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Sample records for pathologist assessment compared

  1. Needs Assessment of Pathologists Using Telepathology Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gohari, Sadrieh Hajesmaeel; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz

    2016-01-01

    Background: This project sought to identify the most common telepathology consultation needs of pathologists based on the anatomic section of tissue to improve quality of consultations. Methods: This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire with four questions to assess pathologists’ consultation needs. The questionnaire was distributed to the 16 pathologists recruited for this study. All 16 of the pathologists work in Kerman province, the largest province of Iran, which is situated 1,000 kilometers from Tehran, Iran’s capital city. Results: On average, the pathologists expressed a need to consult with their colleagues in 7.5% of cases. They believed that articular and bone tissue, soft tissue and the lymphoid system (respectively in descending order) to be the three anatomical parts that require the greatest amount of consultation. As such, consultant pathologists should ensure they have particular expertise in articular and bone tissue, soft tissue and the lymphoid system. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that pathologists most need advice from consultants when working with samples of articular and bone tissue, soft tissue and the lymphoid system. These results can be used to ensure successful implementation of telepathology systems, which are helpful for consultation from rural and remote areas. PMID:27708495

  2. Classroom listening assessment: strategies for speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cheryl DeConde

    2012-11-01

    Emphasis on classroom listening has gained importance for all children and especially for those with hearing loss and special listening needs. The rationale can be supported from trends in educational placements, the Response to Intervention initiative, student performance and accountability, the role of audition in reading, and improvement in hearing technologies. Speech-language pathologists have an instrumental role advocating for the accommodations that are necessary for effective listening for these children in school. To identify individual listening needs and make relevant recommendations for accommodations, a classroom listening assessment is suggested. Components of the classroom listening assessment include observation, behavioral assessment, self-assessment, and classroom acoustics measurements. Together, with a strong rationale, the results can be used to implement a plan that results in effective classroom listening for these children. PMID:23081792

  3. The Use of Interpreters by Speech-Language Pathologists Conducting Bilingual Speech-Language Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfrey, Carol Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental quantitative study was to explore the practices of speech-language pathologists in conducting bilingual assessments with interpreters. Data were obtained regarding the assessment tools and practices used by speech-language pathologists, the frequency with which they work with interpreters, and the procedures…

  4. Speech-Language Pathologists' Assessment Practices for Children with Suspected Speech Sound Disorders: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skahan, Sarah M.; Watson, Maggie; Lof, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined assessment procedures used by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) when assessing children suspected of having speech sound disorders (SSD). This national survey also determined the information participants obtained from clients' speech samples, evaluation of non-native English speakers, and time spent on assessment.…

  5. Opinion Pieces: What Is the Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist in Assessing and Facilitating Spelling Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apel, Kenn; Masterson, Julie J.; Lombardino, Linda J.; Ahmed, Sarah T.; Moats, Louisa C.; Pollock, Karen; Templeton, Shane; Bear, Donald R.

    2000-01-01

    This article contains different perspectives on the role of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in assessing and facilitating spelling skills. It discusses the need for SLPs to promote the role of early literacy, assess for early literacy skills, conduct a comprehensive assessment of written language, and to teach early phoneme awareness.…

  6. Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI): assessment and treatment procedures used by speech-language pathologists (SLPs).

    PubMed

    Duff, Melissa C; Proctor, Adele; Haley, Katarina

    2002-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify how individuals with MTBI are assessed, to determine the referral process to and from speech-language pathologists (SLPs), to describe the frequency, structure, and nature of treatment, to identify how individuals with MTBI and their families are educated about the injury and counselled, and to assess current follow-up procedures. One-hundred and forty-three hospital and rehabilitation centre based SLPs from North Carolina and Illinois responded to a survey developed to address these areas of interest. Findings indicated current diagnostic tools used by SLPs lack the sensitivity to detect the subtle cognitive communication deficits associated with MTBI, referral and follow-up procedures are not sufficiently implemented in facilities to meet the growing needs of individuals with MTBI, and SLPs would benefit from increased training regarding the management of individuals with MTBI including educating and counselling patients and their families.

  7. Assessment and Treatment of Working Memory Deficits in School-Age Children: The Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Donna; Costanza-Smith, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To review research addressing the relationship of working memory (WM) to language development and academic functioning and to consider the role of the speech-language pathologist (SLP) in assessment and intervention of WM difficulties in school-age children. Method: Aspects of WM critical to language acquisition and academic success are…

  8. Development and evaluation of the environment and communication assessment toolkit with speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Carrie; Brush, Jennifer A; Sanford, Jon A; Calkins, Margaret P

    2013-04-01

    Communication dysfunction that results from dementia can be exacerbated by environmental barriers such as inadequate lighting, noisy conditions, poor or absent environmental cues, and visual clutter. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) should address these environmental barriers as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for clients with dementia. The Environment and Communication Assessment Toolkit for Dementia Care (ECAT) was evaluated by SLPs to determine: (1) changes in awareness of environmental factors prior to and after training; (2) impact of the ECAT on practice as measured by changes in the number of environmental modifications recommended and made prior to and after training; (3) utility of the information as measured by the helpfulness, amount of new information, and usefulness of the ECAT; and (4) usability of the ECAT materials based on ease of use. The SLPs used the ECAT with clients with dementia who had functional limitations and required substantial assistance with daily activities. Results indicate that the ECAT is an effective tool for SLPs, providing information about the impact of the environment on communication and supplying sufficient resources to make recommendations and implement effective interventions. The ECAT successfully increased awareness of environmental modifications, influenced the practice of recommending environmental modifications, and had utility in diverse aspects of clinical practice.

  9. Speech-language pathologists' practices regarding assessment, analysis, target selection, intervention, and service delivery for children with speech sound disorders.

    PubMed

    Mcleod, Sharynne; Baker, Elise

    2014-01-01

    A survey of 231 Australian speech-language pathologists (SLPs) was undertaken to describe practices regarding assessment, analysis, target selection, intervention, and service delivery for children with speech sound disorders (SSD). The participants typically worked in private practice, education, or community health settings and 67.6% had a waiting list for services. For each child, most of the SLPs spent 10-40 min in pre-assessment activities, 30-60 min undertaking face-to-face assessments, and 30-60 min completing paperwork after assessments. During an assessment SLPs typically conducted a parent interview, single-word speech sampling, collected a connected speech sample, and used informal tests. They also determined children's stimulability and estimated intelligibility. With multilingual children, informal assessment procedures and English-only tests were commonly used and SLPs relied on family members or interpreters to assist. Common analysis techniques included determination of phonological processes, substitutions-omissions-distortions-additions (SODA), and phonetic inventory. Participants placed high priority on selecting target sounds that were stimulable, early developing, and in error across all word positions and 60.3% felt very confident or confident selecting an appropriate intervention approach. Eight intervention approaches were frequently used: auditory discrimination, minimal pairs, cued articulation, phonological awareness, traditional articulation therapy, auditory bombardment, Nuffield Centre Dyspraxia Programme, and core vocabulary. Children typically received individual therapy with an SLP in a clinic setting. Parents often observed and participated in sessions and SLPs typically included siblings and grandparents in intervention sessions. Parent training and home programs were more frequently used than the group therapy. Two-thirds kept up-to-date by reading journal articles monthly or every 6 months. There were many similarities with

  10. Biospecimens and Biorepositories for the Community Pathologist

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Rajesh C.; Robb, James A.; Booker, David L.; Foo, Wen-Chi; Witte, David L.; Bry, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Pathologists have long served as custodians of human biospecimens collected for diagnostic purposes. Rapid advancements in diagnostic technologies require that pathologists change their practices to optimize patient care. The proper handling of biospecimens creates opportunities for pathologists to improve their diagnoses while assessing prognosis and treatment. In addition, the growing need for high-quality biorepositories represents an opportunity for community pathologists to strengthen their role within the health care team, ensuring that clinical care is not compromised while facilitating research. This article provides a resource to community pathologists learning how to create high-quality biorepositories and participating in emerging opportunities in the biorepository field. While a variety of topics are covered to provide breadth of information, the intent is to facilitate a level of understanding that permits community pathologists to make more informed choices in identifying how best their skills and practice may be augmented to address developments in this field. PMID:22646276

  11. Implications of Variability in Clinical Bedside Swallowing Assessment Practices by Speech Language Pathologists.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Sue; Kruger, Samantha; Doeltgen, Sebastian; Tyler-Boltrek, Emma

    2016-10-01

    Speech language pathology (SLP) clinical bedside swallowing assessments (CBSA) are a cornerstone of quality care for patients in acute hospitals who have dysphagia. The CBSA informs clinical diagnosis and decisions regarding further instrumental assessment, and is used to develop a management plan and monitor progress. However, self-report and retrospective research shows that SLPs are highly variable in their use of assessment components considered by experts to be important for quality CBSA, casting doubt on the validity and reliability of CBSA. This prospective study describes the components included by SLPs when designing a standardised evidence based dysphagia assessment protocol for acute care patients and observed patterns of component use. The findings confirm that SLPs use the CBSA for multiple purposes beyond diagnosis of aspiration risk and dysphagia presence/severity. They are highly variable in their use of certain components, but also demonstrate consistent use of a core set. It is apparent that SLPs prioritise the application of clinical reasoning to tailor their CBSA to the patient over following a highly structured item-based protocol. The variability in component use likely reflects a complex clinical reasoning process that draws on a wide variety of information combined with expert knowledge as is also observed in many other medical specialties. Rather than promoting the standardisation of CBSA protocols that constrain SLP practice to strict item-based assessment protocols, consideration should be given to promoting the value and facilitating the clinical reasoning process that supports the utility of the CBSA for diagnosis, patient centred management and treatment planning. PMID:27405423

  12. Demographic and practice characteristics of pathologists who enjoy breast tissue interpretation.

    PubMed

    Oster, Natalia V; Geller, Berta M; Carney, Patricia A; Reisch, Lisa M; Onega, Tracy; Weaver, Donald L; Frederick, Paul; Elmore, Joann G

    2015-04-01

    Physician attributes, job satisfaction and confidence in clinical skills are associated with enhanced performance and better patient outcomes. We surveyed 252 pathologists to evaluate associations between enjoyment of breast pathology, demographic/clinical characteristics and diagnostic performance. Diagnostic performance was determined by comparing pathologist assessments of a set of 60 cases with consensus assessments of the same cases made by a panel of experienced pathologists. Eighty-three percent of study participants reported enjoying breast pathology. Pathologists who enjoy breast interpretation were more likely to review ≥10 cases/week (p = 0.003), report breast interpretation expertise (p = 0.013) and have high levels of confidence interpreting breast pathology (p < 0.001). These pathologists were less likely to report that the field was challenging (p < 0.001) and that breast cases make them more nervous than other types of pathology (p < 0.001). Enjoyment was not associated with diagnostic performance. Millions of women undergo breast biopsy annually, thus it is reassuring that although nearly a fifth of practicing pathologists who interpret breast tissue report not enjoying the field, precision is not impacted.

  13. Feasibility of a hybrid elastographic-microfluidic device to rapidly process and assess pancreatic cancer biopsies for pathologists

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ronnie; Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Lim, Saniel D.; O’Donnell, Matt; Wang, Ruikang K.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, our collaborative research group explored the possibility of incorporating ultrasound elastography technology with a microfluidic device that is designed to prepare fine needle core biopsies (CBs; L=0.5–2.0 cm, D=0.4–1.2 mm) for pancreatic cancer diagnosis. For the first time, elastographic techniques were employed to measure shear wave velocity in fresh (3.7 m/s) and formalin-fixed (14.7 m/s) pancreatic CBs. Shear wave velocity did not vary whether fixed specimens were free on a microscope slide, or constrained within glass microfluidic channels: 11.5±1.9 v. 11.8±2.1 m/s. 4% agarose inclusions were also embedded within 1% agarose hydrogels to simulate cysts, neoplastic, or necrotic tissue within CBs. Inclusions were successfully visualized and measured using optical coherence elastography. These preliminary experiments demonstrate in a rudimentary fashion that elastographic measurements of pancreatic CBs may be incorporated with our microfluidic device. The rapid mapping of CB stiffness may provide qualitative spatial information for pathologists to determine a more accurate diagnosis for patients. PMID:26110186

  14. Diagnostic Concordance Among Pathologists Interpreting Breast Biopsy Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Joann G.; Longton, Gary M.; Carney, Patricia A.; Geller, Berta M.; Onega, Tracy; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Nelson, Heidi D.; Pepe, Margaret S.; Allison, Kimberly H.; Schnitt, Stuart J.; O’Malley, Frances P.; Weaver, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE A breast pathology diagnosis provides the basis for clinical treatment and management decisions; however, its accuracy is inadequately understood. OBJECTIVES To quantify the magnitude of diagnostic disagreement among pathologists compared with a consensus panel reference diagnosis and to evaluate associated patient and pathologist characteristics. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Study of pathologists who interpret breast biopsies in clinical practices in 8 US states. EXPOSURES Participants independently interpreted slides between November 2011 and May 2014 from test sets of 60 breast biopsies (240 total cases, 1 slide per case), including 23 cases of invasive breast cancer, 73 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 72 with atypical hyperplasia (atypia), and 72 benign cases without atypia. Participants were blinded to the interpretations of other study pathologists and consensus panel members. Among the 3 consensus panel members, unanimous agreement of their independent diagnoses was 75%, and concordance with the consensus-derived reference diagnoses was 90.3%. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The proportions of diagnoses overinterpreted and underinterpreted relative to the consensus-derived reference diagnoses were assessed. RESULTS Sixty-five percent of invited, responding pathologists were eligible and consented to participate. Of these, 91% (N = 115) completed the study, providing 6900 individual case diagnoses. Compared with the consensus-derived reference diagnosis, the overall concordance rate of diagnostic interpretations of participating pathologists was 75.3% (95% CI, 73.4%–77.0%; 5194 of 6900 interpretations). Consensus ReferenceDiagnosis Pathologist Interpretation vs Consensus-Derived Reference Diagnosis, % (95% CI) No. ofInterpretations Overall ConcordanceRate OverinterpretationRate UnderinterpretationRate Benign without atypia 2070 87 (85–89) 13 (11–15) Atypia 2070 48 (44–52) 17 (15–21) 35 (31–39) DCIS 2097 84 (82–86) 3 (2–4) 13 (12

  15. Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  16. Support system for pathologists and researchers

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Takumi; Takahashi, Junko; Kasai, Mai; Shiina, Takayuki; Iijima, Yuka; Takemura, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Kuwata, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: In Japan, cancer is the most prevalent cause of death; the number of patients suffering from cancer is increasing. Hence, there is an increased burden on pathologists to make diagnoses. To reduce pathologists’ burden, researchers have developed methods of auto-pathological diagnosis. However, virtual slides, which are created when glass slides are digitally scanned, saved in a unique format, and it is difficult for researchers to work on the virtual slides for developing their own image processing method. This paper presents the support system for pathologists and researchers who use auto-pathological diagnosis (P-SSD). Main purpose of P-SSD was to support both of pathologists and researchers. P-SSD consists of several sub-functions that make it easy not only for pathologists to screen pathological images, double-check their diagnoses, and reduce unimportant image data but also for researchers to develop and apply their original image-processing techniques to pathological images. Methods: We originally developed P-SSD to support both pathologists and researchers developing auto-pathological diagnoses systems. Current version of P-SSD consists of five main functions as follows: (i) Loading virtual slides, (ii) making a supervised database, (iii) learning image features, (iv) detecting cancerous areas, (v) displaying results of detection. Results: P-SSD reduces computer memory size random access memory utilization and the processing time required to divide the virtual slides into the smaller-size images compared with other similar software. The maximum observed reduction in computer memory size and reduction in processing time is 97% and 99.94%, respectively. Conclusions: Unlike other vendor-developed software, P-SSD has interoperability and is capable of handling virtual slides in several formats. Therefore, P-SSD can support both of pathologists and researchers, and has many potential applications in both pathological diagnosis and research area. PMID

  17. Aberrant diagnoses by individual surgical pathologists.

    PubMed

    Wakely, S L; Baxendine-Jones, J A; Gallagher, P J; Mullee, M; Pickering, R

    1998-01-01

    Methods of auditing the performance of histopathologists, such as external and internal quality assurance, clinicopathological conferences, and "double-reporting" of microscopic slides, show significant diagnostic errors in at least 1.2% of reports. Although some of these are in well-recognized areas of difficulty, such as melanoma or lymphoma, most errors are in common biopsy specimens. We have developed a method that compares diagnostic patterns of individual histopathologists. This aims to identify specific diagnoses that a pathologist makes more or less frequently than other colleagues and enables the individual to reflect on his or her own histologic expertise in reporting on specific biopsy results. The bottom line diagnoses of transurethral resection of prostate specimens; rectal, gastric, and bladder biopsy samples; and endometrial curettages were analyzed retrospectively. Analyses were performed on diagnoses made by at least 15 pathologists on each specimen type and expressed as a standardized ratio (SR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). An SR of 1.0 indicated a pattern of diagnosis matching the combined pattern of other colleagues. An SR <1.0 indicated relative "underdiagnosis" and an SR >1.0 indicated relative "overdiagnosis." Diagnostic rates of individual pathologists whose CIs did not straddle the value of 1.0 were considered aberrant, although not necessarily incorrect. The 47 of 226 (20.8%) aberrant SRs included four pathologists' diagnoses of prostatic carcinoma, three each of endometrial, rectal, and bladder carcinoma, and one of gastric malignancy. This method, which could easily be automated and used regionally or nationally, should provide pathologists with a profile of their diagnostic patterns in comparison with their peers.

  18. Factors Influencing School-Based Speech and Language Pathologists in the Selection of Communication Assessments for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Why We Do What We Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lorna T.

    2010-01-01

    Speech and language pathologists (SLPs) are collaborators in a diagnostic process that reflects an increasing number of referrals of children with autism spectrums disorders (ASD). Also, current practices leading to the remediation of speech and language disorders have come under scrutiny for limitations in effective carryover of targeted goals…

  19. Comparative Judgement for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    Historically speaking, students were judged long before they were marked. The tradition of marking, or scoring, pieces of work students offer for assessment is little more than two centuries old, and was introduced mainly to cope with specific problems arising from the growth in the numbers graduating from universities as the industrial revolution…

  20. Poor agreement between endoscopists and gastrointestinal pathologists for the interpretation of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy findings

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Shajan; Council, Leona; Bang, Ji Young; Neumann, Helmut; Mönkemüller, Klaus; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Wilcox, Charles Melbern

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the interpretation of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) findings between endoscopists and gastrointestinal (GI)-pathologists. METHODS: All pCLE procedures were undertaken and the endoscopist rendered assessment. The same pCLE videos were then viewed offline by an expert GI pathologist. Histopathology was considered the gold standard for definitive diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosis of dysplastic/ neoplastic GI lesions and interobserver agreement between endoscopists and experienced gastrointestinal pathologist for pCLE findings were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 66 included patients, 40 (60.6%) had lesions in the esophagus, 7 (10.6%) in the stomach, 15 (22.7%) in the biliary tract, 3 (4.5%) in the ampulla and 1 (1.5%) in the colon. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing dysplastic/neoplastic lesions using pCLE were higher for endoscopists than pathologist at 87.0% vs 69.6%, 80.0% vs 40.0% and 84.8% vs 60.6% (P = 0.0003), respectively. Area under the ROC curve (AUC) was greater for endoscopists than the pathologist (0.83 vs 0.55, P = 0.0001). Overall agreement between endoscopists and pathologist was moderate for all GI lesions (K = 0.43; 95%CI: 0.26-0.61), luminal lesions (K = 0.40; 95%CI: 0.20-0.60) and those of dysplastic/neoplastic pathology (K = 0.55; 95%CI: 0.37-0.72), the agreement was poor for benign (K = 0.13; 95%CI: -0.097-0.36) and pancreaticobiliary lesions (K = 0.19; 95%CI: -0.26-0.63). CONCLUSION: There is a wide discrepancy in the interpretation of pCLE findings between endoscopists and pathologist, particularly for benign and malignant pancreaticobiliary lesions. Further studies are needed to identify the cause of this poor agreement. PMID:25548499

  1. Occupational health risks of pathologists - results from a nationwide online questionnaire in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pathologists are highly trained medical professionals who play an essential part in the diagnosis and therapy planning of malignancies and inflammatory diseases. Their work is associated with potential health hazards including injuries involving infectious human tissue, chemicals which are assumed to be carcinogenic or long periods of microscope and computer work. This study aimed to provide the first comprehensive assessment of the health situation of pathologists in Switzerland. Methods Pathologists in Switzerland were contacted via the Swiss Society of Pathologists and asked to answer an ethically approved, online anonymous questionnaire comprising 48 questions on occupational health problems, workplace characteristics and health behaviour. Results 163 pathologists participated in the study. Forty percent of pathologists reported musculoskeletal problems in the previous month. The overall prevalence was 76%. Almost 90% of pathologists had visual refraction errors, mainly myopia. 83% of pathologists had experienced occupational injuries, mostly cutting injuries, in their professional career; more than one fifth of participants reported cutting injuries in the last year. However, long lasting injuries and infectious diseases were rare. Depression and burnout affected every eighth pathologist. The prevalence of smoking was substantially below that of the general Swiss population. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that more care should be taken in technical and personal protective measures, ergonomic workplace optimisation and reduction of work overload and work inefficiencies. Despite the described health risks, Swiss pathologists were optimistic about their future and their working situation. The high rate of ametropia and psychological problems warrants further study. PMID:23216705

  2. Resourcing speech-language pathologists to work with multilingual children.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2014-06-01

    Speech-language pathologists play important roles in supporting people to be competent communicators in the languages of their communities. However, with over 7000 languages spoken throughout the world and the majority of the global population being multilingual, there is often a mismatch between the languages spoken by children and families and their speech-language pathologists. This paper provides insights into service provision for multilingual children within an English-dominant country by viewing Australia's multilingual population as a microcosm of ethnolinguistic minorities. Recent population studies of Australian pre-school children show that their most common languages other than English are: Arabic, Cantonese, Vietnamese, Italian, Mandarin, Spanish, and Greek. Although 20.2% of services by Speech Pathology Australia members are offered in languages other than English, there is a mismatch between the language of the services and the languages of children within similar geographical communities. Australian speech-language pathologists typically use informal or English-based assessments and intervention tools with multilingual children. Thus, there is a need for accessible culturally and linguistically appropriate resources for working with multilingual children. Recent international collaborations have resulted in practical strategies to support speech-language pathologists during assessment, intervention, and collaboration with families, communities, and other professionals. The International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech was assembled to prepare a position paper to address issues faced by speech-language pathologists when working with multilingual populations. The Multilingual Children's Speech website ( http://www.csu.edu.au/research/multilingual-speech ) addresses one of the aims of the position paper by providing free resources and information for speech-language pathologists about more than 45 languages. These international

  3. The Changing Role of Speech-Language Pathologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karr, Susan T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Once limited to correcting articulation and lisps, speech-language pathologists now work with students with wide-ranging disabilities and educational needs. Principals should support their efforts to help teachers integrate speech and language goals with students' academic objectives, conduct screening and diagnostic assessments, develop…

  4. An experimental study of pathologist's navigation patterns in virtual microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In virtual microscopy, a sequential process of captures of microscopical fields, allows to construct a virtual slide which is visualized using a specialized software, called the virtual microscopy viewer. This tool allows useful exploration of images, composed of thousands of microscopical fields of view at different levels of magnification, emulating an actual microscopical examination. The aim of this study was to establish the main pathologist's navigation patterns when exploring virtual microscopy slides, using a graphical user interface, adapted to the pathologist's workflow. Four pathologists with a similar level of experience, graduated from the same pathology program, navigated six virtual slides. Different issues were evaluated, namely, the percentage of common visited image regions, the time spent at each and its coincidence level, that is to say, the region of interest location. In addition, navigation patterns were also assessed, i.e., mouse movement velocities and linearity of the diagnostic paths. Results suggest that regions of interest are determined by a complex combination of the visited area, the time spent at each visit and the coincidence level among pathologists. Additionally, linear trajectories and particular velocity patterns were found for the registered diagnostic paths. PMID:21087502

  5. An experimental study of pathologist's navigation patterns in virtual microscopy.

    PubMed

    Roa-Peña, Lucia; Gómez, Francisco; Romero, Eduardo

    2010-11-18

    In virtual microscopy, a sequential process of captures of microscopical fields, allows to construct a virtual slide which is visualized using a specialized software, called the virtual microscopy viewer. This tool allows useful exploration of images, composed of thousands of microscopical fields of view at different levels of magnification, emulating an actual microscopical examination. The aim of this study was to establish the main pathologist's navigation patterns when exploring virtual microscopy slides, using a graphical user interface, adapted to the pathologist's workflow. Four pathologists with a similar level of experience, graduated from the same pathology program, navigated six virtual slides. Different issues were evaluated, namely, the percentage of common visited image regions, the time spent at each and its coincidence level, that is to say, the region of interest location. In addition, navigation patterns were also assessed, i.e., mouse movement velocities and linearity of the diagnostic paths. Results suggest that regions of interest are determined by a complex combination of the visited area, the time spent at each visit and the coincidence level among pathologists. Additionally, linear trajectories and particular velocity patterns were found for the registered diagnostic paths.

  6. An experimental study of pathologist's navigation patterns in virtual microscopy.

    PubMed

    Roa-Peña, Lucia; Gómez, Francisco; Romero, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    In virtual microscopy, a sequential process of captures of microscopical fields, allows to construct a virtual slide which is visualized using a specialized software, called the virtual microscopy viewer. This tool allows useful exploration of images, composed of thousands of microscopical fields of view at different levels of magnification, emulating an actual microscopical examination. The aim of this study was to establish the main pathologist's navigation patterns when exploring virtual microscopy slides, using a graphical user interface, adapted to the pathologist's workflow. Four pathologists with a similar level of experience, graduated from the same pathology program, navigated six virtual slides. Different issues were evaluated, namely, the percentage of common visited image regions, the time spent at each and its coincidence level, that is to say, the region of interest location. In addition, navigation patterns were also assessed, i.e., mouse movement velocities and linearity of the diagnostic paths. Results suggest that regions of interest are determined by a complex combination of the visited area, the time spent at each visit and the coincidence level among pathologists. Additionally, linear trajectories and particular velocity patterns were found for the registered diagnostic paths. PMID:21087502

  7. The changing role of the speech-language pathologist in pediatric rehabilitation/habilitation.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J; Workinger, M S

    1990-01-01

    The speech-language pathologist shares in the management of children who have a need for pediatric rehabilitation/habilitation services. Technological advances provide new tools to assess and promote communication.

  8. A Qualitative Study Comparing the Assay Performance Characteristics Between the 2007 and the 2013 American Society for Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists HER2 Scoring Methods in Mucinous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Kuan; Lee, Ming-Yung; Lin, Wea-Lung; Wang, Yu-Ting; Han, Chih-Ping; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Chao, Wan-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The remarkable success of trastuzumab and other newly developed anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) therapies in breast, gastric, or gastroesophageal junction cancer patients has supported us to investigate the HER2 status and its possible therapeutic implication in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, there is currently no standardization of HER2 scoring criteria in mucinous EOC. In this study, we aimed to compare both the assay performance characteristics of the 2007 and the 2013 American Society for Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists scoring methods. Forty-nine tissue microarray samples of mucinous EOC from Asian women were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests using the 2007 and the 2013 criteria, respectively. The overall concordance between IHC and FISH by the 2007 criteria was 97.92 % (kappa = 0.921), and that by the 2013 criteria was 100% (kappa = 1.000). The percentage of Her2 FISH-amplified cases showed an increasing trend significantly through their corresponding HER2 IHC ordinals by the 2007 and the 2013 criteria, respectively (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). After excluding equivocal cases, the specificity (100%) and positive predictive value (100%) were unchanged under either the 2007 or the 2013 criteria. The sensitivity (100%), negative predictive value (NPV) (100%), and accuracy (100%) of HER2 IHC were higher under the 2013 criteria than those (sensitivity 87.5%, NPV 97.6%, and accuracy 97.9%) under the 2007 criteria. Of the total 49 cases, the number (n = 4) of HER2 IHC equivocal results under the 2013 criteria was 4-fold higher than that (n = 1) under the 2007 criteria (8.16% vs 2.04%). Conclusively, if first tested by IHC, the 2013 criteria caused more equivocal HER2 IHC cases to be referred to Her2 FISH testing than the 2007 criteria. That decreased the false-negative rate of HER2 status and increased the detection

  9. Comparative energy storage assessment item

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, B.

    1984-01-01

    This analysis, a Space Station application study, rediscovered Integrated Power and Attitude Control (IPAC) and found the approach to have lower initial and resupply weight and lower initial and resupply cost than either battery/CMG or regenerative fuel cell/CMG systems. Preliminary trade studies were performed comparing (IPAC) with equivalent independent electrochemical power and control moment gyro (CMG) control approaches. Technologies considered to have adequate status for an initial Space Station were: (1) nickel cadmium batteries (NiCd batteries), (2) regenerative fuel cells (RFC), (3) Skylab class CMG's, and (4) state of the art IPAC using metal wheels and ball bearing suspension (SOA-IPAC). An advanced IPAC (ADV-IPAC) employing composite rotor material and magnetic suspension was included in the comparisons to illustrate a possible range of performance and cost of inertial systems. The candidates were compared on the basis of initial weight and cost and on the basis of resupply weight and cost for a 15 year mission. Thus, SOA-IPAC would appear to be an attractive approach for the initial Space Station and possible technology improvements would further the appeal for the initial and/or growth Space Station.

  10. Hate crimes and the forensic pathologist.

    PubMed

    Prahlow, Joseph A

    2007-12-01

    Hate crimes represent crimes committed against an individual or group on the basis of their race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, or disability. For the forensic pathologist, a death related to a hate crime should be considered a high-profile case, one in which the pathologist should expect abundant public interest and scrutiny. In this article, an overview of hate crimes is presented, stressing the different types of hate crimes and the motives of those who commit such crimes. For death investigators and forensic pathologists, an awareness of these details will help them to recognize and appropriately anticipate issues that may be important in deaths related to hate crimes.

  11. The confidential enquiry into maternal deaths: its role and importance for pathologists.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, I

    1988-01-01

    Comparatively few pathologists seem to know of the existence of the confidential enquiry into maternal deaths and fewer still know anything of its aims or its methods of obtaining confidential information. As the success of any such enquiry depends greatly on the accuracy and completeness of necropsy, histological, and other laboratory reports a brief account of the report itself and the role of pathologists in it may not be out of place. PMID:3170768

  12. Coeliac disease: an update for pathologists

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, B C; Streutker, C J; Chetty, R

    2006-01-01

    Coeliac disease is the manifestation of an immune hypersensitivity reaction towards gluten and related proteins, in genetically predisposed people. Although the precise pathogenesis of this condition remains to be fully elucidated, it is probably multifactorial in origin. The diagnosis of coeliac disease has traditionally depended on intestinal biopsies alone; nowadays, the diagnosis has been expanded to include an array of serological markers. This review is intended to offer pathologists an update of the relevant history and immunopathology pertaining to coeliac disease and also to offer recommendations on the ongoing responsibilities of the pathologist in the diagnosis and reporting of coeliac disease. PMID:17021129

  13. [Sarcomas, example of a pathologist network organization].

    PubMed

    Neuville, Agnes; Coindre, Jean-Michel

    2013-12-01

    Sarcomas are rare and heterogeneous with many subtypes explaining the high level of diagnostic difficulty with frequent important therapeutic consequences. In 2009, a national network of pathologists has been set up with the main objective to perform a systematic histological review of every new sarcoma, gastro-intestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and desmoid tumor. We describe the network organization and report the results of the first two years of activity. These results clearly show the interest of this organization for the patients as well as for all pathologists. Moreover, data and material collect allows a better knowledge of these tumors and an improvement of the rules for their diagnostic management.

  14. Forensic Pathology: A Handbook for Pathologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Russell S., Ed.; Petty, Charles S., Ed.

    This document provides a guide containing basic information for community pathologists to perform medical legal autopsies. Thirty-two chapters consider procedures to use in general and specific situations. Each chapter was written by a specialist. The publication is designed to supplement existing publications. (SL)

  15. TOXICOGENOMICS DRUG DISCOVERY AND THE PATHOLOGIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicogenomics, drug discovery, and pathologist.

    The field of toxicogenomics, which currently focuses on the application of large-scale differential gene expression (DGE) data to toxicology, is starting to influence drug discovery and development in the pharmaceutical indu...

  16. Roles and responsibilities of the interpreter in interactions with speech-language pathologists, parents, and students.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Henriette W; Quintanar-Sarellana, Rosalinda

    2003-08-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA '97) specify that students must be assessed in their primary language. With the ever-increasing number of diverse languages spoken by students, it is very unlikely that even an English-bilingual speech-language pathologist's other language will match that of a student who is referred for a speech-language assessment. Knowing how to work effectively with an interpreter is, therefore, essential for all speech-language pathologists. This article reviews the process of interpretation during parent conferences and student assessments. It describes the specific roles and responsibilities of the speech-language pathologist-interpreter team, with a focus on the linguistic, cultural, and professional skills that the interpreter should have to ensure a successful outcome. Data obtained from bilingual Spanish/English-speaking speech-language pathologists are provided to confirm and describe some important features desired in an interpreter who collaborates with a speech-language pathologist. Suggestions for training and certifying future interpreters are outlined. Finally, models are presented for successful interactions with interpreters. PMID:14533055

  17. A Comparative Judgement Approach to Teacher Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Suzanne; Jones, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We report one teacher's response to a top-down shift from external examinations to internal teacher assessment for summative purposes in the Republic of Ireland. The teacher adopted a comparative judgement approach to the assessment of secondary students' understanding of a chemistry experiment. The aims of the research were to investigate whether…

  18. Speech outcome following palatoplasty in primary school children: do lay peer observers agree with speech pathologists?

    PubMed

    Witt, P D; Berry, L A; Marsh, J L; Grames, L M; Pilgram, T K

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to test the ability of normal children to discriminate the speech of children with repaired cleft palate from the speech of unaffected peers and (2) to compare these naive assessments of speech acceptability with the sophisticated assessments of speech pathologists. The study group (subjects) was composed of 21 children of school age (aged 8 to 12 years) who had undergone palatoplasty at a single cleft center and 16 matched controls. The listening team (student raters) was composed of 20 children who were matched to the subjects for age, sex, and other variables. Randomized master audio-tape recordings of the children who had undergone palatoplasty were presented in blinded fashion and random order to student raters who were inexperienced in the evaluation of patients with speech dysfunction. The same sound recordings were evaluated by an experienced panel of extramural speech pathologists whose intrarater and interrater reliabilities were known; they were not direct care providers. Additionally, the master tape was presented in blinded fashion and random order to the velopharyngeal staff at the cleft center for intramural assessment. Comparison of these assessment methodologies forms the basis of this report. Naive raters were insensitive to speech differences in the control and cleft palate groups. Differences in the mean scores for the groups never approached statistical significance, and there was adequate power to discern a difference of 0.75 on a 7-point scale. Expert raters were sensitive to differences in resonance and intelligibility in the control and cleft palate groups but not to other aspects of speech. The expert raters recommended further evaluation of cleft palate patients more often than control patients. Speech pathologists discern differences that the laity does not. Consideration should be given to the utilization of untrained listeners to add real-life significance to clinical speech assessments. Peer

  19. Professor Witold Nowicki - a greatly spirited pathologist.

    PubMed

    Wincewicz, A; Szepietowska, A; Sulkowski, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a complete overview of the scientific, professional and social activity of a great Polish pathologist, Witold Nowicki (1878-1941), from mainly Polish-written, original sources with a major impact on mostly his own publications. The biographical commemoration of this eminent professor is not only due to the fact that he provided a profound microscopic characterization of pneumatosis cystoides in 1909 and 1924. Nowicki greatly influenced the development of anatomical pathology in Poland, having authored over 82 publications, with special reference to tuberculosis, lung cancer, sarcomatous carcinomas, scleroma and others. However, the first of all his merits for the readership of Polish pathologists was his textbook titled Anatomical Pathology, which was a basic pathology manual in pre-war Poland. Witold Nowicki - as the head of the academic pathological anatomy department and former dean of the medical faculty - was shot with other professors by Nazi Germans in the Wuleckie hills in Lvov during World War Two. Professor Nowicki was described as being "small in size but great in spirit" by one of his associates, and remains an outstanding example of a meticulous pathologist, a patient tutor and a great social activist to follow. PMID:27543863

  20. Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Biomarker Testing: The Pathologist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Brega, Elisa; Brandao, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Biomarker testing has become standard of care for patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Although, it can be successfully performed in circulating tumor cells, at present, the vast majority of investigations are carried out using direct tumor sampling, either through aspiration methods, which render most often isolated cells, or tissue sampling, that could range from minute biopsies to large resections. Consequently, pathologists play a central role in this process. Recent evidence suggests that refining NSCLC diagnosis might be clinically significant, particularly in cases of lung adenocarcinomas (ADC), which in turn, has prompted a new proposal for the histologic classification of such pulmonary neoplasms. These changes, in conjunction with the mandatory incorporation of biomarker testing in routine NSCLC tissue processing, have directly affected the pathologist's role in lung cancer work-up. This new role pathologists must play is complex and demanding, and requires a close interaction with surgeons, oncologists, radiologists, and molecular pathologists. Pathologists often find themselves as the central figure in the coordination of a process, that involves assuring that the tumor samples are properly fixed, but without disruption of the DNA structure, obtaining the proper diagnosis with a minimum of tissue waste, providing pre-analytical evaluation of tumor samples selected for biomarker testing, which includes assessment of the proportion of tumor to normal tissues, as well as cell viability, and assuring that this entire process happens in a timely fashion. Therefore, it is part of the pathologist's responsibilities to assure that the samples received in their laboratories, be processed in a manner that allows for optimal biomarker testing. This article goal is to discuss the essential role pathologists must play in NSCLC biomarker testing, as well as to provide a summarized review of the main NSCLC biomarkers of clinical interest

  1. "Delayed Villous Maturation" in Placental Reporting: Concordance among Consultant Pediatric Pathologists at a Single Specialist Center.

    PubMed

    Al-Adnani, Mudher; Marnerides, Andreas; George, Simi; Nasir, Alia; Weber, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    Delayed villous maturation (DVM) has been associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, including stillbirth, in the late third trimester, but there are limited published data. Moreover, it is recognized that the assessment of villous maturation is subjective and hampered by both intraobserver and interobserver variability. This audit aims to assess concordance in the reporting of DVM among pediatric pathologists at a single specialist center to improve reproducibility of this potentially important diagnosis. This is a retrospective review of singleton placentas from pregnancies at 35 weeks gestation or greater submitted for histopathologic examination between June 2013 and December 2013. Placental slides were reviewed independently by 4 pediatric pathologists, blinded to the original report, apart from gestational age; villous maturation was assessed as appropriate, accelerated, or delayed for the stated gestational age. A total of 464 placental histopathology reports were reviewed, of which 164 were greater than 35 weeks gestation; of those, 42 (26%) were originally reported as DVM. Following the audit slide review, 38 cases (23%) were assessed to show DVM by at least 1 pathologist. Consensus, with at least 3 pathologists agreeing to a diagnosis of DVM, was achieved in only 14 cases (9% of all cases reviewed; 37% of all cases called DVM). However, the proportion of overall agreement between 2 of the pathologists was 0.92. Concordance for DVM is poor among pathologists and subject to much interobserver variability. Consistency may be improved by consensus histologic review of all the placentas in which the diagnosis of DVM is being considered and stringent application of the published diagnostic criteria.

  2. Breast volume assessment: comparing five different techniques.

    PubMed

    Bulstrode, N; Bellamy, E; Shrotria, S

    2001-04-01

    Breast volume assessment is not routinely performed pre-operatively because as yet there is no accepted technique. There have been a variety of methods published, but this is the first study to compare these techniques. We compared volume measurements obtained from mammograms (previously compared to mastectomy specimens) with estimates of volume obtained from four other techniques: thermoplastic moulding, magnetic resonance imaging, Archimedes principle and anatomical measurements. We also assessed the acceptability of each method to the patient. Measurements were performed on 10 women, which produced results for 20 breasts. We were able to calculate regression lines between volume measurements obtained from mammography to the other four methods: (1) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 379+(0.75 MRI) [r=0.48], (2) Thermoplastic moulding, 132+(1.46 Thermoplastic moulding) [r=0.82], (3) Anatomical measurements, 168+(1.55 Anatomical measurements) [r=0.83]. (4) Archimedes principle, 359+(0.6 Archimedes principle) [r=0.61] all units in cc. The regression curves for the different techniques are variable and it is difficult to reliably compare results. A standard method of volume measurement should be used when comparing volumes before and after intervention or between individual patients, and it is unreliable to compare volume measurements using different methods. Calculating the breast volume from mammography has previously been compared to mastectomy samples and shown to be reasonably accurate. However we feel thermoplastic moulding shows promise and should be further investigated as it gives not only a volume assessment but a three-dimensional impression of the breast shape, which may be valuable in assessing cosmesis following breast-conserving-surgery. PMID:14965570

  3. Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge of Tongue/Palate Contact for Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2011-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) rely on knowledge of tongue placement to assess and provide intervention. A total of 175 SLPs who worked with children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) drew coronal diagrams of tongue/palate contact for 24 English consonants. Comparisons were made between their responses and typical English-speaking adults'…

  4. Health Literacy and the Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Eva Jackson; Stevens-Ratchford, Regena

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews concepts of health literacy and discusses the role of speech-language pathologists in improving the health literacy of individuals with and without communication disorders. Method: A literature review was completed of health literacy definitions, concepts, and health literacy assessment and intervention studies with…

  5. The pathologist's workstation. Issues and an early prototype.

    PubMed

    Shultz, E K; Brown, R W

    1991-04-01

    The role of a pathologist demands the efficient collection, processing and communication of information. Although computerization has been readily adopted in the laboratory to help with specimen processing, educational programs and technological tools for the pathologist's own information handling are at the inception stage. Many pathologists feel their role as a consultant would be enhanced by easy-to-use microcomputer information tools linked to their laboratory databases. This article provides an overview of emerging computer science trends and reviews areas in which a workstation is likely to be useful to the pathologist. A currently operational project embodying some of these concepts is described.

  6. Vocal fold nodule vs. vocal fold polyp: answer from surgical pathologist and voice pathologist point of view.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Lesly; Jackson-Menaldi, Cristina; Holland, Wayne; Giraldo, Alvaro

    2004-03-01

    Vocal fold polyps and nodules are caused by inflammation caused by stress or irritation. Our study involved looking retrospectively at 30 patients. A clinical diagnosis was established by an otolaryngologist and voice pathologist through videostroboscopic analysis. Histological sections after removal of the vocal fold lesion were available for microscopic examination. All of these cases have also been previously evaluated and photographed. A clinical diagnosis of either a polyp or a laryngeal nodule have been made and documented. Two pathologists made the histological evaluation separately initially unaware of the clinical diagnosis. Their impression was recorded. After the clinical diagnosis become available and comparison between the clinical and pathological diagnosis were made, a retrospective review of the tissue was attempted to reconcile the differences. In conclusion, after careful histological evaluation, no definitive histological distinction can be made between laryngeal nodules and polyps. Our data showed no distinction between the two entities when compared for the presence of edema, fibrin, inflammation, and amyloid-like material. A statistically significant difference was found in the size of the specimen and the presence of telangiectasias. Based on our data, a biopsy larger than 0.3 cm could be a polyp and a biopsy less than 0.3 cm could be a nodule.

  7. Fold assessment for comparative protein structure modeling.

    PubMed

    Melo, Francisco; Sali, Andrej

    2007-11-01

    Accurate and automated assessment of both geometrical errors and incompleteness of comparative protein structure models is necessary for an adequate use of the models. Here, we describe a composite score for discriminating between models with the correct and incorrect fold. To find an accurate composite score, we designed and applied a genetic algorithm method that searched for a most informative subset of 21 input model features as well as their optimized nonlinear transformation into the composite score. The 21 input features included various statistical potential scores, stereochemistry quality descriptors, sequence alignment scores, geometrical descriptors, and measures of protein packing. The optimized composite score was found to depend on (1) a statistical potential z-score for residue accessibilities and distances, (2) model compactness, and (3) percentage sequence identity of the alignment used to build the model. The accuracy of the composite score was compared with the accuracy of assessment by single and combined features as well as by other commonly used assessment methods. The testing set was representative of models produced by automated comparative modeling on a genomic scale. The composite score performed better than any other tested score in terms of the maximum correct classification rate (i.e., 3.3% false positives and 2.5% false negatives) as well as the sensitivity and specificity across the whole range of thresholds. The composite score was implemented in our program MODELLER-8 and was used to assess models in the MODBASE database that contains comparative models for domains in approximately 1.3 million protein sequences.

  8. Speech-Language Pathologists' Preparation, Practices, and Perspectives on Serving Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiberson, Mark; Atkins, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the backgrounds, diversity training, and professional perspectives reported by 154 Colorado speech-language pathologists in serving children from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds. The authors compare the results of the current survey to those of a similar survey collected in 1996. Respondents reported…

  9. Dysphagia Management: A Survey of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists in Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Gerety, Katherine W.; Mulligan, Moira

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study (a) gathered information about the kinds of dysphagia management services school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide, (b) examined the attitudes of SLPs related to dysphagia management, (c) compared the responses of SLPs on the basis of their experience working in a medical setting, and (d) investigated the…

  10. Job Stress of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Stephanie Ferney; Prater, Mary Anne; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2009-01-01

    Stress and burnout contribute significantly to the shortages of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs). At the request of the Utah State Office of Education, the researchers measured the stress levels of 97 school-based SLPs using the "Speech-Language Pathologist Stress Inventory." Results indicated that participants' emotional-fatigue…

  11. Comparative environmental assessment of unconventional power installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnina, E. N.; Masleeva, O. V.; Kryukov, E. V.

    2015-08-01

    Procedure of the strategic environmental assessment of the power installations operating on the basis of renewable energy sources (RES) was developed and described. This procedure takes into account not only the operational process of the power installation but also the whole life cycles: from the production and distribution of power resources for manufacturing of the power installations to the process of their recovery. Such an approach gives an opportunity to make a more comprehensive assessment of the influence of the power installations on environments and may be used during adaptation of the current regulations and development of new regulations for application of different types of unconventional power installations with due account of the ecological factor. Application of the procedure of the integrated environmental assessment in the context of mini-HPP (Hydro Power Plant); wind, solar, and biogas power installations; and traditional power installation operating natural gas was considered. Comparison of environmental influence revealed advantages of new energy technologies compared to traditional ones. It is shown that solar energy installations hardly pollute the environment during operation, but the negative influence of the mining operations and manufacturing and utilization of the materials used for solar modules is maximum. Biogas power installations are on the second place as concerns the impact on the environment due to the considerable mass of the biogas installation and gas reciprocating engine. The minimum impact on the environment is exerted by the mini-HPP. Consumption of material and energy resources for the production of the traditional power installation is less compared to power installations on RES; however, this factor incomparably increases when taking into account the fuel extraction and transfer. The greatest impact on the environment is exerted by the operational process of the traditional power installations.

  12. Comparing Two Approaches for Assessing Observation Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Langland and Baker introduced an approach to assess the impact of observations on the forecasts. In that approach, a state-space aspect of the forecast is defined and a procedure is derived ultimately relating changes in the aspect with changes in the observing system. Some features of the state-space approach are to be noted: the typical choice of forecast aspect is rather subjective and leads to incomplete assessment of the observing system, it requires availability of a verification state that is in practice correlated with the forecast, and it involves the adjoint operator of the entire data assimilation system and is thus constrained by the validity of this operator. This article revisits the topic of observation impacts from the perspective of estimation theory. An observation-space metric is used to allow inferring observation impact on the forecasts without the limitations just mentioned. Using differences of observation-minus-forecast residuals obtained from consecutive forecasts leads to the following advantages: (i) it suggests a rather natural choice of forecast aspect that directly links to the data assimilation procedure, (ii) it avoids introducing undesirable correlations in the forecast aspect since verification is done against the observations, and (iii) it does not involve linearization and use of adjoints. The observation-space approach has the additional advantage of being nearly cost free and very simple to implement. In its simplest form it reduces to evaluating the statistics of observationminus- background and observation-minus-analysis residuals with traditional methods. Illustrations comparing the approaches are given using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System.

  13. Perceptions of pathology informatics by non-informaticist pathologists and trainees

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Addie; Garcia, Christopher; Baron, Jason M.; Gudewicz, Thomas M.; Gilbertson, John R.; Henricks, Walter H.; Lee, Roy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although pathology informatics (PI) is essential to modern pathology practice, the field is often poorly understood. Pathologists who have received little to no exposure to informatics, either in training or in practice, may not recognize the roles that informatics serves in pathology. The purpose of this study was to characterize perceptions of PI by noninformatics-oriented pathologists and to do so at two large centers with differing informatics environments. Methods: Pathology trainees and staff at Cleveland Clinic (CC) and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) were surveyed. At MGH, pathology department leadership has promoted a pervasive informatics presence through practice, training, and research. At CC, PI efforts focus on production systems that serve a multi-site integrated health system and a reference laboratory, and on the development of applications oriented to department operations. The survey assessed perceived definition of PI, interest in PI, and perceived utility of PI. Results: The survey was completed by 107 noninformatics-oriented pathologists and trainees. A majority viewed informatics positively. Except among MGH trainees, confusion of PI with information technology (IT) and help desk services was prominent, even in those who indicated they understood informatics. Attendings and trainees indicated desire to learn more about PI. While most acknowledged that having some level of PI knowledge would be professionally useful and advantageous, only a minority plan to utilize it. Conclusions: Informatics is viewed positively by the majority of noninformatics pathologists at two large centers with differing informatics orientations. Differences in departmental informatics culture can be attributed to the varying perceptions of PI by different individuals. Incorrect perceptions exist, such as conflating PI with IT and help desk services, even among those who claim to understand PI. Further efforts by the PI community could address such

  14. Pathologists and the judicial process: how to avoid it.

    PubMed

    Epstein, J I

    2001-04-01

    This review article covers the full range of issues concerning malpractice as it relates to pathologists. Following a brief summary as to the incidence and general statistics on the outcome of lawsuits as well as common pathology misdiagnoses resulting in lawsuits, the definition of malpractice is discussed. These include duty, breech of standard of care, proximal cause, and damage. Details are provided as to what a pathologist should do from the initial threat of a lawsuit, to the initial lawsuit, and through the initial physician/lawyer meeting. An in-depth analysis as to how pathologists should handle themselves through the discovery process and, in particular, deposition is provided. Plaintiff attorneys' goals at deposition are covered in depth. These goals include: 1) education about the pathologist's case and strategies; 2) impeachment of the pathologist's credibility; and 3) judgment as to how effective a witness the pathologist will be at trial. Various types of plaintiff's attorney at deposition are summarized. Also discussed is the post-deposition meeting with the legal representative, whether to settle, and specific issues relating to trial. Finally, general tips on how to avoid a lawsuit in pathology are reviewed. PMID:11257629

  15. Nasometry, videofluoroscopy, and the speech pathologist's evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    de Stadler, Marie; Hersh, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    The speech-language pathologist (SLP) plays an important role in the assessment and management of children with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). The SLP assesses speech sound production and oral nasal resonance and identifies the characteristics of nasal air emission to guide the clinical and surgical management of VPI. Clinical resonance evaluations typically include an oral motor exam, identification of nasal air emission, and analysis of the speech sound repertoire. Additional elements include perceptual assessment of intra-oral air pressure, the degree of hypernasality, and vocal loudness/quality. Clinical speech and resonance evaluations are typically the gold-standard evaluation method until a child reaches 3-4 years of age, when sufficient compliance levels and speech-language abilities allow for participation in instrumental testing. At that time, objective assessment measures are introduced, including nasometry, videofluoroscopy, and/or nasopharyngoscopy. Nasometry is a computer-based tool that quantifies nasal air escape and allows comparison of the score against normative data. Videofluoroscopy is a radiographic tool used to assess the shaping of the velum and closure of the velopharyngeal mechanism during speech production. Evaluation findings guide decision making regarding surgical candidacy and/or the therapeutic management of VPI. Surgery should always be pursued first when an anatomic deficit prevents velopharyngeal closure. Therapy should always be pursued in children who present with velopharyngeal mislearning and/or motor planning issues resulting in VPI. It is not uncommon for children to receive a combination of surgical intervention and speech resonance therapy during their VPI management course. Collaborative decision making between the otorhinolaryngologist and the SLP provides optimal patient care.

  16. QUANTITATIVE TOXICOLOGIC PATHOLOGY-METHODS AND INTERPRETATION' SESSION AT THE JOINT MEETING OF SOCIETY OF TOXICOLOGIC PATHOLOGISTS AND THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF SOCIETIES OF TOXICOLOGIC PATHOLOGISTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Report of the 'Quantitative Toxicologic Pathology - Methods and Interpretation' session at the Joint meeting of Society of Toxicologic Pathologists and the International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists, Orlando, Florida, USA, June 24-28, 2001. Douglas C. Wolf,...

  17. Risk Assessment and Alternatives Assessment: Comparing Two Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The selection and use of chemicals and materials with less hazardous profiles reflects a paradigm shift from reliance on risk minimization through exposure controls to hazard avoidance. This article introduces risk assessment and alternatives assessment frameworks in order to clarify a misconception that alternatives assessment is a less effective tool to guide decision making, discusses factors promoting the use of each framework, and also identifies how and when application of each framework is most effective. As part of an assessor's decision process to select one framework over the other, it is critical to recognize that each framework is intended to perform different functions. Although the two frameworks share a number of similarities (such as identifying hazards and assessing exposure), an alternatives assessment provides a more realistic framework with which to select environmentally preferable chemicals because of its primary reliance on assessing hazards and secondary reliance on exposure assessment. Relevant to other life cycle impacts, the hazard of a chemical is inherent, and although it may be possible to minimize exposure (and subsequently reduce risk), it is challenging to assess such exposures through a chemical's life cycle. Through increased use of alternatives assessments at the initial stage of material or product design, there will be less reliance on post facto risk‐based assessment techniques because the potential for harm is significantly reduced, if not avoided, negating the need for assessing risk in the first place. PMID:26694655

  18. Whipple Made Simple For Surgical Pathologists

    PubMed Central

    Adsay, N. Volkan; Basturk, Olca; Saka, Burcu; Bagci, Pelin; Ozdemir, Denizhan; Balci, Serdar; Sarmiento, Juan M.; Kooby, David A.; Staley, Charles; Maithel, Shishir K.; Everett, Rhonda; Cheng, Jeanette D.; Thirabanjasak, Duangpeng; Weaver, Donald W.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) specimens present a challenge for surgical pathologists because of the relative rarity of these specimens, combined with the anatomic complexity. Here, we describe our experience on the orientation, dissection, and sampling of PD specimens for a more practical and accurate evaluation of pancreatic, distal common bile duct (CBD), and ampullary tumors. For orientation of PDs, identification of the “trapezoid,” created by the vascular bed at the center, the pancreatic neck margin on the left, and the uncinate margin on the right, is of outmost importance in finding all the pertinent margins of the specimen including the CBD, which is located at the upper right edge of this trapezoid. After orientation, all the margins can be sampled. We submit the uncinate margin entirely as a perpendicular inked margin because this adipose tissue–rich area often reveals subtle satellite carcinomas that are grossly invisible, and, with this approach, the number of R1 resections has doubled in our experience. Then, to ensure proper identification of all lymph nodes (LNs), we utilize the orange-peeling approach, in which the soft tissue surrounding the pancreatic head is shaved off in 7 arbitrarily defined regions, which also serve as shaved samples of the so-called “peripancreatic soft tissue” that defines pT3 in the current American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM. With this approach, our LN count increased from 6 to 14 and LN positivity rate from 50% to 73%. In addition, in 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas there are grossly undetected microfoci of carcinoma. For determination of the primary site and the extent of the tumor, we believe bisectioning of the pancreatic head, instead of axial (transverse) slicing, is the most revealing approach. In addition, documentation of the findings in the duodenal surface of the ampulla is crucial for ampullary carcinomas and their recent site-specific categorization into 4 categories. Therefore, we probe

  19. Sexual counseling--a new role for speech pathologists?

    PubMed

    McCormick, G P

    1980-07-01

    Sexual intercourse is discussed as a form of nonverbal human communication. During periods of good health, sexual intercourse contributes to the sense of personal worth and to the integrity of marriage. Following episodes of ill health, unresolved sexual difficulties contribute to loss of self-esteem, constitute barriers to clinical progress, and enhance marital discord. Speech pathologists are advised to give more attention to the sexuality of their patients, especially to those who are aphasic. With proper training, selected speech pathologists may find themselves ideally suited to incorporate sexual counseling in their clinical armamentarium.

