or the GTS group, except for 'choice impulsivity' where the PG group exhibited higher factor scores compared to the GTS group. Altogether, PG is associated with generally heightened impulsivity profiles compared to a HC group, which may be further used for intervention strategies. However, heightened scores in the impulsivity dimensions are not disorder specific for PG. Further research on shared or different underlying mechanisms of these overlapping impulsivity impairments is necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk-taking and pathological gambling behavior in Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalkhoven, Carla; Sennef, Cor; Peeters, Ard; van den Bos, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder, which specifically affects striatal neurons of the indirect pathway, resulting in a progressive decline in muscle coordination and loss of emotional and cognitive control. Interestingly, predisposition to pathological gambling and other addictions involves disturbances in the same cortico-striatal circuits that are affected in HD, and display similar disinhibition-related symptoms, including changed sensitivity to punishments and rewards, impulsivity, and inability to consider long-term advantages over short-term rewards. Both HD patients and pathological gamblers also show similar performance deficits on risky decision-making tasks, such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). These similarities suggest that HD patients are a likely risk group for gambling problems. However, such problems have only incidentally been observed in HD patients. In this review, we aim to characterize the risk of pathological gambling in HD, as well as the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Especially with the current rise of easily accessible Internet gambling opportunities, it is important to understand these risks and provide appropriate patient support accordingly. Based on neuropathological and behavioral findings, we propose that HD patients may not have an increased tendency to seek risks and start gambling, but that they do have an increased chance of developing an addiction once they engage in gambling activities. Therefore, current and future developments of Internet gambling possibilities and related addictions should be regarded with care, especially for vulnerable groups like HD patients. PMID:24765067

  3. North American veterinary pathology residency training programs: an overview of where they are today and where they were five years ago, with an analysis of trends.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Reed, Willie M; Kaneene, John B

    2007-01-01

    An e-mail/telephone survey of all active North American residency training programs in veterinary pathology was conducted in September 2005. The purpose of this survey was to determine current numbers of trainees, their program length and type, and salaries; to compare current numbers to five years earlier; and, finally, to gauge interest in expanding current programs. All 41 training institutions contacted responded to the survey. Briefly, the survey found that there are currently 235 veterinary pathology residents, for a mean of 5.7 residents per training program. The number of residents currently in training programs and the number of applicants for these programs has increased compared to five years earlier. There is widespread interest in further expanding capacity in these programs, and the coalition of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and the Society of Toxicologic Pathology is a well-known source of possible funding for additional residents. This survey report further documents the numbers of combined residency/PhD programs, average starting salaries for new residents, outside sponsorship effects on pathology training programs, and some of the common concerns regarding veterinary pathology training programs voiced by the respondents. While residency training capacity has expanded in the last five years, and there is widespread desire to further expand these training programs, a shortage of veterinary pathologists for future market needs will need to be addressed by increased funding from as yet unspecified sources.

  4. Exploring the Relationship Between Treatment Satisfaction, Perceived Improvements in Functioning and Well-Being and Gambling Harm Reduction Among Clients of Pathological Gambling Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Bo; Abarbanel, Brett L. L.; St. John, Sarah; Kalina, Ashlee

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between treatment service quality, perceived improvement in social, functional, and material well-being and reduction in gambling behaviors among clients of Nevada state-funded pathological gambling treatment programs. Utilizing survey data from 361 clients from 2009 to 2010, analyses revealed that client satisfaction with treatment services is positively associated with perceived improvements in social, functional, and material well-being, abstinence from gambling, reduction in gambling thoughts and reduction in problems associated with gambling, even after controlling for various respondent characteristics. These findings can be useful to treatment program staff in managing program development and allocating resources. PMID:23756725

  5. Imbalance in the sensitivity to different types of rewards in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Sescousse, Guillaume; Barbalat, Guillaume; Domenech, Philippe; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2013-08-01

    Pathological gambling is an addictive disorder characterized by a persistent and compulsive desire to engage in gambling activities. This maladaptive behaviour has been suggested to result from a decreased sensitivity to experienced rewards, regardless of reward type. Alternatively, pathological gambling might reflect an imbalance in the sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives. To directly test these two hypotheses, we examined how the brain reward circuit of pathological gamblers responds to different types of rewards. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain responses of 18 pathological gamblers and 20 healthy control subjects while they engaged in a simple incentive task manipulating both monetary and visual erotic rewards. During reward anticipation, the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers showed a differential response to monetary versus erotic cues, essentially driven by a blunted reactivity to cues predicting erotic stimuli. This differential response correlated with the severity of gambling symptoms and was paralleled by a reduced behavioural motivation for erotic rewards. During reward outcome, a posterior orbitofrontal cortex region, responding to erotic rewards in both groups, was further recruited by monetary gains in pathological gamblers but not in control subjects. Moreover, while ventral striatal activity correlated with subjective ratings assigned to monetary and erotic rewards in control subjects, it only correlated with erotic ratings in gamblers. Our results point to a differential sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary rewards in pathological gambling, both at the motivational and hedonic levels. Such an imbalance might create a bias towards monetary rewards, potentially promoting addictive gambling behaviour.

  6. [Pathological gambling and computergame-addiction. Current state of research regarding two subtypes of behavioural addiction].

    PubMed

    Wölfling, K; Müller, K W

    2010-04-01

    Behavioral addictions, like pathological gambling and computer game addiction (or internet addiction), have become a growing concern in research and public interest. Currently similarities between behavioral addictions and substance dependency are controversially discussed in the scientific community. Unfortunately a mismatch exists between the large number of people seeking treatment and the small number of scientific studies on pathological gambling and computer game addiction. Prevalence of pathological gambling among the German population is estimated to be 0.2-0.5%. These estimations are comparable to prevalence rates reported for drug dependency. Latest research states that about 3% of German adolescents and young adults are believed to suffer from computer game addiction. Therefore, it is important to enhance investigations regarding the clinical and neuroscientific basis of computer game addiction. This review offers a summary of current results of research regarding pathological gambling and internet addiction. The phenomenological description of these two disorders is meant to allow a deeper understanding of behavioral addictions.

  7. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.

  8. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student’s t, Pearson’s r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders. PMID:27348555

  9. The prevalence of pathological gambling among college students: a meta-analytic synthesis, 2005-2013.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Donald E; Aloe, Ariel M

    2014-12-01

    The problem of gambling addiction can be especially noteworthy among college and university students, many of whom have the resources, proximity, free time, and desire to become involved in the myriad options of gambling now available. Although limited attention has been paid specifically to college student gambling in the body of literature, there have been two published meta-analyses estimating the prevalence of probable pathological gambling among college students. This present study aims to be the third, presenting an up-to-date proportion of those students exhibiting gambling pathology, and is the first to include international studies from outside the United States and Canada. The purpose of this study was to use the most up-to-date meta-analytical procedures to synthesize the rates of probable pathological gambling for college and university students worldwide. A thorough literature review and coding procedure resulted in 19 independent data estimates retrieved from 18 studies conducted between 2005 and 2013. To synthesize the studies, a random effects model for meta-analysis was applied. The estimated proportion of probable pathological gamblers among the over 13,000 college students surveyed was computed at 10.23%, considerably higher than either of the two previously published meta-analyses, and more than double the rate reported in the first meta-analysis of this type published in 1999. Implications and recommendations for future practice in dealing with college students and gambling addiction are outlined and described for both administrators and mental health professionals.

  10. Non-substance-addictive behaviors in youth: pathological gambling and problematic Internet use.

    PubMed

    Brezing, Christina; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Potenza, Marc N

    2010-07-01

    Adolescence is characterized by participation in multiple novel and potentially risky behaviors. Amongst these behaviors are gambling and use of the Internet, and excessive engagement in these activities (as seen in pathological gambling and problematic Internet use) may be accompanied by serious impairments in school, mental health, and social functioning. This article reviews the potential impact of pathological gambling and problematic Internet use in youth, the relevance of subsyndromal levels of participation, and how prevention and treatment strategies may be considered and tested within a developmental framework.

  11. Irrational beliefs, biases and gambling: exploring the role of animal models in elucidating vulnerabilities for the development of pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Cocker, P J; Winstanley, C A

    2015-02-15

    Gambling is a heterogeneous and complex disorder. Multiple factors may lead to problem gambling, yet one of the most important appears to be the increased presence of cognitive biases or distortions. These biases are thought to precipitate gambling as they can lead to dysfunctional decision making under risk or ambiguity. Modelling these cognitive perturbations in animals can improve our understanding of their neurobiological bases, and potentially stimulate novel treatment options. The first aim of this review is to give a broad overview of some of the cognitive biases that are most commonly associated with gambling. Secondly, we will discuss several animal models that we have developed in which rodent decision-making appears hallmarked by the same cognitive inconsistencies as human choice. In particular, we will discuss two tasks that capture elements of risk and loss averse decision making, and another in which rats appear susceptible to the 'near-miss' effect. To date, findings from both human and non-human studies suggest that these different biases are neuropharmacologically and neurostructurally dissociable, and that dopamine plays a key role in their expression. Lastly, we will briefly discuss areas in both human and animal research where limitations within the field may be hampering a more complete understanding of pathological gambling as a disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive distortions and ADHD in pathological gambling: A national longitudinal case-control cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Romo, Lucia; Legauffre, Cindy; Guilleux, Alice; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The primary outcome of our study was to assess the links between the level of cognitive distortions and the severity of gambling disorder. We also aimed at assessing the links between patient gambling trajectories and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials and methods The study population (n = 628) was comprised of problem and non-problem gamblers of both sexes between 18 and 65 years of age, who reported gambling on at least one occasion during the previous year. Data encompassed socio-demographic characteristics, gambling habits, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey – 23, the Wender Utah Rating Scale – Child, and the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale. Results The cognitive distortions with the greatest correlation to the severity of gambling disorder were the “Chasing” and “Emotions.” These two dimensions were able to distinguish between problem gamblers seeking treatment or not. While age of onset of gambling and length of gambling practice were not associated with the level of distorted cognitions, a period of abstinence of at least 1 month was associated with a lower level of distorted cognitions. The presence of ADHD resulted in a higher level of distorted cognitions. Conclusion Cognitive work is essential to the prevention, and the treatment, of pathological gambling, especially with respect to emotional biases and chasing behavior. The instauration of an abstinence period of at least 1 month under medical supervision could be a promising therapeutic lead for reducing gambling-related erroneous thoughts and for improving care strategies of pathological gamblers. PMID:27774813

  13. Towards DSM-V: considering other withdrawal-like symptoms of pathological gambling disorder.

    PubMed

    Cunningham-Williams, Renee M; Gattis, Maurice N; Dore, Peter M; Shi, Peichang; Spitznagel, Edward L

    2009-01-01

    Despite clinical reports of other withdrawal-like symptoms, the DSM-IV considers only restlessness/irritability as a withdrawal-like criterion comprising pathological gambling disorder (PGD). We explored whether this criterion should be broadened to include other gambling withdrawal-like symptoms.Community-recruited adult gamblers (n = 312) participated in telephone interviews about gambling and related behaviors as a part of a larger psychometric study. Frequency and chi-square analyses described the association of gambling withdrawal-like symptoms by gambling disorder status. Multinomial forward selection logistic regression obtained a multivariate model describing the simultaneous relationship between these symptoms and gambling disorder status.One-quarter of the sample experienced the DSM-IV PGD criterion of restlessness/irritability. However, 41% experienced additional gambling withdrawal-like symptoms when attempting to quit or control gambling. A model including restlessness/irritability and three additional non-DSM-IV withdrawal-like symptoms (i.e. feelings of anger, guilt, and disappointment) is a stronger model of gambling disorder (chi(2) = 217.488; df = 8, p < 0.0001; R(2) = 0.5428; p < 0.0001) than restlessness/irritability alone (chi(2) = 151.278; df = 2, p < 0.0001; R(2) = 0.4133). The overlap of gambling withdrawal-like symptoms with substance use withdrawal (11%) and depressive symptoms (34%) failed to fully account for these associations with gambling disorder status.Future PGD conceptualization and potential criteria revisions for DSM-V may warrant a broader inclusion of gambling withdrawal-like symptoms.

  14. [Prevalence of pathological gambling in the general population around Paris: preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Legauffre, C; Genolini, C; Lucas, C; Morvannou, A; Lerfel, Y; Adès, J

    2011-09-01

    Pathological gambling is characterized in the DSM IV-TR as one of the disorders of impulse control. Problem gambling is also part of what is considered as behavioural addictions, the criteria of which have been defined by Goodman, with intrusive thoughts about the game, spending more and more to play, unable to control, reduce or stop gambling despite negative consequences, etc. There is no epidemiological study in France on the prevalence of pathological gambling. We wanted to study the prevalence of pathological gambling in a sample of 529 persons: 368 gamblers of Pari Mutuel Urbain and La Française des Jeux, and 161 persons in the general population. The study took place between January 2008 and June 2009. As instruments, we used: the South Oaks Gambling Scale (SOGS) for screening of pathological gambling and the BIS-10 for impulsiveness' evaluation, the HAD scale to assess anxiety and depression and the ASRS for the evaluation of attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The rate of pathological gambling in the general population is 1.24% (this result is similar to those found in other places, such as in Quebec). In the general population, the rate of play at risk is of 5.59%. Among the population of gamblers, the rate for pathological gambling (JP) amounted to 9.23% and risk gambling to 10.86%. Men are overrepresented in the group of pathological gamblers (88.9%), also with consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Suicide attempts are more important than in the general population, but the difference was statistically significant. Depression and anxiety are particularly high, 40% of gamblers with an anxiety score significantly higher. The results indicate rates close to those of other countries, such as Canada. It would be necessary to establish follow-up studies of populations and patients, as well as specific studies on people who frequent casinos, racetracks and internet gambling. The importance of the phenomenon is obvious, because almost 20% of

  15. Compulsive features in behavioural addictions: the case of pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Mudry, Tanya; Zohar, Joseph; Tavares, Hermano; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-10-01

    To describe, in the context of DSM-V, how a focus on addiction and compulsion is emerging in the consideration of pathological gambling (PG). A systematic literature review of evidence for the proposed re-classification of PG as an addiction. Findings include: (i) phenomenological models of addiction highlighting a motivational shift from impulsivity to compulsivity associated with a protracted withdrawal syndrome and blurring of the ego-syntonic/ego-dystonic dichotomy; (ii) common neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin) contributions to PG and substance use disorders (SUDs); (iii) neuroimaging support for shared neurocircuitries between 'behavioural' and substance addictions and differences between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), impulse control disorders (ICDs) and SUDs; (iv) genetic findings more closely related to endophenotypic constructs such as compulsivity and impulsivity than to psychiatric disorders; (v) psychological measures such as harm avoidance identifying a closer association between SUDs and PG than with OCD; (vi) community and pharmacotherapeutic trials data supporting a closer association between SUDs and PG than with OCD. Adapted behavioural therapies, such as exposure therapy, appear applicable to OCD, PG or SUDs, suggesting some commonalities across disorders. PG shares more similarities with SUDs than with OCD. Similar to the investigation of impulsivity, studies of compulsivity hold promising insights concerning the course, differential diagnosis and treatment of PG, SUDs, and OCD. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Compulsive features in behavioral addictions: the case of pathological gambling

    PubMed Central

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Mudry, Tanya; Zohar, Joseph; Tavares, Hermano; Potenza, Marc N.

    2011-01-01

    Aims To describe, in the context of DSM-V, how a focus on addiction and compulsion is emerging in the consideration of pathological gambling (PG). Methods A systematic literature review of evidence for the proposed re-classification of PG as an addiction. Results Findings include: 1. Phenomenological models of addiction highlighting a motivational shift from impulsivity to compulsivity associated with a protracted withdrawal syndrome and blurring of the ego-syntonic/ego-dystonic dichotomy; 2. Common neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin) contributions to PG and substance use disorders (SUDs); 3. Neuroimaging support for shared neurocircuitries between “behavioral” and substance addictions and differences between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), impulse control disorders (ICDs) and SUDs; 4. Genetic findings more closely related to endophenotypic constructs like compulsivity and impulsivity than to psychiatric disorders; 5. Psychological measures such as harm avoidance identifying a closer association between SUDs and PG than with OCD; 6. Community and pharmaco-therapeutic trials data supporting a closer association between SUDs and PG than with OCD. Adapted behavioral therapies, such as exposure therapy appear applicable to OCD, PG, or SUDs, suggesting some commonalities across disorders. Conclusions PG shares more similarities with SUDs than with OCD. Similar to the investigation of impulsivity, studies of compulsivity hold promising insights concerning the course, differential diagnosis and treatment of PG, SUDs, and OCD. PMID:21985690

  17. Neurobiological considerations in understanding behavioral treatments for pathological gambling

    PubMed Central

    Potenza, Marc N.; Balodis, Iris M.; Franco, Christine A.; Bullock, Scott; Xu, Jiansong; Chung, Tammy; Grant, Jon E.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG), a disorder currently categorized as an impulse-control disorder but being considered as a non-substance addiction in DSM-5 discussions, represents a significant public health concern. Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made with respect to understanding the biological underpinnings of PG. Research has also demonstrated the efficacies of multiple treatments, particularly behavioral therapies, for treating PG. Despite these advances, relatively little is known regarding how biological measures, particularly those assessing brain function, relate to treatments for PG. In this article, we present a conceptual review focusing on the neurobiology of behavioral therapies for PG. To illustrate issues related to study design, we present proof-of-concept preliminary data that link Stroop-related brain activations prior to treatment onset to treatment outcome in individuals with PG receiving a cognitive behavioral treatment incorporating aspects of imaginal desensitization and motivational interviewing. We conclude with recommendations about current and future directions regarding how to incorporate and translate biological findings into improved therapies for individuals with non-substance and substance addictions. PMID:23586456

  18. Cognitive-behavioural treatment of pathological gambling in individuals with chronic schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Gómez, Montserrat; Freixa, Montserrat

    2011-11-01

    The current study aimed to test the clinical effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural program (CBT) specifically adapted for pathological gamblers with chronic schizophrenia, carried out in a naturalistic setting of community Mental Health Centres. Forty-four pathological gamblers with chronic schizophrenia were assigned either to a standard drug therapy for schizophrenia (control group) or to cognitive-behavioural therapy for pathological gambling plus a standard drug therapy for schizophrenia (experimental group). Psychological treatment comprised a 20-session program including psychoeducation, stimulus control, gradual exposure and relapse prevention. Therapeutic success was defined as abstinence or the occurrence of only 1 or 2 episodes of gambling during the follow-up period. While the patients treated in the experimental group showed a rate of success of 73.9%, only 19% of the participants belonging to the control group gave up gambling at the 3-month follow-up. The CBT group also did better than the control group in the number of gambling episodes and in the amount of money spent on gambling. However, the improvement of the experimental group was weaker at the 6- and 12-month follow-up. These findings support the beneficial effects of CBT as adjunctive therapy for patients with dual diagnoses (schizophrenia and pathological gambling). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The "Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology" (PAGE) study program: design and fieldwork.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christian; Bischof, Anja; Westram, Anja; Jeske, Christine; de Brito, Susanna; Glorius, Sonja; Schön, Daniela; Porz, Sarah; Gürtler, Diana; Kastirke, Nadin; Hayer, Tobias; Jacobi, Frank; Lucht, Michael; Premper, Volker; Gilberg, Reiner; Hess, Doris; Bischof, Gallus; John, Ulrich; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    The German federal states initiated the "Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology" (PAGE) program to evaluate the public health relevance of pathological gambling. The aim of PAGE was to estimate the prevalence of pathological gambling and cover the heterogenic presentation in the population with respect to comorbid substance use and mental disorders, risk and protective factors, course aspects, treatment utilization, triggering and maintenance factors of remission, and biological markers. This paper describes the methodological details of the study and reports basic prevalence data. Two sampling frames (landline and mobile telephone numbers) were used to generate a random sample from the general population consisting of 15,023 individuals (ages 14 to 64) completing a telephone interview. Additionally, high-risk populations have been approached in gambling locations, via media announcements, outpatient addiction services, debt counselors, probation assistants, self-help groups and specialized inpatient treatment facilities. The assessment included two steps: (1) a diagnostic interview comprising the gambling section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for case finding; (2) an in-depth clinical interview with participants reporting gambling problems. The in-depth clinical interview was completed by 594 participants, who were recruited from the general or high-risk populations. The program provides a rich epidemiological database which is available as a scientific use file. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Twenty-five years of accomplishments of the College of American Pathologists Q-probes program for clinical pathology.

    PubMed

    Howanitz, Peter J; Perrotta, Peter L; Bashleben, Christine P; Meier, Frederick A; Ramsey, Glenn E; Massie, Larry W; Zimmerman, Roberta L; Karcher, Donald S

    2014-09-01

    During the past 25 years, the College of American Pathologists' (CAP) Q-Probes program has been available as a subscription program to teach laboratorians how to improve the quality of clinical laboratory services. To determine the accomplishments of the CAP Q-Probes program. We reviewed Q-Probes participant information, study data and conclusions, author information, and program accomplishments. During this time 117 Q-Probes clinical pathology studies were conducted by 54 authors and coauthors, 42,899 laboratories enrolled from 24 countries, 98 peer-reviewed publications occurred and were cited more than 1600 times, and the studies were featured 59 times in CAP Today. The most frequent studies (19) focused on turnaround times for results or products at specific locations (emergency department, operating room, inpatients, outpatients), specific diseases (acute myocardial infarction, urinary tract), availability for specific events such as morning rounds or surgery, a specific result (positive blood cultures), and a method on how to use data for improvement (stat test outliers). Percentile ranking of study participants with better performance provided benchmarks for each study with attributes statistically defined that influenced improved performance. Other programs, such as an ongoing quality improvement program (Q-Tracks), a laboratory competency assessment program, a pathologist certification program, and an ongoing physician practice evaluation program (Evalumetrics), have been developed from Q-Probes studies. The CAP's Q-Probes program has made significant contributions to the medical literature and has developed a worldwide reputation for improving the quality of clinical pathology services worldwide.

  1. A Required Rotation in Clinical Laboratory Management for Pathology Residents: Five-Year Experience at Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Arvind; Hoda, Syed T; Crawford, James M

    2016-01-01

    Leadership and management training during pathology residency have been identified repeatedly by employers as insufficient. A 1-month rotation in clinical laboratory management (CLM) was created for third-year pathology residents. We report on our experience and assess the value of this rotation. The rotation was one-half observational and one-half active. The observational component involved being a member of department and laboratory service line leadership, both at the departmental and institutional level. Observational participation enabled learning of both the content and principles of leadership and management activities. The active half of the rotation was performance of a project intended to advance the strategic trajectory of the department and laboratory service line. In our program that matriculates 4 residents per year, 20 residents participated from April 2010 through December 2015. Their projects either activated a new priority area or helped propel an existing strategic priority forward. Of the 16 resident graduates who had obtained their first employment or a fellowship position, 9 responded to an assessment survey. The majority of respondents (5/9) felt that the rotation significantly contributed to their ability to compete for a fellowship or their first employment position. The top reported benefits of the rotation included people management; communication with staff, departmental, and institutional leadership; and involvement in department and institutional meetings and task groups. Our 5-year experience demonstrates both the successful principles by which the CLM rotation can be established and the high value of this rotation to residency graduates.

  2. Pathological gambling in Estonia: relationships with personality, self-esteem, emotional States and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kaare, Pille-Riin; Mõttus, René; Konstabel, Kenn

    2009-09-01

    Due to changes in gambling accessibility during the last decade gambling has become more widespread in Estonia and the prevalence of pathological gambling has sharply increased. The present study attempts to identify psychological characteristics of Estonian pathological gamblers. It has been shown that a wide range of social, economic, and individual factors (e.g. personality traits and emotional states) predict the likelihood of becoming a pathological gambler. In the present study, pathological gamblers' (N = 33) personality traits, self-esteem, self-reported emotional states and cognitive ability were compared to the respective characteristics in a non-gambling control group (N = 42) matched for age, gender and educational level. It was found that compared to controls, pathological gamblers had higher scores on Neuroticism (especially on its immoderation facet) and lower scores on Conscientiousness (especially on its dutifulness and cautiousness facets) and on self-esteem scale. They reported more negative emotional states during the previous month (especially depression and anxiety). Finally, pathological gamblers had lower general cognitive ability. In a logistic regression model, the likelihood of being a pathological gambler was best predicted by high immoderation score and low cognitive ability.

  3. Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of substance use disorders and pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Wim

    2012-03-01

    This review summarizes our current knowledge of the pharmacological treatment of substance use disorders and pathological gambling using data mainly from randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses regarding these randomized controlled trials. The review is restricted to the selection of first and second line pharmacological treatments for smoking, alcohol dependence, opioid dependence, cocaine dependence, cannabis dependence and pathological gambling. It is concluded that great progress has been made in the last three decades and that currently evidence-based pharmacological treatments are available for smoking cessation, alcohol and opioid dependence and pathological gambling. At the same time a series of existing and new pharmacological compounds are being tested in cocaine and cannabis dependence. The review concludes with a summary of additional strategies to increase the effect size of already available pharmacological interventions, including polypharmacy, combining pharmacotherapy with psychotherapy and psychosocial support, and improved patient-treatment matching.

  4. Techno economic systems and excessive consumption: a political economy of 'pathological' gambling.

    PubMed

    Reith, Gerda

    2013-12-01

    This article argues that gambling is a paradigmatic form of consumption that captures the intensified logic at the heart of late modern capitalist societies. As well as a site of intensified consumption, it claims that gambling has also become the location of what has been described as a new form of 'social pathology' related to excess play. Drawing on Castells' (1996) notion of techno-economic systems, it explores the ways that intersections between technology, capital and states have generated the conditions for this situation, and critiques the unequal distribution of gambling environments that result. It argues that, while the products of these systems are consumed on a global scale, the risks associated with them tend to be articulated in bio-psychological discourses of 'pathology' which are typical of certain types of knowledge that have salience in neo-liberal societies, and which work to conceal wider structural relationships. We argue that a deeper understanding of the political and cultural economy of gambling environments is necessary, and provide a synoptic overview of the conditions upon which gambling expansion is based. This perspective highlights parallels with the wider global economy of finance capital, as well as the significance of intensified consumption, of which gambling is an exemplary instance. It also reveals the existence of a geo-political dispersal of 'harms', conceived as deteriorations of financial, temporal and social relationships, which disproportionately affect vulnerable social groups. From this, we urge an understanding of commercial gambling based on a critique of the wider social body of gambling environments within techno economic systems, rather than the (flawed) individual bodies within them.

  5. Pathological gambling plus hypersexuality in restless legs syndrome: a new case.

    PubMed

    d'Orsi, Giuseppe; Demaio, Vincenzo; Specchio, L M

    2011-08-01

    Emerging clinical data indicate that dopaminergic agonists used to treat restless legs syndrome may be associated with dopamine dysregulation syndrome, particularly pathological gambling. We report a new case with pathological gambling plus hypersexuality and impotence in an old patient treated with a small dose (0.18 mg daily at bedtime) of pramipexole for restless legs syndrome for 5 months. The time relationship and the resolution upon discontinuation of dopaminergic agonists suggest a causative association. Our new case confirms that restless legs syndrome patients should be cautioned about potential dopamine dysregulation syndrome coinciding with dopaminergic agonists, as it can be reversed by drug withdrawal.

  6. Subtyping pathological gamblers on the basis of affective motivations for gambling: relations to gambling problems, drinking problems, and affective motivations for drinking.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Sherry H; Zack, Martin; Collins, Pamela; Klein, Raymond M

    2008-06-01

    Pathological gamblers who drink when gambling (n=158; 77% men; mean age=36.0 years) completed the Inventory of Gambling Situations (IGS) and gambling and drinking criterion measures. Principal components analysis on the IGS subscales revealed negative (e.g., Unpleasant Emotions) and positive (e.g., Pleasant Emotions) gambling situation factors. Subjecting IGS factor scores to cluster analysis revealed three clusters: (a) enhancement gamblers, with low negative and high positive factor scores; (b) coping gamblers, with very high negative and high positive factor scores; and (c) low emotion regulation gamblers, with low negative and positive factor scores (59%, 23%, and 18% of the sample, respectively). Clusters were validated with a direct measure of gambling motives. Additional validity analyses showed that coping gamblers scored higher than the other groups on a variety of different gambling activities, gambling problems, drinking frequency, drinking problems, and coping drinking motives, whereas low emotion regulation gamblers scored lower than the other groups on gambling frequency, gambling problems, drinking quantity, and enhancement drinking motives. The findings validate this empirical approach to subtyping gamblers and suggest consistency of motives across addictive behaviors.

  7. Subtypes of Pathological Gambling with Concurrent Illegal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Sauchelli, Sarah; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Islam, Mohammed A; Tàrrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are: to explore empirical clusters in a sample of individuals with a gambling disorder (GD) according to the presence of illegal behaviors, to describe the subgroups at a clinical level and to examine whether a temporal change has taken place across the last 9 years. The sample consisted of 378 patients with a GD who consecutively received outpatient treatment, and who reported the presence of the DSM-IV criteria "presence of illegal behavior". Two-step clustering procedure revealed the existence of four empirical groups, which differed in both sociodemographic and clinical profiles. The patients, who have committed illegal acts due to their gambling behavior, are a heterogeneous group in which it is possible to identify different subtypes, based on sociodemographic, psychopathological, clinical and personality characteristics.

  8. Internet-based treatment of pathological gambling with a three-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Carlbring, Per; Degerman, Nicklas; Jonsson, Jakob; Andersson, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, but their use is limited to about 10% of the target population. In an attempt to lower the barriers for help, Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective when delivered to a non-depressed sample with pathological gambling. This study sought to extend this finding to a larger, more representative population, and also test a model to predict responder status. Following advertisement, a total of 284 participants started an 8-week ICBT programme with minimal therapist contact via e-mail and weekly telephone calls of less than 15 min. The average time spent on each participant, including telephone conversations, e-mail, and administration, was 4 h. In addition to a mixed effects model to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, two logistic regression analyses were performed with the following eight pre-defined response predictor variables: work-life satisfaction, primary gambling activity, debts due to gambling, social support, personal yearly salary, alcohol consumption, stage of change, and dissociative gambling. ICBT resulted in statistically significant reductions in the scores of pathological gambling, anxiety, and depression as well as an increase in quality of life compared to pre-treatment levels. Follow-ups carried out in the treatment group at 6, 18, and 36 months indicated that treatment effects were sustained. Using the eight predictor variable model rendered an acceptable predictive ability to identify responders both at post-test (AUC = .72, p < .01) and at 36-month follow-up (AUC = .70, p < .01). We conclude that ICBT for pathological gamblers, even if depressed, can be effective and that outcome can partly be predicted by pre-treatment characteristics.

  9. A prospective follow-up study of younger and older subjects with pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a common and costly public health problem associated with impaired quality of life and high suicide rates. Despite its frequency in the general population, PG course is poorly understood in older adults who are especially vulnerable to its devastating consequences. We enrolled 175 subjects in a longitudinal study of gambling behavior: our case group of 53 older adults with PG (≥ 60 years), and two comparison groups including 72 younger adults with PG (< 40 years) and 50 older adults without PG (≥ 60 years). Subjects with PG met lifetime criteria for DSM-IV PG and had a South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS) scores ≥ 5. Subjects were evaluated at intake and reassessed every 6 months and drop outs were replaced. Follow-up lasted a mean (SD) of 2.6 (1.4) years. At intake older PGs were more likely to be female, Caucasian, divorced, and to have a lower level of education. Older and younger PGs were similar in gambling severity, but older PGs were more likely to have sought PG treatment. Older PGs had lower rates of lifetime drug use disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. They preferred slots, were more likely to receive PG treatment, and were less likely to discontinue participation in the study. Week by week gambling activity levels showed a significant general downward movement for older and younger PGs, although there were no differences between the groups. Elders without PG had no change in their level of gambling activity. We conclude that younger and older PGs moved toward a reduced level of gambling activity during follow-up. Our data challenge the notion that PG is chronic and progressive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between exposure to childhood and lifetime traumatic events and lifetime pathological gambling in a twin cohort.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Xian, Hong; Kapp, Julie M Krygiel; Waterman, Brian; Shah, Kamini R; Volberg, Rachel; Eisen, Seth A

    2007-01-01

    The present study seeks to estimate the strength of the association between exposure to lifetime traumatic events and gambling problems while accounting for the potential contribution of psychiatric disorders, genetic factors, and family environmental influences. In 2002, structured diagnostic interviews were conducted with 1675 male twins to obtain data on exposure to traumatic events and pathological gambling. Multinomial regression tested for associations between each traumatic event and three levels of problem gambling (1-2 symptoms, at risk; 3-4 symptoms, problem gambling, and 5 or more symptoms, pathological gambling). Analyses of data from twin pairs discordant for gambling behavior controlled for genetic and family environmental factors. After adjustment for covariates, child abuse (relative risk [RR]=2.31), child neglect (RR=5.53), witnessing someone badly hurt or killed (RR=2.83), and physical attack (RR=3.39) were associated with pathological gambling. Genetic and family environmental factors significantly contributed to the association between exposure to traumatic events and one or more symptoms of problem gambling. Exposure to childhood and lifetime traumatic events are significantly associated with problem and pathological gambling. These associations are partially accounted for by psychiatric covariates and genetic and family environmental factors.

  11. A Study on Problem and Pathological Gambling among University Students in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, A. R.; Blanksby, P.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the correlates of problem and pathological gambling among university students in South Australia. Convenience sampling method was used to select participants ("n" = 163; 55.2 per cent women, 44.8 per cent men; age range 17-57 years) from two faculties in a South Australian university. A…

  12. A Study on Problem and Pathological Gambling among University Students in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, A. R.; Blanksby, P.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the correlates of problem and pathological gambling among university students in South Australia. Convenience sampling method was used to select participants ("n" = 163; 55.2 per cent women, 44.8 per cent men; age range 17-57 years) from two faculties in a South Australian university. A…

  13. Aberrant neural signatures of decision-making: Pathological gamblers display cortico-striatal hypersensitivity to extreme gambles.

    PubMed

    Gelskov, Sofie V; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Ramsøy, Thomas Z; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2016-03-01

    Pathological gambling is an addictive disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to gamble despite severe consequences. One of the hallmarks of pathological gambling is maladaptive and highly risky decision-making, which has been linked to dysregulation of reward-related brain regions such as the ventral striatum. However, previous studies have produced contradictory results regarding the implication of this network, revealing either hypo- or hypersensitivity to monetary gains and losses. One possible explanation is that the gambling brain might be misrepresenting the benefits and costs when weighting the potential outcomes, and not the gains and losses per se. To address this issue, we investigated whether pathological gambling is associated with abnormal brain activity during decisions that weight the utility of possible gains against possible losses. Pathological gamblers and healthy human subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they accepted or rejected mixed gain/loss gambles with fifty-fifty chances of winning or losing. Contrary to healthy individuals, gamblers showed a U-shaped response profile reflecting hypersensitivity to the most appetitive and most aversive bets in an executive cortico-striatal network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus. This network is concerned with the evaluation of action-outcome contingencies, monitoring recent actions and anticipating their consequences. The dysregulation of this specific network, especially for extreme bets with large potentials consequences, offers a novel understanding of the neural basis of pathological gambling in terms of deficient associations between gambling actions and their financial impact.

  14. Using STN DBS and medication reduction as a strategy to treat pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bandini, Fabio; Primavera, Alberto; Pizzorno, Matteo; Cocito, Leonardo

    2007-08-01

    We describe two patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who developed clinical criteria of pathological gambling addiction in the setting of increased dopamine replacement therapy (levodopa and dopamine agonist medications). The second patient showed also signs of dopamine dysregulation syndrome, with an addiction to dopaminergic medication. Neither patients responded to the standard therapy for gambling behavior, but dramatically improved after bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) and early postoperative withdrawal of dopaminergic therapy. The possible therapeutic role of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on such a disabling behavior needs to be investigated prospectively.

  15. [Computer games and Internet addiction as well as pathological gambling. Therapy approaches].

    PubMed

    Wölfling, K; Leménager, T; Peukert, P; Batra, A

    2013-05-01

    In accordance with the development of substance-related disorders, behavioral addictions, such as internet use disorder and pathological gambling are regarded as repetitive excessive behavior which increasingly turns into an automatic action which is difficult to control intentionally. This automatic behavior is reinforced by learning processes, associated with neuroadaption, especially in the dopaminergic reward system. Treatment aims at finding alternatives for gambling or online activities and reducing times online so that social contacts need to be re-established. The following article provides a short overview on studies assessing the effects of different psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions and details psychotherapeutic treatment options.

  16. Impulsivity and cognitive distortions in pathological gamblers attending the UK National Problem Gambling Clinic: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Michalczuk, R.; Bowden-Jones, H.; Verdejo-Garcia, A.; Clark, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pathological gambling (PG) is a form of behavioural addiction that has been associated with elevated impulsivity and also cognitive distortions in the processing of chance, probability and skill. We sought to assess the relationship between the level of cognitive distortions and state and trait measures of impulsivity in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Method Thirty pathological gamblers attending the National Problem Gambling Clinic, the first National Health Service clinic for gambling problems in the UK, were compared with 30 healthy controls in a case-control design. Cognitive distortions were assessed using the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS). Trait impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P, which includes scales of urgency, the tendency to be impulsive in positive or negative mood states. Delay discounting rates were taken as a state measure of impulsive choice. Results Pathological gamblers had elevated impulsivity on several UPPS-P subscales but effect sizes were largest (Cohen's d>1.4) for positive and negative urgency. The pathological gamblers also displayed higher levels of gambling distortions, and elevated preference for immediate rewards, compared to controls. Within the pathological gamblers, there was a strong relationship between the preference for immediate rewards and the level of cognitive distortions (R2=0.41). Conclusions Impulsive choice in the gamblers was correlated with the level of gambling distortions, and we hypothesize that an impulsive decision-making style may increase the acceptance of erroneous beliefs during gambling play. PMID:21733207

  17. Neurobiology of Gambling Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    For many, gambling is a recreational activity that is performed periodically without ill effects, but for some, gambling may interfere with life functioning. A diagnostic entity, pathological gambling, is currently used to define a condition marked by excessive and problematic gambling. In this review, the current status of understanding of the neurobiologies of gambling and pathological gambling is described. Multiple neurotransmitter systems (norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioid and glutamate) and brain regions (ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, insula, among others) have been implicated in gambling and pathological gambling. Considerations for future directions in gambling research, with a view towards translating neurobiological advances into more effective prevention and treatment strategies, are discussed. PMID:23541597

  18. Predictability in Pathological Gambling? Applying the Duplication of Purchase Law to the Understanding of Cross-Purchases Between Regular and Pathological Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Lam, Desmond; Mizerski, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the gambling participations and game purchase duplication of light regular, heavy regular and pathological gamblers by applying the Duplication of Purchase Law. Current study uses data collected by the Australian Productivity Commission for eight different types of games. Key behavioral statistics on light regular, heavy regular, and pathological gamblers were computed and compared. The key finding is that pathological gambling, just like regular gambling, follows the Duplication of Purchase Law, which states that the dominant factor of purchase duplication between two brands is their market shares. This means that gambling between any two games at pathological level, like any regular consumer purchases, exhibits "law-like" regularity based on the pathological gamblers' participation rate of each game. Additionally, pathological gamblers tend to gamble more frequently across all games except lotteries and instant as well as make greater cross-purchases compared to heavy regular gamblers. A better understanding of the behavioral traits between regular (particularly heavy regular) and pathological gamblers can be useful to public policy makers and social marketers in order to more accurately identify such gamblers and better manage the negative impacts of gambling.

  19. Pathological gambling and personality disorders: an exploratory study with the IPDE.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2004-10-01

    This article describes the most frequent personality disorders related to pathological gambling. Participants included 50 pathological gamblers assessed with the IPDE, and 50 normative subjects from the general population with the same demographic features (age, sex, and socioeconomic level). Thirty-two percent of the clinical sample (vs. the 8% of the normative sample) showed at least one personality disorder. The most prevalent disorders were Borderline (16%), followed by Antisocial, Paranoid, Narcissistic, and Non-specified (8% each). Gamblers with personality disorders presented an average of 1.5 disorders and they reported higher gambling severity and more severe symptoms of anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse. The implications of this study for clinical practice and research are discussed.

  20. A study of the dopamine D2 receptor gene in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Comings, D E; Rosenthal, R J; Lesieur, H R; Rugle, L J; Muhleman, D; Chiu, C; Dietz, G; Gade, R

    1996-06-01

    Pathological gambling has been termed both the 'pure' and the 'hidden' addiction. 'Pure' because it is not associated with the intake of any addicting substance, and 'hidden' because it is an extension of a common, socially accepted behaviour. The Taq A1 variant of the human DRD2 gene has been associated with drug addiction, some forms of severe alcoholism, and other impulsive, addictive behaviours. We have sought to determine if there is a similar association with pathological gambling. A total of 222 non-Hispanic Caucasian pathological gamblers from multiple sites across the US participated in the study. Of these 171 donated a sample of blood, 127 filled out several questionnaires, and 102 did both. Of the 171 pathological gamblers 50.9% carried the D2A1 allele versus 25.9% of the 714 known non-Hispanic Caucasian controls screened to exclude drug and alcohol abuse, p < 0.00000001, odds ratio (OR) = 2.96. For the 102 gamblers who filled out the questionnaires, 63.8% of those in the upper half of the Pathological Gambling Score (more severe) carried the D2A1 allele (OR versus controls = 5.03), compared to 40.9% in the lower half (less severe). Of those who had no comorbid substance abuse, 44.1% carried the D2A1 allele, compared to 60.5% of those who had comorbid substance abuse. Forty-eight controls and 102 gamblers completed a shorter version of the Pathological Gambling Score. Of the 45 controls with a score of zero, 17.8% carried the D2A1 allele. Of the 99 gamblers with a score of 5 or more, 52.5% carried the D2A1 allele (chi 2 = 15.36, p = 0.00009). These results suggest that genetic variants at the DRD2 gene play a role in pathological gambling, and support the concept that variants of this gene are a risk factor for impulsive and addictive behaviours.

  1. Impaired probability estimation and decision-making in pathological gambling poker players.

    PubMed

    Linnet, Jakob; Frøslev, Mette; Ramsgaard, Stine; Gebauer, Line; Mouridsen, Kim; Wohlert, Victoria

    2012-03-01

    Poker has gained tremendous popularity in recent years, increasing the risk for some individuals to develop pathological gambling. Here, we investigated cognitive biases in a computerized two-player poker task against a fictive opponent, among 12 pathological gambling poker players (PGP), 10 experienced poker players (ExP), and 11 inexperienced poker players (InP). Players were compared on probability estimation and decision-making with the hypothesis that ExP would have significantly lower cognitive biases than PGP and InP, and that the groups could be differentiated based on their cognitive bias styles. The results showed that ExP had a significantly lower average error margin in probability estimation than PGP and InP, and that PGP played hands with lower winning probability than ExP. Binomial logistic regression showed perfect differentiation (100%) between ExP and PGP, and 90.5% classification accuracy between ExP and InP. Multinomial logistic regression showed an overall classification accuracy of 23 out of 33 (69.7%) between the three groups. The classification accuracy of ExP was higher than that of PGP and InP due to the similarities in probability estimation and decision-making between PGP and InP. These impairments in probability estimation and decision-making of PGP may have implications for assessment and treatment of cognitive biases in pathological gambling poker players.

  2. Pathological gambling and hypersexuality due to dopaminergic treatment in Parkinson' disease.

    PubMed

    Martín Fernández, F; Martín González, T

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease varies from 12 to 90%. The most common disorder in the natural evolution of Parkinson's disease is depression. However, episodes of psychosis and hypomania are related to treatment with L-dopa and dopaminergic agents. Other recognized, although less frequent, psychiatric disorders are hypersexuality and development of certain addictive behaviors, which is compulsive gambling and overdosing of anti-Parkinson agents. A case is presented of a male patient diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease at an early age who was treated with L-dopa and a combination of dopaminergic agents. During the course of his evolution he manifested symptoms of hypersexuality and pathological gambling which were unrelated to psychotic or mood changes. A number of hospital admissions were needed into order to detect a pattern of abusive consumption of L-dopa as the main factor behind his behavior changes. The possibility of overdosage of L-dopa and dopaminergic drugs should be considered when there is pathological gambling conduct and/or hypersexuality, without psychotic or accompanying affective symptoms, in a male who develops Parkinson's disease at an early age and who undergoes treatment with these drugs and manifests motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. Early detection of the presence of these alterations, included within those described as "dopaminergic dysregulation syndrome", would allow for an early intervention on the cause behind them and would hence avoid the possible medical and social complications.

