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Sample records for pathology seoul national

  1. Status report on the Seoul National University AMS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. C.; Youn, M.; Kim, I. C.; Park, J. H.; Song, Y. M.; Kang, J.; Choi, H. R.

    2004-08-01

    We report recent progress at the Seoul National University AMS facility in the area of sample preparations, facility maintenance, and briefly describe examples of present applications and future plans. The background level depending on the preparation methods is discussed, and water preparation line that are still under development is described. As the successful application of our facility, dating results of a historic site and a Paleolithic site, dating of Siberian permafrost and bomb pulse measurement are shown. Future plans for Be/Al AMS and biomedical application are discussed.

  2. Seoul National University Bundang Hospital's Electronic System for Total Care

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Lee, Kee Hyuck; Lee, Hak Jong; Ha, Kyooseob; Lim, Cheong; Chin, Ho Jun; Yun, Jonghoar; Cho, Eun-Young; Chung, Eunja; Baek, Rong-Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Chul Hee; Lee, Hai-Seok; Byeon, Nam-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, which is the first Stage 7 hospital outside of North America, has adopted and utilized an innovative and emerging information technology system to improve the efficiency and quality of patient care. The objective of this paper is to briefly introduce the major components of the SNUBH information system and to describe our progress toward a next-generation hospital information system (HIS). Methods SNUBH opened in 2003 as a fully digital hospital by successfully launching a new HIS named BESTCare, "Bundang hospital Electronic System for Total Care". Subsequently, the system has been continuously improved with new applications, including close-loop medication administration (CLMA), clinical data warehouse (CDW), health information exchange (HIE), and disaster recovery (DR), which have resulted in the achievement of Stage 7 status. Results The BESTCare system is an integrated system for a university hospital setting. BESTCare is mainly composed of three application domains: the core applications, an information infrastructure, and channel domains. The most critical and unique applications of the system, such as the electronic medical record (EMR), computerized physician order entry (CPOE), clinical decision support system (CDSS), CLMA, CDW, HIE, and DR applications, are described in detail. Conclusions Beyond our achievement of Stage 7 hospital status, we are currently developing a next-generation HIS with new goals of implementing infrastructure that is flexible and innovative, implementing a patient-centered system, and strengthening the IT capability to maximize the hospital value. PMID:22844650

  3. A Case Study of MOOCs Design and Administration at Seoul National University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Mihwa; Han, Songlee; Seo, Seungil

    2014-01-01

    This research, based on the case study of edX at Seoul National University, which is running Korea's first Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), discussed and proposed the roles of principal facilitators, the process, and the relationships among various facilitators in selecting, designing, opening and administrating MOOCs classes. Researches on…

  4. Design Features and Commissioning of the Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J. Chung, K.; H. An, Y.; K. Jung, B.; Y. Lee, H.; C., Sung; S. Na, Y.; S. Hahm, T.; S. Hwang, Y.

    2013-03-01

    A new spherical torus called VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus) is designed, constructed and successfully commissioned at Seoul National University. A unique design feature of the VEST is two partial solenoid coils installed at both vertical ends of a center stack, which can provide sufficient magnetic fluxes to initiate tokamak plasmas while keeping a low aspect ratio configuration in the central region. According to initial double null merging start-up scenario using the partial solenoid coils, appropriate power supplies for driving a toroidal field coil, outer poloidal field coils, and the partial solenoid coils are fabricated and successfully commissioned. For reliable start-up, a pre-ionization system with two cost-effective homemade magnetron power supplies is also prepared. In addition, magnetic and spectroscopic diagnostics with appropriate data acquisition and control systems are well prepared for initial operation of the device. The VEST is ready for tokamak plasma operation by completing and commissioning most of the designed components.

  5. Design and Construction of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Younghwa; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Jung, Bongki; Lee, Hyunyeong; Sung, Choongki; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Na, Yong-Su; Hwang, Yong-Seok

    2011-10-01

    A new spherical torus, named as VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus), has been built at Seoul National University to investigate versatile research topics such as double null merging start-up, divertor engineering and non-inductive current drive. VEST is characterized by two partial solenoid coils installed at both vertical ends of a center stack, which will be used for double null merging start-up schemes. A poloidal field (PF) coil system including the partial solenoids for break-down and a long solenoid for the sustainment of merged plasma has been designed by solving circuit equations for the PF coils and vacuum vessel elements in consideration of required volt-second, null configuration and eddy current. To supply required currents to the PF coils and solenoids, power supplies based on double-swing circuit have been designed and fabricated with capacitor banks and thyristor switch assemblies. Also a power supply utilizing cost-effective commercial batteries has been developed for toroidal field(TF) coils. Detailed descriptions on the design of VEST and some initial test results will be presented.

  6. Design of interferometer system on Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D. H.; An, Y. H.; Chung, K. J.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    A 94 GHz heterodyne interferometer system was designed to measure the plasma density of VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus), which was recently built at Seoul National University. Two 94 GHz Gunn oscillators with a frequency difference of 40 MHz were used in the microwave electronics part of a heterodyne interferometer system. A compact beam focusing system utilizing a pair of plano-convex lenses and a concave mirror was designed to maximize the effective beam reception and spatial resolution. Beam path analysis based on Gaussian optics was used in the design of the beam focusing system. The design of the beam focusing system and the beam path analysis were verified with a couple of experiments that were done within an experimental framework that considered the real dimensions of a vacuum vessel. Optimum distances between the optical components and the beam radii along the beam path obtained from the experiments were in good agreement with the beam path analysis using the Gaussian optics. Both experimentation and numerical calculations confirmed that the designed beam focusing system maximized the spatial resolution of the measurement; moreover, the beam waist was located at the center of the plasma to generate a phase shift more effectively in plasmas. The interferometer system presented in this paper is expected to be used in the measurements of line integrated plasma densities during the start-up phase of VEST.

  7. Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT): A Remotely Operated Robotic Telescope for Education and Research at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Myungshin; Choi, Changsu; Kim, Kihyun

    2015-08-01

    We introduce the Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT), a remotely operated, robotic 0.43-meter telescope. The telescope was installed at the Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, in 2014 October, to secure regular and exclusive access to the dark sky and excellent atmospheric conditions in the southern hemisphere from the Seoul National University (SNU) campus. Here, we describe the LSGT system and its performance, present example images from early observations, and discuss a future plan to upgrade the system. The use of the telescope includes (i) long-term monitoring observations of nearby galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and supernovae; (ii) rapid follow-up observations of transients such as gamma-ray bursts and gravitational wave sources; and (iii) observations for educational activities at SNU. Based on observations performed so far, we find that the telescope is capable of providing images to a depth of R=21.5 mag (point source detection) at 5-σ with 15 min total integration time under good obs-erving conditions.

  8. Kinetics of electrons and neutral particles in radio-frequency transformer coupled plasma H- ion source at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, K. J.; Dang, J. J.; Kim, J. Y.; Cho, W. H.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-10-01

    In volume production H- ion sources, control of electron temperature is essential due to its close correlation with the generation of vibrationally-excited hydrogen molecules in the driver region as well as the generation of H- ions by dissociative attachment in the extraction region. In the ion source group at Seoul National University (SNU) in Korea, a lot of research effort has been made to the development of a volume production H- ion source based on radio-frequency (RF) transformer-coupled plasma (TCP) for long lifetime continuous wave (CW) operation. It has a spiral RF antenna located outside the discharge chamber to generate a plasma with high electron temperature in the driver region and employs a magnetic filter field to prevent high energy electrons from being transported to the extraction region. In this paper, we present the recent progress on understanding of the underlying physics of the RF TCP H- ion source at SNU. Special attention is paid to the characterization of electron kinetics regime for controlling electron energy distribution and the influence of relaxation of neutral particles during the transport across the magnetic filter region. Effect of the degree of dissociation on the production of H- ions is also discussed.

  9. Books and National Development. Seminar Report April 27-29, 1968, Academy House, Seoul.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korean Publishers Association, Seoul.

    Representatives from Korea, China, Indonesia, Japan, Thailand, the United States and Southeast Asian Ministers of Education (SEAMES) attended an international seminar to reaffirm the importance of books as national development tools, to seek measures for having it reflected in the national policies and to promote international cooperation in book…

  10. An international survey of physicians regarding clinical trials: a comparison between Kyoto University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background International clinical trials are now rapidly expanding into Asia. However, the proportion of global trials is higher in South Korea compared to Japan despite implementation of similar governmental support in both countries. The difference in clinical trial environment might influence the respective physicians’ attitudes and experience towards clinical trials. Therefore, we designed a questionnaire to explore how physicians conceive the issues surrounding clinical trials in both countries. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital (KUHP) and Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and 2 open-ended questions on broad key issues relating to clinical trials. Results The number of responders was 301 at KUHP and 398 at SNUH. Doctors with trial experience were 196 at KUHP and 150 at SNUH. Among them, 12% (24/196) at KUHP and 41% (61/150) at SUNH had global trial experience. Most respondents at both institutions viewed clinical trials favorably and thought that conducting clinical trials contributed to medical advances, which would ultimately lead to new and better treatments. The main reason raised as a hindrance to conducting clinical trials was the lack of personnel support and time. Doctors at both university hospitals thought that more clinical research coordinators were required to conduct clinical trials more efficiently. KUHP doctors were driven mainly by pure academic interest or for their desire to find new treatments, while obtaining credits for board certification and co-authorship on manuscripts also served as motivation factors for doctors at SNUH. Conclusions Our results revealed that there might be two different approaches to increase clinical trial activity. One is a social level approach to establish clinical trial infrastructure providing sufficient clinical research professionals. The other is an individual level approach that would provide incentives to

  11. Clinical study on psoriasis patients for past 30 years (1982-2012) in Seoul National University Hospital Psoriasis Clinic.

    PubMed

    Na, Sun Jae; Jo, Seong Jin; Youn, Jai Il

    2013-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing disorder which shows variable clinical features. The long-term clinical study with many patients is important to elucidate the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical features of psoriasis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical features of psoriasis in Korean patients. Epidemiologic and clinic data and assessments for severity of extent and activity of psoriasis were collected from the medical records of 5084 patients, who had been newly diagnosed with psoriasis in the Psoriasis Clinic of Seoul National University Hospital between 1982 and 2012. The sex ratio of the psoriasis patients was 1.2:1 (male 54.6%, female 45.4%). The peak age of onset in males was 20s, while it was the teenage years in females. A total of 63.5% of patients developed psoriasis before 30 years of age. Family history of psoriasis was observed in 26.0% of patients. Moderate to severe extent of involvement were more frequently observed in male patients and patients under 30 years of onset age than in females and patients 30 years or over of onset age, respectively. Moderate to severe disease activity were also more frequently presented in male patients, but not in patients under 30 years of onset age. The most common morphological type was nummular (56.7%), followed by large plaque (28.5%) and guttate (8.5%). Nail involvement accompanied in 26.4% of patients. We demonstrated the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of psoriasis in Korean patients.

  12. Seoul: Korea's high-tech hotbed.

    PubMed

    Rusoff, D

    1987-04-01

    Seoul, Korea, is in the throes of change--in the way its people live, in the jobs they do, and in the makeup of its populace. The city of Seoul proper houses 1 out of every 4 Koreans. Home to 95 of Korea's 100 largest trading companies and 42 of the 46 family-based industrial conglomerates--Seoul controls Korean commerce. Employment opportunities have kept pace with Seoul's rapidly growing labor supply resulting in low unemployment by developing country standards. Only 12.3% of Koreans now live below the poverty line, down from nearly 41% in 1962. The real per capita income in Seoul rose from a dismal $87 in 1962 to nearly $2000 in 1985. The completion of 2 commuter rail lines in 1974 accelerated the movement of people out of the city and into suburban areas, concentrating urban growth along the railway corridors. Population densities in the city's central wards make Seoul 1 of the world's most densely populated cities. Although Seoul's population is young--27.9% of the population was under age 15 in 1983-- it is becoming increasingly dominated by those of working age. Seoul is essentially a city of migrants; more than 1/2 of the city's grwoth since 1960 is attributable to in-migration. Although the trend is toward rising white-collar employment, Seoul is still a blue-collar town. Seoul's educational system is so highly regarded in Korea that families move to seoul just to enroll their children. Korean spending patterns are influenced greatly by the Korean penchant for higher education.

  13. A National Program for Instructional Development in Veterinary Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Billy, C.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a study by the American College of Veterinary Pathologists to investigate mechanisms to facilitate sharing of audiovisual programs include a content analysis in veterinary pathology, a guidebook for the preparation of instruction, 20 instructional programs, a lesson evaluation mechanism, and a proposal for sharing programs. (JMD)

  14. Measurements on atmospheric trace species at Mt. Kwanak, the southern suburb of Seoul, Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gangwoong; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

    1996-12-31

    Although there has been increasing awareness of the photochemical pollution in Seoul, comprehensive scientific studies are too sparse to understand behaviors and interactions of photochemically reactive species. To extend our knowledge on chemical characteristics of atmosphere in Seoul, we made concurrent measurements of various atmospheric trace species and meteorological parameters in the campus of Seoul National University on the high foot of Mt. Kwanak, from 22 November to 2 December 1995. Among them are reactive atmospheric trace gases (NO, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, HCl, Formic acid), water-soluble ions of aerosols (Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NH{sup +}{sub 4} Na{sup +}), and conservative trace gases (CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, CFC-11, CFC-12, N{sub 2}O).

  15. Pathology of brucellosis in bison from Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhyan, Jack C.; Gidlewski, T.; Roffe, T.J.; Aune, K.; Philo, L.M.; Ewalt, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Between February 1995 and June 1999, specimens from seven aborted bison (Bison bison) fetuses or stillborn calves and their placentas, two additional placentas, three dead neonates, one 2-wk-old calf, and 35 juvenile and adult female bison from Yellowstone National Park (USA) were submitted for bacteriologic and histopathologic examination. One adult animal with a retained placenta had recently aborted. Serum samples from the 35 juvenile and adult bison were tested for Brucella spp. antibodies. Twenty-six bison, including the cow with the retained placenta, were seropositive, one was suspect, and eight were seronegative. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from three aborted fetuses and associated placentas, an additional placenta, the 2-wk-old calf, and 11 of the seropositive female bison including the animal that had recently aborted. Brucella abortus biovar 2 was isolated from one additional seropositive adult female bison. Brucella abortus was recovered from numerous tissue sites from the aborted fetuses, placentas and 2-wk-old calf. In the juvenile and adult bison, the organism was more frequently isolated from supramammary (83%), retropharyngeal (67%), and iliac (58%) lymph nodes than from other tissues cultured. Cultures from the seronegative and suspect bison were negative for B. abortus. Lesions in the B. abortus-infected, aborted placentas and fetuses consisted of necropurulent placentitis and mild bronchointerstitial pneumonia. The infected 2-wk-old calf had bronchointerstitial pneumonia, focal splenic infarction, and purulent nephritis. The recently-aborting bison cow had purulent endometritis and necropurulent placentitis. Immunohistochemical staining of tissues from the culture-positive aborted fetuses, placentas, 2-wk-old calf, and recently-aborting cow disclosed large numbers of B. abortus in placental trophoblasts and exudate, and fetal and calf lung. A similar study with the same tissue collection and culture protocol was done using six

  16. Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: a national study.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    Researchers have studied whether some youth are "addicted" to video games, but previous studies have been based on regional convenience samples. Using a national sample, this study gathered information about video-gaming habits and parental involvement in gaming, to determine the percentage of youth who meet clinical-style criteria for pathological gaming. A Harris poll surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1,178 American youth ages 8 to 18. About 8% of video-game players in this sample exhibited pathological patterns of play. Several indicators documented convergent and divergent validity of the results: Pathological gamers spent twice as much time playing as nonpathological gamers and received poorer grades in school; pathological gaming also showed comorbidity with attention problems. Pathological status significantly predicted poorer school performance even after controlling for sex, age, and weekly amount of video-game play. These results confirm that pathological gaming can be measured reliably, that the construct demonstrates validity, and that it is not simply isomorphic with a high amount of play.

  17. [The inter-university learning website: a national university network for online teaching of pathology].

    PubMed

    Gauchotte, Guillaume; Ameisen, David; Boutonnat, Jean; Battistella, Maxime; Copie, Christiane; Garcia, Stéphane; Rigau, Valérie; Galateau-Sallé, Françoise; Terris, Benoit; Vergier, Béatrice; Wendum, Dominique; Bertheau, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    Building online teaching materials is a highly time and energy consuming task for teachers of a single university. With the help of the Collège des pathologistes, we initiated a French national university network for building mutualized online teaching pathology cases, tests and other pedagogic resources. Nineteen French universities are associated to this project, initially funded by UNF3S (http://www.unf3s.org/). One national e-learning Moodle platform (http://virtual-slides.univ-paris7.fr/moodle/) contains texts, medias and URL pointing toward decentralized virtual slides. The Moodle interface has been explained to the teachers since september 2011 using web-based conferences with screen-sharing. The following contents have been created: 20 clinical cases, several tests with multiple choices and short answer questions, and gross examination videos. A survey with 16 teachers and students showed a 94 % satisfaction rate, most of the 16 participants being favorable to the development of e-learning, in parallel with other courses in classroom. These tools will be further developed for the different study levels of pathology. In conclusion, these tools offer very interesting perspectives for pathology teaching. The organization of a national inter-university network is a useful way to create and share numerous and good-quality pedagogic resources.

  18. Air pollution trends and countermeasures of Seoul metropolitan area last 20 years

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, K.C.; Ghim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.P.; Kim, J.Y.

    1999-07-01

    The city of Seoul is a mega-city with the area of 605 km{sup 2} (0.6% of the total area of South Korea) but has about 25% (11 million) of the total population, 32% of the total vehicles, and more than 40% of the total national production. As a result, severe environmental problems have arisen in Seoul including frequent visibility impairment episodes and signs of photochemical smog. The visibility, air quality and gaseous characteristics of Seoul metropolitan were measured during the last several years, and investigated the air pollution trends and causes of last twenty years. The major parameters such as particle size distribution, light extinction budget, meteorological parameters and particle characteristics were measured and simulated. For this study, many different measurements of previous researchers' results were used in order to analyze the causes and counter measures. The yearly average concentrations of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and total suspended particles were decreased due to strong Korean government air quality control and clean fuel supplying policies. But the yearly average concentrations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide have not been decreased due to the drastically increased the number of vehicles and other impacts, such as transport of air pollutants from outside of Seoul. The smog phenomena and visibility impairment causes are to be more investigated in near future.

  19. Using a Team-Based Learning Approach at National Meetings to Teach Residents Genomic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Haspel, Richard L.; Ali, Asma M.; Huang, Grace C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating data suggest that team-based learning (TBL) is more effective than lecture-based teaching strategies. Educational sessions at national meetings, however, tend to be lecture-based, and unlike most examples of TBL, involve participants who do not know each other or the instructor. Objective We evaluated a 1-day TBL genomic pathology workshop for residents held at 3 national meetings. Methods A committee of experts developed the workshop. Prior to attending, participants were provided access to readings and asked to answer preparation questions. Each of the 4 modules within the workshop consisted of a 60-minute TBL activity flanked by 15- to 30-minute preactivity and postactivity lectures. We used surveys to acquire participant evaluation of the workshop. Results From 2013–2014, 86 pathology residents from 61 programs participated in 3 workshops at national meetings. All workshops were well received, with over 90% of attendees indicating that they would recommend them to other residents and that the material would help them as practicing pathologists. An incremental approach facilitated decreasing faculty presence at the workshops: the first 2 workshops had 7 faculty each (1 facilitator for each team and 1 circulating faculty member), while the final workshop involved only 2 faculty for 6 teams. For this final session, participants agreed that circulating faculty provided adequate support. Participant “buy-in” (requiring completion of a preworkshop survey) was critical in enabling a TBL approach. Conclusions These results demonstrate that TBL is a feasible and effective strategy for teaching genomic medicine that is acceptable to pathology residents at national meetings. PMID:26913108

  20. The Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS) simulation for thermal characteristics in different urban locations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Gon; Lee, Jisu; Kim, Baek-Jo

    2016-04-01

    The Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS) being tailored for simulating detailed climate was applied to investigate the temperature distribution around the Seonjeongneung Royal Tombs that includes forest and grassland and in the surrounding high-density buildings in Seoul, Korea for a hot summer days of August 6-7, 2015. In this study, we used the digitalized topographical and land-use data of the 5 m resolution and wind and air temperature fields of 100 m resolution produced by the numerical model MetPhoMod (MPM), part of the CAS for the area of interest with an area of 25,000,000 m2. The difference of the temperatures compared with the representative meteorological station of Seoul was analyzed by considering the presence or absence of the Seonjeongneung Royal Tombs. For the case of heat wave issued in Seoul from August 6th, 06 LST to 7th, 18 LST, 2015, the simulation results presented that averaged temperatures in the green area were 2 °C lower than the one of the standard weather station, whereas they showed 1.5 °C higher when the green area was replaced with the building area. From this simulation result, we can suggest that the green area has a temperature reduction effect of 1-3 °C and its influence can be extended up to 150 m from the boundary of the green area. This fact reconfirms that the urban green area generates a micro-scale cool-island effect and this local phenomenon can reduce heat stress produced by surplus thermal sources of the surrounding buildings and paved roads during the hot summer days. Key words: Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS), Urban Green Area, Cool-Island Effect

  1. Characterization of norovirus infections in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghun; Jung, Jihun; Oh, Seah; Jung, Hyowon; Oh, Younghee; Cho, Seokju; Cho, Seogju; Cho, Sungja; Park, Hyongsug; Jo, Namsook; Bae, Kyungwon; Choi, Sungmin; Kim, Bogsoon; Kim, Junghun; Chae, Youngzoo; Jung, Haesook; Cheon, Doosung; Kim, Hyunsoo

    2012-10-01

    The present study has determined the detection rate of norovirus (NoV) with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in hospitalized children and describes the molecular epidemiology of NoV circulating in Seoul, Korea. Six hundred and eighty-three (9.8%) of samples were positive for NoV. Of these, the NoV GII genogroup was the most commonly found, with a prevalence of 96.2% (683 of 710). Only 27 samples were positive for the NoV GI genogroup. Ten kinds of GI genotype (GI/1, GI/2, GI/3, GI/4, GI/5, GI/6, GI/7, GI/9, GI/12, and GI/13) and eight kinds of GII genotype (GII/2, GII/3, GII/4, GII/8, GII/14, GII/15, GII/16, and GII/17) were identified in children with AGE during the years 2008-2011.

  2. Reemergence of the bedbug Cimex lectularius in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Yong; Ree, Han-Il; An, Song-Jun; Linton, John Alderman

    2008-01-01

    A healthy 30-yr-old woman carrying an insect that had been caught in her living room visited the International Clinic at Severance Hospital, Seoul, in December 2007. The insect she brought was identified to be a nymph of a bedbug, Cimex lectularius, and her skin rashes looked typical bedbug's bites. Her apartment was investigated, and a dead body of a bedbug, cast skins, and hatched eggs were found in her rooms and neighbors' rooms in the same building. She was living in that apartment in Seoul for 9 months since she had moved from New Jersey, USA. We assume that the bedbugs were introduced from abroad, since there had been no report on bedbugs in Seoul for more than 2 decades at least. This is a report of a reemergence of the common bedbug, C. lectularius in Seoul, Korea. PMID:19127335

  3. Reemergence of the bedbug Cimex lectularius in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Yong; Ree, Han-Il; An, Song-Jun; Linton, John Alderman; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2008-12-01

    A healthy 30-yr-old woman carrying an insect that had been caught in her living room visited the International Clinic at Severance Hospital, Seoul, in December 2007. The insect she brought was identified to be a nymph of a bedbug, Cimex lectularius, and her skin rashes looked typical bedbug's bites. Her apartment was investigated, and a dead body of a bedbug, cast skins, and hatched eggs were found in her rooms and neighbors' rooms in the same building. She was living in that apartment in Seoul for 9 months since she had moved from New Jersey, USA. We assume that the bedbugs were introduced from abroad, since there had been no report on bedbugs in Seoul for more than 2 decades at least. This is a report of a reemergence of the common bedbug, C. lectularius in Seoul, Korea.

  4. Evaluation of Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Forecasts during the MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, C.; Kim, S.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    We report forecasting model performance analysis results of Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) simulation evaluated with flight measurements during Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul (MAPS-Seoul) field campaign. The primary focus of this study is two-fold: (1) the air quality forecasting model performance for O3, PM10/2.5 and their precursors over the Yellow Sea to measure the model's ability to account for the transport process and (2) the utilization of modeled source-receptor relationship to understand the root of systematic model under-prediction for PM10 and PM2.5 forecasts. MAPS-Seoul, conducted in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in the summer of 2015, was an integrated research program covering ground monitoring and aloft measurement with aircrafts. To support this field campaign, air quality forecasting was performed with Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) - CAMx modeling framework. WRF model simulations initialized with National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecasting System (NOAA/NCEP-GFS) were prepared for daily meteorological forecasts. Emission inventories used in this study are Model Inter-Comparison Study-Asia (MICS-Asia) 2010 for Asia and Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) 2010 for South Korea. Simulated PM10 concentrations were evaluated with observed PM10 concentrations at ground monitoring sites of the AirKorea network in SMA. During the campaign period, average simulated PM10 concentrations showed significant underprediction, over 30% (~35 ㎍/㎥) lower than those observed at sites. To examine source-receptor relationship as a way to identify the cause of underprediction, we ran CAMx with Particulate matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT). The air quality forecasting model is based on the with 27-km horizontal grid resolution over Northeast Asia.

  5. National Information Policies for the Asia Oceania Region. Proceedings of the General Assembly and Congress of the International Federation for Information and Documentation Commission for Asia and Oceania (11th, Seoul, Korea, October 29-31, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Ian, Ed.; Dwyer, Lisa, Ed.

    The 18 papers presented at this conference address national information policies, information for industry, and electronic publishing. The titles of the papers are as follows: (1) "Industrial Information Policies of Developing Countries" (keynote address, Sung Jin Choi); (2) "National Information Policy. Current Trends and…

  6. National Strategies for Developing Human Resources through Technical and Vocational Education and Training. The 2001 KRIVET International Conference on Technical and Vocational Education and Training [Proceedings] (Seoul, South Korea, November 21-23, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korea Research Inst. for Vocational Education and Training, Seoul.

    This document contains 19 papers and case studies, in English and Korean, from a conference on national strategies for developing human resources through technical and vocational education and training. The following are representative: "The Need to Innovate and Optimize Resources [Keynote]" (Wataru Iwamoto); "School to Work…

  7. Gender Identity, Sexual Orientation, and Eating-related Pathology in a National Sample of College Students

    PubMed Central

    Diemer, Elizabeth W.; Grant, Julia D.; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A.; Patterson, David A.; Duncan, Alexis E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined associations of gender identity and sexual orientation with self-reported eating disorder (SR-ED) diagnosis and compensatory behaviors (CB) in trans- and cis-gender college students. Methods Data came from 289,024 students from 223 U.S. universities participating in The American College Health Association – National College Health Assessment II (median age 20 years). Rates of self-reported past year SR-ED diagnosis and past month use of diet pills and vomiting or laxatives were compared among transgender students (n=479) and cisgender sexual minority male (n=5,977) and female (n=9,445), unsure male (n=1,662) and female (n=3,395), and heterosexual male (n=91,599) and female (n=176,467) students using chi-squared tests. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of eating-related pathology outcomes after adjusting for covariates. Results Rates of past year SR-ED diagnosis and past month use of diet pills and vomiting or laxatives were highest among transgender students and lowest cisgender heterosexual men. Compared to cisgender heterosexual women, transgender students had greater odds of past year SR-ED diagnosis (OR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.41-6.26) and past month use of diet pills (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.48-2.83) and vomiting or laxatives (OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.83-3.30). Although cisgender sexual minority men and unsure men and women also had elevated rates of SR-ED diagnosis than heterosexual women, the magnitudes of these associations were lower than for transgender individuals (ORs: 1.40-1.54). Conclusions Transgender and cisgender sexual minority young adults have elevated rates of CB and SR-ED diagnosis. Appropriate interventions for these populations are urgently needed. PMID:25937471

  8. Wood Decay Fungi in South Korea: Polypores from Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeongseon; Jang, Seokyoon; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Hanbyul; Lee, Young Min; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Min, Mihee; Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Changmu

    2014-01-01

    In Seoul, a majority of plant communities have undergone significant changes over the last few decades; however, how wood decay fungi have responded and adapted to the changes in vegetation remains unknown. Through an ongoing investigation of Korean indigenous fungi, ca. 300 specimens with poroid basidiocarp were collected in Seoul during 2008~2012. Morphological examination and molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer and nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA region sequences helped identify 38 species belonging to 28 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders in this area. Among them, three polypores, Abundisporus pubertatis, Coriolopsis strumosa, and Perenniporia maackiae were found to be new to South Korea. PMID:25071382

  9. 2015 summertime characteristic variations of NMHCs in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbons(NMHCs) is well known as a precursor of ozone and organic aerosols along with nitrogen oxides compounds. Recently, SOA(secondary Organic Aerosol) dominant fine particles and episodic high O3 are frequently observed throughout major cities of the East Asia, especially SMA(Seoul Metropolitan Area). Even though NMHCs play an important role in their producions, we still have great uncertainties of it's emission, transport and chemistry. During MAPS-Seoul 2015 (Magacity Air Pollution Studies- Seoul)/KORUS-AQ(Korea-US Air Quality Study), we measured NMHCs using automated dual column/FID GC system with thermal desorption unit to address science questions both defined in KORUS-AQ and MAPS-Seoul White papers. One column was designed to separate low boiling point NMHC(C2~C6), the other for high boiling point NMHC(C7~C12). 56 NMHC compounds were measured from 18th May to 12th June, 2015 at an urban site in hill top of Korea Institute of Science and Technology campus.During the observation period, sum of NMHCs ranged from 27.6 ppbv to 54.1 ppbv. Among them, the mean concentrations of ethane was the highest (7.0 ppbv), and propane(6.7 ppbv), toluene(4.9ppbv), n-butane(3.3 ppbv) were followed. These four species represented 54% of total NMHCs concentration. The detailed behaviors of NMHC species were discussed further.

  10. Effectiveness of Varicella Vaccination Program in Preventing Laboratory-Confirmed Cases in Children in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hwa; Choe, Young June; Cho, Sung Il; Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Oh, Myoung Don; Lee, Jong Koo

    2016-12-01

    A universal one-dose varicella vaccination program was introduced in 2005 in Republic of Korea. However, the incidence of varicella in Korea has tripled over the last decade. We conducted a community based 1:1 matched case-control study to assess the effectiveness of one MAV strain-based vaccine and three Oka strain-based vaccines licensed for use in Korea. All cases were children in Seoul, Korea with varicella who were reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System in Seoul during 2013. The controls were age-matched children with mumps or scarlet fever but no history of varicella. We included 537 cases and 537 controls. The overall effectiveness of one dose of varicella vaccination was 13% (95% confidence interval [CI], -17.3-35.6). Of the four licensed varicella vaccines, only one was highly effective (88.9%; 95% CI, 52.1-97.4). The vaccine effectiveness for the other vaccines were 71.4% (95% CI, -37.5-94.1), -5% (95% CI, -61.9-31.9), and -100% (95% CI, -700-50.0). The overall effectiveness of vaccination was 75.8% (95% CI, 22.8-92.4) in the first year after vaccination and decreased thereafter; the effectiveness became -7.2% (95% CI, -130.9-59.2) in the fourth year after vaccination. Further studies are warranted to investigate reduced effectiveness of varicella vaccines in Korea.

  11. Schizophrenic delusions in Seoul, Shanghai and Taipei: a transcultural study.

    PubMed

    Kim, K; Hwu, H; Zhang, L D; Lu, M K; Park, K K; Hwang, T J; Kim, D; Park, Y C

    2001-02-01

    In this transcultural study of schizophrenic delusions among patients in Seoul, Shanghai and Taipei, we discovered that both the frequency and content of delusions differed among the three groups; and that these differences could perhaps be explained by varying sociocultural and political situations. Delusional themes that are sensitive to sociocultural or political situations include guilt, love/sex, religion, somatic damage, economy/business and politics. Delusions regarding longevity, love/sex, dysmorphophobia/dysosmophobia, religion or supernatural matters, and espionage/spy stories were most frequent in Seoul patients. Those in Taipei predominantly had delusions about possession, religion or supernatural matters, hypnotism, and mass media/computers. Shanghai patients often had delusions of poisons, being prickled by poisoned needles, their brain and viscera extracted and being a family member of political authorities.

  12. Air pollution and daily mortality in Seoul and Ulsan, Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J T; Shin, D; Chung, Y

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between air pollution and daily mortality for the period 1991-1995 was examined in two Korean cities, Seoul and Ulsan. The observed concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2; mean = 28.7 ppb), ozone (O3; mean = 29.2 ppb), and total suspended particulates (TSP; mean = 82.3 microg/m3) during the study period were at levels below Korea's current ambient air quality standards. Daily death counts were regressed separately in the two cities, using Poisson regression on SO2, O3, and/or TSP controlling for variability in the weather and seasons. When considered singly in Poisson regression models controlling for seasonal variations and weather conditions, the nonaccidental mortality associated with a 50-ppb increment in a 3-day moving average of SO2 concentrations, including the concurrent day and the preceding 2 days, was 1.078 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.057-1.099] for Seoul and 1.051 (CI, 0.991-1.115) for Ulsan. The rate ratio was 1.051 (CI, 1.031-1.072) in Seoul and 0.999 (CI, 0. 961-1.039) in Ulsan per 100 microg/m3 for TSP, and 1.015 (CI, 1. 005-1.025) in Seoul and 1.020 (0.889-1.170) in Ulsan per 50 ppb for 1-hr maximum O3. When TSP was considered simultaneously with other pollutants, the TSP association was no longer significant. We observed independent pollution effects on daily mortality even after using various approaches to control for either weather or seasonal variables in the regression model. This study demonstrated increased mortality associated with air pollution at both SO2 and O3 levels below the current World Health Organization recommendations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9924011

  13. Urban vegetation and heat-related mortality in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Ji-Young; Lane, Kevin J; Lee, Jong-Tae; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-11-01

    Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to heat-related health outcomes. Simultaneous trends of climate change and urbanization may increase the urban heat-related health burden. We investigated the effects of urban vegetation on heat-related mortality, and evaluated whether different levels of vegetation and individuals' characteristics affect the temperature-mortality associations within Seoul, Korea 2000-2009. We used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess the urban vegetation within Seoul. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model with interaction term between temperature and indicator of NDVI group (categorized in 3 levels) to assess the effect modification of the temperature-mortality association by urban vegetation. We conducted stratified analysis to explore whether associations are affected by individual characteristics of sex and age. The association between total mortality and a 1°C increase in temperature above the 90th percentile (25.1°C) (the "heat effect") was the highest for gus with low NDVI. The heat effect was a 4.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3, 5.9%), 3.0% (95% CI 0.2, 5.9%), and 2.2% (95% CI -0.5, 5.0%) increase in mortality risk for low, medium, and high NDVI group, respectively. Estimated risks showed similar effects by sex and age. Our findings suggest a higher mortality effect of high temperature in areas with lower vegetation in Seoul, Korea.