  20. Interobserver reproducibility in pathologist interpretation of columnar-lined esophagus.

    PubMed

    Mastracci, Luca; Piol, Nataniele; Molinaro, Luca; Pitto, Francesca; Tinelli, Carmine; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Fiocca, Roberto; Grillo, Federica

    2016-02-01

    Confirmation of endoscopically suspected esophageal metaplasia (ESEM) requires histology, but confusion in the histological definition of columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) is a longstanding problem. The aim of this study is to evaluate interpathologist variability in the interpretation of CLE. Thirty pathologists were invited to review three ten-case sets of CLE biopsies. In the first set, the cases were provided with descriptive endoscopy only; in the second and the third sets, ESEM extent using Prague criteria was provided. Moreover, participants were required to refer to a diagnostic chart for evaluation of the third set. Agreement was statistically assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa. While substantial agreement in recognizing columnar epithelium (K = 0.76) was recorded, the overall concordance in clinico-pathological diagnosis was low (K = 0.38). The overall concordance rate improved from the first (K = 0.27) to the second (K = 0.40) and third step (K = 0.46). Agreement was substantial when diagnosing Barrett's esophagus (BE) with intestinal metaplasia or inlet patch (K = 0.65 and K = 0.89), respectively, in the third step, while major problems in interpretation of CLE were observed when only cardia/cardia-oxyntic atrophic-type epithelium was present (K = 0.05-0.29). In conclusion, precise endoscopic description and the use of a diagnostic chart increased consistency in CLE interpretation of esophageal biopsies. Agreement was substantial for some diagnostic categories (BE with intestinal metaplasia and inlet patch) with a well-defined clinical profile. Interpretation of cases with cardia/cardia-oxyntic atrophic-type epithelium, with or without ESEM, was least consistent, which reflects lack of clarity of definition and results in variable management of this entity.

  1. Impedance Screening by the School Speech-Language Pathologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucker, Jay R.; Samsky, Jay G.

    1979-01-01

    Questions regarding the use of minimally trained speech-language pathologists in conducting an impedance screening program, obtaining the cooperation of the children during testing, and dealing with problems related to referral procedures are discussed, and an account of a pilot otoadmittance screening program is presented. (Author/DLS)

  2. What do plant pathologists want from the Fungal Barcoding Initiative?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathologists want from the Fungal Barcoding Initiative what everyone wants, specifically a fast, accurate identification of their causal plant pathogen resulting in a scientific name that synthesizes current knowledge of that organism. It sounds so easy! Yet, accurate DNA barcodes can only b...

  3. Recruiting and Retaining Speech-Language Pathologists in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Cheryl L.

    This study surveyed special education directors and speech language pathologists (SLPs) to identify recruitment and retention strategies currently in place in West Virginia and related problems. A 13-item questionnaire was mailed to all 55 Special Education Directors (SED) in West Virginia. A second survey instrument, consisting of 36 items, was…

  4. Education of Speech-Language Pathologists in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Judy K.

    2006-01-01

    The education of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the United Kingdom and Ireland has many parallels with the university programs in the United States. A comparison of the two also reveals several differences. I know several SLPs who have moved to Ireland to assume excellent positions; furthermore, I recently met three other professionals who…

  5. Bullying: What Speech-Language Pathologists Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to the broad issues surrounding the problem of school bullying in childhood and adolescence. Specifically, types of bullying and their causes are considered, as are the roles students take when bullying occurs and the effects of bullying on students with…

  6. Thickened Liquids: Practice Patterns of Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jane Mertz; Chambers, Edgar, IV; Molander, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    This study surveyed the practice patterns of speech-language pathologists in their use of thickened liquids for patients with swallowing difficulties. A 25-item Internet survey about thickened liquids was posted via an e-mail list to members of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Division 13, Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders…

  7. The future of the pathologist in the hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Connors, E J

    1986-04-01

    The future of the pathologist in the hospital setting can be speculated on in light of contemporary and predictable trends occurring in hospitals. From five of these trends--downsizing, restructuring, diversification, hospital-physician relations, and for-profit hospitals--eight implications for the practice of pathology are identified.

  8. Papanicolaou tests diagnosed as atypical by a cytotechnologist and downgraded to benign by a pathologist: a measure of laboratory quality.

    PubMed

    Condel, Jennifer L; Mahood, Laura K; Grzybicki, Dana M; Sturgis, Charles D; Raab, Stephen S

    2002-04-01

    Follow-up of Papanicolaou (Pap) tests diagnosed as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) by a cytotechnologist and downgraded to benign by a pathologist has not been measured. Squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) follow-up rates were obtained for Pap tests diagnosed as ASCUS (288) or AGUS (94) and downgraded to benign and for Pap tests diagnosed as repair (231). Statistically significant associations were seen between 7 cytotechnologists and between 7 pathologists and ASCUS, AGUS, downgraded ASCUS, and downgraded AGUS rates. The percentage of downgraded ASCUS cases compared with all ASCUS cases per pathologist ranged from 4.8% to 43.7%. Statistically significant associations between pathologists and SIL follow-up rates for downgraded ASCUS diagnoses were seen. The SIL follow-up rate for repair (7.9%) was similar to that for a downgraded ASCUS (11.0%) or AGUS (7.3%). The parameters of downgraded ASCU and AGUS Pap test interpretations are good quality indicators of individual performance and overall laboratory quality. PMID:11939726

  9. Susceptibility to human cancer: From the perspective of a pathologist.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2016-07-01

    The etiologies of human cancer can only be discerned when the genetic clustering of cancer occurs within a family or when cancer occurs endemically in a particular environment. The possible approaches to solving the nature/nurture problem, especially for human carcinogenesis, posit a fascinating challenge for pathologists. This perspective review presents some examples of how clues to human cancer etiologies and/or susceptibilities reside in the realm of pathology practice. These examples using various omics techniques including adductomics, which I would like to highlight in this article, show that the currently available concepts and methods in human pathology can open a path toward the brave new world of a post-genomic era of medicine for young pathologists, whether their original intention was toward the pursuit of diagnostic or investigative knowledge. PMID:27216305

  10. Comparing Counselors', School Administrators', and Teachers' Knowledge in Student Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impara, James C.; Plake, Barbara S.

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of a study that compared the measurement competencies in student assessment of teachers, counselors, and school administrators. Draws implications for pre- and inservice training for professionals in education. (LKS)

  11. Comparability of naturalistic and controlled observation assessment of adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Millham, J; Chilcutt, J; Atkinson, B L

    1978-07-01

    The comparability of retrospective naturalistic and controlled observation assessment of adaptive behavior was evaluated. The number, degree, and direction of discrepancies were evaluated with respect to level of retardation of the client, rater differences, behavior domain sampled, and prior observational base for the ratings. Generally poor comparability between the procedures was found and questions were raised concerning the types of generalizability that can be made from adaptive behavior assessment obtained under the two procedures.

  12. Oropharyngeal dysphagia: surveying practice patterns of the speech-language pathologist.

    PubMed

    Martino, Rosemary; Pron, Gaylene; Diamant, Nicholas E

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to obtain a comprehensive view of the dysphagia assessment practice patterns of speech-language pathologists and their opinion on the importance of these practices using survey methods and taking into consideration clinician, patient, and practice-setting variables. A self-administered mail questionnaire was developed following established methodology to maximize response rates. Eight dysphagia experts independently rated the new survey for content validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed with a random sample of 23 participants. The survey was sent to 50 speech-language pathologists randomly selected from the Canadian professional association database of members who practice in dysphagia. Surveys were mailed according to the Dillman Total Design Method and included an incentive offer. High survey (64%) and item response (95%) rates were achieved and clinicians were reliable reporters of their practice behaviors (ICC>0.60). Of all the clinical assessment items, 36% were reported with high (>80%) utilization and 24% with low (<20%) utilization, the former pertaining to tongue motion and vocal quality after food/fluid intake and the latter to testing of oral sensation without food. One-third (33%) of instrumental assessment items were highly utilized and included assessment of bolus movement and laryngeal response to bolus misdirection. Overall, clinician experience and teaching institutions influenced greater utilization. Opinions of importance were similar to utilization behaviors (r = 0.947, p = 0.01). Of all patients referred for dysphagia assessment, full clinical assessments were administered to 71% of patients but instrumental assessments to only 36%. A hierarchical model of practice behavior is proposed to explain this pattern of progressively decreasing item utilization.

  13. The changing role of the pathologist in the management of Barrett's oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Hopcroft, Suzanne A; Shepherd, Neil A

    2014-10-01

    Pathological specimens from columnar-lined oesophagus (CLO) comprise a considerable proportion of the workload of gastrointestinal pathologists in Western countries. There remain controversies concerning the diagnostic role of pathology. More recently, in the UK at least, the diagnosis has been regarded as primarily an endoscopic endeavour, with pathology being corroborative and only diagnostic when endoscopic features are equivocal or when there are additional features that make the endoscopic diagnosis unclear. There is also recognition that demonstration of intestinalisation or 'goblet cells' is not paramount, and should not be required for the diagnosis. There have been notable changes in the management of CLO neoplasia: pathologists are centrally involved in its management. Pathological assessment of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) specimens provides the most useful means of determining the management of early neoplasia and of determining indications for surgery. This represents an extraordinarily rapid change in management, in that, <10 years ago, laborious Seattle-type biopsy protocols were recommended, and high grade dysplasia was an indication for resectional surgery. Now, individual patient management is paramount: multi-professional meetings determine management after biopsy and EMR assessment. One significant change is that major resections are undertaken less often, in Western countries, for CLO neoplasia.

  14. Chemometrics applications in biotech processes: assessing process comparability.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Nitish; Hadpe, Sandip; Rathore, Anurag S

    2012-01-01

    A typical biotech process starts with the vial of the cell bank, ends with the final product and has anywhere from 15 to 30 unit operations in series. The total number of process variables (input and output parameters) and other variables (raw materials) can add up to several hundred variables. As the manufacturing process is widely accepted to have significant impact on the quality of the product, the regulatory agencies require an assessment of process comparability across different phases of manufacturing (Phase I vs. Phase II vs. Phase III vs. Commercial) as well as other key activities during product commercialization (process scale-up, technology transfer, and process improvement). However, assessing comparability for a process with such a large number of variables is nontrivial and often companies resort to qualitative comparisons. In this article, we present a quantitative approach for assessing process comparability via use of chemometrics. To our knowledge this is the first time that such an approach has been published for biotech processing. The approach has been applied to an industrial case study involving evaluation of two processes that are being used for commercial manufacturing of a major biosimilar product. It has been demonstrated that the proposed approach is able to successfully identify the unit operations in the two processes that are operating differently. We expect this approach, which can also be applied toward assessing product comparability, to be of great use to both the regulators and the industry which otherwise struggle to assess comparability.

  15. Characterizing biological products and assessing comparability following manufacturing changes.

    PubMed

    Chirino, Arthur J; Mire-Sluis, Anthony

    2004-11-01

    Changes in production methods of a biological product may necessitate an assessment of comparability to ensure that these manufacturing changes have not affected the safety, identity, purity, or efficacy of the product. Depending on the nature of the protein or the change, this assessment consists of a hierarchy of sequential tests in analytical testing, preclinical animal studies and clinical studies. Differences in analytical test results between pre- and post-change products may require functional testing to establish the biological or clinical significance of the observed difference. An underlying principle of comparability is that under certain conditions, protein products may be considered comparable on the basis of analytical testing results alone. However, the ability to compare biological materials is solely dependent on the tests used, since no single analytical method is able to compare every aspect of protein structure or function. The advantages and disadvantages of any given method depends on the protein property being characterized. PMID:15529163

  16. Inter-observer variation between pathologists in diffuse parenchymal lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, A; Addis, B; Bharucha, H; Clelland, C; Corrin, B; Gibbs, A; Hasleton, P; Kerr, K; Ibrahim, N; Stewart, S; Wallace, W; Wells, A

    2004-01-01

    Background: There have been few inter-observer studies of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), but the recent ATS/ERS consensus classification provides a basis for such a study. Methods: A method for categorising numerically the percentage likelihood of these differential diagnoses was developed, and the diagnostic confidence of pathologists using this classification and the reproducibility of their diagnoses were assessed. Results: The overall kappa coefficient of agreement for the first choice diagnosis was 0.38 (n = 133 biopsies), increasing to 0.43 for patients (n = 83) with multiple biopsies. Weighted kappa coefficients of agreement, quantifying the level of probability of individual diagnoses, were moderate to good (mean 0.58, range 0.40–0.75). However, in 18% of biopsy specimens the diagnosis was given with low confidence. Over 50% of inter-observer variation related to the diagnosis of non-specific interstitial pneumonia and, in particular, its distinction from usual interstitial pneumonia. Conclusion: These results show that the ATS/ERS classification can be applied reproducibly by pathologists who evaluate DPLD routinely, and support the practice of taking multiple biopsy specimens. PMID:15170033

  17. Autopsy Practice in Ghana - Reflections of a Pathologist.

    PubMed

    Anim, J T

    2015-06-01

    Autopsy practice in Ghana can be said to be far from satisfactory. Most Ghanaians do not know that there are different categories of death, which categories of death require an autopsy and who is required to perform the autopsy. The problems have further been complicated by the fact that, unlike other countries where separate facilities are available for storage of the different categories of dead bodies, all dead bodies in Ghana are conveyed to the hospital mortuary, thus encouraging hospitals to expand body storage facilities in their mortuaries to meet the increasing demand. Public or community mortuaries used elsewhere for storage of bodies of deaths occurring in the community pending the Coroner's directions are non-existent in Ghana. Storage of all categories of dead bodies in hospital mortuaries has resulted in virtually all autopsies being done by the hospital pathologists, especially in the large centres, at the expense of other very important diagnostic functions of the pathologist. This paper explains relevant portions of the Coroner's Act of 1960 and emphasises the need to separate the few hospital autopsies that require the expertise of the pathologist from Coroner's autopsies that may be carried out by any registered medical officer, as specified in the Act, or better still, by specially trained Forensic Physicians/Medical Examiners, as pertains in other countries. The paper also clarifies the different categories of death, those that fall in the jurisdiction of the Coroner and the personnel required to assist the Coroner in his investigastions. Suggestions have also been made on how to approach manpower development to ensure that appropriate personnel are trained to assist the Coroner in the investgation of medico-legal cases. PMID:26339096

  18. Environmental hazards of interest to the forensic pathologist

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, C.R.

    1983-12-01

    The hazards associated with occupational exposure to various workplace contaminants (lead, silica, etc.) have been known for a number of years. Until recently, the potential toxic effects of exposures on the male reproductive system had not been appreciated. This article not only discusses recent studies in that area, but gives clinical examples of how environmental exposures (water, soil, air, and dwellings) can affect various organs in the human body. Awareness that these injuries can occur without obvious relationship to these environmental exposures may help the forensic pathologist discover previously unsuspected hazards.

  19. The role of the pathologist in human rights abuses

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective and unbiased statement is much valued in international work against human rights abuses. Pathologists play an increasingly important role. In this article, this role is illustrated by examples and the international set of rules is described. It is emphasised that under no circumstances should physicians assist in procedures, such as torture, which can weaken a human being. There is ongoing research into the sequelae of torture, both by gross and microscopic examination and in the living and dead victims. Key Words: torture • human rights • death in custody PMID:11002757

  20. Educating speech-language pathologists for a multicultural world.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Battle, D; Murdoch, B; Martin, D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents critical elements and current needs in educating speech-language pathologists for a multicultural world. A proposed paradigm shift in clinical teaching using the UK model is also introduced. In addition, a case study on the American Speech Language Hearing Association's efforts in implementing the Multicultural Action Agenda by networking with the Asian Pacific Islander caucus is described. A survey of multicultural elements in programs in Australia and New Zealand is included. Finally, suggestions for collaboration with those in established professional bodies to meet the increasing needs of a multicultural world are provided.

  1. What is the best way to measure renal fibrosis?: A pathologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Alton B; Alpers, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial fibrosis is a hallmark structural correlate of progressive and chronic kidney disease. There remain many uncertainties about how to best measure interstitial fibrosis both in research settings and in evaluations of renal biopsies performed for management of individual patients. Areas of uncertainty include determination of the composition of the matrix in a fibrotic parenchyma, the definition of how the interstitium is involved by fibrosing injuries, the choice of histologic stains for evaluation of renal fibrosis, and the reproducibility and robustness of measures currently employed by pathologists, both with and without the assistance of computerized imaging and assessments. In this review, we address some of these issues while citing the key studies that illustrate these difficulties. We point to future approaches that may allow a more accurate and meaningful assessment of renal interstitial fibrosis. PMID:26312144

  2. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  3. Comparing Two Forms of Dynamic Assessment and Traditional Assessment of Preschool Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Patricia Thatcher; Wagner, Richard K.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Rashotte, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare two forms of dynamic assessment and standard assessment of preschool children's phonological awareness. The first form of dynamic assessment was a form of scaffolding in which item formats were modified in response to an error so as to make the task easier or more explicit. The second form of dynamic…

  4. Current Training and Continuing Education Needs of Preschool and School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists regarding Children with Cleft Lip/Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedwinek, Anne P.; Kummer, Ann W.; Rice, Gale B.; Grames, Lynn Marty

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain information regarding the education and experience of preschool and school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) regarding the assessment and treatment of children born with cleft lip and/or palate and to determine their continuing education needs in this area. Method: A 16-item mixed-methods…

  5. Testing attention: comparing the ANT with TVA-based assessment.

    PubMed

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2014-03-01

    Posner's attention network model and Bundesen's theory of visual attention (TVA) are two influential accounts of attention. Each model has led to the development of a test method: the attention network test (ANT) and TVA-based assessment, respectively. Both tests have been widely used to investigate attentional function in normal and clinical populations. Here we report on the first direct comparison of the ANT to TVA-based assessment. A group of 68 young healthy participants were tested in three consecutive sessions that each contained standard versions of the two tests. The parameters derived from TVA-based assessment had better internal reliability and retest reliability than did those of the standard version of the ANT, where only the executive network score reached comparable levels. However, when corrected for differences in test length, the retest reliability of the orienting network score equaled the least reliable TVA parameters. Both tests were susceptible to practice effects, which improved performance for some parameters while leaving others constant. All pairwise correlations between the eight attention parameters measured by the two tests were small and nonsignificant, with one exception: A strong correlation (r = 0.72) was found between two parameters of TVA-based assessment, visual processing speed and the capacity of visual short-term memory. We conclude that TVA-based assessment and the ANT measure complementary aspects of attention, but the scores derived from TVA-based assessment are more reliable.

  6. Assessing analytical comparability of biosimilars: GCSF as a case study.

    PubMed

    Nupur, Neh; Singh, Sumit Kumar; Narula, Gunjan; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-10-01

    The biosimilar industry is witnessing an unprecedented growth with the newer therapeutics increasing in complexity over time. A key step towards development of a biosimilar is to establish analytical comparability with the innovator product, which would otherwise affect the safety/efficacy profile of the product. Choosing appropriate analytical tools that can fulfil this objective by qualitatively and/or quantitatively assessing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the product is highly critical for establishing equivalence. These CQAs cover the primary and higher order structures of the product, product related variants and impurities, as well as process related impurities, and host cell related impurities. In the present work, we use such an analytical platform for assessing comparability of five approved Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (GCSF) biosimilars (Emgrast, Lupifil, Colstim, Neukine and Grafeel) to the innovator product, Neupogen(®). The comparability studies involve assessing structural homogeneity, identity, secondary structure, and product related modifications. Physicochemical analytical tools include peptide mapping with mass determination, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, reverse phase chromatography (RPC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) have been used in this exercise. Bioactivity assessment include comparison of relative potency through in vitro cell proliferation assays. The results from extensive analytical examination offer robust evidence of structural and biological similarity of the products under consideration with the pertinent innovator product. For the most part, the biosimilar drugs were found to be comparable to the innovator drug anomaly that was identified was that three of the biosimilars had a typical variant which was reported as an oxidized species in the literature. But, upon further investigation using RPC-FLD and ESI-MS we found that this is likely a conformational variant of the biotherapeutic been

  7. Information Uncertainty to Compare Qualitative Reasoning Security Risk Assessment Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Gregory M; Key, Brian P; Zerkle, David K; Shevitz, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    The security risk associated with malevolent acts such as those of terrorism are often void of the historical data required for a traditional PRA. Most information available to conduct security risk assessments for these malevolent acts is obtained from subject matter experts as subjective judgements. Qualitative reasoning approaches such as approximate reasoning and evidential reasoning are useful for modeling the predicted risk from information provided by subject matter experts. Absent from these approaches is a consistent means to compare the security risk assessment results. Associated with each predicted risk reasoning result is a quantifiable amount of information uncertainty which can be measured and used to compare the results. This paper explores using entropy measures to quantify the information uncertainty associated with conflict and non-specificity in the predicted reasoning results. The measured quantities of conflict and non-specificity can ultimately be used to compare qualitative reasoning results which are important in triage studies and ultimately resource allocation. Straight forward extensions of previous entropy measures are presented here to quantify the non-specificity and conflict associated with security risk assessment results obtained from qualitative reasoning models.

  8. Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathologists on the Use of Telepractice in Schools: Quantitative Survey Results

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Janice K.

    2012-01-01

    This research surveyed 170 school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in one northeastern state, with only 1.8% reporting telepractice use in school-settings. These results were consistent with two ASHA surveys (2002; 2011) that reported limited use of telepractice for school-based speech-language pathology. In the present study, willingness to use telepractice was inversely related to age, perhaps because younger members of the profession are more accustomed to using technology. Overall, respondents were concerned about the validity of assessments administered via telepractice; whether clinicians can adequately establish rapport with clients via telepractice; and if therapy conducted via telepractice can be as effective as in-person speech-language therapy. Most respondents indicated the need to establish procedures and guidelines for school-based telepractice programs. PMID:25945204

  9. Comparative life cycle assessment of three biohydrogen pathways.

    PubMed

    Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2011-02-01

    A life cycle assessment was performed to quantify and compare the energetic and environmental performances of hydrogen from wheat straw (WS-H(2)), sweet sorghum stalk (SSS-H(2)), and steam potato peels (SPP-H(2)). Inventory data were derived from a pilot plant. Impacts were assessed using the impact 2002+ method. When co-product was not considered, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 5.60 kg CO(2eq) kg(-1) H(2) for WS-H(2), 5.32 kg CO(2eq) kg(-1) H(2) for SSS-H(2), and 5.18 kg CO(2eq) kg(-1) H(2) for SPP-H(2). BioH(2) pathways reduced GHG emissions by 52-56% compared to diesel and by 54-57% compared to steam methane reforming production of H(2). The energy ratios (ER) were also comparable: 1.08 for WS-H(2), 1.14 for SSS-H(2) and 1.17 for SPP-H(2). A shift from SPP-H(2) to WS-H(2) would therefore not affect the ER and GHG emissions of these BioH(2) pathways. When co-product was considered, a shift from SPP-H(2) to WS-H(2) or SSS-H(2) decreased the ER, while increasing the GHG emissions significantly. Co-product yield should be considered when selecting BioH(2) feedstocks.

  10. Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists

    PubMed Central

    Remick, Amera K.; Catlin, Natasha R.; Quist, Erin M.; Steinbach, Thomas J.; Dixon, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) Education Committee and the STP Reproductive Special Interest Group held a North Carolina regional meeting entitled, “Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists” on March 13, 2015, at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Toxicology Program in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The purpose of this regional meeting was to familiarize attendees with the topic of juvenile toxicity testing and discuss its relevance to clinical pediatric medicine, regulatory perspectives, challenges of appropriate study design confronted by toxicologists, and challenges of histopathologic examination and interpretation of juvenile tissues faced by pathologists. The 1-day meeting was a success with over 60 attendees representing industry, government, research organizations, and academia. PMID:26220944

  11. Comparative assessment of nanomaterial definitions and safety evaluation considerations.

    PubMed

    Boverhof, Darrell R; Bramante, Christina M; Butala, John H; Clancy, Shaun F; Lafranconi, Mark; West, Jay; Gordon, Steve C

    2015-10-01

    Nanomaterials continue to bring promising advances to science and technology. In concert have come calls for increased regulatory oversight to ensure their appropriate identification and evaluation, which has led to extensive discussions about nanomaterial definitions. Numerous nanomaterial definitions have been proposed by government, industry, and standards organizations. We conducted a comprehensive comparative assessment of existing nanomaterial definitions put forward by governments to highlight their similarities and differences. We found that the size limits used in different definitions were inconsistent, as were considerations of other elements, including agglomerates and aggregates, distributional thresholds, novel properties, and solubility. Other important differences included consideration of number size distributions versus weight distributions and natural versus intentionally-manufactured materials. Overall, the definitions we compared were not in alignment, which may lead to inconsistent identification and evaluation of nanomaterials and could have adverse impacts on commerce and public perceptions of nanotechnology. We recommend a set of considerations that future discussions of nanomaterial definitions should consider for describing materials and assessing their potential for health and environmental impacts using risk-based approaches within existing assessment frameworks. Our intent is to initiate a dialogue aimed at achieving greater clarity in identifying those nanomaterials that may require additional evaluation, not to propose a formal definition.

  12. Comparative analysis of health risk assessments for municipal waste combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, A.; Fratt, D.B.; Leonard, A.; Bruins, R.J.F.; Fradkin, L.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative health risk assessments have been performed for a number of proposed municipal waste combustor (MWC) facilities over the past several years. The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of a total of 21 risk assessments, focusing on seven of the most comprehensive methodologies. The analysis concentrates on stack emissions of noncriteria pollutants and is comparative rather than critical in nature. Overall, the risk assessment methodologies used were similar whereas the assumptions and input values used varied from study to study. Some of the variability results directly from differences in site-specific characteristics, but much of it is due to absence of data, lack of field validation, lack of specific guidelines from regulatory agencies, and reliance on professional judgment. The results indicate that carcinogenic risks are more significant than chronic non-carcinogenic risks. In most instances polychlorodibenzodioxins, polychlorodibenzofurans, and cadmium contribute more significantly to the total carcinogenic risk from MWC stack emissions than other contaminants. In addition, the contribution to total risk of all indirect routes of exposure (ingestion and dermal contact) exceeds that of the direct inhalation route for most studies reviewed.

  13. Comparative analysis of health risk assessments for municipal waste combustors.

    PubMed

    Levin, A; Fratt, D B; Leonard, A; Bruins, R J; Fradkin, L

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative health risk assessments have been performed for a number of proposed municipal waste combustor (MWC) facilities over the past several years. This article presents the results of a comparative analysis of a total of 21 risk assessments, focusing on seven of the most comprehensive methodologies. The analysis concentrates on stack emissions of noncriteria pollutants and is comparative rather than critical in nature. Overall, the risk assessment methodologies used were similar whereas the assumptions and input values used varied from study to study. Some of this variability results directly from differences in site-specific characteristics, but much of it is due to absence of data, lack of field validation, lack of specific guidelines from regulatory agencies, and reliance on professional judgment. The results indicate that carcinogenic risks are more significant than chronic non-carcinogenic risks. In most instances polychlorodibenzodioxins, polychlorodibenzofurans, and cadmium contribute more significantly to the total carcinogenic risk from MWC stack emissions than other contaminants. In addition, the contribution to total risk of all indirect routes of exposure (ingestion and dermal contact) exceeds that of the direct inhalation route for most studies reviewed.

  14. Comparative analysis of health risk assessments for municipal waste combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, A.; Fratt, D.B.; Leonard, A.; Bruins, R.J.; Fradkin, L. )

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative health risk assessments have been performed for a number of proposed municipal waste combustor (MWC) facilities over the past several years. This article presents the results of a comparative analysis of a total of 21 risk assessments, focusing on seven of the most comprehensive methodologies. The analysis concentrates on stack emissions of noncriteria pollutants and is comparative rather than critical in nature. Overall, the risk assessment methodologies used were similar whereas the assumptions and input values used varied from study to study. Some of this variability results directly from differences in site-specific characteristics, but much of it is due to absence of data, lack of field validation, lack of specific guidelines from regulatory agencies, and reliance on professional judgment. The results indicate that carcinogenic risks are more significant than chronic non-carcinogenic risks. In most instances polychlorodibenzodioxins, polychlorodibenzofurans, and cadmium contribute more significantly to the total carcinogenic risk from MWC stack emissions than other contaminants. In addition, the contribution to total risk of all indirect routes of exposure (ingestion and dermal contact) exceeds that of the direct inhalation route for most studies reviewed. 42 refs.

  15. Transcription factor motif quality assessment requires systematic comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kibet, Caleb Kipkurui; Machanick, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site prediction remains a challenge in gene regulatory research due to degeneracy and potential variability in binding sites in the genome. Dozens of algorithms designed to learn binding models (motifs) have generated many motifs available in research papers with a subset making it to databases like JASPAR, UniPROBE and Transfac. The presence of many versions of motifs from the various databases for a single TF and the lack of a standardized assessment technique makes it difficult for biologists to make an appropriate choice of binding model and for algorithm developers to benchmark, test and improve on their models. In this study, we review and evaluate the approaches in use, highlight differences and demonstrate the difficulty of defining a standardized motif assessment approach. We review scoring functions, motif length, test data and the type of performance metrics used in prior studies as some of the factors that influence the outcome of a motif assessment. We show that the scoring functions and statistics used in motif assessment influence ranking of motifs in a TF-specific manner. We also show that TF binding specificity can vary by source of genomic binding data. We also demonstrate that information content of a motif is not in isolation a measure of motif quality but is influenced by TF binding behaviour. We conclude that there is a need for an easy-to-use tool that presents all available evidence for a comparative analysis. PMID:27092243

  16. Speech-Language Pathologist and General Educator Collaboration: A Model for Tier 2 Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gina D.; Bellon-Harn, Monica L.

    2014-01-01

    Tier 2 supplemental instruction within a response to intervention framework provides a unique opportunity for developing partnerships between speech-language pathologists and classroom teachers. Speech-language pathologists may participate in Tier 2 instruction via a consultative or collaborative service delivery model depending on district needs.…

  17. Clinical pathologist in Korea--training program and its roles in laboratories.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han-Ik; Lee, Kap No; Park, Jong-Woo; Park, Hyosoon; Kwak, Yun Sik

    2002-01-01

    A rapid development of practice of laboratory medicine in Korea owes its success to the clinical pathologists (CP), who have played a role of a pathfinder for laboratories. The Korean CP postgraduate education (residency) program is unique in that it is exclusively for laboratory medicine. The training program for clinical pathologists includes diagnostic hematology, diagnostic immunology, clinical microbiology, clinical chemistry, blood bank, diagnostic genetics, informatics and laboratory management. The program has produced a strong group of about 600 laboratory physicians, officially clinical pathologists since 1963. Most of Korean clinical pathologists work as laboratory directors, directors of university hospital laboratories or teaching faculty members in medical schools. The roles of clinical pathologists are laboratory management, interpretation of laboratory test results, clinical consulting services to clinicians and patients, ordering secondary tests after reviews of requested test results and utilization management. The clinical pathologists have developed clinical laboratories to be a main contributor for improved medical practice. During the last 40 years under the turbulent healthcare system, clinical pathologists have significantly contributed to safeguard the laboratory interests. The education program and the role of clinical pathologists are described. PMID:12755275

  18. Comparative Assessment of Fetal Malnutrition by Anthropometry and CAN Score

    PubMed Central

    Soundarya, Mahalingam; Basavaprabhu, Achappa; Raghuveera, Kamila; Baliga, BS; Shivanagaraja, BSV

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Fetal malnutrition (FM) implies soft tissue wasting at birth with significant postnatal consequences and morbidity, and is identified by clinical assessment (CAN score) and anthropometry. No previous studies have been done to study all these parameters and evolve a screening method. The aim of this study was identifying the incidence of FM using CAN score and compare the nutritional assessment with anthropometry and evolve a screening tool for rapid assessment of FM. Methods Prospective study in Government district maternity hospital. 300 term newborns were assessed by CAN score and anthropometry recorded. The newborns were classified as per weight for age. Ponderal index (PI), Body mass index (BMI) and midarm circumference/head circumference ratio (MAC/HC) calculated and compared to CAN Score for accuracy in identifying FM. Findings Incidence of FM was 24%. Newborns identified malnourished by PI, BMI, MAC/HC were evaluated by CAN score and significant number of them (31/78 in PI, 60/121 in BMI, 51/81 in MAC/HC) were found well nourished. Similarly those recognized as normal by PI, BMI, MAC/HC were malnourished by CAN score(25/222 in PI, 11/179 in BMI, 42/219 in MAC/HC) with statistical significance(0.0001). BMI had the highest sensitivity and 11 neonates with normal BMI had low CAN score ann 9 of them had normal PI also making a combination of BMI and PI a good indicator of normal nutrition. Conclusion FM is best identified by CAN Score. BMI is the best screening tool for malnutrition and when coupled with PI will identify most normally nourished newborns. PMID:23056862

  19. Progression from low-grade dysplasia to malignancy in patients with Barrett's esophagus diagnosed by two or more pathologists

    PubMed Central

    Moole, Harsha; Patel, Jaymon; Ahmed, Zohair; Duvvuri, Abhiram; Vennelaganti, Sreekar; Moole, Vishnu; Dharmapuri, Sowmya; Boddireddy, Raghuveer; Yedama, Pratyusha; Bondalapati, Naveen; Uppu, Achuta; Vennelaganti, Prashanth; Puli, Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate annual incidence of low grade dysplasia (LGD) progression to high grade dysplasia (HGD) and/or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) when diagnosis was made by two or more expert pathologists. METHODS Studies evaluating the progression of LGD to HGD or EAC were included. The diagnosis of LGD must be made by consensus of two or more expert gastrointestinal pathologists. Articles were searched in Medline, Pubmed, and Embase. Pooled proportions were calculated using fixed and random effects model. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed using the I2 statistic. RESULTS Initial search identified 721 reference articles, of which 53 were selected and reviewed. Twelve studies (n = 971) that met the inclusion criteria were included in this analysis. Among the total original LGD diagnoses in the included studies, only 37.49% reached the consensus LGD diagnosis after review by two or more expert pathologists. Total follow up period was 1532 patient-years. In the pooled consensus LGD patients, the annual incidence rate (AIR) of progression to HGD and or EAC was 10.35% (95%CI: 7.56-13.13) and progression to EAC was 5.18% (95%CI: 3.43-6.92). Among the patients down staged from original LGD diagnosis to No-dysplasia Barrett’s esophagus, the AIR of progression to HGD and EAC was 0.65% (95%CI: 0.49-0.80). Among the patients down staged to Indefinite for dysplasia, the AIR of progression to HGD and EAC was 1.42% (95%CI: 1.19-1.65). In patients with consensus HGD diagnosis, the AIR of progression to EAC was 28.63% (95%CI: 13.98-43.27). CONCLUSION When LGD is diagnosed by consensus agreement of two or more expert pathologists, its progression towards malignancy seems to be at least three times the current estimates, however it could be up to 20 times the current estimates. Biopsies of all Barrett’s esophagus patients with LGD should be reviewed by two expert gastroenterology pathologists. Follow-up strict surveillance programs should be in place for these patients.

  20. Framework for a comparative environmental assessment of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.

    1998-11-01

    During the drilling of an oil or gas well, drilling fluid (or mud) is used to maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. In response to effluent limitation guidelines promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for discharge of drilling wastes offshore, alternatives to water and oil-based muds have been developed. These synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are more efficient than water-based muds (WBMs) for drilling difficult and complex formation intervals and have lower toxicity and smaller environmental impacts than diesel or conventional mineral oil-based muds (OBMs). A third category of drilling fluids, derived from petroleum and called enhanced mineral oils (EMOs), also have these advantages over the traditionally used OBMs and WBMs. EPA recognizes that SBMs and EMOs are new classes of drilling fluids, but their regulatory status is unclear. To address this uncertainty, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will develop final regulations for SBM discharges offshore in less than three years. This report develops a framework for a comparative risk assessment for the discharge of SBMs and EMOs, to help support a risk-based, integrated approach to regulatory decision making. The framework will help identify potential impacts and benefits associated with the use of SBMs, EMOs, WBMs, and OBMs; identify areas where additional data are needed; and support early decision-making in the absence of complete data. As additional data becomes available, the framework can support a full quantitative comparative assessment. Detailed data are provided to support a comparative assessment in the areas of occupational and public health impacts.

  1. Global recognition of qualified toxicologic pathologists: where we are now and where we need to go.

    PubMed

    Ettlin, Robert A; Bolon, Brad; Pyrah, Ian; Konishi, Yoichi; Black, Hugh E

    2008-06-01

    While there are a few national schemes for accreditation/certification of toxicologic pathologists (e.g. in Japan and UK), a global recognition system for bench toxicologic pathologists is missing, as are universal standards defining their core competencies. This paper summarizes the basic means, how proficiency in toxicologic pathology is acquired, provides an overview over examinations of interest to toxicologic pathologists and emphasizes the value of practical experience in the field. The paper then discusses basic approaches to evaluate the proficiency of toxicologic pathologists and examines potential means to recognize qualified toxicologic pathologists. With progressive globalization it is important that the toxicologic pathology community intensifies the discussion regarding a global recognition of their discipline and seeks to agree on the way forward.

  2. Global recognition of qualified toxicologic pathologists: where we are now and where we need to go.

    PubMed

    Ettlin, Robert A; Bolon, Brad; Pyrah, Ian; Konishi, Yoichi; Black, Hugh E

    2008-07-01

    Although there are a few national schemes for accreditation/certification of toxicologic pathologists (e.g., in Japan and the United Kingdom), a global recognition system for bench toxicologic pathologists is missing, as are universal standards defining their core competencies. This paper summarizes basic means regarding how proficiency in toxicologic pathology is acquired, provides an overview over examinations of interest to toxicologic pathologists, and emphasizes the value of practical experience in the field. The paper then discusses basic approaches to evaluate the proficiency of toxicologic pathologists and examines potential means to recognize qualified toxicologic pathologists. With progressive globalization, it is important that the toxicologic pathology community deepens the discussion regarding a global recognition mechanism for their discipline.

  3. Comparing potential early caries assessment methods for teledentistry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Optical caries detection has the potential to be incorporated in telehealth medicine for preventive dental screening. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare visible and near infrared detection methods for identifying early non-cavitated ex vivo occlusal demineralization. Methods Six blinded examiners were used to compare the accuracy of the following three examinations in detecting occlusal demineralization: Midwest Caries ID™ (MID), visual photographic examination (CAM) and Cross Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography (CP-OCT). For each diagnostic method, two examiners assessed the extracted tooth samples 1–2 weeks apart. Teeth were then sectioned and lesion depth was confirmed (n = 42) by a blinded histological examination using a glycol based caries indicator dye. The sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Sp), Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), and Area under the Receiver Operator Curve (AUC) were calculated. Results For detecting any demineralization versus sound pit and fissure enamel, the mean Sen/Sp found was 46.9/85.0 for MID, 80.5/52.5 for CAM, and 83.4/45.0 for CP-OCT. For detecting non-cavitated demineralization that progressed into the dentin, the mean Sen/Sp found was 17.3/88.0 for MID, 48.0/57.8 for CAM, and 44.2/72.7 for CP-OCT. AUC values were statistically significant (P < 0.05) in three out of four examiner assessments when MID and CP-OCT were used to detect any demineralization. AUC values were significant for a single CAM examination. When assessing deeper non-cavitated lesions, none of the assessment methods were able to yield AUC values that were significantly different than a random ‘coin flip’ test. When examining reliability, MID demonstrated the highest ICC score (0.83) and CP-OCT had the lowest (0.49). Conclusion Although MID and CP-OCT were useful in detecting the presence of demineralization, examiners were not able to utilize these devices to adequately assess the depth of the

  4. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  5. Comparative endocrinology of leptin: Assessing function in a phylogenetic context

    PubMed Central

    Londraville, Richard L.; Macotela, Yazmin; Duff, Robert J.; Easterling, Marietta R.; Liu, Qin; Crespi, Erica J.

    2014-01-01

    As we approach the end of two decades of leptin research, the comparative biology of leptin is just beginning. We now have several leptin orthologs described from nearly every major clade among vertebrates, and are moving beyond gene descriptions to functional studies. Even at this early stage, it is clear that non-mammals display clear functional similarities and differences with their better-studied mammalian counterparts. This review assesses what we know about leptin function in mammals and non-mammals, and gives examples of how these data can inform leptin biology in humans. PMID:24525452

  6. A comparative study of ship hull structures fatigue assessment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petinov, Sergei V.; Polezhayeva, Helena A.; Yermolayeva, Natalya S.

    1992-07-01

    Several methods of fatigue assessment in ship hull structures are compared. The analysis is focused on fatigue problems of hull structures concerning: evaluation, the design state of fatigue damage of a structure formulation, and the adequacy of methods and data bases for the purpose of the analyses. To illustrate the discussion, examples of allowable nominal stress at a given fatigue life calculation are presented for bottom frame web slot and for a bottom longitudinal transverse bulkhead bracket connection in the case of a container ship. The low cycle (local strain) method is regarded as the most advantageous at present almost in all practical problems connected to fatigue.

  7. An Approach to Assess Generalizability in Comparative Effectiveness Research

    PubMed Central

    Steventon, Adam; Grieve, Richard; Bardsley, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Policy makers require estimates of comparative effectiveness that apply to the population of interest, but there has been little research on quantitative approaches to assess and extend the generalizability of randomized controlled trial (RCT)–based evaluations. We illustrate an approach using observational data. Methods. Our example is the Whole Systems Demonstrator (WSD) trial, in which 3230 adults with chronic conditions were assigned to receive telehealth or usual care. First, we used novel placebo tests to assess whether outcomes were similar between the RCT control group and a matched subset of nonparticipants who received usual care. We matched on 65 baseline variables obtained from the electronic medical record. Second, we conducted sensitivity analysis to consider whether the estimates of treatment effectiveness were robust to alternative assumptions about whether “usual care” is defined by the RCT control group or nonparticipants. Thus, we provided alternative estimates of comparative effectiveness by contrasting the outcomes of the RCT telehealth group and matched nonparticipants. Results. For some endpoints, such as the number of outpatient attendances, the placebo tests passed, and the effectiveness estimates were robust to the choice of comparison group. However, for other endpoints, such as emergency admissions, the placebo tests failed and the estimates of treatment effect differed markedly according to whether telehealth patients were compared with RCT controls or matched nonparticipants. Conclusions. The proposed placebo tests indicate those cases when estimates from RCTs do not generalize to routine clinical practice and motivate complementary estimates of comparative effectiveness that use observational data. Future RCTs are recommended to incorporate these placebo tests and the accompanying sensitivity analyses to enhance their relevance to policy making. PMID:25986472

  8. Comparative life-cycle assessment of fossil diesel and biodiesel

    SciTech Connect

    Spirinckx, C.; Ceuterick, D.

    1996-12-31

    Complementary to the VITO demonstration project on the use of biodiesel as engine fuel, a comparative life-cycle assessment has been made for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and fossil diesel fuel. The study covers: (1) a description of the LCA methodology used; (2) an inventory of the consumption of energy and materials and the discharges to the environment; (3) a comparative impact assessment. The life-cycle of the biodiesel covers the cultivation of winter rapeseed in Belgium (including fertilizer production and application), oil extraction and processing, transesterification, combustion of RME in a diesel engine and the different transportation steps during the whole life-cycle. Data on fossil diesel production cover the following aspects: extraction of crude oil, refining, combustion in a diesel engine and several transportation steps. Emission data of the combustion of both RME and fossil diesel fuel in a diesel engine are based upon VITO measurements. Sensitivity analyses on the most important parameters has been carried out as e.g. type of fertilizer, allocation method, data source.

  9. Pathologists' roles in clinical utilization management. A financing model for managed care.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J J; Liberman, A

    2000-03-01

    In ancillary or laboratory utilization management, the roles of pathologists have not been explored fully in managed care systems. Two possible reasons may account for this: pathologists' potential contributions have not been defined clearly, and effective measurement of and reasonable compensation for the pathologist's contribution remains vague. The responsibilities of pathologists in clinical practice may include clinical pathology and laboratory services (which have long been well-defined and are compensated according to a resource-based relative value system-based coding system), laboratory administration, clinical utilization management, and clinical research. Although laboratory administration services have been compensated with mechanisms such as percentage of total service revenue or fixed salary, the involvement of pathologists seems less today than in the past, owing to increased clinical workload and time constraints in an expanding managed care environment, especially in community hospital settings. The lack of financial incentives or appropriate compensation mechanisms for the services likely accounts for the current situation. Furthermore, the importance of pathologist-driven utilization management in laboratory services lacks recognition among hospital administrators, managed care executives, and pathologists themselves, despite its potential benefits for reducing cost and enhancing quality of care. We propose a financial compensation model for such services and summarize its advantages.

  10. Raising future forensic pathologists (second report): results of a preliminary interview survey.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Manabu; Matoba, Kotaro; Hayakawa, Akira; Terazawa, Koichi

    2012-08-01

    Fostering the specialists of forensic pathology has become a worldwide problem. In Japan, factors such as government budget cuts, the introduction of initial postgraduate clinical training system, as well as national policy on increasing autopsy rates, may deter young graduates from entering this specialty. The aim of this study was to look for clues to promote the training of young forensic pathologists. We selected and interviewed five forensic pathologists, with each interview lasting approximately 60 minutes, and picked up common views among them. The interviews topic, based on a prior survey, was: "What do you believe forensic pathologists require to promote the training of their successors." We selected common views on the three themes listed below; 1) standardization of minimum requirements to be independent forensic pathologists, 2) balancing forensic pathologists' time among autopsy practice, research, and education, and 3) preparing positions for younger forensic pathologists. These opinions were the same as those of previous studies conducted overseas and must be discussed at academic conferences in the future, where both junior and senior forensic pathologists participate. PMID:23016268

  11. Pathologists' roles in clinical utilization management. A financing model for managed care.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J J; Liberman, A

    2000-03-01

    In ancillary or laboratory utilization management, the roles of pathologists have not been explored fully in managed care systems. Two possible reasons may account for this: pathologists' potential contributions have not been defined clearly, and effective measurement of and reasonable compensation for the pathologist's contribution remains vague. The responsibilities of pathologists in clinical practice may include clinical pathology and laboratory services (which have long been well-defined and are compensated according to a resource-based relative value system-based coding system), laboratory administration, clinical utilization management, and clinical research. Although laboratory administration services have been compensated with mechanisms such as percentage of total service revenue or fixed salary, the involvement of pathologists seems less today than in the past, owing to increased clinical workload and time constraints in an expanding managed care environment, especially in community hospital settings. The lack of financial incentives or appropriate compensation mechanisms for the services likely accounts for the current situation. Furthermore, the importance of pathologist-driven utilization management in laboratory services lacks recognition among hospital administrators, managed care executives, and pathologists themselves, despite its potential benefits for reducing cost and enhancing quality of care. We propose a financial compensation model for such services and summarize its advantages. PMID:10705812

  12. Variability in diagnostic opinion among pathologists for single small atypical foci in prostate biopsies.

    PubMed

    Van der Kwast, Theodorus H; Evans, Andrew; Lockwood, Gina; Tkachuk, Doug; Bostwick, David G; Epstein, Jonathan I; Humphrey, Peter A; Montironi, Rodolfo; Van Leenders, Geert J L H; Pihl, Carl-Gustaf; Neetens, Ingrid; Kujala, Paula M; Laurila, Marita; Mazerolles, Catharine; Bubendorf, Lukas; Finelli, Antonio; Watson, Kemp; Srigley, John

    2010-02-01

    Pathologists are increasingly exposed to prostate biopsies with small atypical foci, requiring differentiation between adenocarcinoma, atypical small acinar proliferation suspicious for malignancy, and a benign diagnosis. We studied the level of agreement for such atypical foci among experts in urologic pathology and all-round reference pathologists of the European Randomized Screening study of Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). For this purpose, we retrieved 20 prostate biopsies with small (most <1 mm) atypical foci. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, including 10 immunostained slides were digitalized for virtual microscopy. The lesional area was not marked. Five experts and 7 ERSPC pathologists examined the cases. Multirater kappa statistics was applied to determine agreement and significant differences between experts and ERSPC pathologists. The kappa value of experts (0.39; confidence interval, 0.29-0.49) was significantly higher than that of ERSPC pathologists (0.21; confidence interval, 0.14-0.27). Full (100%) agreement was reached by the 5 experts for 7 of 20 biopsies. Experts and ERSPC pathologists rendered diagnoses ranging from benign to adenocarcinoma on the same biopsy in 5 and 9 biopsies, respectively. Most of these lesions comprised between 2 and 5 atypical glands. The experts diagnosed adenocarcinoma (49%) more often than the ERSPC pathologists (32%) (P<0.001). As agreement was particularly poor for foci comprising <6 glands, we would encourage pathologists to obtain intercollegial consultation of a specialized pathologist for these lesions before a carcinoma diagnosis, whereas clinicians may consider to perform staging biopsies before engaging on deferred or definite therapy. PMID:20061936

  13. Scuba diving deaths: a review and approach for the pathologist.

    PubMed

    Goldhahn, R T

    1977-01-01

    A series of 34 cases of SCUBA-related fatalities in military personnel from the files of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology has been presented. It may be concluded that the potential problems that can occur in the hyperbaric aquatic milieu while using scuba are not completely appreciated by pathologists. The resulting investigations of such fatalities give little hard data relevant to such entities as true incidence of barotraumatic injuries, aseptic bone necrosis, and contaminated air supply, the interrelationship of human, environmental, and life support system factors in such fatalities, and the pathophysiologic sequences leading to drowning or death due to causes other than drowning. Hyperbaric pathophysiology is reviewed with the hope that more reasonable interpretations of cause and mechanisms of death will be possible, and the entities air embolism and decompression sickness are differentiated in a similar light. The importance of the type of SCUBA is discussed, through analysis of ten operational diving fatalities, and the possibility of anoxia, hyperoxic convulsions, and hypercapnia existing with the use of rebreather SCUBA is emphasized. A general approach to the medical investigation of a SCUBA fatality is given, under broad headings including on-the-scene investigation, clothing and equipment examination, external and internal examinations, and toxicologic examination.

  14. Inter-observer reproducibility before and after web-based education in the Gleason grading of the prostate adenocarcinoma among the Iranian pathologists.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Alireza; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Meysamie, Alipasha; Bakhshandeh, Mohammadreza; Hosseinzadeh, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining intra and inter-observer concordance rates in the Gleason scoring of prostatic adenocarcinoma, before and after a web-based educational course. In this self-controlled study, 150 tissue samples of prostatic adenocarcinoma are re-examined to be scored according to the Gleason scoring system. Then all pathologists attend a free web-based course. Afterwards, the same 150 samples [with different codes compared to the previous ones] are distributed differently among the pathologists to be assigned Gleason scores. After gathering the data, the concordance rate in the first and second reports of pathologists is determined. In the pre web-education, the mean kappa value of Interobserver agreement was 0.25 [fair agreement]. Post web-education significantly improved with the mean kappa value of 0.52 [moderate agreement]. Using weighted kappa values, significant improvement was observed in inter-observer agreement in higher scores of Gleason grade; Score 10 was achieved for the mean kappa value in post web-education was 0.68 [substantial agreement] compared to 0.25 (fair agreement) in pre web-education. Web-based training courses are attractive to pathologists as they do not need to spend much time and money. Therefore, such training courses are strongly recommended for significant pathological issues including the grading of the prostate adenocarcinoma. Through web-based education, pathologists can exchange views and contribute to the rise in the level of reproducibility. Such programs need to be included in post-graduation programs. PMID:24902017

  15. Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicles: A comparative assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A representative set of space systems, functions, and missions for NASA and DoD from which launch vehicle requirements and characteristics was established as well as a set of air-breathing launch vehicles based on graduated technology capabilities corresponding to increasingly higher staging Mach numbers. The utility of the air-breathing launch vehicle candidates based on lift-off weight, performance, technology needs, and risk was assessed and costs were compared to alternative concepts. The results indicate that a fully reusable launch vehicle, whether two stage or one stage, could potentially reduce the cost per flight 60-80% compared to that for a partially reusable vehicle but would require advances in thermal protection system technology. A two-stage-to-orbit, parallel-lift vehicle with an air-breathing booster would cost approximately the same as a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, but the former would have greater flexibility and a significantly reduced developmental risk. A twin-booster, subsonic-staged, parallel-lift vehicle represents the lowest system cost and developmental risk. However, if a large supersonic turbojet engine in the 350,000-N thrust class were available, supersonic staging would be preferred, and the investment in development would be returned in reduced program cost.

  16. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Markus A.; Seppelt, Ralf; Witing, Felix; Priess, Joerg A.

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  17. Comparative Assessment of Very High Resolution Satellite and Aerial Orthoimagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to assess the accuracy and radiometric quality of orthorectified high resolution satellite imagery from Pleiades-1B satellites through a comparative evaluation of their quantitative and qualitative properties. A Pleiades-B1 stereopair of high resolution images taken in 2013, two adjacent GeoEye-1 stereopairs from 2011 and aerial orthomosaic (LSO) provided by NCMA S.A (Hellenic Cadastre) from 2007 have been used for the comparison tests. As control dataset orthomosaic from aerial imagery provided also by NCMA S.A (0.25m GSD) from 2012 was selected. The process for DSM and orthoimage production was performed using commercial digital photogrammetric workstations. The two resulting orthoimages and the aerial orthomosaic (LSO) were relatively and absolutely evaluated for their quantitative and qualitative properties. Test measurements were performed using the same check points in order to establish their accuracy both as far as the single point coordinates as well as their distances are concerned. Check points were distributed according to JRC Guidelines for Best Practice and Quality Checking of Ortho Imagery and NSSDA standards while areas with different terrain relief and land cover were also included. The tests performed were based also on JRC and NSSDA accuracy standards. Finally, tests were carried out in order to assess the radiometric quality of the orthoimagery. The results are presented with a statistical analysis and they are evaluated in order to present the merits and demerits of the imaging sensors involved for orthoimage production. The results also serve for a critical approach for the usability and cost efficiency of satellite imagery for the production of Large Scale Orthophotos.

  18. Comparative environmental assessment of natural and recycled aggregate concrete.

    PubMed

    Marinković, S; Radonjanin, V; Malešev, M; Ignjatović, I

    2010-11-01

    Constant and rapid increase in construction and demolition (C&D) waste generation and consumption of natural aggregate for concrete production became one of the biggest environmental problems in the construction industry. Recycling of C&D waste represents one way to convert a waste product into a resource but the environment benefits through energy consumption, emissions and fallouts reductions are not certain. The main purpose of this study is to determine the potentials of recycled aggregate concrete (concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate) for structural applications and to compare the environmental impact of the production of two types of ready-mixed concrete: natural aggregate concrete (NAC) made entirely with river aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) made with natural fine and recycled coarse aggregate. Based on the analysis of up-to-date experimental evidence, including own tests results, it is concluded that utilization of RAC for low-to-middle strength structural concrete and non-aggressive exposure conditions is technically feasible. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed for raw material extraction and material production part of the concrete life cycle including transport. Assessment is based on local LCI data and on typical conditions in Serbia. Results of this specific case study show that impacts of aggregate and cement production phases are slightly larger for RAC than for NAC but the total environmental impacts depend on the natural and recycled aggregates transport distances and on transport types. Limit natural aggregate transport distances above which the environmental impacts of RAC can be equal or even lower than the impacts of NAC are calculated for the specific case study. PMID:20434898

  19. Comparative environmental assessment of natural and recycled aggregate concrete.

    PubMed

    Marinković, S; Radonjanin, V; Malešev, M; Ignjatović, I

    2010-11-01

    Constant and rapid increase in construction and demolition (C&D) waste generation and consumption of natural aggregate for concrete production became one of the biggest environmental problems in the construction industry. Recycling of C&D waste represents one way to convert a waste product into a resource but the environment benefits through energy consumption, emissions and fallouts reductions are not certain. The main purpose of this study is to determine the potentials of recycled aggregate concrete (concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate) for structural applications and to compare the environmental impact of the production of two types of ready-mixed concrete: natural aggregate concrete (NAC) made entirely with river aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) made with natural fine and recycled coarse aggregate. Based on the analysis of up-to-date experimental evidence, including own tests results, it is concluded that utilization of RAC for low-to-middle strength structural concrete and non-aggressive exposure conditions is technically feasible. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed for raw material extraction and material production part of the concrete life cycle including transport. Assessment is based on local LCI data and on typical conditions in Serbia. Results of this specific case study show that impacts of aggregate and cement production phases are slightly larger for RAC than for NAC but the total environmental impacts depend on the natural and recycled aggregates transport distances and on transport types. Limit natural aggregate transport distances above which the environmental impacts of RAC can be equal or even lower than the impacts of NAC are calculated for the specific case study.

  20. Speech-Language Pathologists and Primary Prevention: From Ideas to Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Pauline T.

    1983-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists can help prevent communication disorders by helping to promote disability awareness, focusing on good health, limiting noise pollution, and helping to prevent injuries due to vocal misuse. Suggested activities for each aspect are presented. (CL)

  1. The pathologist's view of silicosis in 1930 and in 2015. The Johannesburg Conference legacy.

    PubMed

    Kambouchner, Marianne; Bernaudin, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    The 1930 International Labour Office Conference on silicosis in Johannesburg was a turning point in the history of silicosis and in the recognition of the associated pathologic patterns. Since 1930, pneumoconioses such as silicosis have become much rarer in developed countries and can now be diagnosed at an early stage based on clinical and radiologic criteria. However, in spite of these advances, pathologists must remember to look for silica in tissues, particularly when clinical and radiologic findings are more uncertain. Furthermore, nowadays pathologists essentially observe silicotic lesions as incidental findings adjacent to lung cancers. In addition to identifying the characteristic lesions, pathologists must also try to identify their causative agent, in the case of crystalline silica firstly by using polarized light examination, followed as appropriate by more sophisticated devices. Finally, pathologists and clinicians must always keep in mind the various implications of exposure to silica compounds in a wide range of diseases. PMID:26509753

  2. Comparative assessment of the methods for exchangeable acidity measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanchikova, E. V.; Shamrikova, E. V.; Bespyatykh, N. V.; Zaboeva, G. A.; Bobrova, Yu. I.; Kyz"yurova, E. V.; Grishchenko, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    A comparative assessment of the results of measuring the exchangeable acidity and its components by different methods was performed for the main mineral genetic horizons of texturally-differentiated gleyed and nongleyed soddy-podzolic and gley-podzolic soils of the Komi Republic. It was shown that the contents of all the components of exchangeable soil acidity determined by the Russian method (with potassium chloride solution as extractant, c(KCl) = 1 mol/dm3) were significantly higher than those obtained by the international method (with barium chloride solution as extractant, c(BaCl2) = 0.1 mol/dm3). The error of the estimate of the concentration of H+ ions extracted with barium chloride solution equaled 100%, and this allowed only qualitative description of this component of the soil acidity. In the case of the extraction with potassium chloride, the error of measurements was 50%. It was also shown that the use of potentiometric titration suggested by the Russian method overestimates the results of soil acidity measurement caused by the exchangeable metal ions (Al(III), Fe(III), and Mn(II)) in comparison with the atomic emission method.