  3. Hypersexuality and pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease: A cross-sectional case-control study.

    PubMed

    de Chazeron, Ingrid; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Blanc, Olivier; Perriot, Jean; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Ulla, Miguel; Debilly, Bérengère; Derost, Philippe; Durif, Franck

    2011-09-01

    Substance and behavioral addictions have already been described separately or in combination in Parkinson's disease. However, no comparisons of the prevalence of addictive behaviors in patients with Parkinson's disease and the general population have been published. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence and characteristics of addictions (gambling, hypersexuality, tobacco, and alcohol) in patients with Parkinson's disease and in a matched, paired sample from the general population. After matching for age, sex, and complete field questionnaires on addictions, we had 115 data sets. No difference was observed between Parkinson's disease and control populations concerning pathological gambling (0.87% vs 0.87%, P = .99), tobacco addiction (1.7% vs 1.7%, P = .99), and alcohol dependence (2.6% vs 3.5%, P = .71). The Parkinson's disease group showed 2 cases of sexual addiction (1.7% vs 0, P = .15). Our results indicate that patients with Parkinson's disease do not have specific profiles for tobacco or alcohol addiction and pathological gambling compared with the general population. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Waking self-hypnosis efficacy in cognitive-behavioral treatment for pathological gambling: an effectiveness clinical assay.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Daniel; Montesinos, Rosa; Capafons, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for pathological gambling has a long-term success rate of more than 50%. This study evaluated the effect of self-hypnosis in cognitive-behavioral treatment of pathological gamblers. Forty-nine participants were assigned to 2 groups. Both groups received a cognitive-behavioral protocol, and Group 1, the no-hypnosis group, received an 11-session intervention and Group 2, the hypnosis group, received 7 sessions that included self-hypnosis. Both groups were equal in gambling chronicity, frequency, intensity, change motivation, and problems derived from gambling. All participants reported significant improvement in gambling behavior and consequences at both treatment end and 6-month follow-up. Data show no differences between the interventions in abstinence, therapeutic compliance, fulfillment, and satisfaction. Results suggest that self-hypnosis reinforces treatment and can be a supportive technique for future brief interventions.

  5. Clinical Profile and Psychiatric Comorbidity of Treatment-Seeking Individuals with Pathological Gambling in South-Africa.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Heidi; Pasche, Sonja; Pretorius, Adele; Stein, Dan J

    2015-12-01

    Pathological gambling is a prevalent and disabling mental illness, which is frequently associated with mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. However, there is relatively little data on comorbidity in individuals with pathological gambling from low and middle income countries such as South-Africa. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess the frequency of DSM-IV-TR disorders among 100 male and 100 female treatment-seeking individuals with pathological gambling in South-Africa. The Sheehan Disability Scale was used to assess functional impairment. In a South-African sample of individuals with pathological gambling, the most frequent current comorbid psychiatric disorders were major depressive disorder (28%), anxiety disorders (25.5%) and substance use disorders (10.5 %). Almost half of the individuals had a lifetime diagnosis of major depressive disorder (46%). Female pathological gamblers were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with a comorbid major depressive disorder or generalised anxiety disorder than their male counterparts. Data from South-Africa are consistent with previously published data from high income countries. Psychiatric comorbidity is common among individuals with pathological gambling.

  6. Post-traumatic stress symptoms in pathological gambling: Potential evidence of anti-reward processes.

    PubMed

    Green, Cheryl L; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Scoglio, Arielle A; Elman, Igor

    2017-03-01

    Background Excessive gambling is considered to be a part of the addiction spectrum. Stress-like emotional states are a key feature both of pathological gambling (PG) and of substance addiction. In substance addiction, stress symptomatology has been attributed in part to "anti-reward" allostatic neuroadaptations, while a potential involvement of anti-reward processes in the course of PG has not yet been investigated. Methods To that end, individuals with PG (n = 22) and mentally healthy subjects (n = 13) were assessed for trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) using the Life Events Checklist and the Civilian Mississippi Scale, respectively. Results In comparison with healthy subjects, individuals with PG had significantly greater PTSS scores including greater physiological arousal sub-scores. The number of traumatic events and their recency were not significantly different between the groups. In the PG group, greater gambling severity was associated with more PTSS, but neither with traumatic events exposure nor with their recency. Conclusions Our data replicate prior reports on the role of traumatic stress in the course of PG and extend those findings by suggesting that the link may be derived from the anti-reward-type neuroadaptation rather than from the traumatic stress exposure per se.

  7. Early Detection of Pathological Gambling: Betting on GPs' Beliefs and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Achab, Sophia; Chatton, Anne; Khan, Riaz; Thorens, Gabriel; Penzenstadler, Louise; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is an addictive disorder with harm related to the high psychiatric comorbidity and increased suicidal risk. Prevalence rates in general population range from 0.2% to 2.1%. Problem gamblers are hard to attract to treatment programs for several proper reasons and for obstacles (e.g., accessibility). To address these obstacles, primary care (where the problem gambling (PrG) prevalence seems to be 6.2%) has a crucial role to play (i.e., identifying and referring patients to specialized treatment programs and treating at first line when needed and possible) in the era of online gambling offer expansion. The present work aimed to collect data on resources in the field from GPs themselves, using a 24-item online questionnaire. Swiss French-speaking participants were asked about their screening practice and knowledge. The results state that the vast majority of them are aware of the existence and the potential impact of PrG on their patients. However, PrG screening is not systematic and their knowledge of adequate treatments or referral methods is scarce. GPs being central to health screening in general, targeted advice and training on short screening tools and better knowledge of referral pathways should be promoted and continued to empower the GP's management skills in a public health approach. PMID:25243136

  8. Early detection of pathological gambling: betting on GPs' beliefs and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Achab, Sophia; Chatton, Anne; Khan, Riaz; Thorens, Gabriel; Penzenstadler, Louise; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is an addictive disorder with harm related to the high psychiatric comorbidity and increased suicidal risk. Prevalence rates in general population range from 0.2% to 2.1%. Problem gamblers are hard to attract to treatment programs for several proper reasons and for obstacles (e.g., accessibility). To address these obstacles, primary care (where the problem gambling (PrG) prevalence seems to be 6.2%) has a crucial role to play (i.e., identifying and referring patients to specialized treatment programs and treating at first line when needed and possible) in the era of online gambling offer expansion. The present work aimed to collect data on resources in the field from GPs themselves, using a 24-item online questionnaire. Swiss French-speaking participants were asked about their screening practice and knowledge. The results state that the vast majority of them are aware of the existence and the potential impact of PrG on their patients. However, PrG screening is not systematic and their knowledge of adequate treatments or referral methods is scarce. GPs being central to health screening in general, targeted advice and training on short screening tools and better knowledge of referral pathways should be promoted and continued to empower the GP's management skills in a public health approach.

  9. Haloperidol modifies instrumental aspects of slot machine gambling in pathological gamblers and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Desmond, Renée C; Poulos, Constantine X; Zack, Martin

    2011-07-01

    Instrumental conditioning has been implicated in persistence at slot machine gambling, but its specific role remains unclear. Dopamine (DA) mediates aspects of instrumental responding, and D2 antagonists reliably alter this process. This study investigated the effects of the preferential D2 antagonist, haloperidol (3 mg) on reward-related betting behavior in 20 subjects with pathological gambling (PG) and 18 healthy controls. Hierarchical regression assessed the prospective relationship between Payoff and Bet Size on consecutive trials, along with potential moderating effects of Cumulative Winnings and Phase of game (early/late) under drug and placebo. Payoff predicted Bet Size on the next trial regardless of other factors, consistent with an instrumental view of slot machine gambling. Under placebo, this correlation varied as a function of Winnings and Phase in PG subjects but was strong and invariant in Controls. Under haloperidol, the Payoff-Bet Size correlation in PG subjects resembled the invariant pattern of Controls under placebo. In contrast, the Payoff-Bet Size correlation rose then fell sharply over trials under haloperidol in controls. The correlation of Payoff with Bet Size is remarkable given that there is no actual contingency between winning and betting, and suggests that reward expectancies largely drive slot machine gambling. By blocking inhibitory D2 receptors, haloperidol may have reversed 'tolerance' to monetary reward mediated by increased tonic DA in PG subjects. Disturbance of the Payoff-Bet Size correlation in controls may reflect indiscriminate reward signaling under haloperidol in subjects with normal DA function. Indirect enhancement of DA transmission may reduce undue reward-related responding in PG subjects. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Altered Brain Activity during Reward Anticipation in Pathological Gambling and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Shin, Young-Chul; Jung, Wi Hoon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kang, Do-Hyung; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Choi, Sam-Wook; Lee, Jun-Young; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2012-01-01

    Background Pathological gambling (PG) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, with a dependency on repetitive gambling behavior and rewarding effects following compulsive behavior, respectively. However, no neuroimaging studies to date have examined reward circuitry during the anticipation phase of reward in PG compared with in OCD while considering repetitive gambling and compulsion as addictive behaviors. Methods/Principal Findings To elucidate the neural activities specific to the anticipation phase of reward, we performed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in young adults with PG and compared them with those in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Fifteen male patients with PG, 13 patients with OCD, and 15 healthy controls, group-matched for age, gender, and IQ, participated in a monetary incentive delay task during fMRI scanning. Neural activation in the ventromedial caudate nucleus during anticipation of both gain and loss decreased in patients with PG compared with that in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Additionally, reduced activation in the anterior insula during anticipation of loss was observed in patients with PG compared with that in patients with OCD which was intermediate between that in OCD and healthy controls (healthy controls < PG < OCD), and a significant positive correlation between activity in the anterior insula and South Oaks Gambling Screen score was found in patients with PG. Conclusions Decreased neural activity in the ventromedial caudate nucleus during anticipation may be a specific neurobiological feature for the pathophysiology of PG, distinguishing it from OCD and healthy controls. Correlation of anterior insular activity during loss anticipation with PG symptoms suggests that patients with PG fit the features of OCD associated with harm avoidance as PG symptoms deteriorate. Our findings have identified functional disparities and similarities between

  11. [Pathological gambling and personality disorders: a pilot-study with the MCMI-II].

    PubMed

    Fernández Montalvo, Javier; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, the most frequent personality disorders related to pathological gambling are described. A sample of 50 pathological gamblers, who were assessed with the MCMI-II before treatment, and of 50 normative subjects from general population with the same demographic features (age, sex and socioeconomic level) was selected. According to the results, the 40% of clinical sample (versus the 14% of normative sample) showed at least one personality disorder. The most prevalent one was the Narcissistic (32%), followed by the Antisocial and Passive-Aggressive (16% each one of them). Furthermore, the gamblers with personality disorders presented an average of 2.2 disorders and tended to be more impulsive. Likewise pathological gamblers abused of alcohol, showed a mild anxiety and were not so adapted to everyday life as much as the control group. Finally, implications of this study for clinical practice and future research in this field are commented upon.

  12. An exploratory study of clinical measures associated with subsyndromal pathological gambling in patients with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Yip, Sarah W; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M; Potenza, Marc N

    2011-06-01

    Both binge eating disorder (BED) and pathological gambling (PG) are characterized by impairments in impulse control. Subsyndromal levels of PG have been associated with measures of adverse health. The nature and significance of PG features in individuals with BED is unknown. Ninety-four patients with BED (28 men and 66 women) were classified by gambling group based on inclusionary criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) PG and compared on a range of behavioral, psychological and eating disorder (ED) psychopathology variables. One individual (1.1% of the sample) met criteria for PG, although 18.7% of patients with BED displayed one or more DSM-IV criteria for PG, hereafter referred to as problem gambling features. Men were more likely than women to have problem gambling features. BED patients with problem gambling features were distinguished by lower self-esteem and greater substance problem use. After controlling for gender, findings of reduced self-esteem and increased substance problem use among patients with problem gambling features remained significant. In patients with BED, problem gambling features are associated with a number of heightened clinical problems.

  13. An Exploratory Study of Clinical Measures Associated with Subsyndromal Pathological Gambling in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Both binge eating disorder (BED) and pathological gambling (PG) are characterized by impairments in impulse control. Subsyndromal levels of PG have been associated with measures of adverse health. The nature and significance of PG features in individuals with BED is unknown. Ninety-four patients with BED (28 men and 66 women) were classified by gambling group based on inclusionary criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) PG and compared on a range of behavioral, psychological and eating disorder (ED) psychopathology variables. One individual (1.1% of the sample) met criteria for PG, although 18.7% of patients with BED displayed one or more DSM-IV criteria for PG, hereafter referred to as problem gambling features. Men were more likely than women to have problem gambling features. BED patients with problem gambling features were distinguished by lower self-esteem and greater substance problem use. After controlling for gender, findings of reduced self-esteem and increased substance problem use among patients with problem gambling features remained significant. In patients with BED, problem gambling features are associated with a number of heightened clinical problems. PMID:20577790

  14. A preliminary study of the neural correlates of the intensities of self-reported gambling urges and emotions in men with pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Balodis, Iris M; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-09-01

    Although self-reported gambling urge intensities have clinical utility in the treatment of pathological gambling (PG), prior studies have not investigated their neural correlates. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted while 10 men with PG and 11 control comparison (CON) men viewed videotaped scenarios of gambling, happy or sad content. Participants rated the intensity of their emotions and motivations and reported the qualities of their responses. Relative to the CON group, the PG group reported similar responses to sad and happy scenarios, but stronger emotional responses and gambling urges when viewing the gambling scenarios. Correlations between self-reported responses and brain activations were typically strongest during the period of reported onset of emotional/motivational response and more robust in PG than in CON subjects for all conditions. During this epoch, corresponding with conscious awareness of an emotional/motivational response, subjective ratings of gambling urges in the PG group were negatively correlated with medial prefrontal cortex activation and positively correlated with middle temporal gyrus and temporal pole activations. Sadness ratings in the PG group correlated positively with activation of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and retrosplenial cortex, while self-reported happiness during the happy videos demonstrated largely inverse correlations with activations in the temporal poles. Brain areas identified in the PG subjects have been implicated in explicit, self-referential processing and episodic memory. The findings demonstrate different patterns of correlations between subjective measures of emotions and motivations in PG and CON subjects when viewing material of corresponding content, suggesting in PG alterations in the neural correlates underlying experiential aspects of affective processing.

  15. Five Year Flashlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An ultra-reliable flashlight, initially developed for rescue signaling and utility use by NASA astronauts and military aircrews, has attracted a broad commercial market. Called the Five Year Light, it has a shelf life at least that long because there is no power drain on the batteries when the flashlight is not in use. The NASA version of the light was developed under contract with Langley Research Center by ACR Electronics, Inc., now known as the Chromalloy Electronics Division of Chromalloy American Corporation, Hollywood, Florida. NASA wanted a light that had long shelf life and assured reliability in case it was needed in an emergency. Reliability was designed into the flashlight by means of a unique switch. Instead of the customary thumb-button, the Five Year Light is turned on by rotating its collar to make contact with the battery terminal; the turning motion wipes away any corrosion that might be present and makes contact virtually certain. The Five Year Light available commercially is a repackaged version of the NASA light. It is sold for car, home, industrial, police, firefighting, recreational and a variety of other uses, and sales have topped two million units.

  16. Pathological gambling and age: differences in personality, psychopathology, and response to treatment variables.

    PubMed

    González-Ibáñez, A; Mora, M; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, J; Ariza, A; Lourido-Ferreira, M R

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the possible differences in personality, psychopathology, and response to treatment in pathological gambling according to age. The sample, comprising 67 participants, was divided into three groups: 32.6% with ages ranging between 17 and 26 years, 31.3% between 27 and 43 years, and 35.8% over 44 years of age. The participants were administered the following tests, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI; Hathaway, S.R. & McKinley, J.C. (1943, 1961). Cuestionario de personalidad MMPI. Madrid Seccion de Estudios de TEA ed. 1970, 1975], sensation-seeking questionnaire [SSS; Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking; beyond the optimal level of arousal. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates], and the Symptom Check List Revised [SCL-90-R; Derogatis, L.R. (1977). Symptom check list-90 revised. Administration scoring and procedures manual. Baltimore]. All underwent a group treatment programme that was carried out in the Pathological Gambling Unit at Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de Bellvitge (CSUB), Teaching hospital, Barcelona, Spain. The findings show differences depending on age in the participants' personality and in psychopathology and in their response to treatment.

  17. Personality correlates of pathological gambling derived from Big Three and Big Five personality models

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joshua D.; MacKillop, James; Fortune, Erica E.; Maples, Jessica; Lance, Charles E.; Campbell, W. Keith; Goodie, Adam S.

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits have proven to be consistent and important factors in a variety of externalizing behaviors including addiction, aggression, and antisocial behavior. Given the comorbidity of these behaviors with pathological gambling (PG), it is important to test the degree to which PG shares these trait correlates. In a large community sample of regular gamblers (N=354; 111 with diagnoses of pathological gambling), the relations between measures of two major models of personality – Big Three and Big Five – were examined in relation to PG symptoms derived from a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Across measures, traits related to the experience of strong negative emotions were the most consistent correlates of PG, regardless of whether they were analyzed using bivariate or multivariate analyses. In several instances, however, the relations between personality and PG were moderated by demographic variable such as gender, race, and age. It will be important for future empirical work of this nature to pay closer attention to potentially important moderators of these relations. PMID:23078872

  18. Decreased connectivity of the default mode network in pathological gambling: a resting state functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Myung Hun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Shin, Young-Chul; Jung, Wi Hoon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kang, Do-Hyung; Yi, Jung-Seo; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2014-11-07

    The default mode network (DMN) represents neuronal activity that is intrinsically generated during a resting state. The present study used resting-state fMRI to investigate whether functional connectivity is altered in pathological gambling (PG). Fifteen drug-naive male patients with PG and 15 age-matched male control subjects participated in the present study. The pathological gambling modification of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (PG-YBOCS), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to determine symptom severity in all participants. Participants were instructed to keep their eyes closed and not to focus on any particular thoughts during the 4.68-min resting-state functional scan. The patients with PG displayed decreased default mode connectivity in the left superior frontal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, and precuneus compared with healthy controls. The severity of PG symptoms in patients with PG was negatively associated with connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex seed region and the precuneus (r=-0.599, p=0.018). Decreased functional connectivity within DMN suggests that PG may share similar neurobiological abnormalities with other addictive disorders. Moreover, the severity of PG symptoms was correlated with decreased connectivity in the precuneus, which may be important in the response to treatment in patients with PG. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Gambling addiction].

    PubMed

    Böning, J; Meyer, G; Hayer, T

    2013-05-01

    Extensive coherent clinical, psychopathological, neurobiological and genetic similarities with substance-related addictions justify the forthcoming classification of gambling addiction under the new category "Substance Use and Addictive Disorders" in the DSM-5. Thus, gambling addiction can be regarded as the prototype of behavioral addiction. In general it should be kept in mind that isolated gambling forms are associated with varying addictive potential due to specific situational and structural game characteristics. High rates of indebtedness, suicidality, social isolation and gambling-related crime often accompany pathological gambling. As a consequence gambling addiction represents a mental disorder with a significant economic burden. In Germany 12-month prevalence rates for problem gambling in adulthood range from 0.24 % to 0.64  % and for pathological gambling from 0.20 % to 0.56 %. Because gambling products rank among the so-called demeriting (i.e. potentially harmful) social activities, player and youth protection measures to prevent gambling disorders and associated crime should be best regulated as a state monopoly.

  20. Antisocial personality disorder is associated with increased severity of gambling, medical, drug and psychiatric problems among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Petry, Nancy M

    2005-08-01

    To evaluate systematically whether pathological gamblers with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) experience increased severity of gambling, medical, psychiatric, substance use and psychosocial problems compared to pathological gamblers without ASPD. PARTICIPANTS, DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Pathological gamblers (n = 237) entering an out-patient treatment study for pathological gambling completed the ASPD section of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version IV (DSM-IV) Personality Disorders, California Psychological Inventory-Socialization Scale, Addiction Severity Index (ASI), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and gambling questionnaires. Pathological gambling research clinic. Thirty-nine (16.5%) pathological gamblers met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ASPD. Compared to pathological gamblers without ASPD, pathological gamblers with ASPD were younger, more likely to be male and divorced/separated, and had fewer years of education. They also began gambling earlier in life, reported increased severity of gambling, medical and drug problems, and scored higher on the paranoid ideation, somatization and phobic anxiety subscales of the BSI. Further, logistic regression identified male gender, history of illicit drug use and severity of gambling and medical problems as independent predictors of ASPD. These results underscore the importance of assessing a wide range of behaviors and personality indices, including ASPD, among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers.

  1. Compulsive internet gambling: a new form of an old clinical pathology.

    PubMed

    King, S A; Barak, A

    1999-01-01

    Online casinos have sprung up practically overnight into a multi-million dollar business, attracting a large number of gamblers worldwide. This article focuses on unique and psychologically significant factors that are involved in Internet gambling behavior, in comparison to traditional gambling procedures. Several of the aspects of Internet gambling, which are believed to facilitate excessive online gambling, are examined here in depth. These include the practical ease of access to online gambling and the anonymity and privacy of gambling from one's own home, as well as other factors. An overview of the graphical interface of several typical virtual casinos shows how seductive and realistic the online casino experience can be. The psychologically derived methods used by Internet casinos to make online gambling attractive, accessible, and easily operated are delineated. A review of the literature related to excessive traditional gambling behavior is used as a basis for analysis of online gambling behavior, in order to assess the extent of virtual gambling. The global nature of the Internet, combined with the limited, if not impossible, ability of local governments to effectively regulate or ban online gambling, will have profound psychological and social consequences. Studies of the effects on the psychological welfare of communities that underwent introduction to traditional casino gambling are reviewed, and evaluation is made about how virtual gambling might have negative social influence worldwide.

  2. Dysfunctional decision-making in pathological gambling: pattern specificity and the role of impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Kräplin, Anja; Dshemuchadse, Maja; Behrendt, Silke; Scherbaum, Stefan; Goschke, Thomas; Bühringer, Gerhard

    2014-03-30

    Dysfunctional decision-making in individuals with pathological gambling (PGs) may result from dominating reward-driven processes, indicated by higher impulsivity. In the current study we examined (1) if PGs show specific decision-making impairments related to dominating reward-driven processes rather than to strategic planning deficits and (2) whether these impairments are related to impulsivity. Nineteen PGs according to DSM-IV and 19 matched control subjects undertook the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) to assess decision-making. The delay discounting paradigm (DDP) as well as the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (measuring urgency, premeditation, perseverance and sensation seeking) were administered as multidimensional measures of impulsivity. Results revealed that (1) PGs exhibited higher risk seeking and an immediate reward focus in the CGT and, in contrast, comparable strategic planning to the control group. (2) Decision-making impairments were related to more severe delay discounting and, specifically, to increased urgency and less premeditation. Our findings suggest (1) the necessity to disentangle decision-making components in order to improve etiological models of PGs, and (2) that urgency and premeditation are specifically related to disadvantageous decision-making and should be tackled in intervention strategies focusing on emotion tolerance and control strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sociodemographic, neuropsychiatric and cognitive characteristics of pathological gambling and impulse control disorders NOS in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pontieri, Francesco E; Assogna, Francesca; Pellicano, Clelia; Cacciari, Claudia; Pannunzi, Sara; Morrone, Annalucia; Danese, Emanuela; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Despite of previous evidence supporting the association between impulse control disorder (ICD) and several demographic, clinical and therapeutic features in Parkinson's disease (PD), the relationships between pathological gambling (PG) or other variants of ICD (ICD-NOS) and specific neuropsychiatric or cognitive domains are not entirely defined. In this study, 155 PD patients without dementia or cognitive impairment underwent: i. the ICD diagnoses, using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders, ii. the mood and anxiety disorders diagnoses, according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria, and iii. a comprehensive battery for measuring severity of psychopathology and neuropsychology domains. Patients were divided in those with pathological gambling (PG), ICDs not otherwise specified (ICD-NOS), or the lack of ICD (No-ICD). There was a progression in age and age at onset from the younger PG subjects throughout ICD-NOS to No-ICD. PG and ICD-NOS subjects had longer disease duration and were taking significantly higher dosages of antiparkinsonian drugs than No-ICD ones. PG subjects had significantly higher severity of depressive and anxious symptoms with respect to the other 2 groups. Both PG and ICD-NOS subjects suffer from increased severity of psychotic symptoms than No-ICD ones. The 3 groups did not differ in any cognitive measure. Our results support the concept that the different sociodemographic and neuropsychiatric profiles of PD patients are associated with different ICDs. Moreover, we clearly demonstrate the lack of relationship between ICD and cognitive performances in undemented PD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Abnormalities of functional brain networks in pathological gambling: a graph-theoretical approach

    PubMed Central

    Tschernegg, Melanie; Crone, Julia S.; Eigenberger, Tina; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Lemènager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl; Thon, Natasha; Wurst, Friedrich M.; Kronbichler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in PG. We compared 19 patients with PG to 19 healthy controls (HCs) using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (supplementary motor area, SMA), reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients. These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that PG is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in PG cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders. PMID:24098282

  5. Fronto-striatal dysregulation in drug addiction and pathological gambling: Consistent inconsistencies?☆

    PubMed Central

    Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve H.; van Holst, Ruth J.; Clark, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in appetitive processing are central to the major psychological theories of addiction, with differential predictions made by the reward deficiency, incentive salience, and impulsivity hypotheses. Functional MRI has become the chief means of testing these predictions, with experiments reliably highlighting disturbances at the level of the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, and affiliated regions. However, demonstrations of hypo-reactivity and hyper-reactivity of this circuitry in drug addicted groups are reported in approximately equal measure. Similar findings are echoed in the emergent neuroimaging literature on pathological gambling, which has recently witnessed a coming of age. The first aim of this article is to consider some of the methodological aspects of these experiments that could influence the observed direction of group-level effects, including the baseline condition, trial structure and timing, and the nature of the appetitive cues (drug-related, monetary, or primary rewards). The second aim is to highlight the conceptual traction that is offered by pathological gambling, as a model of a ‘toxicity free’ addiction and an illness where tasks of monetary reinforcement afford a more direct mapping to the abused commodity. Our conclusion is that relatively subtle decisions in task design appear capable of driving group differences in fronto-striatal circuitry in entirely opposing directions, even with tasks and task variants that look ostensibly similar. Differentiation between the psychological theories of addiction will require a greater breadth of experimental designs, with more research needed on processing of primary appetitive cues, aversive processing, and in vulnerable/at-risk groups. PMID:24179792

  6. Prevalence and predictors of pathological gambling: results from the St. Louis personality, health and lifestyle (SLPHL) study

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.; Grucza, Richard A.; Cottler, Linda B.; Womack, Sharon B.; Books, Samantha J.; Przybeck, Thomas R.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Cloninger, C. Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objectives We report the prevalence of and risk and protective factors for DSM-IV sub-threshold gambling (1–4 criteria) and pathological gambling disorder (PGD; 5–10 criteria) in a non-clinical household sample of St. Louis area gamblers. Methods Of the 7689 individuals contacted via Random Digit Dialing, 3292 were screened eligible. Of these, 1142 from households in 6 contiguous regions in Missouri and Illinois consented to participate and were mailed a St. Louis Area Personality, Health, and Lifestyle (SLPHL) Survey. Results Post-stratification weighted data (n = 913) indicate lifetime prevalence rates of 12.4% sub-threshold and 2.5% PGD (conditional prevalence = 21.5% and 4.3% respectively). Risk and protective factors for gambling severity varied in the sample. Conclusions Targeted prevention messages are warranted specifically for gamblers of varying risk for PGD. PMID:15804388

  7. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in kleptomania and pathological gambling: a preliminary comparison study.

    PubMed

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Lowengrub, Katherine; Sasson, Marina; Shalgi, Bosmat; Tuson, Lali; Saphir, Yafa; Kotler, Moshe

    2004-08-01

    Kleptomania and pathological gambling (PG) are currently classified in the DSM IV as impulse control disorders. Impulse control disorders are characterized by an overwhelming temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the person or others. The patient usually feels a sense of tension before committing the act and then experiences pleasure or relief while in the process of performing the act. Kleptomania and PG are often associated with other comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Forty-four pathological gamblers and 19 kleptomanics were included in this study. All enrolled patients underwent a complete diagnostic psychiatric evaluation and were examined for symptoms of depression and anxiety using the Hamilton depression rating scale and the Hamilton anxiety rating scale, respectively. In addition, the patients completed self-report questionnaires about their demographic status and addictive behavior. The comorbid lifetime diagnoses found at a high prevalence among our kleptomanic patients included 47% with affective disorders (9/19) and 37% with anxiety disorders (7/19). The comorbid lifetime diagnoses found at a high prevalence in our sample of pathological gamblers included 27% with affective disorders (12/44), 21% with alcohol abuse (9/44), and 7% with a history of substance abuse (3/44). A larger study is needed to confirm these preliminary results.

  8. A Latent Class Analysis of DSM-III-R Pathological Gambling Criteria in Middle-Aged men: Association with Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Xian, Hong; Shah, Kamini R.; Potenza, Marc N.; Volberg, Rachel; Chantarujikapong, Sunanta; True, William R.; Lyons, Michael J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Eisen, Seth A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To empirically derive latent classes based on PG criteria and to assess the association between non-gambling psychiatric disorders and specific classes. Methods 8,138 community-based middle-aged men were surveyed and 2,720 were assessed for DSM-III-R pathological gambling (PG). Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to DSM-III-R PG criteria to identify gambling classes. Chi-square and logistic regression models evaluated the association between gambling classes and lifetime psychiatric disorders. Results The final model included four classes: class 0 (i.e., 5,418 individuals who never gambled 25 or more times in a year) and classes 1–3 (identified by the LCA and comprising 2,720 respondents assessed for PG). For the nine individual criteria of PG, endorsement percentages ranged from 2% - 6%, 4% - 58%, and 53% −100% for classes 1–3, respectively. Non-gambling psychiatric disorders were differentially associated with the four gambling classes, and psychopathology was more common in groups more frequently acknowledging PG criteria. Conclusions Empirical support is provided for distinct classes of gambling behaviors demonstrating differential associations with individual PG criteria and non-gambling psychiatric disorders. The data-driven categorization of gambling behaviors provides direction for research on defining, preventing and treating syndromal and subsyndromal PG. PMID:21768977

  9. Pathological Gambling and Motor Impulsivity: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Nahian S; Livesey, Evan J; Blaszczynski, Alex; Harris, Justin A

    2017-03-02

    Motor impulsivity, which is an impairment in withholding and cancelling inappropriate responses, may account for the inability for pathological gamblers (PGs) to inhibit their urges to gamble. The aim of this systematic review was to perform a quantitative and qualitative synthesis of existing studies in order to assess whether PGs without comorbid substance use disorder have elevated motor impulsivity, relative to healthy controls. An exhaustive literature search led to the identification of 20 studies which met inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis was then conducted on the following measures: stop signal reaction time from the stop signal task; commission errors, omission errors, and Go reaction time from the Go/No-Go task; and the motor impulsiveness subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-Motor). The results revealed a moderate to large mean effect size of stop signal reaction time, small to moderate mean effect sizes for commission errors, omission errors and Go reaction time, and a large mean effect size for the BIS-Motor. Significant heterogeneity in effect sizes was observed on most behavioural measures, but not for the BIS-Motor or omission errors on the Go/No-Go task. Overall, these results suggest that motor impulsivity may be one of the features of PG psychopathology, accounting for their poor inhibitory control over gambling behaviours. Moreover, other deficits in sustained attention, or more generally in executive/cognitive control, may be present in PGs. We discuss the implications, limitations of existing research, and suggested avenues for future studies, particularly the need to acknowledge heterogeneity amongst PGs and amongst different behavioural measures.

  10. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's disease patients: Dopaminergic medication or personality traits fault?

    PubMed

    Brusa, L; Pavino, V; Massimetti, M C; Ceravolo, R; Stefani, S; Stanzione, P

    2016-07-15

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are clinically relevant in Parkinson disease (PD) patients, with an established association with PD medication. Aim of our study was to study whether the increased frequency of pathological gambling (PG), reported in subgroups of PD patients, is related to specific personality tracts additional to dopaminergic medications. Thirty-seven PD patients with a personal history of PG where enrolled. Twenty one PD patients, matched for disease and dopaminergic therapy, never experiencing PG, were enrolled as controls. All subjects were tested with the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory Personality scales (MMPI-2). Our data showed that PD group with PG exhibited significantly higher mean values of the three validity scales in comparison to the non-PG-PD group, demonstrating an higher tendency to lie. Content scales showed a significant increase of cynicism and bizarre ideation scales score in the PG-PD group, not exhibiting pathological values at the validity scales, (p: 0.02) in comparison to non-PG PD patients. According to our results, PG seems to be associated with precise personality tracts. Personality profiles of cluster A personality disturbances - Axys 2 according with DSM-5 TR (paranoid type) at MMPI-2 might be a warning index helpful in selecting dopaminergic treatment, to avoid subsequent ICDs appearance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pathology and toxicology findings for search-and-rescue dogs deployed to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack sites: initial five-year surveillance.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Rumbeiha, Wilson K; Emmett Braselton, W; Downend, Amanda B; Otto, Cynthia M

    2008-07-01

    A long-term surveillance study was conducted on 95 search-and-rescue (S&R) dogs deployed to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack sites; an additional 55 nondeployed S&R dogs served as controls. After 5 years of surveillance, 32% of the deployed dogs have died and 24% of the nondeployed dogs. The mean age at the time of death in these 2 groups of dogs is not significantly different. Causes of death in both groups of dogs include inflammatory, degenerative, and proliferative conditions. No primary pulmonary tumors have been identified to date nor has any significant level of toxicant been found in the tissues from these dogs using assays for general organic compounds and metals or, specifically, for polychlorinated biphenyls. However, significant numbers of both deployed and nondeployed dogs have evidence of inhaled matter as demonstrated by the presence of anthracotic pigments or refractile particulate matter in pulmonary tissue. Although S&R activities in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks exposed dogs to a wide variety of potentially toxic compounds, to date, these dogs do not appear to suffer from higher mortality or increased pulmonary disease compared with nondeployed dogs. To the authors' knowledge, the current survey represents the first long-term and large-scale survey of the pathology and toxicology of S&R dogs deployed to a major disaster site.

  12. Disordered Gambling and Its Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Pathological gambling is an increasing concern with the growth of legalized gambling opportunities, and clinicians who provide general psychotherapy, as well as those specializing in some disorders, are likely to encounter patients with gambling problems. This review article describes the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling and screening…

  13. Disordered Gambling and Its Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Pathological gambling is an increasing concern with the growth of legalized gambling opportunities, and clinicians who provide general psychotherapy, as well as those specializing in some disorders, are likely to encounter patients with gambling problems. This review article describes the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling and screening…

  14. Health Outcomes in Individuals with Problem and Pathological Gambling: An Analysis of the 2014 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Survey System (BRFSS).

    PubMed

    Van Patten, Ryan; Weinstock, Jeremiah; McGrath, Andrew B

    2017-09-01

    Problem and pathological gambling refers to subclinical and clinical levels of maladaptive gambling, respectively, and is associated with specific sociodemographic characteristics as well as a number of poor health outcomes. We examined such demographic, physical health, mental health, and health-related behaviors in a sample of 7045 low-risk gamblers and 244 problem/pathological gamblers. Participants completed the 2014 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System telephone survey. Using the National Opinion Research Center's Diagnostic Screen for Gambling Disorders-CLiP, participants were categorized as either "problem/pathological gamblers" or "low-risk gamblers." Problem/pathological gamblers were younger, more likely to be male, of ethnic minority status, unmarried, and of lower education than low-risk gamblers. No physical health variables differentiated the groups but problem/pathological gamblers reported experiencing significantly more adverse childhood experiences and engaging in significantly more tobacco and alcohol use compared to low-risk gamblers. Moreover, gender moderated relationships between gambling group and several of the alcohol use variables such that male problem/pathological gamblers exhibited greater alcohol use behavior than male low-risk gamblers but no such relationship was present in females. Overall, this study expands the current knowledgebase on disordered gambling and highlights the need to assess disordered gambling in public health samples. Clinical implications are discussed.

  15. Pathological gambling and compulsive buying: do they fall within an obsessive-compulsive spectrum?

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha; Blum, Nancee

    2010-01-01

    Both compulsive buying (CB) and pathological gambling (PG) have been proposed as members of a spectrum of disorders related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The spectrum hypothesis originated in the early 1990s and has gained considerable support, despite the lack of empirical evidence. Interest in this hypothesis has become critical because some investigators have recommended the creation of a new category that includes these disorders in DSM-5, now under development. In this article, the authors describe the origin of the obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum and its theoretical underpinnings, review both CB and PG, and discuss the data both in support of and against an OC spectrum. Both disorders are described in terms of their history, definition, classification, phenomenology family history, pathophysiology, and clinical management. The authors conclude that: (i) CB and PG are probably not related to OCD, and there is insufficient evidence to place them within an OC spectrum in DSM-V; (ii) PG should stay with the impulse-control disorders (ICDs); and (iii) a new diagnosis of CB should be created and be classified as an ICD.

  16. Increased Functional Connectivity between Prefrontal Cortex and Reward System in Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Saskia; Ovadia-Caro, Smadar; van der Meer, Elke; Villringer, Arno; Heinz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) shares clinical characteristics with substance-use disorders and is thus discussed as a behavioral addiction. Recent neuroimaging studies on PG report functional changes in prefrontal structures and the mesolimbic reward system. While an imbalance between these structures has been related to addictive behavior, whether their dysfunction in PG is reflected in the interaction between them remains unclear. We addressed this question using functional connectivity resting-state fMRI in male subjects with PG and controls. Seed-based functional connectivity was computed using two regions-of-interest, based on the results of a previous voxel-based morphometry study, located in the prefrontal cortex and the mesolimbic reward system (right middle frontal gyrus and right ventral striatum). PG patients demonstrated increased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to the right striatum as compared to controls, which was also positively correlated with nonplanning aspect of impulsiveness, smoking and craving scores in the PG group. Moreover, PG patients demonstrated decreased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to other prefrontal areas as compared to controls. The right ventral striatum demonstrated increased connectivity to the right superior and middle frontal gyrus and left cerebellum in PG patients as compared to controls. The increased connectivity to the cerebellum was positively correlated with smoking in the PG group. Our results provide further evidence for alterations in functional connectivity in PG with increased connectivity between prefrontal regions and the reward system, similar to connectivity changes reported in substance use disorder. PMID:24367675

  17. Anhedonia in Parkinson's disease patients with and without pathological gambling: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Pettorruso, Mauro; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fasano, Alfonso; Loria, Giovanna; Di Nicola, Marco; De Risio, Luisa; Ricciardi, Lucia; Conte, Gianluigi; Janiri, Luigi; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita

    2014-02-28

    Anhedonia is present in Parkinson's Disease (PD) as well as in addictive behaviors. Pathological Gambling (PG) and other Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) have emerged as iatrogenic complications associated with dopamine replacement therapy. We studied 154 PD patients, divided into three groups: 11 with PG, 23 with other ICDs (compulsive buying, hypersexuality, binge eating), 120 without ICDs. All patients underwent a thorough clinical, neuropsychological and psychiatric evaluation. The PG-group, compared to the ICDs-group and PD-controls, reported a significantly higher incidence of anhedonia (45% vs. 9% vs. 14% respectively), higher Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) scores (2.0±1.3 vs. 1.0±1.1 vs. 1.0±1.2), higher levels of impulsivity traits as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (70.0±10.6 vs. 64.8±11 vs. 60.9±9.3) and more severe frontal dysfunctions (Frontal Assessment Battery, FAB: 12.4±4.9 vs. 15.5±1.6 vs. 14.4±3). A model for PG (incorporating anhedonia, impulsivity levels and frontal impairment) is discussed in the context of the pathophysiology of addictive behaviors. The impairment of hedonic capacity, possibly resulting from an underlying neuropsychological dysfunction, might facilitate loss of control over reward-related behavior, thus favoring the shift towards predominantly habit-based compulsive behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and reward system in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Saskia; Ovadia-Caro, Smadar; van der Meer, Elke; Villringer, Arno; Heinz, Andreas; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Margulies, Daniel S

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) shares clinical characteristics with substance-use disorders and is thus discussed as a behavioral addiction. Recent neuroimaging studies on PG report functional changes in prefrontal structures and the mesolimbic reward system. While an imbalance between these structures has been related to addictive behavior, whether their dysfunction in PG is reflected in the interaction between them remains unclear. We addressed this question using functional connectivity resting-state fMRI in male subjects with PG and controls. Seed-based functional connectivity was computed using two regions-of-interest, based on the results of a previous voxel-based morphometry study, located in the prefrontal cortex and the mesolimbic reward system (right middle frontal gyrus and right ventral striatum). PG patients demonstrated increased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to the right striatum as compared to controls, which was also positively correlated with nonplanning aspect of impulsiveness, smoking and craving scores in the PG group. Moreover, PG patients demonstrated decreased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to other prefrontal areas as compared to controls. The right ventral striatum demonstrated increased connectivity to the right superior and middle frontal gyrus and left cerebellum in PG patients as compared to controls. The increased connectivity to the cerebellum was positively correlated with smoking in the PG group. Our results provide further evidence for alterations in functional connectivity in PG with increased connectivity between prefrontal regions and the reward system, similar to connectivity changes reported in substance use disorder.

  19. Pathological gambling and compulsive buying: do they fall within an obsessive-compulsive spectrum?

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald W.; Shaw, Martha; Blum, Nancee

    2010-01-01

    Both compulsive buying (CB) and pathological gambling (PG) have been proposed as members of a spectrum of disorders related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The spectrum hypothesis originated in the early 1990s and has gained considerable support, despite the lack of empirical evidence. Interest in this hypothesis has become critical because some investigators have recommended the creation of a new category that includes these disorders in DSM-5, now under development. In this article, the authors describe the origin of the obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum and its theoretical underpinnings, review both CB and PG, and discuss the data both in support of and against an OC spectrum. Both disorders are described in terms of their history, definition, classification, phenomenology, family history, pathophysiology, and clinical management. The authors conclude that: (i) CB and PG are probably not related to OCD, and there is insufficient evidence to place them within an OC spectrum in DSM-V; (ii) PG should stay with the impulse-control disorders (ICDs); and ( iii) a new diagnosis of CB should be created and be classified as an ICD. PMID:20623922

  20. The Relationship Between Pathological Gambling and Sensation Seeking: The Role of Subscale Scores

    PubMed Central

    Fortune, Erica E.

    2010-01-01

    Research investigating the relationship between gambling and sensation seeking has yet to establish conclusively whether pathological gamblers (PGs) are more or less sensation seeking than nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). Sensation seeking is usually measured with the Zuckerman et al. (J Consult Clin Psychol 46:139–149, 1978) SS Scale form V (SSS-V). Whereas previous studies relied on the SSS-V total score, the current study uses two samples to demonstrate the importance of the SSS-V subscales, which include Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TA), Experience Seeking (ES), Disinhibition (DS), and Boredom Susceptibility (BS). In two samples, strong intrascale correlations between DS and BS, and between TA and ES, suggest that certain subscales reflect similar underlying characteristics. In both samples PGs displayed higher scores than NPGs on the DS and BS subscales, with mean differences in Sample 2 reaching significant levels for both DS and BS. Results support the notion that the SSS-V can be divided into concepts reflecting actual behavior, based on the DS and BS subscales, and hypothetical behavior, based on the TA and ES subscales. Furthermore, PGs appear to have a preference for the more behavioral subscales while NPGs show a preference for the more hypothetical subscales. Reasons for the subscale divisions and preferences are discussed. PMID:19943092

  1. Similarities and Differences between Pathological Gambling and Substance Use Disorders: A Focus on Impulsivity and Compulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Pathological gambling (PG) has recently been considered as a “behavioral” or non-substance addiction. A comparison of characteristics of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs) has clinical ramifications and could help advance future research on these conditions. Specific relationships with impulsivity and compulsivity may be central to understanding PG and SUDs. Objectives To compare and contrast research findings in PG and SUDs pertaining to neurocogntive tasks, brain function and neurochemistry, with a focus on impulsivity and compulsivity. Results Multiple similarities were found between PG and SUDs, including poor performance on neurocognitive tasks, specifically with respect to impulsive choice and response tendencies and compulsive features (e.g., response perseveration and action with diminished relationship to goals or reward). Findings suggest dysfunction involving similar brain regions, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum and similar neurotransmitter systems, including dopaminergic and serotonergic. Unique features exist which may in part reflect influences of acute or chronic exposures to specific substances. Conclusions Both similarities and differences exist between PG and SUDs. Understanding these similarities more precisely may facilitate treatment development across addictions, whereas understanding differences may provide insight into treatment development for specific disorders. Individual differences in features of impulsivity and compulsivity may represent important endophenotypic targets for prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:22057662

  2. Similarities and differences between pathological gambling and substance use disorders: a focus on impulsivity and compulsivity.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) has recently been considered as a "behavioral" or nonsubstance addiction. A comparison of the characteristics of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs) has clinical ramifications and could help advance future research on these conditions. Specific relationships with impulsivity and compulsivity may be central to understanding PG and SUDs. This review was conducted to compare and contrast research findings in PG and SUDs pertaining to neurocognitive tasks, brain function, and neurochemistry, with a focus on impulsivity and compulsivity. Multiple similarities were found between PG and SUDs, including poor performance on neurocognitive tasks, specifically with respect to impulsive choice and response tendencies and compulsive features (e.g., response perseveration and action with diminished relationship to goals or reward). Findings suggest dysfunction involving similar brain regions, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and striatum and similar neurotransmitter systems, including dopaminergic and serotonergic. Unique features exist which may in part reflect influences of acute or chronic exposures to specific substances. Both similarities and differences exist between PG and SUDs. Understanding these similarities more precisely may facilitate treatment development across addictions, whereas understanding differences may provide insight into treatment development for specific disorders. Individual differences in features of impulsivity and compulsivity may represent important endophenotypic targets for prevention and treatment strategies.