  14. Clinical–Pathologic Stage Discrepancy in Bladder Cancer Patients Treated With Radical Cystectomy: Results From the National Cancer Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Phillip J.; Lin, Chun Chieh; Jemal, Ahmedin; Shipley, William U.; Fedewa, Stacey A.; Kibel, Adam S.; Kamat, Ashish M.; Virgo, Katherine S.; Blute, Michael L.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Efstathiou, Jason A.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To examine the accuracy of clinical staging and its effects on outcome in bladder cancer (BC) patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC), using a large national database. Methods and Materials: A total of 16,953 patients with BC without distant metastases treated with RC from 1998 to 2009 were analyzed. Factors associated with clinical–pathologic stage discrepancy were assessed by multivariate generalized estimating equation models. Survival analysis was conducted for patients treated between 1998 and 2004 (n=7270) using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: At RC 41.9% of patients were upstaged, whereas 5.9% were downstaged. Upstaging was more common in females, the elderly, and in patients who underwent a more extensive lymphadenectomy. Downstaging was less common in patients treated at community centers, in the elderly, and in Hispanics. Receipt of preoperative chemotherapy was highly associated with downstaging. Five-year overall survival rates for patients with clinical stages 0, I, II, III, and IV were 67.2%, 62.9%, 50.4%, 36.9%, and 27.2%, respectively, whereas those for the same pathologic stages were 70.8%, 75.8%, 63.7%, 41.5%, and 24.7%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, upstaging was associated with increased 5-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.80, P<.001), but downstaging was not associated with survival (HR 0.88, P=.160). In contrast, more extensive lymphadenectomy was associated with decreased 5-year mortality (HR 0.76 for ≥10 lymph nodes examined, P<.001), as was treatment at an National Cancer Institute–designated cancer center (HR 0.90, P=.042). Conclusions: Clinical–pathologic stage discrepancy in BC patients is remarkably common across the United States. These findings should be considered when selecting patients for preoperative or nonoperative management strategies and when comparing the outcomes of bladder sparing approaches to RC.

  15. Cognitive distortions and ADHD in pathological gambling: A national longitudinal case-control cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Romo, Lucia; Legauffre, Cindy; Guilleux, Alice; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The primary outcome of our study was to assess the links between the level of cognitive distortions and the severity of gambling disorder. We also aimed at assessing the links between patient gambling trajectories and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials and methods The study population (n = 628) was comprised of problem and non-problem gamblers of both sexes between 18 and 65 years of age, who reported gambling on at least one occasion during the previous year. Data encompassed socio-demographic characteristics, gambling habits, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey – 23, the Wender Utah Rating Scale – Child, and the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale. Results The cognitive distortions with the greatest correlation to the severity of gambling disorder were the “Chasing” and “Emotions.” These two dimensions were able to distinguish between problem gamblers seeking treatment or not. While age of onset of gambling and length of gambling practice were not associated with the level of distorted cognitions, a period of abstinence of at least 1 month was associated with a lower level of distorted cognitions. The presence of ADHD resulted in a higher level of distorted cognitions. Conclusion Cognitive work is essential to the prevention, and the treatment, of pathological gambling, especially with respect to emotional biases and chasing behavior. The instauration of an abstinence period of at least 1 month under medical supervision could be a promising therapeutic lead for reducing gambling-related erroneous thoughts and for improving care strategies of pathological gamblers. PMID:27774813

  16. The National Outcomes Measurement System for Pediatric Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Robert; Schooling, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS) was developed in the late 1990s. The primary purpose was to serve as a source of data for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who found themselves called on to provide empirical evidence of the functional outcomes associated with their…

  17. Drought over Seoul and Its Association with Solar Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Hyeok; Chang, Heon-Young

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated drought periodicities occurred in Seoul to find out any indication of relationship between drought in Korea and solar activities. It is motivated, in view of solar-terrestrial connection, to search for an example of extreme weather condition controlled by solar activity. The periodicity of drought in Seoul has been re-examined using the wavelet transform technique as the consensus is not achieved yet. The reason we have chosen Seoul is because daily precipitation was recorded for longer than 200 years, which meets our requirement that analyses of drought frequency demand long-term historical data to ensure reliable estimates. We have examined three types of time series of the Effective Drought Index (EDI). We have directly analyzed EDI time series in the first place. And we have constructed and analyzed time series of histogram in which the number of days whose EDI is less than -1.5 for a given month of the year is given as a function of time, and one in which the number of occasions where EDI values of three consecutive days are all less than -1.5 is given as a function of time. All the time series data sets we analyzed are periodic. Apart from the annual cycle due to seasonal variations, periodicities shorter than the 11 year sunspot cycle, ~ 3, ~ 4, ~ 6 years, have been confirmed. Periodicities to which theses short periodicities (shorter than Hale period) may be corresponding are not yet known. Longer periodicities possibly related to Gleissberg cycles, ~ 55, ~ 120 years, can be also seen. However, periodicity comparable to the 11 year solar cycle seems absent in both EDI and the constructed data sets.

  18. Evidence of Diachronic Sound Change: A Comparative Acoustic Study of Seoul and Kyungsang Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjung

    2013-01-01

    The phonetics and phonology of the Kyungsang dialect of Korean is distinct from those of the standard Seoul dialect with regard to segments and lexical pitch. However, whether the distinctive phonetics and phonology of Kyungsang Korean are maintained by younger speakers is questionable due to the increased exposure to Seoul Korean and the…

  19. Smoking trajectories among Koreans in Seoul and California: exemplifying a common error in age parameterization.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W; Unger, Jennifer B; Irvin, Veronica L; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2012-01-01

    Immigration to a nation with a stronger anti-smoking environment has been hypothesized to make smoking less common. However, little is known about how environments influence risk of smoking across the lifecourse. Research suggested a linear decline in smoking over the lifecourse but these associations, in fact, might not be linear. This study assessed the possible nonlinear associations between age and smoking and examined how these associations differed by environment through comparing Koreans in Seoul, South Korea and Korean Americans in California, United States. Data were drawn from population based telephone surveys of Korean adults in Seoul (N=500) and California (N=2,830) from 2001-2002. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (lowess) was used to approximate the association between age and smoking with multivariable spline logistic regressions, including adjustment for confounds used to draw population inferences. Smoking differed across the lifecourse between Korean and Korean American men. The association between age and smoking peaked around 35 years among Korean and Korean American men. From 18 to 35 the probability of smoking was 57% higher (95%CI, 40 to 71) among Korean men versus 8% (95%CI, 3 to 19) higher among Korean American men. A similar difference in age after 35, from 40 to 57 years of age, was associated with a 2% (95%CI, 0 to 10) and 20% (95%CI, 16 to 25) lower probability of smoking among Korean and Korean American men. A nonlinear pattern was also observed among Korean American women. Social role transitions provide plausible explanations for the decline in smoking after 35. Investigators should be mindful of nonlinearities in age when attempting to understand tobacco use.

  20. Effectiveness of Varicella Vaccination Program in Preventing Laboratory-Confirmed Cases in Children in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A universal one-dose varicella vaccination program was introduced in 2005 in Republic of Korea. However, the incidence of varicella in Korea has tripled over the last decade. We conducted a community based 1:1 matched case-control study to assess the effectiveness of one MAV strain-based vaccine and three Oka strain-based vaccines licensed for use in Korea. All cases were children in Seoul, Korea with varicella who were reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System in Seoul during 2013. The controls were age-matched children with mumps or scarlet fever but no history of varicella. We included 537 cases and 537 controls. The overall effectiveness of one dose of varicella vaccination was 13% (95% confidence interval [CI], −17.3–35.6). Of the four licensed varicella vaccines, only one was highly effective (88.9%; 95% CI, 52.1–97.4). The vaccine effectiveness for the other vaccines were 71.4% (95% CI, −37.5–94.1), −5% (95% CI, −61.9–31.9), and −100% (95% CI, −700–50.0). The overall effectiveness of vaccination was 75.8% (95% CI, 22.8–92.4) in the first year after vaccination and decreased thereafter; the effectiveness became −7.2% (95% CI, −130.9–59.2) in the fourth year after vaccination. Further studies are warranted to investigate reduced effectiveness of varicella vaccines in Korea. PMID:27822926

  1. Investigation of norovirus occurrence in groundwater in metropolitan Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heetae; Kim, Misoon; Lee, Jung Eun; Lim, Miyoung; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Ju-Mi; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Kim, Jongmin; Ko, GwangPyo

    2011-05-01

    Groundwater is an important source of drinking and household water worldwide. Hence, the quality of groundwater is very important for preventing waterborne disease outbreaks and should be properly monitored. This study investigated the prevalence of waterborne viruses and fecal indicators in groundwater in metropolitan Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. A total of 116 samples of groundwater were taken using NanoCeram filters during both summer (June to August) and fall-winter seasons (October to December) in 2008. Among 71 sampling sites, 28 (48.3%) and 18 (35.3%) were positive for norovirus (NoV) from the summer and fall-winter season, respectively. The identified genotypes of NoV include GI-1, 4, 8, 9 and GII-4, 10, 11 (or 17), 13, 15 (or 16). None of fecal indicators was significantly correlated with NoV in groundwater. Among the tested fecal indicators, somatic coliphage (95.3%) showed an excellent true-negative rate of NoV occurrence. The combination of chemical, microbial and viral indicators increased the positive predictive value (50-100%). This study demonstrated a high prevalence of NoV in groundwater in metropolitan Seoul areas and characterized the positive and negative predictive values of a fecal indicator for predicting NoV prevalence.

  2. Hygroscopic properties of urban aerosols and their cloud condensation nuclei activities measured in Seoul during the MAPS-Seoul campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Najin; Park, Minsu; Yum, Seong Soo; Park, Jong Sung; Song, In Ho; Shin, Hye Jung; Ahn, Joon Young; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Hwajin; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Lee, Gangwoong

    2017-03-01

    Aerosol physical properties, chemical compositions, hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities were measured in Seoul, the highly populated capital city of Korea, during the Megacity Air Pollution Studies (MAPS-Seoul) campaign, in May-June 2015. The average aerosol concentration for particle diameters >10 nm was 11787 ± 7421 cm-3 with dominant peaks at morning rush hours and in the afternoon due to frequent new particle formation (NPF) events. The average CCN concentration was 4075 ± 1812 cm-3 at 0.6% supersaturation, with little diurnal variation. The average hygroscopicity parameter (κ) value determined using a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) ranged 0.17-0.27 for a range of particle diameters (30-150 nm). The κ values derived using the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) data with three different methods were 0.32-0.34, significantly higher than those from HTDMA due to the uncertainties in the hygroscopicity values of different chemical compositions, especially organics and black carbon. Factors affecting the aerosol hygroscopicity seemed to be traffic and chemical processes during the NPF events. The CCN concentration predicted based on HTDMA κ data showed very good agreement with the measured one. Because of the overestimation of κ, CCN closure with the predicted CCN concentration based on AMS κ data over-predicted CCN concentration although the linear correlation between measured and predicted CCN concentration was still very good.

  3. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006) and Mortality Rates (1997–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006) and data on mortality (1997–2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  4. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    PubMed

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  5. Microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Kim, M.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2012-12-01

    On 9 February 2010, a minor earthquake occurred in the northwest of South Korea. The earthquake was widely felt in the Seoul National Capital Area (SNCA). The earthquake attracted much attention from media, politicians, policy makers and the public, who raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million (as of 2007) and is ranked as the second largest metropolitan area in the world. The SNCA has been the center of the economics, politics, and culture during the past half millennium since the city has been designated as the capital city in 1394. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2010 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including two previously reported events and nine newly identified micro-earthquakes. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative events (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using the first-motion polarities. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. It is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of

  6. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-07-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

  7. Development and assessment of road weather information in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sanghoo; Lee, Jonghak; Kim, Mingyu; Choi, Youngjean

    2016-04-01

    Road-based transport is essential for populations operating in large urban environments. Driving conditions are impacted by the intensity of rainfall. However, rainfall is not directly measured on roads. In this study, we evaluated road weather prediction accuracy using representative rainfall days in Seoul, South Korea, during 2013.Data were collected by 190 weather stations, of which 33 were located within 20 meters of a road and were used as model validation sites, while the remaining 157 were used as model fitting sites. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK) based on variograms were considered for interpolation. We used the bias, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and correlation coefficient (CC) as the prediction performance criteria. The prediction performance of OK was higher than that of IDW. As expected, prediction performance increased when the number of rainfall observations increased. We also simulated road conditions using the accumulated historical rainfall data. Generating road information for the entire urban road network is very expensive; therefore, 177,599 road positions were reproduced from 22,184 road link units. Finally, safe driving speeds were calculated from simulated rainfall, stopping distance, and visibility distance.We hope that the results of this study will provide a basis for the safety information given to road users.

  8. Comprehensive monitoring of drinking well water quality in Seoul metropolitan city, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Susaya, Janice P; Park, Chan Goo; Uhm, Jung-Hoon; Hur, Jin

    2013-08-01

    In this research, the quality of drinking well waters from 14 districts around Seoul metropolitan city, Korea was assessed by measuring a number of parameters with established guideline (e.g., arsenic, fluoride, nitrate nitrogen, benzene, 1,2-dichloroethene, dichloromethane, copper, and lead) and without such criteria (e.g., hardness, chloride ion, sulfate ion, ammonia nitrogen, aluminum, iron, manganese, and zinc). Physical parameters such as evaporation residue (or total dissolved solids) and turbidity were also measured. The importance of each parameter in well waters was examined in terms of the magnitude and exceedance frequency of guideline values established by international (and national) health agencies. The results of this study indicate that among the eight parameters with well-established guidelines (e.g., WHO), arsenic and lead (guideline value of 0.01 mg L(-1) for both) recorded the highest exceedance frequency of 18 and 16 well samples ranging in 0.06-136 and 2-9 mg L(-1), respectively. As such, a number of water quality parameters measured from many well waters in this urban area were in critical levels which require immediate attention for treatment and continuous monitoring.

  9. Outbreak of botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C) in wild waterfowl: Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Kim, Ha-Young; Bae, You-Chan; Jean, Young Hwa; Yoon, Soon-Seek; Bak, Eun-Jung; Hwang, Eui Kyung; Joo, Yi-Seok

    2010-07-01

    Over a 6-day period beginning on 15 October 2008, 93 dead or sick wild waterfowl, including Mallards, Spotbills, and teal species, were found along the shore of a branch stream of the Hangang River, which flows through Seoul, Korea, and were submitted to the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (NVRQS) for diagnosis. Clinically, the affected birds showed flaccid paralysis of the legs and wings and paralysis of the neck. Grossly, no bird showed any lesions, but all had almost empty stomachs. Histopathologic findings included mild lymphocytic hepatitis and mild lymphocytic interstitial nephritis. Clostridium botulinum type C toxin was identified in sera collected from the birds using a mouse bioassay for botulinum toxins; however, no bacteria were isolated from any of the affected birds. In addition, a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus was isolated from two Spotbills, and pesticides such as diazinon and phorate, were detected in seven Mallards. The cause of this outbreak is not clear, but an increase in organic materials from sewage due to drought, increased temperatures, and an increased number of aquatic carcasses resulting from pesticide contamination may have increased the replication of C. botulinum, contributing to the release of botulinum toxins into the waterfowl food chain.

  10. Clinico-pathological Analysis of the Lungs from Patients with Lung Transplantation in a Single Institute in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Lee, Hyun Joo; Kim, Young Tae; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the numbers of lung transplantation (LT) has been increased in Korea. However, post-LT outcome has not been successful in all patients, which may be partially affected by the primary lung disease. Therefore comprehensive understanding in original pathological diagnosis of patients with LT would be needed for achieving better clinical outcome. To address this issue, we performed clinico-pathological analysis of the explanted lungs from 29 patients who underwent LT over a 9-yr period in Seoul National University Hospital. Among them, 26 patients received single (1/26) or double (25/26) LT, while heart-lung transplantation was performed in 3 patients. The final clinico-pathological diagnoses were idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) (n = 6), acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP)/diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (n = 4), AIP/non-specific interstitial pneumonia with DAD (n = 1), collagen vascular disease-related interstitial lung disease (CVD-ILD)/DAD (n = 3), CVD-ILD/UIP (n = 1), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (n = 1), bronchiectasis (n = 4), pulmonary arterial hypertension (n = 2), tuberculosis (n = 1), bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) (n = 1), and lung cancer (n = 1). Moreover, 4 patients who had chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation due to hematologic malignancy showed unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia with extensive fibrosis in the lungs. Our study demonstrates that pathology of the explanted lungs from Korean patients with LT is different from that of other countries except for interstitial lung disease and bronchiectasis, which may be helpful for optimization of selecting LT candidates for Korean patients.

  11. Spatial regression analysis of traffic crashes in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Kyoung-Ah; Kim, Joon-Ki; Lee, Young-ihn; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F

    2016-06-01

    Traffic crashes can be spatially correlated events and the analysis of the distribution of traffic crash frequency requires evaluation of parameters that reflect spatial properties and correlation. Typically this spatial aspect of crash data is not used in everyday practice by planning agencies and this contributes to a gap between research and practice. A database of traffic crashes in Seoul, Korea, in 2010 was developed at the traffic analysis zone (TAZ) level with a number of GIS developed spatial variables. Practical spatial models using available software were estimated. The spatial error model was determined to be better than the spatial lag model and an ordinary least squares baseline regression. A geographically weighted regression model provided useful insights about localization of effects. The results found that an increased length of roads with speed limit below 30 km/h and a higher ratio of residents below age of 15 were correlated with lower traffic crash frequency, while a higher ratio of residents who moved to the TAZ, more vehicle-kilometers traveled, and a greater number of access points with speed limit difference between side roads and mainline above 30 km/h all increased the number of traffic crashes. This suggests, for example, that better control or design for merging lower speed roads with higher speed roads is important. A key result is that the length of bus-only center lanes had the largest effect on increasing traffic crashes. This is important as bus-only center lanes with bus stop islands have been increasingly used to improve transit times. Hence the potential negative safety impacts of such systems need to be studied further and mitigated through improved design of pedestrian access to center bus stop islands.

  12. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  13. Computational Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  14. Properties of 21 Urban Agricultural Soils in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    The number of urban agriculture practitioners has been increasing rapidly in Korea like many other urbanized countries recently. The Korean government enacted a law for promoting urban agriculture in 2011. However, urban soil environment can be potential sources of many toxic contaminants including heavy metals making people concern about the safety of the agricultural products from the urban agriculture. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and plant by overuse of compost from animal waste was one of the raised concerns. This study was carried out to find out properties and total and phytoavailable (1.0 M NH4NO3 extractable) contents of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in 21 urban agricultural soils in Seoul. On the average, the investigated urban soils showed pH1:5 6.89, EC1:5 0.14 dS m-1, organic mater 2.22%, available P2O5 139 mg kg-1, cation exchange capacity (CEC) 11.36 cmolc kg-1 and total nitrogen 0.15%. The average exchangeable-Ca, -Mg, -K and -Na of the 21 samples were 6.71, 1.44, 1.06 and 0.30 cmol+ kg-1, respectively. Total heavy metal concentrations (Cd 0.97-3.17 mg kg-1, average 1.89 mg kg-1; Pb 8.10-46.27 mg kg-1, average 19.96 mg kg-1; Cu 8.97-133.40 mg kg-1, average 38.37 mg kg-1; and Zn 38.97-180.06 mg kg-1, average 97.73 mg kg-1) in urban agricultural soils were lower than those of the warning standard in the area 1 according to the Soil Environmental Conservation Act of Korea. Phytoavailable-Cu, -Pb, and -Zn concentrations of the samples showed 0.02-0.28, N.D-0.09 and 0.01-0.43 mg kg-1, respectively. Phytoavailable-Cd was not detected. The average phytoavailable-Cu concentration from this study was similar to that from the previous phytoavailable-Cu of the highly contaminated soils from nearby abandoned mines, which might be resulted from overuse of compost from animal waste. Results showed a necessity of long-term monitoring of soils for sustainable urban agriculture in Korea.

  15. Molecular detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in feral cats from Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jusun; Kang, Jun-Gu; Oh, Sung-Suck; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Cho, Yun-Kyung; Cho, Young-Sun; Lee, Hang; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2017-01-01

    This study tested serum samples of feral cats from a highly urbanized habitat, Seoul, Korea to determine the infection to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). From 126 samples tested, SFTSV was detected by RT-PCR in 22 (17.5%) cats from various sites of Seoul. Sequences identified from this study were grouped with clusters from China and Japan. Our result provides data that SFTSV may have been circulating in settings that were suspected to have relatively low risk, such as highly urbanized habitats. Thus it warrants further study to investigate the ecology of SFTSV in urban-dwelling animals including ticks, human and other potential host species.

  16. Report on the KIMS-CNA Conference (2nd): The PLA Navy’s Build-Up and ROK-USN Cooperation, Held in Seoul, Korea on 20 November 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Bowditch , Manager and Research Team Leader, CNA 0920-1045 Panel One: China’s Maritime Strategy and Territorial Sovereign Disputes Moderator: Dr...Thomas A. Bowditch , Manager and Research Team Leader, CNA Paperl: China’s Maritime Strategy & Development Prospects - Mr. Fred Vellucci, China Analyst...Foreign Affairs and National Security Paper2: Professor Chang-Wee Lee, University of Seoul Paper3: Dr. Thomas A. Bowditch , Manager and Research

  17. Assessment of Flood Vulnerability to Climate Change Using Fuzzy Operators in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study is to apply the IPCC(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) concept of vulnerability to climate change and verify the use of a combination of vulnerability index and fuzzy operators to flood vulnerability analysis and mapping in Seoul using GIS. In order to achieve this goal, this study identified indicators influencing floods based on literature review. We include indicators of exposure to climate(daily max rainfall, days of 80㎜ over), sensitivity(slope, geological, average DEM, Impermeability layer, topography and drainage), and adaptive capacity(retarding basin and green-infra). Also, this research used fuzzy operator model for aggregating indicators, and utilized frequency ratio to decide fuzzy membership values. Results show that number of days of precipitation above 80㎜, the distance from river and impervious surface have comparatively strong influence on flood damage. Furthermore, when precipitation is over 269㎜, areas with scare flood mitigation capacities, industrial land use, elevation of 16˜20m, within 50m distance from rivers are quite vulnerable to floods. Yeongdeungpo-gu, Yongsan-gu, Mapo-gu include comparatively large vulnerable areas. The relative weight of each factor was then converted into a fuzzy membership value and integrated as a flood vulnerability index using fuzzy operators (fuzzy AND, fuzzy OR, fuzzy algebraic sum, and fuzzy algebraic product). Comparing the results of the highest for the fuzzy AND operator, fuzzy gamma operator (γ = 0.2) is higher with improved computational. This study improved previous flood vulnerability assessment methodology by adopting fuzzy operator model. Also, vulnerability map provides meaningful information for decision makers regarding priority areas for implementing flood mitigation policies. Acknowledgements: The authors appreciate the support that this study has received from "Development of Time Series Disaster Mapping Technologies through Natural Disaster Factor Spatial

  18. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992: The JANUS Program Survival and Pathology Data

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, D.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.; Williamson, F.S.; Fox, C.

    1995-02-01

    A research reactor for exclusive use in experimental radiobiology was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1960`s. It was located in a special addition to Building 202, which housed the Division of Biological and Medical Research. Its location assured easy access for all users to the animal facilities, and it was also near the existing gamma-irradiation facilities. The water-cooled, heterogeneous 200-kW(th) reactor, named JANUS, became the focal point for a range of radiobiological studies gathered under the rubic of {open_quotes}the JANUS program{close_quotes}. The program ran from about 1969 to 1992 and included research at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to organism. More than a dozen moderate- to large-scale studies with the B6CF{sub 1} mouse were carried out; these focused on the late effects of whole-body exposure to gamma rays or fission neutrons, in matching exposure regimes. In broad terms, these studies collected data on survival and on the pathology observed at death. A deliberate effort was made to establish the cause of death. This archieve describes these late-effects studies and their general findings. The database includes exposure parameters, time of death, and the gross pathology and histopathology in codified form. A series of appendices describes all pathology procedures and codes, treatment or irradiation codes, and the manner in which the data can be accessed in the ORACLE database management system. A series of tables also presents summaries of the individual experiments in terms of radiation quality, sample sizes at entry, mean survival times by sex, and number of gross pathology and histopathology records.

  19. General characteristics of causes of urban flood damage and flood forecasting/warning system in Seoul, Korea Young-Il Moon1, 2, Jong-Suk Kim1, 2 1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, South Korea 2 Urban Flood Research Inst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-Suk

    2015-04-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and climate change, the frequency of concentrated heavy rainfall has increased, causing urban floods that result in casualties and property damage. As a consequence of natural disasters that occur annually, the cost of damage in Korea is estimated to be over two billion US dollars per year. As interest in natural disasters increase, demands for a safe national territory and efficient emergency plans are on the rise. In addition to this, as a part of the measures to cope with the increase of inland flood damage, it is necessary to build a systematic city flood prevention system that uses technology to quantify flood risk as well as flood forecast based on both rivers and inland water bodies. Despite the investment and efforts to prevent landside flood damage, research and studies of landside-river combined hydro-system is at its initial stage in Korea. Therefore, the purpose of this research introduces the causes of flood damage in Seoul and shows a flood forecasting and warning system in urban streams of Seoul. This urban flood forecasting and warning system conducts prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and performs prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded area and also supports synthetic decision-making for prevention through real-time monitoring. Although we cannot prevent damage from typhoons or localized heavy rain, we can minimize that damage with accurate and timely forecast and a prevention system. To this end, we developed a flood forecasting and warning system, so in case of an emergency there is enough time for evacuation and disaster control. Keywords: urban flooding, flood risk, inland-river system, Korea Acknowledgments This research was supported by a grant (13AWMP-B066744-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program (AWMP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  20. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) at the urban core site of Seoul during 2015 MAPS / KORUS - AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    A few measurements of atmospheric PAN were made in Seoul for the last decade. One study showed the average and maximum PAN concentration in summer of 2004 and 2005 with 0.8 ppb and 10.4 ppb and another study specified 0.64 ppb and 5.03 ppb, respectively in 2011. In this study, the measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) have been conducted at an urban site situated in KIST campus (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 127° 2'E, 37° 36'N) from May 18 to June 12, 2015. PAN was measured every 2 minutes by a fast chromatography with luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. Concentration of PAN ranged from 0.15ppbv to 4.37ppbv, with the average of 0.57 ppbv. PAN revealed its peak between 2 and 4 pm matching with the photochemical activities and precursor emission. When comparing with historic data of PAN in urban Seoul during the past decade, it has decreased about 50%. The rather rapid decrease of summertime PAN level for last ten years in Seoul will be discussed further with the behaviors of its precursor species.

  1. Review of Suicide Prevention Programs: Massachusetts, United States, in Comparison with Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Park, Jong-Ik; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Roh, Sung-won; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a tragedy that has massive impact on society. In order to prevent suicide, active government intervention is necessary. The suicide rate in Seoul is rapidly increasing and is more than five times higher than that in the state of Massachusetts (MA) during the last decade, especially in the elderly. The suicide prevention program of MA is one of the most effective suicide prevention programs in the United States. The program views suicide as a preventable public health problem, and emphasizes treatment of depression and de-stigmatization of mental health illnesses to prevent suicide. Also, through active collaboration with mental health professionals, they try to identify at-risk populations and help them to get medical interventions. The program also actively collaborates with the regional coalition program and the Samaritans in taking care of the elderly, and supports the elderly in feeling worthwhile after retirement by helping them to work for communities as volunteers. For its part, the Seoul suicide prevention program puts more emphasis on "life respect culture" and "emotional support to high risk individuals by regular visiting". The annual budget of the Seoul suicide prevention program is one-quarter and that for mental health is about one-twentieth that of MA. Considering the high suicide rate and lower mental health service usage in Seoul, it is crucial to raise awareness of depression and decrease the stigma on mental illnesses. Furthermore, educational efforts with long-term investment in research on suicide are necessary. PMID:26207119

  2. An Incidence Survey of Battered Children in Two Elementary Schools of Seoul.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwang-iel; Ko, Bokja

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 1,142 elementary school students in Seoul (Korea) found that 8 percent were seriously battered, 58 percent were mildly battered, and 34 percent were unbattered in a 1-year period. Child battering was more serious in families in lower social strata, with poor living conditions, in broken families, and where parents were unskilled or…

  3. Using a choice experiment to measure the environmental costs of air pollution impacts in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun; Lee, Joo-Suk

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution, a by-product of economic growth, has been incurring extensive environmental costs in Seoul, Korea. Unfortunately, air pollution impacts are not treated as a commercial item, and thus it is difficult to measure the environmental costs arising from air pollution. There is an imminent need to find a way to measure air pollution impacts so that appropriate actions can be taken to control air pollution. Therefore, this study attempts to apply a choice experiment to quantifying the environmental costs of four air pollution impacts (mortality, morbidity, soiling damage, and poor visibility), using a specific case study of Seoul. We consider the trade-offs between price and attributes of air pollution impacts for selecting a preferred alternative and derive the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) estimate for each attribute. According to the results, the households' monthly WTP for a 10% reduction in the concentrations of major pollutants in Seoul was found to be approximately 5494 Korean won (USD 4.6) and the total annual WTP for the entire population of Seoul was about 203.4 billion Korean won (USD 169.5 million). This study is expected to provide policy-makers with useful information for evaluating and planning environmental policies relating specifically to air pollution.

  4. Assessment of a Megacity Air Quality Management Policy using the GAINS-Korea : Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Ahn, Y. H.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Amann, M.; Wagner, F.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution in and near megacities are very severe because of their massive pollutant emissions and high population density. Korea has ambitiously set its 2nd phase capitol air quality improvement program called Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP), targeting the year 2024. The air quality improvement targets for the year 2024 are 30 ug/m3 and 20 ug/m3 for PM10 and pm2.5, respectively and planned expenditure are almost 4 billion US dollar. Emissions of PM10, PM2.5 are required to be decreased up to 35%, 45%, respectively, from their future baseline level. Various special measures, such as cap-and-trade, LNB, EURO standards program, will be implemented to control emissions over Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi-do area. Smart approach of reducing air pollution and GHGs are, however, required to maximize improvement of metropolitan air quality and climate change. IIASA's Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions aNd Synergies(GAINS) modeling framework is an widely used tool to design and manage smart emission control strategies that can achieve air quality/climate improvements with least costs. We have developed the national version of GAINS for Korea (GAINS-Korea) to set up those strategies for national and regional scale. In this study, we have implemented SAQMP in the GAINS-Korea Model and assess its effects of emissions reduction and air quality improvements. Various analysis results using the framework will be presented at site.

  5. Light Pollution Surveys around the Seoul Capital Area: Results from 2009 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinhee; An, Sung-Ho; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Roh, Eunji; Chiang, Howoo; Kim, Jinhyub; Kim, Seongjoong; Park, Songyoun

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a series of light pollution surveys in the periods of 2009/2010 and 2014/2015 at ~130 sites within the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We quantitatively measured the night sky brightness in the unit of mag/arcsec2 with the ‘SQM (Sky Quality Meter)-L’ by considering the following conditions: 1) fully dark sky after astronomical twilight, 2) good weather with the cloud amount less than 10%, and 3) ensure no contaminations from nearby street lights to the measured value. We find that the night sky is getting darker from the center of Seoul to the outskirts of Gyeonggi-do by a factor of ~40. In both surveys, for example, the brightest site is Namsan Elementary School (Jung-gu, Seoul: 16.3 and 16.5 mag/arcsec2 in 2009/2010 and 2014/2015, respectively), located nearly at the middle of Seoul. Also, the darkest site is Goseong-ri (Gapyeong-gun, Gyeonggi-do: 20.1 and 20.6 mag/arcsec2 in 2009/2010 and 2014/2015, respectively), situated ~50 km northeast of the brightest site. In addition, the night sky brightness in 2014/2015 is on average darker by ~0.4 mag/arcsec2 compared to the brightness in 2009/2010, which indicates the reduced light pollution in the Seoul Capital Area. In this contribution, we will present the maps of the night sky brightness in the capital region of Korea from both surveys, and discuss the possible reasons for the changes in night sky brightness within 5 years.

  6. Pansteatitis of unknown etiology associated with large-scale Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) mortality in Kruger National Park, South Africa: pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Govender, Danny; Bengis, Roy G; Buss, Peter E; Hofmeyr, Markus; Myburgh, Jan G; Steyl, Johan C A; Pienaar, Daniel J; Kotze, Antoinette

    2013-12-01

    Annual mortality events in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Olifants River Gorge in Kruger National Park, South Africa, were experienced between 2008 and 2012, during which at least 216 crocodiles died. Live crocodiles were lethargic. Necropsy examination of 56 affected crocodiles showed dark yellow-brown firm nodules in both somatic fat and the abdominal fat body. In all of the 11 crocodiles submitted for histology, degenerative, necrotic, and inflammatory changes supported a diagnosis of steatitis in both fat types. Crocodiles are apex predators in this anthropogenically changed aquatic ecosystem that is used by humans upstream and downstream from the park for domestic, agricultural, fishing, and recreational purposes. This pathologic review of pansteatitis in crocodiles in the Olifants River system was part of a broad multidisciplinary research program. To date, no definitive causative agent has been identified. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that this event may have been a one-time event with long-standing repercussions on the health of the crocodiles. Pathologic findings are rarely documented in wild crocodilians. This study also reports on other conditions, including the presence of coccidian oocysts, capillarid and filaroid nematodes, digenetic trematodes, and pentastomes.

  7. Evaluation of CMAQ and CAMx Ensemble Air Quality Forecasts during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.; Kim, S.; Bae, C.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of Air quality forecasts during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign was evaluated. An forecast system has been operated to support the campaign's daily aircraft route decisions for airborne measurements to observe long-range transporting plume. We utilized two real-time ensemble systems based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)-Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) modeling framework and WRF-SMOKE- Community Multi_scale Air Quality (CMAQ) framework over northeastern Asia to simulate PM10 concentrations. Global Forecast System (GFS) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) was used to provide meteorological inputs for the forecasts. For an additional set of retrospective simulations, ERA Interim Reanalysis from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) was also utilized to access forecast uncertainties from the meteorological data used. Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and National Institute of Environment Research (NIER) Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) emission inventories are used for foreign and domestic emissions, respectively. In the study, we evaluate the CMAQ and CAMx model performance during the campaign by comparing the results to the airborne and surface measurements. Contributions of foreign and domestic emissions are estimated using a brute force method. Analyses on model performance and emissions will be utilized to improve air quality forecasts for the upcoming KORUS-AQ field campaign planned in 2016.

  8. [Pathology- a new revival].

    PubMed

    Barshack, Iris

    2013-06-01

    The field of pathology has undergone considerable change in recent years. The editor and editorial board of this journal are to be commended for their decision to devote a special issue to the field of pathology. Pathology deals with the characterization, investigation, and diagnosis of disease and disease processes and as such, has Long been considered one of the foundations of medicine. It is a rich and multi-faceted field which has retained its breadth of scope in the face of ever-increasing specialization and sub-specialization in medicine. In addition to its classic roles in autopsy, case description, and the diagnosis of pathoLogic processes, new and innovative spheres of activity are becoming integral to the field, especially in the realm of molecular pathology. Pathology is a Leading player in the new age of "personalized cancer therapy", where pathologists are responsible not only for diagnosing disease in the tissue, but also for conducting additional tests which may predict its response to specific drug therapies. In this context, moLecular pathology has become essential to the field both in the provision of cLinical service and research. To fully implement this trend, we are witness to the rise of tissue collection and tissue banking initiatives for both diagnostic and research purposes. A national tissue banking project in Israel has recently received considerable attention.

  9. Oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  10. Benign nodal lesions mimicking metastases from pediatric renal neoplasms: a report of the National Wilms' Tumor Study Pathology Center.

    PubMed

    Weeks, D A; Beckwith, J B; Mierau, G W

    1990-12-01

    Regional lymph node status is a key factor in the staging of pediatric renal tumors on the National Wilms' Tumor Study (NWTS). A review of cases entered on the NWTS has uncovered a number of cases where benign lymph node findings were mistaken for metastases. Most frequently, this was due to the presence of complexes of epithelial cells and Tamm-Horsfall protein within nodal sinuses. The epithelial cells were derived from damaged nephrons, usually resulting from obstruction by tumor. Another epithelial pseudometastic lesion, intranodal squamous epithelial cells, was found to originate from metaplastic calyceal urothelium. Benign mesothelial or coelomic inclusions similar to those previously described in pelvic and periaortic lymph nodes of adult females were found in nodes of four patients, including two boys, who are, to our knowledge, the first to be described with this finding. Other sources of confusion included protrusion of lymphoid follicles or germinal centers into nodal sinuses, thick endothelial cells of postcapillary venules mimicking epithelial tubules, nodal megakaryocytes resembling anaplastic nuclear changes, and histiocytic granulomas. Immunocytochemical methods were useful in evaluating some of these phenomena. Recognition of these pseudometastatic lesions is essential in order to avoid unnecessary and potentially hazardous therapeutic intensification.