  3. Comparative assessment of municipal wastewater disposal methods in southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Bloetscher, Frederick; Englehardt, James D; Chin, David A; Rose, Joan B; Tchobanoglous, George; Amy, Vincent P; Gokgoz, Sinem

    2005-01-01

    A comparative assessment of the risks of three effluent disposal alternatives currently available to wastewater utilities in Southeast Florida is presented in this paper. The alternatives are: deep well injection and ocean outfalls following secondary treatment, and surface water (canal) discharges following secondary wastewater treatment, filtration and nutrient removal. Water quality data, relative to disposal of wastewater treatment plant effluent were gathered, along with water quality data on the receiving waters, from utilities. Comparisons and conclusions regarding potential health concerns associated with the three disposal alternatives are presented. The results indicated that health risks associated with deep wells were generally lower than those of the other two alternatives. The proximity of injection wells to aquifer storage and recovery wells was a determining factor relative to injection well risk. Urban ecological risks were also indicated to be lower, though impacts of urban water use/reuse to the Everglades were not studied. Additional data collection and analysis were recommended to understand the effects of wastewater management on the cycling of water, nutrients and other constituents on southeast Florida. In particular, it was recommended that monitoring of effluents for nitrosamines and pharmaceutically active substances be implemented on a broad scale. PMID:16274082

  4. Comparative cytotoxicity assessments of some manufactured and anthropogenic nanoparticulate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Karla Fabiola

    Due to increasing diversity of newly engineered nanoparticles, it is important to consider the hazards of these materials. Very little is known regarding the potential toxicity of relatively new nanomaterials. However, beginning with several historical accounts of nanomaterials applications---chrysotile asbestos and silver---it was assumed that these examples would provide some awareness and guidelines for future nanomaterial and nanotechnology applications, especially health effects. In this study in vitro assays were performed on a murine alveolar macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7), human alveolar macrophage cell line (THB-1), and human epithelial lung cell line (A549) to assess the comparative cytotoxicity of a wide range of manufactured (Ag, TiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, ZrO2, black carbon, two different types of multiwall structures and chrysotile asbestos as the toxicity standard) and anthropogenic nanoparticulates. There are several parameters of nanoparticulates that are considered to trigger an inflammatory response (particularly respiratory) or cause toxicity. These parameters include: particle size, shape, specific surface area, transition metals in particulates, and organic compounds. Therefore, a wide variety of manufactured and anthropogenic nanoparticulates having different morphologies, sizes, specific surface area and chemistries as noted were tested. To determine the nanoparticulates' size and morphology, they were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, where it was observed that the commercial multiwall carbon nanotube aggregate had an identical morphology to chrysotile asbestos and combustion-formed carbon nanotubes, i.e.; those that form from natural gas combustion. Light optical microscopy was used to determine cell morphology upon exposure to nanoparticulates as an indication of cell death. Also, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of the collected nanoparticulates was analyzed and correlated with cytotoxic responses. For

  5. Sport, scales, or war? Metaphors speech-language pathologists use to describe caseload management.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle

    2012-06-01

    Professionals' experiences, perceptions, and attitudes may be reflected in the metaphors they use to describe and discuss important professional issues. This qualitative study explored speech-language pathologists' experiences of caseload management through metaphorical analysis. Metaphors provided a lens for reflecting participants' lived experiences and professional knowledge construction. Data was obtained from 16 practising speech-language pathologists during individual work place interviews. Participants included new graduate and experienced speech-language pathologists who were employed in hospital and community settings. Metaphors for caseload management were identified from participants' transcribed narratives, then coded and organized into themes. Participants produced a total of 297 metaphors during professional practice narratives. Thematic analysis indicated that participants used three salient metaphors of sport, measuring scales, and war when they addressed caseload issues. Metaphors of sport, scales, and war reflected speech-language pathologists' concerns about managing clients efficiently, perceived caseload burdens, and the conflict they experienced when resources were inadequate. These metaphors may also represent a continuum in speech-language pathologists' personal and professional responses to caseload demands. Shared metaphors may contribute to the professional socialization of individuals entering a profession and to changing or maintaining workplace culture. Hence, speech-language pathologists need to consider the impact of using metaphors of sport, measuring scales, and war during interactions with clients and colleagues.

  6. A Framework for Developing Comparable Multilingual Assessments for Minority Populations: Why Context Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveri, Maria Elena; Ercikan, Kadriye; Simon, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of linguistic minorities often involves using multiple language versions of assessments. In these assessments, comparability of scores across language groups is central to valid comparative interpretations. Various frameworks and guidelines describe factors that need to be considered when developing comparable assessments. These…

  7. A comparative assessment of endogenous water institutional change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Saket; Ersten, Maurits

    2013-04-01

    This paper builds the theory of endogenous institutional change, first proposed by Greif and Laitin (2004), for water scarce regions in context of water institutions. The current emphasis on environmental change, including hydrological change, largely ignores the adaptation of human societies to change. Humans have mostly been considered as boundary conditions or parameters of the dynamics of hydrological change and are not considered as conduits of feedbacks. Nonetheless, the dynamical representation of hydrological change with feedbacks between various components of a system is assuring since it is reminiscent of processual ecological anthropology(Orlove, 1980), except that individual decision making is absent. This paper proposes to consider selected dryland basins of the world, to conceptualize proxies of water relevant socio-economic organisation, such as spatial scales of upstream-downstream cooperation in water use, synthesized over time and then proposes a comparative assessment to test regularities predicted by an extension of river game theory (Ambec and Ehlers, 2008; van der Brink et al, 2012) to endogenous institutional change. References: Orlove, B. S. (1980). Ecological Anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 9 (1980), pp. 235-273. Greif. A. and D. D. Laitin (2004). A Theory of Endogenous Institutional Change. American Political Science Review, Vol. 98, No. 4 November 2004. Ambec, S. and L. Ehlers (2008). Sharing a river amongst satiable agents. Games and Economic Behavior, 64, 35-50. Van der Brink, G. van der Laan and N. Moes (2012). Fair agreements for sharing international rivers with multiple springs and externalities. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 63, 388-403.

  8. Group Assessment: Comparing Group and Individual Undergraduate Module Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a small study that analysed module marks of one cohort of science undergraduates from one academic year. It explored how group summative assessment marking affected the overall marks in comparison with individual assessment. A tutor allocated students to mixed ability project groups. Individual marks for the group work…

  9. Subspecialty surgical pathologist's performances as triage pathologists on a telepathology-enabled quality assurance surgical pathology service: A human factors study

    PubMed Central

    Braunhut, Beth L.; Graham, Anna R.; Lian, Fangru; Webster, Phyllis D.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Bhattacharyya, Achyut K.; Weinstein, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The case triage practice workflow model was used to manage incoming cases on a telepathology-enabled surgical pathology quality assurance (QA) service. Maximizing efficiency of workflow and the use of pathologist time requires detailed information on factors that influence telepathologists’ decision-making on a surgical pathology QA service, which was gathered and analyzed in this study. Materials and Methods: Surgical pathology report reviews and telepathology service logs were audited, for 1862 consecutive telepathology QA cases accrued from a single Arizona rural hospital over a 51 month period. Ten university faculty telepathologists served as the case readers. Each telepathologist had an area of subspecialty surgical pathology expertise (i.e. gastrointestinal pathology, dermatopathology, etc.) but functioned largely as a general surgical pathologist while on this telepathology-enabled QA service. They handled all incoming cases during their individual 1-h telepathology sessions, regardless of the nature of the organ systems represented in the real-time incoming stream of outside surgical pathology cases. Results: The 10 participating telepathologists’ postAmerican Board of pathology examination experience ranged from 3 to 36 years. This is a surrogate for age. About 91% of incoming cases were immediately signed out regardless of the subspecialty surgical pathologists’ area of surgical pathology expertise. One hundred and seventy cases (9.13%) were deferred. Case concurrence rates with the provisional surgical pathology diagnosis of the referring pathologist, for incoming cases, averaged 94.3%, but ranged from 88.46% to 100% for individual telepathologists. Telepathology case deferral rates, for second opinions or immunohistochemistry, ranged from 4.79% to 21.26%. Differences in concordance rates and deferral rates among telepathologists, for incoming cases, were significant but did not correlate with years of experience as a practicing

  10. Comparative risk assessment: an international comparison of methodologies and results.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, R D; Shih, J; Sessions, S L

    2000-11-01

    Comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a systematic procedure for evaluating the environmental problems affecting a geographic area. This paper looks beyond the U.S. border and examines the experience with CRAs conducted in various developing countries and economies in transition, including Bangkok, Thailand, Cairo, Egypt and Quito, Ecuador, as well as other locations in Eastern Europe, Asia and Central and South America. A recent pilot CRA conducted in Taiwan is also considered. Comparisons are made of both the methodologies and the results across the relatively diverse international literature. The most robust finding is that conventional air pollutants (e.g., particulate matter and lead) consistently rank as high health risks across all of the CRAs examined. Given the varied nature of the settings studied in the CRAs, including level of economic development, urban-rural differences, and climate, this finding is particularly significant. Problems involving drinking water are also ranked as a high or medium health risk in almost all the countries studied. This is consistent with the results of analyses conducted by the World Bank suggesting contamination, limited coverage and erratic service by water supply systems. Beyond the major air pollutants and drinking water, the CRA results diverge significantly across countries. A number of problems involving toxic chemicals, e. g., hazardous air pollutants, rank as high health risks in the US but do not appear as consistent areas of concerns in the other countries studied. This likely reflects the so-called "risk transition" - the shift from sanitation and infection disease problems to those involving industry, vehicles and toxic substances - that often occurs with economic development. It may also reflect the greater information about sources of toxic pollutants in the U.S. For other problems, there are important differences across the developing countries and economies in transition. For example, hazardous and

  11. Speech-language pathologists' knowledge of tongue/palate contact for consonants.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2011-11-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) rely on knowledge of tongue placement to assess and provide intervention. A total of 175 SLPs who worked with children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) drew coronal diagrams of tongue/palate contact for 24 English consonants. Comparisons were made between their responses and typical English-speaking adults' contact established by electropalatography (EPG). SLPs were most accurate for consonants with no contact (h, p, f), then velar consonants (g, k, ng). The remaining consonants were rarely accurate (from most to least accurate: l, t, r, z, n, sh, s, zh, y, v, th(voiceless), d, m, b, w, th(voiced), ch, j). SLPs demonstrated good knowledge of contact along the midline, but poor knowledge of contact along lateral margins of the palate. Importantly, SLPs did not show awareness of: lateral bracing ('horseshoe' contact) for alveolar consonants (t, d, n, s, z); the groove for s, z, sh, zh; or posterior lateral contact for most other consonants. Accuracy was not influenced by the following: length of time as SLP, location of SLP training, location of current workplace, proportion of caseload with SSD or childhood apraxia of speech, amount of time spent reading, or exposure to EPG. Awareness of coronal tongue placement for consonant production needs targeting in SLP education.

  12. Educating globally conscious speech-language pathologists for collaborative professional practice.

    PubMed

    McNeilly, Lemmietta G

    2014-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) practicing in the US are facing significant changes in reimbursement, billing and practice in both health care and educational settings. Health care professionals need to convey and demonstrate the value of their services, measure functional patient outcomes and assess patient satisfaction. Documentation procedures for patient and student progress are changing, becoming more abbreviated and electronic. The content of curricula in accredited graduate programs and professional development programs for maintenance of certification for SLPs will need modifications to address the myriad of changes in clinical practice. University programs that design interprofessional education opportunities for students in speech-language pathology programs and educate students in other health professional programs, e.g. physical therapy, occupational therapy, nursing and pharmacy, will help practitioners who are prepared to engage in collaborative practice with other health care professionals in hospitals, schools and community-based environments. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) is actively engaged in several initiatives to facilitate interprofessional education for graduate students, faculties and practicing professionals. Individuals and families with communication disorders in the US represent an array of cultures, and SLPs need to be prepared to work effectively with individuals from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds.

  13. Parathyroid Lipoadenoma: a Clinicopathological Diagnosis and Possible Trap for the Unaware Pathologist.

    PubMed

    Hyrcza, Martin D; Sargın, Pınar; Mete, Ozgur

    2016-03-01

    The authors present clinicopathological features of parathyroid lipoadenoma in a 48-year-old woman who presented with symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism manifesting with pathological fractures and osteoporosis. Preoperative sestamibi scan failed to localize the source of her disease. Exploratory surgery identified an enlarged parathyroid gland with abundant fat tissue. The significant drop of intraoperative serum parathyroid hormone after the removal of this gland and postoperative biochemical cure justified the presence of a single gland disease presenting as parathyroid lipoadenoma. From an educational perspective, the presented case emphasizes why the historical approach to parathyroid proliferations by assessing alone the ratio of parenchymal cells to adipocytes is not a reliable method in the diagnostic evaluation of parathyroid disease. While the accurate size and weight of a parathyroid gland are defining parameters of an abnormal gland, intraoperative and postoperative biochemical workup distinguishes uniglandular disease (adenoma) from multiglandular disease (hyperplasia). The authors also provide a brief review of the previously published cases of parathyroid lipoadenomas to highlight their clinicopathological characteristics of relevance to surgical pathologists. PMID:26585863

  14. Influence of clinical and pathologic features on the pathologist's diagnosis of mycosis fungoides: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Rebecca; Smith, Hayden L; Katz, Peter J; Liu, Vincent

    2015-07-01

    Although clinicopathologic correlation is critical in the diagnosis of early mycosis fungoides (MF), how clinical information directly affects the pathologist's interpretation is unknown. This pilot study aimed to assess the influence of provided clinical information and specific histopathologic features on the histopathologic diagnosis of MF vs. its inflammatory simulants. A computerized survey recorded diagnostic impressions by 24 dermatopathologists of 30 hematoxylin-eosin stained images, including 15 MF images and 15 dermatitis images. Images were accompanied by concordant clinical descriptions (33%), no clinical information (33%) or discordant clinical descriptions (33%). Percentage of correctly classified MF histopathologic images for the three scenarios of concordant clinical information, no clinical information or discordant clinical information were 32% (kappa 0.19), 56% (kappa 0.12) and 16% (kappa 0.33), respectively. The percentage of correctly classified slides presented with no clinical information was different from the other two groups (p < 0.0001). Pautrier collections were most associated with correct classification. Clinical information may play a significant role in the histopathologic diagnosis of MF, although there may be some value in initial blinded histopathologic interpretation. Specific histopathologic features differ in relative importance in the diagnosis of MF.

  15. [Diagnostic and therapy of salivary gland diseases: relevant aspects for the pathologist from the clinical perspective].

    PubMed

    Wittekindt, C; Burmeister, H P; Guntinas-Lichius, O

    2009-11-01

    Significant progress in the diagnosis and therapy of salivary gland diseases has been made in recent years. The new technique of diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy has made an important contribution and is indicated in every case of obstructive sialadenitis. The number of open resections of salivary glands due to stones will clearly decrease in the future in favor of endoscopic removal. Due to recent publications on the appropriate extent of salivary gland resection in benign tumors, more and more specimens with reduced cuffs of healthy salivary gland tissue will be sent to the pathologists. Ultrasound will stay the procedure of first choice for imaging of salivary gland diseases in Germany. In combination with fine-needle aspiration cytology high sensitivity and specificity for the assessment of salivary gland tumors can be achieved. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new imaging tool and the power of distinction of pleomorphic adenoma from malignant tumors is promising. The use of botulinum toxin for salivary glands diseases is increasing. Intraglandular injections have been shown to induce salivary gland atrophy in animal experiments. The availability of biologicals is currently yielding new aspects for the treatment of Sjögren's disease.

  16. Historical perspective and future directions in training of veterinary pathologists with an emphasis on zoo and wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Lowenstine, Linda J; Montali, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the history of the field of zoo and wildlife pathology, training opportunities for veterinary students and graduate veterinarians, and current and future job opportunities. The niches occupied by veterinarians in this field and their contributions to animal and human health are also highlighted. The field of zoo and wildlife, or "non-traditional" species, pathology has its roots in comparative anatomy, zoology, wildlife biology, and medical pathology in the mid- to late nineteenth century. The initial emphasis was on comparisons between animal and human diseases or on management of game animals. Veterinarians became increasingly involved during the twentieth century, gradually changing the emphasis to improvement of conservation strategies, captive care, and elucidation of diseases of concern for the animals themselves. Currently there are several zoos and wildlife agencies in the United States employing full-time veterinary pathologists. Private and government diagnostic laboratories, veterinary schools, and other academic institutions in the United States with pathology departments are other employers. The field requires post-DVM training by means of a residency program leading to board certification, graduate school (MS or PhD degrees), or both. Veterinary students can gain valuable experience in the field through externships and, at some schools, through elective courses in the curriculum. Current concerns about ecosystem health, bioterrorism, and the recognition that captive and free-ranging wildlife can serve as sentinel species will increase the demand for veterinary pathologists choosing this very rewarding career path specializing in non-traditional species. PMID:17035204

  17. Speech-language pathologists' informal learning in healthcare settings: behaviours and motivations.

    PubMed

    Walden, Patrick R; Bryan, Valerie C

    2011-08-01

    The current research sought to identify the types of informal learning behaviours speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in healthcare settings engage in as well as SLPs' motivations for engaging in informal learning. Twenty-four American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA)-certified SLPs participated in this qualitative study. Data collection consisted of computer-mediated interviews, online journaling, and a virtual focus group. These textual data were coded and collapsed into themes. All participant SLPs reported that they learned through collaboration (inter- and intra-disciplinary), worked with patients to learn through trial-and-error, and consulted non-peer-reviewed material on the internet as well as peer-reviewed research in order to learn informally in the workplace. Eighteen of the 24 participants reported being motivated to learn at work to meet a patient's need to meet therapy goals. Five of the 24 participants reported meeting their own personal learning needs was a motivating factor and 10 of the 24 participants reported learning informally to meet the needs of the healthcare organization/SLP profession. Results were compared to past research on SLPs' information retrieval behaviours. It was concluded that SLPs acknowledge their personal work-related gaps in knowledge and skills and actively seek to develop their knowledge and skill base through informal means.

  18. Comparing Course Assessments: When Lower Is Higher and Higher, Lower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Dave; Dobele, Tony; Greber, Myles; Roberts, Tim

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an exercise in determining the cognitive difficulty of the assessment tasks in six computing courses within an Information Technology (IT) degree, importing Bloom's taxonomy from the field of educational psychology as an analytical framework. Three of the six courses comprise a Programming stream and three a Data…

  19. Comparing Assessments within Junior Geography Textbooks Used in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Daihu

    2013-01-01

    The 2001 Geography Standards for Junior Secondary Schools are the first national standards for geographic education since the founding of Communist China. The standards heralded several new ideas for geographic education, and textbook assessments are one important way for understanding their impact. This study examines the changes in assessments…

  20. Comparative assessment of selected PWR auxiliary feedwater system reliability analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, R.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Tsao, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a sample of results obtained in reviewing utility submittals of Auxiliary Feedwater System reliability studies. These results are then used to illustrate a few general points regarding such studies. The submittals and reviews for operating license applications are quite significant in that they represent an application of probabilistic risk assessment techniques in the licensing process.

  1. Skewness and Comparability of School Based Continuous Assessment Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbore, Lawrence Olu; Olabode, Abe Thomas; Olufemi, Adodo Sunday

    2011-01-01

    This study examined skewness as means of determining the nature of distribution of school based continuous assessment (SBCA) scores in selected subjects among Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria, to determine whether or not there is need for moderation of the SBCA Scores. This is an ex-post-facto research design involving no treatment and…

  2. The Global MBA: A Comparative Assessment for Its Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathawala, Yunis; Abdou, Khaled; Elmuti, Dean S.

    2002-01-01

    Presents considerations for assessing master's of business administration (MBA) programs: enrollment flexibility, time for course completion, quality of services, price, accreditation, reputation, and compensation for lack of face-to-face experience. Discusses strengths, weaknesses, threats, and opportunities faced by online courses and compares…

  3. Efficiency of Forced Choice Preference Assessment: Comparing Multiple Presentation Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cheryl J.; Brock, Michele D.; McNulty, Kristin; Rosswurm, Mary L.; Bruneau, Benjamin; Zane, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Determining effective reinforcers for individuals with disabilities is imperative for skill acquisition and behavior reduction. Various methodologies exist to determine reinforcer preference, and past research has shown that results vary across different techniques. The purpose of the current study was to assess which presentation methods were…

  4. The Problem of Assessing Problem Solving: Can Comparative Judgement Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    School mathematics examination papers are typically dominated by short, structured items that fail to assess sustained reasoning or problem solving. A contributory factor to this situation is the need for student work to be marked reliably by a large number of markers of varied experience and competence. We report a study that tested an…

  5. Peer Review of Assessment Network: Supporting Comparability of Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Sara; Beckett, Jeff; Saunders, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to test the need in the Australian higher education (HE) sector for a national network for the peer review of assessment in response to the proposed HE standards framework and propose a sector-wide framework for calibrating and assuring achievement standards, both within and across disciplines, through the establishment of…

  6. Comparative safety assessment of plant-derived foods.

    PubMed

    Kok, E J; Keijer, J; Kleter, G A; Kuiper, H A

    2008-02-01

    The second generation of genetically modified (GM) plants that are moving towards the market are characterized by modifications that may be more complex and traits that more often are to the benefit of the consumer. These developments will have implications for the safety assessment of the resulting plant products. In part of the cases the same crop plant can, however, also be obtained by 'conventional' breeding strategies. The breeder will decide on a case-by-case basis what will be the best strategy to reach the set target and whether genetic modification will form part of this strategy. This article discusses important aspects of the safety assessment of complex products derived from newly bred plant varieties obtained by different breeding strategies. On the basis of this overview, we conclude that the current process of the safety evaluation of GM versus conventionally bred plants is not well balanced. GM varieties are elaborately assessed, yet at the same time other crop plants resulting from conventional breeding strategies may warrant further food safety assessment for the benefit of the consumer. We propose to develop a general screening frame for all newly developed plant varieties to select varieties that cannot, on the basis of scientific criteria, be considered as safe as plant varieties that are already on the market.

  7. Demographic and Practice Characteristics of Pathologists Who Enjoy Breast Tissue Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Natalia V.; Geller, Berta; Carney, Patricia A.; Reisch, Lisa M.; Onega, Tracy; Weaver, Donald L.; Frederick, Paul; Elmore, Joann G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Physician attributes, job satisfaction and confidence in clinical skills are associated with enhanced performance and better patient outcomes. We surveyed 252 pathologists to evaluate associations between enjoyment of breast pathology, demographic/clinical characteristics and diagnostic performance. Diagnostic performance was determined by agreement with patient cases previously reviewed by a panel of experienced pathologists. Eighty-three percent of study participants reported enjoying breast pathology. Pathologists who enjoy breast interpretation were more likely to review ≥10 cases/week (p=0.003), report breast interpretation expertise (p=0.013), and high levels of confidence interpreting breast pathology (p<0.001). These pathologists were less likely to report that the field was challenging (p<0.001) and that breast cases make them more nervous than other types of pathology (p<0.001). Enjoyment was not associated with diagnostic performance. Millions of women undergo breast biopsy annually, thus it is reassuring that although nearly a fifth of practicing pathologists who interpret breast tissue report not enjoying the field, precision is not impacted. PMID:25554017

  8. Comparing Alternative Question Forms for Assessing Consumer Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Robert O.; Sterngold, Arthur; Warland, Rex H.

    1998-01-01

    Three forms of consumer questionnaires were compared:(1) asking how concerned people are about an issue; (2) using concern filters; and (3) using awareness filters. The forms with filters (2 and 3) produced lower percentages of "very concerned" and higher percentages of "unaware" responses. Awareness filters improved the correlation between…

  9. Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods

    SciTech Connect

    M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

    2009-06-30

    Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

  10. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Jonathan; Khowailed, Gannate; Blackburn, Julia; Sikes, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary steps: (1

  11. Comparative safety assessment of surface versus submarine plutonium shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Knepper, D.S.; Feltus, M.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The recent shipment of plutonium from France to Japan aboard the freighter Akatsuki Maru touched off protests from environmental and antinuclear organizations. These protests arose from the fear of an accidental sinking of the vessel that would release its cargo to the sea, as well as the threat of a terrorist nation highjacking the ship for its cargo to produce atomic weapons. The sinking of a merchant ship is not uncommon, as illustrated by the famous losses of the tankers Amoco Cadiz and Exxon Valdez. The highjacking of a lightly armed freighter such as the Akatsuki Maru is possible and would not be unduly difficult for a well-equipped terrorist nation. The combined threats of weapons proliferation and environmental damage arising from the diversion or destruction of a sea vessel carrying plutonium will continue to abound as the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel increases. An alternate method for the transportation with reduced risks of both diversion and destruction needs to be developed. The shipment aboard the Akatsuki Maru was originally proposed to be flown from France to Japan over the continental United States. This proposal was rejected by the Reagan administration in 1988. A third alternative to the current ideas of air transport and surface transport is subsurface transport. This research project investigates the transportation of plutonium by submarine and compares it to the current method of transportation by freighter. This analysis involves a study of the military threat to a submarine by a terrorist nation and comparable threat to a surface vessel. To study the nonmilitary aspects of plutonium shipping, a fault-tree evaluation is performed for transportation by submarine and compared with the current risk analysis performed for surface vessels.

  12. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, J.D.; Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  13. A comparative review of optical surface contamination assessment techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaney, James B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will review the relative sensitivities and practicalities of the common surface analytical methods that are used to detect and identify unwelcome adsorbants on optical surfaces. The compared methods include visual inspection, simple reflectometry and transmissiometry, ellipsometry, infrared absorption and attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and mass accretion determined by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The discussion is biased toward those methods that apply optical thin film analytical techniques to spacecraft optical contamination problems. Examples are cited from both ground based and in-orbit experiments.

  14. Serrated polyposis is an underdiagnosed and unclear syndrome: the surgical pathologist has a role in improving detection.

    PubMed

    Crowder, Clinton D; Sweet, Kevin; Lehman, Amy; Frankel, Wendy L

    2012-08-01

    Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is poorly defined and patients have an increased but unspecified risk for colorectal carcinoma through the serrated pathway. Despite this association SPS remains relatively obscure and is therefore likely underrecognized. We determined the frequency of SPS among patients with any serrated polyps (SPs) over a 6-month "index" period, and in doing so we assessed the ability of surgical pathologists to improve SPS detection. Particular attention was given to the index procedure to assess the potential predictive value of the findings resulting from a single colonoscopy. A total of 929 patients with at least 1 SP were identified, 17 of whom (1.8%) were determined to meet World Health Organization criteria for SPS. Nine patients met the first criterion (≥ 5 proximal SPs, 2 of which are > 10 mm); 4 met the third criterion (> 20 SPs of any size distributed throughout the colon); and 4 met both criteria. Although no specific SP size or number at the index procedure was clearly superior in its ability to predict SPS, > 50% of cases would be detected if a cutoff of ≥ 3 SPs or a single SP ≥ 15 mm at the index procedure is used. In summary, SPS is rare but more likely underdiagnosed. Additional studies to address the underlying genetic basis for SPS are ongoing in order to shed further light on this syndrome. Surgical pathologists are in a unique position to assist in this endeavor by identifying those patients who either meet or seem to be at high risk of meeting World Health Organization criteria.

  15. Comparative toxicology of laboratory organisms for assessing hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Greene, J.C.; Callahan, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), daphnia (Daphnia magna), earthworms (Eisenia foetida), microbes (Photobacterium fisherii, mixed sewage microorganisms) and plants; wheat Stephens, (Triticum aestivum), lettuce, butter crunch, (Lactuca sativa L.) radish, Cherry Belle, (Raphanus sativa L.), red clover, Kenland, (Trifolium pratense L.) and cucumber, Spartan Valor, (Cucumis sativa L.) are presented for selected heavy metals, herbicides and insecticides. Specific chemical EC/sub 50/ values are presented for each test organism. Differences in standard deviations were compared between each individual test organism, as well as for the chemical subgroup assayed. Algae and daphnia are the most sensitive test organisms to heavy metals and insecticides followed in order of decreasing sensitivity by Microtox (Photobacterium fisherii), DO depletion rate, seed germination and earthworms. Higher plants were most sensitive to 2,4-D, (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) followed by algae, Microtox, daphnia and earthworms. Differences in toxicity of 2,4-D chemical formulations and commercial sources of insecticides were observed with algae and daphia tests.

  16. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK.

    PubMed

    Nixon, J D; Wright, D G; Dey, P K; Ghosh, S K; Davies, P A

    2013-11-01

    The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management. PMID:23978558

  17. Comparative Study of Child Assessment Practices in English and Korean Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nah, Kwi-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Child assessment practices in English and Korean preschools were compared by analysing data from interviews with educators, examples of child assessment, and official documents from each country. Child assessment in England was systematically implemented and characterised by several methodological and procedural strengths, whereas assessment in…

  18. Comparative life cycle assessment of standard and green roofs.

    PubMed

    Saiz, Susana; Kennedy, Christopher; Bass, Brad; Pressnail, Kim

    2006-07-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate the benefits, primarily from reduced energy consumption, resulting from the addition of a green roof to an eight story residential building in Madrid. Building energy use is simulated and a bottom-up LCA is conducted assuming a 50 year building life. The key property of a green roof is its low solar absorptance, which causes lower surface temperature, thereby reducing the heat flux through the roof. Savings in annual energy use are just over 1%, but summer cooling load is reduced by over 6% and reductions in peak hour cooling load in the upper floors reach 25%. By replacing the common flat roof with a green roof, environmental impacts are reduced by between 1.0 and 5.3%. Similar reductions might be achieved by using a white roof with additional insulation for winter, but more substantial reductions are achieved if common use of green roofs leads to reductions in the urban heat island.

  19. Energy forest irrigated with wastewater: a comparative microbial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Carlander, A; Schönning, C; Stenström, T A

    2009-09-01

    In this study, risks for human infection associated with irrigation of municipal wastewater on short rotation willow coppice (Salix) were evaluated in three countries. The aim was also to determine the reduction of indicator organisms and pathogens in the treatment plants. Two of the field sites were chosen for further evaluation by QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) applied to three scenarios: accidental ingestions of wastewater, exposure to aerosols and ingestion of groundwater. The risks of infection for bacteria (Salmonella), virus (rotavirus) and protozoa (Giardia, Cryptosporidium) were characterised as probability of infections per exposure and number of infections per year.The highest risk for infection was associated with exposure to rotavirus in Culmore (Northern Ireland), by either accidental ingestion of wastewater or ingestion of groundwater (P(inf) 8 x 10(-1)). For Kvidinge (Sweden) the risk for virus infection by ingestion of wastewater were in the same range (P(inf) 7 x 10(-1)). The risk for Giardia infection differed between the two sites due to differences in concentration of this pathogen in the wastewater. The groundwater was found to have suffered faecal contamination due to the wastewater irrigation. Use of partially treated wastewater for irrigation of energy crops could be a sustainable option if site-specific recommendations are developed.

  20. Comparative assessment of different drought indices across the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglioni, Michele; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Lombardo, Federico; Napolitano, Francesco; Russo, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Droughts have become one of the most challenging issues in hydrological sciences due to their major socio-economic impacts all over the world. In the context of the everyday water resources management practice, the identification and evaluation of droughts are mainly based on simplified indices, which are estimated through easily accessible information. In this work, we employ several meteorological indices, i.e. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), Palmer Drought Z Index, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), in order to evaluate the severity and duration of the observed drought events. The main purpose of this study is to underline the difference in the onset time of drought, the distance between events, and the discrepancies in the magnitude assessment for the same event. Various temporal aggregation scales, from one month to one year, have been considered in order to investigate the impacts of the adopted time scale on the drought characteristics. Our analysis focuses to the Mediterranean region, using data from Southern Italy and Greece.

  1. How Effective Are Self- and Peer Assessment of Oral Presentation Skills Compared with Teachers' Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of oral presentation skills is an underexplored area. The study described here focuses on the agreement between professional assessment and self- and peer assessment of oral presentation skills and explores student perceptions about peer assessment. The study has the merit of paying attention to the inter-rater reliability of the…

  2. Stakeholder assessment of comparative effectiveness research needs for Medicaid populations.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael A; Allen-Coleman, Cora; Farrell, Stephen F; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    Patients, providers and policy-makers rely heavily on comparative effectiveness research (CER) when making complex, real-world medical decisions. In particular, Medicaid providers and policy-makers face unique challenges in decision-making because their program cares for traditionally underserved populations, especially children, pregnant women and people with mental illness. Because these patient populations have generally been underrepresented in research discussions, CER questions for these groups may be understudied. To address this problem, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality commissioned our team to work with Medicaid Medical Directors and other stakeholders to identify relevant CER questions. Through an iterative process of topic identification and refinement, we developed relevant, feasible and actionable questions based on issues affecting Medicaid programs nationwide. We describe challenges and limitations and provide recommendations for future stakeholder engagement. PMID:26388438

  3. Comparative assessment of three-phase oil relative permeability models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranaee, Ehsan; Riva, Monica; Porta, Giovanni M.; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    We assess the ability of 11 models to reproduce three-phase oil relative permeability (kro) laboratory data obtained in a water-wet sandstone sample. We do so by considering model performance when (i) solely two-phase data are employed to render predictions of kro and (ii) two and three-phase data are jointly used for model calibration. In the latter case, a Maximum Likelihood (ML) approach is used to estimate model parameters. The tested models are selected among (i) classical models routinely employed in practical applications and implemented in commercial reservoir software and (ii) relatively recent models which are considered to allow overcoming some drawbacks of the classical formulations. Among others, the latter set of models includes the formulation recently proposed by Ranaee et al., which has been shown to embed the critical effects of hysteresis, including the reproduction of oil remobilization induced by gas injection in water-wet media. We employ formal model discrimination criteria to rank models according to their skill to reproduce the observed data and use ML Bayesian model averaging to provide model-averaged estimates (and associated uncertainty bounds) of kro by taking advantage of the diverse interpretive abilities of all models analyzed. The occurrence of elliptic regions is also analyzed for selected models in the framework of the classical fractional flow theory of displacement. Our study confirms that model outcomes based on channel flow theory and classical saturation-weighted interpolation models do not generally yield accurate reproduction of kro data, especially in the regime associated with low oil saturations, where water alternating gas injection (WAG) techniques are usually employed for enhanced oil recovery. This negative feature is not observed in the model of Ranaee et al. (2015) due to its ability to embed key effects of pore-scale phase distributions, such as hysteresis effects and cycle dependency, for modeling kro observed

  4. Assessment of cognition in mild cognitive impairment: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Peter J.; Jackson, Colleen E.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Khachaturian, Ara S.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Albert, Marilyn S.; Weintraub, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The demand for rapidly administered, sensitive, and reliable cognitive assessments that are specifically designed for identifying individuals in the earliest stages of cognitive decline (and to measure subtle change over time) has escalated as the emphasis in Alzheimer’s disease clinical research has shifted from clinical diagnosis and treatment toward the goal of developing presymptomatic neuroprotective therapies. To meet these changing clinical requirements, cognitive measures or tailored batteries of tests must be validated and determined to be fit-for-use for the discrimination between cognitively healthy individuals and persons who are experiencing very subtle cognitive changes that likely signal the emergence of early mild cognitive impairment. We sought to collect and review data systematically from a wide variety of (mostly computer-administered) cognitive measures, all of which are currently marketed or distributed with the claims that these instruments are sensitive and reliable for the early identification of disease or, if untested for this purpose, are promising tools based on other variables. The survey responses for 16 measures/batteries are presented in brief in this review; full survey responses and summary tables are archived and publicly available on the Campaign to Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease by 2020 Web site (http://pad2020.org). A decision tree diagram highlighting critical decision points for selecting measures to meet varying clinical trials requirements has also been provided. Ultimately, the survey questionnaire, framework, and decision guidelines provided in this review should remain as useful aids for the evaluation of any new or updated sets of instruments in the years to come. PMID:21575877

  5. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C E; Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Michelin, R; Makinde, J M; Jaiyesimi, A A; Mbiti, W N; Kamau, G N; Kofi-Tsekpo, W M; Pramanik, S; Williams, A; Kennedy, A; Bronner, Y; Clarke, K; Fofonoff, P; Nemerson, D

    2008-01-01

    This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit.

  6. Comparative Measurements of Cosmic Radiation Monitors for Aircrew Exposure Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Boudreau, M. L.; Lewis, B. J.; Green, A. R.; Butler, A.; Takada, M.; Nakamura, T.

    Various commercially available electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) have recently been flown on numerous scheduled airline flights in order to determine their viability as small, convenient monitors to measure cosmic radiation at altitude. Often, frequent flyers or airline crew will acquire such dosimeters and report the readings from their flights, without due regard for the mixed radiation field at altitude, which is different from the intended fields on land. A sampling of EPDs has been compared to two types of spectrometers, which measure the total radiation spectrum. The "HAWK" tissue equivalent proportional counter is considered a reference instrument and measures the total dose equivalent H*(10). The Liulin-4N and 4SN linear energy transfer spectrometers each have a silicon semiconductor-based PIN diode detector which provides an absorbed dose, D, but have been further developed to provide H*(10). A Thermo Electron FH41B and B-10, and EPD-N2, and several personal dosimeters (Fuji NRY-21 and NRF-20, and RADOS DIS-100) were also flown.

  7. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C.E.; Oladeinde, F. O.; Kinyua, A.M.; Michelin, R.; Makinde, J.M.; Jaiyesimi, A.A.; Mbiti, W.N.; Kamau, G.N.; Kofi-Tsekpo, W.M.; Pramanik, S.; Williams, A.; Kennedy, A.; Bronner, Y.; Clarke, K.; Fofonoff, P.; Nemerson, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit. PMID:20119491

  8. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C E; Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Michelin, R; Makinde, J M; Jaiyesimi, A A; Mbiti, W N; Kamau, G N; Kofi-Tsekpo, W M; Pramanik, S; Williams, A; Kennedy, A; Bronner, Y; Clarke, K; Fofonoff, P; Nemerson, D

    2008-01-01

    This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit. PMID:20119491

  9. Comparative Performance Assessment For Central Receiver CPV Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasich, John B.; Thomas, Ian; Verlinden, Pierre J.; Lewandowski, Allan; Heartag, Wolfgang; Wright, Mark

    2011-12-01

    A Central receiver Concentrating PV (C2PV) system has the potential to be the optimum solar energy generation system for utility scale because it combines the high efficiency of CPV with the low cost of a heliostat collector. Due to the off axis nature of a heliostat central receiver concentrator a cosine efficiency loss is incurred and, unlike `normal' tracking CPV lens and dish systems, the optical performance varies with time and site latitude. To investigate the optical performance of a C2PV system a ray trace model has been developed and the performance of a representative C2PV system is modelled throughout the year and at different site latitudes. The cosine loss and latitude dependence are put into perspective by calculating the annual average optical efficiency and testing its sensitivity to variations in site latitude. These values are then used to estimate a system performance by applying efficiencies for solar cell, balance of system and operational factors. This system efficiency is finally compared to published data for `normal' tracking CPV dish and lens systems. Modelled annual average AC system efficiency for the C2PV system was calculated to be 21% at 40° latitude and 19% at 15° latitude. These annual average AC system efficiencies are shown to be similar to those reported for typical dish and lens CPV systems when they are adjusted to use a total collector area baseline.

  10. A comparative toxicity assessment of materials used in aquatic construction.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Julien, Gary; Jackman, Paula; Doe, Ken; Schaefer, Rebecca

    2011-10-01

    Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes treated with preservatives (e.g., chromated copper arsenate [CCA], creosote, alkaline copper quaternary [ACQ], zinc naphthenate, copper naphthenate, and Lifetime Wood Treatment); (4) epoxy-coated steel; (5) hot-rolled steel; (6) zinc-coated steel; and (7) concrete. Those materials were used in acute lethality tests with rainbow trout, Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and threespine stickleback. The results indicated the following general ranking of the materials (from the lowest to highest LC(50) values); ACQ > creosote > zinc naphthenate > copper naphthenate > CCA (treated at 22.4 kg/m(3)) > concrete > red pine > western red cedar > red oak > zinc-coated steel > epoxy-coated steel > CCA (6.4 kg/m(3)). Furthermore, the toxicity results indicated that plastic wood, certain untreated wood species (hemlock, tamarack, Douglas fir, and red oak), hot-rolled steel, Ecothermo wood, and wood treated with Lifetime Wood Treatment were generally nontoxic to the test species.

  11. Ethical Perspective on Quality of Care: The Nature of Ethical Dilemmas Identified by New Graduate and Experienced Speech Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Belinda J.; Lincoln, Michelle; Blyth, Katrina; Balandin, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Speech pathologists are confronted by ethical issues when they need to make decisions about client care, address team conflict, and fulfil the range of duties and responsibilities required of health professionals. However, there has been little research into the specific nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech pathologists and…

  12. Assessing The Anthropocene In The Context Of Comparative Planetology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    of the fourth kind": intentional change. We are arguably approaching a branching point, where we will either become masters of our world or victims of our own success. Most likely this is a common experience of intelligent life developing technologically elsewhere in the universe, because regardless of specific evolutionary, cultural and technological paths, life will evolve by Darwinian evolution and therefore will inherit a biological imperative to multiply and maximize survival. Planets are finite and thus analogous developments will lead to a collision between technological survival strategies that are successful on limited temporal and spatial scales, and unforeseen long-term global consequences. The nature and prevalence of intelligent life in the universe will be shaped by how civilizations respond to this challenge, and future observations of exoplanets may reveal the global signatures of proto-intelligent or intelligent life. In addition to comparing the current rapid transformations of the Earth system to changes in our planet's past, some context for the Anthropocene can be gained by comparison with catastrophic changes on other planets. I will compare the rate, magnitude and duration of the Anthropocene with known and hypothesized catastrophic changes on other planets, including the loss of oceans and global resurfacing on Venus, global desiccation and quasi-periodic climate change on Mars, and the end-Cretaceous impact catastrophe on Earth.

  13. [Tumor regression following local chemotherapy in carcinomas of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. The viewpoint of the pathologist].

    PubMed

    Micheau, C; Richard, J M; Marandas, P; Bosq, J; Caillaud, J M

    1983-01-01

    Few pathologists have given much thought to the problem of post-chemotherapeutic tumoral regression of upper respiratory and digestive tract carcinoma. In other oncological fields (pediatry: nephroblastoma, embryonic sarcoma, osteosarcoma; gynecology: mammary tumors...) pre- and post-chemotherapy tissue studies have led to histological grading of prognostic value (particularly well known is that of Rosen et al). Numerous specimens were examined following operations for cancer, including pelvimandibulectomy, buccopharyngectomy, facial resection... Possible tumoral changes were evaluated using a conventional scale of regression based on 6 histologic degrees, and findings were of prognostic significance when compared with the initial biopsy results. This evaluation scale may require modification in the near future since recently introduced chemotherapy, particularly cisplatinum, appears to have a more potent and more specific effect on histologie features.

  14. The Speech-Language Pathologist's Changing Role: Collaboration within the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohan, Margaret; Schulz, Henry

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 253 Canadian school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) found that they use classroom-based approaches primarily for language intervention with early elementary students, judge classroom-based approaches generally successful for intervention with language, articulation, fluency, and voice disorders, and use classroom-based…

  15. 20 Ways for Classroom Teachers to Collaborate with Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Kellie L.; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Boon, Richard T.; Fore, Cecil, III

    2010-01-01

    Students with disabilities are increasingly receiving services in the general education classroom, and as a result, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are using a variety of flexible models to meet the needs of these students. Although some schools continue to provide pullout service delivery models for speech-language therapy, many are…

  16. VISION: A Model of Cultural Responsiveness for Speech-Language Pathologists Working in Family Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellon-Harn, Monica L.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association has established knowledge and skills needed for culturally competent service delivery by speech-language pathologists. Among these are skills needed to demonstrate sensitivity to cultural and linguistic differences. The purpose of this article is to describe a model, VISION, to assist in development…

  17. Pharmacotherapy and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Tutorial for Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Trisha L.; Hale, LaDonna S.; Crumrine, Daiquirie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this tutorial is to provide speech-language pathologists (SLPs) with general information regarding the most commonly prescribed medications for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; e.g., central nervous system stimulants, noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, antipsychotics,…

  18. Speech-Language Pathologists' Comfort Levels in English Language Learner Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimble, Carlotta

    2013-01-01

    This study examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) comfort levels in providing service delivery to English language learners (ELLs) and limited English proficient (LEP) students. Participants included 192 SLPs from the United States and Guam. Participants completed a brief, six-item questionnaire that investigated their perceptions…

  19. Automated Detection of Heuristics and Biases among Pathologists in a Computer-Based System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Rebecca S.; Legowski, Elizabeth; Medvedeva, Olga; Reitmeyer, Kayse; Tseytlin, Eugene; Castine, Melissa; Jukic, Drazen; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to develop an automated, computer-based method to detect heuristics and biases as pathologists examine virtual slide cases, (2) to measure the frequency and distribution of heuristics and errors across three levels of training, and (3) to examine relationships of heuristics to biases, and biases to…

  20. Facilitating Emergent Literacy: Efficacy of a Model that Partners Speech-Language Pathologists and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girolametto, Luigi; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a professional development program for early childhood educators that facilitated emergent literacy skills in preschoolers. The program, led by a speech-language pathologist, focused on teaching alphabet knowledge, print concepts, sound awareness, and decontextualized oral language within naturally…

  1. Written Language Disorders: Speech-Language Pathologists' Training, Knowledge, and Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Gordon W.; Mamett, Callie; Gordon, Rebecca; Blood, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') perceptions of their (a) educational and clinical training in evaluating and treating written language disorders, (b) knowledge bases in this area, (c) sources of knowledge about written language disorders, (d) confidence levels, and (e) predictors of confidence in working with…

  2. Voice Disorder Management Competencies: A Survey of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists in Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Amy F.; DeVeney, Shari L.; Friehe, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this survey was to determine the self-perceived competence levels in voice disorders of practicing school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and identify correlated variables. Method: Participants were 153 master's level, school-based SLPs with a Nebraska teaching certificate and/or licensure who completed a survey,…

  3. What Makes a Caseload (Un) Manageable? School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lauren A.; Maag, Abby; Fallon, Karen A.; Blenkarn, Katie; Smith, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Large caseload sizes and a shortage of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are ongoing concerns in the field of speech and language. This study was conducted to identify current mean caseload size for school-based SLPs, a threshold at which caseload size begins to be perceived as unmanageable, and variables contributing to school-based…

  4. Bullying in Children Who Stutter: Speech-Language Pathologists' Perceptions and Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Gordon W.; Boyle, Michael P.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Nalesnik, Gina R.

    2010-01-01

    Bullying in school-age children is a global epidemic. School personnel play a critical role in eliminating this problem. The goals of this study were to examine speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) perceptions of bullying, endorsement of potential strategies for dealing with bullying, and associations among SLPs' responses and specific demographic…

  5. Speech-Language Pathologist Job Satisfaction in School versus Medical Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkhoff, Nicole L.; Collins, Dana R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine if job satisfaction differs between speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in school settings and SLPs working in medical settings. Method: The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) by Spector (1997) was sent via electronic mail to 250 SLPs in each of the 2 settings. Job satisfaction scores were…

  6. School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge and Perceptions of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofe, Erin E.; Plumb, Allison M.; Plexico, Laura W.; Haak, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the current investigation was to examine speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') knowledge and perceptions of bullying, with an emphasis on autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: A 46-item, web-based survey was used to address the purposes of this investigation. Participants were recruited through e-mail and electronic…

  7. School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists' Perspectives on Dysphagia Management in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Stoner, Julia B.; Angell, Maureen E.; Fetzer, Alycia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Although provision of dysphagia services is within the scope of practice of speech-language pathologists (SLPs), little is known about the perspectives of school-based SLPs in relation to these services. The purpose of this study was to examine SLPs' perspectives related to school-based management of students with dysphagia. Method: Focus…

  8. Dysphagic Independent Feeders' Justifications for Noncompliance with Recommendations by a Speech-Language Pathologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colodny, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the various ways in which independent-feeding patients with dysphagia justified their noncompliance with swallowing recommendations suggested by a speech-language pathologist (SLP). Sixty-three independent-feeding dysphagia patients between the ages of 65 and 100 years who had been identified by the SLP or…

  9. Preparing Bilingual Speech-Language Pathologists: The Development of an Innovative Master's Degree Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright-Harp, Wilhelmina; Munoz, Emma

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the two-year master's degree program for speech-language pathologists with a specialization in bilingualism (Spanish/English) developed at the University of the District of Columbia. First, the article describes the program's curriculum, clinical practicum, recruitment, and retention activities. It then discusses the student…

  10. Familiarity Breeds Support: Speech-Language Pathologists' Perceptions of Bullying of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Coniglio, Amy D.; Finke, Erinn H.; Boyle, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primary targets for bullies and victimization. Research shows school personnel may be uneducated about bullying and ways to intervene. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in schools often work with children with ASD and may have victims of bullying on their caseloads. These victims may feel most…

  11. Guidelines for the Roles and Responsibilities of the School-Based Speech-Language Pathologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Rockville, MD.

    These guidelines are an official statement of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) that address the official roles and responsibilities of school-based speech-language pathologists. Chapter 1 outlines the guiding principles that underlie the development of the document, provides federal and global definitions of speech-language…

  12. An Introduction to Item Response Theory and Rasch Models for Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Carolyn; Hula, William; Donovan, Neila J.; Doyle, Patrick J.; Kendall, Diane; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To present a primarily conceptual introduction to item response theory (IRT) and Rasch models for speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Method: This tutorial introduces SLPs to basic concepts and terminology related to IRT as well as the most common IRT models. The article then continues with an overview of how instruments are developed…

  13. Providing Early Intervention Services to Diverse Populations: Are Speech-Language Pathologists Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caesar, Lena G.

    2013-01-01

    This study used a survey approach to investigate the current state of speech-language preservice academic and clinical preparation for providing early intervention (EI) services to culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) populations. Information was obtained from speech-language pathologists (SLPs) employed in EI settings regarding their…

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Experience, Training, and Confidence Levels of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Allison M.; Plexico, Laura W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the graduate training experiences of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Comparisons were made between recent graduates (post 2006) and pre-2006 graduates to determine if differences existed in their academic and clinical experiences or their…

  15. Korean Speech-Language Pathologists' Attitudes toward Stuttering According to Clinical Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyungjae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Negative attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are found in various groups of people in many regions. However the results of previous studies examining the influence of fluency coursework and clinical certification on the attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward PWS are equivocal. Furthermore, there…

  16. Society of Toxicologic Pathologists (STP) Annual Symposium General Session II: Modem Pathology Methods for Neural Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    This half-day session at the 20I0 Joint Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and the International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists (IFSTP) explored many deceptively simple questions related to toxicologic neuropathology. What is the best met...

  17. A Study of Job Satisfaction Correlates among Urban School Speech Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxie-Brown, Gwendolyn J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between the job satisfaction of speech language pathologists (SLPs) and self-efficacy, work relationships and two components of job performance: teacher judgments of student improvement and supervisor ratings of teacher efficiency. It was hypothesized that each of the variables would be…

  18. Communication and Behavior: Collaboration between Speech-Language Pathologists and Behavioral Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylvisaker, Mark; Feeney, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents an intervention framework in which speech-language pathologists and behavioral psychologists view the challenging behaviors of individuals with traumatic brain injury from a communication perspective and address these problems in a way that is positive, integrated, functional, collaborative, and environmental. (Author/JDD)

  19. Kindergarten Teachers' Perceptions of Language and Literacy Development, Speech-Language Pathologists, and Language Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Anne; Sanger, Dixie

    2005-01-01

    A survey study examined the perceptions of 484 kindergarten teachers in one midwestern state regarding language and literacy development, roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists (SLP), and teacher-delivered interventions in the classroom. Quantitative and qualitative findings from a 36-item survey revealed that the majority of…

  20. Experienced Speech-Language Pathologists' Responses to Ethical Dilemmas: An Integrated Approach to Ethical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the approaches of experienced speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to ethical reasoning and the processes they use to resolve ethical dilemmas. Method: Ten experienced SLPs participated in in-depth interviews. A narrative approach was used to guide participants' descriptions of how they resolved ethical dilemmas. Individual…

  1. Comparative assessment of water treatment using polymeric and inorganic coagulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manda, Innocent K. M.; Chidya, Russel C. G.; Saka, John D. K.; Biswick, Timothy T.

    2016-06-01

    Portable water plays a vital role in improving human life, particularly in controlling the spread of diseases. However, problems associated with lack of potable water are still common especially in developing countries including Malawi. Until now little information exists on the effectiveness of available commercial coagulants used by national water boards in Malawi. Therefore, this study was undertaken in Southern Region Water Board (SRWB) to investigate the efficiency of polymeric coagulants (sufdfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s) in turbidity reduction comparative with inorganic coagulant (aluminium sulphate) at Zomba, Liwonde, Mangochi, Chikwawa and Mulanje Treatment plants. The jar test method was used to determine the effectiveness of the water coagulants. The results revealed that sudfloc 3850 was most effective in reducing turbidity at Mangochi (99.4 ± 0.06%) and Liwonde (97.2 ± 0.04%) using 0.4 mg L-1 flocculant dose. The Zomba, Mulanje and Chikwawa plants gave 19.56 ± 0.03%, 29.23 ± 0.02% and 9.43 ± 0.02% total reductions respectively. Algaefloc 19s afforded the highest turbidity reduction at Liwonde and Mangochi plants (98.66 ± 0.06 and 97.48 ± 0.05% at a dose of 0.4 and 0.6 mg L-1 respectively), while Chikwawa provided the lowest (9.52 ± 0.01%). At the Zomba and Mulanje plants 20.5 ± 0.03% and 28.4 ± 0.04% reductions were obtained respectively. The inorganic flocculant, alum provided a 99.0 ± 0.05% and 98.6 ± 0.04% reduction at a dose of 4.0 mg L-1 and 6.0 mg L-1 at Zomba and Liwonde plants respectively. The lowest reductions in turbidity were achieved at Chikwawa (7.50 ± 0.01%), Mangochi (12.97 ± 0.02%) and Mulanje (25.00 ± 0.02). The best and optimum pH ranges for polymeric and inorganic coagulants were 7.20-7.80 and 7.35 to 7.57 respectively. The results further revealed that sudfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s achieved faster formation of heavy flocs than alum. At 0.4 mg L-1 flocculant dosage sudfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s required ten times

  2. Targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of metastatic melanoma patients: a guide and update for pathologists.

    PubMed

    Kakavand, Hojabr; Wilmott, James S; Long, Georgina V; Scolyer, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    The previously dismal prospects for patients with advanced stage metastatic melanoma have greatly improved in recent years. Enhanced understanding of both the pathogenesis of melanoma and its molecular drivers, as well as the importance and regulation of anti-tumour immune responses, have provided new therapeutic opportunities for melanoma patients. There are two major distinct categories of systemic treatments with activity for patients with metastatic melanoma: (1) targeted therapies, which act to inhibit the oncogenes that drive the aberrant growth and dissemination of the tumour; and (2) immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies, which act to enhance anti-tumour immune responses by blocking negative regulators of immunity. Pathologists play a critical and expanding role in the selection of the most appropriate treatment for individual metastatic melanoma patients in the modern era of personalised/precision medicine. The molecular pathology testing of melanoma tumour tissue for the presence of targetable oncogenic mutations is already part of routine practice in many institutions. In addition, other potential oncogenic therapeutic targets continue to be identified and pathology testing techniques must readily adapt to this rapidly changing field. Recent research findings suggest that pathological assessment of tumour associated immune cells and immunosuppressive ligand expression of the tumour are likely to be important in identifying patients most likely to benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors. Similarly, pathological and molecular observations of on-treatment tumour tissue biopsies taken from patients on targeted therapies have provided new insights into the mechanisms of action of targeted molecular therapies, have contributed to the identification of resistance mechanisms to these novel therapies and may be of higher value for selecting patients most likely to benefit from therapies. These data have already provided a rational biological basis for the

  3. Comparing Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark Standard Setting Methods in the Context of English Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Mingchuan

    2013-01-01

    The Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark method for setting standards on educational assessment are currently two of the most popular standard-setting methods. However, there is no research into the comparability of these two methods in the context of language assessment. This study compared results from the Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark methods as applied to…

  4. Comparative assessment of transport risks--how it can contribute to health impact assessment of transport policies.

    PubMed Central

    Kjellstrom, Tord; van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Bammer, Gabriele; McMichael, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) and comparative risk assessment (CRA) are important tools with which governments and communities can compare and integrate different sources of information about various health impacts into a single framework for policy-makers and planners. Both tools have strengths that may be combined usefully when conducting comprehensive assessments of decisions that affect complex health issues, such as the health risks and impacts of transport policy and planning activities. As yet, however, HIA and CRA have not been applied widely to the area of transport. We draw on the limited experience of the application of these tools in the context of road transport to explore how comparative assessment of transport risks can contribute to HIA of transport policies. PMID:12894331

  5. The education of speech-language pathologists in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Battle, Dolores E

    2006-01-01

    The education of speech-language pathologists and audiologists is provided by over 250 colleges and universities at the master's and doctoral level. The educational programs for speech-language pathologists and audiologists consist of academic coursework, clinical education, and supervised experience. Coursework and clinical education include study in liberal arts and science and human communication in addition to study in all aspects of communication sciences and disorders, including cultural and linguistic diversity. The programs may take 2 to 3 years beyond the bachelor's degree. Audiologists will require a doctoral degree beginning in 2012. Educational programs are accredited by the Council on Academic Accreditation of the American Speech-Language Hearing Association. Individuals who wish so earn the Certificate of Clinical Competence from the American Speech-Language Hearing Association.