  3. An Examination of a Proposed DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Hierarchy in a Treatment Seeking Population: Similarities with Substance Dependence and Evidence for Three Classification Systems.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Darren R; Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A; Volberg, Rachel A; Thomas, Shane A

    2015-09-01

    Toce-Gerstein et al. (Addiction 98:1661-1672, 2003) investigated the distribution of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) pathological gambling criteria endorsement in a U.S. community sample for those people endorsing a least one of the DSM-IV criteria (n = 399). They proposed a hierarchy of gambling disorders where endorsement of 1-2 criteria were deemed 'At-Risk', 3-4 'Problem gamblers', 5-7 'Low Pathological', and 8-10 'High Pathological' gamblers. This article examines these claims in a larger Australian treatment seeking population. Data from 4,349 clients attending specialist problem gambling services were assessed for meeting the ten DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. Results found higher overall criteria endorsement frequencies, three components, a direct relationship between criteria endorsement and gambling severity, clustering of criteria similar to the Toce-Gerstein et al. taxonomy, high accuracy scores for numerical and criteria specific taxonomies, and also high accuracy scores for dichotomous pathological gambling diagnoses. These results suggest significant complexities in the frequencies of criteria reports and relationships between criteria.

  4. Contingency learning in alcohol dependence and pathological gambling: learning and unlearning reward contingencies.

    PubMed

    Vanes, Lucy D; van Holst, Ruth J; Jansen, Jochem M; van den Brink, Wim; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2014-06-01

    Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and pathological gambling (PG) are characterized by dysfunctional reward processing and their ability to adapt to alterations of reward contingencies is impaired. However, most neurocognitive tasks investigating reward processing involve a complex mix of elements, such as working memory, immediate and delayed rewards, and risk-taking. As a consequence, it is not clear whether contingency learning is altered in AD or PG. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine performance in a deterministic contingency learning task, investigating discrimination, reversal, and extinction learning. Thirty-three alcohol-dependent patients (ADs), 28 pathological gamblers (PGs), and 18 healthy controls (HCs) performed a contingency learning task in which they learned stimulus-reward associations that were first reversed and later extinguished while receiving deterministic feedback throughout. Accumulated points, number of perseverative errors and trials required to reach a criterion in each learning phase were compared between groups using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis rank-sum tests. Regression analyses were performed to compare learning curves. PGs and ADs did not differ from HCs in discrimination learning, reversal learning, or extinction learning, on the nonparametric tests. Regression analyses, however, showed differences in the initial speed of learning: PGs were significantly faster in discrimination learning compared to ADs, and both PGs and ADs learned slower than HCs in the reversal learning and extinction phases of the task. Learning rates for reversal and extinction were slower for the alcohol-dependent group and PG group compared to HCs, suggesting that reversing and extinguishing learned contingencies require more effort in ADs and PGs. This implicates a diminished flexibility to overcome previously learned contingencies. © 2014 The Authors Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on

  5. Stroop task among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and pathological gambling (PG) in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT).

    PubMed

    Peles, Einat; Weinstein, Aviv; Sason, Anat; Adelson, Miriam; Schreiber, Shaul

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the impaired attention selection (Stroop interference effect) and general performance [reaction times (RTs)] on the Stroop task among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), pathological gambling (PG), both PG/OCD or none, and the influence if having ADHD. Eighty-six patients and 15 control subjects underwent the Stroop task, which measured RTs of condition-related words (color, obsessive compulsive disorder, pathological gambling, addiction) and neutral words. MMT patients had longer RTs on the Stroop task compared with controls. RTs were longer among patients with OCD and in those who abused drugs on the study day. The combined PG/OCD group had the longest RTs, but they were also characterized as abusing more drugs, being older, and having worse cognitive status. Stroop color interference differed only among MMT patients with ADHD, and it was higher among those with OCD than those without OCD. The modified condition-related Stroop did not show any interference effect of OCD, addiction, or gambling words. MMT patients had generally poorer performance, as indicated by longer RTs, that were related to clinical OCD, drug abuse, poor cognitive state, and older age. Patients with both clinical OCD and ADHD had a higher Stroop interference effect, which is a reflection of an attention deficit. In order to improve clinical approach and treatment of MMT patients, OCD and ADHD should be evaluated (and treated as needed).

  6. Pathological and Sub-Clinical Problem Gambling in a New Zealand Prison: A Comparison of the Eight and SOGS Gambling Screens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Sean; Brown, Robert; Skinner, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Prison populations have been identified as having elevated levels of problem gambling prevalence, and screening for problem gambling may provide an opportunity to identify and address a behavior that may otherwise lead to re-offending. A problem gambling screen for this purpose would need to be brief, simple to score, and be able to be…

  7. Pathological and Sub-Clinical Problem Gambling in a New Zealand Prison: A Comparison of the Eight and SOGS Gambling Screens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Sean; Brown, Robert; Skinner, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Prison populations have been identified as having elevated levels of problem gambling prevalence, and screening for problem gambling may provide an opportunity to identify and address a behavior that may otherwise lead to re-offending. A problem gambling screen for this purpose would need to be brief, simple to score, and be able to be…

  8. Frequency of New-Onset Pathologic Compulsive Gambling or Hypersexuality After Drug Treatment of Idiopathic Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, J. Michael; Hecksel, Kathleen A.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Bower, James H.; Ahlskog, J. Eric

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of new-onset compulsive gambling or hypersexuality among regional patients with Parkinson disease (PD), ascertaining the relationship of these behaviors to PD drug use. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients from 7 rural southeastern Minnesota counties who had at least 1 neurology appointment for PD between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2006. The main outcome measure was compulsive gambling or hypersexuality developing after parkinsonism onset, including the temporal relationship to PD drug use. RESULTS: Of 267 patients with PD who met the study inclusion criteria, new-onset gambling or hypersexuality was documented in 7 (2.6%). All were among the 66 patients (10.6%) taking a dopamine agonist. Moreover, all 7 (18.4%) were among 38 patients taking therapeutic doses (defined as ≥2 mg of pramipexole or 6 mg of ropinirole daily). Behaviors were clearly pathologic and disabling in 5: 7.6% of all patients taking an agonist and 13.2% of those taking therapeutic doses. Of the 5 patients, 2 had extensive treatment for what was considered a primary psychiatric problem before the agonist connection was recognized. CONCLUSION: Among the study patients with PD, new-onset compulsive gambling or hypersexuality was documented in 7 (18.4%) of 38 patients taking therapeutic doses of dopamine agonists but was not found among untreated patients, those taking subtherapeutic agonist doses, or those taking carbidopa/levodopa alone. Behaviors abated with discontinuation of agonist therapy or dose reduction. Because this is a retrospective study, cases may have been missed, and hence this study may reflect an underestimation of the true frequency. Physicians who care for patients taking these drugs should recognize the drug's potential to induce pathologic syndromes that sometimes masquerade as primary psychiatric disease. PMID:19339647

  9. Frequency of new-onset pathologic compulsive gambling or hypersexuality after drug treatment of idiopathic Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, J Michael; Hecksel, Kathleen A; Stevens, Susanna R; Bower, James H; Ahlskog, J Eric

    2009-04-01

    To determine the frequency of new-onset compulsive gambling or hypersexuality among regional patients with Parkinson disease (PD), ascertaining the relationship of these behaviors to PD drug use. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients from 7 rural southeastern Minnesota counties who had at least 1 neurology appointment for PD between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2006. The main outcome measure was compulsive gambling or hypersexuality developing after parkinsonism onset, including the temporal relationship to PD drug use. Of 267 patients with PD who met the study inclusion criteria, new-onset gambling or hypersexuality was documented in 7 (2.6%). All were among the 66 patients (10.6%) taking a dopamine agonist. Moreover, all 7 (18.4%) were among 38 patients taking therapeutic doses (defined as >/=2 mg of pramipexole or 6 mg of ropinirole daily). Behaviors were clearly pathologic and disabling in 5: 7.6% of all patients taking an agonist and 13.2% of those taking therapeutic doses. Of the 5 patients, 2 had extensive treatment for what was considered a primary psychiatric problem before the agonist connection was recognized. Among the study patients with PD, new-onset compulsive gambling or hypersexuality was documented in 7 (18.4%) of 38 patients taking therapeutic doses of dopamine agonists but was not found among untreated patients, those taking subtherapeutic agonist doses, or those taking carbidopa/levodopa alone. Behaviors abated with discontinuation of agonist therapy or dose reduction. Because this is a retrospective study, cases may have been missed, and hence this study may reflect an underestimation of the true frequency. Physicians who care for patients taking these drugs should recognize the drug's potential to induce pathologic syndromes that sometimes masquerade as primary psychiatric disease.

  10. Rates and correlates of pathological gambling among VA mental health service users.

    PubMed

    Edens, Ellen L; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2012-03-01

    The rate and correlates of diagnosed pathological gambling (PG) among mental health patients in the Veterans Health Administration, the only national system of mental health care, have not been studied. Using fiscal year 2009 (FY2009) VA administrative data, a case-control study compared those with an ICD code of 312.31 (PG) versus those without. The analytic group was limited to 1,102,846 Veterans Affairs (VA) specialty mental health (MH) services users because 94.5% of all those diagnosed with PG in the U.S. VA health system received such services. Chi-square tests and logistic regression assessed associations between demographic and clinical factors and PG diagnosis. The past-year rate of PG diagnosis among veterans treated in specialty MH program was 0.2%, significantly lower than prevalence rates in other treatment samples and the general U.S population, suggesting under-diagnosis and/or a low-income sample. Being female, ages 40-74, and higher income increased the risk of PG diagnosis, as did past-year homelessness (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.2), alcohol use disorders (OR = 2.8), bipolar disorder (OR = 2.1) and personality disorders (OR = 2.1). Depression, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders other than PTSD, were also positively associated with PG diagnosis. Drug use disorder had no significant independent association with PG. PTSD, dementia, and living in isolated rural areas conferred reduced risk. More systematic screening and surveillance of PG among MH service users generally, and veterans with heavy alcohol use, severe mental illness, and homelessness specifically, appears warranted.

  11. Obsessive-Compulsive Aspects and Pathological Gambling in an Italian Sample

    PubMed Central

    Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Carenti, Maria Luisa; De Berardis, Domenico; Iasevoli, Felice; Valchera, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Gambling behaviour appears as repetitive and difficult to resist and seems to be aimed at neutralizing or reducing negative feelings such as anxiety and tension, confirming its similarities with the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. Aims. Estimating the prevalence of gambling behaviour in an Italian sample and assessing the effects of sociodemographic variables and the correlations between gambling behaviour and obsessive-compulsive features. Methods. A sample of 300 Italian subjects was evaluated based on gambling behaviours and obsessive-compulsive attitudes. The assessment was carried out in small centers in Italy, mainly in coffee and tobacco shops, where slot machines are located, using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and the MOCQ-R, a reduced form of Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Questionnaire. Results. A negative correlation between SOGS and MOPQ-R, with reference to the control and cleaning subscales, was evidenced in the majority of the examined subjects. Both evaluating instruments showed reliability and a good discriminative capacity. Conclusions. Our study evidenced that the sample of gamblers we analysed did not belong to the obsessive-compulsive disorders area, supporting the validity of the model proposed by DSM-5 for the classification of PG. These data confirm the importance of investing in treatments similar to those used for substance use disorders. PMID:25057479

  12. Assessing the effects of cocaine dependence and pathological gambling using group-wise sparse representation of natural stimulus FMRI data.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yudan; Fang, Jun; Lv, Jinglei; Hu, Xintao; Guo, Cong Christine; Guo, Lei; Xu, Jiansong; Potenza, Marc N; Liu, Tianming

    2016-10-04

    Assessing functional brain activation patterns in neuropsychiatric disorders such as cocaine dependence (CD) or pathological gambling (PG) under naturalistic stimuli has received rising interest in recent years. In this paper, we propose and apply a novel group-wise sparse representation framework to assess differences in neural responses to naturalistic stimuli across multiple groups of participants (healthy control, cocaine dependence, pathological gambling). Specifically, natural stimulus fMRI (N-fMRI) signals from all three groups of subjects are aggregated into a big data matrix, which is then decomposed into a common signal basis dictionary and associated weight coefficient matrices via an effective online dictionary learning and sparse coding method. The coefficient matrices associated with each common dictionary atom are statistically assessed for each group separately. With the inter-group comparisons based on the group-wise correspondence established by the common dictionary, our experimental results demonstrated that the group-wise sparse coding and representation strategy can effectively and specifically detect brain networks/regions affected by different pathological conditions of the brain under naturalistic stimuli.

  13. Reports of pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and compulsive shopping associated with dopamine receptor agonist drugs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Thomas J; Glenmullen, Joseph; Mattison, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    Severe impulse control disorders involving pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and compulsive shopping have been reported in association with the use of dopamine receptor agonist drugs in case series and retrospective patient surveys. These agents are used to treat Parkinson disease, restless leg syndrome, and hyperprolactinemia. To analyze serious adverse drug event reports about these impulse control disorders received by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and to assess the relationship of these case reports with the 6 FDA-approved dopamine receptor agonist drugs. We conducted a retrospective disproportionality analysis based on the 2.7 million serious domestic and foreign adverse drug event reports from 2003 to 2012 extracted from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System. Cases were selected if they contained any of 10 preferred terms in the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) that described the abnormal behaviors. We used the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) to compare the proportion of target events to all serious events for the study drugs with a similar proportion for all other drugs. We identified 1580 events indicating impulse control disorders from the United States and 21 other countries:710 fordopamine receptor agonist drugs and 870 for other drugs. The dopamine receptor agonist drugs had a strong signal associated with these impulse control disorders (n = 710; PRR = 277.6, P < .001). The association was strongest for the dopamine agonists pramipexole (n = 410; PRR = 455.9, P < .001) and ropinirole (n = 188; PRR = 152.5, P < .001), with preferential affinity for the dopamine D3 receptor. A signal was also seen for aripiprazole, an antipsychotic classified as a partial agonist of the D3 receptor (n = 37; PRR = 8.6, P < .001). Our findings confirm and extend the evidence that dopamine receptor agonist drugs are associated with these specific impulse control disorders. At present

  14. Gambling Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Gambling Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Gambling Addiction A A ... So what's the story with gambling? What Is Gambling? Gambling means taking part in any activity or ...

  15. Altered neural correlates of reward and loss processing during simulated slot-machine fMRI in pathological gambling and cocaine dependence☆

    PubMed Central

    Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Malison, Robert T.; Rogers, Robert D.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with gambling or substance-use disorders exhibit similar functional alterations in reward circuitry suggestive of a shared underlying vulnerability in addictive disorders. Additional research into common and unique alterations in reward-processing in substance-related and non-substance-related addictions may identify neural factors that could be targeted in treatment development for these disorders. Methods To investigate contextual reward-processing in pathological gambling, a slot-machine fMRI task was performed by three groups (with pathological gambling, cocaine dependence and neither disorder; N=24 each) to determine the extent to which two groups with addictions (non-substance-related and substance-related) showed similarities and differences with respect to each other and a non-addicted group during anticipatory periods and following the delivery of winning, losing and ‘near-miss’ outcomes. Results Individuals with pathological gambling or cocaine dependence compared to those with neither disorder exhibited exaggerated anticipatory activity in mesolimbic and ventrocortical regions, with pathological-gambling participants displaying greater positive possible-reward anticipation and cocaine-dependent participants displaying more negative certain-loss anticipation. Neither clinical sample exhibited medial frontal or striatal responses that were observed following near-miss outcomes in healthy comparison participants. Conclusions Alterations in anticipatory processing may be sensitive to the valence of rewards and content-disorder-specific. Common and unique findings in pathological gambling and cocaine dependence with respect to anticipatory reward and near-miss loss processing suggest shared and unique elements that might be targeted through behavioral or pharmacological interventions in the treatment of addictions. PMID:25448081

  16. Environmental factors selectively impact co-occurrence of problem/pathological gambling with specific drug-use disorders in male twins.

    PubMed

    Xian, Hong; Giddens, Justine L; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Eisen, Seth A; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-04-01

    Multiple forms of drug abuse/dependence frequently co-occur with problem/pathological gambling (PPG). The current study examines the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to their co-occurrence. Bivariate models investigated the magnitude and correlation of genetic and environmental contributions to problem/pathological gambling and its co-occurrence with nicotine dependence, cannabis abuse/dependence and stimulant abuse/dependence. Computer-assisted telephone interviews in the community. Participants were 7869 male twins in the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, a USA-based national twin registry. Life-time DSM-III-R diagnoses for problem/pathological gambling, nicotine dependence, cannabis abuse/dependence and stimulant abuse/dependence were determined using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. All drug-use disorders displayed additive genetic and non-shared environmental contributions, with cannabis abuse/dependence also displaying shared environmental contributions. Both genetic [genetic correlation rA  = 0.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.10-0.34] and non-shared environmental components (environmental correlation rE  = 0.24; 95% CI = 0.10-0.37) contributed to the co-occurrence of problem/pathological gambling and nicotine dependence. This pattern was shared by cannabis abuse/dependence (rA  = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.05-1.0; rE  = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.16-0.55) but not stimulant abuse/dependence (SAD), which showed only genetic contributions to the co-occurrence with problem/pathological gambling (rA  = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.45-0.73). Strong links between gambling and stimulant-use disorders may relate to the neurochemical properties of stimulants or the illicit nature of using 'hard' drugs such as cocaine. The greater contribution of environmental factors to the co-occurrence between problem/pathological gambling and 'softer' forms of drug abuse/dependence (cannabis, tobacco) suggest that environmental interventions

  17. Development and validation of the Gambling Follow-up Scale, Self-Report version: an outcome measure in the treatment of pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Galetti, Ana M; Tavares, Hermano

    2017-01-01

    To validate the Gambling Follow-up Scale, Self-Report version (GFS-SR), a 10-item scale designed to assess gambling frequency, time and money spent on gambling, gambling craving, debts, emotional distress, family relationships, autonomy, and frequency of and satisfaction with leisure activities in individuals diagnosed with gambling disorder according to the DSM-5 criteria. One hundred and twenty treatment-seeking gamblers were evaluated, 84 of whom proceeded to treatment. Fifty-two relatives provided collateral informant reports at baseline. Six months later, the 50 patients who completed the program were reassessed. The GFS-SR showed good inter-rater agreement and internal consistency. Factor analysis presented a three-factor solution: gambling behavior (factor 1); social life (factor 2); and personal hardship (factor 3). There was a high degree of convergence between GFS-SR scores and those of reference scales. The GFS-SR scores showed excellent sensitivity to change (factor 1), predictive validity for treatment response (factor 2), and ability to distinguish recovered from unrecovered patients after treatment (factor 3). A cutoff score of 33 was found to have 87% sensitivity and 80% specificity for gambling recovery. The GFS-SR is well suited to providing reliable follow-up of gamblers under treatment and assessing the efficacy of their treatment.

  18. Sexual orientation of men with pathological gambling: prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity in a treatment-seeking sample

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2007-01-01

    Although gay men represent a high-risk group for psychiatric illness and impairment, they are largely an understudied population. The purpose of the present study was to examine the sexual orientation and clinical correlates of men with pathological gambling (PG). Sexual orientation was assessed in 105 men presenting with PG. Gay and bisexual men with PG were compared with heterosexual men in terms of gambling symptoms, impairment, and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Of 22 men (21.0%) with PG, 15 were gay (14.3%) and 7 were bisexual (6.7%). Gay and bisexual men vs heterosexual men were more likely to be single (81.8% vs 21.7%; χ22=28.2; P < .001), have a lifetime (81.8% vs 44.6%; χ12=9.7; P = .002) or current (68.2% vs 34.9%; χ12=7.9; P = .005) impulse control disorder, and have a lifetime substance use disorder (59.1% vs 31.3%; χ12=5.7; P < .05). Gay and bisexual men with PG also showed a trend toward greater impairment (P = .04). Psychiatric comorbidity and impairment are high in gay and bisexual men with PG. Research is needed to optimize patient care for gay and bisexual men with PG. PMID:17067876

  19. Bupropion in the treatment of pathological gambling: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Arndt, Stephan; Coryell, William H; Argo, Tami; Forbush, Kelsie T; Shaw, Martha C; Perry, Paul; Allen, Jeff

    2007-04-01

    We tested the efficacy of bupropion in the treatment of persons with pathological gambling (PG). Nondepressed, healthy subjects with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition PG were randomly assigned to placebo or flexibly dosed bupropion in a 12-week double-blind trial. Outcome measures included the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale modified for PG, the Gambling Severity Assessment Scale, the Clinical Global Impression Improvement and Severity Scales, the Global Assessment Scale, the Timeline Follow Back, the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale, and the Sheehan Disability Scale. Thirty-nine subjects (28 men, 11 women) were randomized to bupropion (n = 18) or placebo (n = 21). The 2 groups were similar on demographic and clinical measures. There were few differences between the treatment groups on any primary or secondary outcome measure, although subjects in each cell experienced significant improvement. Of subjects with at least 1 postrandomization visit, 35.7% of bupropion and 47.1% of placebo recipients experienced "much" or "very much" improvement on the Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale. The trial was complicated by a high noncompletion rate (43.6%). Bupropion was well tolerated. Bupropion and placebo recipients did equally well in a short-term trial, with improvement seen as early as the first week of treatment. The high placebo response rate and the high noncompletion rate each reflect the challenge inherent in treating persons with PG.

  20. Suicide Ideations, Suicide Attempts, and Completed Suicide in Persons with Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between suicidal ideations and attempts in 95 probands with pathological gambling (PG), 91 controls, and 1075 first-degree relatives. The results were analyzed using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Thirty-four PG probands (35.8%) and 4 controls (4.4%) had attempted suicide (OR = 12.12, p < .001); in 13 probands, the attempt occurred before PG onset. Lifetime suicidal ideations occurred in 60 PG probands (63.2%) and 12 controls (13.2%) (OR = 11.29, p < .001). Suicidality in PG probands is a marker of PG severity and is associated with greater psychiatric comorbidity. Offspring of PG probands had significantly higher rates of suicide attempts than control offspring. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  1. Dopamine and Opioid Neurotransmission in Behavioral Addictions: A Comparative PET Study in Pathological Gambling and Binge Eating.

    PubMed

    Majuri, Joonas; Joutsa, Juho; Johansson, Jarkko; Voon, Valerie; Alakurtti, Kati; Parkkola, Riitta; Lahti, Tuuli; Alho, Hannu; Hirvonen, Jussi; Arponen, Eveliina; Forsback, Sarita; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2017-04-01

    Although behavioral addictions share many clinical features with drug addictions, they show strikingly large variation in their behavioral phenotypes (such as in uncontrollable gambling or eating). Neurotransmitter function in behavioral addictions is poorly understood, but has important implications in understanding its relationship with substance use disorders and underlying mechanisms of therapeutic efficacy. Here, we compare opioid and dopamine function between two behavioral addiction phenotypes: pathological gambling (PG) and binge eating disorder (BED). Thirty-nine participants (15 PG, 7 BED, and 17 controls) were scanned with [(11)C]carfentanil and [(18)F]fluorodopa positron emission tomography using a high-resolution scanner. Binding potentials relative to non-displaceable binding (BPND) for [(11)C]carfentanil and influx rate constant (Ki) values for [(18)F]fluorodopa were analyzed with region-of-interest and whole-brain voxel-by-voxel analyses. BED subjects showed widespread reductions in [(11)C]carfentanil BPND in multiple subcortical and cortical brain regions and in striatal [(18)F]fluorodopa Ki compared with controls. In PG patients, [(11)C]carfentanil BPND was reduced in the anterior cingulate with no differences in [(18)F]fluorodopa Ki compared with controls. In the nucleus accumbens, a key region involved in reward processing, [(11)C]Carfentanil BPND was 30-34% lower and [(18)F]fluorodopa Ki was 20% lower in BED compared with PG and controls (p<0.002). BED and PG are thus dissociable as a function of dopaminergic and opioidergic neurotransmission. Compared with PG, BED patients show widespread losses of mu-opioid receptor availability together with presynaptic dopaminergic defects. These findings highlight the heterogeneity underlying the subtypes of addiction and indicate differential mechanisms in the expression of pathological behaviors and responses to treatment.

  2. Pathological gambling: relationship to obesity, self-reported chronic medical conditions, poor lifestyle choices, and impaired quality of life.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is an important public health problem that is prevalent, costly to society, and associated with substance misuse, depression, domestic violence, crime, and suicide. Despite these challenges, little is known about the physical health and medical correlates of PG. The goal of this project was to assess self-reported chronic medical conditions, medication usage, lifestyle choices, health care utilization, quality of life variables, and body mass index (BMI) in persons with and without PG. Subjects with PG and community controls were systematically assessed for their medical health, lifestyle choices, medication usage, and health care utilization. We administered the Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36 Health Survey to assess perceived health and quality of life. BMI was calculated for all subjects. Obesity was defined as having a BMI≥30kg/m(2). We compared 95 subjects with DSM-IV PG (South Oaks Gambling Screen [SOGS] score≥5) and 91 control subjects without PG (SOGS≤2) selected through random digit dialing from the general community. PG subjects and controls were similar in age and gender. Persons with PG had more medical and mental health conditions than controls, and were more likely to avoid regular exercise, smoke≥1 pack/day, drink≥5 servings of caffeine daily, and watch television≥20hours/week. They had more emergency department visits for physical and mental health conditions, were more likely to have been psychiatrically hospitalized in the past year, and were more likely to take psychotropic medication. They were less likely to have had regular dental visits and were more likely to put off medical care due to financial problems. Severity of gambling was positively correlated with number of medical conditions. Persons with PG had poorer self-reported health perceptions on all but one SF-36 subscale. Importantly, persons with PG had a higher BMI than controls and were more likely to be obese. PG is associated with obesity

  3. Gambling experiences, problems, research and policy: gambling in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Monika; Kräplin, Anja; Braun, Barbara; Kraus, Ludwig

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an overview of gambling in Germany, including historical development, legislative and economic changes as well as treatment options and their effectiveness. The available scientific literature and research reports on gambling in Germany were reviewed to obtain relevant information on history, commercialization, legislation, treatment and research agenda. Gambling in Germany is characterized by compromises between protective and economic efforts. At present, gambling is illegal in Germany, and provision is subject to the state monopoly. Mere gaming machines (specific slot machines) are not classified as gambling activity, permitting commercial providers. In recent years, implementing regulations for state gambling and gaming machines have been changed. Concerning the treatment of pathological gambling, various options exist; treatment costs have been covered by health and pension insurance since 2001. Information on the effectiveness of treatment in Germany is limited. Similarly, the number of peer-reviewed publications on gambling is small. German gambling legislation was subject to major changes in the past years. Based on the available body of research (longitudinal), studies on risk and protective factors and the aetiology of pathological gambling are needed. The effectiveness of pathological gambling treatment in Germany and the impact of gambling regulations on gambling behaviour also need to be investigated. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Gambling as a Social Problem: On the Social Conditions of Gambling in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barmaki, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Canadian legalized gambling has undergone a massive growth, resulting in numerous social problems such as crime, political corruption, and, most importantly, pathological gambling. When it comes to theorizing gambling in Canada, pathological gambling has been the centre of the attention for two related reasons: (1) the increasing…

  5. Gambling as a Social Problem: On the Social Conditions of Gambling in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barmaki, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Canadian legalized gambling has undergone a massive growth, resulting in numerous social problems such as crime, political corruption, and, most importantly, pathological gambling. When it comes to theorizing gambling in Canada, pathological gambling has been the centre of the attention for two related reasons: (1) the increasing…

  6. Five-year science outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Research on water quality, on solar activity's possible link to earth climate, and on potential resource deposits will be among the top scientific and technological problems to be tackled during the next 5 years, according to a National Research Council (NRC) report, ‘Outlook for Science and Technology: The Next Five Years.’ Written and reviewed by more than 200 scientists, the report is the second in a series describing current research trends; the first report was issued in 1979. The NRC report also offers a concise overview and comparison of the research environments in the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, and France. In addition, the report identifies prospects for new technologies in seven fields with emerging technologies or emerging situations that rely heavily on technology. The fields discussed are recombinant DNA, superconductivity, medical technology, energy storage, potential new resource deposits, the space shuttle and the space telescope, and information processing.

  7. Civil partnerships five years on.

    PubMed

    Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe.

  8. Personality Disorders, Impulsiveness, and Novelty Seeking in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William H; Crowe, Raymond R; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the presence of personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking in probands with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG), controls, and their respective first-degree relatives using a blind family study methodology. Ninety-three probands with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and their 395 first-degree relatives were evaluated for the presence of personality disorder with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. Impulsiveness was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Novelty seeking was evaluated using questions from Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. Results were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations to account for within family correlations. PG probands had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorders than controls (41 vs. 7 %, OR = 9.0, P < 0.001), along with higher levels of impulsiveness and novelty seeking. PG probands with a personality disorder had more severe gambling symptoms; earlier age at PG onset; more suicide attempts; greater psychiatric comorbidity; and a greater family history of psychiatric illness than PG probands without a personality disorder. PG relatives had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorder than relatives of controls (24 vs. 9%, OR = 3.2, P < 0.001) and higher levels of impulsiveness. Risk for PG in relatives is associated with the presence of personality disorder and increases along with rising BIS Non-Planning and Total scale scores. Personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking are common in people with PG and their first-degree relatives. The presence of a personality disorder appears to be a marker of PG severity and earlier age of onset. Risk for PG in relatives is associated with the presence of personality disorder and trait impulsiveness. These findings suggest that personality disorder and impulsiveness may contribute to a familial diathesis for PG.

  9. Exposure to Gambling Advertisements and Gambling Behavior in Young People.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Franziska; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2017-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 4617 adolescents and young adults from 38 schools in two German states was conducted in 2014 to assess the association between gambling advertisements and gambling behavior. Exposure to ten gambling advertisements was measured with masked ad images; students indicated contact frequency and brand recall. Main outcomes were several gambling behaviors including probable pathological gambling assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS ≥ 5). A total of 65.4 % of the students reported gambling at least once in their life; 42.2 % gambled in the last 12 months; 6.9 % gambled in the last week, and 2.8 % reported probable pathological gambling. The average frequency that one of the selected ads had been seen at least once was 29.5 %, the average brand recall rate was 9.4 %. After adjustment for confounding, multilevel mixed-effects logistic regressions revealed that high gambling ad exposure was positively related to all assessed gambling outcomes, with the strongest association for weekly gambling. Future studies need to clarify the temporal sequence and specificity of these associations.

  10. Five Years of GWAS Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Peter M.; Brown, Matthew A.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Yang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The past five years have seen many scientific and biological discoveries made through the experimental design of genome-wide association studies (GWASs). These studies were aimed at detecting variants at genomic loci that are associated with complex traits in the population and, in particular, at detecting associations between common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and common diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, auto-immune diseases, and psychiatric disorders. We start by giving a number of quotes from scientists and journalists about perceived problems with GWASs. We will then briefly give the history of GWASs and focus on the discoveries made through this experimental design, what those discoveries tell us and do not tell us about the genetics and biology of complex traits, and what immediate utility has come out of these studies. Rather than giving an exhaustive review of all reported findings for all diseases and other complex traits, we focus on the results for auto-immune diseases and metabolic diseases. We return to the perceived failure or disappointment about GWASs in the concluding section. PMID:22243964

  11. Compulsive Gambling

    MedlinePlus

    ... gambling is more common in younger and middle-aged people. Gambling during childhood or the teenage years increases the risk of developing compulsive gambling. However, compulsive gambling in the older adult population can also be a problem. Sex. Compulsive gambling is more common in men than ...

  12. Age at Onset of DSM-IV Pathological Gambling in a Non-Treatment Sample: Early- versus Later-Onset

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald W.; Shaw, Martha; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Background Pathological gambling (PG) is a prevalent and impairing public health problem. In this study we assessed age at onset in men and women with PG and compared the demographic and clinical picture of early- vs. later-onset individuals. We also compared age at onset in PG subjects and their first-degree relatives with PG. Method Subjects with DSM-IV PG were recruited during the conduct of two non-treatment clinical studies. Subjects were evaluated with structured interviews and validated questionnaires. Early-onset was defined as PG starting prior to age 33 years. Results Age at onset of PG in the 255 subjects ranged from 8 to 80 years with a mean (SD) of 34.0 (15.3) years. Men had an earlier onset than women. 84% of all subjects with PG had developed the disorder by age 50 years. Early-onset subjects were more likely to be male, to prefer action games, and to have substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, trait impulsiveness, and social anxiety disorder. Later-onset was more common in women and was associated with a preference for slots and a history of sexual abuse. Conclusions Age at onset of PG is bimodal and differs for men and women. Early- and later-onset PG have important demographic and clinical differences. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25956751

  13. Reduced genual corpus callosal white matter integrity in pathological gambling and its relationship to alcohol abuse or dependence

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Sarah W.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Xu, Jiansong; Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Fulbright, Robert K.; Constable, R. Todd; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated functional prefrontal cortical (PFC) abnormalities in pathological gambling (PG) and other psychiatric disorders characterized by impaired impulse control; e.g. cocaine dependence and bipolar disorder. These abnormalities are accompanied by impairments in white matter microstructures in the anterior (genual) corpus callosum (CC) in cocaine dependence and bipolar disorder. Prior studies have not examined white matter integrity in PG. Methods 19 participants with PG and 19 matched control participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare white matter integrity in the CC, as assessed using fractional anisotropy (FA). Results In PG subjects as compared to control subjects, reduced FA values in the left and right genu of the CC were observed. Multiple regression analyses confirmed that PG status - in addition to age and past alcohol abuse/dependence (AA/AD) – was a significant predictor of genual FA values. Conclusion Findings of decreased FA values in the genu of the CC in PG subjects suggest that, like with other disorders of behavioral dyscontrol, white matter microstructural abnormalities contribute to the pathophysiology of PG. These differences appear particularly relevant to individuals with remitted AA/AD, highlighting the importance of considering co-occurring substance use disorders when investigating PG. PMID:21545245

  14. Age at onset of DSM-IV pathological gambling in a non-treatment sample: Early- versus later-onset.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a prevalent and impairing public health problem. In this study we assessed age at onset in men and women with PG and compared the demographic and clinical picture of early- vs. later-onset individuals. We also compared age at onset in PG subjects and their first-degree relatives with PG. Subjects with DSM-IV PG were recruited during the conduct of two non-treatment clinical studies. Subjects were evaluated with structured interviews and validated questionnaires. Early-onset was defined as PG starting prior to age 33years. Age at onset of PG in the 255 subjects ranged from 8 to 80years with a mean (SD) of 34.0 (15.3) years. Men had an earlier onset than women. 84% of all subjects with PG had developed the disorder by age 50years. Early-onset subjects were more likely to be male, to prefer action games, and to have substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, trait impulsiveness, and social anxiety disorder. Later-onset was more common in women and was associated with a preference for slots and a history of sexual abuse. Age at onset of PG is bimodal and differs for men and women. Early-onset PG and later-onset PG have important demographic and clinical differences. The implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comorbid pathological gambling, mental health, and substance use disorders: Health-care services provision by clinician specialty.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Errea, Maria; Volberg, Rachel

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder. This study assessed the burden of co-occurring behavioral addictions and mental health disorders in treatment-seeking patients and estimated the likelihood of receiving care for these disorders by clinician specialty. Methods Study data were derived from the Massachusetts All-Payer Claims Database, a representative database, for the period 2009-2013. The sample included commercially insured adult residents of Massachusetts. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the likelihood of provision of care by clinician specialty adjusting for patient's demographic characteristics and level of care. Bonferroni correction was applied to adjust for multiple testing. Results The study sample included 869 patients. Treatment-seeking patients who had a diagnosis of PG were mostly males (71%), aged 45-54 years (26.7%) and enrolled in a health maintenance organization (47%). The most prevalent co-occurring disorders among patients with PG as principal diagnosis were anxiety disorders (28%), mood disorders (26%), and substance use disorders (18%). PG was associated with a more than twofold likelihood of receiving care from social workers and psychologists (p < .05). Depressive disorders were associated with a three times greater likelihood of receiving care from primary care physicians (PCPs) (p < .05). Having three and four or more diagnosis was associated with a greater likelihood of receiving care from PCPs. Discussion and conclusions Psychiatric and substance use disorders are prevalent among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. The likelihood of receiving care from specialty clinicians significantly varies by clinical diagnosis and patient clinical complexity.

  16. Teen Gambling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Teen Gambling Page Content Article Body How can I tell ... son or daughter is having a problem with gambling? Look for the following warning signs: Finding gambling " ...

  17. Gambling, Sex, and…Parkinson's Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... spent, browse our financial information. Learn More Gambling, Sex, and…Parkinson's Disease? By Laura Marsh, M.D. ... and, in people with Parkinson's, most typically involve sex, gambling and abuse of anti-parkinsonian medications. Pathological ...

  18. Youth gambling: not a safe bet.

    PubMed

    Turchi, Renee M; Derevensky, Jeffrey L

    2006-08-01

    To increase awareness and knowledge of the growing problem of adolescent gambling. Some risk factors have been established for adolescent gambling. Many of the risk factors for gambling behavior can be addressed in effective prevention of problem gambling. There is an association between some psychiatric comorbid conditions and problem gambling (i.e. depression). Current treatment modalities are based on adult experiences and need further investigation for adolescents. Prevention strategies and education of youth, parents, teachers, educators, and professionals are essential in targeting this serious problem. Given the increasing overall prevalence of adolescent gambling, it is imperative that pediatricians appreciate that gambling problems can also afflict adolescents. There is a clear link between problem gambling in adolescence and pathologic gambling in adulthood. Thus, like other addictive behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug use), youth and parents should be screened and counseled about the risks associated with excessive gambling.

  19. Amantadine and cognitive flexibility: decision making in Parkinson’s patients with severe pathological gambling and other impulse control disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cera, Nicoletta; Bifolchetti, Stefania; Martinotti, Giovanni; Gambi, Francesco; Sepede, Gianna; Onofrj, Marco; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Thomas, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dopamine replacement therapy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) was recently linked to the development of impulse control disorders such as pathological gambling (PG), hypersexuality, compulsive shopping, and binge or compulsive eating. Antiglutamatergic agents including amantadine (Ama) reduce these behaviors in PD and non-PD patients. The aim of our study is to evaluate the changes in executive functions, emotions, and reward/loss processing during Ama treatment in PD patients. Methods Thirty-three patients affected by idiopathic PD were selected from a cohort of 1,096 PD patients and categorized in three different groups: ten affected by PG (PD-PG); nine PD patients with other impulse control disorder (PD-ICD); and 14 PD patient without any psychiatric disorder (PD-CTR-controls). For the neuropsychological evaluation, the following behavioral tasks where administered: the Stroop, the emotional Stroop, and the monetary reward/loss risk-taking tasks. Results During Ama treatment, PD-PGs showed a decrease in risky choices and an increase in non-risky choices (t(9)=−2.40, P<0.05 and t(9)=2,67, P<0.05 uncorrected, respectively). Between-group comparison showed a significant decrease in risky choices for PD-PG with respect to PD-CTR (t(22)=−4.16, P<0.01), and a decreased accuracy for positive words in comparison between PD-PG and PD-ICD (t(17)=−7,49, P<0.01) and PD-PG and PD-CTR (t(22)=−4.29, P<0.01). No within- and between-group differences were observed for Stroop task. Discussion Our data showed that Ama add-on therapy reduces hypersensitivity to reward and sustains activation toward uncertainty in PD-PG patients. These finding might explain the behavioral mechanism underlying the effect of antiglutamatergic drugs. PMID:24971012

  20. Should pathological gambling and obesity be considered addictive disorders? A factor analytic study in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Carlos; García-Anaya, María; Wall, Melanie; de Los Cobos, José Carlos Pérez; Swierad, Ewelina; Wang, Shuai; Petry, Nancy M

    2015-05-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is now aligned with substance use disorders in the DSM-5 as the first officially recognized behavioral addiction. There is growing interest in examining obesity as an addictive disorder as well. The goal of this study was to investigate whether epidemiological data provide support for the consideration of PG and obesity as addictive disorders. Factor analysis of data from a large, nationally representative sample of US adults (N=43,093), using nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, PG and obesity as indicators. It was hypothesized that nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence and drug use dependence would load on a single factor. It was further hypothesized that if PG and obesity were addictive disorders, they would load on the same factor as substance use disorders, whereas failure to load on the addictive factor would not support their conceptualization as addictive disorders. A model with one factor including nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence and PG, but not obesity, provided a very good fit to the data, as indicated by CFI=0.99, TLI=0.99 and RMSEA=0.01 and loadings of all indicators >0.4. Data from this study support the inclusion of PG in a latent factor with substance use disorders but do not lend support to the consideration of obesity, as defined by BMI, as an addictive disorder. Future research should investigate whether certain subtypes of obesity are best conceptualized as addictive disorders and the shared biological and environmental factors that account for the common and specific features of addictive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Should pathological gambling and obesity be considered addictive disorders? A factor analytic study in a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; García-Anaya, María; Wall, Melanie; de los Cobos, José Carlos Pérez; Swierad, Ewelina; Wang, Shuai; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pathological gambling (PG) is now aligned with substance use disorders in the DSM-5 as the first officially recognized behavioral addiction. There is growing interest in examining obesity as an addictive disorder as well. The goal of this study was to investigate whether epidemiological data provide support for the consideration of PG and obesity as addictive disorders. Method Factor analysis of data from a large, nationally representative sample of US adults (N=43,093), using nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, PG and obesity as indicators. It was hypothesized that nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence and drug use dependence would load on a single factor. It was further hypothesized that if PG and obesity were addictive disorders, they would load on the same factor as substance use disorders, whereas failure to load on the addictive factor would not support their conceptualization as addictive disorders. Results A model with one factor including nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence and PG, but not obesity, provided a very good fit to the data, as indicated by CFI=0.99, TLI=0.99 and RMSEA=.01 and loadings of all indicators >0.4. Conclusion Data from this study support the inclusion of PG in a latent factor with substance use disorders but do not lend support to the consideration of obesity, as defined by BMI, as an addictive disorder. Future research should investigate whether certain subtypes of obesity are best conceptualized as addictive disorders and the shared biological and environmental factors that account for the common and specific features of addictive disorders. PMID:25769392

  2. Gender, gambling and problem gambling.

    PubMed

    Hraba, J; Lee, G

    1996-03-01

    With data from a 1989 Iowa survey (N=1,011), adult male and female respondents are compared on their problem gambling, its correlates, as well as their gambling behavior. Gambling behavior means its scope, frequency, wagering and leisure time spent at gambling. Women's gambling behavior was lower than that of men, due to their having a narrower scope of gambling behavior, but the genders were not significantly different on frequency, wagering and time spent at gambling. Women and men did not differ significantly on problem gambling. Problem gambling is measured as loss of control over gambling, and consequences due to gambling as well as gambling behavior. Women and men did differ significantly, however, on several predictors of problem gambling. Women's estrangement from a conventional lifestyle and integration into a social world of gambling appeared to help explain their problem gambling. Alcohol consumption appeared to be a more important predictor for men than women. The genders shared the attitude that the odds can be beat as well as being big spenders as predictors of their problem gambling. The results are interpreted with practitioners' efforts to prevent and treat problem gambling in mind.

  3. Compulsive Gambling

    MedlinePlus

    Many people enjoy gambling, whether it's betting on a horse or playing poker on the Internet. Most people who gamble don't have a problem, but some lose control of their gambling. Signs of problem gambling include Always thinking about ...

  4. Gambling in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rina; Pinzon, Jorge L

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that minors in Canada are prohibited from legalized gambling, adolescents commonly engage in both legalized (lottery products, casino, video lottery terminals) and self-organized (cards, sports betting, dice) gambling activities both at home and in school. Lifetime prevalence rates of pathological gambling for adults range from 1% to 2%, and existing data suggest that the prevalence among adolescents may be two to four times higher. Very little is known about risk factors in the development and perpetuation of problematic and pathological gambling. This statement is intended to educate paediatricians, family physicians and other health care providers about the emerging knowledge around gambling in childhood and adolescence and the potential serious consequences of this activity. It also urges federal, provincial and territorial governments to include this specific issue in their agendas and to address the socio-political factors associated with gambling. PMID:23633901

  5. Gambling in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rina; Pinzon, Jorge L

    2012-05-01

    Despite the fact that minors in Canada are prohibited from legalized gambling, adolescents commonly engage in both legalized (lottery products, casino, video lottery terminals) and self-organized (cards, sports betting, dice) gambling activities both at home and in school. Lifetime prevalence rates of pathological gambling for adults range from 1% to 2%, and existing data suggest that the prevalence among adolescents may be two to four times higher. Very little is known about risk factors in the development and perpetuation of problematic and pathological gambling. This statement is intended to educate paediatricians, family physicians and other health care providers about the emerging knowledge around gambling in childhood and adolescence and the potential serious consequences of this activity. It also urges federal, provincial and territorial governments to include this specific issue in their agendas and to address the socio-political factors associated with gambling.