  11. The rise of governmentality in the Italian National Health System: physiology or pathology of a decentralized and (ongoing) federalist system?

    PubMed

    Lega, Federico; Sargiacomo, Massimo; Ianni, Luca

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we aim to discuss the implications and lessons that can be learnt from the ongoing process of federalism affecting the Italian National Health System (INHS). Many countries are currently taking decisions concerning the decentralization or re-centralization of their health-care systems, with several key issues that are illustrated in the recent history of the INHS. The decentralization process of INHS has produced mixed results, as some regions took advantage of it to strengthen their systems, whereas others were not capable of developing an effective steering role. We argue that the mutual reinforcement of the decentralization and recentralization processes is not paradoxical, but is actually an effective way for the State to maintain control over the equity and efficiency of its health-care system while decentralizing at a regional level. In this perspective, we provide evidence backing up some of the assumptions made in previous works as well as new food-for thought - specifically on how governmentality and federalism should meet - to reshape the debate on decentralization in health care.

  12. Modification of the gravity model and application to the metropolitan Seoul subway system.

    PubMed

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Park, Jong Soo; Choi, M Y

    2012-08-01

    The Metropolitan Seoul Subway system is examined through the use of the gravity model. Exponents describing the power-law dependence on the time distance between stations are obtained, which reveals a universality for subway lines of the same topology. In the short (time) distance regime the number of passengers between stations does not grow with the decrease in the distance, thus deviating from the power-law behavior. It is found that such reduction in passengers is well described by the Hill function. Further, temporal fluctuations in the passenger flow data, fitted to the gravity model modified by the Hill function, are analyzed to reveal the Yule-type nature inherent in the structure of Seoul.

  13. Radon exposure assessment for underground workers: a case of Seoul Subway Police officers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Myeong Han; Chang, Byung-Uck; Kim, Yongjae; Cho, Kun-Woo

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study is the systematic and individual assessment of the annual effective dose due to inhaled radon for the Seoul Subway Police officers, Korea. The annual average radon concentrations were found to be in the range of 18.9-114 Bq·m(-3) in their workplaces. The total annual effective doses which may likely to be received on duty were assessed to be in the range of 0.41-1.64 mSv·y(-1). These were well below the recommended action level 10 mSv·y(-1) by ICRP. However, the effective doses were higher than subway station staff in Seoul, Korea.

  14. Signatures of the Sudden Stratospheric Warming events of January-February 2008 in Seoul, S. Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wachter, Evelyn; Hocke, Klemens; Flury, Thomas; Scheiben, Dominik; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Ka, Soohyun; Oh, Jung Jin

    2011-11-01

    The period January-February 2008 was characterized by four Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) in the Northern Hemisphere, of which the last warming, at the end of February 2008, was a major warming. A significant decrease in mesospheric water vapour (H 2O) of more than 2 ppmv (˜40%) was observed by the ground-based microwave (GBMW) radiometer in Seoul, S. Korea [37.3°N, 126.3°E] during the major SSW. A comparison with ground-based mesospheric H 2O observations from the mid-latitude station in Bern [46.9°N, 7°E] revealed an anticorrelation in the mesospheric H 2O data during the major SSW. In addition, prior to the major warming, strong periodic fluctuations were recorded in the Aura MLS vertical temperature distribution between 15 and 0.05 hPa at Seoul. The mesospheric temperature oscillation was found to have a period of ˜10-14 days with a persistency of 3-4 cycles. The observed anticorrelation in mesospheric H 2O between the stations in Seoul and Bern is associated with an increased meridional flow. Trajectory calculations give evidence that H 2O-rich subtropical air had moved to Bern during the major SSW while H 2O-poor polar air was transported to Seoul. The results shown in this study are a possible indication of a strong coupling between the dynamic regimes of the low- and the high-latitude regions during SSWs.

  15. Air Shower Events of High-Energy Cosmic Rays Measured at Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Wooram; Shin, Jae-Ik; Kim, Hongki; Lee, Seulgi; Lim, Sunin; Nam, Sinwoo; Yang, Jongmann; Cheon, Byunggu; Bang, Hyungchan; Kwon, Youngjoon

    2011-09-01

    The COsmic ray Research and Education Array (COREA) collaboration has installed an array of six detector stations at two high schools in and near Seoul, Korea for measurement of air-shower events from high-energy cosmic rays. Three stations are installed at each site, where each station consists of four plastic scintillation detectors covering an area of 2m2. In this presentation, we report the currenst status of the COREA project, describing the experimental equipment and measurement of coincident events.

  16. Determination of upwind and downwind areas of Seoul, Korea using trajectory analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, H. S.; Ghim, Y. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Chang, Y. S.

    2010-09-01

    To identify the domains that have the greatest impacts on air quality at the surface, both the upwind and downwind areas of Seoul were determined by season using refined wind fields. Four consecutive days were selected as the study period typical of each season. The mesoscale meteorology of the study period was reproduced by using the MM5 prognostic meteorological model (PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model) with horizontally nested grids. The gridded meteorological field, which was used on the study area of 242 km x 226 km with grid spacing of 2 km, was generated by using the CALMET diagnostic meteorological model. Upwind and downwind areas of Seoul were determined by calculating 24-hour backward and forward air parcel trajectories, respectively, with u, v, and w velocity vectors. The results showed that the upwind and downwind areas were extended far to the northwest and the southeast as a result of high wind speeds in the spring and winter, while they were restricted on the fringe of Seoul in the summer and fall.

  17. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cats in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Kim, Neung-Hee; Chae, Hee-Sun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Nam, Ho-Woo; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Sun-Heung; Lee, Jung-Hark

    2011-02-01

    The present study assessed the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cat populations in Seoul using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 456 feral cats from 17 wards in Seoul was surveyed. The overall prevalence of T. gondii infection was 15.8% (69/456) by ELISA and 17.5% (80/456) by PCR; by gender, 17% (44/259) by ELISA and 16.2% (42/259) by PCR in males and 14.3% (28/196) by ELISA and 19.4% (38/196) by PCR in females. On a baseline of the Han River, prevalence was 15.1% (29/192) by ELISA and 15.6% (30/192) by PCR in the upper region and 16.4% (43/264) by ELISA and 18.9% (50/264) by PCR in the lower area. This suggested that toxoplasmosis is widespread throughout Seoul's feral cat population and it is critical that the city institute policies for the control of the feral cat population to reduce the risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to animals, including humans.

  18. Characteristics of MSW and heat energy recovery between residential and commercial areas in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sora; Yoo, Kee-Young; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyzes the amount and characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) according to the inhabitant density of population and the business concentration in 25 districts in Seoul. Further, the heat energy recovery and avoided CO(2) emissions of four incineration plants located in residential and commercial areas in Seoul are examined. The amount of residential waste per capita tended to increase as the density of inhabitants decreased. The amount of commercial waste per capita tended to increase as the business concentration increased. The examination of the heat energy recovery characteristics indicated that the four incineration plants produced heat energy that depended on residential or commercial areas based on population and business. The most important result regarding avoided CO(2) emissions was that commercial areas with many office-type businesses had the most effective CO(2) emission savings by combusting 1 kg of waste. Assuming the full-scale operation of the four incineration plants, the amount of saved CO(2) emissions per year was 444 Gg CO(2) and 57,006 households in Seoul can be provided with heat energy equivalent to 542,711 Nm(3) of LNG.

  19. OH Reactivity Observations during the MAPS-Seoul Campaign: Contrasts between Urban and Suburban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, D.; Jeong, D.; Blake, D. R.; Wang, M. D.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.; Ahn, J.; Cho, G.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    Direct total OH reactivity was observed in the urban and suburban environments of Seoul, South Korea using a comparative reactivity method (CRM) during the MAPS-Seoul field campaign. In addition, CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, VOCs, aerosol, physical, and chemical parameters were also deployed. By comparing the observed total OH reactivity results with calculated OH reactivity from the trace gas observational datasets, we will evaluate our current status in constraining reactive gases in the urban and suburban environments in the East Asian megacity. Observed urban OH reactivity will be presented in the context of the ability to constrain anthropogenic reactive trace gas emissions. It will then be compared to the observed suburban results from Taehwa Research Forest (located ~ 50 km from the Seoul City Center). Our understanding of reactive trace gases in an environment of high BVOC emissions in a mildly aged anthropogenic influences will be evaluated. Using an observational constrained box model with detailed VOC oxidation schemes (e.g. MCM), we will discuss: 1) what is the amount of missing OH reactivity 2) what are the potential sources of the missing OH reactivity, and 3) what are the implications on regional air quality?

  20. Modeling Study on Air Quality Improvement due to Mobile Source Emission control Plan in Seoul Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Sunwoo, Y.; Hwang, I.; Song, S.; Sin, J.; Kim, D.

    2015-12-01

    A very high population and corresponding high number of vehicles in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) are aggravating the air quality of this region. The Korean government continues to make concerted efforts to improve air quality. One of the major policies that the Ministry of Environment of Korea enforced is "The Special Act for Improvement of Air Quality in SMA" and "The 1st Air Quality Management Plan of SMA". Mobile Source emission controls are an important part of the policy. Thus, it is timely to evaluate the air quality improvement due to the controls. Therefore, we performed a quantitative analysis of the difference in air quality using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and December, 2011 was set as the target period to capture the impact of the above control plans. We considered four fuel-type vehicle emission scenarios and compared the air quality improvement differences between them. The scenarios are as follows: no-control, gasoline vehicle control only, diesel vehicle control only, and control of both; utilizing the revised mobile source emissions from the Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS), which is the national emission inventory reflecting current policy.In order to improve the accuracy of the modeling data, we developed new temporal allocation coefficients based on traffic volume observation data and spatially reallocated the mobile source emissions using vehicle flow survey data. Furthermore, we calculated the PM10 and PM2.5 emissions of gasoline vehicles which is omitted in CAPSS.The results of the air quality modeling shows that vehicle control plans for both gasoline and diesel lead to a decrease of 0.65ppb~8.75ppb and 0.02㎍/㎥~7.09㎍/㎥ in NO2 and PM10 monthly average concentrations, respectively. The large percentage decreases mainly appear near the center of the metropolis. However, the largest NO2 decrease percentages are found in the northeast region of Gyeonggi-do, which is the province that surrounds the

  1. Inguinoscrotal pathology

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Luis; Leonard, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Infants, children, and adolescents with inguinoscrotal pathology comprise a significant proportion of emergency department and outpatient visits. Visits to the emergency department primarily comprise individuals presenting with scrotal pain due to testicular torsion or torsion of the testicular appendages. At such time, immediate urological consultation is sought. Outpatient visits comprise those individuals with undescended testes, hydroceles, and varicoceles. Rare, but important problems, such as pediatric testicular tumours, may also present in the office setting. Many of these outpatient visits are to primary care physicians, who should have an appreciation of the timing and need for referral. The purpose of this review is to familiarize the general urologist and primary care physician with these varied pathologies and give insight into their assessment and management. Some of these same conditions are seen in adult patients, but there are some significant differences in their management in the pediatric group. In addition, the utility of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, are discussed within each pathological entity. It is hoped that this overview will assist our general urology and primary care colleagues in patient management for diverse inguinoscrotal pathologies. PMID:28265317

  2. Eco-epidemiological and pathological features of wildlife mortality events related to cyanobacterial bio-intoxication in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bengis, Roy; Govender, Danny; Lane, Emily; Myburgh, Jan; Oberholster, Paul; Buss, Peter; Prozesky, Leon; Keet, Dewald

    2016-10-31

    Over the past decade, several clustered, multispecies, wildlife mortality events occurred in the vicinity of two man-made earthen dams in the southern and south central regions of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. On field investigation, heavy cyanobacterial blooms were visible in these impoundments and analysis of water samples showed the dominance of Microcystis spp. (probably Microcystis aeruginosa). Macroscopic lesions seen at necropsy and histopathological lesions were compatible with a diagnosis of cyanobacterial intoxication. Laboratory toxicity tests and assays also confirmed the presence of significant levels of microcystins in water from the two dams. These outbreaks occurred during the dry autumn and early winter seasons when water levels in these dams were dropping, and a common feature was that all the affected dams were supporting a large number of hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibius). It is hypothesised that hippopotamus' urine and faeces, together with agitation of the sediments, significantly contributed to internal loading of phosphates and nitrogen - leading to eutrophication of the water in these impoundments and subsequent cyanobacterial blooms. A major cause for concern was that a number of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were amongst the victims of these bio-intoxication events. This publication discusses the eco-epidemiology and pathology of these clustered mortalities, as well as the management options considered and eventually used to address the problem.

  3. The environment modifies the relationship between social networks and secondhand smoke exposure among Korean nonsmokers in Seoul and California.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W; Unger, Jennifer B; Vollinger, Robert E; Latkin, Carl; Juon, Hee-Soon; Park, Hae-Ryun; Paik, Hee-Young; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2015-03-01

    This study compared risks of secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) among Korean nonsmokers in Seoul, South Korea and California, United States. Social networks were hypothesized to contain more smokers in Seoul than in California, and smokers were hypothesized to produce more secondhand smoke in Seoul than California, as Seoul's policies and norms are less restrictive. Telephone interviews were conducted with Korean adults in Seoul (N = 500) and California (N = 2830). In all, 69% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 64-74) of Koreans and 31% (95% CI = 29-33) of Korean Americans reported any SHSe. A total of 44% (95% CI = 40-47) of Korean family members smoked versus 29% (95% CI = 28-30) of Korean American family members (t = 7.84, P < .01). A 25% to 75% increase in the proportion of family members that smoked corresponded with a 13% (95% CI = 5-21) higher probability of any SHSe among Koreans compared with 6% (95% CI = 2-10) among Korean Americans. Network interventions in combination with policies and/or health campaigns may help reduce SHSe globally.

  4. About contaminant element composition of roadside dust samples from Budapest and Seoul, including Pt and Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, M.; Chon, H. T.; Marton, L.

    2012-04-01

    Roadside dust was sampled in Seoul megacity /Korea as well as in Budapest and some other places in Hungary, digested with reverse aqua regia in presence of bromine, and analyzed for 29 chemical elements with ICP-OES and ICP-MS methods. In addition to rather traditionally investigated elements, like Pb-Cd-Cr-Ni-As-Sb, newly emerging Pt and Pd from abrasion of automotive catalysts were included in the study. For the analysis of Pd, separation by precipitation with dithizone had to be applied. Principal component analysis was used as a tool to estimate the contribution of various sources. Geogenic element contents were used to estimate geogenic backgrounds und inputs from soils erosion. Seoul is an East Asian densely populated megacity, not far from the seaside, and surrounded by granite rocks. To the contrary, Budapest is a European continental city surrounded mainly by plains formed in the tertiary. Background concentrations were estimated from median concentrations in soils over alluvial deposits from the East of Austria, as well as from Poland. Background concentrations for Seoul were estimated from Shiheung farmland soil, a town close to the megacity. As a result, traffic related contaminations were highly effected by traffic related activities, like stop and go. Pt and Pb levels in roadside dusts from Budapest citiy were in the range of 2-133 μg/kg (av. 62,9 μg/kg), and 88 - 2838 mg/kg (av. 662 mg/kg) respectively. The highest Pt and Pb levels in roadside dust were found at major roads with high traffic volumes. Due to the geo-accumulation index, in all roadside soils sampled in Hungary, Cu-Pb-Zn were enriched, and Cd-Mo and occasionally Ba from Budapest in addition, but As-Co-Cr-Hg-Ni-Tl-V were not. In roadside dusts from Seoul, heavy contaminations of As-Cd-Cu-Mo-Pb-Zn were found, but no significant increase of Co-Cr-Ni-V. The pollution index, which refers to the permissible levels of As-Cd-Cu-Hg-Pb-Sb-Tl-V, indicates heavy pollution for roadside dusts from

  5. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, SeoYeon; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Chi, Byung Hoon; Kim, Jin Wook; Chang, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea.

  6. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    PubMed

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Choi, Moo Young; Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare) bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized) "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  7. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea. PMID:27134497

  8. Chemical composition of major VOC emission sources in the Seoul atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Na, Kwangsam; Kim, Yong Pyo; Moon, Il; Moon, Kil-Choo

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes a chemical analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for five emission sources in Seoul. The source categories included motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline evaporation, paint solvents, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). These sources were selected because they have been known to emit significant quantities of VOCs in the Seoul area (more than 5% of the total emission inventory). Chemical compositions of the five emission sources are presented for a group of 45 C2-C9 VOCs. Motor vehicle exhaust profiles were developed by conducting an urban tunnel study. These emissions profiles were distinguished from the other emission profiles by a high weight percentage of butanes over seasons and propane in the wintertime. It was found that this is due to the wide use of butane-fueled vehicles. To obtain gasoline vapor profiles, gasoline samples from five major brands for each season were selected. The brands were blended on the basis of the marketshare of these brands in Seoul area. Raoult's law was used to calculate gasoline evaporative compositions based on the liquid gasoline compositions. The measured and estimated gasoline vapor compositions were found to be in good agreement. Vehicle and gasoline evaporation profiles were made over seasons because of the seasonal change in their compositions. Paint solvent emissions profiles were produced based on a product-use survey and sales figures. These profiles are a composite of four major oil-based paints and thinning solvent. The source profile of natural gas was made on a methane-free basis. It was found that Ethane and propane were the most abundant compounds accounting for 95% of the natural gas composition. LPG was largely composed of propane and ethane and the remaining components were minor contributors.

  9. Applications in brain proteomics: 8(th) HUPO Brain Proteome Project Workshop 7 October 2007, Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Hamacher, Michael; Stephan, Christian; Hardt, Tanja; Eisenacher, Martin; Henkel, Andreas; Wiltfang, Jens; Jimenez, Connie R; Park, Young Mok; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E

    2008-05-01

    What are the current approaches in brain proteomics? Can we combine different, but complementary study designs to obtain better results concerning brain diseases? What are the neuro-hotspots, especially in Korea? These were some of the questions the participants of the 8(th) HUPO Brain Proteome Project Workshop tried to answer prior to the 6(th) HUPO World Congress in Seoul, Korea. Around 100 scientists came together during the afternoon of 7 October, 2007, to discuss and to catch up on the latest results and strategies concerning Huntington's disease, glioblastoma and standardization.

  10. Teaching Religious Studies to Undergraduate Non-Majors at Seoul National University, South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…

  11. Hospital information systems: experience at the fully digitized Seoul National University Bundang Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Hwang, Hee

    2016-01-01

    The different levels of health information technology (IT) adoption and its integration into hospital workflow can affect the maximization of the benefits of using of health IT. We aimed at sharing our experiences and the journey to the successful adoption of health IT over 13 years at a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. The integrated system of comprehensive applications for direct care, support care, and smart care has been implemented with the latest IT and a rich user information platform, achieving the fully digitized hospital. The users experience design methodology, barcode and radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, smartphone and mobile technologies, and data analytics were integrated into hospital workflow. Applications for user-centered electronic medical record (EMR) and clinical decision support (CDS), closed loop medication administration (CLMA), mobile EMR and dashboard system for care coordination, clinical data warehouse (CDW) system, and patient engagement solutions were designed and developed to improve quality of care, work efficiency, and patient safety. We believe that comprehensive electronic health record systems and patient-centered smart hospital applications will go a long way in ensuring seamless patient care and experience. PMID:27651940

  12. Hospital information systems: experience at the fully digitized Seoul National University Bundang Hospital.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Hwang, Hee; Jheon, Sanghoon

    2016-08-01

    The different levels of health information technology (IT) adoption and its integration into hospital workflow can affect the maximization of the benefits of using of health IT. We aimed at sharing our experiences and the journey to the successful adoption of health IT over 13 years at a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. The integrated system of comprehensive applications for direct care, support care, and smart care has been implemented with the latest IT and a rich user information platform, achieving the fully digitized hospital. The users experience design methodology, barcode and radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, smartphone and mobile technologies, and data analytics were integrated into hospital workflow. Applications for user-centered electronic medical record (EMR) and clinical decision support (CDS), closed loop medication administration (CLMA), mobile EMR and dashboard system for care coordination, clinical data warehouse (CDW) system, and patient engagement solutions were designed and developed to improve quality of care, work efficiency, and patient safety. We believe that comprehensive electronic health record systems and patient-centered smart hospital applications will go a long way in ensuring seamless patient care and experience.

  13. Characterization of Anthropogenic Magnetic Particles in Asian Dust Using Magnetic Measurements and Electron Microscope Observations in Seoul, Korea: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Doh, S.; Park, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Magnetic measurements and electron microscopic observations have been performed for Asian dust samples in Seoul, Korea, and desert-sand and loess samples in source regions in China to identify pollution of Asian dust by anthropogenic particulates during transportation. Asian dust samples in Seoul have been collected during four Asian dust events occurred in March 19 and 23, April 9, 2002, and April 12, 2003. Desert-sand samples from Khorchin, Lanzhou and Tengel regions, and loess samples from Chifeng region were also collected for comparison during March 2-9, 2003. χLF, ARM and SIRM values (magnetic concentration parameters) of Asian dust in Seoul showed 2~288, 2~61 and 2 ~251 times, respectively, higher than those of desert-sand and loess in source regions. This result indicates that Asian dust originated from source regions in China experienced significant influx of magnetic particles during transportation to Seoul, Korea. These magnetic particles added in Asian dust can be recognized as ferrimagnetic minerals (e.g., magnetite and maghemite) based on IRM acquisition patterns and S-ratio values. During the electron microscopic observations for magnetic particles in Asian dust, iron-oxide spherules accompanied by carbon were frequently observed, implying that magnetic contaminants in Asian dust might be originated from fossil fuel combustions. Air- mass backward trajectories during four Asian dust events showed that the air-mass, transporting Asian dust, was originated from the central China and passed through the industrialized eastern China and western Korea on its way to Seoul. Therefore, it can be interpreted that Asian dust in Seoul was highly polluted by anthropogenic magnetic particles originated from industrialized regions in China and Korea. The present study reveals the pollution of Asian dust by anthropogenic particulates during transportation, and suggests that magnetic measurements associated with electron microscopic observations can be used as an

  14. A Multilevel Analysis of the Compositional and Contextual Association of Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being in Seoul, South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Sehee; Kim, Heaseung; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between social capital and subjective well-being (life satisfaction) by using multilevel analysis considering both individual and area-level social capital while adjusting for various control variables at multiple-levels in Seoul, South Korea. The data was from the 2010 (Wave 2) Seoul Welfare…

  15. Discovering the knowledge creation process of an expert group in women-friendly policy: The policy case of Seoul City.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Sam; Nam, SungHee; Kim, Yuna

    2016-01-01

    This research explores how expert knowledge is created in the process of women-friendly policy making, based on actor network theory (ANT). To address this purpose, this study uses the "Women's Happiness in the City of Seoul" policy initiated by the local government of Seoul as one example of policy development. Research findings demonstrate that knowledge creation in expert groups followed the four stages suggested by ANT. In addition, this study found that various types of knowledge emerged from individual experts. This research elucidates the process of knowledge creation and its meanings for women-friendly policy.

  16. Wet precipitation of major ions, polonium-210, and organic carbon in a metropolitan city, Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, G.; Kim, G.

    2011-12-01

    An extensive survey of chemical constituents in precipitation including dissolved organic carbon, dissolved nitrogen, major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides was conducted in a representative urban environment of Seoul over one-year period from 2009 to 2010. The sources for these chemical species were apportioned by applying principal component analysis (PCA) in association with commonly acknowledged key tracers, such as Na, K, Ca, and V. The fossil fuel combustion (especially coal) was shown to be the dominant source for most constituents being investigated, with biomass burning being recognized as another significant source. With the aid of air mass backward trajectory analyses, we concluded that the primary fraction of the chemical species in our precipitation samples originated locally in Korea, albeit the frequent long-range transport from the eastern and northeastern China might contribute substantially. Overall, our study suggests the significant role of human activities in altering the atmospheric environment of Seoul and presumably most urban areas around the world, highlighting its profound environmental implications, such as health risks posed by excessive polonium-210, enhanced rainwater acidity from organic acids, and radiative forcing by organic aerosols.

  17. The Seoul Metropolitan Lifestyle Intervention Program and Metabolic Syndrome Risk: A Retrospective Database Study

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Jina; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Ryu, Hosihn; Park, Mi-Suk; Lee, Hyang Sook; Park, Yoo Mi; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Since 2011, the Seoul Metabolic Syndrome Management (SMESY) program has been employed as a community-wide, lifestyle modification intervention in Seoul, Korea. We aimed to determine if the SMESY intervention would be significantly associated with improvements in metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. This retrospective database study included data from 25,449 participants aged 30–64 years between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2013. In the SMESY program, 3 risk-stratified groups by the number of MetS factors were followed for 12 months with different intensity and timeframe of intervention. Among the high-(n = 7116) and moderate-risk groups (n = 14,762), all MetS factors (except triglycerides among the moderate-risk group) as well as MetS z-scores significantly improved over 12 months (all p < 0.05). Among the low-risk group (n = 3571), all factors aggravated significantly over 12 months (all p < 0.05). We observed temporal associations between the implementation of the SMESY program and improvements in MetS risk factors. However, such improvements differed by risk-stratified group, being most robust for the high-risk group, modest for the moderate-risk group, and aggravated for the low-risk group. Thus, more intensive interventions targeting different risk-stratified groups are needed, given a better understanding of the increase in risk factors observed in the low-risk group. PMID:27384576

  18. Evaluation of stage acoustics in Seoul Arts Center Concert Hall by measuring stage support.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Barron, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Stage acoustics is an important characteristic for concert halls, both for the acoustic quality on stage and for the audience. However, relatively little research has been conducted into the question. This study was based on the investigation of an actual concert hall stage, that of the Seoul Arts Center Concert Hall in Korea. The stage acoustics was evaluated in the actual hall, and with two models: a 1:25 scale model and a computer model. The study was based on the stage support parameter ST1 proposed by Gade as a measure of support for individual performers [Acustica 65, 193-203 (1989)]. The variation of support was measured on the empty stage of the actual hall and in the two models. The effect of musicians on stage, the effect of moving the orchestra, the effect of ceiling height and of stage-wall profile were also investigated. Conclusions are drawn both relating to the Seoul Concert Hall stage and stages in general.

  19. Projections of Future Summer Weather in Seoul and Their Impacts on Urban Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. O.; Kim, J. H.; Yun, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    Climate departure from the past variability was projected to start in 2042 for Seoul. In order to understand the implication of climate departure in Seoul for urban agriculture, we evaluated the daily temperature for the June-September period from 2041 to 2070, which were projected by the RCP8.5 climate scenario. These data were analyzed with respect to climate extremes and their effects on growth of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), one of the major crops in urban farming. The mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures in 2041-2070 approached to the 90th percentile in the past 30 years (1951- 1980). However, the frequency of extreme events such as heat waves and tropical nights appeared to exceed the past variability. While the departure of mean temperature might begin in or after 2040, the climate departure in the sense of extreme weather events seems already in progress. When the climate scenario data were applied to the growth and development of hot pepper, the departures of both planting date and harvest date are expected to follow those of temperature. However, the maximum duration for hot pepper cultivation, which is the number of days between the first planting and the last harvest, seems to have already deviated from the past variability.

  20. Statistical analysis of Seoul air quality to assess the efficacy of emission abatement strategies since 1987.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Scott D; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann E; Brown, Richard J C; Griffiths, Alan D; Crawford, Jagoda

    2017-02-15

    The combined influences of recent mitigation measures on urban air quality have been assessed using hourly observations of the criteria air pollutants (NO, NO2, O3, CO, and SO2) made from the Yongsan district of Seoul, Korea, over 26years (1987 to 2013). A number of data selection criteria are proposed in order to minimize variability associated with temporal changes (at diurnal, weekly, and seasonal timescales) in source strengths, their spatial distribution, and the atmospheric volume into which they mix. The temporal constraints required to better characterize relationships between observed air quality and changes in source strengths in Seoul were identified as: (i) a 5-hour diurnal sampling window (1300-1700h), (b) weekday measurements (Monday to Friday only), and (c) summer measurements (when pollutant fetch is mostly Korea-specific, and mean wind speeds are the lowest). Using these selection criteria, we were able to closely relate long-term trends identified in criteria pollutants to a number of published changes to traffic-related source strengths brought about by mitigation measures adopted over the last 10-15years.

  1. An analysis of the characteristics of aerosol light scattering coefficients at Seoul and Baengnyeongdo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Eun, S.; Seo, W.; Park, J.; Ahn, J.; Moon, K.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere can scatter and absorb solar radiation and their spatial/temporal distributions are highly inhomogeneous due to short lifetimes (about a few weeks or less). Through scattering and absorption of solar radiation, aerosols directly affect visibility and climate through the modification of the Earth's energy budget (Charlson et al., 1992; Yan, 2007; Wang, 2012). This study investigates long-term trends and characteristics of aerosol light scattering coefficient at Seoul and Baengnyeongdo, 100 km upstream of Seoul, in Korea. Aerosol scattering coefficients were measured continuously with nephelometers. The analysis period is limited to one year of 2011. For the relationship analysis of extinction coefficients (σext) to visibility and aerosol optical depth, σsp observed at 3 p.m. have been used with help of aerosol absorption coefficients (σap) in order to remove its dependence upon relative humidity (RH), and also those of rainy period have been excluded. As expected, σext estimated are inversely proportional to visibility observation by eye. Aerosol extinction coefficients have been vertically integrated with an assumption of nearly well-mixed within an e-folding height to determine aerosol optical depth (τa), and compared with those retrieved from sunphotometer. The results show a reasonable agreement in spite of an inherent difference of each definition. We expect these findings would help to eventually understand aerosol radiative forcing and its effect on the regional climate change around Korea.

  2. Assessment of airborne environmental bacteria and related factors in 25 underground railway stations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Yoon, Chung Sik; Ryu, Kyong Nam; Paik, Samuel Y.; Cho, Jun Ho

    2010-05-01

    This study assessed bacterial concentrations in indoor air at 25 underground railway stations in Seoul, Korea, and investigated various related factors including the presence of platform screen doors (PSD), depth of the station, year of construction, temperature, relative humidity, and number of passengers. A total of 72 aerosol samples were collected from all the stations. Concentrations of total airborne bacteria (TAB) ranged from not detected (ND) to 4997 CFU m -3, with an overall geometric mean (GM) of 191 CFU m -3. Airborne bacteria were detected at 23 stations (92%) and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were detected at two stations (8%). TAB concentrations of four stations (16%) exceeded 800 CFU m -3, the Korea indoor bio-aerosol guideline. The results of the study showed that TAB concentrations at the stations without PSD showed higher TAB concentrations than those with PSD, though not at statistically significant levels. TAB concentrations of deeper stations revealed significantly higher levels than those of shallower stations. Based on this study, it is recommended that mitigation measures be applied to improve the indoor air quality (IAQ) of underground railway stations in Seoul, with focused attention on deeper stations.

  3. Informal Control by Family and Risk Markers for Alcohol Abuse/Dependence in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Wu, Shali; Yang, Hyerin; Lee, Hotaek; Kim, Junpyo; Chan, Ko Ling

    2016-05-08

    Although previous research documents a reliable relationship between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and alcoholism, relatively little research has examined new theoretical constructs in IPV research that may increase risk for or help buffer women from alcohol abuse/dependence. The purpose of the present study was to examine informal social control of IPV by family members as a protective factor against and coercive control as a risk factor for alcohol abuse/dependence in a small population sample of married women in Seoul, South Korea. We hypothesized that (a) informal social control by family members would be negatively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence and (b) husband's coercive control would be positively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence. We measured alcohol abuse/dependence (CAGE scale), IPV and coercive control by husbands, and informal social control of IPV (ISC_IPV) by extended family members in a three-stage random cluster sample of 462 married women in Seoul, South Korea. Both random effects regression and zero-inflated Poisson regression models found that ISC_IPV by extended family members was associated with a significantly lower CAGE scores, and coercive control was associated with significantly higher CAGE scores. Interventions to boost ISC_IPV by extended family members may mitigate some of the risk of alcohol abuse/dependence by victims.

  4. Concentrations and identification of culturable airborne fungi in underground stations of the Seoul metro.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Jang, Soojin; Park, Wha Me; Park, Jae Bum

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the culturable airborne fungi (CAF) concentrations in the underground subway stations of Seoul, Korea at two time points. This study measured the CAF concentrations in enclosed environments at 16 underground stations of the Seoul Metro in 2006 and 2013 and investigated the effects of various environmental factors, including the presence of platform screen doors, temperature, relative humidity, and number of passengers. CAF concentrations at the stations in 2006 were significantly higher than that at the same stations in 2013 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between CAF concentration and relative humidity (r = 0.311, p < 0.05). Geotrichum and Penicillium were the predominant genera. The CAF concentrations in stations with an operating supply air were significantly higher than that in stations with no supply air (p < 0.001). Therefore, it is recommended that special attention be given to stations with clean supplied air to improve the indoor air quality of these subway stations.

  5. Pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG.

  6. Report on the '92 Seoul International Conference on the Role of the University Education in the Asia/Pacific Age (Seoul, Republic of Korea, April 8-10, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.

    This report, by the U.S. representative to the conference, presents observations on and basic results of the 1992 Seoul International Conference on the Role of the University in the Asia/Pacific Age, as well as the conference agenda and program, the minutes of the meeting, and other related documents. The conference convened 51 representatives…

  7. Letter from Seoul: Correspondence from the International Arts Education Symposium and the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprill, Arnold; Schroeder-Yu, Gigi

    2006-01-01

    Arts educator Gigi Schroeder-Yu and Arnold Aprill arrived in Seoul, Korea to participate in the International Arts Education Symposium and in the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference that are part of the wind up for the pitch of the UNESCO World Conference on Arts Education to be held in Lisbon in March 2006. In this article, they reflect on their…

  8. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMAs), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

    2014-07-01

    Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and particulate matter (PM) simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Pennsylvania State Meso-scale Model (MM5)/the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN)/the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)/the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from a performance check of CTM predictions, we consecutively assessed the effects of PFT area deviations on the MEGAN BVOC and CTM O3 predictions, and we further considered the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT data sets considered were (1) the Korean PFT, developed with Korea-specific vegetation database; (2) the CDP PFT, adopted from the community data portal (CDP) of US National Center for Atmospheric Research in the United States (NCAR); (3) MODIS PFT, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Although the CMAQ performance check reveals that all of the three different PFT data sets are applicable choices for regulatory modeling practice, noticeable primary data (i.e., PFT and Leaf Area Index (LAI)) was observed to be missing in many geographic locations. Based on the assessed effect of such missing data on CMAQ O3 predictions, we found that this missing data can cause spatially increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, it must be resolved in the near future to obtain more accurate biogenic emission and chemistry transport modeling results. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf

  9. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management.