  6. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): scenarios for comparing dose-assessment models. Vol. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    The Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program designed to provide rapid assessments of the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. The main body of this document consists of 28 examples of IRDAM input and output, representing various types of accidents and releases. These examples are intended to provide a basis for comparison with other models or for testing IRDAM itself. Figures are included which show dose rates calculated by IRDAM for each scenario. Figures are also included which show calculations made using the computer codes WRAITH (Scherpelz, Borst and Hoenes, 1980) and RADPUR (Dabbert, et. al., 1982). Two other companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. The User's Guide (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 1) describes the setup and operation of equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Reactor Accident Assessment Methods (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 2) describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations.

  7. General pathologist-helper: The new medical app about general pathology

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Vega, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Smartphone applications (apps) have become increasingly prevalent in medicine. Due to most pathologists, pathology trainees, technicians, and medical students use smartphones; apps can be a different way for general pathology education. “General pathologist-helper (GP-HELPER)” is a novel app developed as a reference tool in general pathology and especially for general pathologists, developed for Android and iOS platforms. Materials and Methods: “GP-HELPER,” was created using Mobincube website platform. This tool also integrates “FORUM GP-HELPER,” an external website created using Miarroba website (http://forum-gp-helper.mboards.com) and “COMMUNITY GP-HELPER” a multichannel chat created using Chatango website platform. Results: The application was released in July 2015, and it is been periodically updated since then. The app has permanent information (offline data) about different pathology protocols (TNM latest edition, protocols regarding management of tumors of unknown primary origin, and flowcharts for some of the most difficult tumors to diagnose) and a database with more than 5000 immunohistochemistry results from different tumors. Online data have links to more than 1100 reference pathology video lectures, 250 antibodies information, more than 70 pathology association websites, 46 pathology providers, and 78 outstanding pathology journal websites. Besides this information, the app has two interactive places such as “FORUM GP-HELPER” and “COMMUNITY GP-HELPER” that let users to stay in touch everywhere and every time. Expert consult section is also available. Conclusions: “GP-HELPER” pretends to integrate offline and online data about pathology with two interactive external places in order to represent a reference tool for general pathologists and associate members. PMID:26730351

  8. Raising future forensic pathologists (first report): results of a preliminary questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Manabu; Matoba, Kotaro; Terazawa, Koichi

    2012-08-01

    The shortage of future forensic pathologists is a serious problem both in Japan and overseas. In Japan, however, factors such as government budget cuts and increasing the autopsy rates, make the condition even worse. In an attempt to improve this situation, we implemented a questionnaire survey to investigate the particular features necessary when selecting a career in forensic medicine. As a preliminary study, we sent the questionnaire along with an anonymous answer sheet to all forensic pathologists with a degree in medicine M.D., who were affiliated with universities in Hokkaido and the Tohoku district of Japan as of August 2011. Thirteen physicians in nine universities (response rate 77.8%) returned the answer sheet. Characteristics of participants are listed below: years of experience, board specialty and number of years as board certified specialists, percentage of work effort spent on autopsy practice, the time when they decided to work as a forensic pathologist, the time when to best recommend forensic pathologist as a career, and crucial factors in choosing the specialty of forensic medicine. As a result of this research, we've revealed the importance of undergraduate medical education or the effect on the role models. Furthermore, we've also extracted miscellaneous comments, such as standardization of minimum requirements. In our study, we' ve found some clues to increase future candidates in the field forensic medicine. However, we must collect further samples for our questionnaire survey to validate the study, and, as a future project, we must also address this problem at the congress of forensic medicine. PMID:23016267

  9. Static Digital Telepathology: A Model for Diagnostic and Educational Support to Pathologists in the Developing World

    PubMed Central

    Sohani, Aliyah R.; Sohani, Moez A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The practice of pathology in the developing world presents challenges in terms of limited resources, shortages of trained personnel, and lack of continuing education programs. Telepathology holds promise as a means of diagnostic and educational support. Methods: We donated multiheaded teaching microscopes equipped with digital cameras to four hospitals in Eastern Africa and trained local pathologists on their use. Static images of challenging cases were posted on a web-based telepathology platform. A U.S.-based pathologist reviewed images in consultation with subspecialist colleagues. Results: Over a period of 40 months, 109 cases were submitted for second opinion consultation, including 29 dermatopathology cases (26.6%), 14 hematopathology cases (12.8%), and 13 cases each (11.9%) in cytopathology and bone and soft tissue pathology. Static images enabled a complete or partial diagnosis in 100/109 cases (91.7%). Factors precluding a definitive diagnosis included absence of confirmatory immunophenotyping, technical issues, or lack of clinical history. Case responses included a diagnosis and discussion, including differential diagnosis, references, and treatment recommendations. Conclusion: Static digital telepathology is a simple, cost-effective, reliable and efficient means to provide diagnostic and educational support to pathologists in the developing world. Additional training may help overcome technical factors precluding a definitive diagnosis in certain cases. PMID:22233701

  10. A Survey of Attitudes of Board-Certified Veterinary Pathologists to Forensic Veterinary Pathology.

    PubMed

    McEwen, B J; McDonough, S P

    2016-09-01

    An electronic survey was conducted to determine the attitudes of veterinary pathologists toward forensic pathology and the adequacy of their training in the discipline. The survey was sent to 1933 diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and 311 completed responses were analyzed. Of respondents, 80% report receiving at least 1 type of medicolegal case, with cases from law enforcement received most frequently. Most (74%) of the respondents indicated that their previous training did not prepare them adequately to handle forensic cases and almost half of the respondents (48%) indicated that they needed more training on serving as an expert witness. Relative risk ratios (RRR) and odds ratios (OR) were generated to determine the strength of a statistically significant association. Responses from a free-text entry question determining additional training needs could be grouped into 3 main categories: (1) veterinary forensic pathology science and procedures, (2) documentation, evidence collection and handling, and (3) knowledge of the medicolegal system. Last, a field for additional comments or suggestions regarding veterinary forensic pathology was completed by 107 respondents and many reinforced the need for training in the categories previously described. The survey highlights that a significant proportion of diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists are currently engaged in veterinary forensic pathology but feel their training has not adequately prepared them for these cases. Hopefully, the survey results will inform the college and residency training coordinators as they address the training requirements for an important emerging discipline. PMID:26926083

  11. A Survey of Attitudes of Board-Certified Veterinary Pathologists to Forensic Veterinary Pathology.

    PubMed

    McEwen, B J; McDonough, S P

    2016-09-01

    An electronic survey was conducted to determine the attitudes of veterinary pathologists toward forensic pathology and the adequacy of their training in the discipline. The survey was sent to 1933 diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and 311 completed responses were analyzed. Of respondents, 80% report receiving at least 1 type of medicolegal case, with cases from law enforcement received most frequently. Most (74%) of the respondents indicated that their previous training did not prepare them adequately to handle forensic cases and almost half of the respondents (48%) indicated that they needed more training on serving as an expert witness. Relative risk ratios (RRR) and odds ratios (OR) were generated to determine the strength of a statistically significant association. Responses from a free-text entry question determining additional training needs could be grouped into 3 main categories: (1) veterinary forensic pathology science and procedures, (2) documentation, evidence collection and handling, and (3) knowledge of the medicolegal system. Last, a field for additional comments or suggestions regarding veterinary forensic pathology was completed by 107 respondents and many reinforced the need for training in the categories previously described. The survey highlights that a significant proportion of diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists are currently engaged in veterinary forensic pathology but feel their training has not adequately prepared them for these cases. Hopefully, the survey results will inform the college and residency training coordinators as they address the training requirements for an important emerging discipline.

  12. Research issues in forensic pathology: a survey of academic institutions employing forensic pathologists.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B

    2004-05-01

    In an effort to characterize research efforts in forensic pathology, a questionnaire was sent to a representative of each of the 14 academic medical centers that employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Responses were received from all 14 (100%) of the institutions queried, representing a total of 39 forensic pathology faculty positions; 21 positions were tenure track and 18 positions were clinical or other tracks. Of the 39 positions, 25 positions (64%) at 10 institutions required some degree of research or scholarly output. Of the 25 forensic pathologists with a research imperative, only 3 (12%) were principal investigators or co-investigators on funded forensic pathology-based projects. The major limitation cited by respondents on the performance of forensic pathology research was the lack of protected time from service responsibilities. Fellowship training in forensic pathology was available at 6 of the 14 respondent institutions. Of these institutions, 4 (67%) had a research requirement for trainees, and 4 (67%) provided research training. In conclusion, very few US medical schools currently employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Of these, only a small number of institutions prioritize research by these faculty members. Scant federal funds are available to support research in forensic pathology. Few forensic pathology fellowship programs provide research training. To achieve a robust research agenda in forensic pathology that is sufficient to support the needs of the criminal justice and public health systems will require a paradigm shift in the medicolegal death investigative system and investment by federal agencies. PMID:15138925

  13. How do swine practitioners and veterinary pathologists arrive at a diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens type A enteritis in neonatal piglets?

    PubMed

    Chan, Gloria; Farzan, Abdolvahab; Prescott, John F; Friendship, Robert

    2013-05-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 22 veterinary practitioners and 17 veterinary pathologists to investigate the methods used for diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens type A enteritis in neonatal pigs. Practitioners generally diagnosed C. perfringens type A associated enteritis by age of onset of diarrhea (between 1 to 7 days of age). Most practitioners (95%) were moderately to very confident in their diagnosis. Pathologists generally diagnosed C. perfringens type A associated enteritis by combinations of isolation of the organism, genotyping or detecting the toxins of the organism, and ruling out other pathogens through histopathology. Almost half (41%) of the pathologists were not confident of their diagnosis. This study reports that the current diagnostic method for C. perfringens type A enteritis is not specific, and although many pathologists expressed reservations about making a diagnosis of C. perfringens type A enteritis, most practitioners were confident in their diagnosis, even though reported clinical signs of clostridial diarrhea are similar to those of a number of other enteric diseases.

  14. Health impact assessment of global climate change: expanding on comparative risk assessment approaches for policy making.

    PubMed

    Patz, Jonathan; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gibbs, Holly; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is projected to have adverse impacts on public health. Cobenefits may be possible from more upstream mitigation of greenhouse gases causing climate change. To help measure such cobenefits alongside averted disease-specific risks, a health impact assessment (HIA) framework can more comprehensively serve as a decision support tool. HIA also considers health equity, clearly part of the climate change problem. New choices for energy must be made carefully considering such effects as additional pressure on the world's forests through large-scale expansion of soybean and oil palm plantations, leading to forest clearing, biodiversity loss and disease emergence, expulsion of subsistence farmers, and potential increases in food prices and emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Investigators must consider the full range of policy options, supported by more comprehensive, flexible, and transparent assessment methods. PMID:18173382

  15. Balancing Autonomy and Comparability: State Approaches to Assessment Selection for Student Learning Objectives. Ask the Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Ellen; Meyer, Cassandra

    2014-01-01

    States take a wide range of approaches to Student Learning Objectives (SLO) assessment selection. This "Ask the Team" brief helps states consider the trade-offs between approaches that offer more teacher choice and those that offer better comparability across SLOs. The brief identifies four common approaches to selecting SLO assessments:…

  16. Peer Assessment in the Digital Age: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Peer and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hongli; Xiong, Yao; Zang, Xiaojiao; Kornhaber, Mindy L.; Lyu, Youngsun; Chung, Kyung Sun; Suen, Hoi K.

    2016-01-01

    Given the wide use of peer assessment, especially in higher education, the relative accuracy of peer ratings compared to teacher ratings is a major concern for both educators and researchers. This concern has grown with the increase of peer assessment in digital platforms. In this meta-analysis, using a variance-known hierarchical linear modelling…

  17. Group Assessment at First Year and Final Degree Level: A Comparative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plastow, N.; Spiliotopoulou, G.; Prior, S.

    2010-01-01

    Group projects are an established but debated pedagogical technique in higher education. The purpose of this study was to assess the appropriateness of combining individual and group marks in assessment. A mixed method design involving correlational and comparative elements was used. The sample included one cohort of students who completed a group…

  18. A Comparative Study of Adolescent Risk Assessment Instruments: Predictive and Incremental Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Jennifer L.; Schmidt, Fred; McKinnon, Lauren; Chattha, H. K.; Meyers, Joanna R.

    2008-01-01

    Promising new adolescent risk assessment tools are being incorporated into clinical practice but currently possess limited evidence of predictive validity regarding their individual and/or combined use in risk assessments. The current study compares three structured adolescent risk instruments, Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory…

  19. Composition Medium Comparability in a Direct Writing Assessment of Non-Native English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Manalo, Jonathan R.

    2004-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) contains a direct writing assessment, and examinees are given the option of composing their responses at a computer terminal using a keyboard or composing their responses in handwriting. This study sought to determine whether performance on a direct writing assessment is comparable for examinees…

  20. Comparing Functional Analysis and Paired-choice Assessment Results in Classroom Settings

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Wendy K; Wacker, David P; Cigrand, Karla; Merkle, Steve; Wade, Jeanie; Henry, Kim; Wang, Yu-Chia

    2007-01-01

    The results of a functional analysis of problem behavior and a paired-choice assessment were compared to determine whether the same social reinforcers were identified for problem behavior and an appropriate response (time allocation). The two assessments were conducted in classroom settings with 4 adolescents with mental retardation who engaged in severe problem behavior. Each student's classroom teacher served as the therapist for all phases of assessment. The two assessment procedures identified the same social reinforcers for problem and appropriate behavior for 3 of 4 participants. PMID:17970268

  1. Do Different Approaches to Examining Construct Comparability in Multilanguage Assessments Lead to Similar Conclusions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveri, Maria E.; Ercikan, Kadriye

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine the degree of construct comparability and possible sources of incomparability of the English and French versions of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 problem-solving measure administered in Canada. Several approaches were used to examine construct comparability at the test- (examination of…

  2. Protein comparability assessments and potential applicability of high throughput biophysical methods and data visualization tools to compare physical stability profiles

    PubMed Central

    Alsenaidy, Mohammad A.; Jain, Nishant K.; Kim, Jae H.; Middaugh, C. Russell; Volkin, David B.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, some of the challenges and opportunities encountered during protein comparability assessments are summarized with an emphasis on developing new analytical approaches to better monitor higher-order protein structures. Several case studies are presented using high throughput biophysical methods to collect protein physical stability data as function of temperature, agitation, ionic strength and/or solution pH. These large data sets were then used to construct empirical phase diagrams (EPDs), radar charts, and comparative signature diagrams (CSDs) for data visualization and structural comparisons between the different proteins. Protein samples with different sizes, post-translational modifications, and inherent stability are presented: acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) mutants, different glycoforms of an IgG1 mAb prepared by deglycosylation, as well as comparisons of different formulations of an IgG1 mAb and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF). Using this approach, differences in structural integrity and conformational stability profiles were detected under stress conditions that could not be resolved by using the same techniques under ambient conditions (i.e., no stress). Thus, an evaluation of conformational stability differences may serve as an effective surrogate to monitor differences in higher-order structure between protein samples. These case studies are discussed in the context of potential utility in protein comparability studies. PMID:24659968

  3. Using the Reliability Theory for Assessing the Decision Confidence Probability for Comparative Life Cycle Assessments.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Larrey-Lassalle, Pyrène; Faure, Thierry; Dumoulin, Nicolas; Roux, Philippe; Mathias, Jean-Denis

    2016-03-01

    Comparative decision making process is widely used to identify which option (system, product, service, etc.) has smaller environmental footprints and for providing recommendations that help stakeholders take future decisions. However, the uncertainty problem complicates the comparison and the decision making. Probability-based decision support in LCA is a way to help stakeholders in their decision-making process. It calculates the decision confidence probability which expresses the probability of a option to have a smaller environmental impact than the one of another option. Here we apply the reliability theory to approximate the decision confidence probability. We compare the traditional Monte Carlo method with a reliability method called FORM method. The Monte Carlo method needs high computational time to calculate the decision confidence probability. The FORM method enables us to approximate the decision confidence probability with fewer simulations than the Monte Carlo method by approximating the response surface. Moreover, the FORM method calculates the associated importance factors that correspond to a sensitivity analysis in relation to the probability. The importance factors allow stakeholders to determine which factors influence their decision. Our results clearly show that the reliability method provides additional useful information to stakeholders as well as it reduces the computational time. PMID:26815724

  4. Molecular profiling--a tool for addressing emerging gaps in the comparative risk assessment of GMOs.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Jack A; Kurenbach, Brigitta; Quist, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessing the risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is required by both international agreement and domestic legislation. Many view the use of the "omics" tools for profiling classes of molecules as useful in risk assessment, but no consensus has formed on the need or value of these techniques for assessing the risks of all GMOs. In this and many other cases, experts support case-by-case use of molecular profiling techniques for risk assessment. We review the latest research on the applicability and usefulness of molecular profiling techniques for GMO risk assessment. As more and more kinds of GMOs and traits are developed, broader use of molecular profiling in a risk assessment may be required to supplement the comparative approach to risk assessment. The literature-based discussions on the use of profiling appear to have settled on two findings: 1. profiling techniques are reliable and relevant, at least no less so than other techniques used in risk assessment; and 2. although not required routinely, regulators should be aware of when they are needed. The dismissal of routine molecular profiling may be confusing to regulators who then lack guidance on when molecular profiling might be worthwhile. Molecular profiling is an important way to increase confidence in risk assessments if the profiles are properly designed to address relevant risks and are applied at the correct stage of the assessment.

  5. Molecular profiling--a tool for addressing emerging gaps in the comparative risk assessment of GMOs.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Jack A; Kurenbach, Brigitta; Quist, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessing the risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is required by both international agreement and domestic legislation. Many view the use of the "omics" tools for profiling classes of molecules as useful in risk assessment, but no consensus has formed on the need or value of these techniques for assessing the risks of all GMOs. In this and many other cases, experts support case-by-case use of molecular profiling techniques for risk assessment. We review the latest research on the applicability and usefulness of molecular profiling techniques for GMO risk assessment. As more and more kinds of GMOs and traits are developed, broader use of molecular profiling in a risk assessment may be required to supplement the comparative approach to risk assessment. The literature-based discussions on the use of profiling appear to have settled on two findings: 1. profiling techniques are reliable and relevant, at least no less so than other techniques used in risk assessment; and 2. although not required routinely, regulators should be aware of when they are needed. The dismissal of routine molecular profiling may be confusing to regulators who then lack guidance on when molecular profiling might be worthwhile. Molecular profiling is an important way to increase confidence in risk assessments if the profiles are properly designed to address relevant risks and are applied at the correct stage of the assessment. PMID:21624662

  6. Comparative assessment of students’ performance and perceptions on objective structured practical models in undergraduate pathology teaching

    PubMed Central

    Htwe, Than Than; Ismail, Sabaridah Binti; Low, Gary Kim Kuan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Assessment is an important factor that drives student learning, as students tend to mainly focus on the material to be assessed. The current practice in teaching pathology extensively applies objective-structured practical examination for the assessment of students. As students will have to deal with real patients during clinical years, it is preferred that students learn and practise via potted specimens and slides instead of picture plates. This study aimed to assess the preferred assesment method of pathology practical exercises. METHODS This was a cross-sectional survey carried out in two consecutive batches of Phase 2 medical students. Student competency was assessed using both the traditional (TD) (i.e. use of potted specimens and slides) and picture plate (PP) methods. To compare the two assessment methods, we compared the mean scores obtained by the students and examined student perception of the two methods. RESULTS The mean scores obtained via the PP method were significantly higher than those obtained via the TD method for almost all the components tested. CONCLUSION We found that students performed significantly better (p < 0.05) when assessed using the PP method instead of the TD method. PP preparations might provide better visuals, thus aiding understanding, than the TD method. The findings of this study are valuable in identifying and improving our current teaching and assessment methods of medical students, in line with advancements in information technology. PMID:25273936

  7. The expanding role of pathologists in the diagnosis and management of breast cancer: Worldwide Excellence in Breast Pathology Program.

    PubMed

    Masood, Shahla

    2003-01-01

    Pathology is the study of human illness and it involves the morphologic and biologic recognition of abnormalities that are associated with a disease. Breast pathology represents an excellent example of this discipline. By providing diagnostic information and by characterizing the biologic behavior of a breast lesion, a pathologist plays a critical role in a patient's life. Any mistake in this exercise is associated with serious consequences. In addition, there are many unresolved issues in breast pathology, which contribute to our limited understanding of the biology of breast cancer, variability in diagnostic criteria, and significant diversity in breast cancer management and therapy. Furthermore, breast pathology has remained an underrecognized discipline, and its importance in diagnosis and disease management is not fully realized. In order to better serve our patients, particularly medically underserved women and those living in countries with limited resources, we must place emphasis on effectively using the talent and expertise of pathologists around the globe. For example, to provide a cost-effective way to diagnose breast cancer, particularly at advanced stages, pathologists can sample lesions by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), stain the resulting smears, and provide an immediate bedside diagnosis. This is a valid contribution; however, this exercise requires the availability of a pathologist with experience in breast cytopathology. Alternatively the pathologist may seek consultations from more experienced pathologists. Developing strategies to better recognize the importance of high-quality breast pathology services and to train qualified and innovative breast pathologists is an ambitious task. The proposed Worldwide Excellence in Breast Pathology Program may provide such an opportunity. PMID:12713504

  8. The safety assessment of foods from transgenic and cloned animals using the comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L

    2005-04-01

    The comparative approach to food safety assessment is based on the idea that the safety of a new food can largely be determined by its comparison to the benchmark of commonly consumed foods already in the food supply (also called the 'conventional counterpart'). Any differences between the new food and its conventional counterpart are evaluated to determine their relevance to human health and safety. In this way it is possible to conclude whether a new food is 'as safe as' conventional food already in the food supply. This approach, first developed primarily for use in the safety assessment of food from transgenic plants, is now generally accepted for food from both transgenic and cloned animals as well. This article outlines the basic principles behind the comparative approach, discusses some of the potential food safety concerns associated with transgenic and cloned animals, and describes important elements of the comparative approach and how these might be applied to assessing the safety of food from animals.

  9. New or expanded literacy roles for speech-language pathologists: making it happen in the schools.

    PubMed

    Ehren, B J; Ehren, T C

    2001-08-01

    As speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working with children and youth are challenged to assume new or expanded roles with reading and writing, those SLPs practicing in the schools face specific barriers for doing so. These obstacles take two forms: individual inhibitors, involving specific people, and system inhibitors, involving the organization at various levels. To overcome these barriers, SLPs need to be proactive and take charge of their own destinies by engaging in specific actions to assume these new or expanded literacy roles. They need to make it happen by using specific tools at their disposal to influence others. These tools include marketing, effective communication, and negotiation. PMID:11505312

  10. The role of the toxicologic pathologist in the post-genomic era(#).

    PubMed

    Maronpot, Robert R

    2013-06-01

    An era can be defined as a period in time identified by distinctive character, events, or practices. We are now in the genomic era. The pre-genomic era: There was a pre-genomic era. It started many years ago with novel and seminal animal experiments, primarily directed at studying cancer. It is marked by the development of the two-year rodent cancer bioassay and the ultimate realization that alternative approaches and short-term animal models were needed to replace this resource-intensive and time-consuming method for predicting human health risk. Many alternatives approaches and short-term animal models were proposed and tried but, to date, none have completely replaced our dependence upon the two-year rodent bioassay. However, the alternative approaches and models themselves have made tangible contributions to basic research, clinical medicine and to our understanding of cancer and they remain useful tools to address hypothesis-driven research questions. The pre-genomic era was a time when toxicologic pathologists played a major role in drug development, evaluating the cancer bioassay and the associated dose-setting toxicity studies, and exploring the utility of proposed alternative animal models. It was a time when there was shortage of qualified toxicologic pathologists. The genomic era: We are in the genomic era. It is a time when the genetic underpinnings of normal biological and pathologic processes are being discovered and documented. It is a time for sequencing entire genomes and deliberately silencing relevant segments of the mouse genome to see what each segment controls and if that silencing leads to increased susceptibility to disease. What remains to be charted in this genomic era is the complex interaction of genes, gene segments, post-translational modifications of encoded proteins, and environmental factors that affect genomic expression. In this current genomic era, the toxicologic pathologist has had to make room for a growing population of

  11. The Role of the Toxicologic Pathologist in the Post-Genomic Era#

    PubMed Central

    Maronpot, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    An era can be defined as a period in time identified by distinctive character, events, or practices. We are now in the genomic era. The pre-genomic era: There was a pre-genomic era. It started many years ago with novel and seminal animal experiments, primarily directed at studying cancer. It is marked by the development of the two-year rodent cancer bioassay and the ultimate realization that alternative approaches and short-term animal models were needed to replace this resource-intensive and time-consuming method for predicting human health risk. Many alternatives approaches and short-term animal models were proposed and tried but, to date, none have completely replaced our dependence upon the two-year rodent bioassay. However, the alternative approaches and models themselves have made tangible contributions to basic research, clinical medicine and to our understanding of cancer and they remain useful tools to address hypothesis-driven research questions. The pre-genomic era was a time when toxicologic pathologists played a major role in drug development, evaluating the cancer bioassay and the associated dose-setting toxicity studies, and exploring the utility of proposed alternative animal models. It was a time when there was shortage of qualified toxicologic pathologists. The genomic era: We are in the genomic era. It is a time when the genetic underpinnings of normal biological and pathologic processes are being discovered and documented. It is a time for sequencing entire genomes and deliberately silencing relevant segments of the mouse genome to see what each segment controls and if that silencing leads to increased susceptibility to disease. What remains to be charted in this genomic era is the complex interaction of genes, gene segments, post-translational modifications of encoded proteins, and environmental factors that affect genomic expression. In this current genomic era, the toxicologic pathologist has had to make room for a growing population of

  12. The forensic entomologist in the context of the forensic pathologist's role.

    PubMed

    Campobasso, C P; Introna, F

    2001-08-15

    An adequate death investigation requires the combined efforts and cooperation of experts in different disciplines: crime scene technicians, death investigators, forensic pathologists, anthropologists, entomologists, other medical and non-medical professionals. These front-line experts play a crucial role in every death investigation process. The forensic pathologist normally has the legal authority to take charge of the dead body at a death scene and his primary functions are the exterior and interior examination of the cadaver by analyzing the extent of antemortem injuries and the postmortem changes and the recovery of physical evidence. He is responsible for determining how, when and why of any death which is the result of violence, suspicious or unexplained circumstances or a death which is sudden or unattended, defending and explaining the reasons for making these diagnoses in a courtroom. The forensic entomologist can provide invaluable aid in death cases where human remains are colonized by insects and in the overall investigation. His principal role is to identify the arthropods associated with such cases and to analyze entomological data for interpreting insect evidence. He is responsible for determining the period of insect activity according to all the variables affecting insect invasion of remains and their development. The major goal of medico-criminal entomology is to contribute to the determination of the time, cause, manner and place of the investigated death (especially on badly decomposed corpses or skeletonized human remains) with the support of all the elements which can be inferred from the study of insects found on the cadaver or nearby. The application of techniques devised recently in forensic entomology can allow experts in the field to collect strong entomological evidence and provide useful information not only in a death investigation including movement or storage of the remains following death, time of dismemberment, postmortem artifacts

  13. The role of the speech-language pathologist in improving decoding skills.

    PubMed

    Kamhi, A G; Allen, M M; Catts, H W

    2001-08-01

    In this article, we consider the processes and knowledge involved in decoding and present some instructional guidelines and suggestions for teaching students the skills necessary for proficient and fluent word reading. The roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are also considered. It may have been enough several years ago for SLPs to focus solely on early literacy skills and phonological awareness. This is not the case today. SLPs not only need to collaborate with teachers to develop a comprehensive approach to literacy, but also should be providing direct, explicit instruction of decoding skills for students with language and learning disabilities. PMID:11505307

  14. Comparative assessment of the environmental impact of wastes from electricity generation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, C. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente Smith, G.M.; Linsley, G.; Hossain, S.

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes an outline methodology for assessing and comparing the environmental impact arising from management of the wastes from nuclear and other electricity generation systems. The assessment framework is applicable to wastes from all generation systems, including nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel systems, and can also be applied to the management of mixed hazardous waste. The major energy technologies in terms of waste production can be classified according to three major categories of fuels: fossil, nuclear and renewable. The emphasis in this description is on nuclear utility low-level and mixed wastes and waste streams. The methodology may be used to support the project on Data Bases and Methodologies for Comparative Assessment of Different Energy Sources for Electricity Generation (DECADES project, (2)) which is being developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in collaboration with other international agencies. The DECADES project has the overall objective to improve the abilities for comparative assessment of energy chains for electricity generation. The objective of a methodology such as that described here is to ensure that waste management aspects are included effectively in comparative assessments of energy systems. This paper discusses the waste strams arising from nuclear power plants.

  15. Statistical aspects in comparative benefit-risk assessment: challenges and opportunities for pharmaceutical statisticians.

    PubMed

    Quartey, George; Wang, Jixian

    2012-01-01

    Benefit-risk assessment is a fundamental element of drug development with the aim to strengthen decision making for the benefit of public health. Appropriate benefit-risk assessment can provide useful information for proactive intervention in health care settings, which could save lives, reduce litigation, improve patient safety and health care outcomes, and furthermore, lower overall health care costs. Recent development in this area presents challenges and opportunities to statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry. We review the development and examine statistical issues in comparative benefit-risk assessment. We argue that a structured benefit-risk assessment should be a multi-disciplinary effort involving experts in clinical science, safety assessment, decision science, health economics, epidemiology and statistics. Well planned and conducted analyses with clear consideration on benefit and risk are critical for appropriate benefit-risk assessment. Pharmaceutical statisticians should extend their knowledge to relevant areas such as pharmaco-epidemiology, decision analysis, modeling, and simulation to play an increasingly important role in comparative benefit-risk assessment.

  16. Impact of curricular change in an undergraduate program for speech pathologists on perceived preparedness for the workplace.

    PubMed

    Harris, L M; Adamson, B J; Reed, V; Hunt, A E

    1998-01-01

    Recently, educational policymakers have emphasized the need for undergraduate programs to develop in their graduates generic skills and attributes beyond discipline-specific skills and knowledge. The generic skills and attributes should mesh with the requirements of the workplaces where the graduates will find employment. The present study examined the impact of curricular revisions to a program of study for speech pathologists on the perceptions of the graduates regarding their preparation in appropriate skill and knowledge domains. The curricular revisions sought to develop independent learning, critical thinking, research and evaluation skills, written and oral communication skills, and skills for seeking and providing support to peers. Seventy-eight graduates of the earlier program and 21 graduates of the revised program offered by the School of Communication Disorders at The University of Sydney completed a 52-item questionnaire concerning the extent to which the program had equipped them for the workplace. Eleven scales were derived from the questionnaire responses, reflecting skills endorsed by university educators and workplace supervisors of allied health professionals as being necessary for success in the workplace. The relative levels of perceived preparation on the 11 dimensions were similar across graduates of the revised program and those of the earlier program. Graduates of the revised program were significantly more positive about their preparation on five of the 11 dimensions, compared with earlier graduates of approximately equivalent age and experience. The dimensions where differences were observed generally reflected those targeted by the curricular revisions. PMID:9879029

  17. Interobserver variability by pathologists in the distinction between cellular fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Thomas J; Acs, Geza; Argani, Pedram; Farshid, Gelareh; Gilcrease, Michael; Goldstein, Neal; Koerner, Frederick; Rowe, J Jordi; Sanders, Melinda; Shah, Sejal S; Reynolds, Carol

    2014-12-01

    Fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma are frequently termed cellular fibroadenomas although criteria for distinguishing them from a phyllodes tumor are vague and subjective. However, the clinical implications and surgical management for these 2 lesions may be different. We randomly selected 21 cases of fibroepithelial lesions sent in consultation to the senior author that were challenging to classify as cellular fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumor. One to 2 representative slides of each case along with patient age were sent to 10 pathologists who specialize in breast pathology. The World Health Organization criteria for phyllodes tumors and a diagnosis form were included with the study set. For the purposes of data reporting, fibroadenoma and cellular fibroadenoma are considered together. In only 2 cases was there uniform agreement as to whether the tumor represented a fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumor. Of the remaining 19 cases, if the diagnoses of fibroadenoma and benign phyllodes tumor were combined and separated from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors, there was 100% agreement in 53% of cases and 90% agreement in 79% of cases. This study highlights the difficulty that exists in distinguishing some cellular fibroadenomas from phyllodes tumors even for pathologists who specialize in breast pathology. However, there appears to be considerable agreement when cellular fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumors are distinguished from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors. Further studies are needed to determine if there is a clinically significant difference between cellular fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumors and how to better distinguish them from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors.

  18. Two fatal cases of immersion pulmonary oedema - using dive accident investigation to assist the forensic pathologist.

    PubMed

    Smart, David R; Sage, Martin; Davis, F Michael

    2014-06-01

    Immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE) is being increasingly recognized in swimmers, snorkellers and scuba divers presenting with acute symptoms of respiratory distress following immersion, but fatal case reports are uncommon. We report two fatal cases of probable IPE in middle-aged women, one whilst snorkelling and the other associated with a scuba dive. In the snorkeller's case, an episode of exercise-related chest tightness and shortness of breath that occurred 10 months previously was investigated but this proved negative, and she was on no medications. However, at autopsy, moderate left ventricular hypertrophy was noted. The scuba diver had suffered several previous episodes of severe shortness of breath following dives, one being so severe it led to cyanosis and impaired consciousness. At inquest, the pathologist's diagnosis was given as drowning and IPE was not mentioned. Expert input from doctors trained in diving medicine should be compulsory in the investigation of diving deaths, and forensic pathologists should be properly trained in and have guidelines for the conduct of post-immersion and post-diving autopsies. PMID:24986728

  19. Models of phonology in the education of speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Ryan; Ball, Martin J

    2003-01-01

    We discuss developments in theoretical phonology and, in particular, at the divide between theories aiming to be adequate accounts of the data, as opposed to those claiming psycholinguistic validity. It would seem that the latter might have greater utility for thye speech-language pathologist. However, we need to know the dominant models of clinical phonology, in both clinical education and practise, before we can promote other theoretical approaches. This article describes preliminary results from a questionnaire designed to discover what models of phonology are taught in institutions training speech-language pathologists in the United States. Results support anecdotal evidence that only a limited number of approaches (phonemic, distinctive features, and processes) are taught in many instances. They also demonstrate that some correspondents were unable to distinguish aspects of theoretical phonology from similar sounding (but radically different) models of intervention. This ties in with the results showing that some instructors of phonology courses have little or no background in the subject. PMID:12945616

  20. Two fatal cases of immersion pulmonary oedema - using dive accident investigation to assist the forensic pathologist.

    PubMed

    Smart, David R; Sage, Martin; Davis, F Michael

    2014-06-01

    Immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE) is being increasingly recognized in swimmers, snorkellers and scuba divers presenting with acute symptoms of respiratory distress following immersion, but fatal case reports are uncommon. We report two fatal cases of probable IPE in middle-aged women, one whilst snorkelling and the other associated with a scuba dive. In the snorkeller's case, an episode of exercise-related chest tightness and shortness of breath that occurred 10 months previously was investigated but this proved negative, and she was on no medications. However, at autopsy, moderate left ventricular hypertrophy was noted. The scuba diver had suffered several previous episodes of severe shortness of breath following dives, one being so severe it led to cyanosis and impaired consciousness. At inquest, the pathologist's diagnosis was given as drowning and IPE was not mentioned. Expert input from doctors trained in diving medicine should be compulsory in the investigation of diving deaths, and forensic pathologists should be properly trained in and have guidelines for the conduct of post-immersion and post-diving autopsies.

  1. Embalming, body preparation, burial, and disinterment. An overview for forensic pathologists.

    PubMed

    Hanzlick, R

    1994-06-01

    This article is designed as a basic guide for pathologists who are called upon to examine human remains that have been embalmed and buried for periods brief enough that soft tissues are still intact. Included is a discussion of disinterment laws; guidelines for deciding whether disinterment is warranted; funeral home and cemetery procedures; features of caskets, vaults, tombs, and gravesites; basic burial procedures; and a description of embalming chemicals and the embalming and body preparation process. Emphasis is placed on basic, routine procedures and principles of body preparation, burial, and disinterment, and on the recognition of predictable artifacts that result from such procedures. Although decomposition and skeletonization ultimately occur after burial, bodily changes that occur after burial are not discussed in this article. Disinterment is only sometimes warranted and is best accomplished in such cases through a cooperative effort among those requesting disinterment, the funeral director, the cemetery administrator, and the pathologist. If possible, autopsies should be performed according to law and prior to burial so that the need for disinterment is minimized.

  2. The Role of the Toxicologic Pathologist in the Post-Genomic Era#

    PubMed Central

    Maronpot, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    An era can be defined as a period in time identified by distinctive character, events, or practices. We are now in the genomic era. The pre-genomic era: There was a pre-genomic era. It started many years ago with novel and seminal animal experiments, primarily directed at studying cancer. It is marked by the development of the two-year rodent cancer bioassay and the ultimate realization that alternative approaches and short-term animal models were needed to replace this resource-intensive and time-consuming method for predicting human health risk. Many alternatives approaches and short-term animal models were proposed and tried but, to date, none have completely replaced our dependence upon the two-year rodent bioassay. However, the alternative approaches and models themselves have made tangible contributions to basic research, clinical medicine and to our understanding of cancer and they remain useful tools to address hypothesis-driven research questions. The pre-genomic era was a time when toxicologic pathologists played a major role in drug development, evaluating the cancer bioassay and the associated dose-setting toxicity studies, and exploring the utility of proposed alternative animal models. It was a time when there was shortage of qualified toxicologic pathologists. The genomic era: We are in the genomic era. It is a time when the genetic underpinnings of normal biological and pathologic processes are being discovered and documented. It is a time for sequencing entire genomes and deliberately silencing relevant segments of the mouse genome to see what each segment controls and if that silencing leads to increased susceptibility to disease. What remains to be charted in this genomic era is the complex interaction of genes, gene segments, post-translational modifications of encoded proteins, and environmental factors that affect genomic expression. In this current genomic era, the toxicologic pathologist has had to make room for a growing population of

  3. Toward a Molecular Equivalent Dose: Use of the Medaka Model in Comparative Risk Assessment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent challenges in risk assessment underscore the need to compare the results of toxicity and dose-response testing among a growing list of animal models and, possibly, an array of in vitro screening assays. Assays that quantify types of DNA damage that are directly relevant to...

  4. Gender Differences in Structured Risk Assessment: Comparing the Accuracy of Five Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coid, Jeremy; Yang, Min; Ullrich, Simone; Zhang, Tianqiang; Sizmur, Steve; Roberts, Colin; Farrington, David P.; Rogers, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Structured risk assessment should guide clinical risk management, but it is uncertain which instrument has the highest predictive accuracy among men and women. In the present study, the authors compared the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991, 2003); the Historical, Clinical, Risk Management-20 (HCR-20; C. D. Webster, K. S.…

  5. On Applications of Rasch Models in International Comparative Large-Scale Assessments: A Historical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Heike; Bos, Wilfried; Goy, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several current international comparative large-scale assessments of educational achievement (ICLSA) make use of "Rasch models", to address functions essential for valid cross-cultural comparisons. From a historical perspective, ICLSA and Georg Rasch's "models for measurement" emerged at about the same time, half a century ago. However, the…

  6. Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and…

  7. The Use of Illustrations in Large-Scale Science Assessment: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the complexity of test illustrations design across cultures. More specifically, it examines how the characteristics of illustrations used in science test items vary across content areas, assessment programs, and cultural origins. It compares a total of 416 Grade 8 illustrated items from the areas of earth science, life…

  8. Toward a molecular equivalent dose: use of the medaka model in comparative risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent challenges in risk assessment underscore the need to compare the results of toxicity and dose-response testing among a growing list of animal models and, possibly, an array of in vitro screening assays. Assays that quantify types of DNA damage that are directly relevant to...

  9. Assessing the Comparative Effectiveness of Teaching Undergraduate Intermediate Accounting in the Online Classroom Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Anne J.; Dereshiwsky, Mary I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study assessing the comparative effectiveness of teaching an undergraduate intermediate accounting course in the online classroom format. Students in a large state university were offered an opportunity to complete the first course in intermediate accounting either online or on-campus. Students were required to…

  10. Interactive Technologies for Teacher Training: Comparing Performance and Assessment in Second Life and simSchool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meritt, Julia; Gibson, David; Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Two alternative technologies forming the basis of computer-mediated teacher preparation systems are compared and contrasted regarding implementation, operation, and assessment considerations. The role-playing system in Second Life is shown to have the unique characteristic of developing a co-constructed pedagogical identity, while the flight…

  11. Comparing Two Versions of Professional Development for Teachers Using Formative Assessment in Networked Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yue; Olson, Judith; Olson, Melfried; Solvin, Hannah; Brandon, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared two versions of professional development (PD) designed for teachers using formative assessment (FA) in mathematics classrooms that were networked with Texas Instruments Navigator (NAV) technology. Thirty-two middle school mathematics teachers were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: FA-then-NAV group and FA-and-NAV…

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Two Order Analytic Techniques: Assessing Item Hierarchies in Real and Simulated Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalaz, Gerard M.; Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.

    Two order theoretic techniques were presented and compared. Ordering theory of Krus and Bart (1974) and an extended Takeya's item relational structure analysis (IRS) by Tatsuoka and Tatsuoka (1981) were used to extract the hierarchical item structure from three datasets. Directed graphs were constructed and both methods were assessed as to how…

  13. A Qualitative Assessment of the Learning Outcomes of Teaching Introductory American Politics in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelbman, Shamira M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of an ethnographic content analysis of students' written reflections as a means for assessing the learning outcomes of teaching introductory American politics in comparative perspective. It focuses especially on determining whether and how this approach enhanced students' understanding and retention of knowledge…

  14. Comparative assessment of DNA-based approaches for the quantification of food allergens.

    PubMed

    Luber, Florian; Demmel, Anja; Herbert, Denise; Hosken, Anne; Hupfer, Christine; Huber, Ingrid; Busch, Ulrich; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-10-01

    Governments all over the world have implemented regulatory frameworks concerning food allergen labelling and established or discussed the implementation of thresholds. Therefore, quantitative methods are needed for their surveillance. DNA-based approaches using a matrix-adapted calibration, an internal standard material and a modified standard addition have been developed. In order to enable a comparative assessment of the available quantification methods, experimental framework conditions and uniform performance criteria were defined. For the evaluation of the experimental results using homogenous sample material, the recovery, repeatability and reproducibility were considered along with the limit of detection and the limit of quantification. In addition, muffin dough and muffins spiked with sesame were analysed to assess the suitability of the methods to quantify sesame in model foods. The modified standard addition emerged from the comparative assessment and the analysis of the model foods to be the most appropriate method to quantify traces of allergens in food.

  15. Comparative life cycle assessments: The case of paper and digital media

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, Justin G. Kozak, Robert A.

    2014-02-15

    The consumption of the written word is changing, as media transitions from paper products to digital alternatives. We reviewed the life cycle assessment (LCA) research literature that compared the environmental footprint of digital and paper media. To validate the role of context in influencing LCA results, we assessed LCAs that did not compare paper and print, but focused on a product or component that is part of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector. Using a framework that identifies problems in LCA conduct, we assessed whether the comparative LCAs were accurate expressions of the environmental footprints of paper and print. We hypothesized that the differences between the product systems that produce paper and digital media weaken LCA's ability to compare environmental footprints. We also hypothesized that the characteristics of ICT as an industrial sector weaken LCA as an environmental assessment methodology. We found that existing comparative LCAs offered problematic comparisons of paper and digital media for two reasons — the stark material differences between ICT products and paper products, and the unique characteristics of the ICT sector. We suggested that the context of the ICT sector, best captured by the concept of “Moore's Law”, will continuously impede the ability of the LCA methodology to measure ICT products. -- Highlights: • We review the LCA research that compares paper and digital media. • We contrast the comparative LCAs with LCAs that examine only digital products. • Stark differences between paper and digital media weakens LCA findings. • Digital products in general challenge the LCA method's reliability. • Continuous innovation and global nature of digital products impedes LCA methodology.

  16. A new generation of relational charts for comparative assessment of citation impact.

    PubMed

    Glänzel, Wolfgang; Schubert, Andreas; Thijs, Bart; Debackere, Koenraad

    2008-01-01

    A common problem in comparative bibliometric studies at the meso and micro level is the differentiation and specialization of research profiles of the objects of analysis at lower levels of aggregation. In this study, institutional profile clusters are used to examine which level of the hierarchical subject classification should preferably be used to build subject-normalized citation indicators. It is shown that a set of properly normalized indicators can serve as a basis of comparative assessment within and even among different clusters, provided that their profiles still overlap and such comparison is thus meaningful. Using the example of 24 European universities, a new version of relational charts is presented for the comparative assessment of citation impact.

  17. Improvement of diagnostic agreement among pathologists in resolving an "atypical glands suspicious for cancer" diagnosis in prostate biopsies using a novel "Disease-Focused Diagnostic Review" quality improvement process.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rajal B; Leandro, Gioacchino; Romerocaces, Gloria; Bentley, James; Yoon, Jiyoon; Mendrinos, Savvas; Tadros, Yousef; Tian, Wei; Lash, Richard

    2016-10-01

    One of the major goals of an anatomic pathology laboratory quality program is to minimize unwarranted diagnostic variability and equivocal reporting. This study evaluated the utility of Miraca Life Sciences' "Disease-Focused Diagnostic Review" (DFDR) quality program in improving interobserver diagnostic reproducibility associated with classification of "atypical glands suspicious for adenocarcinoma" (ATYP) in prostate biopsies. Seventy-one selected prostate biopsies with a focus of ATYP were reviewed by 8 pathologists. Participants were blinded to the original diagnosis and were first asked to classify the ATYP as benign, atypical, or limited adenocarcinoma. DFDR comprised a "theoretical consensus" (in which pathologists first reached consensus on the morphological features they considered relevant for the diagnosis of limited prostatic adenocarcinoma), a didactic review including relevant literature, and "practical consensus" (pathologists performed joint microscopic sessions, reconciling each other's observations and positions evaluating a separate unique slide set). Participants were finally asked to reclassify the original 71 ATYP cases based on knowledge gleaned from DFDR. Pre- and post-DFDR interobserver reproducibility of overall diagnostic agreement was assessed. Interobserver reproducibility measured by Fleiss κ values of pre- and post-DFDR was 0.36 and 0.59, respectively (P=.006). Post-DFDR, there were significant improvement for "100% concordance" (P=.011) and reduction for "no consensus" (P=.0004) categories. Despite a lower pre-DFDR reproducibility for non-uropathology fellowship-trained (n=3, κ=0.38) versus uropathology fellowship-trained (n=5, κ=0.43) pathologists, both groups achieved similarly high post-DFDR κ levels (κ=0.58 and 0.56, respectively). DFDR represents an effective tool to formally achieve diagnostic consensus and reduce variability associated with critical diagnoses in an anatomic pathology practice.

  18. Developing the Pathologists' Monthly Assignment Schedule: A Case Study at the Division of Anatomical Pathology of The Ottawa Hospital.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Amine; Patrick, Jonathan; Michalowski, Wojtek; Banerjee, Diponkar

    2015-01-01

    In the Division of Anatomical Pathology of a teaching hospital at the beginning of each month, clinical managers assign expected daily pathology requests to the pathologists on duty. Since the number of these requests is usually large and a division employs a number of pathologists with different sub-specialties, the size of the problem is significant and finding a feasible assignment schedule manually is time-consuming. Moreover, every time there is a need to change, a new assignment schedule needs to be developed taking into account all the pre-defined constraints including pathologists' availability, sub-specialty mix, teaching/research releases, etc. In this paper we describe an analytics optimization model embedded in a decision support tool that helps the clinical managers of the division determine the optimal monthly assignment schedule. The decision support tool has been validated using data from the Division of Anatomical Pathology at The Ottawa Hospital in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

  19. Comparative assessment of predictions in ungauged basins - Part 3: Runoff signatures in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, A.; Parajka, J.; Rogger, M.; Salinas, J. L.; Laaha, G.; Sivapalan, M.; Blöschl, G.

    2013-01-01

    In a three-part paper we assess the performance of runoff predictions in ungauged basins in a comparative way. While Parajka et al. (2013) and Salinas et al. (2013) assess the regionalisation of hydrographs and hydrological extremes through a literature review, in this paper we assess prediction of a range of runoff signatures for a consistent dataset. Daily runoff time series are predicted for 213 catchments in Austria by a regionalised rainfall-runoff model and by Top-Kriging, a geostatistical interpolation method that accounts for the river network hierarchy. From the runoff timeseries, six runoff signatures are extracted: annual runoff, seasonal runoff, flow duration curves, low flows, high flows and runoff hydrograph. The predictive performance is assessed by the bias, error spread and proportion of unexplained spatial variance of statistical measures of these signatures in cross-validation mode. Results of the comparative assessment show that the geostatistical approach (Top-Kriging) generally outperforms the regionalised rainfall-runoff model. The predictive performance increases with catchment area for both methods and all signatures, while the dependence on climate characteristics is weaker. Annual and seasonal runoff can be predicted more accurately than all other signatures. The spatial variability of high flows is the most difficult to capture followed by the low flows. The relative predictive performance of the signatures depends on the selected performance measures. It is therefore essential to report performance in a consistent way by more than one performance measure.

  20. Assessing bacterial burden in wounds: comparing clinical observation and wound swabs.

    PubMed

    Miller, Charne Nicole; Carville, Keryln; Newall, Nelly; Kapp, Suzanne; Lewin, Gill; Karimi, Leila; Santamaria, Nick

    2011-02-01

    A randomised controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to compare the efficacy of nanocrystalline silver and cadexomer iodine dressings in healing chronic lower leg ulcers. The relationships between wound swab culture results and nurses' clinical assessments of critical colonisation, and between bacterial burden and healing rate, were also examined. There were 281 individuals with leg ulcers recruited. The bacterial burden of wounds was assessed using semi-quantitative wound swabs collected at baseline and intervals during the study. The study found no relationship between the nurses' clinical assessments and bacterial burden as identified from wound swabs in the wounds. A significant difference in wound healing was found with the use of nanocrystalline silver as compared to cadexomer iodine in the first 2 weeks of treatment when nil or low levels of leukocytes, gram positive bacilli, gram positive cocci or gram negative cocci were reported. This study has raised a number of questions regarding the need for further investigation into methods of assessing wound bacterial burden as well as the impact of wound biofilms on wound assessment and treatment.

  1. Validation of an electronic program for pathologist training in the interpretation of a complex companion diagnostic immunohistochemical assay.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Eslie; Banks, Peter; Murata, Lauren B; Sanchez, Stephanie A; Pennington, Christie; Hockersmith, Linda; Miller, Rachel; Lambe, Jess; Feng, Janine; Kapadia, Monesh; Clements, June; Loftin, Isabell; Singh, Shalini; Das-Gupta, Ashis; Lloyd, William; Bloom, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    Companion diagnostics assay interpretation can select patients with the greatest targeted therapy benefits. We present the results from a prospective study demonstrating that pathologists can effectively learn immunohistochemical assay-interpretation skills from digital image-based electronic training (e-training). In this study, e-training was used to train board-certified pathologists to evaluate non-small cell lung carcinoma for eligibility for treatment with onartuzumab, a MET-inhibiting agent. The training program mimicked the live training that was previously validated in clinical trials for onartuzumab. A digital interface was developed for pathologists to review high-resolution, static images of stained slides. Sixty-four pathologists practicing in the United States enrolled while blinded to the type of training. After training, both groups completed a mandatory final test using glass slides. The results indicated both training modalities to be effective. Overall, 80.6% of e-trainees and 72.7% of live trainees achieved passing scores (at least 85%) on the final test. All study participants reported that their training experience was "good" and that they had received sufficient information to determine the adequacy of case slide staining to score each case. This study established that an e-training program conducted under highly controlled conditions can provide pathologists with the skills necessary to interpret a complex assay and that these skills can be equivalent to those achieved with face-to-face training using conventional microscopy. Programs of this type are scalable for global distribution and offer pathologists the potential for readily accessible and robust training in new companion diagnostic assays linked to novel, targeted, adjuvant therapies for cancer patients. PMID:27349303

  2. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik-Shukor, Ali R; Klazinga, Niek S; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2007-01-01

    Background Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support this cross-national learning, a study was undertaken to compare health system performance approaches in The Netherlands with Ontario, Canada. Methods We explored the performance assessment framework and system of each constituency, the embeddedness of performance data in management and policy processes, and the interrelationships between the frameworks. Methods used included analysing governmental strategic planning and policy documents, literature and internet searches, comparative descriptive tables, and schematics. Data collection and analysis took place in Ontario and The Netherlands. A workshop to validate and discuss the findings was conducted in Toronto, adding important insights to the study. Results Both Ontario and The Netherlands conceive health system performance within supportive frameworks. However they differ in their assessment approaches. Ontario's Scorecard links performance measurement with strategy, aimed at health system integration. The Dutch Health Care Performance Report (Zorgbalans) does not explicitly link performance with strategy, and focuses on the technical quality of healthcare by measuring dimensions of quality, access, and cost against healthcare needs. A backbone 'five diamond' framework maps both frameworks and articulates the interrelations and overlap between their goals, themes, dimensions and indicators. The workshop yielded more contextual insights and further validated the comparative values of each constituency's performance assessment system. Conclusion To compare the health system performance approaches between The Netherlands and Ontario, Canada, several important conceptual and contextual issues must be addressed, before even attempting any

  3. Early-stage comparative sustainability assessment of new bio-based processes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Akshay D; Meesters, Koen; den Uil, Herman; de Jong, Ed; Worrell, Ernst; Patel, Martin K

    2013-09-01

    Our increasing demand for materials and energy has put critical roadblocks on our path towards a sustainable society. To remove these roadblocks, it is important to engage in smart research and development (R&D). We present an early-stage sustainability assessment framework that is used to analyze eight new bio-based process alternatives developed within the CatchBio research consortium in the Netherlands. This assessment relies on a multi-criteria approach, integrating the performance of chemical conversions based on five indicators into an index value. These indicators encompass economics, environmental impact, hazards and risks thereby incorporating elements of green chemistry principles, and techno-economic and life cycle assessments. The analyzed bio-based options target the production of fuels and chemicals through chemical catalysis. For each bio-based process, two R&D stages (current laboratory and expected future) are assessed against a comparable conventional process. The multi-criteria assessment in combination with the uncertainty and scenario analysis shows that the chemical production processes using biomass as feedstock can provide potential sustainability benefits over conventional alternatives. However, further development is necessary to realize the potential benefits from biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes for fuel production. This early stage assessment is intended as an input for R&D decision making to support optimal allocation and utilization of resources to further develop promising bio-based processes. PMID:24078179

  4. What Makes the Finnish Different in Science? Assessing and Comparing Students' Science Learning in Three Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Cornelia; Neumann, Knut; Boone, William J.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2014-12-01

    This manuscript details our efforts to assess and compare students' learning about electricity in three countries. As our world is increasingly driven by technological advancements, the education of future citizens in science becomes one important resource for economic productivity. Not surprisingly international large-scale assessments are viewed as significant sources of information about the effectiveness of science education. However, these assessments do not provide information about the reasons for particular effectiveness-or more importantly a lack thereof-as these assessments are based on one-time measurements of student achievement. In order to identify reasons for the effectiveness of science education, it is necessary to investigate students' learning as a result of science instruction. In this manuscript we report about the development of an instrument to assess students' learning in the field of electricity and the use of this instrument to collect data from N = 2,193 middle school students in Finland, Germany and Switzerland prior to and after instruction on the topic of electricity. Our findings indicate that the differences in students' science achievement as observed in large-scale assessments are a result of differences in students' science learning. And our findings suggest that these differences are more likely to stem from differences in science instruction than from systemic differences: a result that needs to be further explored by analyzing instruction in the three countries and its effect on students' learning.

  5. Comparing the organisational structure of the preoperative assessment clinic at eight university hospitals.

    PubMed

    Edward, G M; Biervliet, J D; Hollmann, M W; Schlack, W S; Preckel, B

    2008-01-01

    The preoperative assessment clinic (PAC) has been implemented in most major hospitals. However, there is no uniformity in the way PACs are organised. We compared the organisational structure of the PACs from all eight university hospitals in The Netherlands, looking at the following variables: number of patients visiting the PAC, staffing of the PAC, opening hours, scheduling, and additional preoperative diagnostic testing. The number of patients seen yearly varies from 7.000 to 13.500. In all clinics, the preoperative assessment was performed by anaesthetists and residents. In five PACs, preoperative assessment was also performed by physician assistants or nurse practitioners. Opening hours varied. Consultations are by appointment, 'walk-in', or a combination of these two. In four clinics additional testing is performed at the PAC itself. This study shows that the organisational structure of the PAC at similar university hospitals varies greatly; this can have important implications when designing a benchmarking process.

  6. [Comparative assessment of nephroprotective properties of potassium and calcium channel modulators in experimental renal injury].