  6. Identifying Environmental and Social Factors Predisposing to Pathological Gambling Combining Standard Logistic Regression and Logic Learning Machine.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Stefano; Dosi, Corrado; Zambon, Antonella; Ferrari, Enrico; Muselli, Marco

    2017-03-02

    Identifying potential risk factors for problem gambling (PG) is of primary importance for planning preventive and therapeutic interventions. We illustrate a new approach based on the combination of standard logistic regression and an innovative method of supervised data mining (Logic Learning Machine or LLM). Data were taken from a pilot cross-sectional study to identify subjects with PG behaviour, assessed by two internationally validated scales (SOGS and Lie/Bet). Information was obtained from 251 gamblers recruited in six betting establishments. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and cognitive-related factors, and type, place and frequency of preferred gambling were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The following variables associated with PG were identified: instant gratification games, alcohol abuse, cognitive distortion, illegal behaviours and having started gambling with a relative or a friend. Furthermore, the combination of LLM and LR indicated the presence of two different types of PG, namely: (a) daily gamblers, more prone to illegal behaviour, with poor money management skills and who started gambling at an early age, and (b) non-daily gamblers, characterised by superstitious beliefs and a higher preference for immediate reward games. Finally, instant gratification games were strongly associated with the number of games usually played. Studies on gamblers habitually frequently betting shops are rare. The finding of different types of PG by habitual gamblers deserves further analysis in larger studies. Advanced data mining algorithms, like LLM, are powerful tools and potentially useful in identifying risk factors for PG.

  7. A biopsychological review of gambling disorder

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    The present review is an overview of previous experimental work on biopsychological aspects of gambling disorder. It includes the topics 1) gambling disorder from the neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG) perspective, 2) cognitive, executive functioning, and neuropsychological aspects of gambling disorder, and 3) rodent models of gambling disorder. Penalties and losses in gambling can differ in terms of brain activity. Also, specific patterns of brain activity, brain anatomical traits, EEG responses, and cognitive and executive performance can discriminate pathological gamblers from nonpathological gamblers. Also, pathological gamblers can display dysfunction in such brain areas as the insula, frontal lobe, and orbitofrontal cortex. Pathological gambling is a heterogeneous disorder that can vary depending on the severity of cognition, the style of gambling (strategic or not), the prospect of recovery, proneness to relapse, and proneness to treatment withdrawal. Finally, based on rodent models of gambling, the appropriateness of gambling decision is influenced by the presence of cues, the activity of dopamine receptors, and the activity of some brain areas (infralimbic, prelimbic, or rostral agranular insular cortex). Pathological gamblers differed in terms of frontoparietal brain activation compared to nonpathological gamblers (if winning or losing a game). Pathological gamblers had dysfunctional EEG activity. The severity of gambling was linked to the magnification and content of cognitive distortions. The insula was fundamental in the distortion of cognitions linked to result analysis during gambling activity. PMID:28096672

  8. A biopsychological review of gambling disorder.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    The present review is an overview of previous experimental work on biopsychological aspects of gambling disorder. It includes the topics 1) gambling disorder from the neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG) perspective, 2) cognitive, executive functioning, and neuropsychological aspects of gambling disorder, and 3) rodent models of gambling disorder. Penalties and losses in gambling can differ in terms of brain activity. Also, specific patterns of brain activity, brain anatomical traits, EEG responses, and cognitive and executive performance can discriminate pathological gamblers from nonpathological gamblers. Also, pathological gamblers can display dysfunction in such brain areas as the insula, frontal lobe, and orbitofrontal cortex. Pathological gambling is a heterogeneous disorder that can vary depending on the severity of cognition, the style of gambling (strategic or not), the prospect of recovery, proneness to relapse, and proneness to treatment withdrawal. Finally, based on rodent models of gambling, the appropriateness of gambling decision is influenced by the presence of cues, the activity of dopamine receptors, and the activity of some brain areas (infralimbic, prelimbic, or rostral agranular insular cortex). Pathological gamblers differed in terms of frontoparietal brain activation compared to nonpathological gamblers (if winning or losing a game). Pathological gamblers had dysfunctional EEG activity. The severity of gambling was linked to the magnification and content of cognitive distortions. The insula was fundamental in the distortion of cognitions linked to result analysis during gambling activity.

  9. Problem Gambling in New Mexico: 1996 and 1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starling, Randall; Blankenship, Jason; May, Philip; Woodall, Gill

    2009-01-01

    Included in both the 1996 and 1998 Survey of Gambling Behavior in New Mexico was a scale of individual problem gambling. To assess problems related to gambling behavior, questions were developed using the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. The purpose of this paper is to describe problem gamblers in New Mexico. Descriptive data indicate…

  10. Problem Gambling in New Mexico: 1996 and 1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starling, Randall; Blankenship, Jason; May, Philip; Woodall, Gill

    2009-01-01

    Included in both the 1996 and 1998 Survey of Gambling Behavior in New Mexico was a scale of individual problem gambling. To assess problems related to gambling behavior, questions were developed using the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. The purpose of this paper is to describe problem gamblers in New Mexico. Descriptive data indicate…

  11. Compulsive gambling

    MedlinePlus

    ... to escape problems or feelings of sadness or anxiety. Gambling larger amounts of money to try to make back past losses. Losing a job, relationship, education, or career opportunity due to gambling. Lying ...

  12. Gambling Awareness for Youth: An Analysis of the "Don't Gamble Away Our Future[TM]" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lisa M.; Hillyard, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Gambling has become increasingly popular among minors and is easily accessible to them. This is alarming since research has indicated that minors are more susceptible to gambling pathology than adults. Additionally, gambling has devastating effects on minors that gamble as well as their families and communities. The Illinois Institute for…

  13. Gambling Awareness for Youth: An Analysis of the "Don't Gamble Away Our Future[TM]" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lisa M.; Hillyard, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Gambling has become increasingly popular among minors and is easily accessible to them. This is alarming since research has indicated that minors are more susceptible to gambling pathology than adults. Additionally, gambling has devastating effects on minors that gamble as well as their families and communities. The Illinois Institute for…

  14. A Preliminary Study of DBH (Encoding Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase) Genetic Variation and Neural Correlates of Emotional and Motivational Processing in Individuals With and Without Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bao-Zhu; Balodis, Iris M.; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Xu, Jiansong; Potenza, Marc N.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Corticostriatal-limbic neurocircuitry, emotional and motivational processing, dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems and genetic factors have all been implicated in pathological gambling (PG). However, allelic variants of genes influencing dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmitters have not been investigated with respect to the neural correlates of emotional and motivational states in PG. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) converts dopamine to norepinephrine; the T allele of a functional single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1611115 (C-1021T) in the DBH gene is associated with less DBH activity and has been linked to emotional processes and addiction. Here, we investigate the influence of rs1611115 on the neural correlates of emotional and motivational processing in PG and healthy comparison (HC) participants. Methods While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, 18 PG and 25 HC participants, all European Americans, viewed gambling-, sad-, and cocaine-related videotapes. Analyses focused on brain activation differences related to DBH genotype (CC/T-carrier [i.e., CT and TT]) and condition (sad/gambling/cocaine). Results CC participants demonstrated greater recruitment of corticostriatal-limbic regions, relative to T-carriers. DBH variants were also associated with altered corticostriatal-limbic activations across the different videotape conditions, and this association appeared to be driven by greater activation in CC participants relative to T-carriers during the sad condition. CC relative to T-carrier subjects also reported greater subjective sadness to the sad videotapes. Conclusions Individual differences in genetic composition linked to aminergic function contribute significantly to emotional regulation across diagnostic groups and warrant further investigation in PG. PMID:27194378

  15. A Preliminary Study of DBH (Encoding Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase) Genetic Variation and Neural Correlates of Emotional and Motivational Processing in Individuals With and Without Pathological Gambling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bao-Zhu; Balodis, Iris M; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Xu, Jiansong; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Corticostriatal-limbic neurocircuitry, emotional and motivational processing, dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems and genetic factors have all been implicated in pathological gambling (PG). However, allelic variants of genes influencing dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmitters have not been investigated with respect to the neural correlates of emotional and motivational states in PG. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) converts dopamine to norepinephrine; the T allele of a functional single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1611115 (C-1021T) in the DBH gene is associated with less DBH activity and has been linked to emotional processes and addiction. Here, we investigate the influence of rs1611115 on the neural correlates of emotional and motivational processing in PG and healthy comparison (HC) participants. Methods While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, 18 PG and 25 HC participants, all European Americans, viewed gambling-, sad-, and cocaine-related videotapes. Analyses focused on brain activation differences related to DBH genotype (CC/T-carrier [i.e., CT and TT]) and condition (sad/gambling/cocaine). Results CC participants demonstrated greater recruitment of corticostriatal-limbic regions, relative to T-carriers. DBH variants were also associated with altered corticostriatal-limbic activations across the different videotape conditions, and this association appeared to be driven by greater activation in CC participants relative to T-carriers during the sad condition. CC relative to T-carrier subjects also reported greater subjective sadness to the sad videotapes. Conclusions Individual differences in genetic composition linked to aminergic function contribute significantly to emotional regulation across diagnostic groups and warrant further investigation in PG.

  16. Extrastriatal dopaminergic abnormalities of DA homeostasis in Parkinson's patients with medication-induced pathological gambling: a [11C] FLB-457 and PET study.

    PubMed

    Ray, Nicola J; Miyasaki, Janis M; Zurowski, Mateusz; Ko, Ji Hyun; Cho, Sang Soo; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Antonelli, Francesca; Houle, Sylvain; Lang, Anthony E; Strafella, Antonio P

    2012-12-01

    Impulse control disorders such as pathological gambling (PG) are a serious and common adverse effect of dopamine (DA) replacement medication in Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients with PG have increased impulsivity and abnormalities in striatal DA, in common with behavioural and substance addictions in the non-PD population. To date, no studies have investigated the role of extrastriatal dopaminergic abnormalities in PD patients with PG. We used the PET radiotracer, [11C] FLB-457, with high-affinity for extrastriatal DA D2/3 receptors. 14 PD patients on DA agonists were imaged while they performed a gambling task involving real monetary reward and a control task. Trait impulsivity was measured with the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Seven of the patients had a history of PG that developed subsequent to DA agonist medication. Change in [11C] FLB-457 binding potential (BP) during gambling was reduced in PD with PG patients in the midbrain, where D2/D3 receptors are dominated by autoreceptors. The degree of change in [11C] FLB-457 binding in this region correlated with impulsivity. In the cortex, [11C] FLB-457 BP was significantly greater in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in PD patients with PG during the control task, and binding in this region was also correlated with impulsivity. Our findings provide the first evidence that PD patients with PG have dysfunctional activation of DA autoreceptors in the midbrain and low DA tone in the ACC. Thus, altered striatal and cortical DA homeostasis may incur vulnerability for the development of PG in PD, linked with the impulsive personality trait.

  17. Gambling by Greek-Affiliated College Students: An Association between Affiliation and Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockey, Donald L.; Beason, Kim R.; Howington, Eric B.; Rockey, Christine M.; Gilbert, James D.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation compared the prevalence rates of pathological and problem gambling between Greek-affiliated and non-Greek-affiliated college students. The 954 participants volunteered to take the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS; Lesieur & Blume, 1987), which measures gambling disorders. A statistically significant association was found between…

  18. Gambling by Greek-Affiliated College Students: An Association between Affiliation and Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockey, Donald L.; Beason, Kim R.; Howington, Eric B.; Rockey, Christine M.; Gilbert, James D.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation compared the prevalence rates of pathological and problem gambling between Greek-affiliated and non-Greek-affiliated college students. The 954 participants volunteered to take the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS; Lesieur & Blume, 1987), which measures gambling disorders. A statistically significant association was found between…

  19. EXAMETNET: The first five years, 1966 - 1970

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An assessment of the first five years of operation of the Experimental InterAmerican Meterological Rocket Network is presented. The formation of the network, and international and national relations are described. The technology and data procedures and techniques are reported, and their improvements and the research accomplished as a result of the cooperative effort among Argentina, Brazil, and the United States are discussed.

  20. ITER faces further five-year delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clery, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The €14bn ITER fusion reactor currently under construction in Cadarache, France, will require an additional cash injection of €4.6bn if it is to start up in 2025 - a target date that is already five years later than currently scheduled.

  1. Stimulation Activities: Age Birth to Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomgarden, Dave

    This handbook provides a collection of stimulation activities that encourage a child's physical and mental growth from birth to five years of age. Emphasis is placed on making stimulation aids that are inexpensive or can be made from scrap materials. Advice is given about ways to carry out designated activities. All activities have been tried and…

  2. Teenage Mothering: Child Development at Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Developmental outcome was compared in 1,031 Singleton children of teenage mothers and 10,950 Singleton children of older mothers. Children born to teenage mothers and living with them through the first five years of life performed less well than other children in tests of vocabulary and behavior, were shorter on the average, and had smaller head…

  3. The Thematic Elective Program: Five Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Roberta T.

    J.E.B. Stuart High School moved into the minicourse elective program five years ago from an anthology-survey oriented English curriculum. The students are grouped into two levels, one offering minicourses for eleventh and twelfth graders and the other offering minicourses for ninth and tenth grade students, with some courses open to all of the…

  4. The Last Five Years of the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickerman, Kathrine D.

    This document presents the history of the last five years (1996-2000) of the Mountain Plains Adult Education Association (MPAEA) through summaries and photos of the yearly conferences held between 1996 and 2000. The MPAEA, which includes adult education leaders from the states of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming,…

  5. Five years of photometry of Sigma Geminorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fried, R. E.; Vaucher, C. A.; Hopkins, J. L.; Sabia, J. D.; Krisciunas, K.; Chambliss, C. R.; Landis, H. J.; Eaton, J. A.; Hall, D. S.; Henry, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen observatories have collaborated in obtaining five years of photoelectric photometry for the bright, K1 III RS CVn binary Sigma Geminorum. Except for one year, the light curve has exhibited two minima which are separated by approximately half a cycle. At the 1977.2 epoch of discovery one minimum was shallower, but as of 1982.2 they have become comparable in depth. During the 1979-80 season, the light curve changed shape rapidly, with the shallower minimum becoming as deep as the other within a period of no more than 80 days. The overall brightness range during the five years in V has been 4.13-4.29 mag, and it is found that the times of both minima can be fit with a photometric period of 19.423 days.

  6. Large eddy simulation - The next five years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferziger, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    The prospect of major improvements in the performance of computers in the next five years means that large eddy simulation (LES), which has until now been strictly a research tool, may become a top-of-the-line engineering tool. In this paper, the historical development and past contributions of LES are reviewed. Then a discussion of the potential for applications of LES in new areas and of the developments needed to make LES a tool for the practicing engineer is given.

  7. Illegal behaviors in problem gambling: analysis of data from a gambling helpline.

    PubMed

    Potenza, M N; Steinberg, M A; McLaughlin, S D; Rounsaville, B J; O'Malley, S S

    2000-01-01

    Problem gambling behaviors, particularly the most severe form, which is pathological gambling (PG), represent an emerging public health problem. Compared with the general population, individuals with problem gambling are more likely to have reports of legal issues, including commission of crimes, arrest, and incarceration. The goal of the present study is to examine the characteristics of individuals seeking help for gambling problems with regard to reports of illegal behavior secondary to gambling. Individuals with gambling problems were identified through use of a 24-hour gambling helpline, and information regarding the identified problem gambler was investigated with respect to reported presence or absence of gambling-related illegal behaviors. Identified gamblers with reported gambling-related illegal behaviors compared with those without such behaviors appeared to experience more severe gambling-related problems. Despite being on average younger, gamblers with acknowledged gambling-related illegal behaviors were more likely to have reports of having problems with multiple forms of gambling, debts to acquaintances, been suicidal secondary to gambling, used alcohol or drugs excessively, and received mental health treatment. Secondary analyses of the subgroup of gamblers with gambling-related illegal behaviors revealed that those with reports of arrest or incarceration secondary to gambling compared with those with gambling-related illegal behaviors but without arrest or incarceration secondary to gambling were more likely to have features similar to those described for individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). That is, the gambler with reported arrest or incarceration secondary to gambling was more likely to be male, unemployed, single, and have reports of problems with excessive drug or alcohol use. In contrast, the gamblers acknowledging gambling-related illegal behaviors but not arrest or incarceration secondary to gambling were predominantly

  8. FIVE-YEAR RESULTS OF ADJUVANT RADIOTHER

    PubMed Central

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Roses, Daniel; Speyer, James; Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah; Kerimian, Maria Fenton; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective A technique of prone breast radiotherapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed, was developed at our institution. We report the five year results of this approach. Methods and Materials Between 2003–2006, 404 patients with Stage I–II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into two consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03–30 and 05–181, that used the same regimen of 40.5Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5Gy (total dose=48Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy, had negative margins, and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine set-up attempted, and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results 92% of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. 72% had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 –228.27cc, mean: 19.65cc. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0–21.24cc, mean: 1.59cc. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of five years, the five-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% CI: 0.65–1.04). The five-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI:0.41–0.69) and the five-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI: 0.48–3.38). 82% (95% CI: 77–85) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions Prone accelerated IMRT with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control, optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. RTOG 10–05, a phase III, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and fractionation approach to standard six weeks radiotherapy with a sequential boost. PMID

  9. Student Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbeke, Emily M.; Dittrick-Nathan, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Gambling has been long recognized as an adult pastime characterized by thrills and risks. In recent years, however, it has increased significantly among adolescents, who have grown up in a society where it is legal and widely accepted. Movies, TV shows, and increased access to gaming through the Internet have helped embed gambling in modern youth…

  10. Student Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbeke, Emily M.; Dittrick-Nathan, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Gambling has been long recognized as an adult pastime characterized by thrills and risks. In recent years, however, it has increased significantly among adolescents, who have grown up in a society where it is legal and widely accepted. Movies, TV shows, and increased access to gaming through the Internet have helped embed gambling in modern youth…

  11. Correlates of gambling on high-school grounds

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Wampler, Jeremy; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined adolescent gambling on school grounds (GS+) and how such behavior was associated with gambling-related attitudes. Further, we examined whether GS+ moderated associations between at-risk problem-gambling (ARPG) and gambling behaviors related to gambling partners. Method Participants were 1988 high-school students who completed survey materials. Demographic, perceptions, attitudes, and gambling variables were stratified by problem-gambling severity (ARPG versus recreational gambling) and GS+ status. Chi-square and adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine relationships among study variables. Results Nearly 40% (39.58%) of students reported past-year GS+, with 12.91% of GS+ students, relative to 2.63% of those who did not report gambling on school grounds (GS), meeting DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling (p<0.0001). In comparison to GS- students, GS+ students were more likely to report poorer academic achievement and more permissive attitudes towards gambling behaviors. Weaker links in GS+ students, in comparison with GS-, students, were observed between problem-gambling severity and gambling with family members (interaction odds ratio (IOR)=0.60; 95%CI=0.39–0.92) and gambling with friends (IOR=0.21; 95%CI=0.11–0.39). Conclusions GS+ is common and associated with pathological gambling and more permissive attitudes towards gambling. The finding that GS+ (relative to GS-) youth show differences in how problem-gambling is related to gambling partners (friends and family) warrants further investigation regarding whether and how peer and familial interactions might be improved to diminish youth problem-gambling severity. The high frequency of GS+ and its relationship with ARPG highlight a need for school administrators and personnel to consider interventions that target school-based gambling. PMID:26232102

  12. Health/functioning characteristics, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations in adolescents stratified by gambling problem severity: Findings from a high-school survey

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Sarah W.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    In adults, different levels of gambling problem severity are differentially associated with measures of health and general functioning, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations. Here we present data from a survey of 2,484 Connecticut high school students, and investigate the data stratifying by gambling problem severity based on DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Problem/pathological gambling was associated with a range of negative functions; e.g., poor academic performance, substance use, dysphoria/depression, and aggression. These findings suggest a need for improved interventions related to adolescent gambling and a need for additional research into the relationship (e.g., mediating factors) between gambling and risk and protective behaviors. PMID:21999494

  13. Stellar Coronae: The First Twenty - Five Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2000-01-01

    Hot X-ray emitting coronae were detected on stars other than the Sun about twenty-five years ago. Within only a few years of the first detections, the Einstein Observatory had mapped out coronal activity across the HR diagram. These observations provided the foundations for a coarse theoretical understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for hot coronae on stars that has changed relatively little in the intervening years: plasma trapped in magnetic structures generated by dynamo processes somewhere beneath the photosphere is heated by as yet unidentified mechanisms that appear to transfer kinetic energy from underlying convective regions of the stellar envelope into the outer atmosphere. This review will describe the observational advances that have lead to some further theoretical understanding of stellar coronae, including the first results from high resolution X-ray spectroscopy obtained by Chandra and XMM-Newton, and will highlight the observational directions needed to make further progress.

  14. Stellar Coronae: The First Twenty - Five Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2000-01-01

    Hot X-ray emitting coronae were detected on stars other than the Sun about twenty-five years ago. Within only a few years of the first detections, the Einstein Observatory had mapped out coronal activity across the HR diagram. These observations provided the foundations for a coarse theoretical understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for hot coronae on stars that has changed relatively little in the intervening years: plasma trapped in magnetic structures generated by dynamo processes somewhere beneath the photosphere is heated by as yet unidentified mechanisms that appear to transfer kinetic energy from underlying convective regions of the stellar envelope into the outer atmosphere. This review will describe the observational advances that have lead to some further theoretical understanding of stellar coronae, including the first results from high resolution X-ray spectroscopy obtained by Chandra and XMM-Newton, and will highlight the observational directions needed to make further progress.

  15. Five years of photometry of Lambda Andromedae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, R. W.; Eaton, J. A.; Hall, D. S.; Henry, G. W.; Genet, R. M.; Lovell, L. P.; Hopkins, J. L.; Sabia, J. D.; Krisciunas, K.; Chambliss, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Photoelectric photometry of the bright variable RS CVn-type binary Lambda And obtained in 1977-78 and 1980-81 is presented and used, together with earlier photometry, to derive the photometric period and discuss the changing shape of the light curve. The best ephemeris for times of minimum light is 2443829.2 + 53.95 d E. Because times of minimum and maximum extending back to those of Calder in 1933-37 can be phased together properly, the principal dark region must have maintained its identity for almost 50 yr. Over the last five years the brightness range has been between 3.70 and 4.05 m. During 1980-81 shallow secondary minima developed at phases where maxima occurred in previous years. Lambda And remains the only well-established case of nonsynchronous rotation among the known RS CVn variables.

  16. Factors Associated with the Severity of Gambling Problems in a Community Gambling Treatment Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namrata, Raylu; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Factors (demographics, gambling behaviors and comorbid problems) that may be related to the severity of gambling problems were investigated among 440 problem gamblers seeking treatment in an Australian outpatient treatment agency. The participants were divided into sub-threshold pathological gamblers (SPGs; N = 104) and pathological gamblers (PGs;…

  17. Factors Associated with the Severity of Gambling Problems in a Community Gambling Treatment Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namrata, Raylu; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Factors (demographics, gambling behaviors and comorbid problems) that may be related to the severity of gambling problems were investigated among 440 problem gamblers seeking treatment in an Australian outpatient treatment agency. The participants were divided into sub-threshold pathological gamblers (SPGs; N = 104) and pathological gamblers (PGs;…

  18. A study of South Korean casino employees and gambling problems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Kyung; Labrie, Richard A; Rhee, Hak Seung; Shaffer, Howard J

    2008-05-01

    Casino employees are exposed to disproportionately high levels of gambling, drinking and smoking compared to other occupations. Because of their occupation, they have the opportunity to detect and prevent pathological gambling (PG). To identify differences in the mental health status and social attitudes towards PG among casino workers in South Korea depending upon whether they report any gambling problems. Data were collected from 388 full-time casino employees. This data provided information about the prevalence of gambling problems, alcohol and tobacco use and depression. Employees were grouped according to their scores on the Korean version of South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and those employees who gambled without experiencing any gambling problems (Group NP: SOGS = 0) and those who reported any gambling problems (Group P: SOGS > 0) were compared. An exploratory factor analyses identified the domains of casino employee social attitudes towards gambling. Employees who reported gambling problems (Group P) reported a higher prevalence of smoking, alcohol problems and depression (P < 0.01) compared to employees who did not report gambling problems (Group NP). The primary employee social attitude towards gambling was identified by the factor of 'Disease concept/social awareness'. Group NP reported more positive attitudes in this domain than Group P (P < 0.01). Employees who reported any gambling problems reported a less positive attitude towards developing the public health system to be responsive to gambling problems. These findings indicate a need to develop health education programmes that focus more specifically on casino employees with gambling problems.

  19. Gambling Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... for developing an addiction. So can people whose personalities mean they enjoy taking risks. This doesn't ... good job or career. Gambling can also affect personality, causing mood swings and problems in someone's social ...

  20. The Relationship of DSM-IV Pathological Gambling to Compulsive Buying and other Possible Spectrum Disorders: Results from the Iowa PG Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald W.; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the possible relationship between pathological gambling (PG) and potential spectrum disorders including the DSM-IV impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania) and several non-DSM disorders (compulsive buying disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, Internet addiction). PG probands, controls, and their first-degree relatives were assessed with instruments of known reliability. Detailed family history information was collected on relatives who were deceased or unavailable. Best estimate diagnoses were assigned blind to family status. The results were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. The sample included 95 probands with PG, 91 controls, and 1075 first-degree relatives (537 PG, 538 control). Compulsive buying disorder, having 1–2 spectrum disorder(s), and having “any spectrum disorder” were more frequent in the PG probands and their first-degree relatives vs. controls and their relatives. Spectrum disorders were significantly more prevalent among PG relatives compared to control relatives (adjusted OR = 8.37), though much of this difference was attributable to the contribution from compulsive buying disorder. We conclude that compulsive buying disorder is likely part of familial PG spectrum. PMID:25660732

  1. The relationship of DSM-IV pathological gambling to compulsive buying and other possible spectrum disorders: results from the Iowa PG family study.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-03-30

    This study investigates the possible relationship between pathological gambling (PG) and potential spectrum disorders including the DSM-IV impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania) and several non-DSM disorders (compulsive buying disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, Internet addiction). PG probands, controls, and their first-degree relatives were assessed with instruments of known reliability. Detailed family history information was collected on relatives who were deceased or unavailable. Best estimate diagnoses were assigned blind to family status. The results were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. The sample included 95 probands with PG, 91 controls, and 1075 first-degree relatives (537 PG, 538 controls). Compulsive buying disorder and having "any spectrum disorder" were more frequent in the PG probands and their first-degree relatives vs. controls and their relatives. Spectrum disorders were significantly more prevalent among PG relatives compared to control relatives (adjusted OR=8.37), though much of this difference was attributable to the contribution from compulsive buying disorder. We conclude that compulsive buying disorder is likely part of familial PG spectrum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multidimensional comparison of personality characteristics of the Big Five model, impulsiveness, and affect in pathological gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Shin, Young-Chul; Lim, Se-Won; Park, Hye Youn; Shin, Na Young; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye-Yoon; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2012-09-01

    The phenomenological resemblance between pathological gambling (PG) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has led to suggestions that PG be categorized as an obsessive-compulsive-spectrum disorder (OCSD). This study aimed to explore whether PG resembles OCD in terms of personality and temperament. Fifteen patients with PG, 18 patients with OCD, and 33 healthy control subjects were included in the study. The study subjects were all male and drug naïve. We analyzed data obtained from three self-report questionnaires assessing personality, impulsiveness, and affect: the short version of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Participants with PG and OCD demonstrated less conscientiousness (F = 7.089, P = .002) and less openness to experience (F = 6.268, P = .003) and less positive affect (F = 15.816, P < .001) than did healthy controls. The two diagnostic groups did not differ from each other with respect total BIS-11 scores, but those with OCD showed more neuroticism than did those with PG and healthy controls ( F = 9.556, P < .001), and those with PG obtained higher scores on the non-planning impulsiveness factor of BIS-11 than did those with OCD or healthy controls ( F = 9,835, P < .001). PG and OCD share similar profiles in terms of personality and temperament. This study provides phenomenological evidence supporting the conceptualization of PG as an OCSD.

  3. Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyall, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

  4. Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyall, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

  5. Five years on: Revisiting GSN data quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, L. S.; Nettles, M.; Ekstrom, G.; Davis, J. P.; Ringler, A. T.; Storm, T. L.; Wilson, D.; Anderson, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, the Lamont Waveform Quality Center (WQC) conducted an in-depth review of ten stations in the Global Seismographic Network (GSN). IU stations (CASY, DAV, KIP, KONO, WCI), IC stations (SSE, XAN), and II stations (ALE, DGAR, RPN) were analyzed using a scaling analysis based on data-synthetic comparisons, evaluation of noise levels, assessment of inter-sensor coherence, and polarization analysis. These reports (available from http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~ekstrom/Projects/WQC.html) highlighted a number of significant problems in GSN data quality, including the frequency-dependent loss of gain in the STS-1 seismometer (Ekström et al., 2006) that has been attributed to the presence of humidity in the electronics, cables, and connectors (Yuki and Ishihara, 2002; Hutt and Ringler, 2011). The reports from the WQC spurred a number of changes in the operation of the GSN, including the adoption of the policy of annual calibrations and the development of new tools and metrics to monitor, evaluate, and communicate data quality. In parallel, the USGS' Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) and UCSD's Project IDA worked with the IRIS Consortium to upgrade GSN stations with new data acquisition systems, to refurbish the STS-1 seismometers with new electronics, and to expand the deployment of secondary broadband sensors. We revisit the 2010 reports, using the tools of the WQC as well as a number of newly developed tools such as the USGS' Data Quality Analyzer and IRIS' MUSTANG, and provide an update on GSN data quality. Our initial focus is on CASY and KIP, the first two stations reviewed by the WQC. Our goal is to evaluate progress in the last five years and assess our ability to quantify data quality as well as to identify potential problems that could compromise data quality in the future. Ekström, G., C. A. Dalton, and M. Nettles (2006). Observations of time-dependent errors in long-period instrument gain at global seismic stations. Seismological Research Letters

  6. EDITORIAL: Five years of development and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimondo, Ennio

    2004-02-01

    The last issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics under my editorship has recently been published. During the last five years, since its change of title, the journal has significantly modified its targets. Starting from a balanced mix of quantum optics and semiclassical optics, new topics have been brought within the scope of the journal, such as atom optics, degenerate quantum gases, quantum computation and quantum information, representing the growing role played by lasers within our technologically oriented society. Furthermore, the journal has greatly expanded the number of Special Issues and has introduced PhD Tutorials. While many authors do not have time to invest in preparing review articles, we have found the review-style PhD Tutorials to be very popular. Looking back over the evolution of the journal, the most obvious criterion of its development, at least from the point of view of the prospective contributing author, has been the gratifying increase in the impact factor measured by ISI, reflecting the leading position of Journal of Optics B as a European journal devoted exclusively to optics research. It is most rewarding to report that the number of printed pages has increased by 77% since 1999 and by more than 20% in the last year, far above the target planned by the publisher. Furthermore, from an Editorial point of view, the high standing of the journal is demonstrated by the very high quality ratings given by referees to the top fraction of submitted manuscripts and by the large number of full text web downloads reported for those papers. Special Issues also attract high numbers of web downloads, demonstrating the special attention these issues attract within the scientific community. Such results have been achieved only through teamwork, and I wish to express my gratitude to all those who contributed to this result over the years: Françoise Chavel from the European Optical Society secretariat in Paris, John Haynes, Tom Spicer

  7. Gambling and problem gambling among recently sentenced women in new zealand prisons.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Max W; McKenna, Brian G

    2005-01-01

    Ninety-four recently sentenced women prisoners were interviewed to assess aspects of their gambling involvement, problem gambling and relationships between gambling and criminal offending. A third of the women, on the basis of their SOGS-R scores, were assessed as lifetime probable pathological gamblers and just under a quarter were assessed as probable pathological gamblers during the 6 months prior to imprisonment. For women prisoners, a preference for non-casino gaming machines and housie were predictive of problem gambling. Relative to non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers experienced higher rates of childhood conduct disorder and current non-psychotic mental disorder. Just over a quarter of prisoners and a half of the problem gamblers had committed a crime to obtain money to gamble. Few women said their early offending or convictions related to gambling. It was concluded that most women were "criminals first and problem gamblers second" rather than people whose offending careers commenced as a consequence of problem gambling. However, the extent of problem gambling-related offending among the women prisoners highlights the potential for comprehensive assessment and treatment programs in prison to reduce recidivism and other adverse impacts of problem gambling and gambling-related offending.

  8. Internet gambling in problem gambling college students

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Gonzalez-Ibanez, Angels

    2014-01-01

    Internet gambling is popular in college students and associated with problem gambling behaviors. This study evaluated Internet gambling in 117 students participating in study evaluating brief interventions to reduce gambling; the brief interventions consisted of minimal advice, motivational enhancement therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (1–4 sessions). Compared to their counterparts who did not gamble via the Internet (n = 60), those who reported recent Internet gambling (n = 57) wagered in greater frequencies and amounts and reported missing school more often and more problems with family and anxiety due to gambling. Recent Internet gamblers demonstrated similar reductions in gambling over time and in response to the brief interventions as non-Internet gamblers. These data suggest that Internet gambling is common in problem gambling college students, and students who wager over the Internet can benefit from brief interventions. PMID:24337905

  9. Using the Five-Year Review Community Outreach Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Federal Workgroup on Five-Year Reviews developed these training tools to help site managers at federal facilities communicate with community members about the purpose and process of five-year reviews.

  10. Disordered gambling: a behavioral addiction.

    PubMed

    Clark, Luke; Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve H

    2013-08-01

    Developments in psychiatry have ratified the existence of behavioral addictions, that certain activities such as gambling or video-game play may be considered addictive in the absence of exogenous (i.e. drug-induced) stimulation of brain reinforcement circuitry. This article describes recent advances in understanding the neurobiological basis of behavioral addiction, with a focus on pathological gambling as the prototypical disorder. We describe positron emission tomography (PET) studies characterizing dopaminergic transmission, and functional imaging studies of reward processing and gambling-related cognitive distortions. The current evidence not only indicates changes in pathological gamblers in core circuitry implicated in drug addiction, but also highlights some subtle differences. Behavioral addictions can also provide experimental traction on distinguishing vulnerability markers for addictions from the active detrimental effects of chronic drug use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Internet gambling: what are the risks?].

    PubMed

    Bonnaire, C

    2012-02-01

    Actually, there are many different and varied new ways to take part in gambling activities such as gambling via the Internet, mobile phone and interactive television. Among these media, the rise in Internet gambling activity has been very rapid. Nevertheless, few empirical studies have been carried out on the psychosocial effects of Internet gambling. While there is no conclusive evidence that Internet gambling is more likely than other gambling media to cause problem gambling, there are a number of factors that make online activities like Internet gambling potentially seductive and/or addictive. Such factors include anonymity, convenience, escape, dissociation/immersion, accessibility, event frequency, interactivity, disinhibition, simulation, and asociability. It would also appear that virtual environments have the potential to provide short-term comfort, excitement and/or distraction. The introduction of the Internet to gambling activities changes some of the fundamental situational and structural characteristics. The major change is that gambling activities are bought into the home and workplace environment. Thus, Internet gambling can become an in-house or work activity. One of the major concerns relating to those changes and the increase in gambling opportunities is the potential rise in the number of problem and pathological gamblers. Addictions always result from an interaction and interplay between many factors but in the case of gambling, it could be argued that technology and technological advance can themselves be an important contributory factor as we saw in examining the salient factors in Internet gambling. It is difficult to determine the prevalence of online (problem or not) gamblers, as it is obviously a figure that changes and has changed relatively quickly over the past decade. Nevertheless, the rate of Internet gambling is increasing and some recent studies using self-selected samples suggest, for example, that the prevalence of problem

  12. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  13. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  14. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  15. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  16. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases...

  17. Male batterers' alcohol use and gambling behavior.

    PubMed

    Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan; Strong, David; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Andersen, Shawna M; Bucossi, Meggan; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-03-01

    Little work has examined the interrelations among intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and gambling behavior, and no studies have examined these relationships among males court-ordered to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The aim of the current investigation was to explore the associations between IPV, alcohol use, and gambling behavior among 341 males court-mandated to attend BIPs utilizing self-report measures. Voluntary, anonymous questionnaires were administered and completed during regularly scheduled BIP sessions. Compared to the general population, a higher percentage of the sample met criteria for pathological gambling (9%), and problem gambling (17%). Further, males exhibiting pathological gambling were more likely to be hazardous drinkers, and hazardous drinkers were more likely to exhibit pathological gambling. Additionally, pathological gamblers were at an increased risk for the perpetration of both physical and sexual aggression. Finally, gambling behavior uniquely predicted the perpetration of sexual aggression above and beyond alcohol use, impulsivity, and relationship satisfaction. The implications of these results for future research and intervention are discussed.

  18. Internet Gambling Among Community Adults and University Students in Macao.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit

    2015-09-01

    Despite the high availability of offline gambling in Macao, China, Internet gambling may remain attractive to many gamblers due to its anonymity and convenience. Given the scarcity of relevant research, this study aims to not only investigate the public attitude and prevalence of Internet gambling but also identify the demographic and psychological characteristics of Internet gamblers in Macao. We recruited 952 community adults with the random residential number dialing method and 427 university students through convenience sampling. Only 5.4% of the community adult respondents preferred online gambling compared to offline gambling, and the past-year prevalence of online gambling was about 1%. As hypothesized, Internet gambling was found to be positively associated with pathological gambling in both community and student samples. It was also associated with casino employment across samples. Moreover, we found that male gender, casino employment, materialism, and life dissatisfaction were significant risk factors of pathological gambling among Chinese gamblers. The findings provide insights on future designs of preventive measures and research direction for Internet gambling and pathological gambling in Chinese communities.

  19. Internet gambling among high school students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Irene Lai Kuen; So, Ernest Moon Tong

    2014-09-01

    The study investigated Internet gambling involvement and pathological gambling among Hong Kong adolescents aged 12-19 years. The diagnostic and statistical manual (4th edition) multiple response format for juveniles (DSM-IV-MR-J) (Fisher in J Gambl Stud 16:253-273, 2000) was filled by 1,004 students (597 boys, 407 girls) recruited by random selection of classes. The response rate was 86.6 %. Results indicate that more respondents participated in land-based gambling than Internet gambling (63.5 vs. 3.5 %) but online gamblers are 1.5 and 3.2 times more likely to develop pathological and at-risk gambling than non-Internet gamblers. Using the DSM-IV-MR-J criteria, 5.7 and 22.9 % of the Internet gamblers could be classified as at-risk gamblers and pathological gamblers, respectively. Majority (94.3 %) wagered online at home, and 91.4 % made their first bet before 18 years. Many perceived Internet gambling as a trendy (71.4 %) and safe entertainment (54.3 %). Problematic Internet gambling was significantly associated with the male gender, school grades, online gambling frequency, amount wagered and a gambling family environment. Survey results have implications for gambling research and preventive programs.

  20. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Problem Gambling among College Students.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Krieger, Heather; Tackett, Jennifer L; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-06-01

    The college years are a formative period where the risk for development of problematic gambling is high. Research examining racial and ethnic differences in gambling behaviors has been limited and inconsistent. The aims of this study were to examine racial and ethnic differences in problem gambling among a large sample of college students. Undergraduates (N = 3058) from a large southern university completed an online screening questionnaire which included demographics, gambling frequency, gambling expenditure (i.e. money lost) in the previous 6 months, and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Negative binomial regression results indicated that Asian participants gambled less frequently than participants who were Caucasian or Hispanic/Latino(a), but spent more money than participants who were African-American (AA)/Black or Hispanic/Latino(a). A significantly larger proportion of Asian students met probable pathological gambling criteria (SOGS 5+; 7.8 %) and at-risk gambling criteria (SOGS 3+; 16.3 %)) than Caucasian (5.2; 10.1 %), AA/Black (3.9; 10.2 %), or Hispanic/Latino(a) (3.6; 9.4 %) students. Additionally, a significantly larger proportion of Asian students endorsed problematic gambling indicators such as lying about losses, feeling guilty about gambling, feeling like they had a gambling problem, being criticized for their gambling, feeling like they couldn't stop gambling, losing time from school or work due to gambling, having a family history of problem gambling, and arguing with close others about their gambling than Caucasian, AA/Black or Hispanic/Latino(a) students. Results suggest that Asian students may be a high-risk sub-group of college gamblers, and that there is a critical need for targeted interventions for this population.

  1. Overall gambling behaviors and gambling treatment needs among a statewide sample of drug treatment clients in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Sherba, R Thomas; Martt, Nicholas J

    2015-03-01

    Casino gambling in Ohio became available for the first time in May 2012. This gambling expansion led the Ohio substance abuse monitoring (OSAM) Network, Ohio's drug abuse surveillance system that collects drug trend data on an ongoing basis, to amend its protocol in June 2011 to include collection of data related to problem and pathological gambling to inform current treatment and prevention needs. OSAM collected gambling data from July 2011 to June 2012 via focus group interviews of 714 drug users recruited from alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment programs throughout Ohio. Participants who reported gambling during the past 6 months (N = 412) completed the South Oaks gambling screen. This study found a prevalence estimate of 12.1 % for probable pathological gambling among its statewide sample. Sizeable proportions of participants reported that they gambled more when using AOD (23.5 %) and used more AOD when gambling (19.4 %). A majority of study participants (59.2 %) reported participation in at least one type of gambling during the past 6 months, and of those participants, only 22.2 % reported ever having been asked about gambling while receiving AOD treatment services, with just 12.5 % reporting ever having had gambling treatment services offered to them. Men were 4.1 times more likely to screen positive for probable pathological gambling than women; non-Whites were 61.0 % more likely to screen positive than Whites. Findings presented in this report have the potential to help shape and strengthen problem and pathological gambling prevention and treatment measures in Ohio.

  2. College Students' Gambling Behavior: When Does It Become Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Jeremiah; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated behavioral indicators of pathological gambling in a college student sample. Participants and Methods: The authors administered a diagnostic interview for pathological gambling to 159 college students, who also completed a demographic questionnaire, and a self-report measure of psychological distress. Results:…

  3. College Students' Gambling Behavior: When Does It Become Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Jeremiah; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated behavioral indicators of pathological gambling in a college student sample. Participants and Methods: The authors administered a diagnostic interview for pathological gambling to 159 college students, who also completed a demographic questionnaire, and a self-report measure of psychological distress. Results:…

  4. Interpersonal guilt in college student pathological gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Geoffrey W.; Shilkret, Robert; Everett, Joyce E.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Interpersonal guilt is associated with psychopathology, but its relationship to pathological gambling has not been studied. Objectives This study examined the relationship between interpersonal guilt and pathological gambling. Methods In total, 1,979 college students completed a questionnaire containing the South Oaks Gambling Screen, Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire, and questions about substance use. Students identified as pathological gamblers (n = 145) were matched to non-problem gamblers with respect to demographics and substance use. Results Pathological gamblers had significantly higher interpersonal guilt than their non-problem gambling peers. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Pathological gambling college students have excessive interpersonal guilt, and these findings may lead to novel treatment approaches. PMID:22746179

  5. National gambling experiences in the US: Will history repeat itself?

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Aims The aim of this paper is to offer an account of the history and current status of gambling research in the United States (US). Methods A review of the literature. Results Gambling has been a part of society in the US since its early history. However, it was not until 1980 that the medical profession in the US first recognized pathological gambling as a psychiatric disorder. Today, it is still rarely diagnosed or treated and relatively little federal funding is available to support research in this area. With the upcoming fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, pathological gambling is likely to be included alongside substance use disorders, as the first non-substance related addictive disorder. This change may represent an opportunity to expand research on gambling and treatment of pathological gambling. Conclusions We provide 10 suggestions for reducing societal and personal harm associated with this disorder. PMID:23067256

  6. Gambling experiences, problems and policy in India: a historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Benegal, Vivek

    2013-12-01

    This paper seeks to provide a historical overview of gambling and contemporary anti-gambling legislation in India. Based on a review of available literature, including historical sources, publications in the lay press and internet sources, this paper draws together evidence to present a synopsis of gambling and anti-gambling measures from antiquity to present times. Gambling is a popular pastime and has been a ubiquitous part of daily life from antiquity until the present. Archaic laws, framed in the 19th century, still regulate gambling in India, with a formal ban on most forms of gambling. This has created a huge illegal gambling market, with its attendant problems. Recent developments, including an explosion of sports betting operations (especially in cricket) and internet betting sites, are challenging the status quo and leading to calls for legalizing gambling. Concern for the consequences of pathological/ problem gambling is conspicuous by its absence in popular discourse and academic research. Despite the importance and longevity of the practice of gambling in the daily life of India, and the opposition to it, due to the potential for individual and societal harm there is a surprising lack of contemporary curiosity and scholarly literature on pathological gambling from the region. The prohibitions against gambling are being increasingly challenged to change to a system of legalized gambling. To inform and guide public policy and future legislation, there is a serious need to initiate rational, scientific enquiries into the nature and impact of gambling in India. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Gambling Technologies: Prospects for Problem Gambling.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Technology his always played a role in the development of gambling practices and will continue to play a critical role in the development of increased gambling opportunities (e.g., internet gambling). Although technological advance his long been associated with improved gambling opportunities, there is little written in the literature explicitly pointing out this link and its implications for problem gamblers. This paper therefore reviews this situation and examines the technological implications of situational and structural characteristics paying particular attention to slot machine gambling as there has been more empirical work on this type of gambling than any other technological form. The impact of technology on the sociability of gambling is also examined followed by a more speculative evolution of internet gambling as an area of potential concern.