  10. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associations between Particulate Chemical Constituents and Mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Kweon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked fine particles [≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] and health. Most studies focused on the total mass of the particles, although the chemical composition of the particles varies substantially. Which chemical components of fine particles that are the most harmful is not well understood, and research on the chemical composition of PM2.5 and the components that are the most harmful is particularly limited in Asia. Objectives: We characterized PM2.5 chemical composition and estimated the effects of cause-specific mortality of PM2.5 mass and constituents in Seoul, Korea. We compared the chemical composition of particles to those of the eastern and western United States. Methods: We examined temporal variability of PM2.5 mass and its composition using hourly data. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model, adjusting for time, day of week, temperature, and relative humidity to investigate the association between risk of mortality and PM2.5 mass and its constituents in Seoul, Korea, for August 2008 through October 2009. Results: PM2.5 and chemical components exhibited temporal patterns by time of day and season. The chemical characteristics of Seoul’s PM2.5 were more similar to PM2.5 found in the western United States than in the eastern United States. Seoul’s PM2.5 had lower sulfate (SO4) contributions and higher nitrate (NO3) contributions than that of the eastern United States, although overall PM2.5 levels in Seoul were higher than in the United States. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in magnesium (Mg) (0.05 μg/m3) was associated with a 1.4% increase (95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 2.6%) in total mortality on the following day. Several components that were among the largest contributors to PM2.5 total mass—NO3, SO4, and ammonium (NH4)—were moderately associated with same-day cardiovascular mortality at the p < 0.10 level. Other components with smaller mass contributions [Mg and

  11. The application of the biosphere reserve concept to urban areas: the case of green rooftops for habitat network in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwi-Gon

    2004-06-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first shows how the principles of the ecosystem approach can be applied to green rooftops, and the second attempts to illustrate it through a case study. In particular, it suggests new approaches and techniques for creation of green rooftops in a perspective of urban habitat network and urban biosphere reserve. To endow urban rooftops with the roles and functions of urban habitat network and urban biosphere reserve, it is necessary to apply "an ecosystem approach to urban management." In this article, an ecosystem approach to urban management is illustrated with Seoul as an example. The Habitat Network in Seoul will be reviewed with a focus on the model suggested by MAB Urban Group. Then, the roles and functions of Myeongdong UNESCO Green Rooftop and its possible contribution to building the Seoul Urban Biosphere Network will be described. The UNESCO Green Rooftop is 628 m(2) and was created on the 12th floor rooftop of UNESCO Building in Myeongdong 2-ga, Jung-ku, Seoul. In the green rooftop, which was created with goals of securing green areas and biotopes in downtown, creating an urban econetwork, securing a base for urban ecosystem study and environment education, and disseminating an idea of coexistence between nature and humankind, wetland, meadow, scrub and woodland, wall revegetation, and a vegetable field are created. Also, rainwater recycling facilities and a solar energy water circulation system were set up. Rest facilities including observation and education facilities were built. Based on the Seoul example, as well as urban biosphere reserve models suggested by the MAB Urban Group, we suggest several principles to be applied for a green rooftops to qualify as a category of urban biosphere reserves.

  12. Current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-12-01

    Recently the need to manage food allergies in schools has been growing. This study aimed to examine the current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in cooperation with the School Dietician Association during April 2009. Among the participating 154 schools, a total of 109 (71%) were determining students' food allergy status through parental surveys based on self-reported food allergies. A total of 72 (47%) had experienced student visits to a school health room due to food allergies within one year before the survey. Over 80 percent of the schools relied on self-care only without any school-wide measures for food allergies in place. Among the 890 menu items most frequently served in school lunch programs, a total of 664 (75%) were found to contain more than one food allergen. It is highly suggested that preventive plans and treatment measures should be established to manage food allergies in schools.

  13. Application of short-term water demand prediction model to Seoul.

    PubMed

    Joo, C N; Koo, J Y; Yu, M J

    2002-01-01

    To predict daily water demand for Seoul, Korea, the artificial neural network (ANN) was used. For the cross correlation, the factors affecting water demand such as maximum temperature, humidity, and wind speed as natural factors, holidays as a social factor and daily demand 1 day before were used. From the results of learning using various hidden layers and units in order to establish the structure of optimal ANN, the case of 3 hidden layers and numbers of unit with the same number of input factors showed the best result and, therefore, it was applied to seasonal water demand prediction. The performance of ANN was compared with a multiple regression method. We discuss the representation ability of the model building process and the applicability of the ANN approach for the daily water demand prediction. ANN provided reasonable results for time series prediction.

  14. The rate of Salmonella spp. infection in zoo animals at Seoul Grand Park, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Y. H.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, J. G.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, T. J.; Park, J. H.; Chung, B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease that affects both people and animals. The incidence of reptile-associated salmonellosis has increased in Western countries due to the increasing popularity of reptiles as pets. In Korea, where reptiles are not popular as pets, many zoos offer programs in which people have contact with animals, including reptiles. So, we determined the rate of Salmonella spp. infection in animals by taking anal swabs from 294 animals at Seoul Grand Park. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 14 of 46 reptiles (30.4%), 1 of 15 birds (6.7%) and 2 of 233 mammals (0.9%). These findings indicate that vigilance is required for determining the presence of zoonotic pathogen infections in zoo animals and contamination of animal facilities to prevent human infection with zoonotic diseases from zoo facilities and animal exhibitions. In addition, prevention of human infection requires proper education about personal hygiene. PMID:18487939

  15. Characterization of atmospheric particles in Seoul, Korea using SEM-EDX.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunha; Park, Inji; Lee, Young Jae; Lee, Meehye

    2012-07-01

    Atmospheric particles in Seoul, Korea were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Particles were identified and characterized by their morphology and elemental compositions. The morphology of particles was closely coupled with elemental compositions, which provided information on sources and transport processes of aerosols. There were various types of combustion-derived particles identified such as fly ashes, soot, organic matters, tar balls, chars, and sulfur-containing particles. These anthropogenic particles mainly have spherical shape with nano- to micro-meter size. Char was, however, distinguished by irregular shape with varying size up to several micrometers. The sulfur-containing aggregates show a wide range of size, shape, and elemental composition. In addition, bioaerosol and mineral dust were the most abundant particles from natural sources.

  16. Exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in Seoul metropolitan subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Hyeon Tae

    2011-01-01

    The exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi were assessed in the workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and passengers' activity areas (station precinct, inside the passenger carriage, and platform) of the Seoul metropolitan subway. Among investigated areas, the levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in the workers' bedroom and station precincts were relatively high. No significant difference was found in the concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi between the underground and above ground activity areas of the subway. The genera identified in all subway activity areas with a 5% or greater detection rate were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Corynebacterium for airborne bacteria and Penicillium, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Aspergillus for airborne fungi. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus comprised over 50% of the total airborne bacteria and Penicillium and Cladosporium comprised over 60% of the total airborne fungi, thus these four genera are the predominant genera in the subway station.

  17. Repeating microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake with magnitude 3.0 occurred in the Seoul Metropolitan Capital Area (SNCA), Korea, on 9 February 2010. The earthquake attracted much attention and raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million and is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2011 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including 2 previously reported events and 9 newly identified ones. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative event (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using first motions. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. The orientation of P-axis is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of earthquakes in this study is far from any complete, although we have adopted a well-established method to detect earthquakes. Considering the low seismicity, extensive efforts to monitor the micro-seismicity are definitely required to obtain comprehensive picture of the seismicity pattern in

  18. Analysis on the flood vulnerability in the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area, Korea using spatial database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mung-Jin

    2015-04-01

    In the future, temperature rises and precipitation increases are expected from climate change due to global warming. Concentrated heavy rain, typhoons, flooding, and other weather phenomena bring hydrologic variations. In this study, the flood susceptibility of the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area was analyzed and validated using a GIS based on a frequency ratio model and a logistic regression model with training and validation datasets of the flooded area. The flooded area in 2010 was used to train the model, and the flooded area in 2011 was used to validate the model. Using data is that topographic, geological, and soil data from the study areas were collected, processed, and digitized for use in a GIS. Maps relevant to the specific capacity were assembled in a spatial database. Then, flood susceptibility maps were created. Finally, the flood susceptibility maps were validated using the flooded area in 2011, which was not used for training. To represent the flood susceptible areas, this study used the probability-frequency ratio. The frequency ratio is the probability of occurrence of a certain attribute. Logistic regression allows for investigation of multivariate regression relations between one dependent and several independent variables. Logistic regression has a limit in that the calculation process cannot be traced because it repeats calculations to find the optimized regression equation for determining the possibility that the dependent variable will occur. In case of Seoul, The frequency ratio and logistic regression model results showed 79.61% and 79.05% accuracy. And the case of Busan, logistic regression model results showed 82.30%. This information and the maps generated from it could be applied to flood prevention and management. In addition, the susceptibility map provides meaningful information for decision-makers regarding priority areas for implementing flood mitigation policies.

  19. Radiocarbon-Based Source apportionment of Elemental Carbon Aerosols at Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerian Ghahferrokhi, Farid; Ahn, Jinho; Czimczik, Claudia I.; Holden, Sandra; Park, JinSoo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, 10 samples of PM2.5 (aerosol particle with diameter less than 2.5 μm) were collected in the Northeast of Seoul (37.60o N, 127.05o E), South Korea, over 2-4 day periods in May and June of 2015 with a high volume air sampler. The samples were analyzed for their bulk carbon (TC) and nitrogen (N) elemental and stable isotope composition with EA-IRMS. Elemental carbon (EC) was quantified with the Swiss_4S protocol using a Sunset OC/EC analyzer. Both, TC and EC were analyzed for their radiocarbon (14C) content via accelerator mass spectrometry. The mass and isotopic composition of organic carbon (OC) was quantified by (isotope) mass balance. TC loads were 6.6 +/- 1.5 ug C m-3 air (ave. +/- sd; range 4.7-9.7), with a ∆14C ranging from 240 to -446 per mill and a δ13C of -25.4+/-0.3 per mill. EC was a minor fraction of TC (7.2+/-1.9% or 0.5+/-0.2 ug C m-3 air). EC was strongly depleted in 14C (∆14C = -915 to -819 per mill), with fossil sources accounting for 88+/-3% of EC (6.3+/-1.7% of TC). OC was enriched in 14C above natural levels (∆14C = -401 to 309 per mill), and thus could not be partitioned into fossil and modern sources. Local wind directions showed that air masses originated from the South, demonstrating that regional sources may be the crucial contributor to PM pollution in Seoul during that sampling period (early summer).

  20. Origin and Migration of the Pollutants in Precipitation and Surface Water in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I.; Lim, C.; Yu, J.

    2002-12-01

    Variations in abundance of stable isotopes of sulfur, hydrogen, and oxygen are studied on snow and rainwater samples from Seoul area. Their suitability as a tool for characterizing the seasonality and source of regions near Korea, which contribute to the pollution in Seoul Area was investigated. Also stable isotopic and chemical evidence has been used to trace the sources of sulfate in precipitation at study area and to distinguish sulfate between natural and anthropogenic origins. The contribution of different sources to a specific receptor site depends on emission patterns and meteorological conditions. Measured isotope ratios reflect the actual superposition of the distinct source types based on the assumption that no major isotope fractionation occurs during the transportation process between source region and sampling site. The sulfur isotopic composition of sulfate (δ34S) in precipitation decreased during spring and summer. The δ34S values ranged from +4.4 to +6.5› (mean +5.9›) in winter and from +3.7 to 4.8› (mean +4.3›) in summer. Furthermore, the isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in the snow and rainwater samples were used to support the meteorological information. The δ34S value of the sulfate in precipitation shows characteristic patterns of seasonal variation in the present research. Seasonal variations of the δ34S values and their relation to chemical composition of the atmospheric pollutants are discussed taking into account the δ34S values of sulfur originating from sea salt, oil and coal combustion, and biogenic activity. Also, the δ34S values of sulfate in the atmospheric pollutants show a remarkable seasonal variation depending on the wind directions. The relationship between wind direction and seasonal variation can be explained by contribution of sulfur from coal combustion in northern China and southern China.

  1. Guidelines for biomarker testing in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: a national consensus of the Spanish Society of Pathology and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology.

    PubMed

    García-Carbonero, R; Vilardell, F; Jiménez-Fonseca, P; González-Campora, R; González, E; Cuatrecasas, M; Capdevila, J; Aranda, I; Barriuso, J; Matías-Guiu, X

    2014-03-01

    The annual incidence of neuroendocrine tumours in the Caucasian population ranges from 2.5 to 5 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours is a family of neoplasms widely variable in terms of anatomical location, hormone composition, clinical syndromes they cause and in their biological behaviour. This high complexity and clinical heterogeneity, together with the known difficulty of predicting their behaviour from their pathological features, are reflected in the many classifications that have been developed over the years in this field. This article reviews the main tissue and clinical biomarkers and makes recommendations for their use in medical practice. This document represents a consensus reached jointly by the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) and the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP).

  2. Optimization of Seoul-Fluor-based lipid droplet bioprobes and their application in microalgae for bio-fuel study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngjun; Na, Sangcheol; Lee, Sanghee; Jeon, Noo Li; Park, Seung Bum

    2013-05-01

    We synthesized a series of Seoul-Fluor-based lipid droplet bioprobes with a linear range of lipophilicity and identified SF44 and SF58 as SF-based LD bioprobes in microalgae for biofuel research as well as in mammalian cells. Unlike Nile Red, SF-based bioprobes can stain algal LDs with excellent efficiency under the non-invasive and non-cytotoxic conditions.

  3. Atmospheric versus lithogenic contribution to the composition of first- and second-order stream waters in Seoul and its vicinity.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Choi, Byoung-Young

    2004-03-01

    The spatial variations in the chemistry of first- and second-order stream waters (N = 65) were investigated in the easterly bound of Seoul in order to assess the effects of urban air pollution on surface water chemistry. The sulfate (SO4(2-)) was high (range 3.9-17.8 mg l(-1), mean 11.8 mg l(-1)) within 30 km away from the center of Seoul, compared to the levels (range 1.1-7.7 mg l(-1), mean 4.3 mg l(-1)) observed in remote areas (30-70 km away). Both graphical examination and statistical evaluation (variogram) of sulfate concentration data consistently showed the decrease of sulfate concentration with increasing distance. The results of mass balance modeling also indicate that the concentrations of SO4(2-), Cl- and Na+ may be affected mainly by dry/wet deposition. However, the spatial variations of major cations such as Ca2+ and Na+ are well explained by the reaction of rainwater with diverse rocks in the watercourse. The water type was found to change from Ca(-Na)-SO4) type to Ca(-a)-HCO3 type with the increasing distance. It is thus inferred that the pollutants like SO2 emitted from strong man-made source areas of Seoul are transported to the considerable distance (at least 30 km away) by westerlies and that such mechanism may lead to the changes of the anion composition in surface water. In the remote area (> 30 km away from Seoul), the stream water chemistry appears to be influenced more effectively by the weathering of rock-forming minerals.

  4. Genetic analyses of Acanthamoeba isolates from contact lens storage cases of students in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hak-Sun; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Hyo-Kyung; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2001-01-01

    We conducted both the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA RFLP analyses for a genetic characterization of Acanthamoeba isolates from contact lens storage cases of students in Seoul, Korea. Twenty-three strains of Acanthamoeba from the American Type Culture Collection and twelve clinical isolates from Korean patients were used as reference strains. Thirty-nine isolates from contact lens storage cases were classified into seven types (KA/LS1, KA/LS2, KA/LS4, KA/LS5, KA/LS7, KA/LS18, KA/LS31). Four types (KA/LS1, KA/LS2, KA/LS5, KA/LS18) including 33 isolates were regarded as A. castellanii complex by riboprints. KA/LS1 type was the most predominant (51.3%) in the present survey area, followed by KA/LS2 (20.9%), and KA/LS5 (7.7%) types. Amoebae of KA/LS1 type had the same mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns as KA/E2 and KA/E12 strains, clinical isolates from Korean keratitis patients. Amoebae of KA/LS2 type had the identical mtDNA RFLP patterns with A. castellanii Ma strain, a corneal isolate from an American patient as amoebae of KA/LS5 type, with KA/E3 and KA/E8 strains from other Korean keratitis patients. Amoebae of KA/LS18 type had identical patterns with JAC/E1, an ocular isolate from a Japanese patient. Three types, which remain unidentified at species level, were not corresponded with any clinical isolate in their mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns. Out of 39 isolates analyzed in this study, mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns of 33 isolates (84.6%) were identical to already known clinical isolates, and therefore, they may be regarded as potentially keratopathogenic. These results suggest that contact lens wearers in Seoul should pay more attention to hygienic maintenance of contact lens storage cases for the prevention of Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:11441503

  5. Genetic analyses of Acanthamoeba isolates from contact lens storage cases of students in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yu, H S; Choi, K H; Kim, H K; Kong, H H; Chung, D I

    2001-06-01

    We conducted both the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA RFLP analyses for a genetic characterization of Acanthamoeba isolates from contact lens storage cases of students in Seoul, Korea. Twenty-three strains of Acanthamoeba from the American Type Culture Collection and twelve clinical isolates from Korean patients were used as reference strains. Thirty-nine isolates from contact lens storage cases were classified into seven types (KA/LS1, KA/LS2, KA/LS4, KA/LS5, KA/LS7, KA/LS18, KA/LS31). Four types (KA/LS1, KA/LS2, KA/LS5, KA/LS18) including 33 isolates were regarded as A. castellanii complex by riboprints. KA/LS1 type was the most predominant (51.3%) in the present survey area, followed by KA/LS2 (20.9%), and KA/LS5 (7.7%) types. Amoebae of KA/LS1 type had the same mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns as KA/E2 and KA/E12 strains, clinical isolates from Korean keratitis patients. Amoebae of KA/LS2 type had the identical mtDNA RFLP patterns with A. castellanii Ma strain, a corneal isolate from an American patient as amoebae of KA/LS5 type, with KA/E3 and KA/E8 strains from other Korean keratitis patients. Amoebae of KA/LS18 type had identical patterns with JAC/E1, an ocular isolate from a Japanese patient. Three types, which remain unidentified at species level, were not corresponded with any clinical isolate in their mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns. Out of 39 isolates analyzed in this study, mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns of 33 isolates (84.6%) were identical to already known clinical isolates, and therefore, they may be regarded as potentially keratopathogenic. These results suggest that contact lens wearers in Seoul should pay more attention to hygienic maintenance of contact lens storage cases for the prevention of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

  6. Long-term trend of the mass and chemical species' concentrations in PM2.5 at Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Kim, Y. P.; Lim, H. J.; Shin, H. J.; Moon, K. J.; Hong, Y. D.; Park, S.

    2015-12-01

    Particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has detrimental effects on human health as well as the environmental effects such as climate change. Thus, understanding trends of the mass concentration and chemical compounds of PM2.5 is needed to establish appropriate policy. The objectives of this study are (1) collecting data and understanding temporal trend of chemical components in PM2.5 at Seoul, and (2) verifying the possible reasons of the trends. The literature data of the mass concentrations of chemical composition of PM2.5, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, OC (Organic Carbon), and EC (Element Carbon) from 1985 to 2014 at Seoul were collected and their trends were analyzed. The annual concentrations of particulate matters both PM10 and PM2.5 at Seoul have been continuously decreased. The concentrations of ionic component in PM2.5 showed different trends, sulfate decreased during the 1990s but no trend was observed after 2000s while nitrate and ammonium increased during the 2000s. The trend of OC showed no distinctive trend while the EC concentrations decreased.

  7. Social status does not predict responses to Seoul virus infection or reproductive success among male Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Ella R; Hannah, Michele F; Norris, Douglas E; Glass, Gregory E; Klein, Sabra L

    2006-03-01

    Trade-offs exist among life history strategies that are used to increase survival and reproduction; such that, males that engage in more competitive behaviors may be more susceptible to infection. Hantaviruses are transmitted horizontally between rodents through the passage of virus in saliva during wounding and male rodents are more likely to be infected with hantaviruses than females. To determine whether a trade-off exists between dominance and susceptibility to Seoul virus infection, male Long Evans rats were group housed (3/cage) with a female rat and aggressive and subordinate behaviors were monitored during a 10 day group housing condition. After behavioral testing, males were individually housed, inoculated with Seoul virus, and blood, saliva, and fecal samples were collected. Dominant males initiated more aggressive encounters than subordinate males. Dominant and subordinate males, however, had similar steroid hormone concentrations, anti-Seoul virus IgG responses, and weight gain over the course of infection. A similar proportion of dominant and subordinate males shed virus in saliva and feces during infection. Using microsatellite DNA markers paternity was assigned to pups derived during the group housing period. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, dominant and subordinate males sired a similar percentage of pups. Taken together, host social status may not predict reproductive success or susceptibility to hantaviruses in rodent reservoir populations.

  8. Impact of outdoor air pollution on the incidence of tuberculosis in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung-sik; Kang, Sungchan; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Sung Koo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Although indoor air pollution is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), the possible link between outdoor air pollution and TB development has not been examined fully. We assessed the impact of outdoor air pollution on TB development in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea. Methods The mean concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 levels in Seoul, between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2006, were determined. Furthermore, their association with the risk of developing TB after adjusting for socioeconomic status, between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, was investigated. Results Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, a total of 41,185 TB cases were reported in Seoul. Concentrations of PM10, O3, CO, and NO2 were not associated with TB incidence in males or females. However, the interquartile increase in SO2 concentration was associated with a 7% increment in TB incidence (relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.03 to 1.12) in males but not in females (RR, 1.02; 95% CrI, 0.98 to 1.07). Conclusions Long-term exposure to ambient SO2 increased the risk of TB in males. PMID:24648801

  9. Validation of aerosol and cloud layer structures from the space-borne lidar CALIOP using a ground-based lidar in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; Berthier, S.; Raut, J.-C.; Chazette, P.; Dulac, F.; Yoon, S.-C.

    2008-07-01

    We present initial validation results of the space-borne lidar CALIOP onboard CALIPSO satellite using coincidental observations from a ground-based lidar in Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul, Korea (37.46° N, 126.95° E). We analyze six selected cases between September 2006 and February 2007, including 3 daytime and 3 night-time observations and covering different types of clear and cloudy atmospheric conditions. Apparent scattering ratios calculated from the two lidar measurements of total attenuated backscatter at 532 nm show similar aerosol and cloud layer structures both under cloud-free conditions and in cases of multiple aerosol layers underlying semi-transparent cirrus clouds. Agreement on top and base heights of cloud and aerosol layers is generally within 0.10 km, particularly during night-time. This result confirms that the CALIPSO science team algorithms for the discrimination of cloud and aerosol as well as for the detection of layer top and base altitude provide reliable information in such atmospheric conditions. This accuracy of the planetary boundary layer top height under cirrus cloud appears, however, limited during daytime. Under thick cloud conditions, however, information on the cloud top (bottom) height only is reliable from CALIOP (ground-based lidar) due to strong signal attenuations. However, simultaneous space-borne CALIOP and ground-based SNU lidar (SNU-L) measurements complement each other and can be combined to provide full information on the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds. An aerosol backscatter-to-extinction ratio (BER) estimated from lidar and sunphotometer synergy at the SNU site during the CALIOP overpass is assessed to be 0.023±0.004 sr-1 (i.e. a lidar ratio of 43.2±6.2 sr) from CALIOP and 0.027±0.006 sr-1 (37.4±7.2 sr) from SNU-L. For aerosols within the planetary boundary layer under cloud-free conditions, the aerosol extinction profiles from both lidars are in agreement within about 0.02 km-1. Under semi

  10. Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air at Four Residential Locations in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ho, Duy Xuan; Park, Chan Goo; Ma, Chang-Jin; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Lee, Sung Chun; Jeong, Ho Jin; Lee, Soon Hee

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the environmental behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban areas, their concentrations were measured at four urban monitoring sites (namely, N, S, E, and W) in Seoul, Korea (February to December 2009). A total of 27 compounds were quantified that consist of four chemical groups: aromatic (AR), halogenated aromatic, halogenated paraffin, and halogenated olefin. Results were evaluated by focusing on these four functional groups just mentioned and their summation term as total VOC (TVOC) along with several individual species (mainly AR species, that is, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene). The highest concentration of chemical groups was found from AR (71.1±42.1 ppbC), while that for individual species confirmed the dominance of toluene (7.48±3.88 ppb). The analysis of spatial distribution indicated that high TVOC levels were recorded at sites N and W, while it was not so significant such as S and E in terms of TVOC budget. Seasonal variation of these VOCs was characterized by the peak values in December to reflect the combined effects of pronounced source activities and meteorological conditions. Analysis of spatial variations in VOC levels between the four urban sites indicated that their distributions are tightly affected by local source processes in each area. PMID:22969269

  11. Epidemiological characteristics of the first water-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Shinje; Kwak, Wooseok; Lee, Sangwon; Kim, Won; Oh, Jaeyeon; Youn, Seung-Ki

    2013-07-01

    The first case of human cryptosporidiosis was reported in Korea in 1995; however, an outbreak of Cryptosporidium has not been reported in Korea until now. This paper describes the first outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Korea. On May 24, 2012, a local public health center filed a report on 126 residents with gastrointestinal symptoms in an old apartment complex in Seoul. Epidemiological investigations were implemented on 125 of the 126 patients. The patients were reported continuously over a period of 22 days. Diarrhea was the most common clinical symptom, and lasted for 5 days on average. The tap water was the only common exposure of the patients. During the environmental investigation it was discovered that the water and septic tanks were situated closely and that the waste water pipes were corroded where they passed over the water pipes. Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 3 of the 7 stool specimens by PCR-RFLP. A number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were also detected in the water specimens from the water tank. In conclusion, Cryptosporidium parvum was the key causal pathogen of this outbreak. It is presumed that the tap water was contaminated by a sewage leak from the aged pipelines.

  12. Assessment of Urban Vegetation using Remote Sensing Data: a Case Study in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, J.; Yeom, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Vegetation in the city has various positive effects on the entire urban ecosystem: it reduces CO2 and air temperature, improves air quality, helps to maintain the water balance of natural ground, decreases surface overflow during floods, and provides food source as well as living space for diverse wildlife. Urban green areas also have a social and educational role, e.g. for recreational activity, positive experience in a natural environment, and perception of seasonal changes. In addition, citizens can find a balance between urban green and built up spaces. However, the very high intensity of land use in urban areas changes the local urban ecosystem to a large degree and leads to enormous stress for the urban vegetation. In this study, we aim to develop a method for assessing effects of urban vegetation on ecosystem function using remote sensing technology. We use multispectral RapidEye satellite and LiDAR data for the classification of urban vegetation types in metropolitan area Seoul and test different kinds of vegetation indices focusing on the red edge of RapidEye data to assess the stress degree of the vegetation.

  13. Urban Flood Management with Integrated Inland-River System in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Y. I.; Kim, J. S.; Yuk, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming and climate change have caused significant damage and loss of life worldwide. The pattern of natural disasters has gradually diversified and their frequency is increasing. The impact of climate change on flood risk in urban rivers is of particular interest because these areas are typically densely populated. The occurrence of urban river flooding due to climate change not only causes significant loss of life and property but also causes health and social problems. It is therefore necessary to develop a scientific urban flood management system to cope with and reduce the impacts of climate change, including flood damage. In this study, we are going to introduce Integrated Inland-River Flood Analysis System in Seoul to conduct predictions on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and perform prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded areas. In addition, this urban flood management system can be used as a tool for decision making of systematic disaster prevention through real-time monitoring.

  14. Changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area Urban Heat Environment with Residential Redevelopment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Je-Woo; Hong, Jinkyu

    2016-04-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the geographical extent of cities has increased around the world. In particular, following three decades of rapid regional economic growth, many Asian megacities have emerged and continue to expand. Short-term urban redevelopment is, therefore, inevitable. However, in this region the microclimatic impacts of urban redevelopment have not been extensively investigated using long-term in-situ observations. In this study, changes in surface sensible heat exchange, heat storage, and anthropogenic heat emissions due to urban residential redevelopment were quantified and analyzed based on a three-year micrometeorological record from the Seoul metropolitan area. The results show that following urban redevelopment of compact high-rise residential buildings, 1) the daily minimum air temperature near the ground surface increased by ˜0.6 K; 2) the ratio between surface sensible heat and net radiation increased by ˜ 9% (summer) to 31% (winter), anthropogenic heat emissions increased by 12 Wm-2 (spring) to 26 Wm-2 (summer), and daily maximum heat storage ranged by 35 Wm-2 (spring) to 55 Wm-2 (summer), and; 3) there was a transition of local circulation with changes in the surface properties of heat sources and roughness.

  15. Assessment of radiation exposure from cesium-137 contaminated roads for epidemiological studies in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Keun; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik; Yim, Sang-Hyuk; Yoo, Sang-Chul; Lee, Jieon; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Burm, Eunae; Ha, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the radiation exposure for epidemiologic investigation in residents exposed to radiation from roads that were accidentally found to be contaminated with radioactive cesium-137 (137Cs) in Seoul. Methods Using information regarding the frequency and duration of passing via the 137Cs contaminated roads or residing/working near the roads from the questionnaires that were obtained from 8875 residents and the measured radiation doses reported by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, we calculated the total cumulative dose of radiation exposure for each person. Results Sixty-three percent of the residents who responded to the questionnaire were considered as ever-exposed and 1% of them had a total cumulative dose of more than 10 mSv. The mean (minimum, maximum) duration of radiation exposure was 4.75 years (0.08, 11.98) and the geometric mean (minimum, maximum) of the total cumulative dose was 0.049 mSv (<0.001, 35.35) in the exposed. Conclusions An individual exposure assessment was performed for an epidemiological study to estimate the health risk among residents living in the vicinity of 137Cs contaminated roads. The average exposure dose in the exposed people was less than 5% of the current guideline. PMID:26184047

  16. First molecular detection and genetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter cats in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Park, Sang-Joon; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-12-01

    Here, we report the molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter cats in Korea and the relationships between A. phagocytophilum gene sequences and the pathogenicity, region, and host specificity of this bacterium. Two (0.9%) out of 222 shelter cats from Seoul, Korea, yielded positive results for the A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes. Phylogenetic analysis divided groEL gene sequences into two groups (alanine and serine), based on their nucleotide and amino acid sequences. A. phagocytophilum msp2 gene sequences were grouped per the region of isolation (Europe vs. USA, including Korea). Some nucleotide and amino acid sequences of groEL and msp2 showed distinctive patterns according to the region of isolation, which helped in distinguishing A. phagocytophilum gene sequences detected in Korea from those detected in the USA and Europe. Although the limited number of clinical anaplasmosis cases caused by A. phagocytophilum belonging to the alanine group prevents any firm conclusions, the results of the present study tend to refute the previous view that the pathogenicity of A. phagocytophilum is associated with the serine group. Moreover, our results suggest that genetic analyses of groEL and msp2 can be used to obtain a regional fingerprint of A. phagocytophilum.

  17. First molecular detection and genetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter cats in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Park, Sang-Joon; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-10-29

    Here, we report the molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter cats in Korea and the relationships between A. phagocytophilum gene sequences and the pathogenicity, region, and host specificity of this bacterium. Two (0.9%) out of 222 shelter cats from Seoul, Korea, yielded positive results for the A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes. Phylogenetic analysis divided groEL gene sequences into two groups (alanine and serine), based on their nucleotide and amino acid sequences. A. phagocytophilum msp2 gene sequences were grouped per the region of isolation (Europe vs. USA, including Korea). Some nucleotide and amino acid sequences of groEL and msp2 showed distinctive patterns according to the region of isolation, which helped in distinguishing A. phagocytophilum gene sequences detected in Korea from those detected in the USA and Europe. Although the limited number of clinical anaplasmosis cases caused by A. phagocytophilum belonging to the alanine group prevents any firm conclusions, the results of the present study tend to refute the previous view that the pathogenicity of A. phagocytophilum is associated with the serine group. Moreover, our results suggest that genetic analyses of groEL and msp2 can be used to obtain a regional fingerprint of A. phagocytophilum.

  18. Simulating urban-scale air pollutants and their predicting capabilities over the Seoul metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Soo; Lee, Suk-Jo; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Yoo, Chul; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2004-06-01

    Urban-scale air pollutants for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter > or = 10 microm, and ozone (O3) were simulated over the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea, during the period of July 2-11, 2002, and their predicting capabilities were discussed. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) and the highly disaggregated anthropogenic and the biogenic gridded emissions (1 km x 1 km) recently prepared by the Korean Ministry of Environment were applied. Wind fields with observational nudging in the prognostic meteorological model TAPM are optionally adopted to comparatively examine the meteorological impact on the prediction capabilities of urban-scale air pollutants. The result shows that the simulated concentrations of secondary air pollutant largely agree with observed levels with an index of agreement (IOA) of >0.6, whereas IOAs of approximately 0.4 are found for most primary pollutants in the major cities, reflecting the quality of emission data in the urban area. The observationally nudged wind fields with higher IOAs have little effect on the prediction for both primary and secondary air pollutants, implying that the detailed wind field does not consistently improve the urban air pollution model performance if emissions are not well specified. However, the robust highest concentrations are better described toward observations by imposing observational nudging, suggesting the importance of wind fields for the predictions of extreme concentrations such as robust highest concentrations, maximum levels, and >90th percentiles of concentrations for both primary and secondary urban-scale air pollutants.

  19. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater in Seoul, South Korea: effects of land-use and pollutant recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byoung-Young; Yun, Seong-Taek; Yu, Soon-Young; Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Park, Seong-Sook; Chae, Gi-Tak; Mayer, Bernhard

    2005-10-01

    The ionic and isotopic compositions (δD, δ18O, and 3H) of urban groundwaters have been monitored in Seoul to examine the water quality in relation to land-use. High tritium contents (6.1-12.0 TU) and the absence of spatial/seasonal change of O-H isotope data indicate that groundwaters are well mixed within aquifers with recently recharged waters of high contamination susceptibility. Statistical analyses show a spatial variation of major ions in relation to land-use type. The major ion concentrations tend to increase with anthropogenic contamination, due to the local pollutants recharge. The TDS concentration appears to be a useful contamination indicator, as it generally increases by the order of forested green zone (average 151 mg/l), agricultural area, residential area, traffic area, and industrialized area (average 585 mg/l). With the increased anthropogenic contamination, the groundwater chemistry changes from a Ca-HCO3 type toward a Ca-Cl(+NO3) type. The source and behavior of major ions are discussed and the hydrochemical backgrounds are proposed as the basis of a groundwater management plan.

  20. Phosphorus release rates from sediments and pollutant characteristics in Han River, Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lee-Hyung; Choi, Euiso; Gil, Kyung-Ik; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2004-04-05

    The Han River is 469.7-km long and drains a 26219-km(2) watershed. The sediments in the river are highly polluted due to inputs from upstream tributaries as well as partially treated municipal wastewaters that are discharged to the river. The water quality and strategy for control are important because the river is the primary drinking water supply for the City of Seoul, as well as being a major source for irrigation and industrial water. The Jamsil submerged dam partitions the river to isolate an upstream area for drinking water, but also captures sediments. Samples from four sites were studied to determine sediment pollutant concentrations and phosphorus release rates. Phosphorus tends to desorb from sediments when the concentration of overlying water is less than 1.4 mg/l. Water column P concentrations range from 0.04 to 0.1 mg/l, which suggests that sediments will act as a P source. In a series of batch experiments, P was released at approximately 15-20 mg/m(2)week in the winter (1-5 degrees C) and as much as 90 mg/m(2)week in the summer (20-24 degrees C), and is also a function of pH and dissolved oxygen concentration. The sediment total phosphorus concentration, which averages 833 mg/kg, is evenly distributed among non-apatite-P (33%), apatite-P (32%) and residual-P (34%). An equilibrium model is proposed to describe release rate.

  1. Diurnal variation of on-road air pollution in an urban street canyon in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Woo, Sung; Lee, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Sunwoo, Young; Ma, Young-Il; Han, Dokyoung; Song, Sanghoo

    2014-05-01

    Motor vehicles are a major source of CO, NOx and particulate matters. Especially, in the surroundings of high-raised buildings, so-called an urban street canyon, air pollution levels increase due to limited dispersion of vehicle emissions. In this study, a mobile laboratory was used to measure diurnal variation of on-road concentrations of air pollutants such as NOx, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon and particle number in the urban street canyon on the Teheran road with eight lanes in Seoul, Korea from 5th to 8th November 2013. Each traveling distance was about 3.3km. Traveling vehicle at the middle of the Teheran road was recorded by video camera, and then the car counting by vehicle types. On road measurements conducted for 3~6 hours per day. Hourly average of air pollutant concentration in morning rush hour more than two times higher than those at the daybreak. We will analyze the correlation between air pollution levels and traffic volume by vehicle types. We will discuss about spatial characteristics of on-road air pollution levels in the urban street canyon.