    PubMed

    Filipets, N D; Gozhenko, A I

    2014-01-01

    The experiments in white laboratory rats have shown that a single intragasrtric administration of the new fluorine-containing potassium channel opener flocalin in a dose of 5 mg/kg in the initial stage of sublimate nephropathy increased the glomerular filtration rate, reduced creatininemia, increased urinary creatinine excretion, and decreased proteinuria. Under similar conditions, the administration of the calcium channel blocker diltiazem in a dose of 5 mg/kg (intragasrtric) showed a less pronounced antiproteinuric effect as compared to that of flocalin. A comparative assessment of the influence of flocalin and diltiazem on the basic renal function markers demonstrated predominant nephroprotective effect of flocalin in the treatment of acute toxic nephropathy.

  7. Selection of alternative central-station technologies for the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samsa, M.

    1980-01-01

    An important effort is the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative Assessment is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies to be compared with the SPS concept. The ground rules, criteria, and screening procedure applied in the selection of those alternative technologies are summarized. The final set of central station alternatives selected for comparison with the SPS concept includes: (1) light water reactor with improved fuel utilization, (2) conventional coal combustion with improved environmental controls, (3) open cycle gas turbine with integral low Btu gasifier, (4) terrestrial photovoltaic, (5) liquid metal fast breeder reactor, and (6) magnetic confinement fusion.

  8. Assessing the Goodness of Fit of Phylogenetic Comparative Methods: A Meta-Analysis and Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Jhwueng, Dwueng-Chwuan

    2013-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs) have been applied widely in analyzing data from related species but their fit to data is rarely assessed. Question Can one determine whether any particular comparative method is typically more appropriate than others by examining comparative data sets? Data I conducted a meta-analysis of 122 phylogenetic data sets found by searching all papers in JEB, Blackwell Synergy and JSTOR published in 2002–2005 for the purpose of assessing the fit of PCMs. The number of species in these data sets ranged from 9 to 117. Analysis Method I used the Akaike information criterion to compare PCMs, and then fit PCMs to bivariate data sets through REML analysis. Correlation estimates between two traits and bootstrapped confidence intervals of correlations from each model were also compared. Conclusions For phylogenies of less than one hundred taxa, the Independent Contrast method and the independent, non-phylogenetic models provide the best fit.For bivariate analysis, correlations from different PCMs are qualitatively similar so that actual correlations from real data seem to be robust to the PCM chosen for the analysis. Therefore, researchers might apply the PCM they believe best describes the evolutionary mechanisms underlying their data. PMID:23826183

  9. Comparative risk assessment of the burden of disease from climate change.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2006-12-01

    The World Health Organization has developed standardized comparative risk assessment methods for estimating aggregate disease burdens attributable to different risk factors. These have been applied to existing and new models for a range of climate-sensitive diseases in order to estimate the effect of global climate change on current disease burdens and likely proportional changes in the future. The comparative risk assessment approach has been used to assess the health consequences of climate change worldwide, to inform decisions on mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, and in a regional assessment of the Oceania region in the Pacific Ocean to provide more location-specific information relevant to local mitigation and adaptation decisions. The approach places climate change within the same criteria for epidemiologic assessment as other health risks and accounts for the size of the burden of climate-sensitive diseases rather than just proportional change, which highlights the importance of small proportional changes in diseases such as diarrhea and malnutrition that cause a large burden. These exercises help clarify important knowledge gaps such as a relatively poor understanding of the role of nonclimatic factors (socioeconomic and other) that may modify future climatic influences and a lack of empiric evidence and methods for quantifying more complex climate-health relationships, which consequently are often excluded from consideration. These exercises highlight the need for risk assessment frameworks that make the best use of traditional epidemiologic methods and that also fully consider the specific characteristics of climate change. These include the longterm and uncertain nature of the exposure and the effects on multiple physical and biotic systems that have the potential for diverse and widespread effects, including high-impact events.

  10. Comparative Risk Assessment of the Burden of Disease from Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2006-01-01

    The World Health Organization has developed standardized comparative risk assessment methods for estimating aggregate disease burdens attributable to different risk factors. These have been applied to existing and new models for a range of climate-sensitive diseases in order to estimate the effect of global climate change on current disease burdens and likely proportional changes in the future. The comparative risk assessment approach has been used to assess the health consequences of climate change worldwide, to inform decisions on mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, and in a regional assessment of the Oceania region in the Pacific Ocean to provide more location-specific information relevant to local mitigation and adaptation decisions. The approach places climate change within the same criteria for epidemiologic assessment as other health risks and accounts for the size of the burden of climate-sensitive diseases rather than just proportional change, which highlights the importance of small proportional changes in diseases such as diarrhea and malnutrition that cause a large burden. These exercises help clarify important knowledge gaps such as a relatively poor understanding of the role of nonclimatic factors (socioeconomic and other) that may modify future climatic influences and a lack of empiric evidence and methods for quantifying more complex climate–health relationships, which consequently are often excluded from consideration. These exercises highlight the need for risk assessment frameworks that make the best use of traditional epidemiologic methods and that also fully consider the specific characteristics of climate change. These include the long-term and uncertain nature of the exposure and the effects on multiple physical and biotic systems that have the potential for diverse and widespread effects, including high-impact events. PMID:17185288

  11. Gender differences in structured risk assessment: comparing the accuracy of five instruments.

    PubMed

    Coid, Jeremy; Yang, Min; Ullrich, Simone; Zhang, Tianqiang; Sizmur, Steve; Roberts, Colin; Farrington, David P; Rogers, Robert D

    2009-04-01

    Structured risk assessment should guide clinical risk management, but it is uncertain which instrument has the highest predictive accuracy among men and women. In the present study, the authors compared the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991, 2003); the Historical, Clinical, Risk Management-20 (HCR-20; C. D. Webster, K. S. Douglas, D. Eaves, & S. D. Hart, 1997); the Risk Matrix 2000-Violence (RM2000[V]; D. Thornton et al., 2003); the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG; V. L. Quinsey, G. T. Harris, M. E. Rice, & C. A. Cormier, 1998); the Offenders Group Reconviction Scale (OGRS; J. B. Copas & P. Marshall, 1998; R. Taylor, 1999); and the total previous convictions among prisoners, prospectively assessed prerelease. The authors compared predischarge measures with subsequent offending and instruments ranked using multivariate regression. Most instruments demonstrated significant but moderate predictive ability. The OGRS ranked highest for violence among men, and the PCL-R and HCR-20 H subscale ranked highest for violence among women. The OGRS and total previous acquisitive convictions demonstrated greatest accuracy in predicting acquisitive offending among men and women. Actuarial instruments requiring no training to administer performed as well as personality assessment and structured risk assessment and were superior among men for violence.

  12. Montane meadows in the Sierra Nevada: comparing terrestrial and aquatic assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Sarah E; Moyle, Peter B; Tate, Kenneth W

    2012-11-01

    We surveyed montane meadows in the northern Sierra Nevada and southern Cascades for two field seasons to compare commonly used aquatic and terrestrial-based assessments of meadow condition. We surveyed (1) fish, (2) reptiles, (3) amphibians, (4) aquatic macroinvertebrates, (5) stream geomorphology, (6) physical habitat, and (7) terrestrial vegetation in 79 meadows between the elevations of 1,000 and 3,000 m. From the results of those surveys, we calculated five multi-metric indices based on methods commonly used by researchers and land management agencies. The five indices consisted of (1) fish only, (2) native fish and amphibians, (3) macroinvertebrates, (4) physical habitat, and (5) vegetation. We compared the results of the five indices and found that there were significant differences in the outcomes of the five indices. We found positive correlations between the vegetation index and the physical habitat index, the invertebrate index and the physical habitat index, and the two fish-based indices, but there were significant differences between indices in both range and means. We concluded that the five indices provided very different interpretations of the condition in a given meadow. While our assessment of meadow condition changed based on which index was used, each provided an assessment of different components important to the overall condition of a meadow system. Utilizing a multimetric approach that accounts for both terrestrial and aquatic habitats provides the best means to accurately assess meadow condition, particularly given the disproportionate importance of these systems in the Sierra Nevada landscape. PMID:22183163

  13. [Pathologists and the French network of expertise on rare cancers ENT: The REFCORpath].

    PubMed

    Badoual, Cécile; Baglin, Anne-Catherine; Wassef, Michel; Thariat, Juliette; Reyt, Emile; Janot, François; Baujat, Bertrand

    2014-02-01

    Aerodigestive tract tumors are very diverse, either in terms of location, or histologically. Also, this heterogeneity poses particular problems for the histological diagnosis but also for the establishment of the most appropriate treatment. Thus, the network REFCOR (réseau d'expertise français sur les cancers ORL rares/French expert network on rare ENT cancers) was created to better understand these issues, by proposing an epidemiological and diagnostic approach with research collaborations. This network is dedicated to all primary malignant tumors of the salivary glands, ear, nasal cavity and sinuses and all head and neck malignancies other than conventional squamous cell carcinoma. The REFCORpath network consists of expert pathologists and offers, through a network of scanned images, a second opinion or even a third.

  14. Challenges in biodefense research and the role of US Army veterinary pathologists.

    PubMed

    Steele, Keith E; Alves, Derron A; Chapman, Jennifer L

    2007-01-01

    For years the nation's development of medical countermeasures to biowarfare agents has primarily existed as the domain of the United States military, but it has taken on increased urgency in the last few years. The realization that the civilian population is also at risk from biological agents has resulted in the institution of new biodefense programs at a variety of nonmilitary organizations. USAMRIID, a long-time leader in the nation's biodefense effort, will soon be joined by other US government agencies as part of a planned National Interagency Biodefense Campus at Fort Detrick Maryland. US Army veterinary pathologists at USAMRIID have played an important role in the nation's biodefense effort, along with our veterinary colleagues representing other specialties, our military colleagues in other Army Medical Department corps, and our civilian colleagues. Together, we will continue to strive to develop the diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutic agents, and operational practices that are required to meet the great demands posed by the threat of biowarfare agents.

  15. Investing in emergent literacy intervention: a key role for speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Roth, F P; Baden, B

    2001-08-01

    Emergent literacy is a developmental period that is receiving renewed and increased emphasis in the fields of education and speech-language pathology because of its influence on the later literacy development and achievement of students. With their strong background in language, language development, and language disorders, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) can make significant contributions to the acquisition of emergent literacy skills. This article focuses on SLP direct-service roles for students with identified communication impairments and on indirect roles of assisting teachers and others to promote the emergent literacy skills of all students. In addition to the acknowledged importance of general oral language, guidelines, suggestions, and resources are offered to foster emergent literacy skills in five specific areas: (1) early phonological awareness, (2) joint book reading and sense of story, (3) alphabetic letter knowledge, (4) adult modeling of literacy activities, and (5) experience with writing materials.

  16. Pathologists are from Mercury, clinicians are from Uranus: the perverted prospects for perceptual pathology.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Dennis K

    2008-08-01

    Clinicians and pathologists do their work, of course, in quite different ways. Because both groups are trained as physicians, however, this training commonality makes all involved seem basically to be on the same "medical team." There are, nevertheless, some fundamental differences between the 2 groups that can on occasion cause significant difficulties in mutual understanding; there are reasons to believe that such differences are becoming more pronounced. Although the differences in viewpoints are often subtle and, therefore, seemingly not very important, these differences have very profound causes and can be profound in their effects. This narrative examines the underlying broad historical-sociological-philosophical bases for these differences with the aim of illuminating their importance to medicine and their prospective importance to pathology in particular. PMID:18621002

  17. Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathologists on the Use of Telepractice in Schools: The Qualitative View

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Janice K.

    2012-01-01

    Telepractice in speech-language pathology shows the potential to mitigate the current shortage of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) available to serve a growing number of persons with communication disorders. Since a majority of American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) certified SLPs work in schools and the population of communicatively impaired clients in schools continues to grow, research into the use of telepractice in the educational setting is warranted. This article reports upon the perspectives of SLPs regarding the use of telepractice in school settings. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with five SLPs experienced in the delivery of telepractice. Four major themes emerged: barriers, benefits, reasons for acceptance and use of telepractice, and suggestions to resolve telepractice professional issues. PMID:25945203

  18. Pathologists are from Mercury, clinicians are from Uranus: the perverted prospects for perceptual pathology.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Dennis K

    2008-08-01

    Clinicians and pathologists do their work, of course, in quite different ways. Because both groups are trained as physicians, however, this training commonality makes all involved seem basically to be on the same "medical team." There are, nevertheless, some fundamental differences between the 2 groups that can on occasion cause significant difficulties in mutual understanding; there are reasons to believe that such differences are becoming more pronounced. Although the differences in viewpoints are often subtle and, therefore, seemingly not very important, these differences have very profound causes and can be profound in their effects. This narrative examines the underlying broad historical-sociological-philosophical bases for these differences with the aim of illuminating their importance to medicine and their prospective importance to pathology in particular.

  19. Pharmacological dosage concepts: how useful are they for educators and speech-language pathologists?

    PubMed

    Kamhi, Alan G

    2012-10-01

    The first part of this response to Baker (2012) examines studies that have attempted to determine the optimum treatment intensity of reading interventions associated with a Response to Intervention (RTI) model of service delivery. In general, the findings indicated that differences in broad measures of intensity (duration and scheduling) did not result in differences in reading outcomes. These non-significant findings and Baker's excellent discussion of all of the factors that impact treatment outcomes led me to question how useful pharmacological dosage concepts are for educators and speech-language pathologists (SLPs). This commentary concludes by acknowledging that the more information available about the active ingredients of treatment episodes, the better able one will be to design effective and efficient interventions to improve speech, language, and literacy. PMID:22646314

  20. Investing in emergent literacy intervention: a key role for speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Roth, F P; Baden, B

    2001-08-01

    Emergent literacy is a developmental period that is receiving renewed and increased emphasis in the fields of education and speech-language pathology because of its influence on the later literacy development and achievement of students. With their strong background in language, language development, and language disorders, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) can make significant contributions to the acquisition of emergent literacy skills. This article focuses on SLP direct-service roles for students with identified communication impairments and on indirect roles of assisting teachers and others to promote the emergent literacy skills of all students. In addition to the acknowledged importance of general oral language, guidelines, suggestions, and resources are offered to foster emergent literacy skills in five specific areas: (1) early phonological awareness, (2) joint book reading and sense of story, (3) alphabetic letter knowledge, (4) adult modeling of literacy activities, and (5) experience with writing materials. PMID:11505306

  1. Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies of the Head and Neck: The Surgical Pathologist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Cerilli, Lisa A.; Wick, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    Masses of the head and neck comprise a variety of benign and malignant tumors and tumor-like conditions, which may present diagnostic challenges to the surgical pathologist and surgeon. Fine needle aspiration cytology is an increasingly popular technique in the initial evaluation of such lesions. The high diagnostic accuracy of this technique makes it generally preferable to traditional surgical biopsy. It is particularly useful in the sampling of histologically uniform neoplasms of the salivary glands, identification of classical papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, separation of colloid goiter from follicular neoplasms, and confirmation of clinically suspicious lymph node metastases in cases with already documented malignant diseases. Despite its usefulness, aspiration cytology of head and neck lesions has certain inherent pitfalls, and these are briefly examined in this review. Int J Surg Pathol 8(1):17-28, 2000

  2. Perspectives on Prediction Variance and Bias in Developing, Assessing, and Comparing Experimental Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.

    2010-12-01

    The vast majority of response surface methods used in practice to develop, assess, and compare experimental designs focus on variance properties of designs. Because response surface models only approximate the true unknown relationships, models are subject to bias errors as well as variance errors. Beginning with the seminal paper of Box and Draper (1959) and over the subsequent 50 years, methods that consider bias and mean-squared-error (variance and bias) properties of designs have been presented in the literature. However, these methods are not widely implemented in software and are not routinely used to develop, assess, and compare experimental designs in practice. Methods for developing, assessing, and comparing response surface designs that account for variance properties are reviewed. Brief synopses of publications that consider bias or mean-squared-error properties are provided. The difficulties and approaches for addressing bias properties of designs are summarized. Perspectives on experimental design methods that account for bias and/or variance properties and on future needs are presented.

  3. Pocket pathologist: A mobile application for rapid diagnostic surgical pathology consultation

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Douglas J.; Parwani, Anil V.; Cable, Bill; Cucoranu, Ioan C.; McHugh, Jeff S.; Kolowitz, Brian J.; Yousem, Samuel A.; Palat, Vijaykumar; Reden, Anna Von; Sloka, Stephen; Lauro, Gonzalo Romero; Ahmed, Ishtiaque; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Telepathology allows the digital transmission of images for rapid access to pathology experts. Recent technologic advances in smartphones have allowed them to be used to acquire and transmit digital images of the glass slide, representing cost savings and efficiency gains over traditional forms of telepathology. We report our experience with developing an iPhone application (App - Pocket Pathologist) to facilitate rapid diagnostic pathology teleconsultation utilizing a smartphone. Materials and Methods: A secure, web-based portal (http://pathconsult.upmc.com/) was created to facilitate remote transmission of digital images for teleconsultation. The App augments functionality of the web-based portal and allows the user to quickly and easily upload digital images for teleconsultation. Image quality of smartphone cameras was evaluated by capturing images using different adapters that directly attach phones to a microscope ocular lens. Results: The App was launched in August 2013. The App facilitated easy submission of cases for teleconsultation by limiting the number of data entry fields for users and enabling uploading of images from their smartphone's gallery wirelessly. Smartphone cameras properly attached to a microscope create static digital images of similar quality to a commercial digital microscope camera. Conclusion: Smartphones have great potential to support telepathology because they are portable, provide ubiquitous internet connectivity, contain excellent digital cameras, and can be easily attached to a microscope. The Pocket Pathologist App represents a significant reduction in the cost of creating digital images and submitting them for teleconsultation. The iPhone App provides an easy solution for global users to submit digital pathology images to pathology experts for consultation. PMID:24843822

  4. Using assessments to investigate and compare the nature of learning in undergraduate science courses.

    PubMed

    Momsen, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Erika; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Montplaisir, Lisa; Anderson, Elizabeth; Grosz, Nate

    2013-06-01

    Assessments and student expectations can drive learning: students selectively study and learn the content and skills they believe critical to passing an exam in a given subject. Evaluating the nature of assessments in undergraduate science education can, therefore, provide substantial insight into student learning. We characterized and compared the cognitive skills routinely assessed by introductory biology and calculus-based physics sequences, using the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Our results indicate that both introductory sequences overwhelmingly assess lower-order cognitive skills (e.g., knowledge recall, algorithmic problem solving), but the distribution of items across cognitive skill levels differs between introductory biology and physics, which reflects and may even reinforce student perceptions typical of those courses: biology is memorization, and physics is solving problems. We also probed the relationship between level of difficulty of exam questions, as measured by student performance and cognitive skill level as measured by Bloom's taxonomy. Our analyses of both disciplines do not indicate the presence of a strong relationship. Thus, regardless of discipline, more cognitively demanding tasks do not necessarily equate to increased difficulty. We recognize the limitations associated with this approach; however, we believe this research underscores the utility of evaluating the nature of our assessments.

  5. Using Assessments to Investigate and Compare the Nature of Learning in Undergraduate Science Courses

    PubMed Central

    Momsen, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Erika; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Montplaisir, Lisa; Anderson, Elizabeth; Grosz, Nate

    2013-01-01

    Assessments and student expectations can drive learning: students selectively study and learn the content and skills they believe critical to passing an exam in a given subject. Evaluating the nature of assessments in undergraduate science education can, therefore, provide substantial insight into student learning. We characterized and compared the cognitive skills routinely assessed by introductory biology and calculus-based physics sequences, using the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Our results indicate that both introductory sequences overwhelmingly assess lower-order cognitive skills (e.g., knowledge recall, algorithmic problem solving), but the distribution of items across cognitive skill levels differs between introductory biology and physics, which reflects and may even reinforce student perceptions typical of those courses: biology is memorization, and physics is solving problems. We also probed the relationship between level of difficulty of exam questions, as measured by student performance and cognitive skill level as measured by Bloom's taxonomy. Our analyses of both disciplines do not indicate the presence of a strong relationship. Thus, regardless of discipline, more cognitively demanding tasks do not necessarily equate to increased difficulty. We recognize the limitations associated with this approach; however, we believe this research underscores the utility of evaluating the nature of our assessments. PMID:23737631

  6. Visual and digital comparative tooth colour assessment methods and atomic force microscopy surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Grundlingh, A A; Grossman, E S; Shrivastava, S; Witcomb, M J

    2013-10-01

    This study compared digital and visual colour tooth colour assessment methods in a sample of 99 teeth consisting of incisors, canines and pre-molars. The teeth were equally divided between Control, Ozicure Oxygen Activator bleach and Opalescence Quick bleach and subjected to three treatments. Colour readings were recorded at nine intervals by two assessment methods, VITA Easyshade and VITAPAN 3D MASTER TOOTH GUIDE, giving a total of 1782 colour readings. Descriptive and statistical analysis was undertaken using a GLM test for Analysis of Variance for a Fractional Design set at a significance of P < 0.05. Atomic force micros copy was used to examine treated ename surfaces and establish surface roughness. Visual tooth colour assessment showed significance for the independent variables of treatment, number of treatments, tooth type and the combination tooth type and treatment. Digital colour assessment indicated treatment and tooth type to be of significance in tooth colour change. Poor agreement was found between visual and digital colour assessment methods for Control and Ozicure Oxygen Activator treatments. Surface roughness values increased two-fold for Opalescence Quick specimens over the two other treatments, implying that increased light scattering improved digital colour reading. Both digital and visual colour matching methods should be used in tooth bleaching studies to complement each other and to compensate for deficiencies.

  7. Comparative evaluation of life cycle assessment models for solid waste management.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Jörg; Bilitewski, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    This publication compares a selection of six different models developed in Europe and America by research organisations, industry associations and governmental institutions. The comparison of the models reveals the variations in the results and the differences in the conclusions of an LCA study done with these models. The models are compared by modelling a specific case - the waste management system of Dresden, Germany - with each model and an in-detail comparison of the life cycle inventory results. Moreover, a life cycle impact assessment shows if the LCA results of each model allows for comparable and consecutive conclusions, which do not contradict the conclusions derived from the other models' results. Furthermore, the influence of different level of detail in the life cycle inventory of the life cycle assessment is demonstrated. The model comparison revealed that the variations in the LCA results calculated by the models for the case show high variations and are not negligible. In some cases the high variations in results lead to contradictory conclusions concerning the environmental performance of the waste management processes. The static, linear modelling approach chosen by all models analysed is inappropriate for reflecting actual conditions. Moreover, it was found that although the models' approach to LCA is comparable on a general level, the level of detail implemented in the software tools is very different. PMID:17428652

  8. Comparative evaluation of life cycle assessment models for solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Joerg; Bilitewski, Bernd

    2007-07-01

    This publication compares a selection of six different models developed in Europe and America by research organisations, industry associations and governmental institutions. The comparison of the models reveals the variations in the results and the differences in the conclusions of an LCA study done with these models. The models are compared by modelling a specific case - the waste management system of Dresden, Germany - with each model and an in-detail comparison of the life cycle inventory results. Moreover, a life cycle impact assessment shows if the LCA results of each model allows for comparable and consecutive conclusions, which do not contradict the conclusions derived from the other models' results. Furthermore, the influence of different level of detail in the life cycle inventory of the life cycle assessment is demonstrated. The model comparison revealed that the variations in the LCA results calculated by the models for the case show high variations and are not negligible. In some cases the high variations in results lead to contradictory conclusions concerning the environmental performance of the waste management processes. The static, linear modelling approach chosen by all models analysed is inappropriate for reflecting actual conditions. Moreover, it was found that although the models' approach to LCA is comparable on a general level, the level of detail implemented in the software tools is very different.

  9. Comparative assessment of predictions in ungauged basins - Part 3: Runoff signatures in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, A.; Parajka, J.; Rogger, M.; Salinas, J. L.; Laaha, G.; Sivapalan, M.; Blöschl, G.

    2013-06-01

    This is the third of a three-part paper series through which we assess the performance of runoff predictions in ungauged basins in a comparative way. Whereas the two previous papers by Parajka et al. (2013) and Salinas et al. (2013) assess the regionalisation performance of hydrographs and hydrological extremes on the basis of a comprehensive literature review of thousands of case studies around the world, in this paper we jointly assess prediction performance of a range of runoff signatures for a consistent and rich dataset. Daily runoff time series are predicted for 213 catchments in Austria by a regionalised rainfall-runoff model and by Top-kriging, a geostatistical estimation method that accounts for the river network hierarchy. From the runoff time-series, six runoff signatures are extracted: annual runoff, seasonal runoff, flow duration curves, low flows, high flows and runoff hydrographs. The predictive performance is assessed in terms of the bias, error spread and proportion of unexplained spatial variance of statistical measures of these signatures in cross-validation (blind testing) mode. Results of the comparative assessment show that, in Austria, the predictive performance increases with catchment area for both methods and for most signatures, it tends to increase with elevation for the regionalised rainfall-runoff model, while the dependence on climate characteristics is weaker. Annual and seasonal runoff can be predicted more accurately than all other signatures. The spatial variability of high flows in ungauged basins is the most difficult to estimate followed by the low flows. It also turns out that in this data-rich study in Austria, the geostatistical approach (Top-kriging) generally outperforms the regionalised rainfall-runoff model.

  10. A comparative risk assessment for the Russian V213 power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, T.D.; Hockenbury, R.W.; Honey, J.A.; Cadwallader, L.C.

    1996-04-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment methodology is applied to generate an evaluation of the relative likelihood of safe recovery following selected pressurized water reactor (PWR) design basis accidents for a Russian V213 nuclear power reactor. US-designed PWRs similar to the V213 are used for reference and comparison. This V213 risk assessment is based on comparison analyses of the following aspects: accident progression event tree success paths for typical PWR accident initiating events, safety aspects in reactor design, and perceived performance of reactor safety systems. The four initiating events considered here are: loss of offsite power with station blackout, large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), medium-break LOCA, and small-break LOCA. The success probabilities for the V213 reaching a non-core-damage state after the onset of the selected initiating events are calculated for two scenarios: (a) using actual component reliability data from US PWRs and (b) assuming common component reliability data. US PWR component reliability data are used based of the unavailability of such data for the V213 at the time of the analyses. While the use of US PWR data in this risk assessment of the V213 does strongly infer V213 comparability to US plants, the risk assessment using common component reliability does not have such a stringent limitation and is thus a separate scoping assessment of the V213 engineered safety systems. The results of the analyses suggest that the V213 has certain design features that significantly improve the reactor`s safety margin for the selected initiating events and that the V213 design has a relative risk of core damage for selected initiating events that is at least comparable to US PWRs. It is important to realize that these analyses are of a scoping nature and may be significantly influenced by important risk factors such as V213 operator training, quality control, and maintenance procedures.

  11. Prevalence of Vocal Problems: Speech-Language Pathologists' Evaluation of Music and Non-Music Teacher Recordings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2013-01-01

    The current study, a preliminary examination of whether music teachers are more susceptible to vocal problems than teachers of other subjects, asked for expert evaluation of audio recordings from licensed speech-language pathologists. Participants (N = 41) taught music (n = 23) or another subject (n = 18) in either elementary (n = 21), middle (n =…

  12. The Levels of Speech Usage Rating Scale: Comparison of Client Self-Ratings with Speech Pathologist Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Christina; Baylor, Carolyn; Eadie, Tanya; Kendall, Diane; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Background: The term "speech usage" refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to fulfil the communication demands in their life roles. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) need to know about clients' speech usage to plan appropriate interventions to meet their life participation goals. The Levels of Speech Usage is a categorical…

  13. An Investigation into the Skill Set of Speech-Language Pathologists Working with Profoundly Deaf Children: A Study in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veyvoda, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the skill sets possessed by speech-language pathologists working with profoundly deaf children in three types of settings (state-funded "4201" schools for the deaf, Board of Cooperative Educational Services programs, and local school districts) throughout New York State. The phenomenological method of inquiry was…

  14. Nazareth College: Specialty Preparation for Speech-Language Pathologists to Work with Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Paula M.; Quenin, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    The specialty preparation program within the speech-language pathology master's degree program at Nazareth College in Rochester, New York, was designed to train speech-language pathologists to work with children who are deaf and hard of hearing, ages 0 to 21. The program is offered in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology,…

  15. Characteristics of Children Who Struggle with Reading: Teachers and Speech-Language Pathologists Collaborate to Support Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Katie E.; Gillam, Sandra L.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Speech language pathologists (SLPs) have developed specialized knowledge about oral language and its relationship to early literacy development that can be particularly useful to early childhood educators. The purpose of this article is to highlight ways in which an SLP can support early childhood teachers in a Response to Intervention role by…

  16. Reliability of an Automated High-Resolution Manometry Analysis Program across Expert Users, Novice Users, and Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Corinne A.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Geng, Zhixian; Abdelhalim, Suzan M.; Jiang, Jack J.; McCulloch, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate inter- and intrarater reliability among expert users, novice users, and speech-language pathologists with a semiautomated high-resolution manometry analysis program. We hypothesized that all users would have high intrarater reliability and high interrater reliability. Method: Three expert…

  17. Toward a Discussion of Issues Associated with Speech-Language Pathologists' Dismissal Practices in Public School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steppling, Mary; Quattelbaum, Patricia; Brady, Debbie E.

    2007-01-01

    Guidelines for dismissal of a student who has been receiving educational interventions are available from both the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Ad Hoc Committee on Admission/Discharge Criteria and from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Yet as speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the schools enroll…

  18. Day as a Pathologist: Utilization of Technology to Guide Students in Exploring Careers in Breast Cancer Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Jacob J.; Judd, Mariah V.; Bringman, Lauren R.; Wells, Clark D.; Marrs, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an interactive laboratory that allows students to identify and grade tissue samples from human breast biopsies, using techniques similar to those used by actual pathologists. This unique lab develops a practical and intellectual understanding of basic tissue structures that make up living systems, utilizing technology to bring…

  19. Speech-Language Pathologists' Knowledge of Genetics: Perceived Confidence, Attitudes, Knowledge Acquisition and Practice-Based Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramontana, G. Michael; Blood, Ingrid M.; Blood, Gordon W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the general knowledge bases demonstrated by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the area of genetics, (b) the confidence levels of SLPs in providing services to children and their families with genetic disorders/syndromes, (c) the attitudes of SLPs regarding genetics and communication…

  20. Training and Self-Reported Confidence for Dysphagia Management among Speech-Language Pathologists in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Cynthia R.; Dean-Claytor, Ashli

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The number of children requiring dysphagia management in the schools is increasing. This article reports survey findings relative to speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') training and self-rated confidence to treat children with swallowing and feeding disorders in the schools. Method: Surveys were completed by 222 SLPs representing…

  1. Feeding Tube Placement in Patients with Advanced Dementia: The Beliefs and Practice Patterns of Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Helen M.; Shega, Joseph W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the beliefs and practices of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) about the use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) among patients with advanced dementia and dysphagia. Method: A survey was mailed to a geographically stratified random sample of 1,050 medical SLPs. Results: The response rate was 57%, and 326 surveys met…

  2. The Role of the School-based Speech-Language Pathologist Serving Preschool Children with Dysphagia: A Personal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurjan, Randy Moskowitz

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the role of speech-language pathologists in serving preschool children with dysphagia. Current approaches to feeding and swallowing intervention, etiologies and programs, transdisciplinary teaming, developmental and feeding evaluation, and types of service delivery models (home-based and center-based) for preschool children…

  3. 77 FR 45379 - Increasing the Supply of Forensic Pathologists in the United States: A Report and Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Increasing the Supply of Forensic Pathologists in the United States: A Report and Recommendations AGENCY: National Institute of Justice. ACTION: Notice and request for...

  4. Preparation, Clinical Support, and Confidence of Speech-Language Pathologists Managing Clients with a Tracheostomy in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Elizabeth; Agius, Emma; Solley, Maura; Cornwell, Petrea; Jones, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the preparation and training, clinical support, and confidence of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in relation to tracheostomy client care in Australia. Method: A survey was sent to 90 SLPs involved in tracheostomy management across Australia. The survey contained questions relating to preparation and training, clinical…

  5. Understanding Why Speech-Language Pathologists Rarely Pursue a PhD in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myotte, Theodore; Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Belin, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Masters-level speech-language pathologists in communication sciences and disorders (n = 122) completed a survey soliciting their reasons for not pursuing doctoral study. Factor analysis revealed a four-factor solution including one reflecting a lack of interest in doctoral study (Factor 2) and one reflecting practical financial concerns (Factor…

  6. Comparative study of upper limb load assessment and occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders at repetitive task workstations.

    PubMed

    Roman-Liu, Danuta; Bugajska, Joanna; Tokarski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between subjectively assessed complaints of pain in the arm, forearm and hand, and musculoskeletal load caused by repetitive tasks. Workers (n=942) were divided into 22 subgroups, according to the type of their workstations. They answered questions on perceived musculoskeletal pain of upper limbs. Basic and aggregate indices from a questionnaire on the prevalence, intensity and frequency of pain were compared with an upper limb load indicator (repetitive task index, RTI) calculated with the recently developed Upper Limb Risk Assessment (ULRA). There was relatively strong correlation of RTI and general intensity and frequency of pain in the arm, and general intensity and frequency of pain in the arm and forearm or prevalence of pain in the arm. Frequency and intensity of pain in the arm were weakly correlated. An aggregate indicator of evaluation of MSDs, which was calculated on the basis of the prevalence, intensity and frequency of pain, was to a higher degree associated with the musculoskeletal load of a task than basic evaluative parameters. Thus, such an aggregate indicator can be an alternative in comparing subjectively assessed MSDs with task-related musculoskeletal load and in establishing limit levels for that load. PMID:24975106

  7. Comparative assessment of the environmental sustainability of existing and emerging perchlorate treatment technologies for drinking water.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jong Kwon; Mehnert, Michelle H; Guest, Jeremy S; Strathmann, Timothy J; Werth, Charles J

    2013-05-01

    Environmental impacts of conventional and emerging perchlorate drinking water treatment technologies were assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA). Comparison of two ion exchange (IX) technologies (i.e., nonselective IX with periodic regeneration using brines and perchlorate-selective IX without regeneration) at an existing plant shows that brine is the dominant contributor for nonselective IX, which shows higher impact than perchlorate-selective IX. Resource consumption during the operational phase comprises >80% of the total impacts. Having identified consumables as the driving force behind environmental impacts, the relative environmental sustainability of IX, biological treatment, and catalytic reduction technologies are compared more generally using consumable inputs. The analysis indicates that the environmental impacts of heterotrophic biological treatment are 2-5 times more sensitive to influent conditions (i.e., nitrate/oxygen concentration) and are 3-14 times higher compared to IX. However, autotrophic biological treatment is most environmentally beneficial among all. Catalytic treatment using carbon-supported Re-Pd has a higher (ca. 4600 times) impact than others, but is within 0.9-30 times the impact of IX with a newly developed ligand-complexed Re-Pd catalyst formulation. This suggests catalytic reduction can be competitive with increased activity. Our assessment shows that while IX is an environmentally competitive, emerging technologies also show great promise from an environmental sustainability perspective.

  8. Health technology assessment and comparative effectiveness research: a pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yanni; Thomas, Adrian

    2013-08-01

    We briefly review the characteristics of several established health technology assessment (HTA) programs in industrialized societies including Germany, the UK and France. Special attention is paid on two issues: the position of HTA in coverage decision making and the role of economic assessment in evaluation processes. Although law makers in the USA have barred the use of NICE's cost/quality-adjusted life year or similar health economics approaches by public payers for coverage decision making, there are suggestions of prioritizing relative efficacy evaluation over economic assessment under a comparative effectiveness research (CER) framework to inform payment rates of public payers (an approach similar to German and French HTA processes). However, such an approach is unlikely to prove viable. It should also be noted that, if cost considerations are made explicit in US CER policy decisions, CER may become an unsustainable approach undermined by a conflicting emphasis on both cost containment and a demand for costly comparative evidence. On the other hand, properly designed CER initiatives can serve as a facilitator of more efficient research activities and drug development models. With these points in mind, the likely pathway of US CER is explored and the plausible impact on industry innovation is discussed. PMID:23977973

  9. Life cycle assessments of urban water systems: a comparative analysis of selected peer-reviewed literature.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Loiseau, Eleonore; Bellon-Maurel, Veronique

    2014-12-15

    Water is a growing concern in cities, and its sustainable management is very complex. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used to assess the environmental impacts of water technologies during the last 20 years. This review aims at compiling all LCA papers related to water technologies, out of which 18 LCA studies deals with whole urban water systems (UWS). A focus is carried out on these 18 case studies which are analyzed according to criteria derived from the four phases of LCA international standards. The results show that whereas the case studies share a common goal, i.e., providing quantitative information to policy makers on the environmental impacts of urban water systems and their forecasting scenarios, they are based on different scopes, resulting in the selection of different functional units and system boundaries. A quantitative comparison of life cycle inventory and life cycle impact assessment data is provided, and the results are discussed. It shows the superiority of information offered by multi-criteria approaches for decision making compared to that derived from mono-criterion. From this review, recommendations on the way to conduct the environmental assessment of urban water systems are given, e.g., the need to provide consistent mass balances in terms of emissions and water flows. Remaining challenges for urban water system LCAs are identified, such as a better consideration of water users and resources and the inclusion of recent LCA developments (territorial approaches and water-related impacts). PMID:25282088

  10. Life cycle assessments of urban water systems: a comparative analysis of selected peer-reviewed literature.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Loiseau, Eleonore; Bellon-Maurel, Veronique

    2014-12-15

    Water is a growing concern in cities, and its sustainable management is very complex. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used to assess the environmental impacts of water technologies during the last 20 years. This review aims at compiling all LCA papers related to water technologies, out of which 18 LCA studies deals with whole urban water systems (UWS). A focus is carried out on these 18 case studies which are analyzed according to criteria derived from the four phases of LCA international standards. The results show that whereas the case studies share a common goal, i.e., providing quantitative information to policy makers on the environmental impacts of urban water systems and their forecasting scenarios, they are based on different scopes, resulting in the selection of different functional units and system boundaries. A quantitative comparison of life cycle inventory and life cycle impact assessment data is provided, and the results are discussed. It shows the superiority of information offered by multi-criteria approaches for decision making compared to that derived from mono-criterion. From this review, recommendations on the way to conduct the environmental assessment of urban water systems are given, e.g., the need to provide consistent mass balances in terms of emissions and water flows. Remaining challenges for urban water system LCAs are identified, such as a better consideration of water users and resources and the inclusion of recent LCA developments (territorial approaches and water-related impacts).

  11. Considerations for comparative tobacco product assessments based on smoke constituent yields.

    PubMed

    Belushkin, M; Jaccard, G; Kondylis, A

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of more than 8000 smoke constituents. The quantification of selected mainstream smoke constituent yields is one of the methods to evaluating and comparing the performance of different products. Numerous regulatory and scientific advisory bodies have used cigarette smoke constituent yield data for reporting and product comparison purposes. For more than a decade limitations of the indiscriminate application of traditional statistical methods such as the t-test for differences in comparative smoke constituent yield assessments lacking a specific study design, have been highlighted. In the present study, the variability of smoke constituent yields is demonstrated with data obtained under the ISO smoking regime for the Kentucky reference cigarette 3R4F and one commercial brand, analyzed on several occasions between 2007 and 2014. Specifically it is shown that statistically significant differences in the yields of selected smoke constituents do not readily translate to differences between products, and that tolerances need to be defined. To this end, two approaches have been proposed in the literature--minimal detectable differences, and the statistical equivalence. It is illustrated how both approaches provide more meaningful comparison outcomes than the statistical t-test for differences. The present study provides considerations relevant for comparative tobacco product assessments both in the scientific and regulatory contexts.

  12. Comparative assessment of five potential sites for hydrothermal-magma systems: summary

    SciTech Connect

    Luth, W.C.; Hardee, H.C.

    1980-11-01

    A comparative assessment of five potential hydrothermal-magma sites for this facet of the Thermal Regimes part of the CSDP has been prepared for the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The five sites are: The Geysers-Clear Lake, CA, Long Valley, CA, Rio Grande Rift, NM, Roosevelt Hot Springs, UT, and Salton Trough, CA. This site assessment study has drawn together background information (geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and energy transport) on the five sites as a preliminary stage to site selection. Criteria for site selection are that potential sites have identifiable, or likely, hydrothermal systems and associated magma sources, and the important scientific questions can be identified and answered by deep scientific holes. Recommendations were made.

  13. Comparative analysis of the life cycle impact assessment of available cement inventories in the EU

    SciTech Connect

    Josa, Alejandro; Byars, Ewan

    2007-05-15

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is one of basic steps in life cycle assessment methodology (LCA). This paper presents a comparative study of the LCIA of different life cycle inventories (LCI) for EU cements. The analysis unit used is the manufacture of 1 kg of cement, from 'cradle to gate'. The impact categories considered are those resulting from the manufacture of cement and include greenhouse effects, acidification, eutrophication and summer and winter smog, amongst others. The results of the study highlighted some inconsistencies in existing inventories. As for the LCIA, the main environmental interventions related to cement manufacture were classified and characterised and their effect on different impact categories analysed. Differences observed in evaluation of the impact of cement type were essentially related to their clinker content.

  14. A comparative assessment of commonly employed staining procedures for the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis.

    PubMed

    Moodley, D; Jackson, T F; Gathiram, V; van den Ende, J

    1991-03-16

    Following an increase in the number of reports of Cryptosporidium infections and the problems encountered in detecting these organisms in faecal smears, a comparative assessment of a modification of the Sheather's flotation technique and other commonly employed staining procedures proved the modified Sheather's technique to be most useful in identifying Cryptosporidium oocysts in diarrhoeal stools. This technique not only detected the parasite in the highest number of stools but also proved to be cost-effective and the least time-consuming. Other staining techniques assessed were the modified Ziehl-Neelsen, safranin-methylene blue and auramine-phenol fluorescence. Both the modified Ziehl-Neelsen and the auramine-phenol fluorescence procedures produced nonspecific staining, while the safranin-methylene blue method was found to be the least sensitive technique.

  15. Comparative life-cycle assessments for biomass-to-ethanol production from different regional feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Amber J; Shonnard, David R

    2005-01-01

    This study compares life-cycle (cradle-to-gate) energy consumption and environmental impacts for producing ethanol via fermentation-based processes starting with two lignocellulosic feedstocks: virgin timber resources or recycled newsprint from an urban area. The life-cycle assessment in this study employed a novel combination of computer-aided tools. These tools include fermentation process simulation coupled with an impact assessment software tool for the manufacturing process life-cycle stage impacts. The process simulation file was provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and was modified slightly to accommodate these different feedstocks. For the premanufacturing process life-cycle stage impacts, such as the fuels and process chemicals used, transportation, and some preparatory steps (wood chipping, etc.), a life-cycle inventory database (the Boustead Model) coupled with an impact assessment software tool were used (the Environmental Fate and Risk Assessment Tool). The Newsprint process has a slightly lower overall composite environmental index (created from eight impact categories) compared to the Timber process. However, the Timber process consumes less electricity, produces fewer emissions in total, and has less of a human health impact. The amount of life-cycle fossil energy required to produce ethanol is 14% of the energy content of the product, making the overall efficiency 86%. Process improvement strategies were evaluated for both feedstock processes, including recycle of reactor vent air and heat integration. Heat integration has the greatest potential to reduce fossil-derived energy consumption, to an extent that fossil-derived energy over the life cycle is actually saved per unit of ethanol produced. These energy efficiency values are superior to those observed in conventional fossil-based transportation fuels. PMID:16080686

  16. Comparing Voice Self-Assessment with Auditory Perceptual Analysis in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Vladimir; Aleric, Zorica; Jancic, Ervin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Disordered voice quality could be a symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of MS on voice-related quality of life is still controversial. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the results of voice self-assessment with the results of expert perceptual assessment in patients with MS. Methods The research included 38 patients with relapse-remitting MS (23 women and 15 men; ages 21 to 83, mean = 44). All participants filled out a Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and their voice sample was analyzed by speech and language professionals using the Grade Roughness Breathiness Asthenia Strain scale (GRBAS). Results The patients with MS had significantly higher VHI than control group participants (mean value 16.68 ± 16.2 compared with 5.29 ± 5.5, p = 0.0001). The study established a notable level of dysphonia in 55%, roughness and breathiness in 66%, asthenia in 34%, and strain in 55% of the vocal samples. A significant correlation was established between VHI and GRBAS scores (r = 0.3693, p = 0.0225), and VHI and asthenia and strain components (r = 0.4037 and 0.3775, p = 0.012 and 0.0195, respectively). The female group showed positive and significant correlation between claims for self-assessing one's voice (pVHI) and overall GRBAS scores, and between pVHI and grade, roughness, asthenia, and strain components. No significant correlation was found for male patients (p > 0.05). Conclusion A significant number of patients with MS experienced voice problems. The VHI is a good and effective tool to assess patient self-perception of voice quality, but it may not reflect the severity of dysphonia as perceived by voice and speech professionals. PMID:25992162

  17. Graphical Assessment Technique (GAT) - An Objective, Comprehensive and Comparative Hand Hygiene Quantification Tool

    PubMed Central

    Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Gupta, Ritu; Prasad, Monika; Pandita, Venisha; Malhi, Ravneet; Vashishtha, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There has been a profound leap in developing countries in sectors of human development but it falls short of millennium development goals. Diarrhoea, respiratory infections are primary cause of child deaths around the world due to improper hygiene practice. There is lack of systematic objective analysis, follow-up and quantification of hand hygiene guidelines. So, there is an urgent requisite of a tool to assess the same. Aim To conduct a pilot test for assessing the efficacy of Graphical Assessment Technique (GAT) in objectively evaluating and comparing intervention based hand hygiene among students of National Association of Blind School (NABS) and a government school. Materials and Methods GAT was used to assess the baseline and post-intervention improvement of 80 students considered for the study. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and was subjected to quantitative analysis and parametric tests. Results Non-significant difference (p≥0.05) was found at baseline and immediate post-intervention on percentage mean scores of blind school students and government school student, while government school children also showed non-significant difference at one week. Significant difference (p≤0.05) was found at baseline, post-intervention one week and post-intervention one month for blind school children along with baseline and post-intervention mean percentage scores for government school children. Conclusion The primary agenda behind the study was to test a tool which can objectively evaluate, quantify and compare the follow-up of hand hygiene guidelines and aid in better hand hygiene promotion. PMID:27656553

  18. Comparative Accuracy Assessment of Global Land Cover Datasets Using Existing Reference Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsendbazar, N. E.; de Bruin, S.; Mora, B.; Herold, M.

    2014-12-01

    Land cover is a key variable to monitor the impact of human and natural processes on the biosphere. As one of the Essential Climate Variables, land cover observations are used for climate models and several other applications. Remote sensing technologies have enabled the generation of several global land cover (GLC) products that are based on different data sources and methods (e.g. legends). Moreover, the reported map accuracies result from varying validation strategies. Such differences make the comparison of the GLC products challenging and create confusion on selecting suitable datasets for different applications. This study aims to conduct comparative accuracy assessment of GLC datasets (LC-CCI 2005, MODIS 2005, and Globcover 2005) using the Globcover 2005 reference data which can represent the thematic differences of these GLC maps. This GLC reference dataset provides LCCS classifier information for 3 main land cover types for each sample plot. The LCCS classifier information was translated according to the legends of the GLC maps analysed. The preliminary analysis showed some challenges in LCCS classifier translation arising from missing important classifier information, differences in class definition between the legends and absence of class proportion of main land cover types. To overcome these issues, we consolidated the entire reference data (i.e. 3857 samples distributed at global scale). Then the GLC maps and the reference dataset were harmonized into 13 general classes to perform the comparative accuracy assessments. To help users on selecting suitable GLC dataset(s) for their application, we conducted the map accuracy assessments considering different users' perspectives: climate modelling, bio-diversity assessments, agriculture monitoring, and map producers. This communication will present the method and the results of this study and provide a set of recommendations to the GLC map producers and users with the aim to facilitate the use of GLC maps.

  19. Comparative life-cycle assessments for biomass-to-ethanol production from different regional feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Amber J; Shonnard, David R

    2005-01-01

    This study compares life-cycle (cradle-to-gate) energy consumption and environmental impacts for producing ethanol via fermentation-based processes starting with two lignocellulosic feedstocks: virgin timber resources or recycled newsprint from an urban area. The life-cycle assessment in this study employed a novel combination of computer-aided tools. These tools include fermentation process simulation coupled with an impact assessment software tool for the manufacturing process life-cycle stage impacts. The process simulation file was provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and was modified slightly to accommodate these different feedstocks. For the premanufacturing process life-cycle stage impacts, such as the fuels and process chemicals used, transportation, and some preparatory steps (wood chipping, etc.), a life-cycle inventory database (the Boustead Model) coupled with an impact assessment software tool were used (the Environmental Fate and Risk Assessment Tool). The Newsprint process has a slightly lower overall composite environmental index (created from eight impact categories) compared to the Timber process. However, the Timber process consumes less electricity, produces fewer emissions in total, and has less of a human health impact. The amount of life-cycle fossil energy required to produce ethanol is 14% of the energy content of the product, making the overall efficiency 86%. Process improvement strategies were evaluated for both feedstock processes, including recycle of reactor vent air and heat integration. Heat integration has the greatest potential to reduce fossil-derived energy consumption, to an extent that fossil-derived energy over the life cycle is actually saved per unit of ethanol produced. These energy efficiency values are superior to those observed in conventional fossil-based transportation fuels.

  20. Comparing and assessing different measurement techniques for mercury in coal systhesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.P.; Richardson, C.F.

    1995-11-01

    Three mercury measurement techniques were performed on synthesis gas streams before and after an amine-based sulfur removal system. The syngas was sampled using (1) gas impingers containing a nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide solution, (2) coconut-based charcoal sorbent, and (3) an on-line atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a gold amalgamation trap and cold vapor cell. Various impinger solutions were applied upstream of the gold amalgamation trap to remove hydrogen sulfide and isolate oxidized and elemental species of mercury. The results from these three techniques are compared to provide an assessment of these measurement techniques in reducing gas atmospheres.

  1. Comparative assessment of different treatment modalities in miners with vibration- and noise-induced disease

    SciTech Connect

    Velskaya, M.L.; Nekhorosheva, M.A.; Konovalova, S.I.; Kukhtina, G.V.; Gonchar, I.G.; Terentyeva, D.P.; Grishchenko, L.A.; Soboleva, N.P.; Kharitonov, S.A.; Priklonskiy, I.V.

    1985-02-01

    A group of 71 miners with vibration sickness and noise-induced pathology were managed either by standard methods, or in combination with acupuncture and/or hyperbaric oxygenation for a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of the different therapeutic approaches. Analysis of subjective factors as well as standard physiological parameters (EKG, rheoencephalography, peripheral rheography, EEG, neuropsychological tests) demonstrate that both acupuncture and hyperbaric oxygenation are effective modalities in the majority of the subjects. Nevertheless, the lack of improvement in certain criteria, or even what could be regarded as adverse sequelae, suggest that the use of hyperbaric oxygenation in the management of such disorders be approached with considerable care.

  2. Comparative assessment of five potential sites for magma: hydrothermal systems - geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Kasameyer, P.

    1980-09-02

    As part of a comparative assessment for the Continental Scientific Drilling Program, geophysical data were used, to characterize and evaluate potential magma-hydrothermal targets at five drill sites in the western United States. The sites include Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah, the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico, and The Geysers-Clear Lake, Long Valley, and Salton Trough areas, California. This summary discusses the size, depth, temperature, and setting of each potential target, as well as relvant scientific questions about their natures and the certainty of their existence.

  3. The frontal and temporal horn ratio to assess dimension of paediatric hydrocephalus: a comparative volumetric study.

    PubMed

    Antes, Sebastian; Welsch, Melanie; Kiefer, Michael; Gläser, Mareike; Körner, Heiko; Eymann, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging and cranial -ultrasound are the most frequently implemented imaging methods for investigating the infantile hydrocephalic brain. A general and reliable measurement index that can be equally applied in both imaging methods to assess dimension of ventricular dilatation is currently not available. For this purpose, a new parameter called the frontal and temporal horn ratio - determinable in coronal slices of the brain - was developed and evaluated in a comparative volumetric retrospective study: Statistical analyses of 118 MRIs of 46 different shunt-treated pediatric patients revealed a good linear correlation between the new index and the actual ventricular volume.

  4. Comparative study of non-invasive methods for assessing Daphnia magna embryo toxicity.

    PubMed

    Stensberg, Matthew C; Zeitchek, Michael Anthony; Inn, Kul; McLamore, Eric S; Porterfield, D Marshall; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2014-09-01

    Embryos, unlike adults, are typically sessile, which allows for an increase in the available metrics that can be used to assess chemical toxicity. We investigate Daphnia magna development rate and oxygen consumption as toxicity metrics and compare them to arrested embryo development using four different techniques with potassium cyanide (KCN) as a common toxicant. The EC50 (95 % CI) for arrested development was 2,535 (1,747-3,677) μg/L KCN. Using pixel intensity changes, recorded with difference imaging, we semi-quantitatively assessed a decrease in development rate at 200 μg/L KCN, threefold lower than the arrested development lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC). Respirometry and self-referencing (SR) microsensors were two unique techniques used to assess oxygen consumption. Using respirometry, an increase in oxygen consumption was found in the 5 μg/L KCN treatment and a decrease for 148 μg/L, but no change was found for the 78 μg/L KCN treatment. Whereas, with SR microsensors, we were able to detect significant changes in oxygen consumption for all three treatments: 5, 78, and 148 μg/L KCN. While SR offered the highest sensitivity, the respirometry platform developed for this study was much easier to use to measure the same endpoint. Oxygen consumption may be subject to change during the development process, meaning consumption assessment techniques may only be useful only for short-term experiments. Development rate was a more sensitive endpoint though was only reliable four of the six embryonic developmental stages examined. Despite being the least sensitive endpoint, arrested embryo development was the only technique capable of assessing the embryos throughout all developmental stages. In conclusion, each metric has advantages and limitations, but because all are non-invasive, it is possible to use any combination of the three. PMID:24888613

  5. Health: IT leader or laggard? A comparative assessment of IT maturity.

    PubMed

    England, Ian; Stewart, Don

    2003-01-01

    The health industry has acquired a reputation as lagging in the use of IT. This reputation is usually based upon the relatively narrow measure of comparative IT expenditure, often examined as a proportion of total revenue. This study has been undertaken to assess health's use of IT using a broader frame of reference. The health industry was compared to the banking industry, on the basis that the banking industry is widely perceived as a leading IT user. The research confirmed that in these two 'knowledge' industries, health is slower to adopt IT with an apparent lower maturity level. This was the case across a range of best practice management, procedural and cultural topics as well as in the level of resources applied to IT. PMID:15368843

  6. Comparative Assessment and Decision Support System for Strategic Military Airlift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmon, John; Iwata, Curtis; Mavris, Dimitri; Weston, Neil; Fahringer, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company has been awarded several programs to modernize the aging C-5 military transport fleet. In order to ensure its continuation amidst budget cuts, it was important to engage the decision makers by providing an environment to analyze the benefits of the modernization program. This paper describes an interface that allows the user to change inputs such as the scenario airfields, take-off conditions, and reliability characteristics. The underlying logistics surrogate model was generated using data from a discrete-event simulation. Various visualizations such as intercontinental flight paths illustrated in 3D, have been created to aid the user in analyzing scenarios and performing comparative assessments for various output logistics metrics. The capability to rapidly and dynamically evaluate and compare scenarios was developed enabling real time strategy exploration and trade-offs.

  7. Comparative health-effects assessment of drinking-water-treatment technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-09

    On October 8-9, 1987 the Drinking Water Subcommittee of the Science Advisory Board's Environmental Health Committee met to independently review of Office of Drinking Water report to Congress entitled Comparative Health Effects Assessment of Drinking Water Treatment Technologies. The objective of the report is to compare the health effects resulting from the use of different drinking-water-treatment technologies with those prevented by biological treatment. The Subcommittee concludes that the constraints of time and available budget, the report adequately surveys the available information on health effects pf chemicals involved in water treatment, including cost estimates. The rationale for the specific approach used in examining water-treatment processes should be articulated. The introduction should also clearly state that there is a disparity in knowledge for the various treatment techniques.

  8. Comparative application of different risk assessment models and implications on resulting remediation options.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, Andrea; Callegari, Arianna; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The issue of contaminated soils and their productive recovery is a quite controversial environmental and economic problem with important consequences for its social, public health and sustainability aspects. The sheer number and characteristics of the polluted sites are so large and varied, and the definition of priorities related to their remediation interventions so site-dependent, that proper characterization and final environmental quality goals reflect a strategic importance. One of the possible approaches to site specific approach and site priority ranking can be that of carrying out, respectively, absolute and comparative analysis procedures. An important aspect to be solved is represented by the necessity to consider not only the potential risk to public health, but also the best possible financial return from the investments for remediation, especially when carried out with public money. In this paper, different contaminated sites' risk assessment approaches are considered, compared and their applicability to support sustainable policies discussed using a case study.

  9. Objective, comparative assessment of the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy for imaging various organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, Christopher J.; Bruns, Oliver T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-06-01

    Temporal focusing is a technique for performing axially resolved widefield multiphoton microscopy with a large field of view. Despite significant advantages over conventional point-scanning multiphoton microscopy in terms of imaging speed, the need to collect the whole image simultaneously means that it is expected to achieve a lower penetration depth in common biological samples compared to point-scanning. We assess the penetration depth using a rigorous objective criterion based on the modulation transfer function, comparing it to point-scanning multiphoton microscopy. Measurements are performed in a variety of mouse organs in order to provide practical guidance as to the achievable penetration depth for both imaging techniques. It is found that two-photon scanning microscopy has approximately twice the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy, and that penetration depth is organ-specific; the heart has the lowest penetration depth, followed by the liver, lungs, and kidneys, then the spleen, and finally white adipose tissue.