  8. Online and live regular poker players: Do they differ in impulsive sensation seeking and gambling practice?

    PubMed

    Barrault, Servane; Varescon, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims Online gambling appears to have special features, such as anonymity, speed of play and permanent availability, which may contribute to the facilitation and increase in gambling practice, potentially leading to problem gambling. The aims of this study were to assess sociodemographic characteristics, gambling practice and impulsive sensation seeking among a population of regular poker players with different levels of gambling intensity and to compare online and live players. Methods 245 regular poker players (180 online players and 65 live players) completed online self-report scales assessing sociodemographic data, pathological gambling (SOGS), gambling practice (poker questionnaire) and impulsive sensation seeking (ImpSS). We used SOGS scores to rank players according to the intensity of their gambling practice (non-pathological gamblers, problem gamblers and pathological gamblers). Results All poker players displayed a particular sociodemographic profile: they were more likely to be young men, executives or students, mostly single and working full-time. Online players played significantly more often whereas live players reported significantly longer gambling sessions. Sensation seeking was high across all groups, whereas impulsivity significantly distinguished players according to the intensity of gambling. Discussion Our results show the specific profile of poker players. Both impulsivity and sensation seeking seem to be involved in pathological gambling, but playing different roles. Sensation seeking may determine interest in poker whereas impulsivity may be involved in pathological gambling development and maintenance. Conclusions This study opens up new research perspectives and insights into preventive and treatment actions for pathological poker players.

  9. Online and live regular poker players: Do they differ in impulsive sensation seeking and gambling practice?

    PubMed Central

    Barrault, Servane; Varescon, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Online gambling appears to have special features, such as anonymity, speed of play and permanent availability, which may contribute to the facilitation and increase in gambling practice, potentially leading to problem gambling. The aims of this study were to assess sociodemographic characteristics, gambling practice and impulsive sensation seeking among a population of regular poker players with different levels of gambling intensity and to compare online and live players. Methods 245 regular poker players (180 online players and 65 live players) completed online self-report scales assessing sociodemographic data, pathological gambling (SOGS), gambling practice (poker questionnaire) and impulsive sensation seeking (ImpSS). We used SOGS scores to rank players according to the intensity of their gambling practice (non-pathological gamblers, problem gamblers and pathological gamblers). Results All poker players displayed a particular sociodemographic profile: they were more likely to be young men, executives or students, mostly single and working full-time. Online players played significantly more often whereas live players reported significantly longer gambling sessions. Sensation seeking was high across all groups, whereas impulsivity significantly distinguished players according to the intensity of gambling. Discussion Our results show the specific profile of poker players. Both impulsivity and sensation seeking seem to be involved in pathological gambling, but playing different roles. Sensation seeking may determine interest in poker whereas impulsivity may be involved in pathological gambling development and maintenance. Conclusions This study opens up new research perspectives and insights into preventive and treatment actions for pathological poker players. PMID:28092187

  10. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  11. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  12. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  13. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  14. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  15. Social and behavioral problems among five gambling severity groups.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Yoon, Gihyun; Campos, Michael D; Fong, Timothy W

    2015-12-15

    Gambling has been associated with various social and behavioral problems, but previous analyses have been limited by sample bias regarding gambling symptom severity range and the role of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). This study utilized a nationally representative data set and examined various characteristics of behavioral problems and ASPD among five gambling severity groups. Participants were 42,038 individuals who took part in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and provided information on social and behavioral problems, ASPD, and gambling. Using DSM-IV criteria, we derived five gambling groups from the total sample: non-gambling, low-risk, at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling. Associations between all problematic behaviors and nearly every gambling severity level were significant prior to adjustment for sociodemographic variables and ASPD. Following the adjustment, all significant associations persisted, with the exception of sexual coercion. In the adjusted model, the financially oriented behaviors had the strongest associations with gambling. All gambling severity levels were associated with an increased risk for a number of problematic behaviors and social problems in comparison to non-gamblers.Further examination of gambling problems in financial and criminal justice settings is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Gambling and internet addiction: review and research agenda].

    PubMed

    Wölfling, K; Bühler, M; Leménager, T; Mörsen, C; Mann, K

    2009-09-01

    Behavioral addictions, especially pathological gambling and internet addiction, have become a growing concern in research and health policy. Similarities between behavioral addictions and substance dependency are currently being discussed in the scientific community. Unfortunately the number of scientific studies on pathological gambling and internet addiction is still very low. The estimated prevalence of pathological gambling among the German population is 0.2-0.5%. These numbers are comparable to prevalence rates reported for illegal drug dependency. About 1.5 million people, i.e. 3% of the German population, are believed to be at risk of internet addiction. Therefore, it is important to investigate in more detail the clinical and neuroscientific basis of pathological gambling and internet addiction. In this review we summarize the current status of research regarding pathological gambling and internet addiction and outline possible future research perspectives in the field of neuroimaging and genetics. The aim is to develop a multifactorial and explanatory model which helps to improve the quality of existing therapeutic approaches and prevention strategies. At present, parts of the research are funded by the federal states. The authors of this article, supported by scientific associations, have established a research platform called 'pathological gambling' in which research methods and strategies will be discussed which facilitate the implementation of different studies on pathological gambling.

  17. General RMP Guidance - Chapter 3: Five-Year Accident History

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This involves the reporting of significant accidental releases of one or more of the regulated toxic or flammable substances from a covered process in the five years prior to the submission of an initial or updated Risk Management Plan.

  18. Five year global dataset: NMC operational analyses (1978 to 1982)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straus, David; Ardizzone, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    This document describes procedures used in assembling a five year dataset (1978 to 1982) using NMC Operational Analysis data. These procedures entailed replacing missing and unacceptable data in order to arrive at a complete dataset that is continuous in time. In addition, a subjective assessment on the integrity of all data (both preliminary and final) is presented. Documentation on tapes comprising the Five Year Global Dataset is also included.

  19. Comparative analysis of distinct phenotypes in gambling disorder based on gambling preferences.

    PubMed

    Moragas, Laura; Granero, Roser; Stinchfield, Randy; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Fröberg, Frida; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Fagundo, Ana B; Islam, Mohammed A; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Agüera, Zaida; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Arcelus, Jon; Witcomb, Gemma L; Sauchelli, Sarah; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2015-04-15

    Studies examining gambling preferences have identified the importance of the type of gambling practiced on distinct individual profiles. The objectives were to compare clinical, psychopathological and personality variables between two different groups of individuals with a gambling disorder (strategic and non-strategic gamblers) and to evaluate the statistical prediction capacity of these preferences with respect to the severity of the disorder. A total sample of 2010 treatment-seeking patients with a gambling disorder participated in this stand-alone study. All were recruited from a single Pathological Gambling Unit in Spain (1709 strategic and 301 non-strategic gamblers). The design of the study was cross-sectional and data were collected at the start of treatment. Data was analysed using logistic regression for binary outcomes and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for quantitative responses. There were significant differences in several socio-demographic and clinical variables, as well as in personality traits (novelty seeking and cooperativeness). Multiple regression analysis showed harm avoidance and self-directedness were the main predictors of gambling severity and psychopathology, while age at assessment and age of onset of gambling behaviour were predictive of gambling severity. Strategic gambling (as opposed to non-strategic) was significantly associated with clinical outcomes, but the effect size of the relationships was small. It is possible to identify distinct phenotypes depending on the preference of gambling. While these phenotypes differ in relation to the severity of the gambling disorder, psychopathology and personality traits, they can be useful from a clinical and therapeutic perspective in enabling risk factors to be identified and prevention programs targeting specific individual profiles to be developed.

  20. Gambling Problems Among Community Cocaine Users.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Magali; Nguyen, Noël; Bertrand, Karine; Perreault, Michel; Jutras-Aswad, Didier; Morvannou, Adèle; Bruneau, Julie; Berbiche, Djamal; Roy, Élise

    2016-09-01

    Cocaine use is highly prevalent and a major public health problem. While some studies have reported frequent comorbidity problems among cocaine users, few studies have included evaluation of gambling problems. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gambling problems and compare those who were at-risk gamblers with non-problem gamblers in terms of mental health problems, substance use problems, and some risk factors (i.e. family antecedents, erroneous perceptions and coping strategies) among individuals who smoke or inject cocaine. A total of 424 smoked or injected cocaine users recruited through community-based programs in Montreal (Quebec) completed the questionnaire, including the Canadian Pathological Gambling Index, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, the CAGE, and the Severity Dependence Scale. Of the sample, 18.4 % were considered at-risk gamblers, of whom 7.8 % had problems gambling and 10.6 % were moderate-risk gamblers. The at-risk group was more likely to have experienced a recent phobic disorder and alcohol problems than the non-problem group. A multivariate analysis showed that, compared to those who were non-problem gamblers, the at-risk ones were more likely to have lost a large sum of money when they first started gambling, believed that their luck would turn, and gambled in reaction to painful life events. These results indicate the need to include routines for screening to identify gambling problem among cocaine users.

  1. Gambling prevention program among children.

    PubMed

    Todirita, Izabela Ramona; Lupu, Viorel

    2013-03-01

    Gambling becomes a more frequent activity among children as they have an easy access to the world of the games. In the same time children are at a higher risk for developing problem and/or pathological gambling having erroneous information about how games of chance and games of skill work. The purpose of the study was to compare the influence of specific primary prevention with rational emotive education (REE) on the subjects' knowledge about games. The experimental design randomly assigned children (N = 81, age 12–13, 37 male and 44 female) into three groups: 1. control, 2. specific information about games using the interactive software "Amazing Chateau", and 3. REE. All children completed a questionnaire with 38 items at the beginning of the study and after 10 weekly interventional meetings. Each item had three answering options, children choosing only one correct answer. Findings indicated that the use of the software significantly improved subjects' knowledge about gambling and corrected their information about how games work. The results of the study confirmed that using specific primary prevention tools for changing erroneous conceptions about games is more efficient than using only REE. The implications of these results for the prevention of gambling problems especially in schools are discussed.

  2. Trends in gambling studies research: quantifying, categorizing, and describing citations.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Howard J; Stanton, Michael V; Nelson, Sarah E

    2006-12-01

    As opportunities to gamble have increased during the 20th century, so has gambling research. This study used new strategies, methods, and technology to examine citation trends and the growth of knowledge in the field of gambling studies. The sample included 2,246 citations that were published between 1903 and 2003. By using multiple keywords to classify each citation into distinct topic areas, this study yielded a more comprehensive analysis than was previously available. The results reveal that gambling-related research has grown at an exponential rate. The most prevalent topics explored within gambling studies citations have been pathology, risk-taking, decision-making and addiction. Between 1999 and 2003, studies addressing epidemiology, drug abuse, comorbidity and neuroscience have become increasingly prevalent. Based on these trends and their implications, this paper provides several recommendations for both future areas of inquiry within the field of gambling studies and better classification techniques for citations within all fields of psychology.

  3. Brane inflation revisited after WMAP five-year results

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Xin E-mail: zhangxin@mail.neu.edu.cn

    2009-03-15

    In this paper, we revisit brane inflation models with the WMAP five-year results. The WMAP five-year data favor a red-tilted power spectrum of primordial fluctuations at the level of two standard deviations, which is the same as the WMAP three-year result qualitatively, but quantitatively the spectral index is slightly greater than the three-year value. This result can bring impacts on brane inflation models. According to the WMAP five-year data, we find that the KKLMMT model can survive at the level of one standard deviation, and the fine-tuning of the parameter {beta} can be alleviated to a certain extent at the level of two standard deviations.

  4. On the latent structure of problem gambling: a taxometric analysis.

    PubMed

    James, Richard J E; O'Malley, Claire; Tunney, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    To test whether problem gambling is a categorical or dimensional disorder on the basis of two problem gambling assessments. This distinction discriminates between two different conceptualizations of problem gambling: one that problem gambling is defined by its addictive properties, the other that it is a continuum of harm. Using The British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2010, a nationally representative sample of the United Kingdom conducted by the National Centre for Social Research, five different taxometric analyses were carried out on cases from two problem gambling screens: the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) and a measure derived from the DSM-IV Pathological Gambling criteria. Two further analyses were conducted on the total scores for these measures. There was strong evidence that both scales were measuring a categorical construct. Fit indices consistently supported a categorical interpretation [comparison curve fit index (CCFI) > 0.6]. The PGSI analysis indicated the presence of a taxon (CCFIs = 0.633, 0.756). The analysis conducted on the adapted DSM-IV criteria indicated stronger quantitative support for a taxon (CCFIs = 0.717, 0.811 and 0.756) but items probing a loss of control were inconsistent. The taxometric analyses of both scales support a categorical interpretation (CCFIs = 0.628, 0.567), but extreme caution should be used due to high nuisance covariance. Two problem gambling screens (the Problem Gambling Severity Index and a measure derived from the DSM-IV Pathological Gambling criteria) appear to measure a categorical construct that taps into a categorical, loss of control model of problem gambling. There is some evidence that the two screens measure different aspects of an addiction construct. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  6. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  7. Pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.; Farber, J.L. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 29 chapters. Some of the titles are: Genetic and Systemic Diseases; Cell Injury; Inflammation; The Gastrointestinal o Tract; The Pancreas; Environmental and Nutritional Pathology; Infectious and Parasitic Diseases; and Blood Vessels.

  8. The Next Five Years for York University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodsworth, Anne

    Following a brief history of York University libraries, this document outlines current objectives of library operations, the problems faced in establishing future priorities, and the objectives for implementation or investigation for the next three to five years. The current mission and operating objectives in the functional areas of collecting,…

  9. Reading First in Pennsylvania: Achievement Findings after Five Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Rita; Draper, Jason; Turner, Greg; Zigmond, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the student achievement outcomes for third graders in Reading First (RF) schools in Pennsylvania over the five years of implementation for the group as a whole, for disaggregated groups of third graders, and for third graders who received reading instruction in RF schools for one, two, and three years. We also present a…

  10. The Perceptions of Five Years Old Group Students' about Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeynep Et, Sümeyra; Memis, Esra Kabatas

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to reveal the perceptions of students of five years old group about scientists. The practice was implemented with 76 students having education in five-age group continuing to various nursery schools located in the center of Kastamonu province. Before starting the practice, the teacher asked the questions of…

  11. Prolific Scholarship in Communication Studies: Five Years in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, San; Griffin, Darrin John; Holmgren, Jennifer Linn; Hickson, Mark, III

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain who the most prolific scholars (top one percent) in Communication Studies were as a function of their publication rates in 24 journals for the last five years. In addition, we sought to determine the most prolific scholars in a subset of journals considered to be most central to our discipline. Results…

  12. IceCube awarded five-year extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The continued operation and management of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory buried beneath the ice at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is secure for another five years, thanks to 35m in funding from the US National Science Foundation (NSF).

  13. 75 FR 6299 - Registration, Five-Year Terms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ..., Packers and Stockyards Administration 9 CFR Part 201 RIN 0580-AB03 Registration, Five-Year Terms AGENCY... business organization, state whether it will operate on a calendar year or fiscal year basis, identify the... on amending the regulations under the P&S Act to establish a 5-year time period for registrations, as...

  14. The Five-Year Resume: A Career Planning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laker, Dennis R.; Laker, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    For most college students, lack of career planning wastes time and resources and may result in years of "career drift." Lack of planning can also lead to deception once students begin seeking career-related employment. Faced with a competitive job market, some students inflate and exaggerate their resumes. The five-year resume exercise helps…

  15. Young Creative Producers: Twenty-Five Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westberg, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study examines the lives of students twenty-five years after they participated in an elementary gifted program based on The Revolving Door Identification Model (Renzulli, Reis, and Smith, 1981). The purpose of the multiple case-study research was to investigate the relationship between students' early interests and their…

  16. Reading First in Florida: Five Years of Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lefsky, Evan B.; Toste, Jessica R.

    2010-01-01

    Five years of reading comprehension data in Florida Reading First schools were analyzed to address questions regarding student improvement, reduction in the achievement gap, efficacy of site visits to schools making no achievement gains, and effects of student mobility on growth in reading comprehension. Participants were 120,000 students (about…

  17. Prolific Scholarship in Communication Studies: Five Years in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, San; Griffin, Darrin John; Holmgren, Jennifer Linn; Hickson, Mark, III

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain who the most prolific scholars (top one percent) in Communication Studies were as a function of their publication rates in 24 journals for the last five years. In addition, we sought to determine the most prolific scholars in a subset of journals considered to be most central to our discipline. Results…

  18. Five-Year Strategic Plan: Fiscal Years 2011-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the U.S. Department of Education (Department) Office of Inspector General (OIG) Strategic Plan for fiscal years 2011 through 2015. This plan describes the focus and direction of OIG's operations over the next five years, establishes its organizational goals, and outlines the strategies it will employ to reach those goals and…

  19. The Five-Year Resume: A Career Planning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laker, Dennis R.; Laker, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    For most college students, lack of career planning wastes time and resources and may result in years of "career drift." Lack of planning can also lead to deception once students begin seeking career-related employment. Faced with a competitive job market, some students inflate and exaggerate their resumes. The five-year resume exercise helps…

  20. Young Creative Producers: Twenty-Five Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westberg, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study examines the lives of students twenty-five years after they participated in an elementary gifted program based on The Revolving Door Identification Model (Renzulli, Reis, and Smith, 1981). The purpose of the multiple case-study research was to investigate the relationship between students' early interests and their…

  1. Reading First in Pennsylvania: Achievement Findings after Five Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Rita; Draper, Jason; Turner, Greg; Zigmond, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the student achievement outcomes for third graders in Reading First (RF) schools in Pennsylvania over the five years of implementation for the group as a whole, for disaggregated groups of third graders, and for third graders who received reading instruction in RF schools for one, two, and three years. We also present a…

  2. Problem Gambling on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComb, Jennifer L.; Hanson, William E.

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of college students gamble, with some doing so problematically. This article discusses gambling and problem gambling among college students, framing it as an emerging health issue on college campuses nationwide. Given that 4 out of 5 college students admit to gambling, and that approximately 8% gamble problematically, it is…

  3. Problem Gambling on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComb, Jennifer L.; Hanson, William E.

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of college students gamble, with some doing so problematically. This article discusses gambling and problem gambling among college students, framing it as an emerging health issue on college campuses nationwide. Given that 4 out of 5 college students admit to gambling, and that approximately 8% gamble problematically, it is…

  4. Buddhist philosophy for the treatment of problem gambling.

    PubMed

    Shonin, Edo; Van Gordon, William; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-06-01

    Purpose In the last five years, scientific interest into the potential applications of Buddhist-derived interventions (BDIs) for the treatment of problem gambling has been growing. This paper reviews current directions, proposes conceptual applications, and discusses integration issues relating to the utilisation of BDIs as problem gambling treatments. Method Aliterature search and evaluation of the empirical literature for BDIs as problem gambling treatments was undertaken. Results To date, research has been limited to cross-sectional studies and clinical case studies and findings indicate that Buddhist-derived mindfulness practices have the potential to play an important role in ameliorating problem gambling symptomatology. As an adjunct to mindfulness, other Buddhist-derived practices are also of interest including: (i) insight meditation techniques (e.g., meditation on 'emptiness') to overcome avoidance and dissociation strategies, (ii) 'antidotes' (e.g., patience, impermanence, etc.) to attenuate impulsivity and salience-related issues, (iii) loving-kindness and compassion meditation to foster positive thinking and reduce conflict, and (iv) 'middle-way' principles and 'bliss-substitution' to reduce relapse and temper withdrawal symptoms. In addition to an absence of controlled treatment studies, the successful operationalisation of BDIs as effective treatments for problem gambling may be impeded by issues such as a deficiency of suitably experienced BDI clinicians, and the poor provision by service providers of both BDIs and dedicated gambling interventions. Conclusions Preliminary findings for BDIs as problem gambling treatments are promising, however, further research is required.

  5. The Challenge of Online Gambling: The Effect of Legalization on the Increase in Online Gambling Addiction.

    PubMed

    Chóliz, Mariano

    2016-06-01

    It is possible that the growth and promotion of online gambling will result in substantially increased use of these types of games in countries where they are legal. This may be especially true for young people due to their interest in such games. In this context, it is important to note that online gambling is more addictive than any other type of game due its structural characteristics, such as immediacy, accessibility, ease of betting, and so on. This study examined the effect of online gambling in Spain 2 years after its legalization. The sample included 1277 pathological gamblers in recovery at 26 gambling addiction treatment centers. Our results showed a significant increase in young pathological gamblers since the legalization of this activity. This is a very relevant issue because, as in the case of Spain, many countries are currently in process of legalization of many types of online games. Scientific research can be useful to adapt the adequate gambling policies in order to prevent the gambling addiction.

  6. Social Costs of Gambling in the Czech Republic 2012.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Petr; Bejdová, Markéta; Csémy, Ladislav; Weissová, Aneta

    2016-12-17

    Evidence about social costs of gambling is scarce and the methodology for their calculation has been a subject to strong criticism. We aimed to estimate social costs of gambling in the Czech Republic 2012. This retrospective, prevalence based cost of illness study builds on the revised methodology of Australian Productivity Commission. Social costs of gambling were estimated by combining epidemiological and economic data. Prevalence data on negative consequences of gambling were taken from existing national epidemiological studies. Economic data were taken from various national and international sources. Consequences of problem and pathological gambling only were taken into account. In 2012, the social costs of gambling in the Czech Republic were estimated to range between 541,619 and 619,608 thousands EUR. While personal and family costs accounted for 63% of all social costs, direct medical costs were estimated to range from 0.25 to 0.28% of all social costs only. This is the first study which estimates social costs of gambling in any of the Central and East European countries. It builds upon the solid evidence about prevalence of gambling related problems in the Czech Republic and satisfactorily reliable economic data. However, there is a number of limitations stemming from assumptions that were made, which suggest that the methodology for the calculation of the social costs of gambling needs further development.

  7. Five years of data diuresis: what have WEH learned?

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jennifer C; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2015-11-01

    This year represents the fifth annual Data Diuresis session of the Water and Electrolyte Homeostasis (WEH) section of the American Physiological Society (APS) at the 2015 Experimental Biology meeting. As opposed to taking a single organ approach to the study of physiology, the WEH section employs an integrative approach to encompass how the different organ systems interact to regulate numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes. The goal of this minireview is to highlight the broad spectrum of research themes that were presented over the first five years of Data Diuresis. Presentation topics include (but are not limited to) oxidative stress, inflammation, obesity, pregnancy, and hypertension spanning the brain, heart and vasculature, and kidney. WEH researchers continue to impact and help drive the direction of physiological research across multiple disciplines, leaving us excited to see what the next five years of Data Diuresis will bring.

  8. Five years of EACH (European Association for Communication in Healthcare).

    PubMed

    van Dulmen, Sandra; Finset, Arnstein; Langewitz, Wolf; Zimmermann, Christa; Peltenburg, Michael; Visser, Adriaan; Bensing, Jozien

    2006-09-01

    Five years after launching EACH (European Association for Communication in Healthcare) we look back at what EACH achieved so far and announce new ideas and activities EACH plans to carry out in the near future. During the past five years several scientific, educational as well as societal changes have taken place in the area of communication in healthcare that all underline the need for continued international collaboration in line with the activities employed by EACH so far. Within communication research the focus has shifted from counting communication utterances to unraveling sequences of patient cues and provider responses. In the field of teaching it is becoming more and more common to attend to the training of trainers as well. Within these developments, new areas of interest arise and need attention. To comply with these increasing demands, EACH invites new persons to become a member of one of the recently launched committees in the area of research, teaching and publishing.

  9. A Five-Year-Old Child with Renal Hydatidosis

    PubMed Central

    Moscatelli, Guillermo; Moroni, Samanta; Freilij, Héctor; Salgueiro, Fabián; García Bournissen, Facundo; Altcheh, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Hydatidosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. Clinical manifestations include cyst formation, most commonly in the liver (67–89%) and lungs (10–15%). Renal localizations are rare. We report a case of renal hydatidosis in a five-year-old child treated in a tertiary pediatric hospital in Argentina. After the diagnosis was made, elective surgery was performed, which led to a rapid recovery. PMID:23897992

  10. Lithium silver chromate cell: a five-year story

    SciTech Connect

    Lenfant, P.; Broussely, M.; Rivault, J.P.; Grimm, M.

    1980-01-01

    A French produced lithium silver chromate cell was first introduced in 1973 and has been used ever since as a pacemaker power source. Today, more than 370,000 cells have been produced. In five years of use, no battery-related failure has been observed in the field, giving to this system the high degree of reliability, required by this application. During this period, a study of the electrochemical aspects was maintained allowing better understanding of cell behavior. 5 refs.

  11. At-risk/problematic shopping and gambling in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen J.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Hoff, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated levels of both pathological gambling (PG) and problem shopping (PS) have been reported among adolescents, and each is associated with a range of other negative health/functioning measures. However, relationships between PS and PG, particularly during adolescence, are not well understood. In this study, we explored the relationship between different levels of problem-gambling severity and health/functioning characteristics, gambling-related social experiences, gambling behaviors and motivations among adolescents with and without at-risk/problematic shopping (ARPS). Survey data from Connecticut high school students (n=2,100) were analyzed using bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling. Although at-risk/problematic gambling (ARPG) was not increased among adolescents with ARPS, adolescents with ARPG (versus non-gamblers) were more likely to report having experienced a growing tension or anxiety that could only be relieved by shopping and missing other obligations due to shopping. In comparison to the non-ARPS group, a smaller proportion of respondents in the ARPS group reported paid part-time employment, whereas a greater proportion of respondents reported excessive gambling by peers and feeling concerned over the gambling of a close family member. In general, similar associations between problem-gambling severity and measures of health/functioning and gambling-related behaviors and motivations were observed across ARPS and non-ARPS adolescents. However, associations were weaker among ARPS adolescents for several variables: engagement in extracurricular activities, alcohol and caffeine use and gambling for financial reasons. These findings suggest a complex relationship between problem-gambling severity and ARPS. They highlight the importance of considering co-occurring risk behaviors such as ARPS when treating adolescents with at-risk/problem gambling. PMID:25117852

  12. At-Risk/Problematic Shopping and Gambling in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Yip, Sarah W; Mei, Songli; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen J; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-12-01

    Elevated levels of both pathological gambling (PG) and problem shopping (PS) have been reported among adolescents, and each is associated with a range of other negative health/functioning measures. However, relationships between PS and PG, particularly during adolescence, are not well understood. In this study, we explored the relationship between different levels of problem-gambling severity and health/functioning characteristics, gambling-related social experiences, gambling behaviors and motivations among adolescents with and without at-risk/problematic shopping (ARPS). Survey data from Connecticut high school students (n = 2,100) were analyzed using bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling. Although at-risk/problematic gambling (ARPG) was not increased among adolescents with ARPS, adolescents with ARPG (vs non-gamblers) were more likely to report having experienced a growing tension or anxiety that could only be relieved by shopping and missing other obligations due to shopping. In comparison to the non-ARPS group, a smaller proportion of respondents in the ARPS group reported paid part-time employment, whereas a greater proportion of respondents reported excessive gambling by peers and feeling concerned over the gambling of a close family member. In general, similar associations between problem-gambling severity and measures of health/functioning and gambling-related behaviors and motivations were observed across ARPS and non-ARPS adolescents. However, associations were weaker among ARPS adolescents for several variables: engagement in extracurricular activities, alcohol and caffeine use and gambling for financial reasons. These findings suggest a complex relationship between problem-gambling severity and ARPS. They highlight the importance of considering co-occurring risk behaviors such as ARPS when treating adolescents with at-risk/problem gambling.

  13. The Extent and Distribution of Gambling-Related Harms and the Prevention Paradox in a British Population Survey

    PubMed Central

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the “prevention paradox” applies to British individuals in relation to gambling-related harm. Methods Data were derived from 7,756 individuals participating in the British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2010, a comprehensive interview-based survey conducted in Great Britain between November 2009 and May 2010. Gambling-related harm was assessed using an adapted version of the DSM-IV Pathological Gambling criteria. The previous year’s prevalence of problem gamblers was examined using the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Gambling involvement was measured by gambling frequency and gambling participation (gambling volume as expressed by time and money spent gambling). Results The prevalence rates for past-year gambling harms were dependence harm (16.4%), social harm (2.2%), and chasing losses (7.9%). Gambling-related harms were distributed across low- to moderate-risk gamblers (and not limited to just problem gamblers) and were reported by the majority of gamblers who were non-high time and spend regular gamblers than high time and spend regular gamblers. Conclusions The prevention paradox is a promising way of examining gambling-related harm. This suggests that prevention of gambling might need to consider the population approach to minimizing gambling harm. PMID:27156382

  14. The Extent and Distribution of Gambling-Related Harms and the Prevention Paradox in a British Population Survey.

    PubMed

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To examine whether the "prevention paradox" applies to British individuals in relation to gambling-related harm. Methods Data were derived from 7,756 individuals participating in the British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2010, a comprehensive interview-based survey conducted in Great Britain between November 2009 and May 2010. Gambling-related harm was assessed using an adapted version of the DSM-IV Pathological Gambling criteria. The previous year's prevalence of problem gamblers was examined using the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Gambling involvement was measured by gambling frequency and gambling participation (gambling volume as expressed by time and money spent gambling). Results The prevalence rates for past-year gambling harms were dependence harm (16.4%), social harm (2.2%), and chasing losses (7.9%). Gambling-related harms were distributed across low- to moderate-risk gamblers (and not limited to just problem gamblers) and were reported by the majority of gamblers who were non-high time and spend regular gamblers than high time and spend regular gamblers. Conclusions The prevention paradox is a promising way of examining gambling-related harm. This suggests that prevention of gambling might need to consider the population approach to minimizing gambling harm.

  15. [Types of pathological gamblers].

    PubMed

    Balázs, Hedvig; Kun, Bernadette; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with the end of the total and later on the partial state ban on gambling in Hungary, an increasingly intensive revival of gambling can be observed together with a widening scope of offers. Parallel to the growing popularity of controlled, social and recreational forms of gambling, the spread of excessive, problematic and pathological gambling requiring therapeutic intervention is also present. Both from the perspective of research and clinical practice the following questions are raised. Whether there exist subtypes of problematic or pathological gamblers with specific personality characteristics and therefore needs for specific types of treatment, and if it is worth differentiating between gamblers according to their preferences towards specific types of gambling. One stream of research with the objective of finding subtypes of gambling examines pathological gamblers in general, independent of their gambling preferences. These authors describe subgroups with typical psychological characteristics and they present various possible functions of gambling. On the other hand, data is available supporting that persons with unlike dominant preferences towards different types of gambling can be characterized by dissimilar demographic and psychological indices as well. Authors in these studies present typologies created according to various different aspects in details. Based on studies aiming to create a typology of gambling addicted patients and discover their motives, we can assume that the escape gambler and the impulsive gambler types can most unequivocally be differentiated. Besides these, studies suggest the existence of two other types of gamblers; normal and ones seeking the experience of dissociation. On the personality characteristics of gamblers playing specific types of games, however, there is little data available yet.

  16. Harmonizing Screening for Gambling Problems in Epidemiological Surveys – Development of the Rapid Screener for Problem Gambling (RSPG)

    PubMed Central

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Perrot, Bastien; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The aim of this study was to test the screening properties of several combinations of items from gambling scales, in order to harmonize screening of gambling problems in epidemiological surveys. The objective was to propose two brief screening tools (three items or less) for a use in interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Methods We tested the screening properties of combinations of items from several gambling scales, in a sample of 425 gamblers (301 non-problem gamblers and 124 disordered gamblers). Items tested included interview-based items (Pathological Gambling section of the DSM-IV, lifetime history of problem gambling, monthly expenses in gambling, and abstinence of 1 month or more) and self-report items (South Oaks Gambling Screen, Gambling Attitudes, and Beliefs Survey). The gold standard used was the diagnosis of a gambling disorder according to the DSM-5. Results Two versions of the Rapid Screener for Problem Gambling (RSPG) were developed: the RSPG-Interview (RSPG-I), being composed of two interview items (increasing bets and loss of control), and the RSPG-Self-Assessment (RSPG-SA), being composed of three self-report items (chasing, guiltiness, and perceived inability to stop). Discussion and conclusions We recommend using the RSPG-SA/I for screening problem gambling in epidemiological surveys, with the version adapted for each purpose (RSPG-I for interview-based surveys and RSPG-SA for self-administered surveys). This first triage of potential problem gamblers must be supplemented by further assessment, as it may overestimate the proportion of problem gamblers. However, a first triage has the great advantage of saving time and energy in large-scale screening for problem gambling. PMID:27348558

  17. Research on the effects of integrated resorts in Korea on gambling addiction

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chan-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This research discusses the effects of the integrated resorts centered around casinos being implemented in Korea. It particularly focuses on the symptoms and most recent definitions of gambling addiction such as physiological or psychological dependence from excessive gambling. This paper suggests that there is a high prevalence rate of pathological gambling in Korea. It provides an argument for prevention, early detection, and lastly, active and voluntary treatment. Furthermore, the study addresses the physiological pathway of gambling addiction and the physiological factors of gambling addicts to suggest exercise rehabilitation that are currently limited to psychological treatments. PMID:26331132

  18. Female Gambling, Trauma, and the Not Good Enough Self: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Evans, Kyler; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant; Solowoniuk, Jason; McCallum, Karim; Hagen, Brad

    2013-01-01

    A gap exists within current literature regarding understanding the role that trauma may play in the initiation, development, and progression of female problem and pathological gambling. The purpose of this study is to further illustrate the relationship between trauma and the development problem and pathological gambling by investigating the lived…

  19. Linking Gambling and Trauma: A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Case Study Using Almaas' Transformation of Narcissism Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason; Boni, Lauren Julia; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of pathological gambling and addiction from the perspective of writer and teacher A.H Almaas. By drawing on his Diamond Mind approach we trace the origin of addictive behaviors and pathological gambling to narcissistic wounding, which constitutes the loss of connection with the Essential…

  20. Female Gambling, Trauma, and the Not Good Enough Self: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Evans, Kyler; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant; Solowoniuk, Jason; McCallum, Karim; Hagen, Brad

    2013-01-01

    A gap exists within current literature regarding understanding the role that trauma may play in the initiation, development, and progression of female problem and pathological gambling. The purpose of this study is to further illustrate the relationship between trauma and the development problem and pathological gambling by investigating the lived…

  1. Linking Gambling and Trauma: A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Case Study Using Almaas' Transformation of Narcissism Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason; Boni, Lauren Julia; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of pathological gambling and addiction from the perspective of writer and teacher A.H Almaas. By drawing on his Diamond Mind approach we trace the origin of addictive behaviors and pathological gambling to narcissistic wounding, which constitutes the loss of connection with the Essential…

  2. National gambling experiences in the United States: will history repeat itself?

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer an account of the history and current status of gambling research in the United States. A review of the literature. Gambling has been a part of society in the United States since its early history. However, it was not until 1980 that the medical profession in the United States first recognized pathological gambling as a psychiatric disorder. Today, it is still rarely diagnosed or treated, and relatively little federal funding is available to support research in this area. With the upcoming fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, pathological gambling is likely to be included alongside substance use disorders as the first non-substance-related addictive disorder. This change may represent an opportunity to expand research on gambling and treatment of pathological gambling. We provide 10 suggestions for reducing societal and personal harm associated with this disorder. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Idaho Supplementation Studies : Five Year Report : 1992-1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.

    1999-08-01

    In 1991, the Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) project was implemented to address critical uncertainties associated with hatchery supplementation of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha populations in Idaho. The project was designed to address questions identified in the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) Five-Year-Workplan (STWG 1988). Two goals of the project were identified: (1) assess the use of hatchery chinook salmon to increase natural populations in the Salmon and Clearwater river drainages, and (2) evaluate the genetic and ecological impacts of hatchery chinook salmon on naturally reproducing chinook salmon populations. Four objectives to achieve these goals were developed: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced fish; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; (3) determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity; and (4) develop supplementation recommendations. This document reports on the first five years of the long-term portion of the ISS project. Small-scale studies addressing specific hypotheses of the mechanisms of supplementation effects (e.g., competition, dispersal, and behavior) have been completed. Baseline genetic data have also been collected. Because supplementation broodstock development was to occur during the first five years, little evaluation of supplementation is currently possible. Most supplementation adults did not start to return to study streams until 1997. The objectives of this report are to: (1) present baseline data on production and productivity indicators such as adult escapement, redd counts, parr densities, juvenile emigrant estimates, and juvenile survival to Lower Granite Dam (lower Snake

  4. Illness prevention in the NHS five year forward view.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sabrina

    2015-06-01

    Illness prevention is a priority for the NHS Mandate and the Five Year Forward View, and offers a means to maintain sustainable health and social care services in the context of an ageing population and the growth of behaviour-related illness. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance recommends a structured approach to embedding behaviour change interventions into clinical care, and effective implementation requires organisational support. This article describes how nurse leaders, managers and commissioners can ensure this implementation through setting objectives for staff, training and development, as well as supporting staff to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  5. www.cefalea.it: the first five years.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Paolo; Sances, Grazia; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2005-09-01

    The Italian headache disorders website (www.cefalea.it) was launched in 1999 by the CIRNA foundation in partnership with Al.Ce, which is a lay association and member of the World Headache Alliance. In 2004, the website registered almost 130 000 hits (+200% on the 1999 figure). The most visited parts were the sections devoted to topical issues relating to headache, the list of headache specialists, the headache glossary and the support group. This article summarises the website's first five years of activity and highlights the Internet's potential to improve headache-related decision-making, behaviour and outcomes.

  6. Neosporosis in animals--the last five years.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2011-08-04

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 in dogs and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of cattle and dogs worldwide. Abortions and neonatal mortality are a major problem in livestock operations and neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle. This review is focused on current status of neosporosis in animals based on papers published in the last five years. Worldwide seroprevalences are tabulated. Strategies for control and prevention are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Updates of the prevalence of problem gambling in Romanian teenagers.

    PubMed

    Lupu, Viorel; Todirita, Izabela Ramona

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find out what is the prevalence of pathological in Romanian teenagers. We questioned one thousand thirty-two teenagers in Cluj-Napoca and Harghita counties. Participants completed a questionnaire with 40 items including gamblers anonymous twenty questions. The sample included teenagers aged 11-19 years; 65.57% were male and 34.43% were female. The subjects were divided into three groups: non-gambling/recreational gambling or occasional gambling (0-1 positive answers -Level 1)-753 subjects (72.96%) [316 females and 437 males]; problem gambling (2-6 points-Level 2)-243 subjects (23.54%) [43 females and 200 males]; pathological gambling (above 7 points-Level 3)-36 subjects (3.48%) [3 females and 33 males]. The mean age of pathological gamblers was 16.48 years. Gender differences were as expected, males engaging in pathological gambling (91.66% from pathological gamblers) more than females did (8.33% from pathological gamblers). Data revealed that the most encountered games practiced weekly were sport bets and slot machines in the case of 36.11% of the pathological gamblers; lotto, internet casino and pool bets each with 25%, followed by roulette and black-jack with 22.22%.From those who reported practicing gambling at a pathological level 66.66% engaged in alcohol consumption, 13.88% illicit drug use and 19.44% licit drugs. Just 16.66% smoke cigarettes. Data revealed higher rates of prevalence in Romanian teenagers than in other Central and Eastern European countries. A prevalence study at a national level should be designed.

  8. Gambling, Drinking and Quality of Life: Evidence from Macao and Australia.

    PubMed

    Loo, Jasmine M Y; Shi, Yongdong; Pu, Xiaohong

    2016-06-01

    The investigation of the interface between psychological constructs, compulsive consumption of alcohol and pathological gambling is an important avenue for development of future initiatives in social marketing or prevention programs. This cross-cultural study attempts to bridge the gap in literature by providing an evaluation of the predictive ability of psychological variables such as gambling urge, gambling-related erroneous cognitions and comorbid alcohol consumption on pathological gambling behaviour and its impact on overall quality of life indicators. Participants consist of 445 Macao and Australian young adults (Mean age = 23 years). Results indicate that probable pathological gamblers as compared with non-gamblers reported significantly lower quality of life in all domains-physical health, psychological well-being, social relationships and environment. Adults who drank more alcohol and have stronger erroneous cognitions evidenced higher pathological gambling behavior. Our research model fits both cohorts and interestingly, erroneous gambling-related cognitions serve as a full mediator for the predictive relationship between gambling urge and pathological gambling in the Macao sample, but serve as a partial mediator in the Australian sample. Targeting erroneous cognitions in future social marketing or preventive campaigns should demonstrate to be an important strategy in reducing the effects of urge to gamble among at-risk individuals. Further implications for the industry, marketing and governmental strategies are discussed.

  9. Geriatric gambling disorder: challenges in clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mara; Hategan, Ana; Bourgeois, James A

    2017-09-13

    To the Editor: The gaming industry is growing rapidly, as is the proportion of older adults aged 65 years or older who participate in gambling (Tse et al., 2012). With casinos tailoring their venues and providing incentives to attract older adults, and with the increasing popularity of "pleasure trips" to casinos organized by retirement homes, plus active promotion of government-operated lotteries in many countries, this trend is likely to continue. Gambling disorder (GD) or "pathological" or "problem" gambling presents a public health concern in the geriatric population. However, ascertainment of its prevalence and diagnostic accuracy have proven challenging. This is largely due to the absence of diagnostic criteria specific to the geriatric age and rating scales validated for use in this population.

  10. Gambling disorders, gambling type preferences, and psychiatric comorbidity among the Thai general population: Results of the 2013 National Mental Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; McNeil, Edward B.; Tantirangsee, Nopporn; Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims To estimate the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling, gender and age-group differences in gambling types, and comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders among the Thai general population. Methods Analysis was conducted on 4,727 participants of Thailand’s 2013 National Mental Health Survey, a multistage stratified cluster survey, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Diagnoses of problem and pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders were based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria with the following additional criteria for gamblers: more than 10 lifetime gambling episodes and a single year loss of at least 365 USD from gambling. Results The estimated lifetime prevalence rates of pathological and problem gambling were 0.90% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51–1.29] and 1.14% (95% CI: 0.58–1.70), respectively. The most popular type of gambling was playing lotteries [69.5%, standard error (SE) = 1.9], the prevalence of which was significantly higher among females and older age groups. The most common psychiatric disorders seen among pathological gamblers were alcohol abuse (57.4%), nicotine dependence (49.5%), and any drug use disorder (16.2%). Pathological gambling was highly prevalent among those who ever experienced major depressive episodes (5.5%), any drug dependence (5.1%), and intermittent explosive disorder (4.8%). The association between pathological gambling was strongest with a history of major depressive episode [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 10.4, 95% CI: 2.80–38.4]. Conclusion The study confirms the recognition of gambling disorders as a public health concern in Thailand and suggests a need for culturally specific preventive measures for pathological gamblers and those with a history of substance use disorders or major depression. PMID:27648744

  11. Gambling disorders, gambling type preferences, and psychiatric comorbidity among the Thai general population: Results of the 2013 National Mental Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; McNeil, Edward B; Tantirangsee, Nopporn; Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims To estimate the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling, gender and age-group differences in gambling types, and comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders among the Thai general population. Methods Analysis was conducted on 4,727 participants of Thailand's 2013 National Mental Health Survey, a multistage stratified cluster survey, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Diagnoses of problem and pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders were based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria with the following additional criteria for gamblers: more than 10 lifetime gambling episodes and a single year loss of at least 365 USD from gambling. Results The estimated lifetime prevalence rates of pathological and problem gambling were 0.90% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51-1.29] and 1.14% (95% CI: 0.58-1.70), respectively. The most popular type of gambling was playing lotteries [69.5%, standard error (SE) = 1.9], the prevalence of which was significantly higher among females and older age groups. The most common psychiatric disorders seen among pathological gamblers were alcohol abuse (57.4%), nicotine dependence (49.5%), and any drug use disorder (16.2%). Pathological gambling was highly prevalent among those who ever experienced major depressive episodes (5.5%), any drug dependence (5.1%), and intermittent explosive disorder (4.8%). The association between pathological gambling was strongest with a history of major depressive episode [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 10.4, 95% CI: 2.80-38.4]. Conclusion The study confirms the recognition of gambling disorders as a public health concern in Thailand and suggests a need for culturally specific preventive measures for pathological gamblers and those with a history of substance use disorders or major depression.