  2. Responses of Two Invasive Plants Under Various Microclimate Conditions in the Seoul Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, Eun Ju

    2012-06-01

    The possible consequences of global warming on plant communities and ecosystems have wide-ranging ramifications. We examined how environmental change affects plant growth as a function of the variations in the microclimate along an urban-suburban climate gradient for two allergy-inducing, invasive plants, Humulus japonicus and Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior. The environmental factors and plant growth responses were measured at two urban sites (Gangbuk and Seongbuk) and two suburban sites (Goyang and Incheon) around Seoul, South Korea. The mean temperatures and CO2 concentrations differed significantly between the urban (14.8 °C and 439 ppm CO2) and suburban (13.0 °C and 427 ppm CO2) sites. The soil moisture and nitrogen contents of the suburban sites were higher than those at the urban sites, especially for the Goyang site. The two invasive plants showed significantly higher biomasses and nitrogen contents at the two urban sites. We conducted experiments in a greenhouse to confirm the responses of the plants to increased temperatures, and we found consistently higher growth rates under conditions of higher temperatures. Because we controlled the other factors, the better performance of the two invasive plants appears to be primarily attributable to their responses to temperature. Our study demonstrates that even small temperature changes in the environment can confer significant competitive advantages to invasive species. As habitats become urbanized and warmer, these invasive plants should be able to displace native species, which will adversely affect people living in these areas.

  3. Effect of diurnal temperature range on cardiovascular markers in the elderly in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Bae, Sanghyuk; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2013-07-01

    While diurnal temperature range (DTR) has been found to be a risk factor for mortality, evaluation of the underlying mechanisms involved in this association are lacking. To explain the association between DTR and health effects, we investigated how cardiovascular markers responded to DTR. Data was obtained from 560 participants who regularly attended a community elderly welfare center located in Seoul, Korea. Data collection was conducted a total of five times over a 3-year period beginning in August, 2008. We examined systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Mixed-effects models and generalized additive mixed models were used to assess the relationship of DTR with BP, HR, and HRV. BP was not associated significantly with rapid temperature changes during the day. While HR was associated linearly with increments of DTR, the relationship between DTR and HRV showed nonlinear associations, or the presence of a cutoff around median DTR. At the cutoff level of DTR determined by an inflection point in the graph, standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and root mean square successive difference (RMSSD) were peaked, whereas the low frequency:high frequency (LF:HF) ratio was elevated with decreasing DTR below the cutoff level. The study demonstrated that HR increases with increasing temperature range during the day, and that HRV is reduced at small or large DTR, which suggests minimal cardiovascular stress around the median level of temperature range during the day.

  4. Impact of future urban growth on regional climate changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsu; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-11-15

    The influence of changes in future urban growth (e.g., land use changes) on the future climate variability in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), Korea was evaluated using the WRF model and an urban growth model (SLEUTH). The land use changes in the study area were simulated using the SLEUTH model under three different urban growth scenarios: (1) current development trends scenario (SC 1), (2) managed development scenario (SC 2) and (3) ecological development scenario (SC 3). The maximum difference in the ratio of urban growth between SC 1 and SC 3 (SC 1 - SC 3) for 50years (2000-2050) was approximately 6.72%, leading to the largest differences (0.01°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively) in the mean air temperature at 2m (T2) and wind speed at 10m (WS10). From WRF-SLEUTH modeling, the effects of future urban growth (or future land use changes) in the SMA are expected to result in increases in the spatial mean T2 and WS10 of up to 1.15°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively, possibly due to thermal circulation caused by the thermal differences between urban and rural regions.

  5. Land-use regression panel models of NO2 concentrations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngkook; Guldmann, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-01

    Transportation and land-use activities are major air pollution contributors. Since their shares of emissions vary across space and time, so do air pollution concentrations. Despite these variations, panel data have rarely been used in land-use regression (LUR) modeling of air pollution. In addition, the complex interactions between traffic flows, land uses, and meteorological variables, have not been satisfactorily investigated in LUR models. The purpose of this research is to develop and estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) panel models based on the LUR framework with data for Seoul, Korea, accounting for the impacts of these variables, and their interactions with spatial and temporal dummy variables. The panel data vary over several scales: daily (24 h), seasonally (4), and spatially (34 intra-urban measurement locations). To enhance model explanatory power, wind direction and distance decay effects are accounted for. The results show that vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT) and solar radiation have statistically strong positive and negative impacts on NO2 concentrations across the four seasonal models. In addition, there are significant interactions with the dummy variables, pointing to VKT and solar radiation effects on NO2 concentrations that vary with time and intra-urban location. The results also show that residential, commercial, and industrial land uses, and wind speed, temperature, and humidity, all impact NO2 concentrations. The R2 vary between 0.95 and 0.98.

  6. Daily variation of organic aerosol concentration and composition in Seoul, Korea during KORUS pre-campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, H. J.; Lee, J.; Choi, A. Y.; Park, S. M.; Park, J. S.; Song, I. H.; Hong, Y. D.

    2015-12-01

    Daily variation of Organic Aerosol (OA) as well as organic tracer compounds have been observed in aerosol samples collected during KORUS-AQ (Korea-US Air Quality Study) pre-campaign (From May 18 to June 12) in Seoul, Korea. NR-PM1 bounded OA was measured by HR-TOF-AMS (Aerodyne) and the temporal variation, composition of OA by family group characterization, and oxidation state of OA was studied. And to distinguish the source characteristics (such as HOA, COA, NOA, SV-OOA, LV-OOA, etc…) of the organic, AMS-PMF model will be used.For the observation of organic tracer compounds, solvent extractable fractions were analyzed by GC-MS. More than 80 organic compounds were detected in the aerosol samples and grouped by source characterized classes, including vehicular emission tracers, biomass burning tracers, coal emission tracers, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers. The main objective of this study is evaluation of the validity of OA fractionation based on the AMS measurement. So, we will compare daily variation of OA composition measured by AMS with daily variation of organic tracer compounds. Further, we will specify source characteristics estimated using AMS-PMF model by comparing the results of source apportionment of OA using PMF of organic tracer compounds.

  7. Responses of two invasive plants under various microclimate conditions in the Seoul metropolitan region.

    PubMed

    Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, Eun Ju

    2012-06-01

    The possible consequences of global warming on plant communities and ecosystems have wide-ranging ramifications. We examined how environmental change affects plant growth as a function of the variations in the microclimate along an urban-suburban climate gradient for two allergy-inducing, invasive plants, Humulus japonicus and Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior. The environmental factors and plant growth responses were measured at two urban sites (Gangbuk and Seongbuk) and two suburban sites (Goyang and Incheon) around Seoul, South Korea. The mean temperatures and CO(2) concentrations differed significantly between the urban (14.8 °C and 439 ppm CO(2)) and suburban (13.0 °C and 427 ppm CO(2)) sites. The soil moisture and nitrogen contents of the suburban sites were higher than those at the urban sites, especially for the Goyang site. The two invasive plants showed significantly higher biomasses and nitrogen contents at the two urban sites. We conducted experiments in a greenhouse to confirm the responses of the plants to increased temperatures, and we found consistently higher growth rates under conditions of higher temperatures. Because we controlled the other factors, the better performance of the two invasive plants appears to be primarily attributable to their responses to temperature. Our study demonstrates that even small temperature changes in the environment can confer significant competitive advantages to invasive species. As habitats become urbanized and warmer, these invasive plants should be able to displace native species, which will adversely affect people living in these areas.

  8. Speciation and source identification of organic compounds in PM₁₀ over Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Na Rae; Lee, Se Pyo; Lee, Ji Yi; Jung, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2016-02-01

    Seventy three individual organic compounds in the atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to a nominal 10 μm (PM10) over Seoul were identified and quantified from April 2010 to April 2011 using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These organic compounds were classified into five groups, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-carboxylic acids, di-carboxylic acids (DCAs), and sugars based on their chemical structures and properties. The organic compounds showed higher seasonal average concentrations from fall to winter than from spring to summer due to source strength, except some organic compounds among mono-carboxylic acids, DCAs, sugars such as undecanoic acid, methylmalonic acid, and fructose. Through qualitative data analysis using seasonal concentration variations and relevant diagnostic parameters, it was found that (1) anthropogenic sources such as combustion of fossil fuel and biomass burning attributed more to the formation of the organic aerosols than biogenic sources, and (2) the ambient level of n-alkanes, PAHs, and some compounds of DCAs and sugars was elevated in winter due to the increased primary emissions and larger transport from outside of the organic compounds in winter.

  9. Medical careers in pathology, 1977.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, D N

    1979-01-01

    A survey has been made, mainly covering the second half of 1977, of career grade posts and senior training posts in pathology in the United Kingdom. The survey included all disciplines of pathology and all types of employment--National Health Service, medical school, and many others. The survey also examined the number of applicants for advertised posts and the number of posts left vacant. There were variations between disciplines and between regions; microbiology and Northern Ireland had most failures in filling posts. Overall about 3% of career grade posts, and 15% of training grade posts, were left unfilled. PMID:429573

  10. Discovery, understanding, and bioapplication of organic fluorophore: a case study with an indolizine-based novel fluorophore, Seoul-Fluor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Lee, Youngjun; Lee, Sanghee; Park, Seung Bum

    2015-03-17

    Owing to its high sensitivity and great applicability, the fluorescence phenomenon has been considered as an inevitable research tool in the modern scientific fields of chemistry, biology, materials science, biomedical science, and their interfaces. Many strategies have been pursued to understand and manipulate the photophysical properties of fluorescent materials, but the scientific community has been focused on the repeated application of existing organic fluorophores or the identification of unique fluorescence properties in a trial-and-error basis without systematic studies. Moreover, recent studies are emphasizing the necessity of deeper understanding about the structure-photophysical property relationship of organic fluorophores for the development of better fluorescent probes. Herein, we provide an overview of a novel fluorescent molecular framework, Seoul-Fluor, which can be rationally engineered to furnish a wide variety of fluorophores in terms of the photophysical properties. Seoul-Fluor is built on an indolizine-based fluorescent platform with three different positions to introduce various substituents: R(1) and R(2) substituents for electronic perturbation; R(3) substituent as a functional handle for bioconjugation. Over the past decade, we have demonstrated that the Seoul-Fluor system has (i) tunable and predictable emission wavelength covering a full visible-color range; (ii) controllable quantum yield via photoinduced electron transfer phenomenon; and (iii) environment-sensitive fluorogenic properties that can be modified through intramolecular charge transfer processes. We convincingly demonstrated the prediction of photophysical properties, that is, emission wavelength and quantum yield, through the construction of a systematic set of analogues and the subsequent analysis of their photophysical properties without the highly sophisticated theoretical support. Guided by quantifiable parameters such as the Hammett substituent constants or energy

  11. Analysis of aerosol optical properties over Korea during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul campaign using AERONET and GOCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; KIM, M.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate aerosol characteristics over East Asia, many campaigns using in-situ measurements, ground and satellite based remote sensing, and air quality modeling have been conducted as ACE-Asia in 2001, ABC-EAREX in 2005, and DRAGON-NE Asia in 2012, and planned KORUS-AQ in 2016. Planned KORUS-AQ 2016 campaigns provides excellent opportunity to monitor and analyze air quality including aerosol and trace gases from diverse platform including ground-based, airborne, shipborne and satellite platform. Prior to the upcoming KORUS-AQ campaign, the Megacity Air Pollution Studies (MAPS)-Seoul campaign was held from May 18 to June14, 2015. During the campaign, total 8 AERONET sunphotometers are deployed over Korea. GOCI Yonsei aerosol retrieval (YAER) algorithm was developed, improved and evaluated through the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. GOCI YAER AOD at 550 nm with spatial resolution of 6 km showed good agreement with AERONET AOD (R > 0.88) during the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. In this study, aerosol optical properties from AERONET and GOCI are analyzed together during the MAPS-Seoul campaign. Mean AERONET AOD at 550 nm over a megacity site, Seoul and a coastal site Gosan shows the lowest values in 2015 as 0.338 and 0.214, respectively, compared with values during the same period from 2011 to 2014 (0.557-0.645 at Seoul, and 0.447-0.618 at Gosan). GOCI YAER algorithm uses the minimum reflectivity technique from the composited Rayleigh-corrected reflectance during a month thus low AOD increase a possibility to find clear pixels to obtain accurate surface reflectance. To improve surface reflectance quality, multi-year GOCI data are also analyzed. Furthermore higher spatial resolution retrieval in 3 km is tested to detect small-scale aerosol features and point sources in megacities. DRAGON-NE Asia in 2012, MAPS-Seoul in 2015, and planned KORUS-AQ in 2016 field campaigns contribute to the continuous assessment of GOCI YAER algorithm performance for the improvements.

  12. Guidelines for biomarker testing in colorectal carcinoma (CRC): a national consensus of the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP) and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM).

    PubMed

    García-Alfonso, Pilar; Salazar, Ramón; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Musulén, Eva; García-Carbonero, Rocío; Payá, Artemio; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago; Navarro, Samuel

    2012-10-01

    This consensus statement, conceived as a joint initiative of the Spanish Society of Pathology and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology, makes diagnostic and treatment recommendations for the management of patients with hereditary, localised and advanced CRC based on the current scientific evidence on biomarker use. This consensus statement thus provides an opportunity to improve healthcare efficiency and resource use, which will benefit these patients. Based on the currently available data on this subject, this expert group recommends testing for microsatellite instability (MSI) in patients with localised CRC, as this is a strong predictive factor for deciding on adjuvant treatment. However, although the ColoPrint(®) and Oncotype Dx(®) gene expression signatures have been shown to have prognostic value, no consensus yet exists concerning their use in clinical practice. For advanced CRC, it is essential to test for KRAS mutation status before administering an anti-EGFR treatment, such as cetuximab or panitumumab. However, testing for other biomarkers, such as BRAF, EGFR, PI3K and PTEN mutations, should not be done routinely, because this does not influence treatment planning at the present time. Other important issues addressed include organisational requirements and the quality controls needed for proper testing of these biomarkers as well as the legal implications to be borne in mind when testing some biomarkers.

  13. Guidelines for biomarker testing in metastatic melanoma: a National Consensus of the Spanish Society of Pathology and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Martín-Algarra, S; Fernández-Figueras, M T; López-Martín, J A; Santos-Briz, A; Arance, A; Lozano, M D; Berrocal, A; Ríos-Martín, J J; Espinosa, E; Rodríguez-Peralto, J L

    2014-04-01

    This consensus statement, conceived as a joint initiative of the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP) and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM), makes diagnostic and treatment recommendations for the management of patients with advanced or metastatic melanoma based on the current scientific evidence on biomarker use. This document thus provides an opportunity to improve healthcare efficiency and resource use, which will benefit these patients. Based on the data available so far, this expert group recommends routinely testing patients with metastatic melanoma for BRAF mutation status, as the result affects the subsequent therapeutic management of these patients. The analysis of genetic alterations in KIT may be reasonable in patients with primary tumours in acral or mucosal sites or on chronically sun-exposed skin, in an advanced condition, but not in patients with other types of melanomas. This panel believes that testing for other genetic alterations, such as NRAS mutation status in patients not carrying BRAF mutations, GNAQ/GNA11 mutational analysis or genetic alterations in PTEN, is not currently indicated as routine clinical practice, because the results do not influence treatment planning in these patients at the present time. Other important issues addressed in this document are the organisational requirements and quality controls needed for proper testing of these biomarkers, and the legal implications to be borne in mind.

  14. Effects of land-use type on urban groundwater quality, Seoul metropolitan city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Yun, S.; Chae, G.; So, C.; Kweon, S.; Lee, P.

    2001-12-01

    The progressive degradation of urban groundwater becomes an important environmental problem encountered in South Korea. This study aims to examine the relationships between land-use type and groundwater quality in Seoul metropolitan city, based on the results of hydrogeochemical monitoring. For this purpose, land-use type was divided into five categories (green zone, housing, agricultural, traffic, and industrialized). The mean concentrations of TDS (total dissolved solids) effectively reflect the degree of anthropogenic contamination and increase in the following order: green zone (152.5 mg/l), then agricultural (380.7 mg/l) and housing (384.2 mg/l), then traffic (457.0 mg/l), and finally industrialized area (554.5 mg/l). Among major dissolved solutes, the concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, HCO3, and Cl increase with increasing TDS. In case of Na and Ca, de-icing salts and sewage are considered as major contamination sources. The corrosion of cements may also increase Ca. Nitrate concentration is characteristically very high in housing and agricultural areas, reflecting the severe contamination from domestic sewage and fertilizer. Sulfate and magnesium are enriched in industrialized area, possibly due to their derivation from industrial facilities. Chlorine ion is considered to be derived from de-chlorination of hydrocarbons as well as de-icing salts. Bicarbonate also increases with increasing TDS, for which cement dissolution and oxidation of organics are considered as source materials. However, enhanced water-rock(or construction materials) interaction also may increase the bicarbonate, because acidic wastewater in urban area is very corrosive. Trace metals and organic compounds generally does not show any distinct pattern of regional variation. However, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn, TCE, and PCE tend to increase locally in industrialized area, whereas high concentrations of Br, Ni, and Cu are found in traffic area. The groundwaters with very high concentrations of Fe, Zn, and

  15. First molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sukyee; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the status of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was assessed in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea, with PCR and phylogenetic analyses. Nested PCR on 1058 collected blood samples revealed only one A. phagocytophilum positive sample (female, age <1year, mixed breed, collected from the north of the Han River). The genetic variability of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated by genotyping, using the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 gene sequences of the positive sample. BLASTn analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes had 99.6%, 99.9%, and 100% identity with the following sequences deposited in GenBank: a cat 16S rRNA sequence from Korea (KR021166), a rat groEL sequence from Korea (KT220194), and a water deer msp2 sequence from Korea (HM752099), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses classified the groEL gene into two distinct groups (serine and alanine), whereas the msp2 gene showed a general classification into two groups (USA and Europe) that were further subgrouped according to region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the molecular diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reared in Korea. In addition, the high genetic identity of the 16S rRNA and groEL sequences between humans and dogs from the same region suggests a possible epidemiological relation. Given the conditions of climate change, tick ecology, and recent incidence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Korea, the findings of this study underscore the need to establish appropriate control programs for tick-borne diseases in Korea.

  16. Chemical compositions of subway particles in Seoul, Korea determined by a quantitative single particle analysis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sunni; Hwang, HeeJin; Park, YooMyung; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2008-12-15

    A novel single particle analytical technique, low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis, was applied to characterize seasonal subway samples collected at a subway station in Seoul, Korea. For all 8 samples collected twice in each season, 4 major types of subway particles, based on their chemical compositions, are significantly encountered: Fe-containing; soil-derived; carbonaceous; and secondary nitrate and/or sulfate particles. Fe-containing particles are generated indoors from wear processes at rail-wheel-brake interfaces while the others may be introduced mostly from the outdoor urban atmosphere. Fe-containing particles are the most frequently encountered with relative abundances in the range of 61-79%. In this study, it is shown that Fe-containing subway particles almost always exist either as partially or fully oxidized forms in underground subway microenvironments. Their relative abundances of Fe-containing particles increase as particle sizes decrease. Relative abundances of Fe-containing particles are higher in morning samples than in afternoon samples because of heavier train traffic in the morning. In the summertime samples, Fe-containing particles are the most abundantly encountered, whereas soil-derived and nitrate/sulfate particles are the least encountered, indicating the air-exchange between indoor and outdoor environments is limited in the summer, owing to the air-conditioning in the subway system. In our work, it was observed that the relative abundances of the particles of outdoor origin vary somewhat among seasonal samples to a lesser degree, reflecting that indoor emission sources predominate.

  17. Migration of Norway rats resulted in the worldwide distribution of Seoul hantavirus today.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Wang, Wen; Zou, Yang; Hao, Zong-Yu; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Dong, Xue; Qu, Yong-Gang; Li, Ming-Hui; Tian, Hai-Feng; Wen, Jian-Fan; Plyusnin, Alexander; Xu, Jianguo; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Despite the worldwide distribution, most of the known Seoul viruses (SEOV) are closely related to each other. In this study, the M and the S segment sequences of SEOV were recovered from 130 lung tissue samples (mostly of Norway rats) and from six patient serum samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Genetic analysis revealed that all sequences belong to SEOV and represent 136 novel strains. Phylogenetic analysis of all available M and S segment sequences of SEOV, including 136 novel Chinese strains, revealed four distinct groups. All non-Chinese SEOV strains and most of the Chinese variants fell into the phylogroup A, while the Chinese strains originating from mountainous areas clustered into three other distinct groups (B, C, and D). We estimated that phylogroup A viruses may have arisen only within the last several centuries. All non-Chinese variants appeared to be directly originated from China. Thus, phylogroup A viruses distributed worldwide may share a recent ancestor, whereas SEOV seems to be as diversified genetically as other hantaviruses. In addition, all available mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of Norway rats, including our 44 newly recovered mtDNA sequences, were divided into two phylogenetic groups. The first group, which is associated with the group A SEOV variants, included most of rats from China and also all non-Chinese rats, while the second group consisted of a few rats originating only from mountain areas in China. We hypothesize that an ancestor of phylogroup A SEOV variants was first exported from China to Europe and then spread through the New World following the migration of Norway rats.

  18. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater, Seoul, Korea: the impact of subway tunnels on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Yu, Soon-Young; Jo, Ho-Young; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Yun-Jong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2008-10-23

    Hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data for subway tunnel seepage waters in Seoul (Republic of Korea) were examined to understand the effect of underground tunnels on the degradation of urban groundwater. A very large quantity of groundwater (up to 63 million m3 year(-1)) is discharged into subway tunnels with a total length of 287 km, resulting in a significant drop of the local groundwater table and the abandonment of groundwater wells. For the tunnel seepage water samples (n = 72) collected from 43 subway stations, at least one parameter among pathogenic microbes (total coliform, heterotrophic bacteria), dissolved Mn and Fe, NH4+, NO3(-), turbidity, and color exceeded the Korean Drinking Water Standards. Locally, tunnel seepage water was enriched in dissolved Mn (avg. 0.70 mg L(-1), max. 5.58 mg L(-1)), in addition to dissolved Fe, NH4+, and pathogenic microbes, likely due to significant inflow of sewage water from broken or leaking sewer pipes. Geochemical modeling of redox reactions was conducted to simulate the characteristic hydrochemistry of subway tunnel seepage. The results show that variations in the reducing conditions occur in urban groundwater, dependent upon the amount of organic matter-rich municipal sewage contaminating the aquifer. The organic matter facilitates the reduction and dissolution of Mn- and Fe-bearing solids in aquifers and/or tunnel construction materials, resulting in the successive increase of dissolved Mn and Fe. The present study clearly demonstrates that locally significant deterioration of urban groundwater is caused by a series of interlinked hydrogeologic and hydrochemical changes induced by underground tunnels.

  19. Migration of Norway Rats Resulted in the Worldwide Distribution of Seoul Hantavirus Today

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Wang, Wen; Zou, Yang; Hao, Zong-Yu; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Dong, Xue; Qu, Yong-Gang; Li, Ming-Hui; Tian, Hai-Feng; Wen, Jian-Fan; Plyusnin, Alexander; Xu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Despite the worldwide distribution, most of the known Seoul viruses (SEOV) are closely related to each other. In this study, the M and the S segment sequences of SEOV were recovered from 130 lung tissue samples (mostly of Norway rats) and from six patient serum samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Genetic analysis revealed that all sequences belong to SEOV and represent 136 novel strains. Phylogenetic analysis of all available M and S segment sequences of SEOV, including 136 novel Chinese strains, revealed four distinct groups. All non-Chinese SEOV strains and most of the Chinese variants fell into the phylogroup A, while the Chinese strains originating from mountainous areas clustered into three other distinct groups (B, C, and D). We estimated that phylogroup A viruses may have arisen only within the last several centuries. All non-Chinese variants appeared to be directly originated from China. Thus, phylogroup A viruses distributed worldwide may share a recent ancestor, whereas SEOV seems to be as diversified genetically as other hantaviruses. In addition, all available mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of Norway rats, including our 44 newly recovered mtDNA sequences, were divided into two phylogenetic groups. The first group, which is associated with the group A SEOV variants, included most of rats from China and also all non-Chinese rats, while the second group consisted of a few rats originating only from mountain areas in China. We hypothesize that an ancestor of phylogroup A SEOV variants was first exported from China to Europe and then spread through the New World following the migration of Norway rats. PMID:22090114

  20. Installation of platform screen doors and their impact on indoor air quality: Seoul subway trains.

    PubMed

    Son, Youn-Suk; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Lee, Hyung Joo; Ryu, In-Cheol; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2014-09-01

    In this study, variations of particulate matter (PM) concentrations in subway trains following installation of platform screen doors (PSDs) in the Seoul subway system were investigated. PM samples were collected in the trains on subway lines 1-8 before and after installation of PSDs. It was found that the mean PM10 concentration in the trains after PSDs installation increased significantly by 29.9% compared to that before installation. In particular, the increase of PM10 in line 6 was the highest at 103%. When the relationship between PM10 and PM2.5 was compared, coefficients of determination (r2) before and after PSDs installations were 0.696 and 0.169, respectively. This suggests that air mixing between the platform and the tunnel after PSDs installation was extremely restricted. In addition, the indoor/outdoor PM10 ratio following PSDs installation increased from 1.32 to 2.97 relative to the period with no installed PSDs. Furthermore, this study revealed that PM levels in subway trains increased significantly after all underground PSDs were put in use. Several potential factors were examined that could result in this PM increase, such as train ventilation systems, operational conditions, passenger volume, subway depth, and the length of underground segments. Implications: PM10 concentrations inside the subway trains increased after PSDs installation. This indicates that air quality in trains was very seriously impacted by PSDs. PM10 levels were also influenced by the tunnel depth and length of the underground segments. To prevent the adverse effect on human health by PM10 emitted from the tunnel, an applicable ventilation system to reduce PM10 is required inside trains and tunnels.

  1. [Once again: theoretical pathology].

    PubMed

    Bleyl, U

    2010-07-01

    Theoretical pathology refers to the attempt to reintroduce methodical approaches from the humanities, philosophical logic and "gestalt philosophy" into medical research and pathology. Diseases, in particular disease entities and more complex polypathogenetic mechanisms of disease, have a "gestalt quality" due to the significance of their pathophysiologic coherence: they have a "gestalt". The Research group Theoretical Pathology at the Academy of Science in Heidelberg are credited with having revitalized the philosophical notion of "gestalt" for morphological and pathological diagnostics. Gestalt means interrelated schemes of pathophysiological significance in the mind of the diagnostician. In pathology, additive and associative diagnostic are simply not possible without considering the notion of synthetic entities in Kant's logic.

  2. Wavelength dependence of Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo observed by skyradiometer in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Eck, Thomas F.; Lee, Yun Gon; Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Mijin; Jung, Ukkyo; Yoon, Jongmin; Mok, Jungbin; Cho, Hi-Ku

    2016-11-01

    Absorption and scattering characteristics of various aerosol events are investigated using 2-years of measurements from a skyradiometer at Yonsei University in Seoul, Korea. Both transported dust and anthropogenic aerosols are observed at distinct geo-location of Seoul, a megacity located a few thousand kilometers away from dust source regions in China. We focus on the wavelength dependence of Ångström exponent (AE) and single scattering albedo (SSA), showing the characteristics of regional aerosols. The correlation between spectral SSAs and AEs calculated using different wavelength pairs generally indicates relatively weak absorption of fine-mode aerosols (urban pollution and/or biomass burning) and strong absorption of coarse-mode aerosols (desert dust) at this location. AE ratio (AER), a ratio of AEs calculated using wavelength pair between shorter (340-675 nm) and longer wavelength pair (675-1020 nm) correlates differently with SSA according to the dominant size of local aerosols. Correlations between SSA and AER show strong absorption of aerosols for AER < 1.0 and weak absorption for AER > 2.0. Based on the seasonal pattern of wavelength dependence of AER and SSA, this correlation difference looks to reveal the separated characteristics of transported dust and anthropogenic particles from urban pollution respectively. The seasonal characteristics of AER and SSAs also show that the skyradiometer measurement with multiple wavelengths may be able to detect the water soluble brown carbon, one of the important secondary organic aerosols in the summertime atmospheric composition.

  3. Low consumption of fruits and dairy foods is associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults from outpatient clinics in and near Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Song, SuJin; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Soyoung; Shin, Sangah; Song, YoonJu; Baik, Hyun Wook; Joung, Hyojee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and food consumption by the presence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS Study subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from four outpatient clinics in and near the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea between 2006 and 2012. A total of 668 subjects (413 men and 255 women) aged ≥ 30 y were included in the final data analyses. For each subject, daily nutrient intake and food consumption were calculated using three days of dietary intake data obtained from a combination of 24-hour recalls and dietary records. To evaluate food consumption, mean number of servings consumed per day and percentages of recommended number of servings for six food groups were calculated. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The general linear model was performed to examine differences in nutrient intake and food consumption by sex and the presence of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for potential confounding variables. RESULTS Nutrient intake did not differ by the presence of metabolic syndrome in both men and women. Men with metabolic syndrome had lower consumption and percentage of the recommendation for fruits compared with those without metabolic syndrome (1.6 vs. 1.1 servings/day, P-value = 0.001; 63.5 vs. 49.5%, P-value = 0.013). Women with metabolic syndrome showed lower consumption and percentage of the recommendation for dairy foods than those without metabolic syndrome (0.8 vs. 0.5 servings/day, P-value = 0.001; 78.6 vs. 48.9%, P-value = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Low intakes of fruits and dairy foods might be associated with the risk of having metabolic syndrome among Korean adults. Dietary advice on increasing consumption of these foods is needed to prevent and attenuate the risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26425287

  4. Analysis of Aerosol Distribution over North East Asia Using a Geostationary Satellite Measurement during Filed Campaigns of DRAGON-Asia 2012 and MAPS-Seoul 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Choi, M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J.; Ahn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Considering diverse source and high concentration of aerosol, numerous manners have been applied to detect aerosol properties in North East Asia (NEA). Above all, a geostationary orbit satellite, COMS has monitored atmosphere and ocean conditions over the NEA using two payloads of Meteorological Imager (MI) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) since 2010. By using the MI measurements, an AOD retrieval algorithm was developed (Kim et al., 2014). Additionally, a number of ground-based network such as Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Sky Radiometer Network (SKYNET), and Mie-scattering Light Detector and Ranging (LIDAR) Network have been in operation to capture aerosol variability. And, occasionally, field campaigns were conducted. In 2012 (March to May), the DRAGON-Asia campaign was performed by AERONET science team and NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), and 40 sun/sky-radiometer was deployed. Subsequently, MAPS-Seoul campaign for detecting air quality was performed with 8 AERONET sites and 6 Pandora instruments in Korea. Those ground-based measurements provide validation dataset for satellite retrieval algorithm, as well as detect detail of aerosol characteristics at each local point. Thus, in this study, the AODs obtained from the aforementioned campaigns were applied to assess and improve the accuracy of MI AOD. For the DRAGON-Asia 2012, the comparison between MI AOD and AERONET AOD shows correlation coefficient of 0.85, regression slope of 1.00 and RMSE of 0.18. Furthermore, AOPs obtained from those field campaign results and the MI AOD were analyzed to understand temporal and spatial variance of aerosol in NEA during spring.

  5. Current Status of Pathologic Examinations in Korea, 2011–2015, Based on the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Sun-ju

    2017-01-01

    Background Pathologic examinations play an important role in medical services. Until recently, the overall status of pathologic examinations in Korea has not been identified. I conducted a nationwide survey of pathologic examination status using the insurance reimbursements (IRs) dataset from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). The aims of this study were to estimate current pathologic examination status in Korea and to provide information for future resource arrangement in the pathology area. Methods I asked HIRA to provide data on IR requests, including pathologic examinations from 2011 to 2015. Pathologic examination status was investigated according to the following categories: annual statistics, requesting department, type of medical institution, administrative district, and location at which pathologic examinations were performed. Results Histologic mapping, immunohistochemistry, and cervicovaginal examinations have increased in the last 5 years. Internal medicine, general surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, and urology were the most common medical departments requesting pathologic examinations. The majority of pathologic examinations were frequently performed in tertiary hospitals. About 60.3% of pathologic examinations were requested in medical institutions located in Seoul, Gyeonggi-do, and Busan. More than half of the biopsies and aspiration cytologic examinations were performed using outside services. The mean period between IR requests and 99 percentile IR request completion inspections was 6.2 months. Conclusions This survey was based on the HIRA dataset, which is one of the largest medical datasets in Korea. The trends of some pathologic examinations were reflected in the policies and needs for detailed diagnosis. The numbers and proportions of pathologic examinations were correlated with the population and medical institutions of the area, as well as patient preference. These data will be helpful for future resource arrangement in

  6. Digital imaging in pathology.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung; Pantanowitz, Liron; Parwani, Anil Vasdev

    2012-12-01

    Advances in computing speed and power have made a pure digital work flow for pathology. New technologies such as whole slide imaging (WSI), multispectral image analysis, and algorithmic image searching seem poised to fundamentally change the way in which pathology is practiced. This article provides the practicing pathologist with a primer on digital imaging. Building on this primer, the current state of the art concerning digital imaging in pathology is described. Emphasis is placed on WSI and its ramifications, showing how it is useful in both anatomic (histology, cytopathology) and clinical (hematopathology) pathology. Future trends are also extrapolated.

  7. Handheld computing in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  8. Pathology in Greece.

    PubMed

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  9. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from cooling towers, public baths, hospitals, and fountains in Seoul, Korea, from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changkyu; Jeon, Sujin; Jung, Jihun; Oh, Younghee; Kim, Yeonsun; Lee, Jaein; Choi, Sungmin; Chae, Youngzoo; Lee, Young-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Legionnaire's disease is associated with a high mortality rate. The authors collected 3,495 water samples in Seoul, Korea, between 2010 and 2012 from public facilities (cooling towers, public baths, hospitals, and decorative fountains), which are considered the major habitats of Legionella pneumophila. In all, 527 (15.1%) isolates of L. pneumophila were obtained by microbial culture and polymerase chain reaction. Serological diagnosis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis were performed for the samples. The authors categorized the samples into four groups (A-D) on the basis of PFGE results. The analysis revealed that cooling towers containing the most samples with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 constituted the highest proportion of isolate. Samples from public facilities and serogroups could be distinctively classified by PFGE patterns. Thus, it is expected that source-specific features revealed through PFGE and serological analyses could serve as the basis for effectively coping with future outbreaks of L. pneumophila.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Seoul frog Rana chosenica (Amphibia, Ranidae): comparison of R. chosenica and R. plancyi.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2011-06-01

    Here, we have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Seoul frog Rana chosenica (Amphibia, Ranidae), which is known as a Korean endemic species. It is listed as a vulnerable species by IUCN Red List and also an endangered species in South Korea. The complete mitochondrial genome of R. chosenica consists of 18,357 bp. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with those of other Rana frogs. We compared the mitochondrial genome of R. chosenica with that of the Peking frog Rana plancyi that has been known closely related to R. chosenica. Nucleotide sequence similarity between the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 95.7%, and the relatively low similarity seems to indicate that the two species are distinctly separated on the species level. The information of mitochondrial genome comparison of the two species was discussed in detail.

  11. A ten-year survey of Giardia cysts in drinking water supplies of Seoul, the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mok-Young; Cho, Eun-Joo; Lee, Jin-Hyo; Han, Sun-Hee; Park, Yong-Sang

    2011-03-01

    To understand the distribution of Giardia cysts in drinking water supplies in Seoul, Korea, we collected water samples quarterly at 6 intakes in the Han River, its largest stream and 6 conventional water treatment plants (WTPs) serving drinking water, from 2000 to 2009. Giardia cysts in each of 10 L water were confirmed in 35.0% of intake water samples and the arithmetic mean was 1.65 cysts/10 L (range 0-35 cysts/10 L). The lowest cyst density was observed at Paldang and Kangbuk intakes, and the pollution level was higher at 4 intakes downstream. It seemed that these 4 intakes were under influence of Wangsuk stream at the end of which cysts were found in all samples with the mean of 140 cysts/10 L. The annual mean number of cysts was 0.21-4.21 cysts/10 L, and the cyst level at the second half of the 10 years was about 1/5 of that at first half on average. The cysts were more frequently found in winter, and their mean density was 3.74 cysts/10 L in winter and 0.80-1.08 cysts/10 L in other seasons. All finished water samples collected at 6 WTPs were negative for Giardia in each of 100 L sample for 10 years and cyst removal by physical process was average 2.9-log. It was concluded that conventional water treatment at 6 WTPs of Seoul appears to remove the cysts effectively under the present level of their source water. Domestic wastewater from the urban region could be an important source of Giardia pollution in the river.