  10. Postgraduate education in laboratory medicine and certification/re-certification of clinical pathologists in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chien-Feng

    2004-04-01

    The Taiwan Society of Clinical Pathologists (TSCP) plays a central role in postgraduate education of laboratory medicine and the certification/re-certification of clinical pathologists in Taiwan. For the certification of clinical pathologists, TSCP establishes "Guidelines and Scope of Resident Training" and "Standards for Training Hospitals in Clinical Pathology(CP)", administers board examinations, and issues board certifications/re-certifications. There are two types of CP resident training programs, including a straight CP program with 3 years of CP training for a CP certificate and a combined program with 3 years of Anatomic Pathology training and 2 years of CP training for both the CP and AP certificates. The core curriculum for CP training includes: (1) Clinical Chemistry (at least 4 months), (2) Clinical Microscope with Parasitology (at least 3 months), (3) Clinical Hematology (at least 4 months), and (4) Clinical Microbiology with Clinical Virology (at least 4 months), (5) Immunohematology and Blood Banking (Transfusion Medicine) (at least 3 months), (6) Clinical Serology and Immunology(at least 4 months), and (7) Laboratory Management (at least 2 months). The curriculum for third-year training is not specified and may be in any field. In recent years, the board examination has emphasized the topics of Molecular Biology and Laboratory Informatics. The TSCP has also established an accreditation and inspection program for the CP resident raining hospitals. Each accredited CP training hospital is required to have a detailed teaching protocol of CP training. Quotas are assigned according to the available CPs of the accredited hospitals. The accreditation period is 3 years. Through sponsoring scientific and educational programs, the TSCP offers credit hours of education in laboratory medicine, which are required for re-certification of CPs in Taiwan. The members of the TSCP meet at least twice a year for scientific presentations and seminars. In addition, two to

  11. Life cycle assessment of segregating fattening pig urine and feces compared to conventional liquid manure management.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Jerke W; Aarnink, André J A; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; De Boer, Imke J M

    2013-02-01

    Gaseous emissions from in-house storage of liquid animal manure remain a major contributor to the environmental impact of manure management. Our aim was to assess the life cycle environmental consequences and reduction potential of segregating fattening pig urine and feces with an innovative V-belt system and to compare it to conventional liquid manure management, that is, the reference. Moreover, we aimed at analyzing the uncertainty of the outcomes related to applied emission factors. We compared a reference with two scenarios: segregation with solid, aerobically, stored feces and with liquid, anaerobically, stored feces. Results showed that, compared to the reference, segregation reduced climate change (CC) up to 82%, due to lower methane emission, reduced terrestrial acidification (TA) and particulate matter formation (PMF) up to 49%, through lower ammonia emission, but increased marine eutrophication up to 11% through nitrogen oxide emission from storage and nitrate leaching after field application. Fossil fuel depletion did not change. Segregation with liquid feces revealed lower environmental impact than segregation with solid feces. Uncertainty analysis supported the conclusion that segregating fattening pig urine and feces significantly reduced CC and additionally segregation with liquid feces significantly reduced TA and PMF compared to the reference. PMID:23268735

  12. Runoff signatures prediction in ungauged basins - a comparative assessment in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, Alberto; Parajka, Juraj; Rogger, Magdalena; Salinas, Jose Luis; Laaha, Gregor; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Bloeschl, Guenter

    2013-04-01

    In this study we assess the prediction of a range of runoff signatures for a consistent dataset. Daily runoff time series are predicted for 213 catchments in Austria by a regionalised rainfall-runoff model and by Top-Kriging, a geostatistical interpolation method that accounts for the river network hierarchy. From the runoff timeseries, six runoff signatures are extracted: annual runoff, seasonal runoff, flow duration curves, low flows, high flows and runoff hydrograph. The predictive performance is assessed by the bias, error spread and proportion of unexplained spatial variance of statistical measures of these signatures in cross-validation mode. Results of the comparative assessment show that the geostatistical approach (Top-Kriging) generally outperforms the regionalised rainfall-runoff model. The predictive performance increases with catchment area for both methods and all signatures, while the dependence on climate characteristics is weaker. Annual and seasonal runoff can be predicted more accurately than all other signatures. The spatial variability of high flows is the most difficult to capture followed by the low flows. The relative predictive performance of the signatures depends on the selected performance measures. It is therefore essential to report performance in a consistent way by more than one performance measure.

  13. A comparative assessment of tools for ecosystem services quantification and valuation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius; Waage, Sissel; Winthrop, Robert

    2013-01-01

    To enter widespread use, ecosystem service assessments need to be quantifiable, replicable, credible, flexible, and affordable. With recent growth in the field of ecosystem services, a variety of decision-support tools has emerged to support more systematic ecosystem services assessment. Despite the growing complexity of the tool landscape, thorough reviews of tools for identifying, assessing, modeling and in some cases monetarily valuing ecosystem services have generally been lacking. In this study, we describe 17 ecosystem services tools and rate their performance against eight evaluative criteria that gauge their readiness for widespread application in public- and private-sector decision making. We describe each of the tools′ intended uses, services modeled, analytical approaches, data requirements, and outputs, as well time requirements to run seven tools in a first comparative concurrent application of multiple tools to a common location – the San Pedro River watershed in southeast Arizona, USA, and northern Sonora, Mexico. Based on this work, we offer conclusions about these tools′ current ‘readiness’ for widespread application within both public- and private-sector decision making processes. Finally, we describe potential pathways forward to reduce the resource requirements for running ecosystem services models, which are essential to facilitate their more widespread use in environmental decision making.

  14. Comparing Student Learning Experiences of In-Text Commentary and Rubric-Articulated Feedback: Strategies for Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordrum, Lene; Evans, Katherine; Gustafsson, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    This study compares students' experiences of two types of criteria-based assessment: in-text commentary and rubric-articulated feedback, in an assessment design combining the two feedback channels. The main aim is to use students' responses to shed light on how feedback strategies for formative assessment can be optimised. Following…

  15. Objective Assessment of Multiresolution Image Fusion Algorithms for Context Enhancement in Night Vision: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Blasch, E; Xue, Z; Zhao, J; Laganiere, R; Wu, W

    2012-01-01

    Comparison of image processing techniques is critically important in deciding which algorithm, method, or metric to use for enhanced image assessment. Image fusion is a popular choice for various image enhancement applications such as overlay of two image products, refinement of image resolutions for alignment, and image combination for feature extraction and target recognition. Since image fusion is used in many geospatial and night vision applications, it is important to understand these techniques and provide a comparative study of the methods. In this paper, we conduct a comparative study on 12 selected image fusion metrics over six multiresolution image fusion algorithms for two different fusion schemes and input images with distortion. The analysis can be applied to different image combination algorithms, image processing methods, and over a different choice of metrics that are of use to an image processing expert. The paper relates the results to an image quality measurement based on power spectrum and correlation analysis and serves as a summary of many contemporary techniques for objective assessment of image fusion algorithms.

  16. Nerve damage assessment following implant placement in human cadaver jaws: an ex vivo comparative study.

    PubMed

    Murat, Sema; Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç; Kılıç, Cenk; Ozen, Tuncer; Gurbuz, Ayhan

    2014-02-01

    The present study compared the use of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) images and intra-oral radiographs in the placement of final implant drills in terms of nerve damage to cadaver mandibles. Twelve cadaver hemimandibles obtained from 6 cadavers were used. Right hemimandibles were imaged using peri-apical radiography and left hemimandibles using CBCT, and the images obtained were used in treatment planning for the placement of implant drills (22 for each modality, for a total of 44 final drills). Specimens were dissected, and the distances between the apex of the final implant drill and the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle and incisive nerve were measured using a digital calliper. Nerves were assessed as damaged or not damaged, and the Chi-square test was used to compare nerve damage between modalities (P < 0.05). Nerve damage occurred with 7 final drills placed based on peri-apical radiography (31.8%) and 1 final drill placed using CBCT images (4.5%). The difference in nerve damage between imaging modalities was statistically significant (P = 0.023), with CBCT outperforming intraoral film in the placement of final implant drills ex vivo. In order to prevent nerve damage, CBCT is recommended as the principal imaging modality for pre-implant assessment. PMID:22150347

  17. Comparative life cycle assessment of battery storage systems for stationary applications.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Mitavachan; Derendorf, Karen; Vogt, Thomas

    2015-04-21

    This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of cumulative energy demand (CED) and global warming potential (GWP) of four stationary battery technologies: lithium-ion, lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, and vanadium-redox-flow. The analyses were carried out for a complete utilization of their cycle life and for six different stationary applications. Due to its lower CED and GWP impacts, a qualitative analysis of lithium-ion was carried out to assess the impacts of its process chains on 17 midpoint impact categories using ReCiPe-2008 methodology. It was found that in general the use stage of batteries dominates their life cycle impacts significantly. It is therefore misleading to compare the environmental performance of batteries only on a mass or capacity basis at the manufacturing outlet ("cradle-to-gate analyses") while neglecting their use stage impacts, especially when they have different characteristic parameters. Furthermore, the relative ranking of batteries does not show a significant dependency on the investigated stationary application scenarios in most cases. Based on the results obtained, the authors go on to recommend the deployment of batteries with higher round-trip efficiency, such as lithium-ion, for stationary grid operation in the first instance.

  18. Comparing two tools for ecosystem service assessments regarding water resources decisions.

    PubMed

    Dennedy-Frank, P James; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Ziv, Guy

    2016-07-15

    We present a comparison of two ecohydrologic models commonly used for planning land management to assess the production of hydrologic ecosystem services: the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) annual water yield model. We compare these two models at two distinct sites in the US: the Wildcat Creek Watershed in Indiana and the Upper Upatoi Creek Watershed in Georgia. The InVEST and SWAT models provide similar estimates of the spatial distribution of water yield in Wildcat Creek, but very different estimates of the spatial distribution of water yield in Upper Upatoi Creek. The InVEST model may do a poor job estimating the spatial distribution of water yield in the Upper Upatoi Creek Watershed because baseflow provides a significant portion of the site's total water yield, which means that storage dynamics which are not modeled by InVEST may be important. We also compare the ability of these two models, as well as one newly developed set of ecosystem service indices, to deliver useful guidance for land management decisions focused on providing hydrologic ecosystem services in three particular decision contexts: environmental flow ecosystem services, ecosystem services for potable water supply, and ecosystem services for rainfed irrigation. We present a simple framework for selecting models or indices to evaluate hydrologic ecosystem services as a way to formalize where models deliver useful guidance. PMID:27111651

  19. Assessment of local reaction to vaccines in live piglets with magnetic resonance imaging compared to histopathology.

    PubMed

    Bernau, Maren; Kremer, Prisca V; Kreuzer, Lena S; Emrich, Daniela; Pappenberger, Elke; Cussler, Klaus; Hoffmann, Andreas; Leipig, Miriam; Hermanns, Walter; Scholz, Armin Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The safety of veterinary vaccines is assessed in clinical trials in Europe. The assessment of the local tissue reaction to vaccination by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could reduce the number of animals needed because repeated examinations can be performed in the same animal over time. The present study compared the evaluation of local tissue reactions to vaccination using MRI in live pigs with histopathology of porcine tissue, the current gold standard in regulatory safety testing. Eight piglets each were administered one of two commercial vaccines into marked injection sites. All animals were sedated and scanned repeatedly by MRI using a contrast agent up to day 29 after vaccination. On day 29, the animals were euthanized and underwent a pathological examination. The MRI results were compared with the pathomorphological findings at the injection site by regression analysis. The MR images and the pathological examinations yielded matching results concerning the sizes of the affected tissue volumes or areas. The use of MRI for regulatory safety testing can reduce the number of animals needed to 8 per examination group. The volume of a local reaction and its progression over time can be evaluated and documented. If persistent lesions develop a final pathomorphological examination is needed to identify the kind and local distribution of the reaction.

  20. An Analytic Comparison of Educational Systems: Overview of Purposes, Policies, Structures and Outcomes. Comparative Overview/Comparative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurn, Christopher J.; Burn, Barbara B.

    This comparative evaluation of the differing educational systems in North America, Europe, the USSR, and Japan examines the goals and values of these systems. It is pointed out that Americans value equality, practicality, and utility and that they are both individualistic and suspicious of government authority. Contrasts between these values and…

  1. Mercury analysis in hair: Comparability and quality assessment within the transnational COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Jiménez, José Antonio; Koch, Holger Martin; Angerer, Jürgen; Rosado, Montserrat; Gómez, Silvia; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Becker, Kerstin; Bloemen, Louis; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Anke; Joas, Reinhard; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Borošová, Daniela; Davidson, Fred; Dumitrascu, Irina; Fischer, Marc E; Grander, Margaretha; Janasik, Beata; Jones, Kate; Kašparová, Lucie; Larssen, Thorjørn; Naray, Miklos; Nielsen, Flemming; Hohenblum, Philipp; Pinto, Rui; Pirard, Catherine; Plateel, Gregory; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Castaño, Argelia

    2015-08-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical procedures has often limited the comparison of data at national and international level. The European-funded projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES developed and tested a harmonized European approach to Human Biomonitoring in response to the European Environment and Health Action Plan. Herein we describe the quality assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0.20-0.71 and 0.80-1.63) per exercise. The results revealed relative standard deviations of 7.87-13.55% and 4.04-11.31% for the low and high mercury concentration ranges, respectively. A total of 16 out of 18 participating laboratories the QAP requirements and were allowed to analyze samples from the DEMOCOPHES pilot study. Web conferences after each ICI/EQUAS revealed this to be a new and effective tool for improving analytical performance and increasing capacity building. The procedure developed and tested in COPHES/DEMOCOPHES would be optimal for application on a global scale as regards implementation of the Minamata Convention on Mercury.

  2. Mercury analysis in hair: Comparability and quality assessment within the transnational COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Jiménez, José Antonio; Koch, Holger Martin; Angerer, Jürgen; Rosado, Montserrat; Gómez, Silvia; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Becker, Kerstin; Bloemen, Louis; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Anke; Joas, Reinhard; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Borošová, Daniela; Davidson, Fred; Dumitrascu, Irina; Fischer, Marc E; Grander, Margaretha; Janasik, Beata; Jones, Kate; Kašparová, Lucie; Larssen, Thorjørn; Naray, Miklos; Nielsen, Flemming; Hohenblum, Philipp; Pinto, Rui; Pirard, Catherine; Plateel, Gregory; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Castaño, Argelia

    2015-08-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical procedures has often limited the comparison of data at national and international level. The European-funded projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES developed and tested a harmonized European approach to Human Biomonitoring in response to the European Environment and Health Action Plan. Herein we describe the quality assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0.20-0.71 and 0.80-1.63) per exercise. The results revealed relative standard deviations of 7.87-13.55% and 4.04-11.31% for the low and high mercury concentration ranges, respectively. A total of 16 out of 18 participating laboratories the QAP requirements and were allowed to analyze samples from the DEMOCOPHES pilot study. Web conferences after each ICI/EQUAS revealed this to be a new and effective tool for improving analytical performance and increasing capacity building. The procedure developed and tested in COPHES/DEMOCOPHES would be optimal for application on a global scale as regards implementation of the Minamata Convention on Mercury. PMID:25483984

  3. Assessment standards: comparing histopathology, digital image analysis, and stereology for early detection of experimental cisplatin-induced kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Shea, Katherine; Stewart, Sharron; Rouse, Rodney

    2014-08-01

    Histopathology generally represents the reference standard for performance evaluation of nonclinical biomarkers used to inform regulatory decision making. This study uses drug-induced nephrotoxicity in rats to evaluate histopathology methods utilized in biomarker performance assessments. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a single dose of cisplatin (0.5-5.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) to produce mild renal injury. Animals were euthanized 72 hr postdose and perfusion fixed. Kidneys were processed for histology and stereology procedures. Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) was measured in urine and in kidney tissue. Digital slide images were generated and analyzed by pathologists after collaborating on a training set of glass slides and digital images. Image analysis identified immunohistochemistry (IHC)-defined tubular injury. Stereology methods yielded estimations of proximal tubular cell number and volume. Statistical relationships among data sets were determined using correlation coefficients. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses determined the effect of method on biomarker assessment. Urinary Kim-1 was strongly correlated with digital image analysis and secondarily to histopathology evaluations. Stereology demonstrated weak or no correlation to pathology and urinary Kim-1. In ROC analyses, semiquantitative evaluations determined higher values for urinary Kim-1 performance than did IHC-based qualitative digital analyses. Semiquantitative evaluation as used in this study was most predictive of urinary Kim-1 values.

  4. Comparing the Temporal Stability of Self-Report and Interview Assessed Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Douglas B.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Ansell, Emily B.; Morey, Leslie C.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Markowitz, John C.; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Findings from several large-scale, longitudinal studies over the last decade have challenged the long held assumption that personality disorders (PDs) are stable and enduring. However, the findings, including those from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS; Gunderson et al., 2000), rely primarily upon results from semistructured interviews. As a result, less is known about the stability of PD scores from self-report questionnaires, which differ from interviews in important ways (e.g., source of the ratings, item development, and instrument length) that might increase temporal stability. The current study directly compared the stability of the DSM-IV PD constructs assessed via the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP – 2; Clark, Simms, Wu, & Casillas, in press) with those from the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (DIPD-IV; Zanarini, Frankenburg, Sickel & Yong, 1996) over two years in a sample of 529 CLPS participants. Specifically, we compared dimensional and categorical representations from both measures in terms of rank-order and mean-level stability. Results indicated that the dimensional scores from the self-report questionnaire had significantly greater rank order (mean r = .69 versus .59) and mean-level (mean d = .21 versus .30) stability. In contrast, categorical diagnoses from the two measures evinced comparable rank-order (mean kappa = .38 versus .37) and mean-level stability (median prevalence rate decrease of 3.5% versus 5.6%). These findings suggest the stability of PD constructs depends at least partially on the method of assessment and are discussed in the context of previous research and future conceptualizations of personality pathology. PMID:21443287

  5. Adopting public health approaches to communication disability: challenges for the education of speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Karen; McAllister, Lindy; Davidson, Bronwyn; Marshall, Julie; Law, James

    2014-01-01

    Public health approaches to communication disability challenge the profession of speech-language pathology (SLP) to reconsider both frames of reference for practice and models of education. This paper reviews the impetus for public health approaches to communication disability and considers how public health is, and could be, incorporated into SLP education, both now and in the future. The paper describes tensions between clinical services, which have become increasingly specialized, and public health approaches that offer a broader view of communication disability and communication disability prevention. It presents a discussion of these tensions and asserts that public health approaches to communication are themselves a specialist field, requiring specific knowledge and skills. The authors suggest the use of the term 'communication disability public health' to refer to this type of work and offer a preliminary definition in order to advance discussion. Examples from three countries are provided of how some SLP degree programmes are integrating public health into the SLP curriculum. Alternative models of training for communication disability public health that may be relevant in the future in different contexts and countries are presented, prompting the SLP profession to consider whether communication disability public health is a field of practice for speech-language pathologists or whether it has broader workforce implications. The paper concludes with some suggestions for the future which may advance thinking, research and practice in communication disability public health.

  6. Rural speech-language pathologists' perceptions of working with allied health assistants.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Rachael; Byrne, Nicole; Mitchell, Rebecca; Ferguson, Alison

    2013-12-01

    Workforce shortages are forecast for speech-language pathology in Australia, and will have a more significant impact on rural and remote areas than on metropolitan areas. Allied health (AH) disciplines such as physiotherapy and occupational therapy address the problem of workforce shortages and growing clinical demand by employing allied health assistants (AHAs) to provide clinical and administrative support to AH professionals. Currently, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) don't work with discipline-specific allied health assistants in all states of Australia (e.g., New South Wales). This paper aims to provide insight into the perceptions of SLPs in one Australian state (NSW) regarding working with AHAs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight rural SLPs. Qualitative analysis indicated that participants perceived they had deficits in skills and knowledge required to work with AHAs and identified further training needs. Participants perceived the SLP role to be misunderstood and were concerned about poor consultation regarding the introduction of AHAs into the profession. Ambivalence was evident in overall perceptions of working with AHAs, and tasks performed. While previous research identified benefits of working with AHAs, results from this study suggest that significant professional, economic, and organizational issues need addressing before such a change should be implemented in speech-language pathology.

  7. Review of Medical Advisory Services by the Korean Society of Pathologists from 2003 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min Hye; Lee, Geon Kook; Kim, Han Seong; Kim, Wan Seop

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since 2003, the Korean Society of Pathologists (KSP) has been officially providing medical advisory services (MAS). We reviewed the cases submitted to the KSP between 2003 and 2014. Methods: In total, 1,950 cases were submitted, most by private health insurance companies. The main purposes of the consultations were to clarify the initial diagnoses and to assign a proper disease classification code. We comprehensively reviewed 1,803 consultation cases with detailed information. Results: In spite of some fluctuations, the number of submitted cases has been significantly increasing over the 12 study years. The colon and rectum (40.3%), urinary bladder (14.2%), and stomach (6.9%) were the three most common tissues of origin. The most common diagnoses for each of the three tissues of origin were neuroendocrine tumor (50.7%), non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma (70.7%), and adenocarcinoma (36.2%). Regardless of the tissue of origin, neuroendocrine tumor of the digestive system was the most common diagnosis (419 of 1,803). Conclusions: In the current study, we found that pathologic consultations associated with private health insurance accounted for a large proportion of the MAS. Coding of the biologic behavior of diseases was the main issue of the consultations. In spite of the effort of the KSP to set proper guidelines for coding and classification of tumors, this review revealed that problems still exist and will continue to be an important issue. PMID:26581208

  8. Forensic Pathologist Consensus in the Interpretation of Photographs of Patterned Injuries of the Skin.

    PubMed

    Oliver, William R; Fang, Xianming

    2016-07-01

    Forensic pathologists are commonly asked to evaluate injuries on the basis of photographs. Members of the National Association of Medical Examiners were asked to participate in an online survey in which they were presented with 68 patterned injuries of the skin and asked to make a diagnosis ranging from very general (e.g., "blunt" vs. "sharp") to specific (e.g., "baton blow"). This was not the case. Consensus for general diagnosis averaged 0.77 and 0.72 for specific diagnosis. While there was a strong correlation between consensus and confidence in aggregate, individual correlations were poor. Consensus diagnosis was inversely correlated with age, and positively correlated with jurisdictional size, medical degree, and whether or not the respondent was actively performing autopsies as a job function. A subsequent survey is exploring possible reasons for lack of consensus in low-consensus questions. The high correlation between confidence and consensus at the aggregate level and low correlation at the individual level may have implications for quality assurance protocols. PMID:27364275

  9. A case for genetics education: collaborating with speech-language pathologists and audiologists.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Erin K; Stanton, Susan; Garrett, Jennifer; Neils-Strunjas, J; Warren, Nancy Steinberg

    2007-07-15

    Because speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and audiologists (AUDs) are among the first referrals for parents of children exhibiting feeding, speech, language, hearing, and balance difficulties, it is important for SLP and AUD professionals to recognize genetic causes of and contributions to complex and Mendelian communication disorders. We review genetics in the curricula of speech-language pathology and audiology programs and obstacles to its integration throughout curricula. We present suggestions about how SLPs and AUDs can aid in diagnosis and contribute their clinical expertise in characterizing phenotypes, followed with a review of a new genetics-education website developed by the National Coalition for Health Professional Education in Genetics (NCHPEG), the University of Cincinnati, and the National Society of Genetic Counselors. The need to integrate genetics content into curricula and continuing education across disciplines is clear, as is the need for and benefit of multidisciplinary collaboration in patient care. The NCHPEG site for speech-language pathology and audiology begins to address those needs and may serve as a practical model for future multidisciplinary collaborations between genetics professionals and other health professions.

  10. Dysphagia training for speech-language pathologists: implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Rahayu Mustaffa; Ward, Elizabeth; Cornwell, Petrea

    2012-12-01

    There are competency standards available in countries with established speech-language pathology services to guide basic dysphagia training with ongoing workplace mentoring for advanced skills development. Such training processes, however, are not as well established in countries where speech-language pathology training and practice is relatively new, such as Malaysia. The current study examines the extent of dysphagia training and workplace support available to speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in Malaysia and Queensland, Australia, and explores clinicians' perceptions of the training and support provided, and of their knowledge, skills, and confidence. Using a matched cohort cross-sectional design, a purpose-built survey was administered to 30 SLPs working in Malaysian government hospitals and 30 SLPs working in Queensland Health settings in Australia. Malaysian clinicians were found to have received significantly less university training, less mentoring in the workplace, and were lacking key infrastructure needed to support professional development in dysphagia management. Over 90% of Queensland clinicians were confident and felt they had adequate skills in dysphagia management; in contrast, significantly lower levels of knowledge, skills, and confidence were observed in the Malaysian cohort. The findings identify a need for improved university training and increased opportunities for workplace mentoring, training, and support for Malaysian SLPs.

  11. Significance of Crime Scene Visit by Forensic Pathologist in Cases of Atypical Firearm Injuries.

    PubMed

    Thejaswi, H T; Kumar, A; Krishna, K

    2015-01-01

    Deaths due to firearms are some of the interesting and contentious cases that a forensic pathologist/autopsy surgeon encounters in his practice. Whenever there is 'ambiguity' regarding the nature or sequence of events any unnatural deaths including those caused by firearms the practice of visiting crime scene should be encouraged especially in a country like India where autopsy surgeons often neglect it. Here we present a case report in which there were inconsistencies in the autopsy findings with the alleged history. The witnesses heard about four to six gunshot sounds, whereas only two spent cartridge cases were retrieved from the crime scene. Authors identified the atypical nature of firearm injuries sustained by the victims that were possible by just two bullets. Crime scene visit was undertaken where we discovered the possibility of the echo effect behind the production of four to six sounds. Further by using computer software program, positions of the gunman, victims and the bullet trajectory of the two bullets was created. PMID:27180378

  12. Significance of Crime Scene Visit by Forensic Pathologist in Cases of Atypical Firearm Injuries.

    PubMed

    Thejaswi, H T; Kumar, A; Krishna, K

    2015-01-01

    Deaths due to firearms are some of the interesting and contentious cases that a forensic pathologist/autopsy surgeon encounters in his practice. Whenever there is 'ambiguity' regarding the nature or sequence of events any unnatural deaths including those caused by firearms the practice of visiting crime scene should be encouraged especially in a country like India where autopsy surgeons often neglect it. Here we present a case report in which there were inconsistencies in the autopsy findings with the alleged history. The witnesses heard about four to six gunshot sounds, whereas only two spent cartridge cases were retrieved from the crime scene. Authors identified the atypical nature of firearm injuries sustained by the victims that were possible by just two bullets. Crime scene visit was undertaken where we discovered the possibility of the echo effect behind the production of four to six sounds. Further by using computer software program, positions of the gunman, victims and the bullet trajectory of the two bullets was created.

  13. Construction of the diagnostic encyclopedia workstation. Computerizing pathology for the pathologist.

    PubMed

    Jansen, W; van Ginneken, A M; Baak, J P; Smeulders, A W

    1989-12-01

    The combination of a personal computer and a laser-vision disc player is an adroit tool for storing and retrieving textual information in combination with pictorial information. This paper describes such a system (a "diagnostic encyclopedia workstation"), which provides information to the pathologist engaged in daily diagnostic practice. The system contains a considerable amount of descriptive textual information that might be useful in making diagnoses in histopathology, along with many illustrations; the text is presented in a natural language (English). The descriptive information is divided into 18 categories, including such topics as histology, macroscopy, immunopathology and clinical data; each topic has a separate display in the system. Also present are two types of "decision rules" for making diagnoses (confirmative criteria for a diagnosis under consideration and exclusive criteria for many other diagnoses) and a classifying structure. The present version of this system contains information on about 100 diagnoses in ovarian pathology, illustrated with about 3,000 color slides from about 140 cases. The information and pictures are immediately available. Further characteristics of this system are its flexibility, accessibility and user friendliness; it has been structured so that components of artificial intelligence may be added later.

  14. Lymphocytic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: a review for the practicing pathologist.

    PubMed

    Carmack, Susanne W; Lash, Richard H; Gulizia, James M; Genta, Robert M

    2009-09-01

    Increased numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes (lymphocytosis) can be found in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colon in a variety of clinical circumstances. This review, directed at practicing pathologists, portrays the normal resident lymphocyte population in the mucosa of each segment of the digestive tract and discusses the different situations that may result in quantitative or qualitative alterations of intraepithelial lymphocytes. Esophageal lymphocytosis has not been fully characterized and its clinical significance, if any, awaits definition. Thus, this diagnosis is presently discouraged. In the stomach, it is particularly important to exclude Helicobacter pylori infection and celiac sprue before diagnosing lymphocytic gastritis. Duodenal lymphocytic infiltrates, inextricably tied with alterations of the villous architecture of the mucosa, are often caused by gluten sensitivity. However, similar morphologic changes may be caused by a vast array of other conditions that must be carefully considered and excluded. Lymphocytic and collagenous colitis are most often unexplained, but their frequent association with autoimmune conditions or certain medications deserve a thorough investigation in each case. Using a combination of histologic and clinical clues, a cause for the intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltration can be identified in many instances. As some of the associated conditions are amenable to effective treatment, the importance of diligently seeking such associations before resorting to a diagnosis of primary lymphocytosis is emphasized. PMID:19700939

  15. Speech-language pathologists as primary contributors to response to intervention at the secondary level.

    PubMed

    Ehren, Barbara J; Whitmire, Kathleen

    2009-05-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) is currently receiving attention at the middle and high school levels. Although many academic and behavioral needs in secondary schools may warrant an RTI initiative, lack of literacy skills in adolescents is among the most important because language and literacy are foundational to curriculum learning. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have much to offer secondary RTI initiatives, given their expertise in language and literacy. Therefore, they need to become primary contributors. This article addresses several important conditions necessary to bring SLPs into the forefront with RTI at the secondary level by discussing (1) having a common understanding of RTI that is being implemented differently across the country; (2) understanding the rationale for adopting RTI at the secondary level; (3) defining unique contributions of SLPs that add value to RTI initiatives in middle and high schools; (4) exploring what it takes for SLPs to become involved, including attention to curriculum and literacy, changing the perceptions of others regarding the roles of SLPs, restructuring of delivery models, and replacing a caseload approach to service delivery with a workload approach; (5) establishing productive working relationships among professionals in secondary schools; and (6) exerting leadership to move forward in RTI involvement. PMID:19399695

  16. Histopathological-molecular genetic correlations in referral pathologist-diagnosed low-grade "oligodendroglioma".

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hikaru; Zlatescu, Magdalena C; Betensky, Rebecca A; Johnk, Loki B; Cutone, Andrea N; Cairncross, J Gregory; Louis, David N

    2002-01-01

    Allelic loss of chromosome 1p predicts increased chemosensitivity and better survival in oligodendroglial tumors. Clinical testing for 1p loss in oligodendroglial tumors at our hospital has allowed us to postulate that certain histological appearances are associated with 1p allelic status. Forty-four cases received for genetic testing were diagnosed by referring pathologists as pure low-grade oligodendroglioma. Central neuropathological review divided the series equally into 22 cases with classical oligodendroglioma histology and 22 with more astrocytic features. Molecular genetic analyses demonstrated 1p loss in 19 of 22 classic oligodendrogliomas (86%) and maintenance of both 1p alleles in 16 of 22 gliomas with astrocytic features (73%). No glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cell type (gliofibrillary oligodendrocyte, minigemistocyte, cellular processes) was associated with 1p allelic status. Fourteen of the 44 cases were treated with chemotherapy at tumor progression: 3 "astrocytic" gliomas with 1p loss responded to PCV chemotherapy and 2 classic oligodendrogliomas that maintained both 1p alleles included a responder and a non-responder. These results suggest that histological appearance correctly predicts genotype in approximately 80% of low-grade gliomas, but that tumor genotype more closely predicts chemosensitivity. As a result, such objective molecular genetic analyses should be incorporated into patient management and into clinical trials of low-grade diffuse gliomas.

  17. Automated detection of heuristics and biases among pathologists in a computer-based system.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Rebecca S; Legowski, Elizabeth; Medvedeva, Olga; Reitmeyer, Kayse; Tseytlin, Eugene; Castine, Melissa; Jukic, Drazen; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to develop an automated, computer-based method to detect heuristics and biases as pathologists examine virtual slide cases, (2) to measure the frequency and distribution of heuristics and errors across three levels of training, and (3) to examine relationships of heuristics to biases, and biases to diagnostic errors. The authors conducted the study using a computer-based system to view and diagnose virtual slide cases. The software recorded participant responses throughout the diagnostic process, and automatically classified participant actions based on definitions of eight common heuristics and/or biases. The authors measured frequency of heuristic use and bias across three levels of training. Biases studied were detected at varying frequencies, with availability and search satisficing observed most frequently. There were few significant differences by level of training. For representativeness and anchoring, the heuristic was used appropriately as often or more often than it was used in biased judgment. Approximately half of the diagnostic errors were associated with one or more biases. We conclude that heuristic use and biases were observed among physicians at all levels of training using the virtual slide system, although their frequencies varied. The system can be employed to detect heuristic use and to test methods for decreasing diagnostic errors resulting from cognitive biases. PMID:22618855

  18. [Comparative hygienic assessment of potential risk to workers under application of fungicides of different classes].

    PubMed

    Vavrinevych, O P; Omel'chuk, S T; Bardov, V H

    2014-01-01

    The comparative hygienic evaluation of working conditions in various application technologies of triazole fungicides (tebuconazole, dyfenoconazole, penconazole) strobilurine fungicides (azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin), ethylene-bis-dytiocarbamate fungicides (metiram, mancozeb), cianopyrrole fungicide (fludioxonil), anilide fungicides (benalaxyl-M, boscalid), anilinopirymidyne fungicides (cyprodynil, valifenal, pirymetanil). Potential complex risk of possible harmful effects of the investigated compounds on workers by inhalation and percutaneous admission, as well as a comparative analysis of received values was assessed. Determination of active substances in the samples was carried out by gas-liquid and high performance liquid chromatography. In the air of the working area were found triazoles 0.005-0.01 mg/m3, ethylene-bis-dytiokarbamates--0.01-0.02 mg/m3 at fan plants processing, anilinopirymidynes--0.19 mg/m3 at backpack plants processing. Listed values do not exceed the established hygienic standards in the air of the working area. Steam plants processing had not accompanied by the arrival of investigated compounds in the air of the working area. For all the studied crops processing technologies magnitude of the potential risk of possible harmful effects of study classes fungicides influence at the complex admission does not exceed the permissible level (was less than 1). Comparative analysis of complex risks for workers allowed to distribute fungicides according this criterion in the following order: cianopyrrole < strobilurynes < triazoles < anilides < anilinopirymidynes < ethylene-bis-dytiokarbamates. PMID:25286613

  19. Nutrient values and bioactivities of the extracts from three fern species in China: a comparative assessment.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guoyuan; Yang, Liuqing; Xiao, Chunxia; Shi, Jing; Mi, Yashi; Liu, Xuebo

    2015-09-01

    Pteridium aquilinum, Osmunda cinnamomea Linn, and Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching are three fern species widely consumed as potherbs and traditional medicinal herbs in China. Nevertheless, no detailed comparative assessments of their nutrient values and bioactivities have been reported. In this paper, we examined the nutrient content of these ferns and the bioactivities of their extracts with a comparative method. The results indicated that they were nutrient dense for proteins, carbohydrates, fat and minerals. Compared with Pteridium aquilinum and Osmunda cinnamomea Linn, the extract from Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching was found to possess the strongest antioxidant activity, protective effects on biomolecules, cellular antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative effects owing to its highest total phenolic (476.52 ± 11.26 mg GAE per g extract) and total flavonoid (924.81 ± 4.25 mg RNE per g extract) contents. Further, Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching can lead to caspase-3 activation, poly ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reduction and inhibition of wound-healing in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells. These results demonstrate the remarkable potential of Pteridium aquilinum, Osmunda cinnamomea Linn, and Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching as valuable sources of nutrients and natural antioxidants, and among which Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching has potential anticancer properties.

  20. Physiological responses to temperature and humidity compared to the assessment by UTCI, WGBT and PHS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampmann, Bernhard; Bröde, Peter; Fiala, Dusan

    2012-05-01

    In COST Action 730, a multi-segmental thermophysiological model was used to describe physiological strain reactions for different climatic conditions in order to develop a 'Universal Thermal Climate Index' (UTCI). UTCI predictions for warm climates were compared with empirical data from the laboratory tests. The comparison was performed by means of equivalence lines within a psychrometric chart so that the combined influence of air temperature and humidity on physiological strain may be assessed. Within a reasonable regime of air temperatures and relative humidities (RH), the differences between simulated and measured values were as follows: for rectal temperatures below 0.3°C, for skin temperatures below 1.5°C, for sweat rates below 200 g/h and for heart rates (estimated from relative cardiac output) below 30 min-1. This characterises the validity of the model with respect to the description of the influence of heat and humidity on physiological strain. The same comparison to physiological data was also conducted for the equivalent temperature calculated for UTCI. In order to compare UTCI with other thermal indices used in occupational health, the physiological data have also been compared to equivalence lines of WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature) and PHS (Predicted Heat Strain) indices.

  1. EMS Provider Assessment of Vehicle Damage Compared to a Professional Crash Reconstructionist

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, E. Brooke; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Blatt, Alan; Lawrence, Richard; Shah, Manish N.; Swor, Robert; Brasel, Karen; Jurkovich, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy of EMS provider assessments of motor vehicle damage, when compared to measurements made by a professional crash reconstructionist. Methods EMS providers caring for adult patients injured during a motor vehicle crash and transported to the regional trauma center in a midsized community were interviewed upon ED arrival. The interview collected provider estimates of crash mechanism of injury. For crashes that met a preset severity threshold, the vehicle’s owner was asked to consent to having a crash reconstructionist assess their vehicle. The assessment included measuring intrusion and external auto deformity. Vehicle damage was used to calculate change in velocity. Paired t-test and correlation were used to compare EMS estimates and investigator derived values. Results 91 vehicles were enrolled; of these 58 were inspected and 33 were excluded because the vehicle was not accessible. 6 vehicles had multiple patients. Therefore, a total of 68 EMS estimates were compared to the inspection findings. Patients were 46% male, 28% admitted to hospital, and 1% died. Mean EMS estimated deformity was 18” and mean measured was 14”. Mean EMS estimated intrusion was 5” and mean measured was 4”. EMS providers and the reconstructionist had 67% agreement for determination of external auto deformity (kappa 0.26), and 88% agreement for determination of intrusion (kappa 0.27) when the 1999 Field Triage Decision Scheme Criteria were applied. Mean EMS estimated speed prior to the crash was 48 mph±13 and mean reconstructionist estimated change in velocity was 18 mph±12 (correlation -0.45). EMS determined that 19 vehicles had rolled over while the investigator identified 18 (kappa 0.96). In 55 cases EMS and the investigator agreed on seatbelt use, for the remaining 13 cases there was disagreement (5) or the investigator was unable to make a determination (8) (kappa 0.40). Conclusions This study found that EMS providers are good at estimating

  2. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Illicit Drug Use Compared to Biological and Self-Reported Methods

    PubMed Central

    Genz, Andrew; Westergaard, Ryan P; Chang, Larry W; Bollinger, Robert C; Latkin, Carl; Kirk, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of mHealth methods for capturing illicit drug use and associated behaviors have become more widely used in research settings, yet there is little research as to how valid these methods are compared to known measures of capturing and quantifying drug use. Objective We examined the concordance of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of drug use to previously validated biological and audio-computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) methods. Methods The Exposure Assessment in Current Time (EXACT) study utilized EMA methods to assess drug use in real-time in participants’ natural environments. Utilizing mobile devices, participants self-reported each time they used heroin or cocaine over a 4-week period. Each week, PharmChek sweat patch samples were collected for measurement of heroin and cocaine and participants answered an ACASI-based questionnaire to report behaviors and drug using events during the prior week. Reports of cocaine and heroin use captured through EMA were compared to weekly biological or self-report measures through percent agreement and concordance correlation coefficients to account for repeated measures. Correlates of discordance were obtained from logistic regression models. Results A total of 109 participants were a median of 48.5 years old, 90% African American, and 52% male. During 436 person-weeks of observation, we recorded 212 (49%) cocaine and 103 (24%) heroin sweat patches, 192 (44%) cocaine and 161 (37%) heroin ACASI surveys, and 163 (37%) cocaine and 145 (33%) heroin EMA reports. The percent agreement between EMA and sweat patch methods was 70% for cocaine use and 72% for heroin use, while the percent agreement between EMA and ACASI methods was 77% for cocaine use and 79% for heroin use. Misreporting of drug use by EMA compared to sweat patch and ACASI methods were different by illicit drug type. Conclusions Our work demonstrates moderate to good agreement of EMA to biological and standard self-report methods in

  3. Neo-Deterministic and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments: a Comparative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peresan, Antonella; Magrin, Andrea; Nekrasova, Anastasia; Kossobokov, Vladimir; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2016-04-01

    Objective testing is the key issue towards any reliable seismic hazard assessment (SHA). Different earthquake hazard maps must demonstrate their capability in anticipating ground shaking from future strong earthquakes before an appropriate use for different purposes - such as engineering design, insurance, and emergency management. Quantitative assessment of maps performances is an essential step also in scientific process of their revision and possible improvement. Cross-checking of probabilistic models with available observations and independent physics based models is recognized as major validation procedure. The existing maps from the classical probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), as well as those from the neo-deterministic analysis (NDSHA), which have been already developed for several regions worldwide (including Italy, India and North Africa), are considered to exemplify the possibilities of the cross-comparative analysis in spotting out limits and advantages of different methods. Where the data permit, a comparative analysis versus the documented seismic activity observed in reality is carried out, showing how available observations about past earthquakes can contribute to assess performances of the different methods. Neo-deterministic refers to a scenario-based approach, which allows for consideration of a wide range of possible earthquake sources as the starting point for scenarios constructed via full waveforms modeling. The method does not make use of empirical attenuation models (i.e. Ground Motion Prediction Equations, GMPE) and naturally supplies realistic time series of ground shaking (i.e. complete synthetic seismograms), readily applicable to complete engineering analysis and other mitigation actions. The standard NDSHA maps provide reliable envelope estimates of maximum seismic ground motion from a wide set of possible scenario earthquakes, including the largest deterministically or historically defined credible earthquake. In addition

  4. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region. PMID:23648267

  5. Comparing Pulsed Doppler LIDAR with SODAR and Direct Measurements for Wind Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.; Scott, G. N.; Pichugina, Y. L.

    2007-07-01

    There is a pressing need for good wind-speed measurements at greater and greater heights to assess the availability of the resource in terms of power production and to identify any frequently occurring atmospheric structural characteristics that may create turbulence that impacts the operational reliability and lifetime of wind turbines and their components. In this paper, we summarize the results of a short study that compares the relative accuracies of wind speeds derived from a high-resolution pulsed Doppler LIDAR operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and a midrange Doppler SODAR with wind speeds measured by four levels of tower-based sonic anemometry up to a height of 116 m.

  6. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Bio-diesel Production—A Comparative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, R.; Sharma, V.; Mukherjee, S.; Kumar, S.

    2014-04-01

    This work deals with the comparative analysis of environmental impacts of bio-diesel produced from Jatropha curcas, Rapeseed and Palm oil by applying the life cycle assessment and eco-efficiency concepts. The environmental impact indicators considered in the present paper include global warming potential (GWP, CO2 equivalent), acidification potential (AP, SO2 equivalent) and eutrophication potential (EP, NO3 equivalent). Different weighting techniques have been used to present and evaluate the environmental characteristics of bio-diesel. With the assistance of normalization values, the eco-efficiency was demonstrated in this work. The results indicate that the energy consumption of bio-diesel production is lowest in Jatropha while AP and EP are more in case of Jatropha than that of Rapeseed and Palm oil.

  8. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; de la Losa, Almudena; Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements - including metals and metalloids - , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index - the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) - was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3-53% for silver oxide batteries, 4-39% for alkaline, 20-28% for zinc-air and 12-26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. PMID:25933290

  9. Comparing Forests across Climates and Biomes: Qualitative Assessments, Reference Forests and Regional Intercomparisons

    PubMed Central

    Salk, Carl F.; Frey, Ulrich; Rusch, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Communities, policy actors and conservationists benefit from understanding what institutions and land management regimes promote ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. However, the definition of success depends on local conditions. Forests' potential carbon stock, biodiversity and rate of recovery following disturbance are known to vary with a broad suite of factors including temperature, precipitation, seasonality, species' traits and land use history. Methods like tracking over-time changes within forests, or comparison with “pristine” reference forests have been proposed as means to compare the structure and biodiversity of forests in the face of underlying differences. However, data from previous visits or reference forests may be unavailable or costly to obtain. Here, we introduce a new metric of locally weighted forest intercomparison to mitigate the above shortcomings. This method is applied to an international database of nearly 300 community forests and compared with previously published techniques. It is particularly suited to large databases where forests may be compared among one another. Further, it avoids problematic comparisons with old-growth forests which may not resemble the goal of forest management. In most cases, the different methods produce broadly congruent results, suggesting that researchers have the flexibility to compare forest conditions using whatever type of data is available. Forest structure and biodiversity are shown to be independently measurable axes of forest condition, although users' and foresters' estimations of seemingly unrelated attributes are highly correlated, perhaps reflecting an underlying sentiment about forest condition. These findings contribute new tools for large-scale analysis of ecosystem condition and natural resource policy assessment. Although applied here to forestry, these techniques have broader applications to classification and evaluation problems using

  10. Comparing forests across climates and biomes: qualitative assessments, reference forests and regional intercomparisons.

    PubMed

    Salk, Carl F; Frey, Ulrich; Rusch, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Communities, policy actors and conservationists benefit from understanding what institutions and land management regimes promote ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. However, the definition of success depends on local conditions. Forests' potential carbon stock, biodiversity and rate of recovery following disturbance are known to vary with a broad suite of factors including temperature, precipitation, seasonality, species' traits and land use history. Methods like tracking over-time changes within forests, or comparison with "pristine" reference forests have been proposed as means to compare the structure and biodiversity of forests in the face of underlying differences. However, data from previous visits or reference forests may be unavailable or costly to obtain. Here, we introduce a new metric of locally weighted forest intercomparison to mitigate the above shortcomings. This method is applied to an international database of nearly 300 community forests and compared with previously published techniques. It is particularly suited to large databases where forests may be compared among one another. Further, it avoids problematic comparisons with old-growth forests which may not resemble the goal of forest management. In most cases, the different methods produce broadly congruent results, suggesting that researchers have the flexibility to compare forest conditions using whatever type of data is available. Forest structure and biodiversity are shown to be independently measurable axes of forest condition, although users' and foresters' estimations of seemingly unrelated attributes are highly correlated, perhaps reflecting an underlying sentiment about forest condition. These findings contribute new tools for large-scale analysis of ecosystem condition and natural resource policy assessment. Although applied here to forestry, these techniques have broader applications to classification and evaluation problems using crowdsourced

  11. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; de la Losa, Almudena; Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements - including metals and metalloids - , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index - the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) - was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3-53% for silver oxide batteries, 4-39% for alkaline, 20-28% for zinc-air and 12-26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells.

  12. Comparing forests across climates and biomes: qualitative assessments, reference forests and regional intercomparisons.

    PubMed

    Salk, Carl F; Frey, Ulrich; Rusch, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Communities, policy actors and conservationists benefit from understanding what institutions and land management regimes promote ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. However, the definition of success depends on local conditions. Forests' potential carbon stock, biodiversity and rate of recovery following disturbance are known to vary with a broad suite of factors including temperature, precipitation, seasonality, species' traits and land use history. Methods like tracking over-time changes within forests, or comparison with "pristine" reference forests have been proposed as means to compare the structure and biodiversity of forests in the face of underlying differences. However, data from previous visits or reference forests may be unavailable or costly to obtain. Here, we introduce a new metric of locally weighted forest intercomparison to mitigate the above shortcomings. This method is applied to an international database of nearly 300 community forests and compared with previously published techniques. It is particularly suited to large databases where forests may be compared among one another. Further, it avoids problematic comparisons with old-growth forests which may not resemble the goal of forest management. In most cases, the different methods produce broadly congruent results, suggesting that researchers have the flexibility to compare forest conditions using whatever type of data is available. Forest structure and biodiversity are shown to be independently measurable axes of forest condition, although users' and foresters' estimations of seemingly unrelated attributes are highly correlated, perhaps reflecting an underlying sentiment about forest condition. These findings contribute new tools for large-scale analysis of ecosystem condition and natural resource policy assessment. Although applied here to forestry, these techniques have broader applications to classification and evaluation problems using crowdsourced

  13. Demystifying the Courtroom: Everything the Veterinary Pathologist Needs to Know About Testifying in an Animal Cruelty Case.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, Reese

    2016-09-01

    When veterinary pathologists testify as expert witnesses in animal cruelty trials, they may find themselves in an intimidating and unfamiliar environment. The legal rules are clouded in mystery, the lawyers dwell on mundane details, and the witness's words are extracted with precision by a verbal scalpel. An unprepared expert witness can feel ungrounded and stripped of confidence. The goal of this article is to lift the veil of mystery and give the veterinary pathologist the tools to be a knowledgeable and confident expert witness before and during testimony. This article discusses the types of expert witnesses, disclosure requirements and the importance of a good report, the legal basics of expert testimony, and how to be an effective expert witness. The article references Minnesota law; however, the laws are similar in most jurisdictions and based on the same constitutional requirements, and the concepts presented are applicable in nearly every courtroom.(1). PMID:27185534

  14. The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI compared to ergonomics standards for assessing the thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Bröde, Peter; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Fiala, Dusan; Havenith, George; Holmér, Ingvar; Jendritzky, Gerd; Kuklane, Kalev; Kampmann, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The growing need for valid assessment procedures of the outdoor thermal environment in the fields of public weather services, public health systems, urban planning, tourism & recreation and climate impact research raised the idea to develop the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI based on the most recent scientific progress both in thermo-physiology and in heat exchange theory. Following extensive validation of accessible models of human thermoregulation, the advanced multi-node 'Fiala' model was selected to form the basis of UTCI. This model was coupled with an adaptive clothing model which considers clothing habits by the general urban population and behavioral changes in clothing insulation related to actual environmental temperature. UTCI was developed conceptually as an equivalent temperature. Thus, for any combination of air temperature, wind, radiation, and humidity, UTCI is defined as the air temperature in the reference condition which would elicit the same dynamic response of the physiological model. This review analyses the sensitivity of UTCI to humidity and radiation in the heat and to wind in the cold and compares the results with observational studies and internationally standardized assessment procedures. The capabilities, restrictions and potential future extensions of UTCI are discussed.

  15. In vitro assessment of solvent evaporation from commercial adhesive systems compared to experimental systems.

    PubMed

    Nihi, Fabio Mitugui; Fabre, Hebert Samuel Carafa; Garcia, Georges; Fernandes, Karen Barros Parron; Ferreira, Flaviana Bombarda de Andrade; Wang, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Solvents should be properly evaporated after application to dental substrates. The aim of this study was to assess the evaporation of commercial, experimental and neat solvents. The tested null hypotheses were that there are no differences in solvent evaporation regardless of its formulation and over time. Evaporation from commercial adhesive systems (Scotchbond Multipurpose Primer, Scotchbond Multipurpose Adhesive, Prime & Bond NT, Multi Bond, Excite, Single Bond 2, Adhese Primer, Adhese Bond, Xeno III A and Xeno III B) and experimental primers (35% HEMA plus 65% acetone or ethanol or water v/v) were compared to neat solvents (acetone, ethanol and water). Samples (10 microL) of these products were dripped into glass containers placed on a digital precision balance. Evaporation was assessed at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, 300 and 600 s times to calculate mass loss. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Bonferroni's correction (a=0.05). Acetone-based products exhibited a remarkable capacity to evaporate spontaneously over time. Neat acetone evaporated significantly more than the HEMA-mixtures and the commercial formulations (p<0.05). The incorporation of monomers and other ingredients in the commercial formulations seem to reduce the evaporation capacity. Solvent evaporation was time and material-dependent. PMID:20126908

  16. Attractiveness of reformulated OxyContin(R) tablets: assessing comparative preferences and tampering potential.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Edward M; Perrino, Peter J; Colucci, Salvatore V; Harris, Stephen C

    2013-09-01

    Reformulated OxyContin® (oxycodone HCl controlled-release or ORF) was developed as a tamper and abuse-deterrent product, to reduce the risk of product abuse, misuse and their consequences. This noninterventional single-session study asked participants who were medically-healthy recreational opioid users, aged 18 years and older, to consider how they would use commonly available supplies to tamper with placebo ORF and placebo original OxyContin (OC) tablets, and how they would assess the attractiveness of tampering and abusing ORF tablets, as compared with other opioid formulations. Participants provided information on past opioid use, and they assessed the properties of five nonhypothetical oxycodone products and two hypothetical oxycodone products. Participants provided feedback on tampering preferences, preferred tamper methods for each product, overall tampering potential and product preferences. We had 30 participants (27 males and 3 females; mean age 35 years, range 18-51) complete both the interview and tampering sessions. Participants judged OC as the most attractive, valuable, desirable and most likely to be tampered with, from among all opioid products studied. By contrast, they rated ORF as the least attractive, least valuable, least desirable, and least likely to be tampered with among all the nonhypothetical opioid products studied. These results suggested that recreational drug abusers view ORF tablets as tamper-deterrent products.

  17. Comparative effectiveness of visual/tactile and simplified screening examinations in caries risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Disney, J A; Abernathy, J R; Graves, R C; Mauriello, S M; Bohannan, H M; Zack, D D

    1992-12-01

    Central to the development of a model for identifying children at high risk to caries is a clinical evaluation to assess dental status and other conditions potentially useful in caries prediction. Traditionally, this evaluation has been based on a relatively lengthy visual/tactile examination conducted by a dentist. Replacing the dentist examination with a dental auxiliary conducted screening evaluation could lead to reduced time and costs. The 4-yr University of North Carolina Caries Risk Assessment Study involved approximately 5000 schoolchildren initially in Grades 1 and 5 living near Aiken, South Carolina, and Portland, Maine. The effectiveness of caries prediction models using visual/tactile examination data were compared with the same models using simplified screening evaluation data. Results showed sensitivity ranged from 0.57 to 0.61 for the visual/tactile and screening models by site and grade cohort. Specificity for the models ranged from 0.80 to 0.83. None of these differences in sensitivity and specificity between visual/tactile (dentist) and screening (hygienist) models was statistically significant. Findings show that for the prediction of children at high risk to dental caries the clinical evaluation may be conducted with no reduction of precision by using dental hygienist performed screening evaluations rather than dentist conducted visual/tactile examinations. While no cost data were collected, these results imply that costs to future prediction programs could be reduced by using screening evaluations.

  18. Comparative assessment of iridium oxide and platinum alloy wires using an in vitro glial scar assay.

    PubMed

    Ereifej, Evon S; Khan, Saida; Newaz, Golam; Zhang, Jinsheng; Auner, Gregory W; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2013-12-01

    The long-term effect of chronically implanted electrodes is the formation of a glial scar. Therefore, it is imperative to assess the biocompatibility of materials before employing them in neural electrode fabrication. Platinum alloy and iridium oxide have been identified as good candidates as neural electrode biomaterials due to their mechanical and electrical properties, however, effect of glial scar formation for these two materials is lacking. In this study, we applied a glial scarring assay to observe the cellular reactivity to platinum alloy and iridium oxide wires in order to assess the biocompatibility based on previously defined characteristics. Through real-time PCR, immunostaining and imaging techniques, we will advance the understanding of the biocompatibility of these materials. Results of this study demonstrate iridium oxide wires exhibited a more significant reactive response as compared to platinum alloy wires. Cells cultured with platinum alloy wires had less GFAP gene expression, lower average GFAP intensity, and smaller glial scar thickness. Collectively, these results indicated that platinum alloy wires were more biocompatible than the iridium oxide wires.

  19. Quantitative ultrasound criteria for risk stratification in clinical practice: a comparative assessment.

    PubMed

    Noale, Marianna; Maggi, Stefania; Gonnelli, Stefano; Limongi, Federica; Zanoni, Silvia; Zambon, Sabina; Rozzini, Renzo; Crepaldi, Gaetano

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to compare two different classifications of the risk of fracture/osteoporosis (OP) based on quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Analyses were based on data from the Epidemiological Study on the Prevalence of Osteoporosis, a cross-sectional study conducted in 2000 aimed at assessing the risk of OP in a representative sample of the Italian population. Subjects were classified into 5 groups considering the cross-classification found in previous studies; logistic regression models were defined separately for women and men to study the fracture risk attributable to groups defined by the cross-classification, adjusting for traditional risk factors. Eight-thousand six-hundred eighty-one subjects were considered in the analyses. Logistic regression models revealed that the two classifications seem to be able to identify a common core of individuals at low and at high risk of fractures, and the importance of a multidimensional assessment in older patients to evaluate clinical risk factors together with a simple, inexpensive, radiation-free device such as QUS.