  12. Internet Gambling in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to overview the issues, concerns and challenges relating to gambling--and more specifically internet gambling--in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Using psychological literature, this paper outlines a number of important and inter-related areas including brief overviews of gambling and problem gambling,…

  13. Internet Gambling in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to overview the issues, concerns and challenges relating to gambling--and more specifically internet gambling--in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Using psychological literature, this paper outlines a number of important and inter-related areas including brief overviews of gambling and problem gambling,…

  14. [Recurrence of Well Differentiated Intrascrotal Liposarcoma in Retroperitoneum Five Years after Resection : A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Mitsuhiro; Sekii, Yosuke; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Kishikawa, Hidefumi; Nishimura, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    A 68-year-old man underwent an inguinal orchiectomy for a right testicular tumor and the pathological diagnosis was atypical lipomatous tumor. Nine years later, a resection procedure was performed for local recurrence. Five years after that second surgery, abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings revealed a low density mass 40 mm in size on the back side of the right kidney and enlarged fat in the retroperitoneal space. We performed a laparoscopic tumor resection under a diagnosis of lipoma or liposarcoma recurrence, and the pathological diagnosis was well differentiated liposarcoma. Treatment with pazopanib was started, as a CT examination showed that the tumor remained, after which we performed an open nephroureterectomy and resected the remaining tumor portion. Pazopanib treatment was continued and no obvious signs of recurrence were seen at 8 months after the most recent surgery. Although well differentiated liposarcoma usually recurs in the original tumor region, multicentric recurrence in other parts is possible.

  15. Transbronchial biopsy without fluoroscopy: a five year experience in outpatients.

    PubMed Central

    de Fenoyl, O; Capron, F; Lebeau, B; Rochemaure, J

    1989-01-01

    Transbronchial biopsy is the technique of choice for obtaining tissue for histological diagnosis in many pulmonary disorders. The procedure has usually been carried out as an inpatient procedure with the use of fluoroscopy, though this policy has recently been questioned. This report concerns a five year experience of 174 transbronchial biopsies performed without fluoroscopy as an outpatient procedure in patients with interstitial lung disease or a suspicion of sarcoidosis. Chest radiography was carried out only if the patient developed symptoms. No major complications were encountered and the overall complication rate was low. Pneumothorax occurred in six patients (3.4%), only one of whom required intercostal intubation, and bleeding of more than 30 ml occurred in two patients. Histological diagnosis was obtained in 154 patients (88%). In the experience of this group transbronchial biopsy has been safe when carried out as an outpatient procedure without fluoroscopic guidance. PMID:2595639

  16. THE FIVE YEAR FERMI/GBM MAGNETAR BURST CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Collazzi, A. C.; Kouveliotou, C.; Horst, A. J. van der; Younes, G. A.; Kaneko, Y.; Göğüş, E.; Lin, L.; Granot, J.; Finger, M. H.; Chaplin, V. L.; Huppenkothen, D.; Watts, A. L.; Kienlin, A. von; Baring, M. G.; Gruber, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Gibby, M. H.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Since launch in 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected many hundreds of bursts from magnetar sources. While the vast majority of these bursts have been attributed to several known magnetars, there is also a small sample of magnetar-like bursts of unknown origin. Here, we present the Fermi/GBM magnetar catalog, providing the results of the temporal and spectral analyses of 440 magnetar bursts with high temporal and spectral resolution. This catalog covers the first five years of GBM magnetar observations, from 2008 July to 2013 June. We provide durations, spectral parameters for various models, fluences, and peak fluxes for all the bursts, as well as a detailed temporal analysis for SGR J1550–5418 bursts. Finally, we suggest that some of the bursts of unknown origin are associated with the newly discovered magnetar 3XMM J185246.6+0033.7.

  17. Educational affairs plan: A five-year strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A five-year plan is presented to guide the use of NASA resources in administering a focused and consistent set of aeronautics and space science education programs. Major initiatives outlined in this plan fall into two categories: programmatic priorities and institutional priorities. Programmatic priorities for this plan include elementary education, teacher education, underrepresented minority participation, educational technology and the Aerospace Education Services Project (AESP). Institutional priorities highlighted in this plan include university programs, educational publications and their distribution, educational partnerships with public and private organizations, educational research and evaluation, and activities of the educational affairs administration. The plan's aim is to directly and indirectly help to ensure an adequate pool of talented scientists, engineers and technical personnel to keep NASA at the forefront of advancements for the 21st century.

  18. Scandinavian NATO policy: The next five years. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.

    1990-05-01

    Based on reports from the Foreign Broadcast Information Service, this Note assesses the future of Danish and Norwegian security policies and the probable internal and external factors that will influence them. In the next five years, Danish politics will be marked by instability as rapid disarmament and tension reduction are pursued. The somewhat more stable Norwegian political environment is also entering a period of uncertainty. However, the weakening of centrism in Norwegian politics should not undermine a traditional concern for arms control and reduced tensions in Europe. While neither Scandinavian nation is expected to take a leading role in the NATO policy debate, they will make clear their opposition to the modernization or expansion of nuclear forces. Although both Norway and Denmark may turn their attention increasingly toward regional or Nordic solutions, the importance of their sea-lanes to U.S. maritime interests will ensure a continued U.S. commitment to maintaining some form of security relationship with them.

  19. Bronchiectasis in the Last Five Years: New Developments

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Jun Keng; Venning, Victoria; Wong, Conroy; Jayaram, Lata

    2016-01-01

    Bronchiectasis, a chronic lung disease characterised by cough and purulent sputum, recurrent infections, and airway damage, is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. To date, treatment options have been limited to physiotherapy to clear sputum and antibiotics to treat acute infections. Over the last decade, there has been significant progress in understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and microbiology of this disorder. Over the last five years, methods of assessing severity have been developed, the role of macrolide antibiotic therapy in reducing exacerbations cemented, and inhaled antibiotic therapies show promise in the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Novel therapies are currently undergoing Phase 1 and 2 trials. This review aims to address the major developments within the field of bronchiectasis over this time. PMID:27941638

  20. Bronchiectasis in the Last Five Years: New Developments.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Jun Keng; Venning, Victoria; Wong, Conroy; Jayaram, Lata

    2016-12-08

    Bronchiectasis, a chronic lung disease characterised by cough and purulent sputum, recurrent infections, and airway damage, is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. To date, treatment options have been limited to physiotherapy to clear sputum and antibiotics to treat acute infections. Over the last decade, there has been significant progress in understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and microbiology of this disorder. Over the last five years, methods of assessing severity have been developed, the role of macrolide antibiotic therapy in reducing exacerbations cemented, and inhaled antibiotic therapies show promise in the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Novel therapies are currently undergoing Phase 1 and 2 trials. This review aims to address the major developments within the field of bronchiectasis over this time.

  1. Highlights from the First Five Years of the VSOP Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, H.; Edwards, P. G.; Murata, Y.; Asaki, Y.; Murphy, D. W.; Kobyashi, H.; Inoue, M.; Kameno, S.; Umemoto, T.

    2003-05-01

    The HALCA satellite was launched by ISAS in 1997 as the main element of the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP). By the fifth anniversary of HALCA's launch, over 700 VSOP observations have been carried out, predominantly, but not exclusively, of the relativistic jets and accretion disks surrounding super-massive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN). Objects studied include nearby AGN such as M87, where the high angular resolution corresponds to high linear resolution, out to high redshift (z > 3) quasars. Observations are made at 1.6 GHz (18 cm) and 5 GHz (6 cm). Achievements by VSOP in these five years and future works will be reviewed. The lessons learned by VSOP are also both scientifically and technically important for the planning of the next generation of space-VLBI missions.

  2. Five year magnetic tape for unattended satellite tape recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benn, G. S. L.; Gutfreund, K.

    1972-01-01

    The development and fabrication of a quantity of long life magnetic tape with properties selected specifically for unattended operation in spacecraft tape recorders was studied. A detailed analytical consideration of various binder systems was undertaken. This included the chemical aspects of the binders, cohesion and adhesion effects, stability and the mechanical and physical properties. The ability to form free films of these polymers and their combination with various oxide loadings and other additives allowed a rapid selection of four polymer candidates for a five year magnetic tape. Samples were evaluated under actual running conditions which included physical, magnetic, and extensive life testing. These sample tapes withstood 50,000 bidirectional tape passes under fairly harsh operating conditions.

  3. The Five Year Fermi/GBM Magnetar Burst Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collazzi, A. C.; Kouveliotou, C.; van der Horst, A. J.; Younes, G. A.; Kaneko, Y.; Göğüş, E.; Lin, L.; Granot, J.; Finger, M. H.; Chaplin, V. L.; Huppenkothen, D.; Watts, A. L.; von Kienlin, A.; Baring, M. G.; Gruber, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Gibby, M. H.; Gehrels, N.; McEnery, J.; van der Klis, M.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2015-05-01

    Since launch in 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected many hundreds of bursts from magnetar sources. While the vast majority of these bursts have been attributed to several known magnetars, there is also a small sample of magnetar-like bursts of unknown origin. Here, we present the Fermi/GBM magnetar catalog, providing the results of the temporal and spectral analyses of 440 magnetar bursts with high temporal and spectral resolution. This catalog covers the first five years of GBM magnetar observations, from 2008 July to 2013 June. We provide durations, spectral parameters for various models, fluences, and peak fluxes for all the bursts, as well as a detailed temporal analysis for SGR J1550-5418 bursts. Finally, we suggest that some of the bursts of unknown origin are associated with the newly discovered magnetar 3XMM J185246.6+0033.7.

  4. GOSAT TANSO FTS TIR band calibration: a five year review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gero, P. Jonathan; Knuteson, Robert O.; Shiomi, Kei; Kuze, Akihiko; Kataoka, Fumie; Revercomb, Henry E.; Tobin, David C.; Taylor, Joseph K.; Best, Frederick A.

    2014-11-01

    The GOSAT thermal infrared (TIR) band calibration is reviewed for the five-year time period from April 2009 through March 2014. Pre-launch characterization has been augmented by post-launch analysis of on-orbit data and comparison with coincident measurements from other satellite, airborne, and ground-based sensors. Successive refinements of the TIR band ground-processing software have incorporated corrections for detector non-linearity and polarization. Estimates of radiometric uncertainty have also been made. The comparison of GOSAT TIR band nadir and off-nadir comparisons (SNOs and SONOs) provide a quantitative spectral assessment of the radiometric bias relative to the NASA AIRS and EUMETSAT IASI sensors.

  5. CRTS SNhunt: The First Five Years of Supernova Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howerton, Stanley C.

    2017-01-01

    CRTS SNhunt: The First Five Years of Supernova Discoveries is a compilation of all supernova and supernova-like discoveries from the first five operational years of the supernova search SNhunt which is one project in the larger Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS). SNhunt is perhaps one of the last traditional large-scale searches in which a person compares an image with a reference frame. This kind of search is time consuming as there is not a computer to narrow down the possibilities. The only help is a subtraction frame which shows differences between the two images. Images came from the Catalina Sky Survey, Mount Lemmon Survey, and Siding Spring Survey. Most of the discoveries were by the author. For many, a confirmation or a follow-up image is included. Where possible, a light curve was also created.

  6. Galaxy Evolution Explorer Celebrates Five Years in Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-28

    Since its launch five years ago, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has photographed hundreds of millions of galaxies in ultraviolet light. M106 is one of those galaxies, 22 light years away, it strikes a pose in blue and gold for this new commemorative portrait. The galaxy's extended arms are the blue filaments that curve around its edge, creating its outer disk. Tints of blue in M106's arms reveal hot, young massive stars. Traces of gold toward the center show an older stellar population and indicate the presence of obscuring dust. From 24 million light-years away, neighboring galaxy NGC 4248 also makes a memorable appearance, sitting just right of M106. The irregular galaxy looks like a yellow smudge, with a bluish-white bar in the center. The galaxy's outer golden glow indicates a population of older stars, while the blue central region shows a younger stellar demographic. Dwarf galaxy UGC 7365 emerges at the bottom center of this image, as a faint yellow smudge directly below M106. This galaxy is not forming any new stars, and looks much smaller than M106 despite being closer to Earth, at 14 million light-years away. Over the past five years, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has imaged half a billion objects over 27,000 square degrees of sky —equivalent to an area that would be covered by 138,000 full moons. The telescope orbits Earth every 94 minutes and travels approximately 408,470 million miles per day. Its overarching question is: how do galaxies grow and change over 10 billion years of cosmic history? M106, also known as NGC 4258, is located in the constellation Canes Venatici. This image is a two-color composite, where far-ultraviolet light is blue, and near-ultraviolet light is red. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA10600

  7. Five-Year Outcome in Stroke Patients Submitted to Thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Célia; Pinho, João; Alves, José Nuno; Santos, Ana Filipa; Ferreira, Maria do Céu; Abreu, Maria João; Oliveira, Liliana; Mota, João; Fontes, João Ramalho; Ferreira, Carla

    2015-08-01

    Little is known on long-term follow-up after thrombolysis in ischemic stroke patients because the majority of studies evaluated outcome at 3 to 12 months. We aimed to assess 5-year outcome after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Cohort study based on the prospective registry of all consecutive ischemic stroke patients submitted to IVT in our Stroke Unit. Five-year outcome, including living settings, functional outcome, stroke recurrence, and mortality, was ascertained by telephonic interviews and additional review of clinical records. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of outcome and mortality. Excellent outcome was defined as modified Rankin scale 0 to 1. Five-year outcome was available for 155/164 patients submitted to IVT. At 5 years, 32.9% of patients had an excellent outcome (95% confidence interval (CI) =25.5-43.3) and mortality was 43.9% (95%CI=36.1-51.7). Increasing age (odds ratio =0.93, 95% CI =0.90-0.97) and increasing National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) 24 h after thrombolysis (odds ratio =0.81, 95% CI =0.74-0.90) were independently associated with a lower likelihood of an excellent 5-year outcome. Age (hazards ratio =1.07, 95% CI =1.03-1.11) and excellent functional outcome 3 months after thrombolysis (hazards ratio =0.28, 95%CI=0.12-0.66) were independently associated with mortality during follow-up. One third of ischemic stroke patients have excellent 5-year outcome after IVT. Younger age, lower NIHSS 24 h after IVT, and excellent 3-month functional outcome are independent predictors of excellent 5-year outcome. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Galaxy Evolution Explorer Celebrates Five Years in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    Since its launch five years ago, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has photographed hundreds of millions of galaxies in ultraviolet light. M106 is one of those galaxies, and from 22 light years away, it strikes a pose in blue and gold for this new commemorative portrait.

    The galaxy's extended arms are the blue filaments that curve around its edge, creating its outer disk. Tints of blue in M106's arms reveal hot, young massive stars. Traces of gold toward the center show an older stellar population and indicate the presence of obscuring dust.

    From 24 million light-years away, neighboring galaxy NGC 4248 also makes a memorable appearance, sitting just right of M106. The irregular galaxy looks like a yellow smudge, with a bluish-white bar in the center. The galaxy's outer golden glow indicates a population of older stars, while the blue central region shows a younger stellar demographic.

    Dwarf galaxy UGC 7365 emerges at the bottom center of this image, as a faint yellow smudge directly below M106. This galaxy is not forming any new stars, and looks much smaller than M106 despite being closer to Earth, at 14 million light-years away.

    Over the past five years, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has imaged half a billion objects over 27,000 square degrees of sky equivalent to an area that would be covered by 138,000 full moons. The telescope orbits Earth every 94 minutes and travels approximately 408,470 million miles per day. Its overarching question is: how do galaxies grow and change over 10 billion years of cosmic history?

    M106, also known as NGC 4258, is located in the constellation Canes Venatici. This image is a two-color composite, where far-ultraviolet light is blue, and near-ultraviolet light is red.

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…

  11. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, the first five years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Jin; Sheng, Hui-Feng; Wang, Na-Na; Yang, Pin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Bergquist, Robert

    2017-05-04

    Although the focus in the area of health research may be shifting from infectious to non-communicable diseases, the infectious diseases of poverty remain a major burden of disease of global health concern. A global platform to communicate and share the research on these diseases is needed to facilitate the translation of knowledge into effective approaches and tools for their elimination. Based on the "One health, One world" mission, a new, open-access journal, Infectious Diseases of Poverty (IDP), was launched by BioMed Central in partnership with the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) on October 25, 2012. Its aim is to identify and assess research and information gaps that hinder progress towards new interventions for a particular public health problem in the developing world. From the inaugural IDP issue of October 25, 2012, a total of 256 manuscripts have been published over the following five years. Apart from a small number of editorials, opinions, commentaries and letters to the editor, the predominant types of publications are research articles (69.5%) and scoping reviews (21.5%). A total of 1 081 contributing authors divided between 323 affiliations across 68 countries, territories and regions produced these 256 publications. The journal is indexed in major international biomedical databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Embase. In 2015, it was assigned its first impact factor (4.11), which is now 2.13. During the past five years, IDP has received manuscripts from 90 countries, territories and regions across six continents with an annual acceptance rate of all contributions maintained at less than 40%. Content analysis shows that neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), followed by the "Big Three" (HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis) and infectious diseases in general comprise 88% of all publications. In addition, a series of 10 thematic issues, covering 118 publications

  12. Genome-wide Association Study of a Quantitative Disordered Gambling Trait

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Penelope A.; Zhu, Gu; Montgomery, Grant W; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Slutske, Wendy S.

    2012-01-01

    Disordered gambling is a moderately heritable trait, but the underlying genetic basis is largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for disordered gambling using a quantitative factor score in 1,312 twins from 894 Australian families. Association was conducted for 2,381,914 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the family-based association test in Merlin followed by gene and pathway enrichment analyses. Although no SNP reached genome-wide significance, six achieved P-values < 1 × 10−5 with variants in three genes (MT1X, ATXN1 and VLDLR) implicated in disordered gambling. Secondary case-control analyses found two SNPs on chromosome 9 (rs1106076 and rs12305135 near VLDLR) and rs10812227 near FZD10 on chromosome 12 to be significantly associated with lifetime DSM-IV pathological gambling and SOGS classified probable pathological gambling status. Furthermore, several addiction-related pathways were enriched for SNPs associated with disordered gambling. Finally, gene-based analysis of 24 candidate genes for dopamine agonist induced gambling in individuals with Parkinson’s disease suggested an enrichment of SNPs associated with disordered gambling. We report the first GWAS of disordered gambling. While further replication is required, the identification of susceptibility loci and biological pathways will be important in characterizing the biological mechanisms that underpin disordered gambling. PMID:22780124

  13. SCRATCH THAT!—Two case reports of scratch-card gambling disorder.

    PubMed

    Raposo-Lima, Catarina; Castro, Liliana; Sousa, Nuno; Morgado, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Gambling disorder is a common, clinically relevant condition that impacts significantly one's life. Given that approved pharmacological interventions are lacking, it is crucial to readily identify these cases to provide available interventions in psychiatric care services. Here, we present two uncommon cases of unique scratch-card gambling disorder, a specific type of pathological gambling that could be increasing as availability of these games are growing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Calorie Intake and Gambling: Is Fat and Sugar Consumption 'Impulsive'?

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; A Redden, Sarah; Grant, Jon E

    2016-10-20

    Excessive calorie intake constitutes a global public health concern, due to its associated range of untoward outcomes. Gambling is commonplace and gambling disorder is now considered a behavioral addiction in DSM-5. The relationships between calorie intake, gambling, and other types of putatively addictive and impulsive behaviors have received virtually no research attention. Two-hundred twenty-five young adults who gamble were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements. Dietary intake over the preceding year was quantified using the Dietary Fat and Free Sugar Short questionnaire (DFS). Clinician rating scales, questionnaires, and cognitive tests germane to impulsivity were completed. Relationships between dietary fat/sugar intake and gambling behaviors, as well as other measures of psychopathology and cognition germane to addiction, were evaluated using correlational analyses controlling for multiple comparisons. Greater dietary fat and sugar intake were associated with lower educational levels and with male gender. Controlling for these variables, higher dietary fat and sugar intake were correlated significantly with worse gambling pathology and anxiety scores. Dietary sugar intake was also significantly associated with higher depressive scores, more alcohol intake, lower self-esteem, and with greater risk of having one or more mental disorders in general. Dietary intake did not correlate significantly with ADHD symptoms, presence of one or more impulse control disorders, Barratt impulsiveness, or cognitive functioning. These data suggest a particularly strong relationship between fat/sugar intake and symptoms of gambling pathology, but not most other forms of impulsivity and behavioral addiction (excepting alcohol intake). Providing education about healthy diet may be especially valuable in gamblers and in community settings where gambling advertisements feature prominently. Future work should explore

  15. Behavioral activation and inhibition, negative affect, and gambling severity in a sample of young adult college students.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, John; Sharp, Carla; Schmitz, Joy; Yaroslavsky, Ilya

    2012-09-01

    The prevalence of pathological gambling among college students is increasing. Few studies have directly examined the relation between reward processing and gambling severity while concurrently examining the effects of co-occurring negative affect in this at risk population. This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques to analyze results from an online survey of 352 female and 96 male students age 18-25. Participants completed measures of past year gambling behavior and severity of gambling problems using the Canadian Problem Gambling Index and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Negative affect and reward processing were measured by the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales, respectively. Thirty-five percent of participants reported gambling in the previous 12 months, and 11% had gambling severity scores indicative of "moderate-risk" or "problem gambling." Gambling severity was associated with negative affect. Negative affect, in turn, was correlated with the unitary BIS scale and inversely associated with the BAS reward responsiveness scale. Reward responsiveness was also inversely associated with gambling severity. In the SEM models, the association between reward responsiveness and gambling severity was mediated by negative affect among males but not among females. Potential explanations for these findings and their implications for addressing problem gambling are discussed.

  16. Reliability and Validity of Three Instruments (DSM-IV, CPGI, and PPGM) in the Assessment of Problem Gambling in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Back, Ki-Joon; Williams, Robert J; Lee, Choong-Ki

    2015-09-01

    Most research on the assessment, epidemiology, and treatment of problem gambling has occurred in Western jurisdictions. This potentially limits the cross-cultural validity of problem gambling assessment instruments as well as etiological models of problem gambling. The primary objective of the present research was to investigate the reliability and validity of three problem gambling assessment instruments within a South Korean context. A total of 4,330 South Korean adults participated in a comprehensive assessment of their gambling behavior that included the administration of the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling (NODS), the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI), and the Problem and Pathological Gambling Measure (PPGM). Cronbach alpha showed that all three instruments had good internal consistency. Concurrent validity was established by the significant associations observed between scores on the instruments and measures of gambling involvement (number of gambling formats engaged in; frequency of gambling; and gambling expenditure). Most importantly, kappa statistics showed that all instruments have satisfactory classification accuracy against clinical assessment of problem gambling conducted by South Korean clinicians (NODS κ = .66; PPGM κ = .62; CPGI κ = .51). These results confirm that Western-derived operationalizations of problem gambling have applicability in a South Korean setting.

  17. Vertigo/dizziness in pediatric emergency department: Five years' experience.

    PubMed

    Raucci, Umberto; Vanacore, Nicola; Paolino, Maria Chiara; Silenzi, Romina; Mariani, Rosanna; Urbano, Antonella; Reale, Antonino; Villa, Maria Pia; Parisi, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    Vertigo/Dizziness in childhood is not a rare cause of visits to the emergency department (ED). We analyzed a selected group with vertigo/dizziness to identify signs and symptoms that may help to guide the diagnostic approach and management. A total of 616 children admitted for vertigo to the ED over a five-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Their medical history, clinical characteristics, laboratory and neuroimaging tests, final diagnoses and management were analyzed. Migraine and syncope were the most frequent causes. Two patients were affected by life-threatening cardiac syncope, while structural life-threatening central nervous system diseases were found in 15 patients, none of whom presented with vertigo as an isolated clinical finding. Most cases of vertigo/dizziness in childhood that consist mainly of migraine and syncope are of benign origin. The prompt identification of neurological or cardiological signs or symptoms associated with vertigo in children is mandatory to rule out life-threatening conditions. © International Headache Society 2015.

  18. NASA Glenn Research Center Acoustical Testing Laboratory: Five year retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Beth A.; Akers, James C.; Passe, Paul J.

    2005-09-01

    In the five years since the NASA Glenn Research Center Acoustical Testing Laboratory (ATL) opened its doors in September, 2000, it has developed a comprehensive array of services and products that support hearing conservation goals within NASA and industry. The ATL provides acoustic emission testing and noise control engineering services for a variety of specialized customers, particularly developers of equipment and science experiments manifested for NASA's manned space missions. The ATL aggressively supports the vision of a low-noise on-orbit environment, which facilitates mission success as well as crew health, safety, and comfort. In concert with these goals, the ATL also produces and distributes free educational resources and low-noise advocacy tools for hearing conservation education and awareness. Among these are two compact discs of auditory demonstrations (of phenomena in acoustics, hearing conservation, and communication), and presentations, software packages, and other educational materials for use by engineers, audiologists, and other hearing conservation stakeholders. This presentation will highlight ATL's construction, history, technical capabilities, and current projects and will feature demonstrations of some of the unique educational resource materials that are distributed by the ATL.

  19. Twenty Five Years in Cheminformatics - A Career Path ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Antony Williams is a Computational Chemist at the US Environmental Protection Agency in the National Center for Computational Toxicology. He has been involved in cheminformatics and the dissemination of chemical information for over twenty-five years. He has worked for a Fortune 500 company (Eastman Kodak), in two successful start-ups (ACD/Labs and ChemSpider), for the Royal Society of Chemistry (in publishing) and, now, at the EPA. Throughout his career path he has experienced multiple diverse work cultures and focused his efforts on understanding the needs of his employers and the often unrecognized needs of a larger community. Antony will provide a short overview of his career path and discuss the various decisions that helped motivate his change in career from professional spectroscopist to website host and innovator, to working for one of the world's foremost scientific societies and now for one of the most impactful government organizations in the world. Invited Presentation at ACS Spring meeting at CINF: Careers in Chemical Information session

  20. PG 1553+113: FIVE YEARS OF OBSERVATIONS WITH MAGIC

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksic, J.; Blanch, O.; Alvarez, E. A.; Asensio, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Bonnoli, G.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Bastieri, D.; Gonzalez, J. Becerra; Berger, K.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Braun, I.; Bock, R. K.; Tridon, D. Borla E-mail: elisa.prandini@pd.infn.it; and others

    2012-03-20

    We present the results of five years (2005-2009) of MAGIC observations of the BL Lac object PG 1553+113 at very high energies (VHEs; E > 100 GeV). Power-law fits of the individual years are compatible with a steady mean photon index {Gamma} = 4.27 {+-} 0.14. In the last three years of data, the flux level above 150 GeV shows a clear variability (probability of constant flux < 0.001%). The flux variations are modest, lying in the range from 4% to 11% of the Crab Nebula flux. Simultaneous optical data also show only modest variability that seems to be correlated with VHE gamma-ray variability. We also performed a temporal analysis of (all available) simultaneous Fermi/Large Area Telescope data of PG 1553+113 above 1 GeV, which reveals hints of variability in the 2008-2009 sample. Finally, we present a combination of the mean spectrum measured at VHEs with archival data available for other wavelengths. The mean spectral energy distribution can be modeled with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model, which gives the main physical parameters governing the VHE emission in the blazar jet.

  1. Tsunami Forecast Progress Five Years After Indonesian Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V. V.; Bernard, E. N.; Weinstein, S.; Kanoglu, U.; Moore, C. W.; Synolakis, C.

    2009-12-01

    Almost five years after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tragedy, tsunami warnings are finally benefiting from decades of research toward effective model-based forecasts. Since the 2004 tsunami, two seminal advances have been (i) deep-ocean tsunami measurements with tsunameters and (ii) their use in accurately forecasting tsunamis after the tsunami has been generated. Using direct measurements of deep-ocean tsunami heights, assimilated into numerical models for specific locations, greatly improves the real-time forecast accuracy over earthquake-derived magnitude estimates of tsunami impact. Since 2003, this method has been used to forecast tsunamis at specific harbors for different events in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Recent tsunamis illustrated how this technology is being adopted in global tsunami warning operations. The U.S. forecasting system was used by both research and operations to evaluate the tsunami hazard. Tests demonstrated the effectiveness of operational tsunami forecasting using real-time deep-ocean data assimilated into forecast models. Several examples also showed potential of distributed forecast tools. With IOC and USAID funding, NOAA researchers at PMEL developed the Community Model Interface for Tsunami (ComMIT) tool and distributed it through extensive capacity-building sessions in the Indian Ocean. Over hundred scientists have been trained in tsunami inundation mapping, leading to the first generation of inundation models for many Indian Ocean shorelines. These same inundation models can also be used for real-time tsunami forecasts as was demonstrated during several events.

  2. Solar energy technology - A five-year update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, M. K.

    Major developments and trends in the field of solar energy in the past five years are reviewed. The tremendous growth in both the intensity and diversity of solar energy research and development projects is illustrated by the growth of government funding in the past decade. Attention is then given to the major directions and objectives of technology advances in the areas of solar and wind resource assessment, low temperature systems including the flat-plate solar collector and storage technology, medium-temperature systems with sunlight concentration for industrial applications, thermal electric and high-temperature systems including the 10 MW(e) pilot plant under construction in Barstow, California, wind energy, biomass production and conversion, photochemical and photovoltaic conversion, ocean thermal energy conversion, and satellite power systems. The rapid, however uneven, growth in the application of solar technology to water and space heating, utilization, and wind and photovoltaics in electricity generation is considered, and future prospects for solar technologies in light of commercial, political, social, and environmental concerns are discussed.

  3. [Declaration of Helsinki: its vicissitudes during the last five years].

    PubMed

    Klimovsky, Ezequiel; Saidon, Patricia; Nudelman, Luis; Bignone, Inés

    2002-01-01

    The Declaration of Helsinki is one of the major ethical guidelines for conducting clinical research. Along its existence it has been modified on diverse occasions, the latest one in October 2000. The objective of this article is to carry out a revision of the discussions that were taken up at this latest modification and the debates raised since its promulgation which still continue, fundamentally in relation to the use of placebo in pharmacological clinical investigation. This includes a revision of the most outstanding articles and of the opinions of the participants in the discussions that have been published in the last five years. The scientists' arguments in favor or against the use of placebo are pointed out. We consider that it is difficult to find simple answers to the questions raised by the use of placebo in clinical trials both in developed countries and in countries under development and that the Declaration of Helsinki continues to constitute a guide of ethical ideal which all those involved in clinical research should try to take into consideration.

  4. Civil propulsion technology for the next twenty-five years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Robert; Facey, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The next twenty-five years will see major advances in civil propulsion technology that will result in completely new aircraft systems for domestic, international, commuter and high-speed transports. These aircraft will include advanced aerodynamic, structural, and avionic technologies resulting in major new system capabilities and economic improvements. Propulsion technologies will include high-speed turboprops in the near term, very high bypass ratio turbofans, high efficiency small engines and advanced cycles utilizing high temperature materials for high-speed propulsion. Key fundamental enabling technologies include increased temperature capability and advanced design methods. Increased temperature capability will be based on improved composite materials such as metal matrix, intermetallics, ceramics, and carbon/carbon as well as advanced heat transfer techniques. Advanced design methods will make use of advances in internal computational fluid mechanics, reacting flow computation, computational structural mechanics and computational chemistry. The combination of advanced enabling technologies, new propulsion concepts and advanced control approaches will provide major improvements in civil aircraft.

  5. PG 1553+113: Five Years of Observations with MAGIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jogler, T.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Buson, S.; Horan, D.; Larsson, S.; D'Ammando, F.

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of five years (2005-2009) of MAGIC observations of the BL Lac object PG 1553+113 at very high energies (VHEs; E > 100 GeV). Power-law fits of the individual years are compatible with a steady mean photon index Γ = 4.27 ± 0.14. In the last three years of data, the flux level above 150 GeV shows a clear variability (probability of constant flux < 0.001%). The flux variations are modest, lying in the range from 4% to 11% of the Crab Nebula flux. Simultaneous optical data also show only modest variability that seems to be correlated with VHE gamma-ray variability. We also performed a temporal analysis of (all available) simultaneous Fermi/Large Area Telescope data of PG 1553+113 above 1 GeV, which reveals hints of variability in the 2008-2009 sample. Finally, we present a combination of the mean spectrum measured at VHEs with archival data available for other wavelengths. The mean spectral energy distribution can be modeled with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model, which gives the main physical parameters governing the VHE emission in the blazar jet.

  6. Five Year Retrospective Case Series of Adnexal Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Smitha; Nayar, Jayashree

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Adnexal torsion is a rare gynaecological emergency that requires an early surgical intervention to save the adnexa from irreversible damage .Our study is about clinical presentation and management approach of adnexal torsion in a tertiary care centre. Study Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Review of case records during the five years of 2008 November -2013 November in Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, India. Results: Adnexal torsion was found mainly in the reproductive age. Ultrasound was the most commonly used imaging modality. Benign tumours predispose to torsion. Torsion occurred during postovulatory period in many cases. Polycystic ovaries were a risk factor for unexplained torsion in younger age groups. Diagnosis of adnexal torsion was mostly intra operative by direct visualisation of the rotated adnexa. Laparoscopy was the preferred method of surgical intervention. Ovarian conservation was tried in majority of the child bearing age groups. Conclusion: Adnexal torsion is a rare emergency which requires a high index of clinical suspicion for diagnosis as the symptoms are non specific. Imaging helps in diagnosis but most of them are diagnosed intra operatively. Laparoscopic conservative surgery is the preferred surgical approach especially in younger age groups. An early surgical intervention helps in salvaging the adnexa and prevents further complications. PMID:25653994

  7. Civil propulsion technology for the next twenty-five years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Robert; Facey, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The next twenty-five years will see major advances in civil propulsion technology that will result in completely new aircraft systems for domestic, international, commuter and high-speed transports. These aircraft will include advanced aerodynamic, structural, and avionic technologies resulting in major new system capabilities and economic improvements. Propulsion technologies will include high-speed turboprops in the near term, very high bypass ratio turbofans, high efficiency small engines and advanced cycles utilizing high temperature materials for high-speed propulsion. Key fundamental enabling technologies include increased temperature capability and advanced design methods. Increased temperature capability will be based on improved composite materials such as metal matrix, intermetallics, ceramics, and carbon/carbon as well as advanced heat transfer techniques. Advanced design methods will make use of advances in internal computational fluid mechanics, reacting flow computation, computational structural mechanics and computational chemistry. The combination of advanced enabling technologies, new propulsion concepts and advanced control approaches will provide major improvements in civil aircraft.

  8. PG 1553+113: Five Years Of Observations With Magic

    DOE PAGES

    J., Aleksić

    2012-03-05

    We present the results of five years (2005-2009) of MAGIC observations of the BL Lac object PG 1553+113 at very high energies (VHEs; E > 100 GeV). Power-law fits of the individual years are compatible with a steady mean photon index Γ = 4.27 ± 0.14. In the last three years of data, the flux level above 150 GeV shows a clear variability (probability of constant flux < 0.001%). The flux variations are modest, lying in the range from 4% to 11% of the Crab Nebula flux. Simultaneous optical data also show only modest variability that seems to be correlatedmore » with VHE gamma-ray variability. We also performed a temporal analysis of (all available) simultaneous Fermi/Large Area Telescope data of PG 1553+113 above 1 GeV, which reveals hints of variability in the 2008-2009 sample. Finally, we present a combination of the mean spectrum measured at VHEs with archival data available for other wavelengths. The mean spectral energy distribution can be modeled with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model, which gives the main physical parameters governing the VHE emission in the blazar jet.« less

  9. PG 1553+113: Five Years Of Observations With Magic

    SciTech Connect

    J., Aleksić

    2012-03-05

    We present the results of five years (2005-2009) of MAGIC observations of the BL Lac object PG 1553+113 at very high energies (VHEs; E > 100 GeV). Power-law fits of the individual years are compatible with a steady mean photon index Γ = 4.27 ± 0.14. In the last three years of data, the flux level above 150 GeV shows a clear variability (probability of constant flux < 0.001%). The flux variations are modest, lying in the range from 4% to 11% of the Crab Nebula flux. Simultaneous optical data also show only modest variability that seems to be correlated with VHE gamma-ray variability. We also performed a temporal analysis of (all available) simultaneous Fermi/Large Area Telescope data of PG 1553+113 above 1 GeV, which reveals hints of variability in the 2008-2009 sample. Finally, we present a combination of the mean spectrum measured at VHEs with archival data available for other wavelengths. The mean spectral energy distribution can be modeled with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model, which gives the main physical parameters governing the VHE emission in the blazar jet.

  10. Yorkshire Regional Lymphoma Histopathology panel: analysis of five years' experience.

    PubMed

    Bird, C C; Lauder, I; Kellett, H S; Chorlton, I; Barnes, N; Darwin, C; Cartwright, R A; Boyko, R

    1984-08-01

    Five years' experience of operating a Regional Lymphoma Histopathology Panel is described. During this period, approximately 1400 cases were registered of which nearly 1200 were confirmed as malignant lymphoma. Complete concordance of diagnosis was achieved between submitting pathologists and the Panel in two-thirds of cases of Hodgkin's disease and just over half of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Most discrepancies in diagnosis were found to be of clinical importance in terms of prognosis and/or therapeutic management of patients. In approximately two-thirds of such instances disagreement arose because of wrong assignment of tumour grade within the main lymphoma class but in one-third of cases the main class of lymphoma was wrongly designated. Panel members experienced similar diagnostic problems as submitting pathologists although to a lesser extent. The existence of the panel has not reduced the proportion of cases causing diagnostic difficulty for submitting pathologists or panel members during the 5 year study period. The principal cause of death was ascertained from death certificates and autopsy findings in nearly half the cases dying during the study period. In approximately half of these infection (largely pulmonary) played a major role while most of the remainder died of various cardiovascular, pulmonary or renal disorders. There was no specific pattern relating to the main lymphoma class. It is concluded that whilst the panel fulfils a useful function in resolving diagnostic difficulties and standardizing lymphoma diagnosis its role is restricted somewhat by the limitations imposed by conventional morphological assessments.

  11. Barreira do Inferno: Five years of ozone research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Motta, A. G.; Azambuja, S. O.

    1983-12-01

    A five-year tropospheric ozone research project carried out from 1978 to 1983 under the aegis of the Institute of Space Research and the Launching Center at Barreira do Inferno is described. The principal means of obtaining data was by sondes launched twice a month from November 1978 until mid-1981. Measurements were made by ECC sondes and by Loki, Super-Loki, and Super-Arcas rockets equipped with optical and fluorescent sounding devices. The interest in ozone research is based on the ability of ozone to absorb ultraviolet radiation and thereby affect stratospheric temperature. Results revealed that average ozone concentration over the Brazilian state of Natal was 0.025 ppm (parts per million) with the maximum concentration occurring at 28 km altitude. It was also found that there was 30 percent higher ozone density over Natal than over regions of lower latitudes. In addition, 15 percent more ozone layer density was measured over Natal than over equatorial areas as determined by satellites. Total ozone measured by ECC sondes and by two Dobson spectrophotometers differed only by 4 percent. Higher concentrations of ozone are attributed to nitrogen concentrations, in contradiction with prevailing views. It is concluded that continued monitoring of ozone density is important for further theoretical investigation of the aeronomy of ozone.

  12. 75 FR 75453 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Five-Year Records Retention Requirement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Five-Year Records... activities for a period of five years. These records can include memoranda, correspondence, contracts... reports. The five-year record retention period corresponds with the five-year statute of limitations for...

  13. Gambling in the Iranian-American Community and an Assessment of Motives: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Siani, Aaron; Campos, Michael D.; Rosenthal, Richard J.; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly half a million United States residents identify themselves as being of Iranian origin, and many in this population are of high socioeconomic status. Although games of chance have been a notable part of Iranian culture for thousands of years, there is almost no research exploring gambling in this population. The objective of this case study is to explore gambling pathology, gambling behavior, and gambling motives among Iranian-Americans using a convenience sample (N=182) at a September 2010 Iranian festival in Southern California. Of this sample, 20% (n=37) and 7% (n=13) screened positive for problem and pathological gambling, respectively. According to the Gambling Motives Questionnaire, enhancement was the preferred motive for gambling (“because you like the feeling, because it’s exciting, to get a high feeling, because it’s fun, because it makes you feel good”). Pathological gamblers showed a considerable difference in subscale scores between enhancement and either coping or social motives, and problem gamblers showed a considerable difference between enhancement and coping motives. Possible explanations for the higher prevalence of gambling disorders in this sample are discussed. Our results support the notion that underlying cultural factors play a role in the development of gambling disorders. PMID:23814531

  14. Profiling Metacognition in Gambling Disorder.

    PubMed

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Giustina, Lucia; Rolandi, Silvia; Fernie, Bruce A; Caselli, Gabriele

    2015-09-01

    Preliminary research has indicated that general facets of metacognition are associated with problem gambling. In the present study we aimed to investigate whether specific facets of metacognition play a role in explaining gambling initiation and perseveration in individuals presenting with gambling disorder. To investigate: (1) the presence of metacognitive beliefs about gambling; (2) the goal of gambling, and its start and stop signals; and (3) the perceived impact of gambling on self-consciousness. Ten individuals with a diagnosis of gambling disorder were assessed using metacognitive profiling, a semi-structured interview. Findings indicated that all participants endorsed both positive and negative metacognitive beliefs about gambling. The primary goal of gambling was to relieve economic hardship and improve cognitive-emotional state. All participants reported that they did not know when this goal was achieved. Start signals for gambling included the ideas and feelings that gambling could solve problems and sensations that it might be the right time to win. The stop signal for gambling, for all participants, was running out of money. All participants also reported a perceived reduction in self-consciousness during a gambling episode. These findings provide preliminary evidence that specific facets of metacognition play a role in gambling disorder.

  15. Characteristics of Treatment Seeking Finnish Pathological Gamblers: Baseline Data from a Treatment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical…

  16. Characteristics of Treatment Seeking Finnish Pathological Gamblers: Baseline Data from a Treatment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical…

  17. Gambling and gambling-related problems in France.

    PubMed

    Valleur, Marc

    2015-12-01

    To provide an overview of the gambling landscape and gambling-related problems in France, including the history, legislation, gambling policy and epidemiological data on excessive gambling. A literature review, using Medline, PsycInfo and Toxibase/OFDT databases, based on the systematic monitoring of scientific literature since 2008 (including French and international papers). Since 1776 and the creation of the royal lottery, state monopoly has been the main pillar of gambling policy in France. Increases in gambling venues and opportunities, growing evidence of gambling-related problems, pressures from the European Commission and the growth of on-line gambling have led to major changes in this policy: while land-based gambling remains mainly in the form of a state monopoly, on-line gambling was partially liberalized in 2010, and regulation authorities were established. The first epidemiological survey was conducted in 2010. Rates of problematic gambling in France are within the average of other European countries. Treatment has begun to be made available within addiction centres. A majority of on-line gamblers in France use legal websites, which was one of the initial goals of liberalization. Recent studies confirm that the prevalence of problem gambling in France is far higher among on-line gamblers than among land-based gamblers; however, this difference cannot be attributed only to greater addictiveness of on-line gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Elf Atochem sets five-year emission targets

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1993-04-21

    As part of its first annual environmental report, released this month, Elf Atochem (Paris) has set targets for emission reductions at its sites for the next five years. Under the program, the company aims to slash the level of contaminants in discharge water by 30%; cut by half emissions of 17 [open quotes]priority[close quotes] substances-including ammonia, chlorofluorocarbons, vinyl chloride monomer, methyl methacrylate, aromatics, chlorinated solvent, ethylbenzene, and styrene-for which 1992 emissions totaled 15,996 m.t.; reduce nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions by 25%; and increase the proportions of toxic waste treated in installations on the company's own sites, from 90% of 1992's 383,00 m.t., to 95%. Implementation of its environmental policy cost the company about F2 billion ($375 million), or 3.5%-4% of sales, in 1992. The policy focuses on safer and more efficient technologies, toxic emissions and waste, improving energy efficiency, and cooperation with customers and public authorities on the introduction of more environmentally friendly products. Atochem says it has led to a fourfold reduction in accidents at work between 1984 and 1992. Over the same period, water contamination at the company's French sites has been cut by 67%, measured against the French chemical industry association's [open quotes]water index[close quotes]. Some sites did even better than the average, with the Carling steam cracker complex in eastern France registering a drop in water contamination of more than 90% following a F150-million joint project with local French and German water authorities.

  19. Prejudice and the medical profession: a five-year update.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decades the mortality rate in the United States has decreased, and life expectancy has increased. Yet a number of recent studies have drawn Americans' attention to the fact that racial and ethnic disparities persist in health care. It is clear that the U.S. health care system, which is the envy of the world, is not only flawed by basic injustices, but may be the cause of both injury and death for members of racial and ethnic minorities. Progress has been made in several areas since the original Institute of Medicine 2002 report. However, five years later, the 2007 National Healthcare Disparities Report (NHDR) reported that overall, disparities in quality and access for minority groups and poor populations have not been reduced since the original report. The three key themes that have emerged from this report are the following: (1) overall, disparities in health care quality and access are not getting smaller; (2) progress is being made, but many of the biggest gaps in quality and access have not been reduced; and (3) the problem of persistent uninsurance is a major barrier to reducing disparities. Unless measures are taken to address this racism, unless a new sense of trust is established between the medical establishment and racial and ethnic minorities, these injustices will continue to deepen and expand, and more lives will be placed in jeopardy. What is needed is a comprehensive, multi-level, culturally relevant strategy that contains interventions that target individuals, communities, and the nation as a whole. This will entail understanding the causes of racism in the medical profession, identifying practical interventions that address racism in individuals, communities, and the nation as a whole, and forming partnerships that will work to develop a new sense of trust between the medical establishment and the minority communities.