  12. A survey of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water supplies during a 10-year period (2000-2009) in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mok Young; Cho, Eun Joo; Lee, Jin Hyo; Han, Sun Hee; Park, Yong Sang

    2010-09-01

    This study has been conducted to estimate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water supplies in the Metropolitan area of Seoul, South Korea, for 10 years from 2000 to 2009. Water samples were collected quarterly at 6 intakes in the Han River and its largest stream and 6 conventional Water Treatment Plants (WTPs) serving drinking water for 10 million people of Seoul. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 22.5% of intake water samples and arithmetic mean was 0.65 oocysts/10 L (range 0-22 oocysts/10 L). Although the annual mean of oocyst number was as low as 0.04-1.90 oocysts/10 L, 3 peaks in 2004 and 2007 were observed and the pollution level was a little higher in winter. The lowest density was observed at Paldang intake and the pollution level increased at Kuui and Jayang intakes. At the end of the largest stream, oocysts were found in 70% of collected samples (mean 5.71 oocysts/10 L) and it seemed that its joining the Han River resulted in the increase at Kuui intake and downstream. Oocyst removal by physical process exceeded 2.0-2.3 log and then all finished water samples collected at 6 WTPs were negative for Cryptosporidium in each 100 L sample for 10 years. These results suggested that domestic wastewater from the urban region could be a source of Cryptosporidium pollution and separating sewage systems adjacent to the intakes could be meaningful for some intakes having weakness related to parasitological water quality.

  13. Occurrence of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in the Han River (Seoul, South Korea).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeomin; Ryu, Jaena; Oh, Jeill; Choi, Byeong-Gyu; Snyder, Shane A

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of 31 selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Korean surface waters was investigated. The area was selected since there is a lack of information in the Seoul area on the suspected contamination of rivers by micropollutants, although over 99% of drinking water is produced from surface waters in this area that has a population of approximately 15 million inhabitants. Samples were collected from upstream/downstream and effluent-dominated creeks along the Han River, Seoul (South Korea) and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Most target compounds were detected in both the Han River samples (63%) and the effluent-dominated creek samples (79%). Iopromide, atenolol, TCPP, TECP, musk ketone, naproxen, DEET, carbamazepine, caffeine, and benzophenone were frequently detected in both river and creek samples, although the mean concentrations in effluent-dominated creek samples (102 ng/L-3745 ng/L) were significantly higher than those in river samples (56 ng/L-1013 ng/L). However, the steroid hormones 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, progesterone, and testosterone, were not detected (<1 ng/L) in both the river and creek samples. Numerous target compounds (15) were found to be positively correlated (over 0.8) to the conventional water quality parameters (chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon, and ultraviolet absorbance). Results of this study provide increasing evidence that certain EDCs and PPCPs commonly occur in the Han River as the result of wastewater outfalls.

  14. Determination of micropollutants in combined sewer overflows and their removal in a wastewater treatment plant (Seoul, South Korea).

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jaena; Oh, Jeill; Snyder, Shane A; Yoon, Yeomin

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the occurrence of 29 selected micropollutants such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface waters and wastewaters in Seoul (South Korea) during both dry and wet weather conditions. The study area was selected based on the lack of available information regarding the suspected contamination of rivers/creeks by EDCs and PPCPs in the Seoul region and the presence of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which serves approximately 4.1 million inhabitants and has a design capacity of 1,297 × 10(3) m(3)/day. Many target compounds (83 %) were detected in samples collected from wastewater treatment influent/effluent, creek water, and combined sewer overflow (CSO). The total EDC/PPCP concentrations were as follows: WWTP influent (69,903 ng/L) > WWTP effluent (50,175 ng/L) >3 creek samples (16,035-44,446 ng/L) during dry weather, and WWTP influent (53,795 ng/L) > WWTP bypass (38,653 ng/L) >5 creek samples (15,260-29,113 ng/L) >2 CSO samples (11,109-11,498 ng/L) during wet weather. EDCs and PPCPs were found to be present at high daily loads (65.1 and 69.8 kg/day during dry and wet weather, respectively) in the WWTP effluent. Compound removal by the WWTP varied significantly by compound: caffeine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and propylparaben (>90 %), and acesulfame, DEET, iohexol, iopromide, and iopamidol (<5 %). These findings and literature information support the hypothesis that the efficiency of removal of EDCs and PPCPs is strongly dependent on both removal mechanism (e.g., biodegradation, adsorption to sludge, and oxidation by chlorine) and compound physicochemical properties (e.g., pK a and hydrophobicity).

  15. 9-Aryl-1,2-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-b]indolizin-3-one (Seoul-Fluor) as a smart platform for colorful ratiometric fluorescent pH sensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Lee, Sanghee; Park, Seung Bum

    2011-07-21

    In this communication, we report that 9-aryl-1,2-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-b]indolizin-3-one (Seoul-Fluor) can serve as a potential platform for colorful ratiometric fluorescent pH sensors by simple incorporation of pH responsive elements on Seoul-Fluor. Seoul-Fluor-based fluorescent pH sensors allow the emission- and pH-tuning ability upon protonation by varying their pK(a) values and electronic characteristics of substituents by a rational design.

  16. [Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].

    PubMed

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-02-01

    Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy.

  17. [Pathological gambling: literature revue].

    PubMed

    Filteau, M J; Baruch, P; Vincent, P

    1992-03-01

    This paper summarizes the current literature on pathological gambling. Interest in gambling has been present in every society but treated as an object of sociopolitical or literary interest. It is only from the beginning of this century that psychiatry began to look at pathological gambling, first with Freud and his writing on Dostoïevsky then with other theories like the learning theory, studies on substance dependence, the links with affective syndromes and the psychobiological studies. These studies are presented and discussed. Finally, the authors offer some guidelines for an approach to a pathological gambler.

  18. Renal pathology in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Peernel

    2006-01-01

    The class of Reptilia varies widely. Both the gross morphology and microscopic anatomy of the kidneys are specific for each species. In each species of reptile, the physiology of the renal system has adapted to the specific conditions of life, including, among other factors, the type of food, environmental temperature, and the availability of water. The pathology of the kidneys in reptiles has been poorly studied, but in recent years a number of investigators have specifically studied reptilian renal pathology.

  19. Assessing the effect of long-range pollutant transportation on air quality in Seoul using the conditional potential source contribution function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ukkyo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Lee, Yun Gon

    2017-02-01

    It is important to estimate the effects of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants for efficient and effective strategies to control air quality. In this study, the contributions of trans-boundary transport to the mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul, Korea from 2001 to 2014 were estimated based on the conditional potential source contribution function (CPSCF) method. Eastern China was found to be the major source of trans-boundary pollution in Seoul, but moderate sources were also located in northeastern China. The contribution of long-range transport from Japan was negligible. The spatial distributions of the potential source contribution function (PSCF) values of each pollutant showed reasonable consistency with their emission inventory and satellite products. The PSCF values of SO2 and PM10 from eastern China were higher than those of NO2 and CO. The mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul for the period from 2001 to 2014 were 5.34, 37.0, and 619.1 ppb, and 57.4 4 μg/m3, respectively. The contributions of long-range transport to the mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul were 0.74, 3.4, and 39.0 ppb, and 12.1 μg/m3, respectively, which are 14%, 9%, 6%, and 21% of the mean concentrations, respectively. The annual mean concentrations of SO2 and NO2 followed statistically significant increasing linear trends (0.5 and 1.6 ppb per decade, respectively), whereas the trends in the annual mean concentrations of CO and PM10 were statistically insignificant. The trends in the ratio of the increased concentrations associated with long-range transport to the annual mean concentrations of the pollutants were statistically insignificant. However, the results indicate that the trans-boundary transport of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 from eastern China consistently affected air quality in Seoul over the study period (2001-2014). Regionally, the effects of the long-range transport of pollutants from Beijing and Harbin

  20. Eponyms in forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Nečas, Pavel; Hejna, Petr

    2012-12-01

    The phenomenon of eponymous terms in forensic pathology is described in this paper. The authors analyzed representative textbooks (monographs) dealing with forensic pathology in both English and German and identified several eponymous terms. The paper aims to present to the reader the most important eponymous terms in forensic pathology. Included in the paper are the following terms: Beckwith's Sign, Casper's Rule, Krönlein's Shot, Lichtenberg's Figures, Nysten's Law, Paltauf's Spots, Puppe's Rule, Sehrt's Sign, Simon's Sign, Sveshnikov's Sign, Tardieu's Spots, Wischnewski Spots, Wydler's Sign. The spread of eponymous terms throughout various languages is mentioned. The linguistic basis of such terms as well as their advantages and disadvantages in specialist fields, and indeed in even wider circles, is discussed. The authors state that the main function of these terms is to facilitate the open flow of unambiguous information among scholars. Eponymous terms in forensic pathology are characteristic for the German speaking countries and for all countries influenced by the German school of forensic pathology. Their usage in the Anglo-Saxon world is much less widespread, meaning they do not occur very often in English monographs and textbooks.

  1. Pathology of radiation myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Burns, R. J.; Jones, A. N.; Robertson, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    After nothing the rarity of papers describing the pathology of delayed radiation necrosis of the spinal cord, the clinical and pathological findings from four cases are presented. The main pathological features are asymmetric demyelination of the lateral columns and to a lesser degree the posterior and anterior columns of white matter, with coagulative necrosis at the level of irradiation which affected the grey matter to a lesser degree. There is ascending and descending secondary tract degeneration, and poor glial response in the lesions themselves. Vascular changes, mainly hyalilne thickening of arteriolar walls, are present, but not in degree sufficient to explain the primary lesion. The discussion of the pathogenesis of the myelopathy weighs the merits of a primary vascular lesion against those of a primary effect of the radiation on neural tissue. The latter is favoured. Images PMID:4647860

  2. Seasonal variations in the light-absorbing properties of water-soluble and insoluble organic aerosols in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwajin; Kim, Jin Young; Jin, Hyoun Cher; Lee, Ji Yi; Lee, Se Pyo

    2016-03-01

    The spectral properties of light-absorbing organic aerosol extractions were investigated using 24-h average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements from October 2012 to September 2013 in Seoul, Korea. The light-absorption spectra of water and methanol extracts exhibited strong evidence of brown carbon with Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE; fitted between 300 and 700 nm) ranges of 5.84-9.17 and 4.08-5.75, with averages of 7.23 ± 1.58 and 5.05 ± 0.67, respectively. The light absorption of both extracts at 365 nm (Abs365), which is typically used as a proxy for brown carbon (BrC), displayed strong seasonal variations and was well correlated with both water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC; r = 0.81) and organic carbon (OC; r = 0.85), indicating that both primary and secondary organics were sources of BrC in this region. Normalizing the Abs365 of water and methanol extracts to the mass of WSOC and OC yielded average solution mass absorption efficiency (MAE365) of 0.28-1.18 and 0.44-1.45 m2 g-1 C, respectively. MAE365 in Korea were in the same range or slightly lower than those in China, however, despite the same ranges, the seasonal variations were different, suggesting that the sources of light absorbers could be different. Combining the AAE, Abs365, and MAE365 of both extracts and a detailed chemical speciation of filter extracts identified the compounds responsible for the temporal variations of BrC in Korea. During summer, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), photochemically generated from anthropogenic emissions, was the major source; however, during winter, long range transported organics or transported BrC seem to be a source of BrC in Korea, a downwind site of China, where severe smog and BrC were observed during this season. Biomass burning was also an important source; however, unlike in previous studies, where it was identified as a major source during winter, here, it contributed during the whole year. Although many of its properties, sources, and potential

  3. Pathology of extramedullary mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Leona A; Hornick, Jason L

    2014-05-01

    Mastocytosis encompasses a group of clinically and pathologically heterogeneous disorders most commonly involving the skin, which typically takes the form of urticaria pigmentosa. Mastocytosis may also involve other organs, most often bone marrow, followed by gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. The presence of extracutaneous involvement by mastocytosis is a major diagnostic criterion for systemic disease. However, mast cell infiltrates are often subtle in skin and extracutaneous organs, and the histologic features of mastocytosis at different anatomic sites may be variable. This article reviews the pathologic features and clinical correlates of mastocytosis involving skin and other extramedullary sites.

  4. Reinforcement pathology and obesity.

    PubMed

    Carr, Katelyn A; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence and addiction. In this review we discuss the application of reinforcement pathology to obesity, and implications of this approach for obesity treatment.

  5. Image management in pathology.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, D S; Doolittle, M

    1996-04-01

    Much of the diagnostic work in pathology, especially surgical pathology and cytology, involves the interpretation of images. Recent advances in digital imaging technologies and telecommunications will allow pathologists to use image-based information in ways that are not possible using conventional glass slides alone. We are entering an age in which image-based information can be more easily and widely shared, both locally and globally. In this article, some of the digital technologies that can allow pathologists to make more effective use of diagnostic images will be discussed.

  6. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice.

  7. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO2 in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the Δ14C in ginkgo leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Hong, W.; Park, G.; Sung, K. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. E.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Woo, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  8. Exploring Household-level Risk Factors for Self-reported Prevalence of Allergic Diseases Among Low-income Households in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, SungChul; Paul, Christopher; Yoo, Young; Choung, Ji Tae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Indoor risk factors for allergic diseases in low-income households in Korea have been characterized only partially. We evaluated the prevalences of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis in Seoul, Korea, to identify key housing and behavioral risk factors of low-income households. Methods Statistical analysis of the prevalence of these diseases and various risk factors was conducted using data from a 2010 Ministry of Environment household survey. Logistic regression models were generated using data from 511 low-income household apartments in districts of Seoul. Results In general, housing factors such as renovation history (P<0.1) and crowding status (P<0.01) were associated with allergic rhinitis, whereas behavioral factors such as frequency of indoor ventilation (P<0.05) and cleaning (P<0.1) were inversely correlated with atopic dermatitis. Indoor smoking was a major trigger of asthma and atopic dermatitis in low-income households (P<0.05). The presence of mold and water leakage in houses were the most important risk factors for all three diseases (P<0.05). Conclusions Various risk factors play a role in triggering allergic diseases among low-income households in Seoul, and health or environmental programs mitigating allergic diseases should be tailored to address appropriate housing or behavioral factors in target populations. PMID:25228999

  9. Pathology of Extranodal Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Heckendorn, Emily; Auerbach, Aaron

    2016-07-01

    An overview of the pathology of extranodal lymphoma is presented. The emphasis of this presentation is on the classification system of extranodal lymphomas, including both B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, based on their morphology, phenotype, and molecular alterations.

  10. Next-Generation Pathology.

    PubMed

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.

  11. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  12. Pathology of hereditary nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, V. V.

    1968-01-01

    This report describes the renal pathology in three siblings with hereditary nephritis. All three cases showed combined features of chronic glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, and interstitial nephritis. Foam cells were seen in only one case. These findings support the contention of Krickstein, Gloor, and Balogh (1966) that the renal changes in hereditary nephritis are those of a mixed nephritis. Images PMID:5717545

  13. The Study on Flood Reduction and Securing Instreamflow by applying Decentralized Rainwater Retention Facilities for Chunggyechun in Seoul of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Jun, S. M.; Park, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    Recently abnormal climate phenomena and urbanization recently causes the changes of the hydrological environment. To restore the hydrological cycle in urban area some fundamental solutions such as decentralized rainwater management system and Low Impact Development (LID) techniques may be choosed. In this study, SWMM 5 was used to analyze the effects of decentralized stormwater retention for preventing the urban flood and securing the instreamflow. The Chunggyechun stream watershed(21.29㎢) which is located in Seoul city(Korea) and fully developed as urban area was selected as the study watershed, and the runoff characteristics of urban stream with various methods of LID techniques (Permeable pavement, small rainwater storage tank, large rainwater storage tank) were analyzed. By the simulation results, the permeability of pavement materials and detention storage at the surface soil layer make high effect to the flood discharge, and the initial rainfall retention at the rainwater storage tank effected to reduce the flood peak. The peak discharge was decreased as 22% for the design precipitation. Moreover the instreamflow was increased as 55% by using adequate LID techniques These kind of data could be used as the basis data for designing urban flood prevention facilities, urban regeneration planning in the view of the integrated watershed management.

  14. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  15. Added dietary vegetables and fruits improved coat quality of capybara in Seoul Zoo, Republic of Korea: A case study.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyungeun; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2017-01-01

    Adequate levels of dietary vitamin C are necessary for capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrocharis) because they cannot synthesize the vitamin endogenously. Beginning in 2013, hair and weight loss, as well as general dermatitis, were observed in all individual capybaras (n = 4) in a mixed exhibit at Seoul Zoo. Seven additional vegetables, leafy greens, and fruits that increased dietary vitamin C concentration from ∼300-400 to >600 mg/kg dry matter were added to the diet since January 2015. Within 6 months, capybaras' skin and coats improved considerably, with hair becoming thicker and glossier. Animals visually appeared healthier and gained weight. In conclusion, hair loss, dermatitis, and weight loss in capybara can be improved by feeding enough fresh green leaves, vegetables, and fruits. Although vitamin C is considered a major factor for alleviation of poor body condition observed, increased status of other nutrients (i.e., vitamin B6 ) provided by the diet change may also have contributed to the improvements seen in the capybara. Zoo Biol. 36:50-55, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effects of an urban park and residential area on the atmospheric CO2 concentration and flux in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Moon-Soo; Joo, Seung Jin; Lee, Chang Seok

    2013-03-01

    The CO2 concentrations and fluxes over an urban forest site (Namsan) and an urban residential region (Boramae) in Seoul, Korea, during the non-growing season (2-4 March 2011), the growing season (10-12 June 2011), and the late-growing season (22-24 September 2011) were analyzed. The CO2 concentrations of two sites showed nearly the same diurnal variation, with a maximum value occurring during the night and a minimum value occurring during daytime, as well as the same seasonal variation, with a maximum value during the non-growing season (early spring) and a minimum value during the growing season (summer). The CO2 flux over the urban forest did not show any typical diurnal variation during the non-growing season, but did show diurnal variation with a small positive value during the night and a large negative value during daytime in the growing and late-growing seasons due to photosynthesis in the urban forest. The CO2 flux over the urban residential region showed a positive daily mean value for all periods, with large values during the non-growing season and small values during the growing season, and it also showed diurnal variation with two maxima at 0600-1000 LST and 1800-2400 LST, and two minima at 0300-0600 LST and 1100-1500 LST, and was strongly correlated with the use of liquefied natural gas for cooking and heating by surrounding houses.

  17. Analysis of foodborne disease outbreaks for improvement of food safety programs in Seoul, Republic of Korea, from 2002 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jib Ho; Lee, Joon-Hak; Kim, Moo Sang; Park, Seog Gee

    2009-03-01

    Foodborne disease (FBD) is a common food safety problem in Seoul, Republic of Korea. To identify target areas for improvement of the food safety programs, FBD outbreaks from 2002 to 2006 were analyzed with regard to facility, monthly occurrences, and causative agents. A total of 147 FBD outbreaks were reported, with an average of 29.4 FBD outbreaks per year and 49 cases per outbreak. Restaurants and school lunches were two main facilities associated with 76.2% of the outbreaks. A majority of FBD cases (73.1%) were from school lunches. The highest number of outbreaks and cases occurred in June, followed by March. Among the seven identified causative agents, norovirus was the most significant in the number of outbreaks and cases. Among the outbreaks and cases with causative agents identified, norovirus and Staphylococcus aureus were responsible for 61.7% of outbreaks and 81.5% of cases. The analysis indicates that the efficiency of current food safety programs could be enhanced if critical control points in school lunch programs are identified and incorporated in the training and inspection. Identifying risk factors for contamination of norovirus and Staphylococcus aureus would also be beneficial.

  18. Nasal colonization by four potential respiratory bacteria in healthy children attending kindergarten or elementary school in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Songmee; Yu, Jae-Yon; Lee, Kwangjun; Lee, Sunhwa; Park, Bohyun; Kang, Yeonho

    2012-05-01

    A longitudinal analysis was carried out of the colonization by four potential respiratory pathogens - Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus - in 165 healthy children (aged 3-7 years) attending three kindergartens and 417 healthy children (aged 7-10 years) attending an elementary school in Seoul, Korea, by four consecutive examinations over 1 year. The prevalence of nasal carriers of one or more of four bacteria was found to be higher in younger children (≤7 years) (mean 68.6%) than that in older children (mean 46.8%). The mean rates of nasal carriage of Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and Staph. aureus were 16.8, 18.9, 20.2 and 18.2%, respectively. Colonization by Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis was higher in pre-school children (28.6, 32.4 and 35.0%, respectively) than in school children (12.2, 13.6 and 14.3%, respectively). Carriage trends differed with age, with Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis colonization decreasing with age but Staph. aureus colonization increasing. Positive associations of co-occurrence between Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were evident, with a significant negative association evident between Staph. aureus and the other three bacteria. A better understanding of the colonization and interaction of potential respiratory pathogens may be important for predicting changes in bacterial ecology and for designing control strategies that target bacterial colonization in upper respiratory tract infections.

  19. Observation of Periodic and Transient Cosmic Ray Flux Variations by the Daejeon Neutron Monitor and the Seoul muon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Suyeon; Kang, Jeongsoo

    2013-09-01

    Recently, two instruments of cosmic ray are operating in South Korea. One is Seoul muon detector after October 1999 and the other is Daejeon neutron monitor (Kang et al. 2012) after October 2011. The former consists of four small plastic scintillators and the latter is the standard 18 NM 64 type. In this report, we introduce the characteristics of both instruments. We also analyze the flux variations of cosmic ray such as diurnal variation and Forbush decrease. As the result, the muon flux shows the typical seasonal and diurnal variations. The neutron flux also shows the diurnal variation. The phase which shows the maximum flux in the diurnal variation is around 13-14 local time. We found a Forbush decrease on 7 March 2012 by both instruments. It is also identified by Nagoya multi-direction muon telescope and Oulu neutron monitor. The observation of cosmic ray at Jangbogo station as well as in Korean peninsula can support the important information on space weather in local area. It can also enhance the status of Korea in the international community of cosmic ray experiments.

  20. Seasonal variation in airborne endotoxin levels in indoor environments with different micro-environmental factors in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Dong Jin; Park, Wha Me; Park, Dong Uk; Ahn, Jae Kyoung; Yoon, Chung Sik

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the variation over a year in airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environment of five university laboratories in Seoul, South Korea, and examined the micro-environmental factors that influenced endotoxin levels. These included temperature, relative humidity, CO2, CO, illumination, and wind velocity. A total of 174 air samples were collected and analyzed using the kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Endotoxin levels ranged from <0.001 to 8.90EU/m(3), with an overall geometric mean of 0.240EU/m(3). Endotoxin levels showed significantly negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.529, p<0.001), CO2 (r=-0.213, p<0.001) and illumination (r=-0.538, p<0.001). Endotoxin levels tended to be higher in winter. Endotoxin levels in laboratories with rabbits were significantly higher than those of laboratories with mice. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the environmental factors affecting endotoxin levels were temperature (coefficient=-0.388, p<0.001) and illumination (coefficient=-0.370, p<0.001). Strategies aimed at reducing airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environments may be most effective if they focus on illumination.

  1. Significance of serum antibody test for toxocariasis in healthy healthcare examinees with eosinophilia in Seoul and Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Seok; Jin, Yan; Choi, Min-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Young Ha; Yoon, Cheong Ha; Hwang, Eui-Hyuk; Kang, Hun; Ahn, Sang-Yong; Kim, Gi Jin; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2014-12-01

    There have been numerous reports on the relationship between eosinophilia and toxocariasis. The present study investigated seropositive rates of toxocariasis among healthy people with or without eosinophilia in urban and rural areas, and assessed risk factors for positive antibody test. A total of 610 healthy people, who visited health check-up (Medicheck®, Korea Association of Health Promotion), 310 from Seoul and 300 from Gyeongsangnam-do, were subjected for this study. Their serum samples were tested by ELISA with the crude antigen of Toxocara canis larvae. Cross-reactions with other tissue invading helminth antigens were also investigated. Total antibody positive rate of toxocariasis was 8.7% of the 610 subjects. When the subjects were grouped into 3 by their eosinophil counts, the antibody positive rates significantly differed by the groups; 5.9% (18/306) in the group<350/µL, 10.0% (11/110) in the group 350-500/µL, and 12.4% (24/194) in the group>500/µL (P=0.028). A total of 22 serum samples cross-reacted with other tissue-invading helminth antigens. A questionnaire analysis recognized drinking alcohol and smoking as significant risk factors of toxocariasis. In conclusion, toxocariasis antibody positive rate is correlated with eosinophil counts. It is recommended that healthy subjects with eosinophilia by routine health examination and risk factors undergo Toxocara serology by multiantigen ELISA to investigate etiology.

  2. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air. PMID:26405807

  3. Spatial distribution of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in Seoul Metropolitan Subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Roh, Young Man; Lee, Cheol Min; Kim, Chi Nyon

    2008-06-15

    The aims of this study are to examine the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in areas within the Seoul Metropolitan Subway network and to provide fundamental data in order to protect respiratory health of subway workers and passengers from air pollutants. A total of 22 subway stations located on lines 1-4 were selected based on subway official's guidance. At these stations both subway worker areas (station offices, rest areas, ticket offices and driver compartments) and passengers areas (station precincts, subway carriages and platforms) were the sites used for measuring the levels of PM. The mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were relatively higher on platforms, inside subway carriages and in driver compartments than in the other areas monitored. The levels of PM10 and PM2.5 for station precincts and platforms exceeded the 24-h acceptable threshold limits of 150 microg/m3 for PM10 and 35 microg/m3 for PM2.5, which are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, levels measured in station and ticket offices fell below the respective threshold. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on platforms located underground were significantly higher than those at ground level (p<0.05).

  4. Perceived urban neighborhood environment for physical activity of older adults in Seoul, Korea: A multimethod qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Dong Ha

    2016-12-24

    This study assessed the attributes of a perceived urban neighborhood environment for the physical activity (PA) of older adults by applying a qualitative multimethod approach to collect both descriptive and spatial information. Conducted in a northern community of Seoul, Korea, from April 2014 to November 2015, data collection methods included 90 walking tours by researchers, 46 face-to-face, semi-structured interviews combined with qualitative mapping with senior residents aged 65+, 19 guided tours with the interviewees, and 3 focus groups with 12 community service providers. Thematic analysis and pattern finding were performed on the data. Walking was the main type of PA of the older adults. Nine attributes of perceived neighborhood environment for PA were identified under three themes: daily living (everyday life activities, mobility, social opportunities, diverse destinations); the multidimensionality of accessibility (physical, economic, psychosocial), and attractiveness and pleasantness (maintenance, aesthetics). The subcategories of the attributes included proximity, access to public transportation, walkability, cost-worthiness, low or no cost, familiarity, sense of welcoming, sociocultural appropriateness, fair access, order and upkeep, safety, openness, cleanliness, and interestingness. Strategies to generate more movement and activities in the everyday routine of the elderly should be a core task for health promotion and neighborhood design. A strategic application of multiple qualitative methods can create an opportunity to build contextual understanding and to generate ideas in interactions with the community.

  5. Teaching residents genomic pathology: a novel approach for new technology.

    PubMed

    Haspel, Richard L

    2013-03-01

    Genomics-based diagnostics have become part of patient care. As pathologists have the expertise in clinical laboratory testing as well as access to patient samples, all genomic medicine is genomic pathology. This article will review the evidence that there is a critical need for pathology resident training in genomics. Several individual program curricula are described as well as the progress of the Training Residents in Genomics Working Group. This group has made significant advances toward developing, implementing, and evaluating a national curriculum in genomics for pathology residents. The novel approach of the Training Residents in Genomics Working Group can be used as a model for training pathology professionals in any new technology.

  6. [Czech eponyms in pathology].

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    The 24th European Congress of Pathology taking place in Prague is an opportunity to remind our society of the Czech names appearing as eponyms in pathological terminology: Karel Rokitanský - R. protuberance in dermoid cyst; R. thrombogenic theory of atherosclerosis; Mayer - R. - Küster - Hauser - Winckel syndrome (congenital malformation of the vagina and uterus); Václav Treitz - T. duodenal ligament; T. retroperitoneal hernia; T. uremic colitis; Vilém Dušan Lambl - L. excrescences of heart valves; Lamblia (Giardia) intestinalis, and also the foundation of urological cytology; Stanislav Provázek - Prowazek - Halberstädter bodies (trachoma), Rickettsia Prowazeki (typhus fever); Josef Vaněk - V. tumor (gastric inflammatory fibroid polyp), and also discovery of the etiology of pneumocystic pneumonia; Otto Jírovec - Pneumocystis Jiroveci; Blahoslav Bednář - B. tumor (pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans).

  7. [Molecular diagnostics in pathology].

    PubMed

    Stenzinger, A; Penzel, R; Endris, V; Weichert, W

    2013-05-01

    Tissue-based molecular diagnostics is a fast growing diagnostic field, which already complements morphologic classifications in many cases. Pathology based molecular diagnosis is performed almost exclusively on paraffin embedded material and always in conjunction with histopathology. Besides the classic field of tissue based detection of pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, molecular diagnostics of tumor tissue is one of the current hot topics in oncology. In this context the detection of predictive molecular biomarkers, such as specific mutations, allows patient stratification for individually tailored treatment strategies and thereby is one of the key components of individualized patient care in oncology. The rapidly growing number of clinically relevant predictive biomarkers together with impressive technical advances, specifically the development of massive parallel sequencing, will modify the care of patients with malignant diseases. Pathology, therefore, has returned in the very center of interdisciplinary patient care.

  8. Pathology and emerging infections--quo vadimus?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, D. A.; Bryan, R. T.; Hughes, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    There have been dramatic changes in the occurrence of infectious diseases throughout the world in the previous two decades. The emergence of new microbial agents, and the reemergence of infections previously believed to be controlled, threatens the health of all populations. The emergence of these infectious diseases has occurred during a period of breakdown in the capabilities of the public health surveillance systems, prevention programs, and disease control efforts. Expertise in pathology is critical to provide a strong national control program for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Despite the many significant achievements made by pathologists in improving understanding of the pathogenesis and diagnosis of infectious diseases, the field of pathology remains largely oriented toward neoplastic diseases, and has not yet identified infectious disease diagnosis as an important component of anatomic pathology training and research, even in the face of the current threats posed by microbial agents. In addition, there is currently a dearth of infectious disease pathologists in the United States and elsewhere in the world, and the use of the autopsy, a prime pathological tool for diagnosis of emerging infections, is on the wane. The most serious problem is that no formal training program for infectious disease pathology currently exists in the United States or elsewhere in the world. As a consequence of this lack of training opportunities, there is a severe deficiency of young, well-educated pathologists with infectious disease expertise. This article explores the historical linkages between the disciplines of infectious diseases and pathology, and suggests that infectious disease pathology as a subspecialty be strengthened and training programs be initiated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7495275

  9. Pathology subspecialty fellowship application reform 2007 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Crawford, James M; Hoffman, Robert D; Black-Schaffer, W Stephen

    2011-06-01

    The specialty of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine has entered into a phase when the 4-year sequence of Anatomic Pathology and/or Clinical Pathology Residency Training is almost universally followed by 1 or more years of Subspecialty Fellowship Training. Such training may occur in one of the American Board of Pathology-recognized subspecialties or any number of "subspecialty fellowships" that, although not leading to subspecialty board certification, may nevertheless fall under the oversight of the local institutional Graduate Medical Education Committee and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Review Committee for Pathology. Unlike the application process for first-year Pathology Residency, which is run through the National Resident Matching Program, applications for Subspecialty Pathology Fellowships are not coordinated by any consistent schedule. Competition for Subspecialty Pathology Fellowships has consistently resulted in undesirable drift of the fellowship application process to dates that are unacceptably early for many fellowship applicants. Responding to widespread dissatisfaction voiced by national pathology resident organizations, in 2007, the Association of Pathology Chairs began evaluation and potential intervention in the fellowship application process. Three years of intermittently intense discussion, surveys, and market analysis, have led the Council of the Association of Pathology Chairs to recommend implementation of a Pathology Subspecialty Fellowship Matching program starting in the 2011 to 2012 recruiting year, for those Applicants matriculating in fellowship programs July 2013. We report on the data that informed this decision and discuss the pros and cons that are so keenly felt by the stakeholders in this as-yet-incomplete reform process.

  10. Defense Acquisition Policy and Defense Industrial Base Reinforcement Strategy - Enhancing the International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-23

    Korea Defense Industry Association (KDIA). (2007). Annual management review of Korean Defense Industry. Seoul: Author. Lee, D.O. (2000...COMPETITIVENESS OF THE KOREAN NATIONAL DEFENSE INDUSTRY Published: 23 April 2008 by Dr. Dae Ok Lee 5th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium of the...International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  11. Analysis of Regional Climate Changes adjusted Future Urban Growth Scenarios and possibility of the future air quality prediction in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Jeong, J.

    2012-12-01

    Land-use changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere, but future urban growth has not been considered widely to predict the future regional climate change because it is hard to predict the future land-use changes. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on Cellular Automata (CA) technique to predict the future land-use (especially, urban growth) changes. Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the research area in this study, is the most explosively developed region in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. SLEUTH was calibrated to know the pattern and process of the urban growth and expansion in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from WAter Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) historical trends of urban growth (SC1), (2) future urban policy and plan (SC2), (3) ecological protection and growth (SC3). We used the FNL data of NCEP/NCAR for one month, Oct. in 2005 to evaluate the performance of the WRF on the long-term climate simulation and compared results of WRF with the ASOS/AWS (Automated Surface Observing Systems and Automated Weather System) observation data of the Korea Meteorology Administration. Based on the accuracy of the model, we performed various numerical experiments by the urban growth scenarios using the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany on Oct. for 5 years (2046-2050), respectively. The difference of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA consequently caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase in the urban area. PBL height with a maximum of about 200m also appeared locally in newly

  12. Survey on awareness and perceptions of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in dental hygienists in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Mah, Y-J; Kang, G-Y; Kim, S-J

    2015-08-01

    We investigated awareness in dental hygienists of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in patients with osteoporosis and cancer and assessed the situation in systemic history investigations to broaden the scope of the dental hygienists' BRONJ awareness as a basis for contributing to preventing this disease. The study was carried out through a survey; 217 dental hygienists responded to the survey. They worked at 12 university and general hospitals, 10 dental hospitals and 35 dental clinics, for a total of 57 institutions in Seoul. The survey consisted of 37 questions: general characteristics (J Oral Maxillofac Surg 65: 2007; 369), systemic history investigations (Ruggiero et al. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 62: 2004; 527) and awareness of BRONJ (Park et al. J Korean Dent Assoc 49: 2011; 389). Among them, 79.7% were aware of BRONJ. Recognition was highest among those from 25 to 35 years old (P < 0.05). In terms of work experience, those with 5-10 years experience showed the highest awareness (P < 0.05). In terms of institutions type, dental clinics showed lower awareness than general and dental hospitals (P < 0.05). It was found that 55.3% of the dental hygienists had been educated about BRONJ. Those aged 25-35 years were the most educated. In terms of institutions, dental clinic staff were the least educated. The degree of understanding about BRONJ was analysed with the average score of 6.14 points. According to these results, dental hygienists working in university hospitals and general hospitals had more opportunity to receive training than those working in dental clinics. Thus, it is considered that the development of professional training programs about BRONJ for all dental hygienists is necessary.