  20. The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI compared to ergonomics standards for assessing the thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Bröde, Peter; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Fiala, Dusan; Havenith, George; Holmér, Ingvar; Jendritzky, Gerd; Kuklane, Kalev; Kampmann, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The growing need for valid assessment procedures of the outdoor thermal environment in the fields of public weather services, public health systems, urban planning, tourism & recreation and climate impact research raised the idea to develop the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI based on the most recent scientific progress both in thermo-physiology and in heat exchange theory. Following extensive validation of accessible models of human thermoregulation, the advanced multi-node 'Fiala' model was selected to form the basis of UTCI. This model was coupled with an adaptive clothing model which considers clothing habits by the general urban population and behavioral changes in clothing insulation related to actual environmental temperature. UTCI was developed conceptually as an equivalent temperature. Thus, for any combination of air temperature, wind, radiation, and humidity, UTCI is defined as the air temperature in the reference condition which would elicit the same dynamic response of the physiological model. This review analyses the sensitivity of UTCI to humidity and radiation in the heat and to wind in the cold and compares the results with observational studies and internationally standardized assessment procedures. The capabilities, restrictions and potential future extensions of UTCI are discussed. PMID:23411753

  1. Critical assessment of intramodality 3D ultrasound imaging for prostate IGRT compared to fiducial markers

    SciTech Connect

    Meer, Skadi van der; Bloemen-van Gurp, Esther; Hermans, Jolanda; Voncken, Robert; Heuvelmans, Denys; Gubbels, Carol; Fontanarosa, Davide; Visser, Peter; Lutgens, Ludy; Gils, Francis van; Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: A quantitative 3D intramodality ultrasound (US) imaging system was verified for daily in-room prostate localization, and compared to prostate localization based on implanted fiducial markers (FMs).Methods: Thirteen prostate patients underwent multiple US scans during treatment. A total of 376 US-scans and 817 matches were used to determine the intra- and interoperator variability. Additionally, eight other patients underwent daily prostate localization using both US and electronic portal imaging (EPI) with FMs resulting in 244 combined US-EPI scans. Scanning was performed with minimal probe pressure and a correction for the speed of sound aberration was performed. Uncertainties of both US and FM methods were assessed. User variability of the US method was assessed.Results: The overall US user variability is 2.6 mm. The mean differences between US and FM are: 2.5 {+-} 4.0 mm (LR), 0.6 {+-} 4.9 mm (SI), and -2.3 {+-} 3.6 mm (AP). The intramodality character of this US system mitigates potential errors due to transducer pressure and speed of sound aberrations.Conclusions: The overall accuracy of US (3.0 mm) is comparable to our FM workflow (2.2 mm). Since neither US nor FM can be considered a gold standard no conclusions can be drawn on the superiority of either method. Because US imaging captures the prostate itself instead of surrogates no invasive procedure is required. It requires more effort to standardize US imaging than FM detection. Since US imaging does not involve a radiation burden, US prostate imaging offers an alternative for FM EPI positioning.

  2. Dynamic Assessment of Language Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports a study of a narrative-based Dynamic Assessment (DA) procedure developed in the USA that is used in the UK with children with developmental language disabilities. Three monolingual English children with language disabilities are assessed by a speech/language pathologist/therapist who is learning to work with DA in collaboration…

  3. Guidelines from the Canadian Association of Pathologists for establishing a telepathology service for anatomic pathology using whole-slide imaging.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Chantal; Chandrakanth, S A; Cornell, Ian Scott; Dalton, James; Evans, Andrew; Garcia, Bertha M; Godin, Chris; Godlewski, Marek; Jansen, Gerard H; Kabani, Amin; Louahlia, Said; Manning, Lisa; Maung, Raymond; Moore, Lisa; Philley, Joanne; Slatnik, Jack; Srigley, John; Thibault, Alain; Picard, Donald Daniel; Cracower, Hanah; Tetu, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The use of telepathology for clinical applications in Canada has steadily become more attractive over the last 10 years, driven largely by its potential to provide rapid pathology consulting services throughout the country regardless of the location of a particular institution. Based on this trend, the president of the Canadian Association of Pathologists asked a working group consisting of pathologists, technologists, and healthcare administrators from across Canada to oversee the development of guidelines to provide Canadian pathologists with basic information on how to implement and use this technology. The guidelines were systematically developed, based on available medical literature and the clinical experience of early adopters of telepathology in Canada. While there are many different modalities and applications of telepathology, this document focuses specifically on whole-slide imaging as applied to intraoperative pathology consultation (frozen section), primary diagnosis, expert or second opinions and quality assurance activities. Applications such as hematopathology, microbiology, tumour boards, education, research and technical and/or standard-related issues are not covered. PMID:24843826

  4. Guidelines from the Canadian Association of Pathologists for establishing a telepathology service for anatomic pathology using whole-slide imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Chantal; Chandrakanth, S. A.; Cornell, Ian Scott; Dalton, James; Evans, Andrew; Garcia, Bertha M.; Godin, Chris; Godlewski, Marek; Jansen, Gerard H.; Kabani, Amin; Louahlia, Said; Manning, Lisa; Maung, Raymond; Moore, Lisa; Philley, Joanne; Slatnik, Jack; Srigley, John; Thibault, Alain; Picard, Donald Daniel; Cracower, Hanah; Tetu, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The use of telepathology for clinical applications in Canada has steadily become more attractive over the last 10 years, driven largely by its potential to provide rapid pathology consulting services throughout the country regardless of the location of a particular institution. Based on this trend, the president of the Canadian Association of Pathologists asked a working group consisting of pathologists, technologists, and healthcare administrators from across Canada to oversee the development of guidelines to provide Canadian pathologists with basic information on how to implement and use this technology. The guidelines were systematically developed, based on available medical literature and the clinical experience of early adopters of telepathology in Canada. While there are many different modalities and applications of telepathology, this document focuses specifically on whole-slide imaging as applied to intraoperative pathology consultation (frozen section), primary diagnosis, expert or second opinions and quality assurance activities. Applications such as hematopathology, microbiology, tumour boards, education, research and technical and/or standard-related issues are not covered. PMID:24843826

  5. Guidelines from the Canadian Association of Pathologists for establishing a telepathology service for anatomic pathology using whole-slide imaging.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Chantal; Chandrakanth, S A; Cornell, Ian Scott; Dalton, James; Evans, Andrew; Garcia, Bertha M; Godin, Chris; Godlewski, Marek; Jansen, Gerard H; Kabani, Amin; Louahlia, Said; Manning, Lisa; Maung, Raymond; Moore, Lisa; Philley, Joanne; Slatnik, Jack; Srigley, John; Thibault, Alain; Picard, Donald Daniel; Cracower, Hanah; Tetu, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The use of telepathology for clinical applications in Canada has steadily become more attractive over the last 10 years, driven largely by its potential to provide rapid pathology consulting services throughout the country regardless of the location of a particular institution. Based on this trend, the president of the Canadian Association of Pathologists asked a working group consisting of pathologists, technologists, and healthcare administrators from across Canada to oversee the development of guidelines to provide Canadian pathologists with basic information on how to implement and use this technology. The guidelines were systematically developed, based on available medical literature and the clinical experience of early adopters of telepathology in Canada. While there are many different modalities and applications of telepathology, this document focuses specifically on whole-slide imaging as applied to intraoperative pathology consultation (frozen section), primary diagnosis, expert or second opinions and quality assurance activities. Applications such as hematopathology, microbiology, tumour boards, education, research and technical and/or standard-related issues are not covered.

  6. Comparative assessment of techniques for initial pose estimation using monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumant; D`Amico, Simone

    2016-06-01

    This work addresses the comparative assessment of initial pose estimation techniques for monocular navigation to enable formation-flying and on-orbit servicing missions. Monocular navigation relies on finding an initial pose, i.e., a coarse estimate of the attitude and position of the space resident object with respect to the camera, based on a minimum number of features from a three dimensional computer model and a single two dimensional image. The initial pose is estimated without the use of fiducial markers, without any range measurements or any apriori relative motion information. Prior work has been done to compare different pose estimators for terrestrial applications, but there is a lack of functional and performance characterization of such algorithms in the context of missions involving rendezvous operations in the space environment. Use of state-of-the-art pose estimation algorithms designed for terrestrial applications is challenging in space due to factors such as limited on-board processing power, low carrier to noise ratio, and high image contrasts. This paper focuses on performance characterization of three initial pose estimation algorithms in the context of such missions and suggests improvements.

  7. Comparative assessment of two distributed watershed models with application to a small watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalin, Latif; Hantush, Mohamed H.

    2006-07-01

    Distributed watershed models are beneficial tools for the assessment of management practices on runoff and water-induced erosion. This paper evaluates, by application to an experimental watershed, two promising distributed watershed-scale sediment models in detail: the Kinematic Runoff and Erosion (KINEROS-2) model and the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model. The physics behind each model are to some extent similar, though they have different watershed conceptualizations. KINEROS-2 was calibrated using three rainfall events and validated over four separate rainfall events. Parameters estimated by this calibration process were adapted to GSSHA. With these parameters, GSSHA generated larger and retarded flow hydrographs. A 30% reduction in both plane and channel roughness in GSSHA along with the assumption of Green-Ampt conductivity KG-A = Ks, where Ks is the saturated conductivity, resulted in almost identical hydrographs. Sediment parameters not common in both models were calibrated independently of KINEROS-2. A comparative discussion of simulation results is presented. Even though GSSHA's flow component slightly overperformed KINEROS-2, the latter outperformed GSSHA in simulations for sediment transport. In spite of the fact that KINEROS-2 is not geared toward continuous-time simulations, simulations performed with both models over a 1 month period generated comparable results.

  8. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production.

    PubMed

    Arafat, Hassan A; Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-01

    Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H(2)) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify(®)) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration. PMID:23726119

  9. Decommissioning of offshore oil and gas facilities: a comparative assessment of different scenarios.

    PubMed

    Ekins, Paul; Vanner, Robin; Firebrace, James

    2006-06-01

    A material and energy flow analysis, with corresponding financial flows, was carried out for different decommissioning scenarios for the different elements of an offshore oil and gas structure. A comparative assessment was made of the non-financial (especially environmental) outcomes of the different scenarios, with the reference scenario being to leave all structures in situ, while other scenarios envisaged leaving them on the seabed or removing them to shore for recycling and disposal. The costs of each scenario, when compared with the reference scenario, give an implicit valuation of the non-financial outcomes (e.g. environmental improvements), should that scenario be adopted by society. The paper concludes that it is not clear that the removal of the topsides and jackets of large steel structures to shore, as currently required by regulations, is environmentally justified; that concrete structures should certainly be left in place; and that leaving footings, cuttings and pipelines in place, with subsequent monitoring, would also be justified unless very large values were placed by society on a clear seabed and trawling access.

  10. Preparation and characterization of rodent intestinal microsomes: comparative assessment of two methods.

    PubMed

    Damre, Anagha; Mallurwar, S R; Behera, D

    2009-01-01

    Small intestine plays an important role in the first-pass metabolism of orally ingested xenobiotics as a result of expression of both Phase I and Phase II metabolic enzymes, together with associated transporters. Intestinal microsomes thus can be used to study susceptibility of compounds to metabolism in vitro. The present study was undertaken to have a comparative assessment between different methods of preparation of rodent intestinal microsomes. Mouse and rat intestinal microsomes were prepared by two methods, in method A intestines were homogenized, while in method B mucosal cells were scrapped followed by homogenization. Further, microsomes were prepared by centrifugation (10000xg) followed by ultra centrifugation (100000xg) of the homogenates. The prepared microsomes were characterized for protein concentration using Bradford's method and CYP450 content using carbon monoxide bubbling method. The protein concentration and CYP450 content in microsomes prepared by method B was significantly higher than method A. In conclusion, superior quality intestinal microsomes can be obtained from rodents by using scrapped intestinal mucosal cells as compared to the intestinal homogenates.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Rodent Intestinal Microsomes: Comparative Assessment of Two Methods

    PubMed Central

    Damre, Anagha; Mallurwar, S. R.; Behera, D.

    2009-01-01

    Small intestine plays an important role in the first-pass metabolism of orally ingested xenobiotics as a result of expression of both Phase I and Phase II metabolic enzymes, together with associated transporters. Intestinal microsomes thus can be used to study susceptibility of compounds to metabolism in vitro. The present study was undertaken to have a comparative assessment between different methods of preparation of rodent intestinal microsomes. Mouse and rat intestinal microsomes were prepared by two methods, in method A intestines were homogenized, while in method B mucosal cells were scrapped followed by homogenization. Further, microsomes were prepared by centrifugation (10000xg) followed by ultra centrifugation (100000×g) of the homogenates. The prepared microsomes were characterized for protein concentration using Bradford's method and CYP450 content using carbon monoxide bubbling method. The protein concentration and CYP450 content in microsomes prepared by method B was significantly higher than method A. In conclusion, superior quality intestinal microsomes can be obtained from rodents by using scrapped intestinal mucosal cells as compared to the intestinal homogenates. PMID:20177465

  12. Methods for microbiological quality assessment in drinking water: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Helmi, K; Barthod, F; Méheut, G; Henry, A; Poty, F; Laurent, F; Charni-Ben-Tabassi, N

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare several methods for quantifying and discriminating between the different physiological states of a bacterial population present in drinking water. Flow cytometry (FCM), solid-phase cytometry (SPC), epifluorescence microscopy (MSP) and culture method performances were assessed by comparing the results obtained for different water samples. These samples, including chlorinated and non-chlorinated water, were collected in a drinking water treatment plant. Total bacteria were quantified by using SYBR Green II (for FCM) and 4',6'-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) (for MSP), viable and non-viable bacteria were distinguished by using SYBR Green II and propidium iodide dual staining (for FCM), and active cells were distinguished by using CTC (for MSP) and Chemchrome V6 (for FCM and SPC). In our conditions, counts using microscopy and FCM were significantly correlated regarding total bacteria and active cells. Conversely, counts were not significantly similar using solid-phase and FCM for active bacteria. Moreover, the R2A medium showed that bacterial culturability could be recovered after chlorination. This study highlights that FCM appears to be a useful and powerful technique for drinking water production monitoring.

  13. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production.

    PubMed

    Arafat, Hassan A; Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-01

    Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H(2)) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify(®)) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

  14. Comparing new BSN RN self skills assessment to actual skills demonstration.

    PubMed

    Adair, Jean; Hughes, Lin; Davis, Sue; Wolcott-Breci, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the self-skills assessment with the skill competence during an actual skills demonstration of newly hired bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) registered nurse graduates. This retrospective study included 32 randomly selected BSN registered nurse graduates from January 2010 to December 31, 2010. The participants were already hired into a midwest health system. Because this was a retrospective study, no demographic data were collected, and no consent from participants was needed. This study included a clinical skills check list where the participants rated themselves on specific skills utilizing a Likert scale ranging from 1 (no knowledge) to 4 (able to perform independently). The same clinical check list was utilized by an expert registered nurse when the skill was demonstrated. This study compared the difference between the subject's self-rating of skills and the clinical demonstration of the skills. We used t tests in the analysis to demonstrate the differences between the participant's self-rating of skills and the expert evaluation of the clinical demonstration of the skills. The data were inserted into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 19 software program to assist in the analysis process. The study demonstrated 17 significant differences in the skills ratings between the participant and competency demonstration of new BSN graduates. These significant results (2 tailed) ranged from .000 to .048.The 17 out of 46 specific skills where differences were noted included the following: staple removal, nasal pharyngeal suctioning, urinary catheter specimen collection, site care dressing change, urinary catheter irrigation, Juzo application and measurement, 5-lead telemetry, oral airway insertion, hemovac/Jackson Pratt, oral pharyngeal suctioning, urinary catheter insertion, dry suction chest drainage, bed to cart/slider board, urinary catheter removal, antiembolism stockings, measurement and application, removal of

  15. Comparative assessment of onabotulinumtoxinA and mirabegron for overactive bladder: an indirect treatment comparison

    PubMed Central

    Freemantle, Nick; Ginsberg, David A; McCool, Rachael; Fleetwood, Kelly; Arber, Mick; Khalaf, Kristin; Loveman, Clara; Ni, Quanhong; Glanville, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Context OnabotulinumtoxinA and mirabegron have recently gained marketing authorisation to treat symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). Objective To evaluate the relative efficacy of mirabegron and onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with idiopathic OAB. Design Network meta-analysis. Data sources A search of 9 electronic databases, review documents, guidelines and websites. Methods Randomised trials comparing any licensed dose of onabotulinumtoxinA or mirabegron with each other, anticholinergic drugs or placebo were eligible (19 randomised trials were identified). 1 reviewer extracted data from the studies and a second reviewer checked the data. Candidate trials were assessed for similarity and networks were developed for each outcome. Bayesian network meta-analysis was conducted using both fixed-effects and random-effects models. When there were differences in mean baseline values between mirabegron and onabotulinumtoxinA trials they were adjusted for using network meta-regression (NMR). Results No studies directly comparing onabotulinumtoxinA to mirabegron were identified. A network was created for each of the 7 outcomes, with 3–9 studies included in each individual network. The trials included in the networks were broadly similar. Patients in the onabotulinumtoxinA trials had more urinary incontinence and urgency episodes at baseline than patients in the mirabegron trials and these differences were adjusted for using NMR. Both onabotulinumtoxinA and mirabegron were more efficacious than placebo at reducing the frequency of urinary incontinence, urgency, urination and nocturia. OnabotulinumtoxinA was more efficacious than mirabegron (50 and 25 mg) in completely resolving daily episodes of urinary incontinence and urgency and in reducing the frequency of urinary incontinence, urgency and urination. NMR supported the results of the network meta-analysis. Conclusions In the absence of head-to-head trials comparing onabotulinumtoxinA to mirabegron, this indirect

  16. Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in alcoholic beverages using the margin of exposure approach.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Przybylski, Maria C; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-09-15

    Alcoholic beverages have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As alcoholic beverages are multicomponent mixtures containing several carcinogenic compounds, a quantitative approach is necessary to compare the risks. Fifteen known and suspected human carcinogens (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, lead, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, ochratoxin A and safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages were identified based on monograph reviews by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for comparative risk assessment. MOE compares a toxicological threshold with the exposure. MOEs above 10,000 are judged as low priority for risk management action. MOEs were calculated for different drinking scenarios (low risk and heavy drinking) and different levels of contamination for four beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The lowest MOEs were found for ethanol (3.1 for low risk and 0.8 for heavy drinking). Inorganic lead and arsenic have average MOEs between 10 and 300, followed by acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate between 1,000 and 10,000. All other compounds had average MOEs above 10,000 independent of beverage type. Ethanol was identified as the most important carcinogen in alcoholic beverages, with clear dose response. Some other compounds (lead, arsenic, ethyl carbamate, acetaldehyde) may pose risks below thresholds normally tolerated for food contaminants, but from a cost-effectiveness point of view, the focus should be on reducing alcohol consumption in general rather than on mitigative measures for some contaminants that contribute only to a limited extent (if at all) to the total health risk.

  17. Comparative assessment of surface fluxes from different sources: a framework based on probability distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulev, S.

    2015-12-01

    Surface turbulent heat fluxes from modern era and first generation reanalyses (NCEP-DOE, ERA-Interim, MERRA NCEP-CFSR, JRA) as well as from satellite products (SEAFLUX, IFREMER, HOAPS) were intercompared using framework of probability distributions for sensible and latent heat fluxes. For approximation of probability distributions and estimation of extreme flux values Modified Fisher-Tippett (MFT) distribution has been used. Besides mean flux values, consideration is given to the comparative analysis of (i) parameters of the MFT probability density functions (scale and location), (ii) extreme flux values corresponding high order percentiles of fluxes (e.g. 99th and higher) and (iii) fractional contribution of extreme surface flux events in the total surface turbulent fluxes integrated over months and seasons. The latter was estimated using both fractional distribution derived from MFT and empirical estimates based upon occurrence histograms. The strongest differences in the parameters of probability distributions of surface fluxes and extreme surface flux values between different reanalyses are found in the western boundary current extension regions and high latitudes, while the highest differences in the fractional contributions of surface fluxes may occur in mid ocean regions being closely associated with atmospheric synoptic dynamics. Generally, satellite surface flux products demonstrate relatively stronger extreme fluxes compared to reanalyses, even in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes where data assimilation input in reanalyses is quite dense compared to the Southern Ocean regions. Our assessment also discriminated different reanalyses and satellite products with respect to their ability to quantify the role of extreme surface turbulent fluxes in forming ocean heat release in different regions.

  18. A comparative assessment of Kalpana-1 and MISR cloud tracked winds over the Indian Ocean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, S. K.; Kaur, Inderpreet; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to advance the error characteristic of atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) derived from the infrared and water vapour channels of Kalpana-1 very high resolution radiometer by comparing against stereo motion vectors (SMVs) retrieved by tracking clouds from the multi-angle imaging spectro-radiometer (MISR) for a period of 9 months. Two different versions of the MISR SMVs with horizontal resolutions 70.4 and 17.6 km, respectively, are used for the inter-comparison. It is found that the Kalpana-1 AMV has stronger westerlies and southerlies than the MISR SMV at all latitudes and levels in majority of times. The performances of Kalpana-1 AMVs against MISR SMVs are assessed by doing a similar analysis where Meteosat-7 AMVs (infrared and water vapour AMVs) are also evaluated against the MISR SMVs for the same region. It is found that results of both AMVs (Kalpana-1 and Meteosat-7) with both sets of MISR SMVs are comparable with few exceptions. The zonal wind components of the MISR SMVs showed smaller mean wind difference and root mean square difference (RMSD) compared to the meridional wind components. The SMVs are typically assigned to higher altitudes than AMVs. Analysis related to the height discrepancies between MISR SMVs and AMVs shows that in the multi-layer cloud AMVs are tracked in upper level cloud targets, while SMVs are skewed more towards lower level. The accuracy is better for the low level where collocations are highly dense and gradually decreases towards the higher levels. Because of improvement in the MISR SMV retrieval algorithm, the errors in the meridional component of SMVs have improved in the recently released version with horizontal resolution of 17.6 km.

  19. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Arafat, Hassan A. Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Study developed a methodology for the evaluation of gasification for MSW treatment. • Study was conducted comparatively for USA, UAE, and Thailand. • Study applies a thermodynamic model (Gibbs free energy minimization) using the Gasify software. • The energy efficiency of the process and the compatibility with different waste streams was studied. - Abstract: Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify®) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

  20. Grand Rounds: Latex-Induced Occupational Asthma in a Surgical Pathologist

    PubMed Central

    Green-McKenzie, Judith; Hudes, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Context: Latex allergy and sensitization have been an important problem facing health care workers. Providing a latex-safe environment is the intervention of choice. Case Presentation: A 46-year-old surgical pathologist presented with increasing shortness of breath for the previous 4 years. Twenty years before presentation, he noted a pruritic, erythematous rash on his hands, associated with latex glove use. Fourteen years before presentation, during pathology residency, he developed a nonproductive cough, wheezing, and an urticarial rash, temporally associated with use of powdered latex gloves. These symptoms improved while away from work. At presentation, he had one-flight dyspnea. His skin prick test was positive for latex, and pulmonary function testing showed mild obstruction, which was reversible with bronchodilator use. Because the patient was at risk for worsening pulmonary function and possible anaphylaxis with continued exposure, he was removed from the workplace because no reasonable accommodation was made for him at that time. Discussion: The patient’s presentation is consistent with latex-induced occupational asthma. Initially noting dermal manifestations, consistent with an allergic contact dermatitis secondary to accelerators present in latex gloves, he later developed urticaria, flushing, and respiratory symptoms, consistent with a type I hypersensitivity reaction to latex. He also has reversible airways disease, with significant improvement of peak expiratory flow rate and symptoms when away from work. Relevance to Clinical or Professional Practice: The ideal treatment for latex sensitization is removal from and avoidance of exposure. Clinicians should consider occupational asthma when patients present with new-onset asthma or asthmatic symptoms that worsen at work. PMID:16002378

  1. Interstitial lung diseases-can pathologists arrive at an etiology-based diagnosis? A critical update.

    PubMed

    Popper, Helmut H

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) encompass a group of diseases with a wide range of etiologies and a variety of tissue reactions within the lung. In many instances, a careful evaluation of the tissue reactions will result in a specific diagnosis or at least in a narrow range of differentials, which will assist the clinician to arrive at a definite diagnosis, when combining our interpretation with the clinical presentation of the patient and high-resolution computed tomography. In this review, we will exclude granulomatous pneumonias as well as vascular diseases (primary arterial pulmonary hypertension and vasculitis); however, pulmonary hypertension as a complication of interstitial processes will be mentioned. Few entities of pneumoconiosis presenting as an interstitial process will be included, whereas those with granulomatous reactions will be excluded. Drug reactions will be touched on within interstitial pneumonias, but will not be a major focus. In contrast to the present-day preferred descriptive pattern recognition, it is the author's strong belief that pathologists should always try to dig out the etiology from a tissue specimen and not being satisfied with just a pattern description. It is the difference of sorting tissue reactions into boxes by their main pattern, without recognizing minor or minute reactions, which sometimes will guide one to the correct etiology-oriented interpretation. In the author's personal perspective, tissue reactions can even be sorted by their timeliness, and therefore, ordered by the time of appearance, providing an insight into the pathogenesis and course of a disease. Also, underlying immune mechanisms will be discussed briefly as far as they are essential to understand the disease.

  2. How diverse are diversity assessment methods? A comparative analysis and benchmarking of molecular descriptor space.

    PubMed

    Koutsoukas, Alexios; Paricharak, Shardul; Galloway, Warren R J D; Spring, David R; Ijzerman, Adriaan P; Glen, Robert C; Marcus, David; Bender, Andreas

    2014-01-27

    Chemical diversity is a widely applied approach to select structurally diverse subsets of molecules, often with the objective of maximizing the number of hits in biological screening. While many methods exist in the area, few systematic comparisons using current descriptors in particular with the objective of assessing diversity in bioactivity space have been published, and this shortage is what the current study is aiming to address. In this work, 13 widely used molecular descriptors were compared, including fingerprint-based descriptors (ECFP4, FCFP4, MACCS keys), pharmacophore-based descriptors (TAT, TAD, TGT, TGD, GpiDAPH3), shape-based descriptors (rapid overlay of chemical structures (ROCS) and principal moments of inertia (PMI)), a connectivity-matrix-based descriptor (BCUT), physicochemical-property-based descriptors (prop2D), and a more recently introduced molecular descriptor type (namely, "Bayes Affinity Fingerprints"). We assessed both the similar behavior of the descriptors in assessing the diversity of chemical libraries, and their ability to select compounds from libraries that are diverse in bioactivity space, which is a property of much practical relevance in screening library design. This is particularly evident, given that many future targets to be screened are not known in advance, but that the library should still maximize the likelihood of containing bioactive matter also for future screening campaigns. Overall, our results showed that descriptors based on atom topology (i.e., fingerprint-based descriptors and pharmacophore-based descriptors) correlate well in rank-ordering compounds, both within and between descriptor types. On the other hand, shape-based descriptors such as ROCS and PMI showed weak correlation with the other descriptors utilized in this study, demonstrating significantly different behavior. We then applied eight of the molecular descriptors compared in this study to sample a diverse subset of sample compounds (4%) from an

  3. Are Histological Findings of Thulium Laser Vapo-Enucleation Versus Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Comparable?

    PubMed

    Carmignani, Luca; Macchi, Alberto; Ratti, Dario; Finkelberg, Elisabetta; Casellato, Stefano; Bozzini, Giorgio; Maruccia, Serena; Marenghi, Carlo; Picozzi, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    We investigated if an adequate histological diagnosis can be made from tissue after Thulium laser vapo-enucleation of the prostate (ThuVEP) and whether it is comparable to transurethral prostate resection (TURP) tissue findings in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. We analyzed 350 ThuLEP and 100 matched TURP tissue specimens from patients who underwent one of the two procedures between January 2009 and June 2014. Thulium Laser Enucleation of Prostate (ThuVEP) was combined with mechanical morcellation of the resected lobe. Each histological specimen was reviewed by two pathologists. Preoperative prostate ultrasound volume, total serum prostatic specific antigen and postoperative tissue weight were evaluated. Microscopic histological diagnosis was assessed by standard histological techniques and immunohistochemical evaluation. Patients were comparable in terms of age and preoperative total serum prostate specific antigen. Incidental adenocarcinoma and high grade PIN of the prostate were diagnosed in a comparable percent of specimens in the 2 groups (2.5 % in the ThuVEP group versus 3 % in the TURP group). Tissue thermal artifacts induced by the Thulium laser are mostly due to coagulation as that of the conventional monopolar diathermy in TURP. Tissue quality was maintained in the ThuVEP histological specimens. Tissue maintain histological characteristics and proprieties without modification for successive immunoistochemical analysis. The pathologist ability to detect incidental prostate cancer and PIN was maintained even if there is a quoted of vaporized tissue.

  4. Mitochondrial comparative genomics and phylogenetic signal assessment of mtDNA among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Nadimi, Maryam; Daubois, Laurence; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genes, such as cytochrome C oxidase genes (cox), have been widely used for barcoding in many groups of organisms, although this approach has been less powerful in the fungal kingdom due to the rapid evolution of their mt genomes. The use of mt genes in phylogenetic studies of Dikarya has been met with success, while early diverging fungal lineages remain less studied, particularly the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Advances in next-generation sequencing have substantially increased the number of publically available mtDNA sequences for the Glomeromycota. As a result, comparison of mtDNA across key AMF taxa can now be applied to assess the phylogenetic signal of individual mt coding genes, as well as concatenated subsets of coding genes. Here we show comparative analyses of publically available mt genomes of Glomeromycota, augmented with two mtDNA genomes that were newly sequenced for this study (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM240159 and Glomus aggregatum DAOM240163), resulting in 16 complete mtDNA datasets. R. irregularis isolate DAOM240159 and G. aggregatum isolate DAOM240163 showed mt genomes measuring 72,293bp and 69,505bp with G+C contents of 37.1% and 37.3%, respectively. We assessed the phylogenies inferred from single mt genes and complete sets of coding genes, which are referred to as "supergenes" (16 concatenated coding genes), using Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests, in order to identify genes that best described AMF phylogeny. We found that rnl, nad5, cox1, and nad2 genes, as well as concatenated subset of these genes, provided phylogenies that were similar to the supergene set. This mitochondrial genomic analysis was also combined with principal coordinate and partitioning analyses, which helped to unravel certain evolutionary relationships in the Rhizophagus genus and for G. aggregatum within the Glomeromycota. We showed evidence to support the position of G. aggregatum within the R. irregularis 'species complex'. PMID:26868331

  5. Comparative assessment of groundwater chemistry evolution at three abandoned mines and its practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Solc, J.

    1996-12-31

    The reclamation effort typically deals with consequences of mining activity instead of being planned well before the mining. Detailed assessment of principal hydro- and geochemical processes participating in pore and groundwater chemistry evolution was carried out at three surface mine localities in North Dakota-the Fritz mine, the Indian Head mine, and the Velva mine. The geochemical model MINTEQUA2 and advanced statistical analysis coupled with traditional interpretive techniques were used to determine site-specific environmental characteristics and to compare the differences between study sites. Multivariate statistical analysis indicates that sulfate, magnesium, calcium, the gypsum saturation index, and sodium contribute the most to overall differences in groundwater chemistry between study sites. Soil paste extract pH and EC measurements performed on over 3700 samples document extremely acidic soils at the Fritz mine. The number of samples with pH <5.5 reaches 80%-90% of total samples from discrete depth near the top of the soil profile at the Fritz mine. Soil samples from Indian Head and Velva do not indicate the acidity below the pH of 5.5 limit. The percentage of samples with EC > 3 mS cm{sup -1} is between 20% and 40% at the Fritz mine and below 20% for samples from Indian Head and Velva. The results of geochemical modeling indicate an increased tendency for gypsum saturation within the vadose zone, particularly within the lands disturbed by mining activity. This trend is directly associated with increased concentrations of sulfate anions as a result of mineral oxidation. Geochemical modeling, statistical analysis, and soil extract pH and EC measurements proved to be reliable, fast, and relatively cost-effective tools for the assessment of soil acidity, the extent of the oxidation zone, and the potential for negative impact on pore and groundwater chemistry.

  6. Comparative assessment of scoring functions on an updated benchmark: 1. Compilation of the test set.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Liu, Zhihai; Li, Jie; Han, Li; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Zhixiong; Wang, Renxiao

    2014-06-23

    Scoring functions are often applied in combination with molecular docking methods to predict ligand binding poses and ligand binding affinities or to identify active compounds through virtual screening. An objective benchmark for assessing the performance of current scoring functions is expected to provide practical guidance for the users to make smart choices among available methods. It can also elucidate the common weakness in current methods for future improvements. The primary goal of our comparative assessment of scoring functions (CASF) project is to provide a high-standard, publicly accessible benchmark of this type. Our latest study, i.e., CASF-2013, evaluated 20 popular scoring functions on an updated set of protein-ligand complexes. This data set was selected out of 8302 protein-ligand complexes recorded in the PDBbind database (version 2013) through a fairly complicated process. Sample selection was made by considering the quality of complex structures as well as binding data. Finally, qualified complexes were clustered by 90% similarity in protein sequences. Three representative complexes were chosen from each cluster to control sample redundancy. The final outcome, namely, the PDBbind core set (version 2013), consists of 195 protein-ligand complexes in 65 clusters with binding constants spanning nearly 10 orders of magnitude. In this data set, 82% of the ligand molecules are "druglike" and 78% of the protein molecules are validated or potential drug targets. Correlation between binding constants and several key properties of ligands are discussed. Methods and results of the scoring function evaluation will be described in a companion work in this issue (doi: 10.1021/ci500081m ). PMID:24716849

  7. Comparative environmental assessment of wood transport models: a case study of a Swedish pulp mill.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Berg, Staffan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2009-05-15

    Wood transportation from forest landing to forest-based industries uses large amounts of energy. In the case of Sweden, where forest operations are highly and efficiently mechanized, this stage consumes more fossil fuels than other elements of the wood supply chain (such as silviculture and logging operations). This paper intends to compare the environmental burdens associated to different wood transport models considering a Swedish pulp mill as a case study by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an analytical tool. Five scenarios (the current one and four alternative reliable scenarios) were proposed and analysed taking into account two variables. On the one hand, the influence of imported pulpwood share from Baltic countries and on the other hand, the use of rail transportation for wood transport. In particular, the following impact categories were assessed: Eutrophication, Global Warming, Photochemical Oxidant Formation, Acidification and Fossil fuel extraction. The environmental results indicate that transport alternatives including electric and diesel trains, as well as the reduction in Baltic wood imports should present better environmental performance than the current scenario in terms of all the impact categories under study. Remarkable differences were identified with regard to energy requirements. This divergence is related to different long-distance transport strategies (lorry, boat and/or train) as well as the relative import of wood selected. The combination of lorry and train in wood transportation from Southern Sweden plus the reduction of wood imports from 25% to 15% seems to be more favourable from an environmental perspective. The results obtained allow forecasting the importance of the wood transport strategy in the wood supply chain in LCA of forest products and the influence of energy requirements in the results. PMID:19272634

  8. Comparative Capabilities of Clinical Assessment, Diagnostic Criteria, and Polysomnography in Detecting Sleep Bruxism

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Marcelo; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Rodrigues, Laíse Angélica Mendes; Bataglion, César; Siéssere, Selma; Semprini, Marisa; Regalo, Simone Cecilio Hallak

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic capability of signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism (SB) as per the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria and a diagnostic grading system proposed by international experts for assessing SB. Methods: The study was conducted in three phases (interview, physical examination, and sleep studies). Subjects were asked about self-reported tooth grinding sounds occurring during sleep, muscle fatigue, temporal headaches, jaw muscle pain, and jaw locking. A visual examination was conducted to check for presence of abnormal tooth wear. A full-night polysomnography (PSG) was performed. After three phases, the subjects were divided into two groups matched by age and gender: Case Group, 45 SB subjects, and Control Group, 45 non-SB subjects. Diagnostic accuracy measurements were calculated for each sign or symptom individually and for the two diagnostic criteria analyzed. Results: Muscle fatigue, temporal headaches, and AASM criteria were associated with highest sensitivity (78%, 67%, 58%, respectively) and also with highest diagnostic odds ratio (OR = 9.63, 9.25, 6.33, respectively). Jaw locking, muscle pain, and the criterion of “probable SB” were associated with the worst sensitivity (16%, 18%, 22%, respectively). Conclusions: Presence of muscle fatigue and temporal headaches can be considered good tools to screen SB patients. None of the diagnostic criteria evaluated was able to accurately identify patients with SB. AASM criteria had the strongest diagnostic capabilities and—although they do not attain diagnostic values high enough to replace the current gold standard (PSG)—should be used as a screening tool to identify SB. Citation: Palinkas M, De Luca Canto G, Rodrigues LA, Bataglion C, Siéssere S, Semprini M, Regalo SC. Comparative capabilities of clinical assessment, diagnostic criteria, and polysomnography in detecting sleep bruxism. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1319–1325. PMID:26235152

  9. [Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Zhao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Li, Jin-Xiang; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2015-03-01

    Tailpipe emission of internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) is one of the main sources leading to atmospheric environmental problems such as haze. Substituting electric vehicles for conventional gasoline vehicles is an important solution for reducing urban air pollution. In 2011, as a pilot city of electric vehicle, Beijing launched a promotion plan of electric vehicle. In order to compare the environmental impacts between Midi electric vehicle (Midi EV) and Hyundai gasoline taxi (ICEV), this study created an inventory with local data and well-reasoned assumptions, and contributed a life cycle assessment (LCA) model with GaBi4.4 software and comparative life cycle environmental assessment by Life cycle impact analysis models of CML2001(Problem oriented) and EI99 (Damage oriented), which included the environmental impacts of full life cycle, manufacture phase, use phase and end of life. The sensitivity analysis of lifetime mileage and power structure was also provided. The results indicated that the full life cycle environmental impact of Midi EV was smaller than Hyundai ICEV, which was mainly due to the lower fossil fuel consumption. On the contrary, Midi EV exhibited the potential of increasing the environmental impacts of ecosystem quality influence and Human health influence. By CML2001 model, the results indicated that Midi EV might decrease the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Global Warming Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential and so on. However, in the production phase, the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential of Midi EV were increased relative to Hyundai ICEV because of emissions impacts from its power system especially the battery production. Besides, in the use phase, electricity production was

  10. [Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Zhao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Li, Jin-Xiang; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2015-03-01

    Tailpipe emission of internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) is one of the main sources leading to atmospheric environmental problems such as haze. Substituting electric vehicles for conventional gasoline vehicles is an important solution for reducing urban air pollution. In 2011, as a pilot city of electric vehicle, Beijing launched a promotion plan of electric vehicle. In order to compare the environmental impacts between Midi electric vehicle (Midi EV) and Hyundai gasoline taxi (ICEV), this study created an inventory with local data and well-reasoned assumptions, and contributed a life cycle assessment (LCA) model with GaBi4.4 software and comparative life cycle environmental assessment by Life cycle impact analysis models of CML2001(Problem oriented) and EI99 (Damage oriented), which included the environmental impacts of full life cycle, manufacture phase, use phase and end of life. The sensitivity analysis of lifetime mileage and power structure was also provided. The results indicated that the full life cycle environmental impact of Midi EV was smaller than Hyundai ICEV, which was mainly due to the lower fossil fuel consumption. On the contrary, Midi EV exhibited the potential of increasing the environmental impacts of ecosystem quality influence and Human health influence. By CML2001 model, the results indicated that Midi EV might decrease the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Global Warming Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential and so on. However, in the production phase, the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential of Midi EV were increased relative to Hyundai ICEV because of emissions impacts from its power system especially the battery production. Besides, in the use phase, electricity production was

  11. A comparative assessment of fluoride concentration available in saliva using daily prescribed topical fluoride agents

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Manjit; Tewari, Amrit; Chawla, H. S.; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the availability of fluoride concentration in saliva following the use of fluoride mouthrinse and dentifrice. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out in 7–15 year-old school children of Chandigarh (n = 90). The children were nonfluoride users. Baseline saliva samples were collected. The subjects were exposed to two test agents, i.e., fluoride mouthrinse (0.05%, 225 ppm F) and dentifrice (1000 ppm F) for 7 days and on the day 8, saliva samples were collected over a 20 hrs period. Wash out period of 31/2 months was there before the subjects were exposed to the second test agent. Fluoride in saliva was estimated using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Written informed consent was taken. Statistical Analysis: Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was applied to test the normality of the variables. Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare the fluoride concentration available in saliva at respective time intervals subsequent to use of the two test agents. Results: Fluoride concentration was elevated in saliva compared to baseline for both the test agents. Fluoride mouthrinse (0.05% sodium fluoride [NaF]) and dentifrice (1000 ppm monofluorophosphate [MFP]) showed a biphasic clearance. Peak in saliva occurred at 15 mins postuse. Night-time use resulted in higher concentration of fluoride in saliva compared to baseline. There was statistically significantly higher fluoride concentration available in saliva for the dentifrice at 5 hrs, 10 hrs, and 20 hrs postuse (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Subsequent to the use of NaF (0.05%) daily mouthrinse and MFP dentifrice (1000 ppm) the fluoride concentration in saliva remained elevated to a level of 0.12 ppm for mouthrinse and 0.14 ppm for dentifrice compared to baseline (0.03 ppm) up to 20 hrs postuse. The therapeutic window though not yet established but suggested is 0.1–1 ppm for prevention of demineralization, indicating that daily use of fluoride mouthrinse and dentifrice provides fluoride concentration in

  12. Assessment of MRI as a Modality for Evaluation of Soft Tissue Injuries of the Spine as Compared to Intraoperative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Chembumkara; Kanthila, Mahesha; Ravichandra, Gopalakrishna; Acharya, Koteshwar Devadasa; Hussain, Mohamed Musheer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Traumatic injuries of the spine and spinal cord are potentially devastating as they may lead to significant neurological damage as the clinical and prognostic spectrum of the effects of spinal injuries is vast. Timely imaging studies can help mitigate these possibly life threatening complications. There is a dearth of studies that directly compare MR imaging findings to surgical findings. Aim Hence, this study was undertaken to assess the sensitivity of MRI in identifying injuries to the soft tissue structures of the spine. Materials and Methods MRI scans were performed on 31 cases of acute spinal injuries that presented within 72 hours of the trauma and underwent surgical fixation by either an anterior or posterior approach. The non-osseous structures namely; Anterior Longitudinal Ligament (ALL), Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (PLL), Intervertebral Disc, Ligamentum Flavum, Interspinous Ligament (ISP) and the Spinal Cord were evaluated. They were classified as ‘True Positive’ if an injury was found to correlate with intraoperative findings and as ‘False Negative’ when diagnosed falsely as normal. The statistical sensitivity of MRI in diagnosing injuries to the non-osseous structures of the spine were thus calculated. Results Of the 31 patients, in 51.6% of patients the site of injury was to the cervical spine (n=16), thoracic spine was the next highest in occurrence of 39% (n=12) and lumbar spine accounted for the least. In correlating the imaging findings to the intraoperative findings, MRI was highly sensitive in detecting injuries to the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (94.4%) and the Spinal cord (93%) and fairly high in detecting injuries to the Intervertebral disc. However coming to the ligamentum flavum and interspinous ligaments, the sensitivity of the MRI dropped to 62.5% and 63.6% respectively. Conclusion MRI was found to be highly sensitive in detecting injuries to the spinal cord and the posterior longitudinal ligament and

  13. What Makes the Finnish Different in Science? Assessing and Comparing Students' Science Learning in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Cornelia; Neumann, Knut; Boone, William J.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript details our efforts to assess and compare students' learning about electricity in three countries. As our world is increasingly driven by technological advancements, the education of future citizens in science becomes one important resource for economic productivity. Not surprisingly international large-scale assessments are…

  14. Comparing Methods for Assessing Receptive Language Skills in Minimally Verbal Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plesa Skwerer, Daniela; Jordan, Samantha E.; Brukilacchio, Briana H.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This research addresses the challenges of assessing receptive language abilities in minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder by comparing several adapted measurement tools: a standardized direct assessment of receptive vocabulary (i.e. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4); caregiver report measures including scores on the Vineland-II…

  15. Comparing the Use of Global Rating Scale with Checklists for the Assessment of Central Venous Catheterization Skills Using Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Irene W. Y.; Zalunardo, Nadia; Pachev, George; Beran, Tanya; Brown, Melanie; Hatala, Rose; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The use of checklists is recommended for the assessment of competency in central venous catheterization (CVC) insertion. To explore the use of a global rating scale in the assessment of CVC skills, this study seeks to compare its use with two checklists, within the context of a formative examination using simulation. Video-recorded performances of…

  16. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production: Biochemical Versus Thermochemical Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Dongyan; Seager, Thomas; Rao, P. Suresh; Zhao, Fu

    2010-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into ethanol through either biochemical or thermochemical conversion processes. Biochemical conversion involves hydrolysis and fermentation while thermochemical conversion involves gasification and catalytic synthesis. Even though these routes produce comparable amounts of ethanol and have similar energy efficiency at the plant level, little is known about their relative environmental performance from a life cycle perspective. Especially, the indirect impacts, i.e. emissions and resource consumption associated with the production of various process inputs, are largely neglected in previous studies. This article compiles material and energy flow data from process simulation models to develop life cycle inventory and compares the fossil fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and water consumption of both biomass-to-ethanol production processes. The results are presented in terms of contributions from feedstock, direct, indirect, and co-product credits for four representative biomass feedstocks i.e., wood chips, corn stover, waste paper, and wheat straw. To explore the potentials of the two conversion pathways, different technological scenarios are modeled, including current, 2012 and 2020 technology targets, as well as different production/co-production configurations. The modeling results suggest that biochemical conversion has slightly better performance on greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel consumption, but that thermochemical conversion has significantly less direct, indirect, and life cycle water consumption. Also, if the thermochemical plant operates as a biorefinery with mixed alcohol co-products separated for chemicals, it has the potential to achieve better performance than biochemical pathway across all environmental impact categories considered due to higher co-product credits associated with chemicals being displaced. The results from this work serve as a starting point for developing full life cycle

  17. Comparative assessment of forces generated during simulated alignment with self-ligating and conventional brackets.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Eliades, Theodore; Bourauel, Christoph

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to comparatively assess the magnitude and direction of forces and moments generated from different bracket systems, during the initial levelling and alignment stage of orthodontic treatment. Three types of brackets were used: Orthos2 (Ormco), Damon2 (Ormco), and In-Ovation R (GAC). The brackets were bonded on resin replicas models of a patient's crowded mandibular arch, and a 0.014 inch Damon archform CuNiTi (Ormco) wire was inserted. The model was mounted on the Orthodontic Measurement and Simulation System (OMSS) and six static measurements were taken at the initial crowded state per bracket for the lateral incisor, canine, and first premolar. A total of 10 repetitions were performed for each measurement, with new brackets and archwires used for each trial. The forces and moments generated were registered directly on the OMSS software and were statistically analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance separately for each dental arch location and force component. Group differences were further analyzed with Tukey's post hoc comparisons test at the 0.05 significance level. The lingually inclined, crowded lateral incisor presented an extrusive and buccal movement and showed the lowest force in the vertical direction, whereas the self-ligating group of brackets generated the highest force in the buccolingual direction. The moments applied by the three bracket systems followed the general trend shown for forces; in the vertical axis, the self-ligating brackets exerted lower forces than their conventional counterpart. This was modified in the buccolingual direction where, in most instances, the self-ligating appliances applied higher moments compared with the conventional bracket. In most cases, the magnitude of forces and moments ranged between 30-70 cN and 2-6 N mm, respectively. However, maximum forces and moments developed at the lateral incisor were almost four times higher than the average. PMID:19349418

  18. Comparative Assessment of Nitrogen Fixation Methodologies, Conducted in the Oligotrophic North Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Böttjer, Daniela; Church, Matthew J.; Karl, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Resolution of the nitrogen (N) cycle in the marine environment requires an accurate assessment of dinitrogen (N2) fixation. We present here an update on progress in conducting field measurements of acetylene reduction (AR) and 15N2 tracer assimilation in the oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). The AR assay was conducted on discrete seawater samples using a headspace analysis system, followed by quantification of ethylene (C2H4) with a reducing compound photodetector. The rates of C2H4 production were measurable for nonconcentrated seawater samples after an incubation period of 3 to 4 h. The 15N2 tracer measurements compared the addition of 15N2 as a gas bubble and dissolved as 15N2 enriched seawater. On all sampling occasions and at all depths, a 2- to 6-fold increase in the rate of 15N2 assimilation was measured when 15N2-enriched seawater was added to the seawater sample compared to the addition of 15N2 as a gas bubble. In addition, we show that the 15N2-enriched seawater can be prepared prior to its use with no detectable loss (<1.7%) of dissolved 15N2 during 4 weeks of storage, facilitating its use in the field. The ratio of C2H4 production to 15N2 assimilation varied from 7 to 27 when measured simultaneously in surface seawater samples. Collectively, the modifications to the AR assay and the 15N2 assimilation technique present opportunities for more accurate and high frequency measurements (e.g., diel scale) of N2 fixation, providing further insight into the contribution of different groups of diazotrophs to the input of N in the global oceans. PMID:22773638

  19. Comparative assessment of nitrogen fixation methodologies, conducted in the oligotrophic North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Samuel T; Böttjer, Daniela; Church, Matthew J; Karl, David M

    2012-09-01

    Resolution of the nitrogen (N) cycle in the marine environment requires an accurate assessment of dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation. We present here an update on progress in conducting field measurements of acetylene reduction (AR) and (15)N(2) tracer assimilation in the oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). The AR assay was conducted on discrete seawater samples using a headspace analysis system, followed by quantification of ethylene (C(2)H(4)) with a reducing compound photodetector. The rates of C(2)H(4) production were measurable for nonconcentrated seawater samples after an incubation period of 3 to 4 h. The (15)N(2) tracer measurements compared the addition of (15)N(2) as a gas bubble and dissolved as (15)N(2) enriched seawater. On all sampling occasions and at all depths, a 2- to 6-fold increase in the rate of (15)N(2) assimilation was measured when (15)N(2)-enriched seawater was added to the seawater sample compared to the addition of (15)N(2) as a gas bubble. In addition, we show that the (15)N(2)-enriched seawater can be prepared prior to its use with no detectable loss (<1.7%) of dissolved (15)N(2) during 4 weeks of storage, facilitating its use in the field. The ratio of C(2)H(4) production to (15)N(2) assimilation varied from 7 to 27 when measured simultaneously in surface seawater samples. Collectively, the modifications to the AR assay and the (15)N(2) assimilation technique present opportunities for more accurate and high frequency measurements (e.g., diel scale) of N(2) fixation, providing further insight into the contribution of different groups of diazotrophs to the input of N in the global oceans. PMID:22773638

  20. Auricular Surface Aging: Comparing Two Methods that Assess Morphological Change in the Ilium with Bayesian Analyses.

    PubMed

    Hens, Samantha M; Godde, Kanya

    2016-01-01

    Modern standards in forensic anthropology require rigorous testing and evaluation of methods used for aging skeletal remains. Age estimation has been criticized for bias, inaccuracy, and population specificity; issues which are minimized by the application of Bayesian methodology. Using Bayesian statistics, we compare the Lovejoy et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol, 68, 1985, 15) (original) and Buckberry and Chamberlain (Am J Phys Anthropol, 119, 2002, 231) (revised) auricular surface aging methods. Transition analysis parameters derived from American males (n = 372), in combination with a Thai male (N = 37) informative prior, statistically model age in Portuguese males (n = 221). Cumulative binomial tests assess the accuracy of the generated age ranges. Overall, the application of transition analysis and Bayesian statistics significantly improved age estimation with both methods (also outperforming Suchey-Brooks pubic symphysis aging). Moreover, the accuracy of the original method was low without statistical modeling, whereas the revised method can be applied accurately without further statistical analysis. Additionally, reference tables for aging Portuguese males are provided. PMID:27405023

  1. [Comparative assessment of DNA extraction methods for identification of glanders and melioidosis etiological agents by PCR].

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, O V; Antonov, V A; Tkachenko, G A; Altukhova, V V; Zamaraev, V S; Piven', N N; Goloseev, Iu A; Vasil'ev, V P; Lomova, L V; Alekseev, V V

    2008-01-01

    Pathogenic Burkholderia are considered as a cause of dangerous infections and potential agents of bioterrorism. Comparative assessment of different methods of extraction and purification of DNA for PCR analysis of pure cultures and samples contaminated by etiological agents of glanders and melioidosis was performed. Samples of soil and food artificially contaminated by pathogenic Burkholderia as well as organs of infected animals were tested. DNA was extracted by methods of boiling, nucleosorption with presence of guanidine thiocyanate, guanidine thiocyanatephenol extraction, guanidine thiocyanate-phenol extraction with additional purification of DNA by nucleosorption. Amplification was performed by "Flash" technique and detector of fluorescence was used for analysis of PCR products. Utilization of the recommended methods of preparation depending on the nature of sample let to detect by the "Flash" technique the etiological agents of glanders and melioidosis in concentration =10(3) microbial cells per ml. Choice of DNA extraction and purification methods is determined by type of a sample and presence in it of admixtures inhibiting PCR.

  2. Comparative Genomic Assessment of Novel Broad-Spectrum Targets for Antibacterial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    White, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    Single and multiple resistance to antibacterial drugs currently in use is spreading, since they act against only a very small number of molecular targets; finding novel targets for anti-infectives is therefore of great importance. All protein sequences from three pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL993) were assessed via comparative genomics methods for their suitability as antibacterial targets according to a number of criteria, including the essentiality of the protein, its level of sequence conservation, and its distribution in pathogens, bacteria and eukaryotes (especially humans). Each protein was scored and ranked based on weighted variants of these criteria in order to prioritize proteins as potential novel broad-spectrum targets for antibacterial drugs. A number of proteins proved to score highly in all three species and were robust to variations in the scoring system used. Sensitivity analysis indicated the quantitative contribution of each metric to the overall score. After further analysis of these targets, tRNA methyltransferase (trmD) and translation initiation factor IF-1 (infA) emerged as potential and novel antimicrobial targets very worthy of further investigation. The scoring strategy used might be of value in other areas of post-genomic drug discovery. PMID:18629165

  3. Assessment of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-induced Pneumonia using Different Lung Lesion Scoring Systems: a Comparative Review.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Morante, B; Segalés, J; Fraile, L; Pérez de Rozas, A; Maiti, H; Coll, T; Sibila, M

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary aetiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP) and one of the major contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Gross lung lesions in pigs affected by EP consist of cranioventral pulmonary consolidation (CVPC), usually distributed bilaterally in the apical, intermediate, accessory and cranial parts of the diaphragmatic lobes. Several lung scoring methods are currently in place for the evaluation of CVPC. The aims of this study were (1) to review the lung lesion scoring systems used to assess pneumonia associated with M. hyopneumoniae infection, and (2) to evaluate eight of these scoring systems by applying them to the lungs of 76 pigs with experimentally-induced M. hyopneumoniae pneumonia. A significant correlation between all lung lesion scoring systems was observed and the coefficients of determination in a regression analysis were very high between each pair-wise comparison, except for a unique scoring system based on image analysis. A formula of equivalence between lung scoring methods was developed in order to compare the results obtained with these methods. The present review provides a basis for comparison (even retrospectively) of lesions evaluated using different lung scoring systems.

  4. Comparative assessment of public opinion on the landscape quality of two biosphere reserves in Europe.

    PubMed

    Sowińska-Świerkosz, Barbara; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J

    2014-09-01

    The European Landscape Convention (2000) obligates European Union countries to identify and implement landscape quality objectives (LQOs) understood as the specification of public expectations and preferences concerning the landscape of a given area, expressed by competent public authorities. The convention emphasizes the important role of local community representatives in this field. In Poland, the implementation of the LQO concept was first undertaken in two regions with radically different landscape characteristics: (1) the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve and (2) the selected protected areas of the Roztocze-Solska Forest, nominated to the rank of a biosphere reserve. The first stage of the presented study was the recognition of public opinion on the quality of key features of landscape, based on a questionnaire (n = 470). The primary objective of the study was to provide an answer to the following questions: (1) Whether similar social expectations regarding landscape quality exist in spite of radically different landscape characteristics of the regions investigated (landscape quality is understood as spatial arrangement, scenic beauty, and lack of environmental pollution); (2) which landscape features are considered to be most preservation worthy by the representatives of both local communities; and (3) What processes or development impacts pose the greatest threat to the landscape quality of both regions according to the public opinion? The conducted comparative assessment revealed that it is possible to define a set of features fundamental to the quality of both areas and that representatives of local communities pointed out the same threats to the natural and cultural values of both regions investigated.