  20. FIVE-YEAR OUTCOMES WITH ALEMTUZUMAB INDUCTION AFTER LUNG TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Susan; Dew, Mary Amanda; Pilewski, Joseph M.; DeVito Dabbs, Annette J.; Zaldonis, Diana B.; Studer, Sean M.; Crespo, Maria M.; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Bermudez, Christian A.; McCurry, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Induction therapy with alemtuzumab, followed by lower than conventional intensity posttransplant immunosuppression (e.g., tacrolimus monotherapy), has been associated with reduced morbidity and mortality in abdominal and heart transplantation. We examined 5-year outcomes in lung recipients receiving alemtuzumab in conjunction with reduced intensity posttransplant immunosuppression (early lower dose tacrolimus; lower dose steroids, with or without mycophenolate mofetil), compared to lung recipients receiving other induction agents or no induction in association with posttransplant immunosuppression. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed utilizing prospectively collected data from a single-site clinical database on 336 lung recipients (aged≥18) transplanted between 1998 and 2005, classified by induction type: alemtuzumab (n=127), Thymoglobulin (n=43), daclizumab (n=73), none (n=93). Survival analyses examined patient and graft survival, and freedom from acute cellular rejection (ACR), lymphocytic bronchiolitis, obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Results Five-year patient and graft survival differed by group (p=.046, p=.038, respectively). Alemtuzumab patient/graft survival rates were 59%/59%. Survival rates were 60%/44% for Thymoglobulin, 47%/46% for no-induction, and 44%/41% for daclizumab. Freedom from ACR, lymphocytic bronchiolitis, OB, and BOS differed by group (all p’s<.008); alemtuzumab recipients showed greater 5-year freedom from each outcome (30%/82%/86%/54%) than Thymoglobulin (20%/54%/62%/27%), daclizumab (19%/55%/70%/43%) and no-induction groups (18%/68%/69%/46%). The groups did not differ in PTLD rates (p=.864, ≥94% free of PTLD at 5 years). Effects were unchanged after controlling for potential covariates. Conclusions Alemtuzumab induction may be associated with improved outcomes in lung transplantation. Randomized controlled trials

  1. Open water scuba diving accidents at Leicester: five years' experience.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, A J; White, S A; Conboy, P J; Bodiwala, G; Quinton, D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, type, outcome, and possible risk factors of diving accidents in each year of a five year period presenting from one dive centre to a large teaching hospital accident and emergency (A&E) department. METHODS: All patients included in this study presented to the A&E department at a local teaching hospital in close proximity to the largest inland diving centre in the UK. Our main outcome measures were: presenting symptoms, administration of recompression treatment, mortality, and postmortem examination report where applicable. RESULTS: Overall, 25 patients experienced a serious open water diving accident at the centre between 1992 and 1996 inclusive. The percentage of survivors (n = 18) with symptoms of decompression sickness receiving recompression treatment was 52%. All surviving patients received medical treatment for at least 24 hours before discharge. The median depth of diving accidents was 24 metres (m) (range 7-36 m). During the study period, 1992-96, the number of accidents increased from one to 10 and the incidence of diving accidents increased from four per 100,000 to 15.4 per 100,000. Over the same time period the number of deaths increased threefold. CONCLUSIONS: The aetiology of the increase in the incidence of accidents is multifactorial. Important risk factors were thought to be: rapid ascent (in 48% of patients), cold water, poor visibility, the number of dives per diver, and the experience of the diver. It is concluded that there needs to be an increased awareness of the management of diving injuries in an A&E department in close proximity to an inland diving centre. PMID:10353047

  2. A Five-Year Review of Tag Rugby Hand Injuries.

    PubMed

    Joyce, C W; Woods, J F C; Murphy, S; Bollard, S; Kelly, J L; Carroll, S M; O'Shaughnessy, M

    2016-10-01

    Tag rugby is one of the fastest growing sports in Ireland. It is a soft-contact team game that is loosely based on the rugby league format except players try to remove Velcro tags from their opponents' shorts rather than engage in a typical rugby tackle. The purpose of this study was to examine all tag rugby associated hand injuries over a five-year period in three large tertiary referral hospitals in Ireland. Using the patient corresponding system, 228 patients with hand injury related tag rugby injuries were observed from 2010 to 2015. There were 138 males and 90 females in the study and over 40% of patients required surgery. Most of the patients were young professionals with an average age of 30. Twenty-five patients worked in the financial services whilst there were 23 teachers. Fractures accounted for 124 of the 228 injuries and mallet injuries accounted for 53. Eighty percent of all injuries occurred during the tackle. The mean number of days missed from work was 9.1±13.8 days. These injuries resulted in an average of seven hospital appointments per patient. Considering it is a soft-contact sport, it is surprising the number of hand injuries that we have observed. Although safety measures have been introduced to decrease the number of hand injuries in recent years, there is a need for further improvements. Better player education about seeking prompt medical attention once an injury occurs, coupled with longer shorts worn by players may improve measures for the sport. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Five Years of Stereo Magnetospheric Imaging by TWINS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J.; McComas, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) is the first stereoscopic magnetospheric imager. TWINS is a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity performing simultaneous energetic neutral atom (ENA) imaging from two widely-separated Molniya orbits on two different spacecraft, and providing nearly continuous coverage of magnetospheric ENA emissions. The ENA imagers observe energetic neutrals produced from global ion populations, over a broad energy range (1-100 keV/u) with high angular (4∘×4∘) and time (about 1-minute) resolution. TWINS distinguishes hydrogen ENAs from oxygen ENAs. Each TWINS spacecraft also carries a Lyman- α geocoronal imager to monitor the cold exospheric hydrogen atoms that produce ENAs from ions via charge exchange. Complementing the imagers are detectors that measure the local charged particle environment around the spacecraft. During its first five years of science operations, TWINS has discovered new global properties of geospace plasmas and neutrals, fostered understanding of causal relationships, confirmed theories and predictions based on in situ data, and yielded key insights needed to improve geospace models. Analysis and modeling of TWINS data have: (1) obtained continuous (main phase through recovery) global ion spectra, (2) revealed a previously unknown local-time dependence of global pitch angle, (3) developed quantitative determination of ion fluxes from low altitude ENAs (4) determined dynamic connections between local pitch angle and global ion precipitation, (5) confirmed local-time dependence of precipitating ion temperature, (6) imaged global dynamic heating of the magnetosphere, (7) explained why the oxygen ring current survives longer into recovery than hydrogen, and (8) revealed new global exospheric density features and their influence upon ring current decay rates. Over the next several years of the solar cycle, TWINS observations of three-dimensional (3D) global ion dynamics, composition, origins and

  4. Tsunami Forecast Progress Five Years After Indonesian Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Vasily V.; Bernard, Eddie N.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas E.

    2010-05-01

    Almost five years after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tragedy, tsunami warnings are finally benefiting from decades of research toward effective model-based forecasts. Since the 2004 tsunami, two seminal advances have been (i) deep-ocean tsunami measurements with tsunameters and (ii) their use in accurately forecasting tsunamis after the tsunami has been generated. Using direct measurements of deep-ocean tsunami heights, assimilated into numerical models for specific locations, greatly improves the real-time forecast accuracy over earthquake-derived magnitude estimates of tsunami impact. Since 2003, this method has been used to forecast tsunamis at specific harbors for different events in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Recent tsunamis illustrated how this technology is being adopted in global tsunami warning operations. The U.S. forecasting system was used by both research and operations to evaluate the tsunami hazard. Tests demonstrated the effectiveness of operational tsunami forecasting using real-time deep-ocean data assimilated into forecast models. Several examples also showed potential of distributed forecast tools. With IOC and USAID funding, NOAA researchers at PMEL developed the Community Model Interface for Tsunami (ComMIT) tool and distributed it through extensive capacity-building sessions in the Indian Ocean. Over hundred scientists have been trained in tsunami inundation mapping, leading to the first generation of inundation models for many Indian Ocean shorelines. These same inundation models can also be used for real-time tsunami forecasts as was demonstrated during several events. Contact Information Vasily V. Titov, Seattle, Washington, USA, 98115

  5. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    PubMed

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H2, CH4, and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  6. FRAXA and FRAXE: the results of a five year survey

    PubMed Central

    Youings, S.; Murray, A.; Dennis, N.; Ennis, S.; Lewis, C.; McKechnie, N.; Pound, M.; Sharrock, A.; Jacobs, P.

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of a five year survey of FRAXA and FRAXE mutations among boys aged 5 to 18 with special educational needs (SEN) related to learning disability. We tested their mothers using the X chromosome not transmitted to the son as a control chromosome, and the X chromosome inherited by the son to provide information on stability of transmission. We tested 3738 boys and 2968 mothers and found 20 FRAXA and one FRAXE full mutations among the boys and none among the mothers. This gives an estimated prevalence of full mutations in males of 1 in 5530 for FRAXA and 1 in 23 423 for FRAXE.
We found an excess of intermediate and premutation alleles for both FRAXA and FRAXE. For FRAXA this was significant at the 0.001 level but the excess for FRAXE was significant only at the 0.03 level. We conclude that the excess of intermediate and premutation sized alleles for FRAXA may well be a contributing factor to the boys' mental impairment, while that for FRAXE may be a chance finding.
We studied approximately 3000 transmissions from mother to son and found five instabilities of FRAXA in the common or intermediate range and three instabilities of FRAXE in the intermediate range. Thus instabilities in trinucleotide repeat size for FRAXA and FRAXE are rare, especially among alleles in the common size range.


Keywords: FRAX syndromes; incidence; intermediate alleles; stability PMID:10851251

  7. Collaboration on DIII-D Five Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S

    2003-04-01

    This document summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) plan for fusion research on the DIII-D Tokamak, located at General Atomics (GA) in San Diego, California, in the time period FY04-FY08. This document is a companion document to the DIII-D Five-Year Program Plan; which hereafter will be referred to as the ''D3DPP''. The LLNL Collaboration on DIII-D is a task-driven program in which we bring to bear the full range of expertise needed to complete specific goals of plasma science research on the DIII-D facility. This document specifies our plasma performance and physics understanding goals and gives detailed plans to achieve those goals in terms of experimental leadership, code development and analysis, and diagnostic development. Our program is designed to be consistent with the long-term mission of the DIII-D program as documented in the D3DPP. The overall DIII-D Program mission is ''to establish the scientific basis for the optimization of the tokamak approach to fusion energy production''. LLNL Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) supports this mission, and we contribute to two areas of the DIII-D program: divertor physics and advanced tokamak (AT) physics. We lead or contribute to the whole cycle of research: experimental planning, diagnostic development, execution of experiments, and detailed analysis. We plan to continue this style in the next five years. DIII-D has identified three major research themes: AT physics, confinement physics, and mass transport. The LLNL program is part of the AT theme: measurement of the plasma current profile, and the mass transport theme: measurement and modeling of plasma flow. In the AT area, we have focused on the measurement and modeling of the current profile in Advanced Tokamak plasmas. The current profile, and it's effect on MHD stability of the high-{beta} ''AT'' plasma are at the heart of the DIII-D program. LLNL has played a key role in the development of the Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic. Starting

  8. Females' coping styles and control over poker machine gambling.

    PubMed

    Scannell, E D; Quirk, M M; Smith, K; Maddern, R; Dickerson, M

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of the relationship between impaired control over gambling, coping strategies, and demographic variables was conducted by surveying female poker machine players (N = 163) in their gaming venues. Metropolitan (n = 14) and regional (n = 6) gaming venues in Victoria, Australia participated. Control over gambling was measured using the Impaired Control Over Gambling Scale (Baron & Dickerson, 1994). Coping strategies were measured using (Folkman et al., 1986) adaptation of the Revised Ways of Coping Checklist (Vitaliano et al., 1985). MANOVA supported the hypothesis that the lower the control over gambling the greater the reliance on emotion-focused coping (blamed self, wishful thinking, avoidance) with F = 9.92, 13.35, 14.04 respectively, all significant at p <.001. MANOVA failed to supported the hypothesis that problem-focused strategies (problem focus, seek social support) would be significantly related to control over gambling with F =.82 and.21 respectively. Control over gambling was not related to age, employment, relationship status, education, or distress from significant life events, further supporting the relationship between control and coping strategies. Ways in which coping styles might be related to pathological gambling are discussed.

  9. Latent class analysis of gambling subtypes and impulsive/compulsive associations: Time to rethink diagnostic boundaries for gambling disorder?

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Stochl, Jan; Redden, Sarah A; Odlaug, Brian L; Grant, Jon E

    2017-09-01

    Gambling disorder has been associated with cognitive dysfunction and impaired quality of life. The current definition of non-pathological, problem, and pathological types of gambling is based on total symptom scores, which may overlook nuanced underlying presentations of gambling symptoms. The aims of the current study were (i) to identify subtypes of gambling in young adults, using latent class analysis, based on individual responses from the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder (SCI-GD); and (ii) to explore relationships between these gambling subtypes, and clinical/cognitive measures. Total 582 non-treatment seeking young adults were recruited from two US cities, on the basis of gambling five or more times per year. Participants undertook clinical and neurocognitive assessment, including stop-signal, decision-making, and set-shifting tasks. Data from individual items of the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder (SCI-GD) were entered into latent class analysis. Optimal number of classes representing gambling subtypes was identified using Bayesian Information Criterion and differences between them were explored using multivariate analysis of variance. Three subtypes of gambling were identified, termed recreational gamblers (60.2% of the sample; reference group), problem gamblers (29.2%), and pathological gamblers (10.5%). Common quality of life impairment, elevated Barratt Impulsivity scores, occurrence of mainstream mental disorders, having a first degree relative with an addiction, and impaired decision-making were evident in both problem and pathological gambling groups. The diagnostic item 'chasing losses' most discriminated recreational from problem gamblers, while endorsement of 'social, financial, or occupational losses due to gambling' most discriminated pathological gambling from both other groups. Significantly higher rates of impulse control disorders occurred in the pathological group, versus the problem group, who in turn

  10. Problem gambling and comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders among drug users recruited from drug treatment and community settings.

    PubMed

    Cunningham-Williams, R M; Cottler, L B; Compton, W M; Spitznagel, E L; Ben-Abdallah, A

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about gambling rates of drug users recruited from drug treatment compared with those recruited from the community. We use the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) to provide lifetime prevalence estimates of problem gambling (i.e., at least one gambling problem) and DSM-III-R pathological gambling (i.e., at least four gambling problems) and describe the association between gambling and psychiatric disorders for drug users recruited from drug treatment settings (n = 512) and from the community (n = 478). We also report the relative risk of being a recreational and problem gambler in this sample. The sample was first interviewed in 1989-90 as a part of two NIDA-funded St. Louis-based studies. The prevalence of problem gambling in the overall sample was 22% and the prevalence of pathological gambling was 11%. There were no statistically significant differences in problem and pathological gambling rates for subjects recruited from drug treatment and those recruited from the community. The conditional prevalence rates, that is, the rate of problem and pathological gambling only among gamblers were 27% and 13.5%, respectively. Major findings indicate that problem gambling was associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), even after controlling for recruitment source and socio-demographic characteristics. In fact, when examining the temporal order of these disorders, we found that pathological gambling was always secondary to ASPD, occurring on average 11.4 years after the onset of ASPD. Problem gamblers, compared with everyone else, were more likely to be male, African-American, recruited from drug treatment, have ASPD and be dependent on illicit drugs. Multinomial logistic regression analysis predicted the relative risk of being a recreational and problem gambler (compared with a nongambler) in this sample according to socio-demographics, ASPD, and dependence on illicit drugs. Results imply that screening for gambling problems will need to be

  11. Individual, family, and peer correlates of adolescent gambling.

    PubMed

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R; Rohling, Martin L

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the individual, family, and peer factors that correlate with adolescent gambling. High school students from three states ( N = 1,846) completed an anonymous questionnaire assessing the behavior of themselves, their parents, and their peers. Participants also reported on their gambling behavior via the SOGS-RA, which was used to create five adolescent gambling groups (i.e., Non-Gamblers, Non-Problem Gamblers, At-Risk Gamblers, Problem Gamblers, and Probable Pathological Gamblers). In a discriminant function analysis using demographic, individual, family, and peer factors as potential discriminators, two functions emerged that accounted for 94% of the variance between groups. The first function was linear, with the Probable Pathological Gamblers reporting the highest level of peer and parent gambling, susceptibility to peer pressure, conduct problems, binge drinking, suicide attempts, drug use, and being male. The second function highlighted three unique qualities of individuals in the two outlying groups: Probable Pathological Gamblers and Non-Gamblers. These findings suggest that demographic, individual, family, and peer variables are all important correlates of probable pathological gambling in adolescents. Results also support the utility of a five-group classification scheme based on the SOGS-RA. The clinical implications of these results are discussed.

  12. [Aripiprazole, gambling disorder and compulsive sexuality].

    PubMed

    Mété, D; Dafreville, C; Paitel, V; Wind, P

    2016-06-01

    activity in the mesolimbic pathways and occur more frequently in young subjects, males with previous gambling habits and tobacco use. A few cases of aripiprazole-induced pathological gambling as well as aripiprazole-induced hypersexuality have been reported. To our knowledge, we are the first to report a case of gambling disorder associated with hypersexuality and change of sexuality orientation. Aripiprazole is the only antipsychotic with agonist properties for the D2 dopamine receptor. It may also act as an enhancer in the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways. Aripiprazole also has 5-HT1A partial agonist and 5-HT2A antagonist properties that may promote sexual activity. Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic associated with reduced side effects compared to other antipsychotics. We report the case of a patient who experienced gambling disorder, hypersexuality and a new sexual orientation under treatment. These side effects are little known. They are usually difficult for patients to mention due to feelings of guilt. The consequences on social life, family and health may be serious. Clinicians and patients should be aware about the possible issue of these behavior disorders with aripiprazole. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Implications of American Indian Gambling for Social Work Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momper, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1988 passage of the Indian Gaming and Regulatory Act (IGRA), American Indian tribal communities have rapidly opened up casinos. American Indian participation in recreational gambling has increased, resulting in an increase in problem and pathological gambling. However, increased revenues from gaming have significantly benefited tribes.…

  14. Implications of American Indian Gambling for Social Work Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momper, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1988 passage of the Indian Gaming and Regulatory Act (IGRA), American Indian tribal communities have rapidly opened up casinos. American Indian participation in recreational gambling has increased, resulting in an increase in problem and pathological gambling. However, increased revenues from gaming have significantly benefited tribes.…

  15. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, William H.

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual basis. At the same

  16. ADS on WWW: Doubling Yearly for Five Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, M. J.; Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Murray, S. S.

    1998-12-01

    It is now five years since the NASA ADS Abstract Service became available on the World Wide Web, in late winter of 1994. Following the explosive growth of the service (when compared with the old propriatory network access system) in the early months of WWW service, ADS growth has settled to doubling yearly. Currently ADS users make 440,000 queries per month, and receive 8,000,000 bibliographic references and 70,000 full-text articles, as well as abstracts, citation histories, links to data, and links to other data centers. Of the 70,000 full-text articles accessed through ADS each month, already 30% are via pointers to the electronic journals. This number is certain to increase. It is difficult to determine the exact number of ADS users. We track usage by the number of unique ``cookies'' which access ADS, and by the number of unique IP addresses. There are difficulties with each technique. In addition many non-astronomers find ADS through portal sites like Yahoo, which skews the statistics. 10,000 unique cookies access the full-text articles each month, 17,000 make queries, and 30,000 visit the site. 91% of full-text users have cookies, but only 65% of site visitors. From another perspective the number of IP addresses from a single typical research site (STScI) which access the full-text data is within 5% of the number of unique cookies assiociated with full-text use from stsci.edu, and also within 5% of the number of AAS members listing an STScI address. The number of unique IP addresses from STScI which make any sort of query to ADS is 40% higher than this. Those who access the full-text average one article per day, those who make queries average two per day. We believe nearly all active astronomy researchers, as well as students and affiliated professionals use ADS on a regular basis.

  17. CRAB NEBULA: FIVE-YEAR OBSERVATION WITH ARGO-YBJ

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Bernardini, P.; D'Amone, A.; De Mitri, I.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Sciascio, G.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2015-01-10

    The ARGO-YBJ air shower detector monitored the Crab Nebula gamma-ray emission from 2007 November to 2013 February. The integrated signal, consisting of ∼3.3 × 10{sup 5} events, reached the statistical significance of 21.1 standard deviations. The obtained energy spectrum in the energy range 0.3-20 TeV can be described by a power law function dN/dE = I {sub 0} (E/2 TeV){sup –α}, with a flux normalization I {sub 0} = (5.2 ± 0.2) × 10{sup –12} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} TeV{sup –1} and α = 2.63 ± 0.05, corresponding to an integrated flux above 1 TeV of 1.97 × 10{sup –11} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. The systematic error is estimated to be less than 30% for the flux normalization and 0.06 for the spectral index. Assuming a power law spectrum with an exponential cutoff dN/dE = I {sub 0} (E/2 TeV){sup –α} exp (–E/E {sub cut}), the lower limit of the cutoff energy E {sub cut} is 12 TeV, at 90% confidence level. Our extended data set allows the study of the TeV emission over long timescales. Over five years, the light curve of the Crab Nebula in 200-day bins is compatible with a steady emission with a probability of 7.3 × 10{sup –2}. A correlated analysis with Fermi-LAT data over ∼4.5 yr using the light curves of the two experiments gives a Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.56 ± 0.22. Concerning flux variations on timescales of days, a ''blind'' search for flares with a duration of 1-15 days gives no excess with a significance higher than four standard deviations. The average rate measured by ARGO-YBJ during the three most powerful flares detected by Fermi-LAT is 205 ± 91 photons day{sup –1}, consistent with the average value of 137 ± 10 day{sup –1}.

  18. Crab Nebula: Five-year Observation with ARGO-YBJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Camarri, P.; Cao, Z.; Cardarelli, R.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liguori, G.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Panareo, M.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Ruggieri, F.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zizzi, G.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; Striani, E.

    2015-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ air shower detector monitored the Crab Nebula gamma-ray emission from 2007 November to 2013 February. The integrated signal, consisting of ~3.3 × 105 events, reached the statistical significance of 21.1 standard deviations. The obtained energy spectrum in the energy range 0.3-20 TeV can be described by a power law function dN/dE = I 0 (E/2 TeV)-α, with a flux normalization I 0 = (5.2 ± 0.2) × 10-12 photons cm-2 s-1 TeV-1 and α = 2.63 ± 0.05, corresponding to an integrated flux above 1 TeV of 1.97 × 10-11 photons cm-2 s-1. The systematic error is estimated to be less than 30% for the flux normalization and 0.06 for the spectral index. Assuming a power law spectrum with an exponential cutoff dN/dE = I 0 (E/2 TeV)-α exp (-E/E cut), the lower limit of the cutoff energy E cut is 12 TeV, at 90% confidence level. Our extended data set allows the study of the TeV emission over long timescales. Over five years, the light curve of the Crab Nebula in 200-day bins is compatible with a steady emission with a probability of 7.3 × 10-2. A correlated analysis with Fermi-LAT data over ~4.5 yr using the light curves of the two experiments gives a Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.56 ± 0.22. Concerning flux variations on timescales of days, a "blind" search for flares with a duration of 1-15 days gives no excess with a significance higher than four standard deviations. The average rate measured by ARGO-YBJ during the three most powerful flares detected by Fermi-LAT is 205 ± 91 photons day-1, consistent with the average value of 137 ± 10 day-1.

  19. A comparison of suicidal behavior by burns five years before and five years after the 2011 Tunisian Revolution.

    PubMed

    Ben Khelil, Mehdi; Zgarni, Amine; Ben Mohamed, Mounir; Allouche, Mohamed; Benzarti, Anis; Banasr, Ahmed; Hamdoun, Moncef

    2017-06-01

    In Tunisia, the phenomenon of self-immolation has increased dramatically since the self-burn of Mohamed Bouazizi which occurred on 17 December 2010. The aim of our study was to compare the casualties' profile of suicide by self-immolation before and after the Tunisian Revolution over a period of 10 years (2006-2015). We conducted a retrospective review including all the cases of self-immolation suicides that occurred in Northern Tunisia five years before and five years after the January 2011 Revolution. We excluded cases of self-immolations committed in governorates other than the north of Tunisia as well as casualties of accidental or criminal burns and those where the context could evoke suicidal immolation but the self-inflicted nature has not been confirmed. The study sample was subdivided in two groups according to the Revolution date: before the Revolution (2006-2010) and after the Revolution (2011-2015). We compared for each group data related to the age, gender, marital status, employment, mental disease history, previous suicide attempts and threats, place of suicide and its motive, the type of fire accelerator, the hospitalization and the average body surface area burned. The number (n=48/24.5% before 2011) of suicide by self-immolation has tripled during the post-revolution period (2011-2015) with a stable trend. The average age (35.6±13.4) has not changed. The male remained predominant before and after the Revolution (sex ratio of respectively 1.67 and 3.23). Marital status (victims being single in n=81 cases/41.3%) and the employment (unemployed in n=128/65.3%) of the casualties have not changed either after 2011. Fewer cases with psychiatric history were reported (n=21/43.7% before against n=52/35.1% after). Self-immolation increased in public places (n=9/18.7% before against n=50/33.8% after) and in an administration (n=2/4.2% before against n=19/12.8% after). More suicides after 2011 were due to financial problems (n=2/4.2% before against n=30

  20. Gambling and correlates of gambling among Minnesota public school students.

    PubMed

    Stinchfield, R

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of gambling and measures the relationships between gambling behavior and a number of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral variables among Minnesota public school students. The sample includes 78,582 male and female Minnesota public school students enrolled in the 9th and 12th grades. Students were administered the 1998 Minnesota Student Survey, a 121-item, anonymous, self-administered, paper-and-pencil questionnaire that inquires about multiple health-related content domains, including gambling behavior. The majority of students were found to have gambled at least once during the past year, however, most students did not report gambling frequently, nor did they report problems associated with their gambling. Boys reported gambling more often than girls, and older students gambled more often than younger students. A larger percentage of Mexican/Latin American, African American, American Indian, and mixed race students gambled at weekly and daily rates than Asian American and Caucasian students. Variables associated with gambling frequency included antisocial behavior, gender (being a male), alcohol and tobacco use, age, feeling bad about the amount of money they bet, a desire to stop gambling, and increased sexual activity. Gambling appears to be related to other risk-taking behaviors and may be a part of the adolescent experimentation with adult behaviors.

  1. SOGS-RA gambling scores and substance use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Buja, Alessandra; Lion, Camilla; Scioni, Manuela; Vian, Paolo; Genetti, Bruno; Vittadello, Fabio; Sperotto, Milena; Simeoni, Elisabetta; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims There is a well-established association between pathological gambling and substance use disorders in adolescents. The aim of this study was to shed light on the association between adolescents' different levels of involvement in gambling activities and substance use (smoking tobacco and cannabis and drinking alcoholic beverages), based on a large sample. Methods A survey was conducted in 2013 on 34,746 students attending 619 secondary schools, who formed a representative sample of the Italian 15- to 19-year-old population. The prevalence of different categories of gamblers was estimated by age group and gender. A multiple correspondence analysis (CA) was conducted to explain the multivariate associations between substance use and gambling. Results The prevalence of problem gambling was 2.7% among the 15- to 17-year-olds, and rose to 3.6% among the 18- and 19-year-olds. Multiple CA revealed that, even when it does not reach risk-related or problem levels, gambling is associated with the use of alcohol and tobacco. In particular, the analysis showed that non-problem gambling levels were associated with alcohol and tobacco use at least once in the previous month, and that higher-risk gambling levels related to the use of cannabis and episodes of drunkenness at least once in the previous month. Conclusion This study found that any gambling behavior, even below risk-related or problem levels, was associated with some degree of substance use by youths, and that adolescents' levels of gambling lay along a continuum of the categories of substance use.

  2. Video Lottery is the Most Harmful Form of Gambling in Canada.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, Vance Victor

    2016-06-01

    This paper summarizes the degree to which different forms of legal gambling contribute to Problem and Pathological Gambling (PPG) in Canada. Legal gambling activities were compared using meta-analysis of publicly available data concerning Canada's legal gambling industry. The majority of revenues in the decade spanning 2002-2012 were drawn from Video Lottery Terminals and casino slot machines. Population surveys indicated that three quarters of Canadians reported some form of past-year gambling participation, but most did not play Electronic Gambling Machines. Annual revenues divided by estimated numbers of participants in various gambling activities showed that Video Lottery players spent more money on average than did participants in other forms of gambling. The relative risk of PPG was higher among Video Lottery players than it was for other common forms of gambling. Results from a community study of frequent Video Lottery players showed that the risk of frequent players reporting symptoms of PPG was elevated if they reported playing weekly, spending $50 or more per session, or playing for more than an hour per session. These studies provide converging evidence that Video Lottery is more hazardous to consumers than other forms of gambling that are commonly practised in Canada.

  3. Five years of Ulysses dust data: 2000 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, H.; Altobelli, N.; Anweiler, B.; Dermott, S. F.; Dikarev, V.; Graps, A. L.; Grün, E.; Gustafson, B. A.; Hamilton, D. P.; Hanner, M. S.; Horányi, M.; Kissel, J.; Landgraf, M.; Lindblad, B. A.; Linkert, D.; Linkert, G.; Mann, I.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Polanskey, C.; Schwehm, G.; Srama, R.; Zook, H. A.

    2006-08-01

    The Ulysses spacecraft has been orbiting the Sun on a highly inclined ellipse ( i=79∘, perihelion distance 1.3 AU, aphelion distance 5.4 AU) since it encountered Jupiter in 1992. Between January 2000 and December 2004, the spacecraft completed almost an entire revolution about the Sun, passing through perihelion in May 2001 and aphelion in July 2004. In this five-year period the dust detector on board recorded 4415 dust impacts. We publish and analyse the complete data set of both raw and reduced data for particles with masses 10-16g⩽m⩽10-7g. Together with 1695 dust impacts recorded between launch of Ulysses and the end of 1999 published earlier (Grün, E., Baguhl, M., Divine, N., Fechtig, H., Hamilton, D.P, Hanner, M.S., Kissel, J., Lindblad, B.A., Linkert, D., Linkert, G., Mann, I., McDonnell, J.A.M., Morfill, G.E., Polanskey, C., Riemann, R., Schwehm, G.H., Siddique, N., Staubach, P., Zook, H.A., 1995a. Two years of Ulysses dust data. Planetary Space Sci. 43, 971-999, Paper III; Krüger, H., Grün, E., Landgraf, M., Baguhl, M., Dermott, S.F., Fechtig, H., Gustafson, B.A., Hamilton, D.P., Hanner, M.S., Horányi, M., Kissel, J., Lindblad, B., Linkert, D., Linkert, G., Mann, I., McDonnell, J.A.M., Morfill, G.E., Polanskey, C., Schwehm, G.H., Srama, R., Zook, H.A., 1995. Three years of Ulysses dust data: 1993 to 1995. Planetary and Space Sci. 47, 363-383, Paper V; Krüger, H., Grün, E., Landgraf, M., Dermott, S.F., Fechtig, H., Gustafson, B.A., Hamilton, D.P., Hanner, M.S., Horányi, M., Kissel, J., Lindblad, B., Linkert, D., Linkert, G., Mann, I., McDonnell, J.A.M., Morfill, G.E., Polanskey, C., Schwehm, G.H., Srama, R., Zook, H.A., 2001b. Four years of Ulysses dust data: 1996 to 1999. Planetary Space Sci. 49, 1303-1324, Paper VII), a data set of 6110 dust impacts detected with the Ulysses sensor between October 1990 and December 2004 is now available. The impact rate measured between 2000 and 2002 was relatively constant with about 0.3 impacts per day

  4. Gambling in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Szczyrba, Zdeněk; Mravčík, Viktor; Fiedor, David; Černý, Jakub; Smolová, Irena

    2015-07-01

    To provide an overview of gambling and associated problems in the Czech Republic, including an overview of the historical context, legislation, prevalence, treatment and research base and agenda. A review of literature and relevant sources. The trajectory of gambling patterns in the territory of the Czech Republic in the 20th century reflected broad socio-political changes. Those included significant expansion between the wars, strict state control and bans on some gambling activities during the communist regime and finally dynamic development characterized by a boom in electronic gaming machines (EGMs) and increasing accessibility of gambling facilities after 1989, which aggravated gambling-related problems. Many municipalities have banned EGMs, which has created conflict in regulation at state and municipal levels. The draft gambling law prepared in 2014 aims to clarify the regulatory framework. Before 2012 there was only sporadic research interest in gambling, but in 2012 the first complex research on gaming and problem gambling in the Czech population took place. The estimated prevalence of problem gambling is currently 2% in the population aged 15-64 years. Preventive measures, counselling and treatment services for problem gamblers are limited. Weak and ineffective regulation of the gambling market in the Czech Republic during the past 20 years, despite the large growth in gambling, has led to inadequate prevention and response to problem gambling which has become a considerable public health, social and political issue. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Gambling behavior and problem gambling reflecting social transition and traumatic childhood events among Greenland Inuit: a cross-sectional study in a large indigenous population undergoing rapid change.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-12-01

    An increase in social pathologies is a key feature in indigenous populations undergoing transition. The Greenland Inuit are a large indigenous population constituting a majority in their own country, which makes it possible to investigate differences within the population. This led us to study gambling behavior and problem gambling among Greenland Inuit in relation to the ongoing social transition and traumatic events during childhood. A large representative cross-sectional study was conducted among Greenland Inuit (n = 2,189). Data was collected among adults (18+) in 9 towns and 13 villages in Greenland from 2005 to 2010. Problem gambling, gambling behavior and traumatic childhood events were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. The lie/bet screen was used to identify past year and lifetime problem gambling. Social transition was measured as place of residence and a combination of residence, education and occupation. The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 16 % among men and 10 % among women (p < 0.0001); and higher in towns (19 %) compared to the capital of Nuuk (11 %) and in villages (12 %) (men only, p = 0.020). Lifetime problem gambling was associated with social transition (p = 0.023), alcohol problems in childhood home (p = 0.001/p = 0.002) and sexual abuse in childhood (women only, p = 0.030). A comparably high prevalence of lifetime problem gambling among Greenland Inuit adds problem gambling to the list of social pathologies in Greenland. A significant association between lifetime problem gambling, social transition and traumatic childhood events suggests people caught between tradition and modern ways of life are more vulnerable to gambling problems.

  6. Five years of the Normal Oceanic Mantle (NOMan) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utada, Hisashi; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Shiobara, Hajime; Baba, Kiyoshi; Isse, Takehi; Suetsugu, Daisuke; NOMan Project Team

    2016-04-01

    The Normal Oceanic Mantle (NOMan) project was carried out for 5 years from 2010, aiming to solve two fundamental questions on the 'normal' oceanic mantle from observational approach, which are: (a) Cause of asthenosphere lubrication, and (b) Amount of water in the mantle transition zone. We selected two study areas (A and B) of similar seafloor age (about 130 and 140 Ma, respectively) in the northwestern Pacific Ocean where the mantle below is supposed to be normal. This presentation will give an overview of five years of the NOMan project, especially of its observational activities and a summary of preliminary results so far obtained. In June 2010, we deployed a small array consisting of 5 (both seismic and EM) sites and started data acquisition from area A, which we call the NOMan pilot experiment. The main observation by long-term seafloor arrays in areas A and B was started by two installation cruises carried out in November 2011 and in August 2012, deploying state-of-the-art ocean bottom seismic and electromagnetic instruments (BBOBS-NXs and EFOSs) in area A that are handled by ROV for installation and recovery. Conventional instruments (BBOBS and OBEM of free-fall/self-pop-up type) were also deployed both in areas A and B. Most of instruments of the pilot experiment were recovered by the cruise in August 2012. So-called advanced instruments (BBOBS-NXs and EFOSs) were equipped with batteries sufficient for 2 years of deployment, but conventional instruments (BBOBSs and OBEMs) only for one year or so. Therefore, we conducted a cruise by W/V Kaiyu in August 2013 to maintain the observation array by retrieving and re-deploying respective instruments. In June 2014, we conducted another W/V Kaiyu cruise, in which we recovered most of conventional instruments in area A after conducting a controlled source seismic experiment by using explosive sources. In September 2014, we completed a recovery cruise by R/V Kairei with ROV Kaiko-7000II. By these two cruises

  7. A Gamblers Clustering Based on Their Favorite Gambling Activity.

    PubMed

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Renard, Noëlle; Legauffre, Cindy; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify profiles of gamblers to explain the choice of preferred gambling activity among both problem and non-problem gamblers. 628 non-problem and problem gamblers were assessed with a structured interview including "healthy" (sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits and personality profile assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125) and "pathological" [diagnosis of pathological gambling, gambling-related cognitions (GRCs) and psychiatric comorbidity] variables. We performed a two-step cluster analysis based solely on "healthy" variables to identify gamblers' profiles which typically reflect the choice of preferred gambling activity. The obtained classes were then described using both "healthy" and "pathological" variables, by comparing each class to the rest of the sample. Clusters were generated. Class 1 (Electronic Gaming Machines gamblers) showed high cooperativeness, a lower level of GRC about strategy and more depressive disorders. Class 2 (games with deferred results gamblers) were high novelty seekers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more addictive disorders. Class 3 (roulette gamblers) were more often high rollers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more manic or hypomanic episodes and more obsessive-compulsive disorders. Class 4 (instant lottery gamblers) showed a lower tendency to suicide attempts. Class 5 (scratch cards gamblers) were high harm avoiders and showed a lower overall level of GRC and more panic attacks and eating disorders. The preference for one particular gambling activity may concern different profiles of gamblers. This study highlights the importance of considering the pair gambler-game rather than one or the other separately, and may provide support for future research on gambling and preventive actions directed toward a particular game.

  8. Gambling and the Health of the Public: Adopting a Public Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    Korn, David A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    1999-01-01

    During the last decade there has been an unprecedented expansion of legalized gambling throughout North America. Three primary forces appear to be motivating this growth: (1) the desire of governments to identify new sources of revenue without invoking new or higher taxes; (2) tourism entrepreneurs developing new destinations for entertainment and leisure; and (3) the rise of new technologies and forms of gambling (e.g., video lottery terminals, powerball mega-lotteries, and computer offshore gambling). Associated with this phenomenon, there has been an increase in the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling among the general adult population, as well as a sustained high level of gambling-related problems among youth. To date there has been little dialogue within the public health sector in particular, or among health care practitioners in general, about the potential health impact of gambling or gambling-related problems. This article encourages the adoption of a public health perspective towards gambling. More specifically, this discussion has four primary objectives:1. Create awareness among health professionals about gambling, its rapid expansion and its relationship with the health care system;2. Place gambling within a public health framework by examining it from several perspectives, including population health, human ecology and addictive behaviors;3. Outline the major public health issues about how gambling can affect individuals, families and communities;4. Propose an agenda for strengthening policy, prevention and treatment practices through greater public health involvement, using the framework of The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion as a guide.By understanding gambling and its potential impacts on the public's health, policy makers and health practitioners can minimize gambling's negative impacts and appreciate its potential benefits.

  9. Relationships Between Problem-Gambling Severity and Psychopathology as Moderated by Income

    PubMed Central

    Sanacora, Rachel L.; Whiting, Seth W.; Pilver, Corey E.; Hoff, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Problem and pathological gambling have been associated with elevated rates of both Axis-I and Axis-II psychiatric disorders. Although both problem gambling and psychiatric disorders have been reported as being more prevalent among lower income vs. middle/higher income groups, how income might moderate the relationship between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology is incompletely understood. To examine the associations between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology in lower income and middle/higher income groups. Methods Data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (n = 43,093) were analyzed in adjusted logistic regression models to investigate the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders within and across income groups. Results Greater problem-gambling severity was associated with increased odds of multiple psychiatric disorders for both lower income and middle/higher income groups. Income moderated the association between problem/pathological gambling and alcohol abuse/dependence, with a stronger association seen among middle/higher income respondents than among lower income respondents. Discussion and conclusions The findings that problem-gambling severity is related to psychopathology across income groups suggest a need for public health initiatives across social strata to reduce the impact that problem/pathological gambling may have in relation to psychopathology. Middle/higher income populations, perhaps owing to the availability of more “disposable income,” may be at greater risk for co-occurring gambling and alcohol-use psychopathology and may benefit preferentially from interventions targeting both gambling and alcohol use. PMID:27440475

  10. Pellissippi State Technical Community College Five-Year Strategic Planning Directions, 1998-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellissippi State Technical Community Coll., Knoxville, TN.

    The document contains the strategic plan for Pellissippi State Technical Community College (Tennessee). The previous five-year strategic plan, "The Pathfinder Project," was prepared in 1994 but was out of date before the end of the five-year planning cycle. To secure information for projecting new five-year strategic directions and goals…

  11. 77 FR 19643 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating a five-year review (``Sunset Review'') of the antidumping duty orders listed below. The... Institution of Five-Year Review which covers the same orders. DATES: Effective Date: April 1, 2012. FOR...

  12. 77 FR 28355 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review; Correction AGENCY: Import... identified the antidumping duty order for which a five-year review (``Sunset Review'') was being initiated.\\1\\ This notice is a correction. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 25683 (May 1...

  13. 78 FR 60253 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Enforcement and... Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is automatically initiating five-year reviews (``Sunset Reviews... forth in its Procedures for Conducting Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews of Antidumping and Countervailing...

  14. 76 FR 24459 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating a five-year review (``Sunset Review'') of the antidumping duty orders listed below. The... Institution of Five-Year Review which covers the same orders. DATES: Effective Date: May 2, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  15. 77 FR 53867 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating five-year reviews (``Sunset Reviews'') of the antidumping duty orders listed below. The... Institution of Five-Year Review which covers the same orders. DATES: Effective Date: September 1, 2012. FOR...

  16. 75 FR 9160 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating a five-year review (``Sunset Review'') of the antidumping duty orders listed below. The... Institution of Five-Year Review which covers the same orders. DATES: Effective Date: March 1, 2010 FOR FURTHER...

  17. 75 FR 103 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... No: E9-31177] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year...''), the Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is automatically initiating a five-year review... Commission'') is publishing concurrently with this notice its notice of Institution of Five-Year Review which...

  18. 77 FR 15123 - Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States... its notice of institution (76 FR 74810, December 1, 2011) of the subject five-year review was adequate... information. Any person that is neither a party to the five-year review nor an interested party may submit a...

  19. 77 FR 32527 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating a five-year review (``Sunset Review'') of the antidumping duty order listed below. The... Institution of Five-Year Review which covers the same orders. DATES: Effective Date: June 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER...

  20. 78 FR 46575 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating five-year reviews (``Sunset Reviews'') of the antidumping and countervailing duty (``AD... ] concurrently with this notice its notice of Institution of Five-Year Review which covers the same orders. DATES...

  1. 77 FR 71683 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... December 3, 2012 Part II Department of Commerce International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year...#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset... of Commerce (``the Department'') is automatically initiating five-year reviews (``Sunset Reviews...

  2. 76 FR 45778 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating a five-year review (``Sunset Review'') of the antidumping and countervailing duty... with this notice its notice of Institution of Five-Year Review which covers the same orders. DATES...

  3. 75 FR 23240 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating a five-year review (``Sunset Review'') of the antidumping and countervailing duty... with this notice its notice of Institution of Five-Year Review which covers the same orders. DATES...

  4. 78 FR 19647 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating five-year reviews (``Sunset Reviews'') of the antidumping duty orders listed below. The... Institution of Five-Year Review which covers the same orders. DATES: Effective Date: April 1, 2013. FOR...

  5. 78 FR 65614 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Enforcement and... Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is automatically initiating five-year reviews (``Sunset Reviews... forth in its Procedures for Conducting Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews of Antidumping and Countervailing...

  6. 76 FR 18163 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... Department'') is automatically initiating a five-year review (``Sunset Review'') of the antidumping and... concurrently with this notice its notice of Institution of Five-Year Review which covers the same orders. DATES...

  7. 76 FR 78694 - Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... COMMISSION Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review AGENCY: United States... five-year review was adequate and that the respondent interested party group response was inadequate... contain new factual information. Any person that is neither a party to the five-year review nor an...

  8. 77 FR 12562 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating a five-year review (``Sunset Review'') of the antidumping duty order listed below. The... Institution of Five-Year Review which covers the same orders. DATES: Effective Date: March 1, 2012. FOR...

  9. 77 FR 59897 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating five-year reviews (``Sunset Reviews'') of the antidumping duty orders listed below. The... Institution of Five-Year Review which covers the same orders. DATES: Effective Date: October 1, 2012. FOR...

  10. 76 FR 47149 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review: Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review: Correction AGENCY: Import... five-year reviews (``Sunset Reviews'') of certain antidumping and countervailing duty orders (``Initiation Notice'') for publication in the Federal Register. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review...