  13. Accuracy of Korean-Mini-Mental Status Examination Based on Seoul Neuro-Psychological Screening Battery II Results

    PubMed Central

    Kang, In-Woong; Beom, In-Gyu; Cho, Ji-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background The Korean-Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) is a dementia-screening test that can be easily applied in both community and clinical settings. However, in 20% to 30% of cases, the K-MMSE produces a false negative response. This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate the accuracy of K-MMSE as a screening test for dementia, which can be achieved through comparison of K-MMSE and Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB)-II results. Methods The study included 713 subjects (male 534, female 179; mean age, 69.3±6.9 years). All subjects were assessed using K-MMSE and SNSB-II tests, the results of which were divided into normal and abnormal in 15 percentile standards. Results The sensitivity of the K-MMSE was 48.7%, with a specificity of 89.9%. The incidence of false positive and negative results totaled 10.1% and 51.2%, respectively. In addition, the positive predictive value of the K-MMSE was 87.1%, while the negative predictive value was 55.6%. The false-negative group showed cognitive impairments in regions of memory and executive function. Subsequently, in the false-positive group, subjects demonstrated reduced performance in memory recall, time orientation, attention, and calculation of K-MMSE items. Conclusion The results obtained in the study suggest that cognitive function might still be impaired even if an individual obtained a normal score on the K-MMSE. If the K-MMSE is combined with tests of memory or executive function, the accuracy of dementia diagnosis could be greatly improved. PMID:27274389

  14. Comparison of dietary food and nutrient intakes by supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyesook; Jang, Won; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Moon, Gui-Im; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Tae-Seok; Chang, Namsoo

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed to compare the dietary food and nutrient intakes according to supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul. The subjects were composed of 201 pregnant and 104 lactating women, and their dietary food intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. General information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as health-related behaviors, including the use of dietary supplements, were collected. About 88% and 60% of the pregnant and lactating women took dietary supplements, respectively. The proportion of dietary supplements used was higher in pregnant women with a higher level of education. After adjusting for potential confounders, among the pregnant women, supplement users were found to consume 45% more vegetables, and those among the lactating women were found to consume 96% more beans and 58% more vegetables. The intakes of dietary fiber and β-carotene among supplement users were higher than those of non-users, by 23% and 39%, respectively. Among pregnant women, the proportion of women with an intake of vitamin C (from diet alone) below the estimated average requirements (EAR) was lower among supplement users [users (44%) vs. non-users (68%)], and the proportion of lactating women with intakes of iron (from diet alone) below the EAR was lower among supplement users [usesr (17%) vs. non-users (38%)]. These results suggest that among pregnant and lactating women, those who do not use dietary supplements tend to have a lower intake of healthy foods, such as beans and vegetables, as well as a lower intake of dietary fiber and β-carotene, which are abundant in these foods, and non-users are more likely than users to have inadequate intake of micro-nutrient such as vitamin C and iron.

  15. Chemical speciation of size-segregated floor dusts and airborne magnetic particles collected at underground subway stations in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hae-Jin; Kim, BoWha; Malek, Md Abdul; Koo, Yong Sung; Jung, Jong Hoon; Son, Youn-Suk; Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2012-04-30

    Previous studies have reported the major chemical species of underground subway particles to be Fe-containing species that are generated from wear and friction processes at rail-wheel-brake and catenaries-pantographs interfaces. To examine chemical composition of Fe-containing particles in more details, floor dusts were collected at five sampling locations of an underground subway station. Size-segregated floor dusts were separated into magnetic and non-magnetic fractions using a permanent magnet. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX), iron metal, which is relatively harmless, was found to be the dominating chemical species in the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions with minor fractions of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, S, and C. From SEM analysis, the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions collected on railroad ties appeared to be smaller than 10 μm, indicating that their characteristics should somewhat reflect the characteristics of airborne particles in the tunnel and the platform. As most floor dusts are magnetic, PM levels at underground subway stations can be controlled by removing magnetic indoor particles using magnets. In addition, airborne subway particles, most of which were smaller than 10 μm, were collected using permanent magnets at two underground subway stations, namely Jegi and Yangjae stations, in Seoul, Korea. XRD and SEM/EDX analyses showed that most of the magnetic aerosol particles collected at Jegi station was iron metal, whereas those at Yangjae station contained a small amount of Fe mixed with Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and C. The difference in composition of the Fe-containing particles between the two subway stations was attributed to the different ballast tracks used.

  16. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  17. Thumb ultrasound: Technique and pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jatinder P; Kumar, Shwetam; Kathiria, Atman V; Harjai, Rachit; Jawed, Akram; Gupta, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is ideally suited for the assessment of complex anatomy and pathologies of the thumb. Focused and dynamic thumb ultrasound can provide a rapid real-time diagnosis and can be used for guided treatment in certain clinical situations. We present a simplified approach to scanning technique for thumb-related pathologies and illustrate a spectrum of common and uncommon pathologies encountered. PMID:27857468

  18. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Pike, John G.; Leonard, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. SOURCES OF INFORMATION This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for literature on phimosis and circumcision referrals and on our experience at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Urology Clinic. MeSH headings used in our MEDLINE search included “phimosis,” “referral and consultation,” and “circumcision.” Most of the available articles about phimosis and foreskin referrals were retrospective reviews and cohort studies (levels II and III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. Great anxiety exists among patients and parentsregarding non-retractile foreskins. Most phimosis referrals seen in pediatric urology clinics are normal physiologically phimotic foreskins. Referrals of patients with physiologic phimosis to urology clinics can create anxiety about the need for surgery among patients and parents, while unnecessarily expanding the waiting list for specialty assessment. Uncircumcised penises require no special care. With normal washing, using soap and water, and gentle retraction during urination and bathing, most foreskins will become retractile over time. CONCLUSION Physiologic phimosis is often seen by family physicians. These patients and their parents require reassurance of normalcy and reinforcement of proper preputial hygiene. Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management. PMID:17872680

  19. Marketing the pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  20. Eye pathologies in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Mansoor, Nyaish; Mansoor, Tihami; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, newborn assessment incorporates a screening eye examination for any structural abnormalities, observation of neonate's visual behaviour and direct ophthalmoscopy examination looking for red reflex. Early identification and immediate management of eye related pathologies should commence soon after birth as early diagnosis and prompt intervention may have significant impact on the prognosis for many potentially blinding but treatable disorders such as congenital cataracts and retinoblastoma. If left undetected and untreated, such problems may potentially lead to irreversible damage to the vision which persists into adulthood resulting in lack of self-confidence together with difficulties in educational attainment and job opportunities. PMID:28003988

  1. Formaldehyde in pathology departments.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R P

    1983-01-01

    Toxic effects of formaldehyde in humans are discussed in relation to occupational exposure and tolerance to this agent. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of formaldehyde have been reported in animals and this has led to concern about a possible role in human cancer. The current state of affairs is reviewed in the light of a lack of direct evidence linking formaldehyde with cancer in man and in relation to recommended exposure levels. It is important to employ effective means of containment and practical methods for reducing exposure to formaldehyde in pathology departments and post-mortem rooms are described. Images PMID:6223948

  2. Pathology subspecialty fellowship application reform, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Crawford, James M; Hoffman, Robert D; Black-Schaffer, W Stephen

    2011-03-01

    The specialty of pathology and laboratory medicine has entered a phase in which the 4-year sequence of residency training is almost universally followed by 1 or more years of subspecialty fellowship training. Such training may occur in an American Board of Pathology-recognized subspecialty or any number of "subspecialty fellowships" that do not lead to subspecialty board certification. Unlike the application process for first-year pathology residency, which is run through the National Resident Matching Program, applications for subspecialty pathology fellowships have no consistent coordination. Responding to widespread dissatisfaction voiced in 2007 by national pathology resident organizations, the Association of Pathology Chairs began evaluation and potential intervention in the fellowship application process. After 3 years of effort, the Council of the Association of Pathology Chairs has recommended implementation of a pathology subspecialty fellowship matching program starting in the 2011-2012 recruiting year for applicants matriculating in fellowship programs in July 2013. We report on the data that informed this decision and discuss the pros and cons that are so keenly felt by the stakeholders in this as-yet-incomplete reform process.

  3. The pathology of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Macher, A M

    1988-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This retrovirus causes profound immunoincompetence in its infected hosts, who are thereafter susceptible to develop myriad severe and relapsing protozoal, fungal, bacterial, viral, and arthropodal opportunistic infections, as well as unusual malignancies. The more than 50,000 patients who have developed AIDS in the United States have produced a sudden unexpected deluge of diagnostic dilemmas that are stressing laboratories of pathology everywhere. This paper describes the gross and microscopic pathology of the numerous complications in patients infected by HIV: (a) the prodromal AIDS-related complex with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, (b) lymphoid infiltration of salivary gland and lung, including the complex of lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis-pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia, (c) extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, (d) multifocal mucocutaneous and visceral Kaposi's sarcoma, (e) small cell undifferentiated (oat cell) carcinomas, (f) protozoal infections caused by Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, Acanthamoeba, Cryptosporidium species (sp.), and Isospora belli, (g) the causes of chronic enteritis, (h) mycotic infections caused by Candida sp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Sporothrix schenckii, (i) bacterial infections caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii, Nocardia sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella sp., Treponema pallidum, and others, (j) viral infections caused by cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex and zoster, polyomavirus (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy), hepatitis B, molluscum contagiosum, and papillomavirus, (k) oral hairy leukoplakia, (l) subacute encephalopathy, and (m) Norwegian scabies. PMID:2836878

  4. Nanotechnology: Toxicologic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hubbs, Ann F.; Sargent, Linda M.; Porter, Dale W.; Sager, Tina M.; Chen, Bean T.; Frazer, David G.; Castranova, Vincent; Sriram, Krishnan; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Reynolds, Steven H.; Battelli, Lori A.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Fluharty, Kara L.; Mercer, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves technology, science, and engineering in dimensions less than 100 nm. A virtually infinite number of potential nanoscale products can be produced from many different molecules and their combinations. The exponentially increasing number of nanoscale products will solve critical needs in engineering, science, and medicine. However, the virtually infinite number of potential nanotechnology products is a challenge for toxicologic pathologists. Because of their size, nanoparticulates can have therapeutic and toxic effects distinct from micron-sized particulates of the same composition. In the nanoscale, distinct intercellular and intracellular translocation pathways may provide a different distribution than that obtained by micron-sized particulates. Nanoparticulates interact with subcellular structures including microtubules, actin filaments, centrosomes, and chromatin; interactions that may be facilitated in the nanoscale. Features that distinguish nanoparticulates from fine particulates include increased surface area per unit mass and quantum effects. In addition, some nanotechnology products, including the fullerenes, have a novel and reactive surface. Augmented microscopic procedures including enhanced dark-field imaging, immunofluorescence, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy are useful when evaluating nanoparticulate toxicologic pathology. Thus, the pathology assessment is facilitated by understanding the unique features at the nanoscale and the tools that can assist in evaluating nanotoxicology studies. PMID:23389777

  5. [(Impending) pathological fracture].

    PubMed

    Sutter, P M; Regazzoni, P

    2002-01-01

    Pathological fractures will be encountered in increasing frequency due to more patients with cancer, surviving a longer period. The skeleton is the third most frequent localization for metastases. Breast cancer is still the most common primary tumor, but bone metastases from lung cancer seem to be diagnosed more and more. Despite of finding metastases most often in the spinal column, fractures are seen mostly at the femoral site. A pathological fracture and, in almost all cases, an impending fracture are absolute indication for operation. An exact definition of an "impending fracture" is still lacking; it is widely accepted, that 50 per cent of bone mass must be destroyed before visualization in X-ray is possible, thus defining an impending fracture. The score system by Mirels estimates the fracture risk by means of four parameters (localization, per cent of destructed bone mass, type of metastasis, pain). Improving quality of life, relieving pain, preferably with a single operation and a short length of stay are the goals of (operative) treatment. For fractures of the proximal femur, prosthetic replacement, for fractures of the subtrochanteric region or the shaft, intramedullary nails are recommended. Postoperative radiation therapy possibly avoids tumor progression. In patient with a good long term prognosis, tumor should be removed locally aggressive.

  6. Pathology of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vijgen, Sandrine; Terris, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCC) is a primary carcinoma of the liver with increasing significance and major pathogenic, clinical and therapeutic challenges. Classically, it arises from malignant transformation of cholangiocytes bordering small portal bile duct (BD) to second-order segmental large BDs. It has three major macroscopic growth pattern [mass-forming (MF), periductal infiltrative (PI), and intraductal growth (IG)] and histologically is a desmoplastic stroma-rich adenocarcinoma with cholangiocyte differentiation. Recent data pointed out noteworthy degree of heterogeneity in regards of their epidemiology and risk factors, pathological and molecular features, pathogenesis, clinical behaviors and treatment. Notably, several histological variants are described and can coexist within the same tumor. Several different cells of origin have also been depicted in a fraction of iCCs, amongst which malignant transformation of ductules, of hepatic stem/progenitor cells, of periductal glands or through oncogenic reprogramming of adult hepatocytes. A degree of pathological overlap with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be observed in a portion of iCC. A series of precursor lesions are today characterized and emphasize the existence of a multistep carcinogenesis process. Overall, these new data have brought up in proposal of new histological or molecular classifications, which could soon replace current anatomic-based classification and could have major impact on establishment of prognosis and on development of novel target treatment approaches. PMID:28261592

  7. A selective Seoul-Fluor-based bioprobe, SfBP, for vaccinia H1-related phosphatase--a dual-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Myeong Seon; Kim, Eunha; Kang, Hyo Jin; Choi, Eun Joung; Cho, Alvin R; Chung, Sang J; Park, Seung Bum

    2012-07-04

    We report a Seoul-Fluor-based bioprobe, SfBP, for selective monitoring of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). A rational design based on the structures at the active site of dual-specific PTPs can enable SfBP to selectively monitor the activity of these PTPs with a 93-fold change in brightness. Moreover, screening results of SfBP against 30 classical PTPs and 35 dual-specific PTPs show that it is selective toward vaccinia H1-related (VHR) phosphatase, a dual-specific PTP (DUSP-3).

  8. Pathological findings in homocystinuria

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, J. B.; Carson, Nina A. J.; Neill, D. W.

    1964-01-01

    Pathological findings are described in four cases of a new aminoaciduria in which homocystine is excreted in the urine. All the patients were mentally retarded children. Three of them presented diagnostic features of Marfan's syndrome. Necropsy on one case and biopsy findings in the others are described. Fatty change occurs in the liver. The most striking lesions are vascular. Metachromatic medial degeneration of the aorta and of the elastic arteries in the necropsied case are considered in relation to Marfan's syndrome. Other changes, particularly thrombosis which is prevalent in homocystinuria, suggest the possibility of a platelet defect. The findings are discussed in respect of an upset in the metabolism of sulphur-containing amino-acids and with particular reference to Marfan's syndrome. Images PMID:14195630

  9. Pathological aspects of cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Esposito*, I.

    2008-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arises from the biliary epithelium and in most cases represents adenocarcinoma. Pathomorphological evaluation is of decisive impact for the prognosis and management of CC. Morphological subtyping (histotype; hilar vs peripheral type), TNM classification, lymphatic spread, and resection margin status are of prognostic relevance. Distinction from hepatic metastases may be aided by immunohistology and clinico-pathological correlation. There is convincing evidence of the development of CC via premalignant lesions, especially biliary intraepithelial neoplasia, although further knowledge about the biology and diagnostic definition of these lesions has to be accumulated. Currently, there are no established molecular markers of prognosis or therapeutic target structures to be evaluated at the tissue level. Future progress is needed and expected in novel differential diagnostic and predictive markers, in uniform definition of resection margin status and further understanding of molecular and morphological changes in the development of CC. PMID:18773061

  10. Pathology of sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, Richard K.; Rebar, A.H.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Haebler, Romona J.; Loughlin, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    In the months following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), 994 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from oil-spill-affected areas died (Doroff et al. 1993). Carcasses collected from these areas and otters that died in rehabilitation centers are included in this number. The actual number that died was probably much greater.Within days of the spill, the Exxon Company (USA) funded an effort to rehabilitate oil-contaminated sea otters (Davis 1990). Initially, clinical veterinarians working on the rehabilitation effort performed partial necropsies on some of the sea otters that died. Soon, veterinary pathologists from the University of Alaska and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provided assistance. Later, rehabilitation centers were constructed and other veterinarians with special training in pathology were hired by Exxon to provide diagnostic support.In late April 1989, veterinary pathologists from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) assumed responsibility for pathologic evaluation of oil-spill-affected sea otters. The USFWS requested assistance from veterinary pathologists of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) in June 1989. Eventually, as part of the Natural Resources Damage Assessment program, AFIP veterinary pathologists were asked to carry out histopathological studies of the tissue specimens collected by all parties and to perform necropsies on carcasses that had been collected and frozen. A veterinary clinical pathologist was requested to assess hematology and clinical chemistry findings in otters that had been held in the rehabilitation centers.In spite of the best efforts of many dedicated people working under extremely difficult conditions, there are significant limitations in the pathological studies. The absence of a detailed necropsy protocol and of full documentation of necropsy findings during the first several weeks after the spill resulted in important data being lost. Often, samples of all major organs were not collected. In some

  11. Vitamin A status of 20- to 59-year-old adults living in Seoul and the metropolitan area, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungah; Kim, Young-Nam

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of retinol and carotenoids were estimated in assessing the vitamin A status of Korean adults living in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were collected from 106 healthy subjects (33 males and 73 females) aged 20-59 years. Fasting blood samples of the subjects were obtained and plasma retinol and carotenoids were analyzed. The daily vitamin A intakes (mean ± SD) were 887.77 ± 401.35 µg retinol equivalents or 531.84 ± 226.42 µg retinol activity equivalents. There were no significant differences in vitamin A intakes among age groups. The retinol intake of subjects was 175.92 ± 129.87 µg/day. The retinol intake of the subjects in their 50's was significantly lower than those in their 20's and 30's (P < 0.05). Provitamin A carotenoid intakes were 3,828.37 ± 2,196.29 µg/day β-carotene, 472.57 ± 316.68 µg/day α-carotene, and 412.83 ± 306.46 µg/day β-cryptoxanthin. Approximately 17% of the subjects consumed vitamin A less than the Korean Estimated Average Requirements for vitamin A. The plasma retinol concentration was 1.22 ± 0.34 µmol/L. There was no significant difference in plasma retinol concentrations among age groups. However, the concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein of subjects in their 50's were significantly higher than those of in their 20's. Only one subject had a plasma retinol concentration < 0.70 µmol/L indicating marginal vitamin A status. Plasma retinol concentration in 30% of the subjects was 0.70- < 1.05 µmol/L, which is interpreted as the concentration possibly responsive to greater intake of vitamin A. In conclusion, dietary intakes and status of vitamin A were generally adequate in Korean adults examined in this study. PMID:22413040

  12. Analysis of climate variability under various scenarios for future urban growth in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Jeong, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    It is important to adjust urban growth data closer to reality in the regional climate model because urban changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere. Future urban growth, however, has not been considered widely in the prediction model for future climate change. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on cellular automata (CA) technique to predict the future urban growth. The target area is Seoul Metropolitan area (SMA) where the urban area explosively has expanded the most in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. The SLEUTH model was calibrated to know the pattern of the urban growth in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from Water Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then the future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) current trends scenario (Scenario 1; SC1), (2) regional policy and urban planning scenario (Scenario 2; SC2), (3) ecologically protection scenario (Scenario 3; SC3). As a result, the urban ratios by scenarios were increased 12.87, 11.17 and 6.26 percentages of the total area for 50 years respectively. These predictions of SLEUTH model used as the boundary condition data and the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany used as the initial condition data in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We designed four different numerical experiments in accordance with the four scenarios for the urban growth (SC1, SC2, SC3 and Current condition) and carried out for 5 years (2046-2050). Overall, the increment of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase and the average wind speed to decrease in the

  13. Effects of cloud, aerosol, and ozone on surface spectral Ultraviolet and total irradiance observed in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hana; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Woogyung; Lee, Yun Gon; Cho, Hi Ku

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there have been substantial attempts to model the radiative transfer for climatological and biological purposes. However, the incorporation of clouds, aerosols and ozone into the modeling process is one of the difficult tasks due to their variable transmission in both temporal and space domains. In this study we quantify the atmospheric transmissions by clouds, aerosol optical depth (AOD at 320 nm) and total ozone (Ozone) together with all skies in three solar radiation components of the global solar (GS 305-2800nm), total ultraviolet (TUV 290-363nm) and the erythemal weighted ultraviolet (EUV 290-325nm) irradiances with statistical methods using the data at Seoul. The purpose of this study also is to clarify the different characteristics between cloud, AOD and Ozone in the wavelength-dependent solar radiation components. The ozone, EUV and TUV used in this study (March 2003 - February 2014) have been measured with Dobson Spectrophotometer (Beck #124) and Brewer Spectrophotometer (SCI-TEC#148) at Yonsei University, respectively. GS, Cloud Cover (CC) are available from the Korean Meteorological Agency. The measured total (effect of cloud, aerosol, and ozone) transmissions on annual average showed 74%, 76% and 80% of GS, TUV and EUV irradiance, respectively. For the comparison of the measured values with modeled, we have also constructed a multiple linear regression model for the total transmission. The average ratio of measured to modeled total transmission were 0.94, 0.96 and 0.96 with higher measured than modeled value in the three components, respectively, The individual transmission by clouds under the constant AOD and Ozone atmosphere on average showed 68%, 71% and 76% and further the overcast clouds reduced the transmissions to the 45%, 54% and 59% of the clear sky irradiance in the GS, TUV and EUV, respectively. The annual transmissions by AOD showed on average 67%, 70% and 74% and further the high loadings 2.5-4.0 AOD reduced the

  14. In-situ measurements of nighttime radical species (NO3 and N2O5) from Seoul N Tower in Korea during MAPS 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of nitrate radical (NO3) chemistry has been emphasized in the nocturnal atmosphere which influences on the air quality in following day. This chemistry could gather its importance even more in urban setting or in downwind area of large urban emission sources. In support of these issue, efforts in investigating the nighttime chemical mechanisms has been made during MAPS 2015 (Megacity Air Pollution Study 2015) at Seoul in Korea from May 18th to June 12th of 2015. By deploying NOAA's state-of-the-art instrument, ARNOLD (Airborne Ring-down Nitrogen Oxide Laser Detector), high time resolution in-situ measurement of nitrate (NO3), dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) as well as other related trace gases species (e.g. NO, NO2, NOy, and O3) were made on the Seoul N Tower (inlet height: 362m ASL). The in-situ measurements of NO3 radical will provide good observational constraints on night time oxidation processes. The NO3 and N2O5 equilibrium and reactivity will be analyzed by comparison of their lifetimes to those calculated from VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) measurements and kinetic calculations. Implications for nitrogen oxides species will be discussed.

  15. Nontraditional applications in clinical pathology.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Holly L; Register, Thomas C; Tripathi, Niraj K; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Everds, Nancy; Zelmanovic, David; Poitout, Florence; Bounous, Denise I; Wescott, Debra; Ramaiah, Shashi K

    2014-10-01

    Most published reviews of preclinical toxicological clinical pathology focus on the fundamental aspects of hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis in routine toxicology animal species, for example, rats, mice, dogs, and nonhuman primates. The objective of this continuing education course was to present and discuss contemporary examples of nonroutine applications of clinical pathology endpoints used in the drug development setting. Area experts discussed bone turnover markers of laboratory animal species, clinical pathology of pregnant and growing laboratory animals, clinical pathology of nonroutine laboratory animal species, and unique applications of the Siemens Advia(®) hematology analyzer. This article is a summary based on a presentation given at the 31st Annual Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, during the Continuing Education Course titled "Nontraditional Applications of Clinical Pathology in Drug Discovery and Preclinical Toxicology."

  16. Recommendations for pathology peer review.

    PubMed

    Morton, Daniel; Sellers, Rani S; Barale-Thomas, Erio; Bolon, Brad; George, Catherine; Hardisty, Jerry F; Irizarry, Armando; McKay, Jennifer S; Odin, Marielle; Teranishi, Munehiro

    2010-12-01

    Pathology peer review verifies and improves the accuracy and quality of pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Pathology peer review is recommended when important risk assessment or business decisions are based on nonclinical studies. For pathology peer review conducted before study completion, the peer-review pathologist reviews sufficient slides and pathology data to assist the study pathologist in refining pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Materials to be reviewed are selected by the peer-review pathologist. Consultations with additional experts or a formal (documented) pathology working group may be used to resolve discrepancies. The study pathologist is solely responsible for the content of the final pathology data and report, makes changes resulting from peer-review discussions, initiates the audit trail for microscopic observations after all changes resulting from peer-review have been made, and signs the final pathologist's report. The peer-review pathologist creates a signed peer-review memo describing the peer-review process and confirming that the study pathologist's report accurately and appropriately reflects the pathology data. The study pathologist also may sign a statement of consensus. It is not necessary to archive working notes created during the peer-review process.

  17. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    PubMed

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness.

  18. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  19. Rabies: ocular pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Haltia, M; Tarkkanen, A; Kivelä, T

    1989-01-01

    Ocular pathology in the first European case of human bat-borne rabies is described. The patient was a 30-year-old bat scientist who seven weeks after bat bite developed neurological symptoms and died 23 days later. Rabies virus antigens were detected in brain smears. After extensive virological studies the virus turned out to be a rabies-related virus, closely resembling the Duvenhage virus isolated from bats in South Africa in 1980. By light microscopy focal chronic inflammatory infiltration of the ciliary body and of the choroid was found. PAS-positive exudate was seen in the subretinal and in the outer plexiform layers of the retina, and retinal veins showed endothelial damage and perivascular inflammation. Many of the retinal ganglion cells were destroyed. The presence of rabies-related viral antigen in the retinal ganglion cells was shown by positive cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, though electron microscopy failed to identify definite viral structures in the retina. By immunohistochemistry glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the Müller's cells, which are normally negative for this antigen but express it as a reactive change when the retina is damaged. Synaptophysin, a constituent of presynaptic vesicles of normal retinal neurons, was not detected in the retina. Images PMID:2920157

  20. Macrophage polarization in pathology.

    PubMed

    Sica, Antonio; Erreni, Marco; Allavena, Paola; Porta, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages are cells of the innate immunity constituting the mononuclear phagocyte system and endowed with remarkable different roles essential for defense mechanisms, development of tissues, and homeostasis. They derive from hematopoietic precursors and since the early steps of fetal life populate peripheral tissues, a process continuing throughout adult life. Although present essentially in every organ/tissue, macrophages are more abundant in the gastro-intestinal tract, liver, spleen, upper airways, and brain. They have phagocytic and bactericidal activity and produce inflammatory cytokines that are important to drive adaptive immune responses. Macrophage functions are settled in response to microenvironmental signals, which drive the acquisition of polarized programs, whose extremes are simplified in the M1 and M2 dichotomy. Functional skewing of monocyte/macrophage polarization occurs in physiological conditions (e.g., ontogenesis and pregnancy), as well as in pathology (allergic and chronic inflammation, tissue repair, infection, and cancer) and is now considered a key determinant of disease development and/or regression. Here, we will review evidence supporting a dynamic skewing of macrophage functions in disease, which may provide a basis for macrophage-centered therapeutic strategies.

  1. Pathology of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Domingo, M; Vidal, E; Marco, A

    2014-10-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic granulomatous caseous-necrotising inflammatory process that mainly affects the lungs and their draining lymph nodes (Ln.). The pathological changes associated with bTB infection reflect the interplay between the host defence mechanisms and the mycobacterial virulence factors and the balance between the immunologic protective responses and the damaging inflammatory processes. Inhalation is the most common infection route and causes lesions of the nasopharynx and lower respiratory tract, including its associated lymph nodes. The initial infection (primary complex) may be followed by chronic (post-primary) tuberculosis or may be generalised. Goat tuberculosis often produces liquefactive necrosis and caverns, similarly to human TB. The assessment of the severity of TB lesions is crucial for vaccine trials. Semi-quantitative gross lesion scoring systems have been developed for cattle, but imaging technology has allowed the development of more standardised, objective, and quantitative methods, such as multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), which provides quantitative measures of lesion volume.

  2. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5-1.0) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42-60% (by weight) of fin...

  3. Chemical mass balance receptor model applied to ambient C 2-C 9 VOC concentration in Seoul, Korea: Effect of chemical reaction losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Kwangsam; Pyo Kim, Yong

    A chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model was used for estimating the diurnal contributions of VOC emission sources to the ambient C 2-C 9 VOC concentration in Seoul, Korea. For this purpose, the VOC concentrations were measured in the morning, the afternoon, and the evening. The samples were collected using a 2-h integrated SUMMA canister. The source profiles were developed for the CMB calculation in the Seoul area. To investigate the effect of the chemical reaction loss of VOCs on the CMB calculation, the modified model employing a decay factor and the standard model that considers no loss were compared. The modified model estimated that the vehicle exhaust (52%) was the largest leading source of VOCs in the Seoul atmosphere, followed by the use of solvents (26%), gasoline evaporation (15%), the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) (5%), and the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) (2%). Relative source contribution for vehicle exhaust showed a clear diurnal variation with a high in the morning and evening and a low in the afternoon, while the contribution of evaporative emissions (gasoline evaporation and solvent usage) showed a different diurnal pattern from that of the vehicle exhaust, exhibiting a high in the afternoon and evening and a low in the morning. It was found that the difference between the total source contribution (μg m -3) estimated from these two models was not statistically significant. However, when the paired-sample t-test is applied to the individual sources, a significant difference was found for the vehicle exhaust and the solvent use. In addition, the modified model brought forth a better performance with high R2 and low χ2 as compared to those obtained from the standard model in the CMB calculation. The vehicle exhaust and solvent use were estimated to be the largest and the second largest contributors to ambient benzene as well as ozone formation potential (OFP), respectively. Based on above results we believe that incorporating the

  4. Pathology of peliosis.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, Michael; Erbersdobler, Andreas

    2005-04-20

    Peliosis is a pathological entity characterized by the gross appearance of multiple cyst-like, blood-filled cavities within parenchymatous organs. Peliosis has been related to several underlying debilitating illnesses such as tuberculosis, hematological malignancies, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and post-transplant immunodeficiency, as well as intravenous drug abuse, chronic alcoholism, and in conjunction with the intake of oral contraceptives or steroids. The classical pathoanatomical concept is based upon the opinion that peliosis exclusively develops in organs belonging to the mononuclear phagocytic system (liver, spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes). However, a paucity of studies indicates that other organs such as lungs, parathyroid glands, and kidneys may be affected too. Concerning the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms of onset and maintenance of peliosis, the morphological data obtained by different investigators suggest that there is more than one path of formal pathogenesis (e.g., congenital malformation of vessels manifesting under altered local intravascular pressure conditions, acquired vascular disorder triggered by toxic noxae, active proliferation of vessels corresponding to the benign end on the spectrum of neoplastic vascular lesions). In the liver, at gross inspection, the peliotic lesions give the cut sections a "swiss cheese" appearance. Microscopically, two different types of peliosis can be distinguished in the liver: (1) "parenchymal peliosis" consisting of irregular cavities that are neither lined by sinusoidal cells nor by fibrous tissue, and (2) "phlebectatic peliosis" characterized by regular, spherical cavities lined by endothelium and/or fibrosis. One of the differential diagnoses that most closely resembles peliosis hepatis is secondary hepatic congestion due to veno-occlusive disease or the Budd-Chiari syndrome. In the spleen, the peliotic lesions may be arranged sporadically, disseminated, or in clusters in an

  5. [Corticotherapy and mucocutaneous pathology].

    PubMed

    Kuffer, R

    1975-01-01

    The tremendous advances in treatment brought about by corticotherapy applied to cutaneo-mucosal pathology should not be allowed to obscure the fact that its action is merely palliative, that it should only be proceeded with after careful diagnosis and that it may trigger undesirable side-effects. General corticotherapy is definitely indicated in certain serious dermatoses (e.g. pemphigus vulgaris) in large doses at the beginning of the course of treatment which often has to be kept up indefinitely; it is in these patients that the most serious accidents occur. It is also indicated in other dermatoses (e.g. lichen planus) in smaller doses and in separate courses, generally triggering incidents and accidents of a less serious nature which to a certain extent seem to be attenuated by taking the drug on alternate days. It is counter-indicated in one particular condition: psoriasis. Corticotherapy by intra- and sub-lesional local injection is most useful in the treatment of certain localised skin lesions (e.g. cheloids) and of the oral mucosa (e.g. erosive lichen planus). Either a few drops are injected or a larger quantity in a suspension of microcrystals. Complications have sometimes been observed in the skin (leukoderma, dermoepidermatrophia and, particularly, amaurosis), but never so far after sub-mucosal injections. Local corticotherapy by external application, very widely used in the form of ointments, creams and lotions for numerous cutaneous conditions may cause various more or less serious local side-effects, the systemic effects with depression of the hypophyso-adrenal axis, only seem to occur to any extent with occlusive dressings. It can also be used in the treatment of some conditions of the oral mucosa (e.g. some forms of lichen planus, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid) by means of either a corticosteroid incorporated into a special excipient which adheres to the mucous membrane or in tablets of 17-betamethasone valerate which gradually break up in the

  6. Digital pathology and anatomic pathology laboratory information system integration to support digital pathology sign-out

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huazhang; Birsa, Joe; Farahani, Navid; Hartman, Douglas J.; Piccoli, Anthony; O’Leary, Matthew; McHugh, Jeffrey; Nyman, Mark; Stratman, Curtis; Kvarnstrom, Vanja; Yousem, Samuel; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adoption of digital pathology offers benefits over labor-intensive, time-consuming, and error-prone manual processes. However, because most workflow and laboratory transactions are centered around the anatomical pathology laboratory information system (APLIS), adoption of digital pathology ideally requires integration with the APLIS. A digital pathology system (DPS) integrated with the APLIS was recently implemented at our institution for diagnostic use. We demonstrate how such integration supports digital workflow to sign-out anatomical pathology cases. Methods: Workflow begins when pathology cases get accessioned into the APLIS (CoPathPlus). Glass slides from these cases are then digitized (Omnyx VL120 scanner) and automatically uploaded into the DPS (Omnyx® Integrated Digital Pathology (IDP) software v.1.3). The APLIS transmits case data to the DPS via a publishing web service. The DPS associates scanned images with the correct case using barcode labels on slides and information received from the APLIS. When pathologists remotely open a case in the DPS, additional information (e.g. gross pathology details, prior cases) gets retrieved from the APLIS through a query web service. Results: Following validation of this integration, pathologists at our institution have signed out more than 1000 surgical pathology cases in a production environment. Integration between the APLIS and DPS enabled pathologists to review digital slides while simultaneously having access to pertinent case metadata. The introduction of a digital workflow eliminated costly manual tasks involving matching of glass slides and avoided delays waiting for glass slides to be delivered. Conclusion: Integrating the DPS and APLIS were instrumental for successfully implementing a digital solution at our institution for pathology sign-out. The integration streamlined our digital sign-out workflow, diminished the potential for human error related to matching slides, and improved the sign

  7. The Influences of the Wheel Profiles on the Wheel Wear and Vibrational Characteristics of the Passenger Cars Running on the Seoul-Pusan Conventional Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bu-Byoung; Lee, Chan-Woo

    Wheels of the railway vehicle play the important role for driving train through wheel-rail interaction. Especially wheel profile is one of the most important design factors to rule the running stability and safety of train. Accordingly maintenance of wheel like wheel profile control is also very important for securing safety and stability of train operation. This study presents the wheel wear measurement results of Saemaeul running on the conventional line. The train set included three different cars which have different shape of wheel profile including KNR profile currently used in Saemaeul. Train set was operated on Seoul-Pusan line with fixed train set formation for commercial service. Wheel wear measurements were performed periodically. We can find the influence of wheel profile on the wheel wear of the train running on the conventional line through the measurement results.