  5. Comparative toxicology for risk assessment of marine fishes and crustaceans. [Cyprinodon variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E. )

    1988-05-01

    The goal of this study was to collect data on the effects of chemicals on marine fishes and crustaceans and to evaluate the predictive power of the data for assessing risks to marine resources. The data sets consisted of acute median lethal concentrations (LC{sub 50s}) and chronic maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations (MATCs). They were analyzed with regression models and simple comparisons. The conclusions include the following: (1) the variability found in the marine data was comparable to that found in freshwater data; (2) the standard marine test fish Cyprinodon variegatus appears to be representative of marine fishes; (3) the responses of marine crustaceans are so highly diverse that the concept of a representative crustacean is questionable; (4) mysid and penaeid shrimp appear to be particularly sensitive to toxic chemicals. These conclusions are subject to the constraints of the existing limited data base and should be confirmed by a systematic study of the relative sensitivity of marine organisms to chemicals with diverse modes of action.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2010-05-01

    This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

  7. Comparative assessment of methods for the fusion transcripts detection from RNA-Seq data

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shailesh; Vo, Angie Duy; Qin, Fujun; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    RNA-Seq made possible the global identification of fusion transcripts, i.e. “chimeric RNAs”. Even though various software packages have been developed to serve this purpose, they behave differently in different datasets provided by different developers. It is important for both users, and developers to have an unbiased assessment of the performance of existing fusion detection tools. Toward this goal, we compared the performance of 12 well-known fusion detection software packages. We evaluated the sensitivity, false discovery rate, computing time, and memory usage of these tools in four different datasets (positive, negative, mixed, and test). We conclude that some tools are better than others in terms of sensitivity, positive prediction value, time consumption and memory usage. We also observed small overlaps of the fusions detected by different tools in the real dataset (test dataset). This could be due to false discoveries by various tools, but could also be due to the reason that none of the tools are inclusive. We have found that the performance of the tools depends on the quality, read length, and number of reads of the RNA-Seq data. We recommend that users choose the proper tools for their purpose based on the properties of their RNA-Seq data. PMID:26862001

  8. Comparative assessment of feature extraction methods for visual odometry in wireless capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Iakovidis, Dimitris K; Niafas, Stavros; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2015-10-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) enables the non-invasive examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by a swallowable device equipped with a miniature camera. Accurate localization of the capsule in the GI tract enables accurate localization of abnormalities for medical interventions such as biopsy and polyp resection; therefore, the optimization of the localization outcome is important. Current approaches to endoscopic capsule localization are mainly based on external sensors and transit time estimations. Recently, we demonstrated the feasibility of capsule localization based-entirely-on visual features, without the use of external sensors. This technique relies on a motion estimation algorithm that enables measurements of the distance and the rotation of the capsule from the acquired video frames. Towards the determination of an optimal visual feature extraction technique for capsule motion estimation, an extensive comparative assessment of several state-of-the-art techniques, using a publicly available dataset, is presented. The results show that the minimization of the localization error is possible at the cost of computational efficiency. A localization error of approximately one order of magnitude higher than the minimal one can be considered as compromise for the use of current computationally efficient feature extraction techniques. PMID:26073184

  9. A statin a day keeps the doctor away: comparative proverb assessment modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Mizdrak, Anja; Scarborough, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective To model the effect on UK vascular mortality of all adults over 50 years old being prescribed either a statin or an apple a day. Design Comparative proverb assessment modelling study. Setting United Kingdom. Population Adults aged over 50 years. Intervention Either a statin a day for people not already taking a statin or an apple a day for everyone, assuming 70% compliance and no change in calorie consumption. The modelling used routinely available UK population datasets; parameters describing the relations between statins, apples, and health were derived from meta-analyses. Main outcome measure Mortality due to vascular disease. Results The estimated annual reduction in deaths from vascular disease of a statin a day, assuming 70% compliance and a reduction in vascular mortality of 12% (95% confidence interval 9% to 16%) per 1.0 mmol/L reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol, is 9400 (7000 to 12 500). The equivalent reduction from an apple a day, modelled using the PRIME model (assuming an apple weighs 100 g and that overall calorie consumption remains constant) is 8500 (95% credible interval 6200 to 10 800). Conclusions Both nutritional and pharmaceutical approaches to the prevention of vascular disease may have the potential to reduce UK mortality significantly. With similar reductions in mortality, a 150 year old health promotion message is able to match modern medicine and is likely to have fewer side effects.

  10. Comparative assessment of five potential sites for hydrothermal-magma systems: energy transport

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1980-09-01

    A comparative assessment of five sites is being prepared as part of a Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) review of thermal regimes for the purpose of scoping areas for future research and drilling activities. This background report: discusses the various energy transport processes likely to be encountered in a hydrothermal-magma system, reviews related literature, discusses research and field data needs, and reviews the sites from an energy transport viewpoint. At least three major zones exist in the magma-hydrothermal transport system: the magma zone, the hydrothermal zone, and the transition zone between the two. Major energy transport questions relate to the nature and existence of these zones and their evolution with time. Additional energy transport questions are concerned with the possible existence of critical state and super-critical state permeable convection in deep geothermal systems. A review of thermal transport models emphasizes the fact that present transport models and computational techniques far outweigh the scarcity and quality of deep field data.

  11. Comparative assessment of various lipid extraction protocols and optimization of transesterification process for microalgal biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shovon; Patnaik, Reeza; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, using microalgae as feedstocks, is being explored as the most potent form of alternative diesel fuel for sustainable economic development. A comparative assessment of various protocols for microalgal lipid extraction was carried out using five green algae, six blue-green algae and two diatom species treated with different single and binary solvents both at room temperature and using a soxhlet. Lipid recovery was maximum with chloroform-methanol in the soxhlet extractor. Pretreatments ofbiomass, such as sonication, homogenization, bead-beating, lyophilization, autoclaving, microwave treatment and osmotic shock did not register any significant rise in lipid recovery. As lipid recovery using chloroform-methanol at room temperature demonstrated a marginally lower value than that obtained under the soxhlet extractor, on economical point of view, the former is recommended for microalgal total lipid extraction. Transesterification process enhances the quality of biodiesel. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of catalyst type and quantity, methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature and time on the transesterification process using response surface methodology. Fatty acid methyl ester yield reached up to 91% with methanol:HCl:oil molar ratio of 82:4:1 at 65 degrees C for 6.4h reaction time. The biodiesel yield relative to the weight of the oil was found to be 69%.

  12. A comparative assessment of the size of the frontal air sinus in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Badlangana, N Ludo; Adams, Justin W; Manger, Paul R

    2011-06-01

    The current study examines the frontal air sinus of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) cranium with the aim of evaluating previously offered hypotheses as to why they have such an atypically voluminous frontal sinus relative to other artiodactyls. To date, no quantification of the frontal sinus in the adult or developing giraffe has been undertaken or compared to other artiodactyl species. Crania from eight species of adult artiodactyls, and giraffes varying in age from newborn to adult, were studied using CT scans to provide a volumetric assessment of the frontal sinus. Sinus volume was strongly correlated to cranial mass in the male giraffe ontogenetic series. The adult giraffe of both sexes were found to possess a far larger than predicted sinus volume relative to the relationship between frontal sinus volume and cranial mass observed in the other adult artiodactyls. Our results suggest that the volume of the frontal sinus in the giraffe is likely to be unique among artiodactyls, and the potential function and evolution we consider in light of several previously articulated hypotheses. PMID:21542141

  13. Assessing evapotranspiration variability in contiguous United States: Comparing the various remote-sensed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Zeng, R.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) couples the water cycle and energy budget of hydrological processes. Understanding the components of ET variability and their spatial distribution is essential for improving hydrological simulations, quantifying ET observation uncertainties and supporting water resources management under climate change. Although advances in monitoring hydrological components have been made, how to use various existing observations to obtain a better knowledge about ET variability remains a challenging task. This study adopts a system approach to analyze ET variability in contiguous United States, considering the factors of climatic forcing fluctuations and catchment storage dynamics. We apply an ET variance decomposition framework (Zeng and Cai, 2015) to calculate monthly ET variance based on climatic forcing (i.e., precipitation and potential ET) and GRACE terrestrial storage change data. We quantify the various sources of ET variance, in terms of variances of precipitation, potential ET and terrestrial storage and their covariances, and obtain a spatial map of its primary and secondary controlling factors in the in contiguous United States. Furthermore, the estimated ET variance is compared to two existing ET products (e.g., MODIS-based remote sensing and FLUEXNET-based interpolation). It is found that FLUXNET-based interpolation is systematically smaller than the estimated ET variance with less deviation; while the MODIS-based ET agrees with estimated ET variance with larger uncertainty. The decomposition framework provides not only an independent estimation of ET variance but also a method to assess the uncertainty of existing ET products.

  14. Comparative assessment of bacterial diversity associated with co-occurring eukaryotic hosts of Palk Bay origin.

    PubMed

    Viszwapriya, Dharmaprakash; Aravindraja, Chairmandurai; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-06-01

    Epibacterial communities of co-occurring eukaryotic hosts of Palk Bay origin (five seaweed species (Gracilaria sp, Padina sp, Enteromorpha sp, Sargassum sp, and Turbinaria sp) and one seagrass [Cymodaceae sp]) were analyzed for diversity and compared using 16S rRNA based Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis analysis. Diversity index revealed that Turbinaria sp hosts highest bacterial diversity while it was least in Gracilaria sp. The DGGE band profile showed that the epibacterial community differed considerably among the studied species. Statistical assessment using cluster analysis and Non-metric multidimensional scale analysis also authenticated the observed variability. Despite huge overlap, the composition of bacterial community structure differed significantly among the three closely related species namely Sargassum, Turbinaria and Padina. In addition, Enteromorpha and Sargassum, one being chlorophyta and the other phaeophyta showed about 80% similarity in bacterial composition. This differs from the general notion that epibacterial community composition will vary widely depending on the host phyla. The results extended the phenomenon of host specific epibacterial community irrespective of phylogeny and similarity in geographical location. PMID:26155683

  15. Comparative Assessment of Public Opinion on the Landscape Quality of Two Biosphere Reserves in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowińska-Świerkosz, Barbara; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J.

    2014-09-01

    The European Landscape Convention (2000) obligates European Union countries to identify and implement landscape quality objectives (LQOs) understood as the specification of public expectations and preferences concerning the landscape of a given area, expressed by competent public authorities. The convention emphasizes the important role of local community representatives in this field. In Poland, the implementation of the LQO concept was first undertaken in two regions with radically different landscape characteristics: (1) the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve and (2) the selected protected areas of the Roztocze-Solska Forest, nominated to the rank of a biosphere reserve. The first stage of the presented study was the recognition of public opinion on the quality of key features of landscape, based on a questionnaire ( n = 470). The primary objective of the study was to provide an answer to the following questions: (1) Whether similar social expectations regarding landscape quality exist in spite of radically different landscape characteristics of the regions investigated (landscape quality is understood as spatial arrangement, scenic beauty, and lack of environmental pollution); (2) which landscape features are considered to be most preservation worthy by the representatives of both local communities; and (3) What processes or development impacts pose the greatest threat to the landscape quality of both regions according to the public opinion? The conducted comparative assessment revealed that it is possible to define a set of features fundamental to the quality of both areas and that representatives of local communities pointed out the same threats to the natural and cultural values of both regions investigated.

  16. Comparing Panelists' Understanding of Standard Setting across Multiple Levels of an Alternate Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Mary A.; Lyon, Steven R.; Heh, Peter; Zigmond, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale assessment programs, including alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), must provide evidence of technical quality and validity. This study provides information about the technical quality of one AA-AAS by evaluating the standard setting for the science component. The assessment was designed to have…

  17. Methodological Challenges in International Comparative Post-Secondary Assessment Programs: Lessons Learned and the Road Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Raffaela; Zahner, Doris; Benjamin, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of student learning outcomes in the tertiary school sector has seen an increase in global popularity in recent years. Measurement instruments that target higher order skills are on the rise, whereas assessments that foster the recall of factual knowledge are declining. The Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (AHELO)…

  18. A Comparative Study on the Practice of Continuous Assessment between Addis Ababa and Unity Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleke, Aytaged Sisay

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the practice of continuous assessment at Unity University College and Addis Ababa University. It has also investigated constraints instructors say they have been facing in implementing continuous assessment. Students' attitudes about the practice of this assessment mode towards their course achievements were…

  19. The Influence of Disciplinary Assessment Patterns on Student Learning: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessop, Tansy; Maleckar, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores disciplinary patterns of assessment and feedback, using data from the Transforming the Experience of Students through Assessment project. Its central research question concerns the effect of disciplinary assessment patterns on student learning. Audit data from 18 degree programmes at 8 UK universities showed variations in…

  20. [Comparative analysis of two different methods for risk assessment of groundwater pollution: a case study in Beijing plain].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-na; He, Jiang-tao; Ma, Wen-jie; Xu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater contamination risk assessment has important meaning to groundwater contamination prevention planning and groundwater exploitation potentiality. Recently, UN assessment system and WP assessment system have become the focuses of international research. In both systems, the assessment framework and indices were drawn from five aspects: intrinsic vulnerability, aquifer storage, groundwater quality, groundwater resource protection zone and contamination load. But, the five factors were built up in different ways. In order to expound the difference between the UN and WP assessment systems, and explain the main reasons, the UN and WP assessment systems were applied to Beijing Plain, China. The maps constructed from the UN and WP risk assessment systems were compared. The results showed that both kinds of groundwater contamination risk assessment maps were in accordance with the actual conditions and were similar in spatial distribution trends. However, there was quite significant different in the coverage area at the same level. It also revealed that during the system construction process, the structural hierarchy, relevant overlaying principles and classification method might have effects on the groundwater contamination risk assessment map. UN assessment system and WP assessment system were both suitable for groundwater contamination risk assessment of the plain, however, their emphasis was different.

  1. A Comparative Analysis between the Assessment Criteria Used to Assess Graduating Teachers at Rustaq College (Oman) and Griffith University (Australia) during the Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Malki, Moza Abdullah; Weir, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a study that compares the assessment criteria used to measure pre-service teachers' professional competencies at Rustaq College of Applied Sciences in Oman, and at Griffith University in Queensland, Australia. The study adopts a discourse analytic approach to deconstruct and critically compare the…

  2. In Vitro Comparative Assessment of Mechanical Blood Damage Induced by Different Hemodialysis Treatments.

    PubMed

    Sakota, Ranko; Lodi, Carlo Alberto; Sconziano, Sara Antonia; Beck, Werner; Bosch, Juan P

    2015-12-01

    routinely used dialysis treatments, bloodlines and machines. Although the in vitro measurement of the fHb increase in bovine blood does not allow a prediction of the absolute level of blood mechanical damage or the possible effects in humans, such measurements are valuable for assessing hemolytic harm by performing tests comparing the proposed treatment with existing devices.

  3. In Vitro Comparative Assessment of Mechanical Blood Damage Induced by Different Hemodialysis Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lodi, Carlo Alberto; Sconziano, Sara Antonia; Beck, Werner; Bosch, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    to RBCs compared with that observed for routinely used dialysis treatments, bloodlines and machines. Although the in vitro measurement of the fHb increase in bovine blood does not allow a prediction of the absolute level of blood mechanical damage or the possible effects in humans, such measurements are valuable for assessing hemolytic harm by performing tests comparing the proposed treatment with existing devices. PMID:25981394

  4. A Review of the Uses of the Kelly's Repertory Grid Method in Educational Assessment and Comparability Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Martin; Nadas, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Comparability between different educational qualifications is an important issue within policy discourse in the UK. In this context, the comparability of qualification demands has been explored through the use of expert human judgement. The involvement of human judgement in estimating assessment demands has consequences for methodology. This…

  5. A Multimethod Assessment of Juvenile Psychopathy: Comparing the Predictive Utility of the PCL:YV, YPI, and NEO PRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Kimonis, Eva R.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study compares 3 distinct approaches for measuring juvenile psychopathy and their utility for predicting short- and long-term recidivism among a sample of 1,170 serious male juvenile offenders. The assessment approaches compared a clinical interview method (the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version [PCL:YV]; Forth, Kosson, & Hare,…

  6. Observer reliability in assessing placental maturity by histology.

    PubMed Central

    Khong, T Y; Staples, A; Bendon, R W; Chambers, H M; Gould, S J; Knowles, S; Shen-Schwarz, S

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the ability of five experienced perinatal pathologists to assess placental maturity reliably by histology. METHODS--Twenty four haematoxylin and eosin slides, six each from placentas of 27, 31, 35, and 39 weeks' gestation, were circulated to five pathologists on three separate occasions. The slides were labelled with the correct or incorrect gestational ages. RESULTS--The mean absolute error over all 360 readings was 2.72 weeks. Only 54% of the slides were assessed within two weeks of the correct gestation. Pathologist tended to overestimate younger gestations and underestimate older gestations. Two, and possibly three, pathologist were influenced by the gestational age state on the label. One pathologist, who did not appear to be influenced by the label, was more accurate in diagnosing gestation of the placentas than other colleagues. CONCLUSIONS--Experienced pathologists can have difficulty in assessing the villous maturity of placentas by histology. They can also be influenced by clinical information provided, such as gestational age. Other observer reliability studies must address the issue of the influence of labelled information on observer variation. A difference in maturation would have to be of a six week magnitude to have a chance of being detected by current methods. This may limit the value of the histological diagnosis of placental dysmaturity as a surrogate marker for uteroplacental ischaemia. PMID:7629287

  7. Assessment of Breast, Brain and Skin Pathological Tissue Using Full Field OCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimier, Eugénie; Assayag, Osnath; Harms, Fabrice; Boccara, A. Claude

    The aim of this chapter is to assess whether the images of the breast, brain, and skin tissue obtained by FFOCM contain sufficient detail to allow pathologists to make a diagnosis of cancer and other pathologies comparable to what was obtained by conventional histological techniques. More precisely, it is necessary to verify on FFOCM images if it is possible to differentiate a healthy area from a pathological area. The reader interested in other organs or in animal studies may find a large number of 2D or 3D images in the atlas [2].

  8. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO2 emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in Biganzoli et al. (2014) and from the dolomitic sorbent production plant. The results of the LCA show minor changes in the potential impacts between the two operational modes of the plants. These differences are for 8 impact categories in favour of the new operational mode based on the addition of the dolomitic sorbent, and for 7 impact categories in favour of the traditional operation. A final evaluation was conducted on the potential

  9. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO2 emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in Biganzoli et al. (2014) and from the dolomitic sorbent production plant. The results of the LCA show minor changes in the potential impacts between the two operational modes of the plants. These differences are for 8 impact categories in favour of the new operational mode based on the addition of the dolomitic sorbent, and for 7 impact categories in favour of the traditional operation. A final evaluation was conducted on the potential

  10. Health impact assessment of Roma housing policies in Central and Eastern Europe: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Agnes; Adam, Balazs; Antova, Temenujka; Bosak, Lubos; Dimitrov, Plamen; Mileva, Hristina; Pekarcikova, Jarmila; Zurlyte, Ingrida; Gulis, Gabriel; Adany, Roza; Kosa, Karolina

    2012-02-15

    Marginalised Roma communities in European countries live in substandard housing conditions the improvement of which has been one of the major issues of the Decade of Roma Inclusion, the ongoing intergovernmental European Roma programme. The paper presents EU-funded health impact assessments of national Roma housing policies and programmes in 3 Central and Eastern European countries in light of the evaluation of a completed local project in a fourth CEE country so as to compare predicted effects to observed ones. Housing was predicted to have beneficial health effects by improving indoor and outdoor conditions, access to services, and socioeconomic conditions. Negative impacts were predicted only in terms of maintenance expenses and housing tenure. However, observed impacts of the completed local project did not fully support predictions especially in terms of social networks, satisfaction with housing and neighbourhood, and inhabitant safety. In order to improve the predictive value of HIA, more evidence should be produced by the careful evaluation of locally implemented housing projects. In addition, current evidence is in favour of planning Roma housing projects at the local rather than at the national level in alignment with the principle of subsidiarity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predictive validity of HIA of national Roma housing policies - in light of current evidence - is low. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implemented housing projects should be comprehensively evaluated to improve reliability of HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Roma housing projects should be planned at the local rather than at the national level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HIA should be used to plan Roma housing projects at the local level.

  11. Analysis of spectra from portable handheld gamma-ray spectrometry for terrain comparative assessment.

    PubMed

    Dias, Flávio; Lima, Marco; Sanjurjo-Sánchez, Jorge; Alves, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Geological characteristics can have impacts on societal development by, e.g., geotechnical issues and radiological hazard levels. Due to urban sprawl, there is an increasing need for detailed geological assessment. In this work are analysed data from portable handheld gamma-ray spectra (K, eU and eTh) obtained in granitic and Silurian metaclastic outcrops as well as in an profile, roughly N-S, on soil covered terrains transecting a mapped contact between these rock types (the profile's northern extremity is at locations mapped as granite). Estimations from gamma-ray spectra were studied by univariate and multivariate analyses. K, eU and eTh values were higher on granite in relation to Silurian metaclastic rocks. The northern extremity of the profile showed clearly higher contents of eTh and this contrast was supported by univariate statistical tools (normality plot and Wilk-Shapiro test; boxplots). A ternary plot with the contribution of the elements to gamma-ray absorbed dose showed the separation of granite from Silurian metaclastic rocks with the former being nearer the eTh vertex. The points in the northern extremity of the profile are nearer the eTh vertex than the other points on the profile. These visual suggestions were supported by hierarchical cluster analysis, which was able to differentiate between granite and metaclastic outcrops and separate portions of the profile located on different terrains. Portable gamma-ray spectrometry showed, hence, the potential to distinguish granite and metaclastic terrains at a scale useful for engineering works. These results can also be useful for a first comparative zoning of radiological hazards (which are higher for granite). PMID:26867098

  12. A comparative assessment of R. M. Young and tipping bucket rain gauges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Gebo, Norman E.

    1992-01-01

    Rain rates as derived from standard tipping bucket rain gauges have variable integration times corresponding to the interval between bucket tips. For example, the integration time for the Weathertronics rain gauge is given by delta(T) = 15.24/R (min), where R is the rain rate expressed in mm/h and delta(T) is the time between tips expressed in minutes. It is apparent that a rain rate of 1 mm/h has an integration time in excess of 15 minutes. Rain rates larger than 15.24 mm/h will have integration times smaller than 1 minute. The integration time is dictated by the time it takes to fill a small tipping bucket where each tip gives rise to 0.254 mm of rainfall. Hence, a uniform rain rate of 1 mm/h over a 15 minute period will give rise to the same rain rate as 0 mm/h rainfall over the first 14 minutes and 15 mm/h between 14 to 15 minutes from the reference tip. Hence, the rain intensity fluctuations may not be captured with the tipping bucket rain gauge for highly variable rates encompassing lower and higher values over a given integration time. The objective of this effort is to provide an assessment of the features of the R. M. Young capacitive gauge and to compare these features with those of the standard tipping bucket rain gauge. A number of rain rate-time series derived from measurements with approximately co-located gauges are examined.

  13. Pesticide exposure assessment in rice paddies in Europe: a comparative study of existing mathematical models.

    PubMed

    Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Cervelli, Stefano; Watanabe, Hirozumi; Capri, Ettore; Ferrero, Aldo

    2006-07-01

    A comparative test was undertaken in order to identify the potential of existing mathematical models, including the rice water quality (RICEWQ) 1.6.4v model, the pesticide concentration in paddy field (PCPF-1) model and the surface water and groundwater (SWAGW) model, for calculating pesticide dissipation and exposure in rice paddies in Europe. Previous versions of RICEWQ and PCPF-1 models had been validated under European and Japanese conditions respectively, unlike the SWAGW model which was only recently developed as a tier-2 modelling tool. Two datasets, derived from field dissipation studies undertaken in northern Italy with the herbicides cinosulfuron and pretilachlor, were used for the modelling exercise. All models were parameterized according to field experimentations, as far as possible, considering their individual deficiencies. Models were not calibrated against field data in order to remove bias in the comparison of the results. RICEWQ 1.6.4v provided the highest agreement between measured and predicted pesticide concentrations in both paddy water and paddy soil, with modelling efficiency (EF) values ranging from 0.78 to 0.93. PCPF-1 simulated well the dissipation of herbicides in paddy water, but significantly underestimated the concentrations of pretilachlor, a chemical with high affinity for soil sorption, in paddy soil. SWAGW simulated relatively well the dissipation of both herbicides in paddy water, and especially pretilachlor, but failed to predict closely the pesticide dissipation in paddy soil. Both RICEWQ and SWAGW provided low groundwater (GW) predicted environmental concentrations (PECs), suggesting a low risk of GW contamination for the two herbicides. Overall, this modelling exercise suggested that RICEWQ 1.6.4v is currently the most reliable model for higher-tier exposure assessment in rice paddies in Europe. PCPF-1 and SWAGW showed promising results, but further adjustments are required before these models can be considered as strong

  14. Comparative assessment of several automatic CPAP devices' responses: a bench test study

    PubMed Central

    Isetta, Valentina; Navajas, Daniel; Montserrat, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Automatic continuous positive airway pressure (APAP) devices adjust the delivered pressure based on the breathing patterns of the patient and, accordingly, they may be more suitable for patients who have a variety of pressure demands during sleep based on factors such as body posture, sleep stage or variability between nights. Devices from different manufacturers incorporate distinct algorithms and may therefore respond differently when subjected to the same disturbed breathing pattern. Our objective was to assess the response of several currently available APAP devices in a bench test. A computer-controlled model mimicking the breathing pattern of a patient with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) was connected to different APAP devices for 2-h tests during which flow and pressure readings were recorded. Devices tested were AirSense 10 (ResMed), Dreamstar (Sefam), Icon (Fisher & Paykel), Resmart (BMC), Somnobalance (Weinmann), System One (Respironics) and XT-Auto (Apex). Each device was tested twice. The response of each device was considerably different. Whereas some devices were able to normalise breathing, in some cases exceeding the required pressure, other devices did not eliminate disturbed breathing events (mainly prolonged flow limitation). Mean and maximum pressures ranged 7.3–14.6 cmH2O and 10.4–17.9 cmH2O, respectively, and the time to reach maximum pressure varied from 4.4 to 96.0 min. Each APAP device uses a proprietary algorithm and, therefore, the response to a bench simulation of OSA varied significantly. This must be taken into account for nasal pressure treatment of OSA patients and when comparing results from clinical trials. PMID:27730142

  15. Analysis of spectra from portable handheld gamma-ray spectrometry for terrain comparative assessment.

    PubMed

    Dias, Flávio; Lima, Marco; Sanjurjo-Sánchez, Jorge; Alves, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Geological characteristics can have impacts on societal development by, e.g., geotechnical issues and radiological hazard levels. Due to urban sprawl, there is an increasing need for detailed geological assessment. In this work are analysed data from portable handheld gamma-ray spectra (K, eU and eTh) obtained in granitic and Silurian metaclastic outcrops as well as in an profile, roughly N-S, on soil covered terrains transecting a mapped contact between these rock types (the profile's northern extremity is at locations mapped as granite). Estimations from gamma-ray spectra were studied by univariate and multivariate analyses. K, eU and eTh values were higher on granite in relation to Silurian metaclastic rocks. The northern extremity of the profile showed clearly higher contents of eTh and this contrast was supported by univariate statistical tools (normality plot and Wilk-Shapiro test; boxplots). A ternary plot with the contribution of the elements to gamma-ray absorbed dose showed the separation of granite from Silurian metaclastic rocks with the former being nearer the eTh vertex. The points in the northern extremity of the profile are nearer the eTh vertex than the other points on the profile. These visual suggestions were supported by hierarchical cluster analysis, which was able to differentiate between granite and metaclastic outcrops and separate portions of the profile located on different terrains. Portable gamma-ray spectrometry showed, hence, the potential to distinguish granite and metaclastic terrains at a scale useful for engineering works. These results can also be useful for a first comparative zoning of radiological hazards (which are higher for granite).

  16. Thiol-Based Selective Extraction Assay to Comparatively Assess Bioavailable Mercury in Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Ticknor, Jonathan L.; Kucharzyk, Katarzyna H.; Porter, Kaitlyn A.; Deshusses, Marc A.; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bioaccumulation of methylmercury in the aquatic food web is governed in part by the methylation of inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) by anaerobic microorganisms. In sulfidic settings, a small fraction of total Hg(II) is typically bioavailable to methylating microorganisms. Quantification of this fraction is difficult due to uncertainties in the speciation of Hg(II) and the mechanisms of uptake by methylating microbes. However, recent studies have shown that the bioavailable fraction is likely to include a portion of Hg(II) associated with solid phases, that is, nanostructured mercuric sulfides. Moreover, addition of thiols to suspensions of methylating cultures coincides with increased uptake into cells and methylmercury production. Here, we present a thiol-based selective extraction assay to provide information on the bioavailable Hg fraction in sediments. In the procedure, sediment samples were exposed to a nitrogen-purged solution of glutathione (GSH) for 30 min and the amount of GSH-leachable mercury was quantified. In nine sediment samples from a marine location, the relative GSH-leachable mercury concentration was strongly correlated to the relative amount of methylmercury in the sediments (r2=0.91, p<0.0001) across an order of magnitude of methylmercury concentration values. The approach was further applied to anaerobic sediment slurry microcosm experiments in which sediments were cultured under the same microbial growth conditions but were amended with multiple forms of Hg with a known spectrum of bioavailability. GSH-leachable Hg concentrations increased with observed methylmercury concentrations in the microcosms, matching the trend of species bioavailability in our previous work. Results suggest that a thiol-based selective leaching approach is an improvement compared with other proposed methods to assess Hg bioavailability in sediment and that this approach could provide a basis for comparison of sites where Hg methylation is a concern

  17. Assessment of subjective intensity of pain during ultrasonic supragingival calculus removal: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Malagi, Sachin; Pattanshetti, Kirti; Bharmappa, Radhika; Reddy, Annaji Sreedhara; Pai, Jagadish; Joseph, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background: The background of the following study is to measure the subjective intensity of pain using the verbal rating scale (VRS) during supragingival scaling in relation to mandibular anteriors, with an ultrasonic scaler, with 2 different inserts (Slimline and Focus spray)- split mouth study. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects with a combination of 17 males and 13 females with the chronic generalized gingivitis with a minimum calculus score of 1 (CSSI – Ennever J 1961) who reported to Department of Periodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, Mangalore were chosen for the study. Ultrasonic magnetostrictive scaler unit CAVITRON BOBCAT PRO®– (DENTSPLY) with maximum power setting at 130A and 25kHZ frequency with 2 different inserts i.e., Slim line insert and Focus spray (DENTSPLY) were used for supragingival scaling in the study. A VRS was used to assess the subjective intensity of pain. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in pain perception when the scores were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test. VRS rating scores with slimline inserts showed a pain intensity of 2 in 43.3%, 1 in 53.3% and 0 in 3.3%, whereas the focus spray insert showed a pain intensity of 1 in 23.3% and 0 in 76.7%. Statistical analysis showed a P = 0.251 and a z - 1.147a. Conclusions: The use of both Slim line insert and Focus spray inserts when used at same settings of the scaling unit, showed no statistical significant difference in the intensity of pain perceived and it showed no correlation between patient acceptance and their pain perception. PMID:25210262

  18. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO{sub 2} emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in

  19. A Tale of Two Programs: A Comparative Study of Electronic Portfolio Assessment in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grier, Jeanne M.; Denney, Maria K.; Clark, Megan M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Teacher education programs in the State of California are increasingly held accountable for the assessment of teacher candidates' competencies and performance. One salient assessment tool is the utilization of portfolios in teacher education programs (Wolf, 1989; 1991). Among the newest and most innovative templates of portfolios in…

  20. Using Assessments to Investigate and Compare the Nature of Learning in Undergraduate Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momsen, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Erika; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Montplaisir, Lisa; Anderson, Elizabeth; Grosz, Nate

    2013-01-01

    Assessments and student expectations can drive learning: students selectively study and learn the content and skills they believe critical to passing an exam in a given subject. Evaluating the nature of assessments in undergraduate science education can, therefore, provide substantial insight into student learning. We characterized and compared…

  1. Assessment Experiences in the Workplace: A Comparative Study between Clinical Educators' and Their Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Franziska; Mischo-Kelling, Maria; Gasser, Eva Maria; Pulcini, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    With this paper, we contribute to the complex field of assessment of student learning in work placements. The complexity includes the dual role of clinical educators as mentors and assessors, students as pre-accredited practitioners and the diverse purposes of assessment. A philosophical hermeneutic approach was adopted to explore the perceptions…

  2. Comparative Assessment of Young Learners' Foreign Language Competence in Three Eastern European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumen, Mihaela; Cagran, Branka; Rixon, Shelagh

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns teacher practices in, and beliefs about, the assessment of young learners' progress in English in three Eastern European countries (Slovenia, Croatia, and the Czech Republic). The central part of the paper focuses on an international project involving empirical research into assessment of young learners' foreign language…

  3. Clinical Assessment of Affective Instability: Comparing EMA Indices, Questionnaire Reports, and Retrospective Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solhan, Marika B.; Trull, Timothy J.; Jahng, Seungmin; Wood, Phillip K.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional self-report measures of psychopathology may be influenced by a variety of recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reduces these biases by assessing individuals' experiences as they occur in their natural environments. This study examines the discrepancy between trait questionnaire, retrospective report, and EMA measures of…

  4. Social impact assessment in mining projects in Northern Finland: Comparing practice to theory

    SciTech Connect

    Suopajärvi, Leena

    2013-09-15

    The paper discusses social impact assessments (SIA) for mining projects in light of the international principles and guidelines for such assessments and the academic literature in the field. The data consist of environmental impact assessment (EIA) programmes and reports for six mining projects that have started up in northern Finland in the 2000s. A first observation is that the role of the SIAs in the EIA programmes and reports studied was quite minor: measured in number of pages, the assessments account for three or four percent of the total. This study analyses the data collection, research methodology and conceptual premises used in the SIAs. It concludes that the assessments do not fully meet the high standards of the international principles and guidelines set out for them: for example, elderly men are over-represented in the data and no efforts were made to identify and bring to the fore vulnerable groups. Moreover, the reliability of the assessments is difficult to gauge, because the qualitative methods are not described and where quantitative methods were used, details such as non-response rates to questionnaires are not discussed. At the end of the paper, the SIAs are discussed in terms of Jürgen Habermas' theory of knowledge interests, with the conclusion that the assessments continue the empirical analytical tradition of the social sciences and exhibit a technical knowledge interest. -- Highlights: • Paper investigates social impact assessments in Finnish mining projects. • Role of social impact assessment is minor in whole EIA-process. • Mining SIAs give the voice for elderly men, vulnerable groups are not identified. • Assessment of SIAs is difficult because of lacking transparency in reporting. • SIAs belong to empirical analytical tradition with technical knowledge interest.

  5. Programmed Death Ligand-1 Immunohistochemistry--A New Challenge for Pathologists: A Perspective From Members of the Pulmonary Pathology Society.

    PubMed

    Sholl, Lynette M; Aisner, Dara L; Allen, Timothy Craig; Beasley, Mary Beth; Borczuk, Alain C; Cagle, Philip T; Capelozzi, Vera; Dacic, Sanja; Hariri, Lida; Kerr, Keith M; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Raparia, Kirtee; Rekhtman, Natasha; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Thunnissen, Eric; Tsao, Ming Sound; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2016-04-01

    The binding of programmed death ligand-1 and ligand-2 (PD-L1 and PD-L2) to PD-1 blocks T-cell-mediated immune response to tumor. Antibodies that target programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) will block the ligand-receptor interface, thereby allowing T cells to attack the tumor and increase antitumor immune response. In clinical trials, PD-1 inhibitors have been associated with an approximately 20% overall response rate in unselected patients with non-small cell lung cancer, with sustained tumor response in a subset of patients treated by these immune checkpoint inhibitors. Facing a proliferation of PD-L1 immunohistochemistry clones, staining platforms, and scoring criteria, the pathologist must decide on the feasibility of introducing a newly approved companion diagnostic assay that may require purchase not only of a specific antibody kit but of a particular staining platform. Given the likely reality that clinical practice may, in the near future, demand access to 4 different PD-L1 antibodies coupled with different immunohistochemistry platforms, laboratories will be challenged with deciding among this variety of testing methods, each with its own potential benefits. Another immediate challenge to PD-L1 testing in lung cancer patients is that of access to adequate tumor tissue, given that non-small cell lung cancer samples are often extremely limited in size. With PD-L1 testing it has become clear that the historically used US regulatory approach of one assay-one drug will not be sustainable. One evolving concept is that of complementary diagnostics, a novel regulatory pathway initiated by the US Food and Drug Administration, which is distinct from companion diagnostics in that it may present additional flexibility. Although pathologists need to face the practical reality that oncologists will be asking regularly for the PD-L1 immunohistochemistry status of their patients' tumors, we should also keep in mind that there may be room for improvement of biomarkers for

  6. Universal Design for Learning: speech-language pathologists and their teams making the common core curriculum accessible.

    PubMed

    Staskowski, Maureen; Hardin, Susan; Klein, Mike; Wozniak, Carrie

    2012-05-01

    The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework was named in the supporting documents for the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) as a means of helping all students, especially those with disabilities, to meet and exceed the rigorous expectations. This article will describe the principles of UDL, show how educational teams use the framework to design instruction to teach the CCSS with examples from science and English language arts, and finally explore how the implementation of UDL provides an opportunity for speech-language pathologists to play a critical role in school improvement and instructional design and support.

  7. Overview of the Common Core State Standard initiative and educational reform movement from the vantage of speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Staskowski, Maureen

    2012-05-01

    Educational reform is sweeping the country. The adoption and the implementation of the Common Core State Standards in almost every state are meant to transform education. It is intended to update the way schools educate, the way students learn, and to ultimately prepare the nation's next generation for the global workplace. This article will describe the Common Core State Standard initiative and the underlying concerns about the quality of education in the United States as well as the opportunities this reform initiative affords speech-language pathologists.

  8. Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

  9. Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

  10. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TWO DISTRIBUTED WATERSHED MODELS WITH APPLICATION TO A SMALL WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributed watershed models are beneficial tools for assessment of management practices on runoff and water-induced erosion. This paper evaluates, by application to an experimental watershed, two promising distributed watershed-scale sediment models in detail: The Kinematic Runo...

  11. Clinical Assessment of Affective Instability: Comparing EMA indices, questionnaire reports, and retrospective recall

    PubMed Central

    Solhan, Marika B.; Trull, Timothy J.; Jahng, Seungmin; Wood, Phillip K.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional self-report measures of psychopathology may be influenced by a variety of recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reduces these biases by assessing individuals' experiences as they occur in their natural environments. This study examines the discrepancy between trait questionnaire, retrospective report, and EMA measures of affective instability in psychiatric outpatients either with a borderline personality diagnosis (BPD; n=58) or with a current major depressive episode or dysthymia (MDD/DYS; n=42). We examined the agreement of three trait measures of affective instability (Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features scale – Affective Instability scale, Affect Intensity Measure, and the Affect Lability Scales) and one retrospective mood recall task with EMA indices of mood and mood instability. Results indicate only modest to moderate agreement between momentary and questionnaire assessments of trait affective instability; agreement between recalled mood changes and EMA indices was poor. Implications for clinical research and practice and possible applications of EMA methodology are discussed. PMID:19719353

  12. A NASA Lewis comparative propulsion system assessment for the High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Haller, William J.; Seidel, Jonathan A.; Senick, Paul F.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: High Speed Research (HSR) Propulsion System Studies; HRS System Study flowpath; design point aircraft sizing - no noise constraint; impact of noise constraint; noise impact on aircraft size; takeoff gross weight assessment; impact of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) high-altitude flyover noise; HSR NO(x) reduction status; current assessment of HSCT ozone depletion; influence of non-optimum cruise altitude on range; and influence of subsonic leg on range.

  13. Update for the practicing pathologist: The International Consultation On Urologic Disease-European association of urology consultation on bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Mahul B; Smith, Steven C; Reuter, Victor E; Epstein, Jonathan I; Grignon, David J; Hansel, Donna E; Lin, Oscar; McKenney, Jesse K; Montironi, Rodolfo; Paner, Gladell P; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A; Algaba, Ferran; Ali, Syed; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Bubendorf, Lukas; Cheng, Liang; Cheville, John C; Kristiansen, Glen; Cote, Richard J; Delahunt, Brett; Eble, John N; Genega, Elizabeth M; Gulmann, Christian; Hartmann, Arndt; Langner, Cord; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Merce, Jorda; Netto, George J; Oliva, Esther; Rao, Priya; Ro, Jae Y; Srigley, John R; Tickoo, Satish K; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Umar, Saleem A; Van der Kwast, Theo; Young, Robert H; Soloway, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    The International Consultations on Urological Diseases are international consensus meetings, supported by the World Health Organization and the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer, which have occurred since 1981. Each consultation has the goal of convening experts to review data and provide evidence-based recommendations to improve practice. In 2012, the selected subject was bladder cancer, a disease which remains a major public health problem with little improvement in many years. The proceedings of the 2nd International Consultation on Bladder Cancer, which included a ‘Pathology of Bladder Cancer Work Group,’ have recently been published; herein, we provide a summary of developments and consensus relevant to the practicing pathologist. Although the published proceedings have tackled a comprehensive set of issues regarding the pathology of bladder cancer, this update summarizes the recommendations regarding selected issues for the practicing pathologist. These include guidelines for classification and grading of urothelial neoplasia, with particular emphasis on the approach to inverted lesions, the handling of incipient papillary lesions frequently seen during surveillance of bladder cancer patients, descriptions of newer variants, and terminology for urine cytology reporting. PMID:25412849

  14. Update for the practicing pathologist: The International Consultation On Urologic Disease-European association of urology consultation on bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mahul B; Smith, Steven C; Reuter, Victor E; Epstein, Jonathan I; Grignon, David J; Hansel, Donna E; Lin, Oscar; McKenney, Jesse K; Montironi, Rodolfo; Paner, Gladell P; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A; Algaba, Ferran; Ali, Syed; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Bubendorf, Lukas; Cheng, Liang; Cheville, John C; Kristiansen, Glen; Cote, Richard J; Delahunt, Brett; Eble, John N; Genega, Elizabeth M; Gulmann, Christian; Hartmann, Arndt; Langner, Cord; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Merce, Jorda; Netto, George J; Oliva, Esther; Rao, Priya; Ro, Jae Y; Srigley, John R; Tickoo, Satish K; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Umar, Saleem A; Van der Kwast, Theo; Young, Robert H; Soloway, Mark S

    2015-05-01

    The International Consultations on Urological Diseases are international consensus meetings, supported by the World Health Organization and the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer, which have occurred since 1981. Each consultation has the goal of convening experts to review data and provide evidence-based recommendations to improve practice. In 2012, the selected subject was bladder cancer, a disease which remains a major public health problem with little improvement in many years. The proceedings of the 2nd International Consultation on Bladder Cancer, which included a 'Pathology of Bladder Cancer Work Group,' have recently been published; herein, we provide a summary of developments and consensus relevant to the practicing pathologist. Although the published proceedings have tackled a comprehensive set of issues regarding the pathology of bladder cancer, this update summarizes the recommendations regarding selected issues for the practicing pathologist. These include guidelines for classification and grading of urothelial neoplasia, with particular emphasis on the approach to inverted lesions, the handling of incipient papillary lesions frequently seen during surveillance of bladder cancer patients, descriptions of newer variants, and terminology for urine cytology reporting.

  15. "Well it has to be language-related": speech-language pathologists' goals for people with aphasia and their families.

    PubMed

    Sherratt, Sue; Worrall, Linda; Pearson, Charlene; Howe, Tami; Hersh, Deborah; Davidson, Bronwyn

    2011-08-01

    Goal-setting is considered an essential part of rehabilitation practice and integral to person-centredness. However, people with aphasia are not always satisfied with goal-setting, and speech-language pathologists are concerned about the appropriateness of therapy. Furthermore, family members are often excluded from goal-setting, despite the impact aphasia has on them. The actual goals set by clinicians for clients with aphasia and their family members have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to examine the goals that clinicians set for their clients with aphasia and their family members. Data from in-depth interviews with 34 speech-language pathologists describing 84 goal-setting experiences with people with aphasia were coded into superordinate goals for both groups. Clinicians expressed a wide range of goals for people with aphasia and their family members, relating to communication, coping and participation factors, and education. In addition, evaluation was considered a goal for the clients. There were clients for whom no goals were set, particularly for family members, due to a lack of/limited contact. The goals described broadly addressed all aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and reflected the use of both functional and impairment-based therapeutic approaches; they also emphasize the importance of providing goal-setting options for the family members of these clients.

  16. The Best and Worst Times of Life: Narratives and Assessments of Subjective Well-Being by Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment (ACSA) in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Valerie; Theuns, Peter; Erstad, Ida; Bernheim, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment (ACSA) measure of subjective well-being (SWB) aims to reduce the problems of cultural bias and relativity to external standards by allowing people to define the endpoints or "anchors" of the measurement scale. In medical terminology anamnestic denotes "based on memory". The ACSA uses subjects' memories of…

  17. A comparative analysis of current microbial water quality risk assessment and management practices in British Columbia and Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Gemma; Harris, Leila; Cook, Christina; Prystajecky, Natalie

    2014-01-15

    Bacteria, protozoa and viruses are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and may pose threats to water quality for both human and ecosystem health. Microbial risk assessment and management in the water sector is a focus of governmental regulation and scientific inquiry; however, stark gaps remain in their application and interpretation. This paper evaluates how water managers practice microbial risk assessment and management in two Canadian provinces (BC and Ontario). We assess three types of entities engaged in water management along the source-to-tap spectrum (watershed agencies, water utilities, and public health authorities). We analyze and compare the approaches used by these agencies to assess and manage microbial risk (including scope, frequency, and tools). We evaluate key similarities and differences, and situate them with respect to international best practices derived from literatures related to microbial risk assessment and management. We find considerable variability in microbial risk assessment frameworks and management tools in that approaches 1) vary between provinces; 2) vary within provinces and between similar types of agencies; 3) have limited focus on microbial risk assessment for ecosystem health and 4) diverge considerably from the literature on best practices. We find that risk assessments that are formalized, routine and applied system-wide (i.e. from source-to-tap) are limited. We identify key limitations of current testing methodologies and looking forward consider the outcomes of this research within the context of new developments in microbial water quality monitoring such as tests derived from genomics and metagenomics based research.

  18. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  19. Climate and energy: A comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermeyer, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effects of five energy technologies on global, regional, and local climate are assessed. The energy technologies examined are coal combustion, light water nuclear reactors, satellite power systems, terrestrial photovoltaics, and fusion. The assessment focuses on waste heat rejection, production of particulate aerosols, and emission of carbon dioxide. The current state of climate modeling and long range climate prediction introduces considerable uncertainty into the assessment, but it may be concluded that waste heat will not produce detectable changes in global climate until world energy use increases 100fold, although minor effects on local weather may occur now; that carbon dioxide from coal combustion in the US alone accounts for about 30% of the current increase in global atmospheric CO2 which may, by about 2050 increase world temperature 2to 3 C, with pronounced effects on world climate; and that rocket exhaust from numerous launches during construction of a satellite power system may affect the upper atmosphere, with uncertain consequences.

  20. Data supporting the comparative life cycle assessment of different municipal solid waste management scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Ali Rajaeifar, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Ghanavati, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Environmental assessment of municipal solid waste (MSW) management scenarios would help to select eco-friendly scenarios. In this study, the inventory data in support of life cycle assessment of different MSW are presented. The scenarios were defined as: anaerobic digestion (AD, Sc-0), landfilling combined with composting (Sc-1), incineration (Sc-2), incineration combined with composting (Sc-3), and AD combined with incineration (Sc-4). The current article contains flowcharts of the different scenarios. Additionally, six supplementary files including inventory data on the different scenarios, data on the different damage assessment categories, normalization, and single scores are presented (Supplementary files 1–6). The analysis of the different scenarios revealed that the most eco-friendly scenario to be implemented in the future would be the combination of AD and incineration (Sc-4). PMID:26217743

  1. A Comparative Study of Test Data Dimensionality Assessment Procedures Under Nonparametric IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Abswoude, Alexandra A. H.; van der Ark, L. Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2004-01-01

    In this article, an overview of nonparametric item response theory methods for determining the dimensionality of item response data is provided. Four methods were considered: MSP, DETECT, HCA/CCPROX, and DIMTEST. First, the methods were compared theoretically. Second, a simulation study was done to compare the effectiveness of MSP, DETECT, and…

  2. International Comparative Studies in Education: Descriptions of Selected Large-Scale Assessments and Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.

    Since its inception in 1988, the Board on International Comparative Studies in Education (BICSE) has monitored U.S. participation in those cross national comparative studies in education that are funded by its sponsors, the National Science Foundation and the National Center for Education Statistics. This set of international study descriptions…

  3. Does Time Matter? Comparing Trajectory Concordance and Covariate Association Using Time-Based and Age-Based Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Alex R.; Monahan, Kathryn C.; Glasheen, Cristie; Schubert, Carol A.; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2013-01-01

    Much criminological research has used longitudinal data to assess change in offending over time. An important feature of some data sources is that they contain cross-sections of different aged individuals followed over successive time periods, thereby potentially conflating age and time. This article compares the substantive conclusions about the…

  4. A Comparative Assessment of Computer Literacy of Private and Public Secondary School Students in Lagos State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osunwusi, Adeyinka Olumuyiwa; Abifarin, Michael Segun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative assessment of computer literacy of private and public secondary school students. Although the definition of computer literacy varies widely, this study treated computer literacy in terms of access to, and use of, computers and the internet, basic knowledge and skills required to use computers and…

  5. Interdependency between Risk Assessments for Self and Other in the Field of Comparative Optimism: The Contribution of Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzenstetter, Florence; Schimchowitsch, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a response-time measure in the field of comparative optimism, this study was designed to explore how people estimate risk to self and others depending on the evaluation order (self/other or other/self). Our results show the interdependency between self and other answers. Indeed, while response time for risk assessment for the self…

  6. Developing Instruments to Assess and Compare the Quality of Engineering Education: The Case of China and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardanova, Elena; Loyalka, Prashant; Chirikov, Igor; Liu, Lydia; Li, Guirong; Wang, Huan; Enchikova, Ekaterina; Shi, Henry; Johnson, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about differences in the quality of engineering education within and across countries because of the lack of valid instruments that allow for the assessment and comparison of engineering students' skill gains. The purpose of our study is to develop and validate instruments that can be used to compare student skill gains…

  7. Using Digital and Paper Diaries for Learning and Assessment Purposes in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Feasibility and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleaves, Alan; Walker, Caroline; Grey, John

    2007-01-01

    The incorporation of diaries and journals as learning and assessment vehicles into programmes of study within higher education has enabled the further growth of reflection, creative writing, critical thinking and meta-cognitive processes of students' learning. However, there is currently little research that aims to compare how different types of…

  8. Assessing Traumatic Event Exposure: Comparing the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire to the Structured Clinical Interview for "DSM-IV"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Jessica M.; Burke, Christopher K.; Stoller, Kenneth B.; Neufeld, Karin J.; Brooner, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis requires first identifying a traumatic event, but very few studies have evaluated methods of potential traumatic event assessment and their impact on PTSD diagnosis. The authors compared a behaviorally specific comprehensive multiple-item traumatic event measure with a single-item measure to…

  9. Measurement Comparability of Paper-and-Pencil and Multimedia Vocational Assessments. ACT Research Report Series 99-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Jane G.; Luzzo, Darrell Anthony

    The purpose of this study was to determine the measurement comparability of paper-and-pencil and multimedia versions of two career assessment components in the DISCOVER multimedia career and education planning system. Students in grade 9 (N=606) and 11 (N=416) completed paper-and-pencil and Compact Disc-interactive (CD-i) versions of the Unisex…

  10. Program Outcomes Assessment in Higher Education Hospitality Management Programs: A Qualitative Comparative Case Study of Learning Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John George

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, comparative case study was to determine the extent to which learning and improvement cultures were perceived to be linked to the traditional and non-traditional accreditation and Program Outcomes Assessment paradigms in use in two university hospitality programs. The findings of this study revealed that the…

  11. Does Participation in Citizen Science Improve Scientific Literacy? A Study to Compare Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronje, Ruth; Rohlinger, Spencer; Crall, Alycia; Newman, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of a contextually sensitive instrument to assess the effect of invasive species monitoring training on the scientific literacy of citizen volunteers. The authors measured scientific literacy scores before and after 57 citizens participated in a 2-day event to learn to monitor invasive species with an instrument…

  12. Fatigue Life Assessment of 65Si7 Leaf Springs: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Vinkel Kumar; Bhushan, Gian; Aggarwal, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    The experimental fatigue life prediction of leaf springs is a time consuming process. The engineers working in the field of leaf springs always face a challenge to formulate alternate methods of fatigue life assessment. The work presented in this paper provides alternate methods for fatigue life assessment of leaf springs. A 65Si7 light commercial vehicle leaf spring is chosen for this study. The experimental fatigue life and load rate are determined on a full scale leaf spring testing machine. Four alternate methods of fatigue life assessment have been depicted. Firstly by SAE spring design manual approach the fatigue test stroke is established and by the intersection of maximum and initial stress the fatigue life is predicted. The second method constitutes a graphical method based on modified Goodman's criteria. In the third method codes are written in FORTRAN for fatigue life assessment based on analytical technique. The fourth method consists of computer aided engineering tools. The CAD model of the leaf spring has been prepared in solid works and analyzed using ANSYS. Using CAE tools, ideal type of contact and meshing elements have been proposed. The method which provides fatigue life closer to experimental value and consumes less time is suggested. PMID:27379327

  13. Comparing Assessments of Students' Knowledge by Computerized Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anbar, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Interactive computerized tests accepting unrestricted natural-language input were used to assess knowledge of clinical biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Comparison of responses to open-ended sequential questions and multiple-choice questions on the same material found the two formats test different aspects of competence.…

  14. Clinical assessment of affective instability: comparing EMA indices, questionnaire reports, and retrospective recall.

    PubMed

    Solhan, Marika B; Trull, Timothy J; Jahng, Seungmin; Wood, Phillip K

    2009-09-01

    Traditional self-report measures of psychopathology may be influenced by a variety of recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reduces these biases by assessing individuals' experiences as they occur in their natural environments. This study examines the discrepancy between trait questionnaire, retrospective report, and EMA measures of affective instability in psychiatric outpatients either with a borderline personality diagnosis (n = 58) or with a current episode of major depressive disorder or dysthymia (n = 42). The authors examined the agreement of 3 trait measures of affective instability-the Affective Instability subscale of the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features scale (L. C. Morey, 1991), the Affect Intensity Measure (R. J. Larsen, E. Diener, & R. Emmons, 1986), and the Affect Lability Scales (P. D. Harvey, B. R. Greenberg, & M. R. Serper, 1989)-and 1 retrospective mood recall task with EMA indices of mood and mood instability. Results indicate only modest to moderate agreement between momentary and questionnaire assessments of trait affective instability; agreement between recalled mood changes and EMA indices was poor. Implications for clinical research and practice and possible applications of EMA methodology are discussed.

  15. A Comparative Assessment of Higher Education Financing in Six Arab Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Araby, Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the policies for financing higher education in six Arab countries: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, and Tunisia. It assesses the adequacy of spending on higher education, the efficiency with which resources are utilized, and the equity implications of resource allocations. Based on six detailed case studies, this…

  16. Performance-Based Assessment in an Online Course: Comparing Different Types of Information Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mery, Yvonne; Newby, Jill; Peng, Ke

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether the type of instruction (a single face-to-face librarian-led instruction, instructor-led instruction, or an online IL course--the Online Research Lab) has an impact on student information literacy gains in a Freshman English Composition program. A performance-based assessment was carried out by analyzing…

  17. The Validity and Value of Peer Assessment Using Adaptive Comparative Judgement in Design Driven Practical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seery, Niall; Canty, Donal; Phelan, Pat

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the response of the technology teacher education programmes at the University of Limerick to the assessment challenge created by the shift in philosophy of the Irish national curriculum from a craft-based focus to design-driven education. This study observes two first year modules of the undergraduate programmes that focused on…

  18. Comparing probabilistic microbial risk assessments for drinking water against daily rather than annualised infection probability targets.

    PubMed

    Signor, R S; Ashbolt, N J

    2009-12-01

    Some national drinking water guidelines provide guidance on how to define 'safe' drinking water. Regarding microbial water quality, a common position is that the chance of an individual becoming infected by some reference waterborne pathogen (e.g. Cryptsporidium) present in the drinking water should < 10(-4) in any year. However the instantaneous levels of risk to a water consumer vary over the course of a year, and waterborne disease outbreaks have been associated with shorter-duration periods of heightened risk. Performing probabilistic microbial risk assessments is becoming commonplace to capture the impacts of temporal variability on overall infection risk levels. A case is presented here for adoption of a shorter-duration reference period (i.e. daily) infection probability target over which to assess, report and benchmark such risks. A daily infection probability benchmark may provide added incentive and guidance for exercising control over short-term adverse risk fluctuation events and their causes. Management planning could involve outlining measures so that the daily target is met under a variety of pre-identified event scenarios. Other benefits of a daily target could include providing a platform for managers to design and assess management initiatives, as well as simplifying the technical components of the risk assessment process.

  19. Fatigue Life Assessment of 65Si7 Leaf Springs: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Arora, Vinkel Kumar; Bhushan, Gian; Aggarwal, M L

    2014-01-01

    The experimental fatigue life prediction of leaf springs is a time consuming process. The engineers working in the field of leaf springs always face a challenge to formulate alternate methods of fatigue life assessment. The work presented in this paper provides alternate methods for fatigue life assessment of leaf springs. A 65Si7 light commercial vehicle leaf spring is chosen for this study. The experimental fatigue life and load rate are determined on a full scale leaf spring testing machine. Four alternate methods of fatigue life assessment have been depicted. Firstly by SAE spring design manual approach the fatigue test stroke is established and by the intersection of maximum and initial stress the fatigue life is predicted. The second method constitutes a graphical method based on modified Goodman's criteria. In the third method codes are written in FORTRAN for fatigue life assessment based on analytical technique. The fourth method consists of computer aided engineering tools. The CAD model of the leaf spring has been prepared in solid works and analyzed using ANSYS. Using CAE tools, ideal type of contact and meshing elements have been proposed. The method which provides fatigue life closer to experimental value and consumes less time is suggested. PMID:27379327

  20. Assessing Student Learning Outcomes: A Comparative Study of Techniques Used in Business School Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michlitsch, Joseph F.; Sidle, Meg Wright

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 573 of 3,000 business schools indicated that case studies were the most frequently used method to assess learning and are perceived to be effective. Group process observation and multiple-choice were less used and perceived as less effective. Faculty often use methods appropriate for grading but make less use of effective methods…