  11. 76 FR 31588 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating a five-year review (``Sunset Review'') of the antidumping duty orders listed below. The... Institution of Five-Year Review which covers the same orders. DATES: Effective Date: June 1, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  12. 75 FR 5042 - Initiation of Five-year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating a five-year review (``Sunset Review'') of the antidumping duty order listed below. The... Institution of Five-year Review which covers the same order. EFFECTIVE DATE: February 1, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  13. 77 FR 25683 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating a five-year review (``Sunset Review'') of the antidumping duty order listed below. The... Institution of Five-Year Review which covers the same orders. DATES: Effective Date: March 1, 2012. FOR...

  14. 75 FR 16437 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating a five-year review (``Sunset Review'') of the antidumping and countervailing duty... with this notice its notice of Institution of Five-Year Review which covers the same orders. DATES...

  15. 76 FR 5563 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating a five-year review (``Sunset Review'') of the antidumping duty order listed below. The... Institution of Five-Year Review which covers the same order. DATES: Effective Date: February 1, 2011. FOR...

  16. 78 FR 26616 - Draft NOAA Five Year Research and Development Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... NOAA Five Year Research and Development Plan AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Draft NOAA Five Year Research and Development Plan for Public Review. SUMMARY: NOAA's draft Five Year Research and Development Plan is available for...

  17. Gambling participation and policies in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Loo, Jasmine M Y; Phua, Kai Lit

    Regulatory policies for responsible gambling practices in Asia are constantly evolving as the gambling industry and technological landscape change over time. Malaysia makes an interesting case study for a commentary on gambling participation and policies, as this country has a unique dual justice system with religious and ethnic diversity that may impact on the way in which gambling activities are regulated. This regulatory ecosystem has important consequences on behaviour change, treatment approaches and recovery processes involved in gambling disorder. This commentary will discuss evidence for Malaysian gambling antecedents, public policy and socioeconomic impacts of gambling, possible costs and benefits of gambling legalization, and issues pertinent to regulating gambling activities in Malaysia.

  18. Gambling on the stock market: an unexplored issue.

    PubMed

    Granero, Roser; Tárrega, Salomé; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Moragas, Laura; Custal, Núria; Orekhova, Lisa; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2012-08-01

    Stock market investment (SMI) is one of the most socially acceptable types of gambling, which, however, can turn into a gambling problem. Because it is barely examined, we compared a series of clinical, psychopathologic, and personality variables in SMI gambling patients (both as primary and secondary problem) with a group of traditional pathologic gamblers (PGs). A total sample of 1470 PGs (1376 patients without SMIs [PG-SMI], 76 patients with SMI as a secondary gambling problem [PG+SMI], and 18 patients with SMI as a primary gambling problem [SMI+PG]) participated in this study. All participants were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria. The following instruments were used: the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom Check List-90 Items-Revised, the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised, and other clinical and psychopathologic indices. The 3 patient groups' profiles were statistically similar in psychometrical measures. The risk of having SMI increased for patients with higher education, and the presence of SMI as a primary problem in PGs increased with university study level and higher scores on the personality trait of cooperativeness. The results of this study indicate comparability of SMI gamblers with PGs in their general clinical profile and in psychopathology and personality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gambling harms and gambling help-seeking amongst indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems.

  20. Gambling in the Landscape of Adversity in Youth: Reflections from Men Who Live with Poverty and Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Guilcher, Sara J. T.; Schuler, Andrée; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Hwang, Stephen W.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research on gambling behaviour among youth has been quantitative and focused on measuring prevalence. As a result, little is known about the contextual experiences of youth gambling, particularly among those most vulnerable. In this paper, we explore the previous experiences of youth gambling in a sample of adult men experiencing housing instability and problem gambling. We present findings from a qualitative study on problem gambling and housing instability conducted in Toronto, Canada. Thirty men with histories of problem or pathological gambling and housing instability or homelessness were interviewed. Two thirds of these men reported that they began gambling in youth. Five representative cases were selected and the main themes discussed. We found that gambling began in early life while the men, as youth, were also experiencing adversity (e.g., physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse, neglect, housing instability, homelessness, substance addiction and poverty). Men reported they had access to gambling activity through their family and wider networks of school, community and the streets. Gambling provided a way to gain acceptance, escape from emotional pain, and/or earn money. For these men problematic gambling behaviour that began in youth, continued into adulthood. PMID:27589784

  1. The Prevalence of Problem Gambling Among U.S. Adolescents and Young Adults: Results from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Grace M.; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O.; Hoffman, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    A random telephone survey was conducted with a representative sample of 2,274 U.S. residents aged 14–21. The prevalence of problem gambling, as measured by the SOGS-RA, was 2.1%. Sixty-eight percent (68%) of the respondents had gambled in the past year, and 11% had gambled more often than twice per week. Males had much higher gambling involvement than females, and gambling involvement increased among older respondents. Blacks were less likely than average to have gambled in the past year, but if they gambled, they were more likely to do so frequently. Low SES respondents were less likely to have gambled in the past year, but if they gambled, they were more likely to be problem gamblers. Life transitions that are associated with assuming adult roles (employment, living independently of parents, non-student status) are also associated with greater gambling involvement. The rates of problem and pathological gambling were lower than those in an adult survey conducted earlier, when measured with the same questionnaire. PMID:18097737

  2. Contextual Control of Delay Discounting by Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Jacobs, Eric A.; Sanders, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The present study demonstrated the relative impact of gambling and nongambling contexts on the degree of delay discounting by pathological gamblers. We used a delay-discounting task with 20 pathological gamblers in and out of the natural context in which they regularly gambled. For 16 of the 20 participants, it appeared that the difference of…

  3. Young poker faces: compliance with the legal age limit on multiple gambling products in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gosselt, Jordy F; Neefs, Astrid K; van Hoof, Joris J; Wagteveld, Kim

    2013-12-01

    Gambling is an activity that can be performed on-premise (slot machines in casinos, bars and restaurants) or off-premise (scratch cards and lottery tickets). Although the addictive potential may depend on the specific gambling product, early onset increases the likelihood for future pathological gambling. To delay the onset of gambling behavior and to reduce gambling-related problems, many countries have introduced age limits that should decrease the availability of gambling products to underage individuals. In this study we evaluated compliance to the legal age limit, making use of a mystery shopping method. We distinguished between (1) off-premise scratch cards (n = 51); (2) off-premise lottery tickets (n = 49); (3) on-premise slot machines in casinos (n = 88); and (4) on-premise slot machines in the catering industry (n = 100), and we focus on the factors, such as characteristics of the establishment, buyer, and vendor, that may account for possible differences. The 288 visits demonstrate that gambling products are highly available and accessible to under-aged customers; young customers are still able to gamble despite the legal regulations. The compliance rates fluctuate and appear to be related to the specific gambling product in question. Furthermore, age verification activities and certain outlet- and buyer characteristics, as well as characteristics associated with the purchase attempt, may influence compliance.

  4. Loss of Control as a Discriminating Factor Between Different Latent Classes of Disordered Gambling Severity.

    PubMed

    James, Richard J E; O'Malley, Claire; Tunney, Richard J

    2016-12-01

    Analyses of disordered gambling assessment data have indicated that commonly used screens appear to measure latent categories. This stands in contrast to the oft-held assumption that problem gambling is at the extreme of a continuum. To explore this further, we report a series of latent class analyses of a number of prevalent problem gambling assessments (PGSI, SOGS, DSM-IV Pathological Gambling based assessments) in nationally representative British surveys between 1999 and 2012, analysing data from nearly fifty thousand individuals. The analyses converged on a three class model in which the classes differed by problem gambling severity. This identified an initial class of gamblers showing minimal problems, a additional class predominantly endorsing indicators of preoccupation and loss chasing, and a third endorsing a range of disordered gambling criteria. However, there was considerable evidence to suggest that classes of intermediate and high severity disordered gamblers differed systematically in their responses to items related to loss of control, and not simply on the most 'difficult' items. It appeared that these differences were similar between assessments. An important exception to this was one set of DSM-IV criteria based analyses using a specific cutoff, which was also used in an analysis that identified an increase in UK problem gambling prevalence between 2007 and 2010. The results suggest that disordered gambling has a mixed latent structure, and that present assessments of problem gambling appear to converge on a broadly similar construct.

  5. Gambling in Spain: update on experience, research and policy.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Menchón, Jose Manuel

    2014-10-01

    To describe the current situation of gambling in Spain, sketching its history and discussing the regulations and legislation currently in force within the framework of the European Union (EU), and to review the epidemiology of gambling in Spain, the self-help groups and professional treatments available, and their potential effectiveness. A systematic computerized search was performed in three databases (EMBASE, PubMed and PsychINFO, including articles and chapters) and the reference lists from previous reviews to obtain some of the most relevant studies published up to now on the topic of pathologic gambling in Spain. Similar to other EU countries, Spain has a high prevalence of pathologic gambling, focused on specific culturally bounded types of gambling. Expenditure in online gaming has risen significantly in the last few years, prompting the Spanish government to draft new legislation to regulate gaming. The gaming industry is expected to be one of the fastest growing sectors in Spain in the coming years owing to the rise of new technologies and the development of online gaming. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. The "big win" and resistance to extinction when gambling.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Sauter, John M; King, Brent M

    2004-11-01

    One hypothesis for the reason a person might become a pathological gambler is that the individual initially experiences a big win, which creates a fallacious expectation of winning, which may then lead to persistent gambling despite suffering large losses. Although this hypothesis has been around for several decades, only one controlled empirical study has addressed it, and that study reported null results. In the present experiment, the authors tested the "big win" hypothesis by having 4 groups of participants with little to no experience gambling play a computer-simulated slot machine for credits that were exchangeable for cash. One group experienced a large win on the very 1st play. Another experienced a large win on the 5th play. A 3rd group experienced 2 small wins on the 2nd and 5th plays. No other winning outcomes were programmed. The 4th group never experienced a win. The authors observed a significant effect of group. Participants who experienced a large win on the 1st play quit playing the simulation earlier than participants who experienced a large win on the 5th play. These results appear to question the "big win" as an explanation for pathological gambling. They are more consistent with a behavioral theory of gambling behavior. The present study should also promote the use of laboratory-based research to test long-standing hypotheses in the gambling literature.

  7. Gambling Harm and Crime Careers.

    PubMed

    May-Chahal, Corinne; Humphreys, Leslie; Clifton, Alison; Francis, Brian; Reith, Gerda

    2017-03-01

    Incarcerated populations across the world have been found to be consistently and significantly more vulnerable to problem gambling than general populations in the same countries. In an effort to gain a more specific understanding of this vulnerability the present study applied latent class analysis and criminal career theory to gambling data collected from a sample of English and Scottish, male and female prisoners (N = 1057). Theoretical links between gambling and crime were tested through three hypotheses: (1) that prisoners in the UK would have higher rates of problem gambling behaviour than the national population; (2) that if the link between gambling and crime is coincidental, gambling behaviour would be highly prevalent in an offending population, and (3) if connections between gambling behaviour and offending are co-symptomatic a mediating factor would show a strong association. The first of these was supported, the second was not supported and the third was partially supported. Latent class analysis found six gambling behaviour clusters measured by responses to the Problem Gambling Severity Index, primarily distinguished by loss chasing behaviour. Longitudinal offending data drawn from the Police National Computer database found four criminal career types, distinguished by frequency and persistence over time. A significant association was found between higher level loss chasing and high rate offending in criminal careers suggesting that impulse control may be a mediating factor for both gambling harm and criminal careers.

  8. An exploratory examination of marijuana use, problem-gambling severity, and health correlates among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    HAMMOND, CHRISTOPHER J.; PILVER, COREY E.; RUGLE, LOREEN; STEINBERG, MARVIN A.; MAYES, LINDA C.; MALISON, ROBERT T.; KRISHNAN-SARIN, SUCHITRA; HOFF, RANI A.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Gambling is common in adolescents and at-risk and problem/pathological gambling (ARPG) is associated with adverse measures of health and functioning in this population. Although ARPG commonly co-occurs with marijuana use, little is known how marijuana use influences the relationship between problem-gambling severity and health- and gambling-related measures. Methods: Survey data from 2,252 Connecticut high school students were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results: ARPG was found more frequently in adolescents with lifetime marijuana use than in adolescents denying marijuana use. Marijuana use was associated with more severe and a higher frequency of gambling-related behaviors and different motivations for gambling. Multiple health/functioning impairments were differentially associated with problem-gambling severity amongst adolescents with and without marijuana use. Significant marijuana-use-by-problem-gambling-severity-group interactions were observed for low-average grades (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = [0.20, 0.77]), cigarette smoking (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = [0.17, 0.83]), current alcohol use (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.91]), and gambling with friends (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = [0.28, 0.77]). In all cases, weaker associations between problem-gambling severity and health/functioning correlates were observed in the marijuana-use group as compared to the marijuana-non-use group. Conclusions: Some academic, substance use, and social factors related to problem-gambling severity may be partially accounted for by a relationship with marijuana use. Identifying specific factors that underlie the relationships between specific attitudes and behaviors with gambling problems and marijuana use may help improve intervention strategies. PMID:25215219

  9. Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological…

  10. Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological…

  11. Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Patient With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Five-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Moretto, G; Pupo, Y M; Bueno, A L N; Araujo, F O

    2016-01-01

    Tooth wear is a multifactorial process that is a growing concern in dentistry. This phenomenon can be caused by mechanical (attrition, abrasion, or abfraction) or chemical (erosion) processes. Etiologic factors in dental erosion can be due to changes in behavior, an unbalanced diet, or gastrointestinal disorders such as acid regurgitation, which may influence the salivary flow rate and buffering capacity of saliva. This case report describes an esthetic rehabilitation of a patient with gastroesophageal reflux and dental erosion, with a treatment rationale that includes the use of a diagnostic template and five-year follow-up. This technique, presented here in a clinical case with moderate enamel loss, integrates an additive wax-up and a direct intraoral bis-acryl resin mock-up. Lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) laminate veneers were fabricated with the heatpress technique. They were veneered with a layering ceramic (IPS e.max Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent) to improve the appearance of the incisal edge. The case demonstrated the success of veneers as an effective, conservative, and esthetic treatment for patients with this pathology.

  12. Bi-annual surge of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF): a five-year experience.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Azeem S; Sheikh, Aqleem A; Sheikh, Nadeem S; Rafi-U-Shan; Asif, Mohammad; Afridi, Farhan; Malik, M Tarik

    2005-01-01

    To determine the peak time of outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and to highlight the disease-specific areas in the Balochistan province of Pakistan. A hospital-based case-series study. A five-year study was conducted by the Department of Pathology in collaboration with the Department of Medicine, Sandeman Provincial Teaching Hospital, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan, from 1 March 1997 to 28 February 2002. A total of 135 cases were included in the study based on a high index of suspicion of CCHF. The mean age was 33.5+/-18.7 years. Two sets of blood samples were drawn on admission; one set was sent for urgent routine investigations while the other was sent to CDC, Atlanta, USA, for confirmation. The study showed that CCHF was more common between March and May and again, between August and October, depicting a bi-annual surge. Out of 135 suspected cases, 83 (61.4%) were confirmed to have CCHF and were given platelet concentrate and ribavirin. It ws observed that CCHF was more common in specific areas of the province. It is essential to raise the level of knowledge regarding CCHF, especially in disease-specific areas, focussing on the peak outbreak periods.

  13. The Temporal “Pulse” of Drinking: Tracking Five Years of Binge Drinking in Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Richard R.; Cummings, Jenna R.; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Moltisanti, Allison J.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Binge drinking is associated with clinically significant individual-level and public health consequences. The topography of binge drinking may influence the emergence of consequences but studies of topography require a higher level of temporal resolution than is typically available in epidemiological research. To address topography across the five “peak” years of binge drinking (18 to 23 years), we assessed daily binge drinking via successive 90-day Timeline Follow back interviews of 645 young adults (resulting in almost 700,000 data points). Results showed a weekend “pulse” of binge drinking that remained consistent across the entire five year span, with occasional holiday-based perturbations. Two-part latent growth curve (LGC) modeling applied to this dataset showed that the often-observed decrease in drinking associated with “maturing out” was due more to decreased participation in binge drinking occasions, rather than to amounts consumed when drinking (intensity). Similarly, the number of binge drinkers varied by day of the week, but the intensity of binge drinking, for those drinking, varied little by day of the week. This approach also showed distinctive predictors for participation and intensity; baseline expectancies and sociability accounted for individual differences in participation, whereas impulsivity-sensation seeking predicted intensity. Individual patterns of binge drinking participation and intensity also predicted drinking consequences over the 5 years of the study. Given these results, binge drinking patterns may serve as a useful phenotype for future research on pathological drinking. PMID:25961813

  14. Gender Differences in Treatment-Seeking British Pathological Gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Lutri, Vittorio; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Gambling is a widespread recreational activity in the UK. A significant percentage of gamblers develop subclinical or clinically relevant problem gambling issues, but only a low percentage of them seek treatment. Although characteristics of pathological gamblers from treatment-seeking population have been examined in some research, only a few studies have explored the differences between females and males. This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, and clinical variables in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Methods A total of 1,178 treatment-seeking individuals with gambling disorder were assessed at the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables, and gambling behavior habits were obtained during the assessment evaluation. Of the total sample, 92.5% were males and 7.5% were females. Results Males were more likely to be younger, white, and employed than females. In addition, compared to women, men showed a lower PGSI score, an earlier age of onset of gambling behavior, a higher gambling involvement, and preferred specific forms gambling. Female gamblers were more anxious and depressed, while men were more likely to use alcohol and illicit drugs. Conclusions Our findings support the importance of gender differences in a treatment-seeking population of pathological gamblers both in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling behavior variables, and clinical variables. Males and females might benefit from group-specific treatment. PMID:27348561

  15. Singapore's multibillion dollar gamble

    PubMed Central

    Van Epps, Heather L.

    2006-01-01

    Figure 1Biopolis, Singapore's futuristic research hub.How does a country one-fourth the size of Rhode Island with little history in biomedical science become one of the world's biomedical research giants? The answer: with a pile of money and a large dose of chutzpah. Since 2000, Singapore has dumped more than US$2 billion into developing a biomedical research industry—from scratch. Is the gamble paying off? PMID:16704968

  16. Evaluating gambles using dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, O.; Gell-Mann, M.

    2016-02-01

    Gambles are random variables that model possible changes in wealth. Classic decision theory transforms money into utility through a utility function and defines the value of a gamble as the expectation value of utility changes. Utility functions aim to capture individual psychological characteristics, but their generality limits predictive power. Expectation value maximizers are defined as rational in economics, but expectation values are only meaningful in the presence of ensembles or in systems with ergodic properties, whereas decision-makers have no access to ensembles, and the variables representing wealth in the usual growth models do not have the relevant ergodic properties. Simultaneously addressing the shortcomings of utility and those of expectations, we propose to evaluate gambles by averaging wealth growth over time. No utility function is needed, but a dynamic must be specified to compute time averages. Linear and logarithmic "utility functions" appear as transformations that generate ergodic observables for purely additive and purely multiplicative dynamics, respectively. We highlight inconsistencies throughout the development of decision theory, whose correction clarifies that our perspective is legitimate. These invalidate a commonly cited argument for bounded utility functions.

  17. Impulse control disorders and attention deficit disorder in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Specker, S M; Carlson, G A; Christenson, G A; Marcotte, M

    1995-12-01

    Little systematic research has been done on psychiatric comorbidity of pathological gambling, an impulse control disorder. This report describes the occurrence of attention deficit disorder and impulse control disorders in 40 pathological gamblers in treatment for gambling problems and 64 controls. Diagnoses were made by structured interviews which utilized operationalized diagnostic criteria. An impulse control disorder other than pathological gambling was noted in 35% of the pathological gamblers, compared to 3% of the controls (p < .001). Compulsive buying (p < .001) and compulsive sexual behavior (p < .05) were significantly higher in pathological gamblers than controls. A strong association was seen among pathological gambling, attention deficit, and other impulse control disorders. Attention deficit disorder was seen in 20% of the pathological gamblers. Rates of impulse control disorders did not differ by gender. Implications of these high rates of comorbidity are discussed.

  18. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gambling Outcome Expectancies and Gambling Behavior Among African-American Adolescents: Gender as a Moderating Variable.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Jessica L; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W; Wickwire, Emerson M

    2016-03-01

    Most high school adolescents have reported past year gambling, and males gamble more frequently and problematically than females. Ethnic minority adolescents appear to be gambling at a higher rate than Caucasian adolescents. There is evidence indicating that adolescent gambling outcome expectancies are correlated with gambling behavior, but limited evidence that this relation differs by gender. In the present study gender was evaluated as a moderator in the relation between gambling outcome expectancies and gambling behaviors in an African-American high school sample. Males gambled more frequently, gambled more problematically and held more positive gambling outcome expectancies than females. Gender was found to moderate the relations between gambling frequency and the expectations of material gain, affect, self-evaluation and parental approval. Gender also moderated the relations between gambling problems and expectations of affect and self-evaluation. These findings should inform future adolescent gambling prevention and intervention programs.

  20. 76 FR 28809 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium; Termination of Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium; Termination of Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States... review concerning the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate from Belgium (75 FR 30777 and 75... its full five-year review of the countervailing duty order concerning stainless steel plate...

  1. Object and Action Picture Naming in Three- and Five-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Jackie; Druks, Judit; Gallienne, Donna

    2008-01-01

    The objectives were to explore the often reported noun advantage in children's language acquisition using a picture naming paradigm and to explore the variables that affect picture naming performance. Participants in Experiment 1 were aged three and five years, and in Experiment 2, five years. The stimuli were action and object pictures. In…

  2. 78 FR 33064 - Silicon Metal From Russia; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Silicon Metal From Russia; Institution of a Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States International... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on silicon metal from Russia would be likely to lead to... order on imports of silicon metal from Russia (68 FR 14578). Following the five-year reviews by...

  3. 78 FR 31576 - Sodium Hexametaphosphate From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Hexametaphosphate From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States International Trade... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on sodium hexametaphosphate from China would be... institution (78 FR 7452, February 1, 2013) of the subject five-year review was adequate and that the...

  4. 75 FR 39494 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... Jennifer Moats (202) 492-5047 Candles (3rd Review). A-401-808\\1\\ 731-TA-1087 Sweden Carboxymethylcellulo... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import Administration... automatically initiating a five-year review (``Sunset Review'') of the antidumping duty orders listed below....

  5. A Prospective Investigation of Affect, the Desire to Gamble, Gambling Motivations and Gambling Behavior in the Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Quilty, Lena C; Watson, Chris; Toneatto, Tony; Bagby, R Michael

    2017-03-01

    Time-sampling methodology was implemented to examine the prospective associations between affect, desire to gamble, and gambling behavior in individuals diagnosed with a mood disorder. Thirty (9 male, 21 female) adults with a lifetime diagnosis of a depressive or bipolar disorder diagnosis who endorsed current gambling and lifetime gambling harm participated in the present study. Participants completed electronic diary entries of their current affective state, desire to gamble, and gambling behavior for 30 consecutive days. Hierarchical linear modelling revealed that affect was not a predictor of gambling behavior. Instead, affect predicted the desire to gamble, with high levels of sadness and arousal independently predicting an increased desire to gamble. Desire to gamble predicted actual gambling behavior. There were no differences across diagnostic groups in terms of gambling motivations at baseline; however, during the 30-day period, participants with bipolar disorder endorsed gambling to cope with negative affect more often than did participants with depressive disorder, whereas those with depressive disorder more often endorsed gambling for social reasons or enhancement of positive affect. The present findings provide evidence that negative affect is not directly related to actual gambling behavior, and suggest that affective states rather impact the desire to gamble.

  6. An examination of participation in online gambling activities and the relationship with problem gambling.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Abby; Shorter, Gillian W; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims Online gambling participation is increasing rapidly, with relatively little research about the possible effects of different gambling activities on problem gambling behaviour. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the participation in online gambling activities and the relationship with problem gambling among an international sample of online gamblers. Methods An online gambling survey was posted on 32 international gambling websites and resulted in 1,119 respondents over a four-month period. Results Poker was the most popular gambling activity online. A number of online activities were associated with problem gambling, including: roulette, poker, horse race betting, sports betting, spread betting and fruit (slot) machines. Not surprisingly, those that gambled on these activities regularly (except poker) were more likely to be a problem gambler, however, what is interesting is that the reverse is true for poker players; those that gambled regularly on poker were less likely to be a problem gambler compared to the non-regular poker players. The majority of the players also gambled offline, but there was no relationship between problem gambling and whether or not a person also gambled offline. Discussion Problem gambling is associated more with certain online gambling activities than others, and those gambling on two or more activities online were more likely to be a problem gambler. Conclusion This paper can help explain the impact different online gambling activities may have on gambling behaviour. Consideration needs to be given to the gambling activity when developing and implementing treatment programmes.

  7. Gambling disorder, DSM-5 criteria and symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2017-05-01

    Gambling disorder (GD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition whose severity is typically defined by the number of DSM-5 criteria met out of a maximum of nine. The relationships between the levels of gambling severity, thus defined, and other measures of psychopathology and everyday functioning are clinically important. Baseline data were collected in patients with GD, conducted from 2001 to 2016. Participants completed clinical interviews and questionnaires. The impact of disease severity (mild, moderate, and severe) on clinical measures was characterized using analysis of variance models. The sample included 574 adults with GD, of whom 73 (12.7%) had mild, 184 (32.1%) moderate, and 317 (55.2%) severe GD. The moderate and severe cases, compared to mild severity group tended be older, had later age of onset, lost more money to gambling in the preceding year, had worse quality of life, had higher state anxiety and depressive scores, consumed more nicotine via smoking per day, and had lower venturesomeness scores. The moderate and severe groups did not differ significantly on these measures, however. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Pathological Gambling (PG-YBOCS) discriminated significantly between all three groups. Several measures of psychopathology and functional impact of gambling symptoms appear similar between moderate and severe GD cases, while mild cases are clearly differentiated from moderate and severe cases. Thus, the current working definition of GD symptom severity boundaries has important limitations in terms of potential clinical utility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The possible role of the insula in the epilepsy and the gambling disorder of Fyodor Dostoyevsky.

    PubMed

    Tényi, Dalma; Gyimesi, Csilla; Kovács, Norbert; Tényi, Tamás; Janszky, József

    2016-09-01

    Background The retrospective diagnosis of Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky's (1821-1881) neurological and psychiatric disease proves to be particularly interesting. Recent neurobiological data suggest a solution to the questions regarding the writer's retrospective diagnosis, claiming the insular cortex to be the origin of the rare ecstatic seizures. Regarding Dostoyevsky's pathological gambling, this hypothesis is consistent with another finding from recent neuroscience, namely that the malfunction of the insula could be an important underlying pathology in gambling disorder. Case study Literary and scientific overview (1928-2015) on the subjects of Dostoyevsky's epilepsy and gambling disorder. Discussion and conclusion Taking Dostoyevsky's neurological (ecstatic seizures) and psychiatric (pathological gambling) disease and the crossroads into consideration, these two disciplines make regarding the underlying pathology, we would like to suggest a speculative theory that these two disorders have a common insular pathomechanism, namely, the malfunctioning of the risk prediction-risk prediction error coding system. Furthermore, based on Dostoyevsky's case, regarding gambling disorder in general, we would like to hypothesize that the three common gambling-related cognitive distortions (near-miss effect, gambler's fallacy, and the illusion of control) can be all attributed to the impairment of the anterior insular risk prediction-risk prediction error coding system.

  9. The possible role of the insula in the epilepsy and the gambling disorder of Fyodor Dostoyevsky

    PubMed Central

    Tényi, Dalma; Gyimesi, Csilla; Kovács, Norbert; Tényi, Tamás; Janszky, József

    2016-01-01

    Background The retrospective diagnosis of Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky’s (1821–1881) neurological and psychiatric disease proves to be particularly interesting. Recent neurobiological data suggest a solution to the questions regarding the writer’s retrospective diagnosis, claiming the insular cortex to be the origin of the rare ecstatic seizures. Regarding Dostoyevsky’s pathological gambling, this hypothesis is consistent with another finding from recent neuroscience, namely that the malfunction of the insula could be an important underlying pathology in gambling disorder. Case study Literary and scientific overview (1928–2015) on the subjects of Dostoyevsky’s epilepsy and gambling disorder. Discussion and conclusion Taking Dostoyevsky’s neurological (ecstatic seizures) and psychiatric (pathological gambling) disease and the crossroads into consideration, these two disciplines make regarding the underlying pathology, we would like to suggest a speculative theory that these two disorders have a common insular pathomechanism, namely, the malfunctioning of the risk prediction–risk prediction error coding system. Furthermore, based on Dostoyevsky’s case, regarding gambling disorder in general, we would like to hypothesize that the three common gambling-related cognitive distortions (near-miss effect, gambler’s fallacy, and the illusion of control) can be all attributed to the impairment of the anterior insular risk prediction–risk prediction error coding system. PMID:27558486

  10. Social strain, couple dynamics and gender differences in gambling problems: evidence from Chinese married couples.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the influence of couple dynamics on gender differences in gambling behavior remains meager. Building on general strain theory from the sociology of deviance and stress crossover theory from social psychology, we argue that the strain encountered by one partner in a social setting may affect his or her spouse. For instance, the wife of a man under more social strain may experience more strain in turn and thus be at a higher risk of developing disordered gambling than the wife of a man under less social strain. Using community survey data of 1620 Chinese married couples, we performed multilevel dyad analyses to address social strain and couple dynamics, in addition to their roles as predictors of gambling behavior in both spouses. This was a community survey of Hong Kong and therefore was not representative of China. Based on the DSM-IV screen, the rates of probable problem gambling and pathological gambling among male partners (12.8% vs. 2.5%) were twice those among female partners (5.2% vs. 0.3%). We also found that the social strain experienced by a male partner significantly predicted both his and his wife's likelihood of developing gambling problems. Although a female partner's exposure to social strain was a significant correlate of her gambling problem, it had no significant association with her husband's gambling behavior. These results suggest that the cross-spouse transference of social strain may be a gendered process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 32 CFR 1903.19 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gambling. 1903.19 Section 1903.19 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.19 Gambling. Gambling in any form, or the operation of gambling devices, is...

  12. 32 CFR 1903.19 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gambling. 1903.19 Section 1903.19 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.19 Gambling. Gambling in any form, or the operation of gambling devices, is...

  13. 32 CFR 1903.19 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gambling. 1903.19 Section 1903.19 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.19 Gambling. Gambling in any form, or the operation of gambling devices, is...

  14. 32 CFR 1903.19 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gambling. 1903.19 Section 1903.19 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.19 Gambling. Gambling in any form, or the operation of gambling devices, is...

  15. The gambling behavior of indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-06-01

    The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples.

  16. 32 CFR 1903.19 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gambling. 1903.19 Section 1903.19 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.19 Gambling. Gambling in any form, or the operation of gambling devices, is prohibited...

  17. 36 CFR 702.5 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gambling. 702.5 Section 702.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.5 Gambling. Participation in any illegal gambling, such as the operation of gambling devices, the conduct of an illegal...

  18. 36 CFR 702.5 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gambling. 702.5 Section 702.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.5 Gambling. Participation in any illegal gambling, such as the operation of gambling devices, the conduct of an illegal...

  19. 36 CFR 702.5 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Gambling. 702.5 Section 702.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.5 Gambling. Participation in any illegal gambling, such as the operation of gambling devices, the conduct of an illegal...

  20. 36 CFR 702.5 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gambling. 702.5 Section 702.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.5 Gambling. Participation in any illegal gambling, such as the operation of gambling devices, the conduct of an illegal...

  1. 36 CFR 702.5 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gambling. 702.5 Section 702.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.5 Gambling. Participation in any illegal gambling, such as the operation of gambling devices, the conduct of an illegal...

  2. A comparison of horse-race, bingo, and video poker gamblers in Brazilian gambling settings.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M P; Silva, M T

    2001-01-01

    In the present study Brazilian gamblers from different settings were compared on sociodemographic characteristics, gambling the behavior, and use of drugs. The SOGS was administered to 171 subjects at bingo (BG), video poker (VP), and horse-racing clubs (HR) of São Paulo. BG concentrated most women, VP the youngest and single gamblers, and HR the lowest income subjects. More VP than HR or BG gamblers reported taking time off work to gamble, as well as returning another day to win back lost money. They also had a higher number of scorable responses on the SOGS. The differences observed suggest that VP gamblers bear a greater risk of developing a pathological gambling pattern. The authors suggest that measures should be taken aimed at the prevention of pathological gambling, particularly among the young population of video poker gamblers.

  3. The Temporal Relationship Between Faulty Gambling Cognitions and Gambling Severity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Ryan; Graves, Chad; Ellery, Michael; Afifi, Tracie O

    2016-12-01

    Disordered gambling in young adults is hypothesized as being related to mistaken gambling-related cognitions. Few studies have examined the temporal order of this relationship using longitudinal data. The purpose of this study is to understand the directionality of the relationship between gambling cognitions and gambling severity in a longitudinal sample of young adults. Young adults (N = 578), initially aged 18-21 years, completed the Manitoba Longitudinal Survey of Young Adults at two time points approximately 2-3 years apart. Measures of beliefs about randomness related to gambling and gambling severity, as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index, were utilized. A cross-sectional relationship between gambling severity and gambling-related cognitions was observed with greater gambling severity being associated with increased endorsement of mistaken cognitions. Evidence for a bidirectional longitudinal relationship was observed with faulty gambling cognitions leading to later problematic gambling behaviors and vice versa when examining a total beliefs scale. When examining specific beliefs about randomness, initial gambling group membership predicted later endorsement of certain beliefs about randomness while initial belief ratings did not impact later gambling group membership. The results of this study suggest a bidirectional relationship between gambling severity and erroneous gambling-related cognitions. However, when examining specific beliefs about randomness, evidence was found for problem gambling behaviors leading to erroneous gambling beliefs. These findings suggest that prevention efforts targeting cognitions may not be as effective in impacting those not yet demonstrating disordered gambling behaviors.

  4. Game On: Past Year Gambling, Gambling-Related Problems, and Fantasy Sports Gambling Among College Athletes and Non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ryan J; Nelson, Sarah E; Gallucci, Andrew R

    2016-06-01

    College students experience higher rates of gambling-related problems than most other population segments, including the general population. Although Division I (D1) athletes often have more at stake than the average student if and when they gamble (e.g., the potential to lose their athletic eligibility), relatively few studies have assessed the gambling behavior of this population and none have specifically assessed fantasy sports gambling. We conducted a study to examine gambling behavior (past-year gambling, gambling-related problems, and fantasy sport gambling) among a sample (N = 692) of college students at a private religiously affiliated university in the Southwest US. The sample for our study was unique in that approximately 30 % of the participants were D1 athletes. We compared the gambling behavior among three groups based on the athlete status: D1 athletes, club/intramural/recreational (CIR) athletes, and non-athletes (NAs). Compared to females in our sample, males observed higher rates of past year gambling, fantasy sports participation, fantasy sports gambling, and gambling-related problems. Among males, we found that CIR athletes observed the highest rates of past year gambling and fantasy sports participation and D1 athletes observed higher rates than NAs. We did not find differences in fantasy sport gambling and past year gambling-related problems based on athlete status in males or females.

  5. Gambling market and individual patterns of gambling in Germany.

    PubMed

    Albers, N; Hübl, L

    1997-01-01

    In this paper individual patterns of gambling in Germany are estimated for the first time. The probit technique is used to test the influence of a set of individual characteristics on the probability of participating in each of the various legal games. A sample size of 1,586 adults collected for the pool of German lotteries provides a reliable set of data. All disaggregated estimations of participation are statistically significant at least at the 5 percent level. The basic findings suggest that gambling is a widespread normal (superior) consumption good because gambling participation tends to rise with income. Moreover, no demand anomaly can be found to justify assessing gambling as a social demerit. Only the participation in gaming machines is higher for younger, unemployed and less educated adults. While a moral evaluation of gambling is beyond the scope of this paper, the legislator's preference for a highly taxed state monopoly in gambling markets is to be rejected, at least for Germany. Additional statistical findings suggest distinct consumer perceptions of the characteristics of the various games and may be used for market segmentation. The paper starts with a descriptive introduction to the German gambling market.

  6. Differences in Addiction Severity between Social and Probable Pathological Gamblers among Substance Abusers in Treatment in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Ana Carolina R.; Vargens, Renata W.; Kessler, Felix H.; Cruz, Marcelo S.

    2009-01-01

    There is a strong association between pathological gambling and substance abuse. The objective of this study is to identify the differences between substance abusers with and without gambling problems. A cross sectional study was conducted interviewing with Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), alcohol and drug…

  7. Differences in Addiction Severity between Social and Probable Pathological Gamblers among Substance Abusers in Treatment in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Ana Carolina R.; Vargens, Renata W.; Kessler, Felix H.; Cruz, Marcelo S.

    2009-01-01

    There is a strong association between pathological gambling and substance abuse. The objective of this study is to identify the differences between substance abusers with and without gambling problems. A cross sectional study was conducted interviewing with Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), alcohol and drug…

  8. Quality of life in pathological gamblers in a multiethnic Asian setting.

    PubMed

    Mythily, Subramaniam; Edimansyah, Abdin; Qiu, Shijia; Munidasa, Winslow

    2011-06-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of pathological gambling on quality of life especially in the Asian context. The aim of the current study was to examine the quality of life in pathological gamblers in a multiracial population in Singapore and we hypothesised that those with pathological gambling would have poorer quality of life as compared to controls. Forty subjects with "compulsive gambling behaviour" were recruited and matched (for gender and age) with 40 controls. Subjects with pathological gambling were compared with control subjects with regard to sociodemographic data as well as on the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment - abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF). A one-way MANOVA revealed that pathological gamblers had significantly diminished quality of life as compared with the healthy controls using the summary scores of the 4 domains of quality of life (Pillai's Trace = 0.338, F = 9.5, P <0.001). Univariate tests indicated subjects with pathological gambling scored significantly lower on physical health, psychological, social relationships and environment domains of quality of life compared with subjects without pathological gambling. Our study found that those with pathological gambling had lower scores than the controls in all the domains of the quality of life scale. The impact and the extent of pathological gambling on the quality of life should be borne in mind -- not only as a consideration in the management but also as an important indicator of treatment outcome of pathological gamblers.

  9. Ground Water Technical Considerations during the Five-Year Review Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper has been developed to highlight technical considerations as well as technical resources available to Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) in conducting Five-Year Reviews (FYRs) at CERCLA1 sites with contaminated groundwater.

  10. JPL-20170801-MSLf-0001-Rover POV Five Years of Curiosity on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-02

    Five years of images from the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity's Hazard Avoidance Camera (Hazcam) were used to create this time-lapse movie. An inset map shows the rover's location in Mars' Gale Crater.

  11. Medical Lasers At The Crossroads: Directions For The Next Five Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Fritz A.

    1988-09-01

    Of course, much can be attributed to our relative youth - the sheer number and scope of the opportunities have distorted focus and strained resources. However, I believe that we have reached a point - a crossroads - where the topography is more clearly defined and where some discernible trends point to the direction this industry will take over the next five years. These will be important years - investors, especially, expect signs of maturity to replace unbounded youthful optimism. How many of us can look back on the business plans we wrote five years ago and not feel chastened (or depressed). Our excuse is that we got everything right except the timing. Well, the "timing" is the next five years! So my talk today will center upon my personal view of these next five years. I wish to emphasize the personal aspect of my discussion: this is my prescription for future happiness.

  12. RMP Guidance for Warehouses - Chapter 3: Five-Year Accident History

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A five year accident history must be completed for each covered process, and all accidental releases meeting specified criteria must be reported in the Risk Management Plan (RMP). Must include details about each event and its impacts.

  13. 78 FR 72061 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Compliance, formerly Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce... Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is automatically initiating five-year reviews (``Sunset...

  14. Five Years of Operation of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2004-01-01

    The on-orbit performance of the Chandra X-ray Observatory over its first five years of operation is reviewed. The Observatory is running smoothly and the scientific return continues to be outstanding.

  15. RMP Guidance for Chemical Distributors - Chapter 3: Five-Year Accident History

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A five year accident history must be completed for each covered process, and all accidental release events meeting specified criteria must be reported in the Risk Management Plan (RMP) for that process.

  16. 2010 Five-Year Plan: Assessment of Health and Environmental Impacts of Uranium Mining and Milling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The five-year plan is intended to compile all activities contributing to the identification and cleanup of legacy uranium milling and mining activities in the Grants Mining District in the State of New Mexico.

  17. Decision making, cognitive distortions and emotional distress: A comparison between pathological gamblers and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Maria; Griffiths, Mark D; Nigro, Giovanna; Cosenza, Marina

    2017-03-01

    The etiology of problem gambling is multifaceted and complex. Among others factors, poor decision making, cognitive distortions (i.e., irrational beliefs about gambling), and emotional factors (e.g., negative mood states) appear to be among the most important factors in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. Although empirical evidence has suggested that cognitive distortions facilitate gambling and negative emotions are associated with gambling, the interplay between cognitive distortions, emotional states, and decision making in gambling remains unexplored. Pathological gamblers (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 54) completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS), and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Compared to healthy controls, pathological gamblers showed poorer decision making and reported higher scores on measures assessing cognitive distortions and emotional distress. All measures were positively associated with gambling severity. A significant negative correlation between decision making and cognitive distortions was also observed. No associations were found between poor decision making and emotional distress. Logistic regression analysis indicated that cognitive distortions, emotional distress, and poor decision making were significant predictors of problem gambling. The use of self-report measures and the absence of female participants limit the generalizability of the reported findings. The present study is the first to demonstrate the mutual influence between irrational beliefs and poor decision making, as well as the role of cognitive bias, emotional distress, and poor decision making in gambling disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The intergenerational transmission of problem gambling: The mediating role of offspring gambling expectancies and motives.

    PubMed

    Dowling, N A; Oldenhof, E; Shandley, K; Youssef, G J; Vasiliadis, S; Thomas, S A; Frydenberg, E; Jackson, A C

    2017-09-11

    The risk for developing a gambling problem is greater among offspring who have a problem gambling parent, yet little research has directly examined the mechanisms by which this transmission of problem gambling occurs. For this reason, the present study sought to examine the degree to which children's expectancies and motives relating to gambling explain, at least in part, the intergenerational transmission of problem gambling. Participants (N=524; 56.5% male) were recruited from educational institutions, and retrospectively reported on parental problem gambling. Problem gambling was measured using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and a range of positive and negative expectancies and gambling motives were explored as potential mediators of the relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling. The relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling was significant, and remained so after controlling for sociodemographic factors and administration method. Significant mediators of this relationship included self-enhancement expectancies (feeling in control), money expectancies (financial gain), over-involvement (preoccupation with gambling) and emotional impact expectancies (guilt, shame, and loss), as well as enhancement motives (gambling to increase positive feelings) and coping motives (gambling to reduce or avoid negative emotions). All mediators remained significant when entered into the same model. The findings highlight that gambling expectancies and motives present unique pathways to the development of problem gambling in the offspring of problem gambling parents, and suggest that gambling cognitions may be potential candidates for targeted interventions for the offspring of problem gamblers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The United States Air Force Academy’s First Twenty-Five Years, Some Perceptions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    15 "Perceptions of the Economic Discipline at the Academy over Twenty-Five Years" ......... 193 16 "Mainstream of Geographic Education at the...modest commemoration of the first twenty-five years of our efforts to educate cadets for leadership roles in the United States Air Force. 15 May 1979...Head until Col Woodyard’s return. Another action which was to prove significant was the 15 June 1967 appoint- ment of Lt Col Peter B. Carter as

  20. Investigating Veterans’ Pre-, Peri-, and Post-Deployment Experiences as Potential Risk Factors for Problem Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Seth W.; Potenza, Marc N.; Park, Crystal L.; McKee, Sherry A.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Hoff, Rani A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Gambling disorder and its comorbid diagnoses are observed at higher rates in military veterans than in the general population. A significant research gap exists regarding the relationships of veterans’ life and service experiences to problematic gambling. The present study explored pre-, peri-, and post-deployment factors associated with problem gambling in veterans. Methods Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (n = 738; 463 males, and 275 females) completed questionnaires via structured telephone interview. We conducted bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses exploring associations among problem-gambling severity and socio-demographic variables, psychiatric comorbidities, and 10 scales of the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory measuring experiences pre-, peri-, and post-deployment. Results Approximately 4.2% of veterans indicated at-risk or probable pathological gambling (ARPG) post-deployment (two or more DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling). Bivariate analyses found more severe gambling in males, higher frequencies of post-traumatic stress disorder, substance dependence, traumatic brain injury, panic disorder, and depression in veterans with ARPG, and higher general harassment during deployment, and lower social support and more stressful life events post-deployment in those with ARPG. In multivariable models, both post-deployment factors remained significantly associated with ARPG. Discussion The study suggests that problem gambling among veterans is related to service experiences, and particularly to life experiences post-deployment. Conclusions Adverse service and life experiences and lack of social support may contribute to the risk of problem gambling in military veterans. Investigation of how Veterans Affairs clinical settings may serve veterans following deployment to prevent behavioral addictions is warranted. PMID:27156377