  8. Effect modification of individual- and regional-scale characteristics on heat wave-related mortality rates between 2009 and 2012 in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, E-Jin; Kim, Ho

    2017-04-03

    Many studies have investigated the associations between heat waves, ambient temperature, cold spells, and mortality or morbidity. Some studies have utilized effect modification to reveal the factors that increase an individual's susceptibility to temperature extremes, which can then be used to reshape public policy. In this study, we used a time-stratified case-crossover technique to examine how individual- and regional-scale characteristics modified heat wave-related impacts on mortality rates in Seoul, South Korea, between 2009 and 2012. We defined a heat wave as having at least two consecutive days with a daily mean temperature greater than or equal to the 95th percentile recorded in each of Seoul's twenty-five districts. At the individual scale, citizens classified as belonging to a lower education group had a higher vulnerability to heat wave-related morbidity or mortality [odds ratio (OR) 1.261; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.034-1.538]. At a regional scale, death during heat waves was more likely to occur in districts with a high deprivation index (OR=1.194; 95% CI: 1.028-1.388). And a low proportion of green space around buildings (OR=1.178; 95% CI: 1.016-1.366), a low proportion of rooftop green space (OR=1.207; 95% CI: 1.042-1.399), or those that had fewer hospitals (OR=1.186; 95% CI: 1.019-1.379). Our data show that mortality during heat waves is more likely where these individual and regional-scale vulnerabilities overlap. Our findings support evidence of mortality impacts from heat waves and provide a basis for selection to policy makers choose on the target groups to reduce the public health burden of heat waves.

  9. Pathology of chronic mountain sickness

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Stella, Javier; Krüger, Hever; Recavarren, Sixto

    1973-01-01

    Arias-Stella, J., Krüger, H., and Recavarren, S. (1973).Thorax, 28, 701-708. Pathology of chronic mountain sickness. Pathological data on chronic mountain sickness are scarce due to the fact that the disease is ameliorated or cured by descent to a low altitude. In this report we describe a case of chronic mountain sickness occurring in a woman of 48 years at Cerro de Pasco (4,300 m above sea level). The necropsy findings are compared with the limited pathological observations reported by others. It is apparent from our findings that in fatal cases the main changes are located within the pulmonary circulation. So far histological studies have been reported only in cases of the secondary form of chronic mountain sickness. The basic pathology of the primary form (Monge's disease) remains to be defined. Images PMID:4787982

  10. [Methods and methodology of pathology].

    PubMed

    Lushnikov, E F

    2016-01-01

    The lecture gives the state-of-the-art of the methodology of human pathology that is an area of the scientific and practice activity of specialists to produce and systematize objective knowledge of pathology and to use the knowledge in clinical medicine. It considers the objects and subjects of an investigation, materials and methods of a pathologist, and the results of his/her work.

  11. Communication skills in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Bosman, Fred T

    2016-01-01

    Communication is an essential element of good medical practice also in pathology. In contrast to technical or diagnostic skills, communication skills are not easy to define, teach, or assess. Rules almost do not exist. In this paper, which has a rather personal character and cannot be taken as a set of guidelines, important aspects of communication in pathology are explored. This includes what should be communicated to the pathologist on the pathology request form, communication between pathologists during internal (interpathologist) consultation, communication around frozen section diagnoses, modalities of communication of a final diagnosis, with whom and how critical and unexpected findings should be communicated, (in-)adequate routes of communication for pathology diagnoses, who will (or might) receive pathology reports, and what should be communicated and how in case of an error or a technical problem. An earlier more formal description of what the responsibilities are of a pathologist as communicator and as collaborator in a medical team is added in separate tables. The intention of the paper is to stimulate reflection and discussion rather than to formulate strict rules.

  12. The molecular pathology of noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Karst, Stephanie M; Zhu, Shu; Goodfellow, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus infection in humans typically results in acute gastroenteritis but may also occur in many animal species. Noroviruses are recognized as one of the most common causes of acute gastroenteritis in the world, being responsible for almost 20% of all cases. Despite their prevalence and impact, our knowledge of the norovirus life cycle and the pathological processes associated with norovirus-induced disease is limited. Whilst infection of the intestine is the norm, extraintestinal spread and associated pathologies have also been described. In addition, long-term chronic infections are now recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised. This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge with respect to norovirus pathology and the underlying mechanisms that have been characterized to date.

  13. Pathology of human diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Malik, R A

    2014-01-01

    Pathologic study of a disease provides insights into the precise mechanisms and targets of damage and may provide insights into new therapies. The main targets in diabetic neuropathy are myelinated and unmyelinated fibers as dysfunction and damage to them explains the symptoms of painful neuropathy and the major end points of foot ulceration and amputation as well as mortality. Demyelination and axonal degeneration are established hallmarks of the pathology of human diabetic neuropathy and were derived from pioneering light and electronmicroscopic studies of sural nerve biopsies in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Additional abnormalities, which are relevant to the pathogenesis of human diabetic neuropathy, include pathology of the microvessels and extracellular space. Intraepidermal and sudomotor nerve quantification in skin biopsies provides a minimally invasive means for the detection of early nerve damage. Studies of muscle biopsies are limited and show significant alterations in the expression of neurotrophins, but limited changes in muscle fiber size and capillary density.

  14. Shame regulation in personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-05-01

    Drawing on extant work on shame and emotion regulation, this article proposes that three broad forms of maladaptive shame regulation strategies are fundamental in much of personality pathology: Prevention (e.g., dependence, fantasy), used preemptively, lessens potential for shame; Escape (e.g., social withdrawal, misdirection) reduces current or imminent shame; Aggression, used after shame begins, refocuses shame into anger directed at the self (e.g., physical self-harm) or others (e.g., verbal aggression). This article focuses on the contributions of shame regulation to the development and maintenance of personality pathology, highlighting how various maladaptive shame regulation strategies may lead to personality pathology symptoms, associated features, and dimensions. Consideration is also given to the possible shame-related constructs necessitating emotion regulation (e.g., shame aversion and proneness) and the points in the emotion process when regulation can occur.

  15. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    PubMed

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD.

  16. The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V.; Aller, Raymond D.; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J.; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B.; Friedman, Bruce A.; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold. PMID:23869286

  17. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  18. Molecular Biomarkers of Knee Pathology.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Vanessa; Strauss, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers has become increasingly important in our fundamental understanding of the molecular basis for disease and subsequently in the advancement of modern medicine. Biomarkers have been identified in a plethora of normal and pathologic conditions and are most often found in blood, tissue, or synovial fluid. Orthopaedic research has more recently focused on biomarkers of cartilage and joint diseases, with an emphasis on understanding the molecular underpinnings of their pathophysiology. This article focuses on the biomarkers identified to date in several select knee pathologies and how further research can contribute to new diagnostic tools and targeted therapeutics.

  19. 77 FR 59941 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Terahertz Scanning Systems for Cancer Pathology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Systems for Cancer Pathology AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION... systems for cancer pathology. Upon the expiration or termination of the exclusive evaluation option... therefore potentially suitable for medical applications such as cancer diagnosis of living subjects...

  20. Sources and atmospheric processing of winter aerosols in Seoul, Korea: insights from real-time measurements using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwajin; Zhang, Qi; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Kim, Jin Young; Bok Lee, Seung

    2017-02-01

    Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of nonrefractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was conducted in Seoul, the capital and largest metropolis of Korea, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The measurements were performed during winter, when elevated particulate matter (PM) pollution events are often observed. This is the first time that detailed real-time aerosol measurement results have been reported from Seoul, Korea, and they reveal valuable insights into the sources and atmospheric processes that contribute to PM pollution in this region. The average concentration of submicron aerosol (PM1 = NR-PM1+ black carbon (BC)) was 27.5 µg m-3, and the total mass was dominated by organics (44 %), followed by nitrate (24 %) and sulfate (10 %). The average atomic ratios of oxygen to carbon (O / C), hydrogen to carbon (H / C), and nitrogen to carbon (N / C) of organic aerosols (OA) were 0.37, 1.79, and 0.018, respectively, which result in an average organic mass-to-carbon (OM / OC) ratio of 1.67. The concentrations (2.6-90.7 µg m-3) and composition of PM1 varied dynamically during the measurement period due to the influences of different meteorological conditions, emission sources, and air mass origins. Five distinct sources of OA were identified via positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the HR-ToF-AMS data: vehicle emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA factor (HOA, O / C = 0.06), cooking activities represented by a cooking OA factor (COA, O / C = 0.14), wood combustion represented by a biomass burning OA factor (BBOA, O / C = 0.34), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) represented by a semivolatile oxygenated OA factor (SV-OOA, O / C = 0.56) and a low-volatility oxygenated OA factor (LV-OOA, O / C = 0.68). On average, primary OA (POA = HOA + COA + BBOA) accounted for 59 % the OA mass, whereas SV-OOA and LV-OOA contributed 15 and 26 %, respectively. Our results indicate that air

  1. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  2. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  3. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  4. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  5. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  6. Regulatory forum opinion piece: Tox21 and toxicologic pathology.

    PubMed

    Bucher, John R

    2013-01-01

    Tox21 is a transformative effort on the part of several U.S. Federal agencies (the National Toxicology Program/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences [NTP], the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Chemical Genomics Center/National Human Genome Research Institute [NCGC; now called the NIH Center for Translational Therapeutics, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences] the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Center for Computational Toxicology, and recently the Food and Drug Administration) that are partnering to fundamentally change the science of safety toxicology. These agencies bring a comprehensive suite of capabilities and are working diligently together to develop, evaluate, and ultimately implement a new safety assessment paradigm. Toxicologic pathology has an important ongoing role in establishing the validity of this transformation, and may ultimately benefit as a discipline through an enhanced understanding of chemically induced disease mechanisms.

  7. Time-course monitoring of urban bioaerosol bacterial communities and its use in microbial hazard identification during Asian Dust events in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    The microbial communities transported by Asian dust events have attracted much attention as bioaerosols because the transported airborne microbes may strongly influence the downwind ecosystems and potentially human health in East Asia. Bioaerosol study has received relatively little attention and their characterization and risk assessments remain poorly developed. We used high throughput 16S rRNA gene targeted pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to monitor airborne bacterial communities and assess their potential risk. We monitored microbial communities in bioaerosol in Seoul between 2011 and 2013 using high volume air samplers. Six samples were collected during Asian dust (AD) events and the other 34 samples were urban air collected during non-Asian dust (non-AD) events. According to the qPCR result, the gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes were significantly higher during the AD events (P < 0.05) and their abundances were positively correlated with PM10 concentrations and bacterial diversities. The most abundant bacterial members (genus level) in the AD samples were Bacillus, Neisseria and E.coli/Shigella. To identify pathogenic populations, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and virulence tests were applied using culture methods. 16S rRNA gene sequences of several pathogens were detected and their relative abundances appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM10. About 1% of Bacillus isolates were identified as known pathogenic B. cereus, confirming their presence in Asian dust samples. The qPCR detection of bceT gene, which codes for an enterotoxin in B. cereus group, was significantly increased in the AD dust samples over the non-AD samples. The following MLST assessment and virulence test of cultivated Bacillus isolates showed that B. cereus, B. licheniformis and B. mycoides were identified as pathogenic bacteria, and these pathogenic bacteria were usually more abundant during AD events. To assess the possible associations of

  8. Correlation between bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and real-time measurable environmental items: A case study from KORUS-AQ pre-campaign in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Due to global climate change, bioaerosols are more globally mixed with a more random manner. During a long-distance traveling dust event, the number of microbes significantly increases in bioaerosol, and the chance for bioaerosol to contain human pathogenic microorganisms may also increase. Recently, we have found that bioaerosol microbial community characteristics (copy number of total bacterial 16S rRNA genes, and population diversity and composition) are correlated with the quantitative detection of potential human pathogens. However, bioaerosol microbial community characteristics cannot be directly used in real-time monitoring because the DNA-based detection method requires at least couple days or a week to get reliable data. To circumvent this problem, a correlation of microbial community characteristics with real-time measurable environmental items (PM10, PM2.5, temperature, humidity, NOx, O3 etc.), if any, will be useful in frequent assessment of microbial risk from available real-time measured environmental data. In this work, we monitored bioaerosol microbial communities using a high-throughput DNA sequencing method (Mi-seq) during the KORUS-AQ (KoreaUS-Air Quality) pre-campaign (May to June, 2015) in Seoul, and investigated whether any correlation exists between the bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and the real-time measureable environmental items simultaneously attained during the pre-campaign period. At the pre-campaign site (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul), bioaerosol samples were collected using high volume air sampler, and their 16S rRNA gene based bacterial communities were analyzed by Miseq sequencing and bioinformatics. Simultaneously, atmosphere environmental items were monitored at the same site. Using Decision Tree, a non-linear multi-variant correlation was observed between the bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and the real-time measured atmosphere chemistry data, and a rule induction was developed

  9. Surgical pathology of urologic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Javadpour, N.; Barsky, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    This text details recent advances in methods for detecting, diagnosing, and managing genitourinary diseases. Included are chapters on imaging techniques (including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound; tumor markers (such as alphafetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, prostatic specific antigen, and T-antigens); immunocytochemistry; pediatric urologic pathology; and other key topics.

  10. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  11. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  12. A multivariate study for characterizing particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) in Seoul metropolitan subway stations, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Jeong, Wootae; Park, Duckshin; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2015-10-30

    Given that around eight million commuters use the Seoul Metropolitan Subway (SMS) each day, the indoor air quality (IAQ) of its stations has attracted much public attention. We have monitored the concentration of particulate matters (PMx) (i.e., PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) in six major transfer stations per minute for three weeks during the summer, autumn, and winter in 2014 and 2015. The data were analyzed to investigate the relationship between PMx concentration and multivariate environmental factors using statistical methods. The average PM concentration observed was approximately two or three times higher than outdoor PM10 concentration, showing similar temporal patterns at concourses and platforms. This implies that outdoor PM10 is the most significant factor in controlling indoor PM concentration. In addition, the station depth and number of trains passing through stations were found to be additional influences on PMx. Principal component analysis (PCA) and self-organizing map (SOM) were employed, through which we found that the number of trains influences PM concentration in the vicinity of platforms only, and PMx hotspots were determined. This study identifies the external and internal factors affecting PMx characteristics in six SMS stations, which can assist in the development of effective IAQ management plans to improve public health.

  13. Development of a speciated, hourly, and gridded air pollutants emission modeling system--a case study on the precursors of photochemical smog in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, D Y; Kim, J W

    2000-03-01

    A speciated, hourly, and gridded air pollutants emission modeling system (SHEMS) was developed and applied in predicting hourly nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) levels in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). The primary goal of the SHEMS was to produce a systemized emission inventory for air pollutants including ozone precursors for modeling air quality in urban areas. The SHEMS is principally composed of three parts: (1) a pre-processor to process emission factors, activity levels, and spatial and temporal information using a geographical information system; (2) an emission model for each source type; and (3) a post-processor to produce report and input data for air quality models through database modeling. The source categories in SHEMS are point, area, mobile, natural, and other sources such as fugitive emissions. The emission database produced by SHEMS contains 22 inventoried compounds: sulfur dioxide, NO2, carbon monoxide, and 19 speciated volatile organic compounds. To validate SHEMS, the emission data were tested with the Urban Airshed Model to predict NO2 and O3 concentrations in the SMA during selected episode days in 1994. The results turned out to be reliable in describing temporal variation and spatial distribution of those pollutants.

  14. A waterborne outbreak and detection of cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water of an older high-rise apartment complex in seoul.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-Joo; Yang, Jin-Young; Lee, Eun-Sook; Kim, Se-Chul; Cha, So-Yang; Kim, Sung-Tek; Lee, Man-Ho; Han, Sun-Hee; Park, Young-Sang

    2013-08-01

    From May to June 2012, a waterborne outbreak of 124 cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred in the plumbing systems of an older high-rise apartment complex in Seoul, Republic of Korea. The residents of this apartment complex had symptoms of watery diarrhea and vomiting. Tap water samples in the apartment complex and its adjacent buildings were collected and tested for 57 parameters under the Korean Drinking Water Standards and for additional 11 microbiological parameters. The microbiological parameters included total colony counts, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus, fecal streptococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts, total culturable viruses, and Norovirus. While the tap water samples of the adjacent buildings complied with the Korean Drinking Water Standards for all parameters, fecal bacteria and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the tap water samples of the outbreak apartment complex. It turned out that the agent of the disease was Cryptosporidium parvum. The drinking water was polluted with sewage from a septic tank in the apartment complex. To remove C. parvum oocysts, we conducted physical processes of cleaning the water storage tanks, flushing the indoor pipes, and replacing old pipes with new ones. Finally we restored the clean drinking water to the apartment complex after identification of no oocysts.

  15. Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation. PMID:22778743

  16. Noise reduction for vocal pathologies.

    PubMed

    Matassini, L; Manfredi, C

    2002-01-01

    A noise reduction scheme, particularly suited for the correction of vocal pathologies, is proposed. The filter makes use of concepts originated within the theory of dynamical systems and deterministic chaos. In particular, the idea of embedding scalar data in order to reconstruct a phase space is of fundamental importance here. Furthermore, the concept of an attractor as a result of dynamical constraints is exploited. In order to perform noise reduction one needs redundancy and the human voice provides it even within a phoneme, namely the smallest structural unit of speech. Due to several repetitions of a pattern called pitch inside a phoneme, separation between the pure voice signal and the noise is possible, provided the latter is uncorrelated with the former. With a proper parameter tuning, different kinds of noise can be removed. We describe the idea behind the noise reduction algorithm and present applications to vocal pathologies.

  17. Quality in pathology laboratory practice.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, S

    1995-06-01

    Quality refers not only to analytical quality control, a traditional area of laboratory excellence, but to the entire science of quality management. As measures of quality, structural indicators refer to staffing and physical facilities, process indicators to the institutions operations and, perhaps most importantly, outcome indicators address the ultimate patient care uses that pathology information is put to. Comparison of performance to peer laboratories, external quality control, is a practical, if limited, yardstick of performance. Customer satisfaction and turn-around-time of tests are receiving more recent attention as quality measures. Blood banking, because of its inherently complex cycle from donor phlebotomy to product infusion, requires special considerations with regard to quality management. Reporting of anatomical pathology, where the only gold standard is a consensus of experts, also does not lend itself to classical numerical quality assessment.

  18. Interleukin-22: immunobiology and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Hanash, Alan M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T-helper (Th)-17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Knowledge of IL-22 biology has rapidly evolved since its discovery in 2000, and a role for IL-22 has been identified in numerous tissues including the intestines, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, pancreas and skin. IL-22 primarily targets non-hematopoietic epithelial and stromal cells where it can promote proliferation and play a role in tissue regeneration. In addition, IL-22 regulates host defense at barrier surfaces. However, IL-22 has also been linked to several conditions involving inflammatory tissue pathology. In this review, we will assess the current understanding of this cytokine, including its physiologic and pathologic effects on epithelial cell function. PMID:25706098

  19. Pathology of glomerular deposition diseases.

    PubMed

    Joh, Kensuke

    2007-09-01

    In routine diagnosis on renal biopsy, one of the confusing fields for pathological diagnoses is the glomerulopathies with fibrillary structure. The primary glomerulopathies with a deposit of ultrastructural fibrillary structure, which are negative for Congo-red stain but positive for immunoglobulins, include fibrillary glomerulonephritis and immunotactoid glomerulopathy. Several paraproteinemias including cryoglobulinemia, monoclonal gammopathy, and light chain deposition disease as well as hematopoietic disorders including plasmacytoma, plasma cell dyscrasia, and B cell lymphoproliferative disorders involve glomerulopathy with an ultrastructural fibrillary structure. A rare glomerulopathy with fibrillary structure that stains negative for Congo-red as well as for immunoglobulins has been also reported. The pathological diagnoses of these glomerulopathies can include either glomerular diseases, or paraproteinemic diseases, or hematopoietic diseases. The terminology is still confusing when glomerular diseases can be combined with paraproteinemic diseases and/or hematopoietic diseases. Therefore, the generic term, 'glomerular deposition disease' (GDD), has been proposed by pathologists with a requirement for clinicians to detect autoantibodies, paraproteins as well as to carry out a bone marrow check. An attempt has been made to rearrange the diseases with related disorders of fibrillary deposits, based on detailed clinical and pathological finding and to elucidate the correlation between GDD, paraproteinemia, and hematopoietic disorder.

  20. Pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tervaert, Thijs W Cohen; Mooyaart, Antien L; Amann, Kerstin; Cohen, Arthur H; Cook, H Terence; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Ferrario, Franco; Fogo, Agnes B; Haas, Mark; de Heer, Emile; Joh, Kensuke; Noël, Laure H; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Seshan, Surya V; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Bruijn, Jan A

    2010-04-01

    Although pathologic classifications exist for several renal diseases, including IgA nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and lupus nephritis, a uniform classification for diabetic nephropathy is lacking. Our aim, commissioned by the Research Committee of the Renal Pathology Society, was to develop a consensus classification combining type1 and type 2 diabetic nephropathies. Such a classification should discriminate lesions by various degrees of severity that would be easy to use internationally in clinical practice. We divide diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions with a separate evaluation for degrees of interstitial and vascular involvement. Biopsies diagnosed as diabetic nephropathy are classified as follows: Class I, glomerular basement membrane thickening: isolated glomerular basement membrane thickening and only mild, nonspecific changes by light microscopy that do not meet the criteria of classes II through IV. Class II, mesangial expansion, mild (IIa) or severe (IIb): glomeruli classified as mild or severe mesangial expansion but without nodular sclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions) or global glomerulosclerosis in more than 50% of glomeruli. Class III, nodular sclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions): at least one glomerulus with nodular increase in mesangial matrix (Kimmelstiel-Wilson) without changes described in class IV. Class IV, advanced diabetic glomerulosclerosis: more than 50% global glomerulosclerosis with other clinical or pathologic evidence that sclerosis is attributable to diabetic nephropathy. A good interobserver reproducibility for the four classes of DN was shown (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84) in a test of this classification.

  1. The pathology student fellowship program at the University of Vermont: 1956-2005.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Bruce R

    2005-11-01

    Student fellowship programs in pathology offer a unique educational experience for selected medical students. In this report, the specialty preferences of former student fellows graduating from the University of Vermont were analyzed. Since 1956, 110 students have participated in this program, of whom 33 chose pathology as a career. These individuals represented 32.6% of all Vermont graduates who entered pathology between 1958 and 2005. In addition, former student fellows were more likely to become academic pathologists and to obtain subspecialty certification. Furthermore, based on comments received from former student fellows, the program had a positive impact on the medical education and career of pathologists and nonpathologists alike. It is concluded that student fellowship programs represent a powerful recruitment tool for pathology generally and for academic pathology in particular. The development of a database to track these programs and their graduates is essential to fully assess the educational impact of pathology student fellowship programs nationally.

  2. Evaluation and treatment of pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    González-Ibáñez, Angels; Rosel, Pilar; Moreno, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article was to describe a model for evaluating and implementing cognitive-behavioral treatment for pathological gambling. The model takes into account the fact that pathological gamblers form a heterogeneous group with varied biopsychosocial characteristics.

  3. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  4. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  5. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  6. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  7. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  8. Hippocrates' humoral pathology in nowaday's reflections.

    PubMed

    Bujalkova, M; Straka, S; Jureckova, A

    2001-01-01

    Ancient medicine integrated three components: experience (empirical observation), religion/magic and speculations of natural philosophers. The Greek medicine out-achieved medicine of other ancient nations in starting to investigate the true causes of health and diseases and thus laying foundations for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Hippocrates, the most famous physician of the ancient times, made a synthesis of existing philosophical opinions from the point of view of a physician. His 58 writings were preserved in the collection "Corpus Hippocraticum". The most relevant writing in it--"Peri fyseos anthropu" (On the nature of man)--is ascribed to Hippocrates' son-in-law Polybos to whom we are grateful for the ancient humoral-pathological theory. In explaining human organism and its processes the author integrated ancient teachings on 4 basic humors (humoral theory), elements and qualities with observations of manifestations of health and disease. Normal condition (health) was defined as balance between the body fluids (eukrasia) and external environment. If this balance is disturbed, the result is dyskrasia, i.e. disease studied by pathology. According to Hippocrates disease causes can be understood only through empirical study. A man has a power to overcome disease, but to achieve it the right diet is necessary to keep harmony in body fluids of an organism. The role of a physician was just to support the nature. "Prognosis", another writing included in "Corpus Hippocraticum", reflects Hippocrates' understanding of prognosis as a necessary development of diagnosis based on past knowledge (anamnesis) and present observation. Ideas of Hippocrates and his medical school are still valuable and inspiring especially for today's very sophisticated medicine--concept of fighting diseases by natural means: maintaining healthy lifestyle and harmony within the organism, or an effort for perfect understanding of human creature and for humanization of medicine. (Fig. 3

  9. Pathological buying and partnership status.

    PubMed

    Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina; Mitchell, James E; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2016-05-30

    This pilot study investigated the partnership status and the level of pathological buying (PB) in 157 female patients with PB and 1153 women from a German population-based sample. Slightly more than half of both samples were currently living with a partner. The results suggest a protective effect of being in a couple relationship in the representative sample. In contrast, having a partner was not related to the severity of PB among patients. Future studies should address the question of whether the characteristics and quality of partnership have an impact on the severity and course of PB, and vice versa.

  10. Food deserts in Korea? A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012 data

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dohyeong; Seo, Dong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective. SUBJECTS/METHODS We first evaluated the applicability of food deserts in a Korean setting and identified four Korean-specific unhealthy food consumption indicators, including insufficient food consumption due to financial difficulty, limited consumption of fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption of junk food, and excessive consumption of instant noodles. The KNHANES 2008-2012 data in Seoul were analyzed with stratified sampling weights to understand the trends and basic characteristics of these eating patterns in each category. GIS analyses were then conducted for the data spatially aggregated at the sub-district level in order to create maps identifying areas of concern regarding each of these indicators and their combinations. RESULTS Despite significant reduction in the rate of food insufficiency due to financial difficulty, the rates of excessive consumption of unhealthy foods (junk food and instant noodles) as well as limited consumption of fruits and vegetables have increased or remained high. These patterns tend to be found among relatively younger and more educated groups, regardless of income status. CONCLUSIONS A GIS-based analysis demonstrated several hotspots as potential "food deserts" tailored to the Korean context based on the observed spatial patterns of undesirable food consumption. These findings could be used as a guide to prioritize areas for targeted intervention programs to facilitate healthy food consumption behaviors and thus

  11. The effect of man made source processes on the behavior of total gaseous mercury in air: a comparison between four urban monitoring sites in Seoul Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Nguyen, Hang Thi; Jung, Kweon; Park, Chan-Goo; Bae, Gwi Nam

    2011-09-01

    Concentrations of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were measured continuously at four urban residential locations (G (Guro-gu); N (Nowon-gu); S (Songpa-gu); and Y (Yongsan-gu)) in Seoul, Korea from 2004 to 2009. The mean concentrations of Hg at these sites were found on the order of N (3.98±1.68 ng m(-3)), S (3.87±1.56 ng m(-3)), G (3.80±1.60 ng m(-3)), and Y (3.36±1.55 ng m(-3)). Evidence indicates that the spatial distribution of Hg should be affected by the combined effects of both local anthropogenic (incineration facilities and thermal power plants) and natural (soil) emission sources in association with the meteorological parameters. Inspection of the Hg temporal patterns indicates the co-existence of contrasting seasonal patterns between the central site Y (winter dominance) and all other outbound sites near city borders (summer dominance). The long-term trend of Hg, if examined by combining our previous studies and the present one, shows that Hg levels in this urban area declined gradually across decadal periods despite slight variabilities in spatial scale: (1) above 10 ng m(-3) in the late 1980s, (2) ~5 ng m(-3) in the late 1990s, and (3) ~3 ng m(-3) toward the late 2000s. The results of the principal component analysis along with observed differences in seasonal patterns (between study sites) suggest that Hg distributions between different urban sites are greatly distinguishable with strong source signatures at each individual site.

  12. Infections by Leptospira interrogans, Seoul virus, and Bartonella spp. among Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the urban slum environment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Porter, Fleur Helena; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; de Faria, Marcus Tucunduva; Wunder, Elsio A; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Kosoy, Michael Y; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E

    2014-01-01

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Studies evaluating the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in tropical Norway rat populations are rare, and data on co-infection with multiple pathogens are nonexistent. Herein, we describe the prevalence of leptospiral carriage, Seoul virus (SEOV), and Bartonella spp. infection independently, in addition to the rates of co-infection among urban, slum-dwelling Norway rats in Salvador, Brazil, trapped during the rainy season from June to August of 2010. These data were complemented with previously unpublished Leptospira and SEOV prevalence information collected in 1998. Immunofluorescence staining of kidney impressions was used to identify Leptospira interrogans in 2010, whereas isolation was used in 1998, and western blotting was used to detect SEOV antibodies in 2010, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in 1998: in 2010, Bartonella spp. were isolated from a subsample of rats. The most common pathogen in both years was Leptospira spp. (83%, n=142 in 1998, 63%, n=84 in 2010). SEOV was detected in 18% of individuals in both 1998 and 2010 (n=78 in 1998; n=73 in 2010), and two species of Bartonella were isolated from 5 of 26 rats (19%) tested in 2010. The prevalence of all agents increased significantly with rat mass/age. Acquisition of Leptospira spp. occurred at a younger mass/age than SEOV and Bartonella spp. infection, suggesting differences in the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. These data indicate that Norway rats in Salvador serve as reservoir hosts for all three of these zoonotic pathogens and that the high prevalence of leptospiral carriage in Salvador rats poses a high degree of risk to human health.

  13. Geometric and optical properties of cirrus clouds inferred from three-year ground-based lidar and CALIOP measurements over Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yumi; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Man-Hae; Yoon, Soon-Chang

    2014-03-01

    This study examines cirrus cloud top and bottom heights (CTH and CBH, respectively) and the associated optical properties revealed by ground-based lidar in Seoul (SNU-L), Korea, and space-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), which were obtained during a three-year measurement period between July 2006 and June 2009. From two selected cases, we determined good agreement in CTH and CBH with cirrus cloud optical depth (COD) between ground-based lidar and space-borne CALIOP. In particular, CODs at a wavelength of 532 nm calculated from the three years of SNU-L and CALIOP measurements were 0.417 ± 0.394 and 0.425 ± 0.479, respectively. The fraction of COD lower than 0.1 was approximately 17% and 25% of the total SNU-L and CALIOP profiles, respectively, and approximately 50% of both lidar profiles were classified as sub-visual or optically thin such that COD was < 0.3. The mean depolarization ratio was estimated to be 0.30 ± 0.06 for SNU-L and 0.34 ± 0.08 for CALIOP. The monthly variation of CODs from SNU-L and CALIOP measurements was not distinct, whereas cirrus altitudes from both SNU-L and CALIOP showed distinct monthly variation. CALIOP observations showed that cirrus clouds reached the tropopause level in all months, whereas the up-looking SNU-L did not detect cirrus clouds near the tropopause in summer due to signal attenuation by underlying optically thick clouds. The cloud layer thickness (CLT) and COD showed a distinct linear relationship up to approximately 2 km of the CLT; however, the COD did not increase, but remained constant when the CLT was greater than 2.0 km. The ice crystal content, lidar signal attenuation, and the presence of multi-layered cirrus clouds may have contributed to this tendency.

  14. Infections by Leptospira interrogans, Seoul Virus, and Bartonella spp. Among Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the Urban Slum Environment in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Fleur Helena; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; de Faria, Marcus Tucunduva; Wunder, Elsio A.; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I.; Childs, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Studies evaluating the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in tropical Norway rat populations are rare, and data on co-infection with multiple pathogens are nonexistent. Herein, we describe the prevalence of leptospiral carriage, Seoul virus (SEOV), and Bartonella spp. infection independently, in addition to the rates of co-infection among urban, slum-dwelling Norway rats in Salvador, Brazil, trapped during the rainy season from June to August of 2010. These data were complemented with previously unpublished Leptospira and SEOV prevalence information collected in 1998. Immunofluorescence staining of kidney impressions was used to identify Leptospira interrogans in 2010, whereas isolation was used in 1998, and western blotting was used to detect SEOV antibodies in 2010, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in 1998: in 2010, Bartonella spp. were isolated from a subsample of rats. The most common pathogen in both years was Leptospira spp. (83%, n=142 in 1998, 63%, n=84 in 2010). SEOV was detected in 18% of individuals in both 1998 and 2010 (n=78 in 1998; n=73 in 2010), and two species of Bartonella were isolated from 5 of 26 rats (19%) tested in 2010. The prevalence of all agents increased significantly with rat mass/age. Acquisition of Leptospira spp. occurred at a younger mass/age than SEOV and Bartonella spp. infection, suggesting differences in the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. These data indicate that Norway rats in Salvador serve as reservoir hosts for all three of these zoonotic pathogens and that the high prevalence of leptospiral carriage in Salvador rats poses a high degree of risk to human health. PMID:24359425

  15. Analysis of parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (1984-2005) in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Hyung; Chu, Jong-Phil; Jiang, Meihua; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Bum-Shik; Kim, Deog-Gon; Park, Yong-Koo

    2010-03-01

    We analyzed parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (KMC) from 1984 to 2005. The total number of parasite infection cases was 150 (0.07%) out of the total 211,859 biopsy specimens submitted for histopathological examinations. They consisted of 62 cysticercosis, 23 sparganosis, 16 paragonimiasis, 15 amebiasis, 11 anisakiasis, 11 clonorchiasis, 3 ascariasis, 2 scabies, 2 enterobiasis, 2 trichuriasis, 1 leishmaniasis, 1 taeniasis, and 1 thelaziasis. Out of 62 cysticercosis cases, 55 were detected in subcutaneous tissues or the central nerve system. Eighteen out of 23 sparganosis cases were involved in muscular and subcutaneous tissues. In most anisakiasis cases, the involved organ was the stomach. The lung and the pleura were the most common site of paragonimiasis. The incidence of parasitic diseases during the first 5 years (1984-1988) was the highest of all observed periods. After 1989, similar incidences were shown throughout the period. Whereas cysticercosis was diagnosed in 34 cases during 1984-1988, no case has been diagnosed since 2000. In the case of sparganosis, the chronological incidence was almost uniform throughout the period 1984-2005. Paragonimiasis showed a similar tendency to cysticercosis. In gender and age distribution of parasitic diseases, men showed higher incidence rates than females, and the age groups of the 40s or older indicated higher infection frequencies than other age groups. Therefore, these results are a significant report to appear the tendency of human parasitic disease diagnosed by tissue biopsy in association with parasitosis at KMC in Seoul.

  16. Interpersonal guilt in college student pathological gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Geoffrey W.; Shilkret, Robert; Everett, Joyce E.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Interpersonal guilt is associated with psychopathology, but its relationship to pathological gambling has not been studied. Objectives This study examined the relationship between interpersonal guilt and pathological gambling. Methods In total, 1,979 college students completed a questionnaire containing the South Oaks Gambling Screen, Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire, and questions about substance use. Students identified as pathological gamblers (n = 145) were matched to non-problem gamblers with respect to demographics and substance use. Results Pathological gamblers had significantly higher interpersonal guilt than their non-problem gambling peers. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Pathological gambling college students have excessive interpersonal guilt, and these findings may lead to novel treatment approaches. PMID:22746179

  17. Quality assurance in forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Ong, Beng Beng; Milne, Nathan

    2009-06-01

    One of the requirements for proper running of a pathology laboratory is implementation of a quality assurance programme. Forensic pathology is not exempted, especially so when cases are increasing in complexity. It is not difficult to introduce a quality assurance programme even in a small forensic centre. Among the steps that can be implemented including introduction of a set of minimal standards in performance of the autopsy, timeliness and report writing, a vigorous peer review process either internally or externally and participation in external quality programmes. Proper documentation of the post-mortem process (photography, slides and blocks and various imaging modalities) is to be encouraged. There should be limits set on workload of pathologists as overburden is known to lower standards. A pleasant work environment is also essential. Personal continuous medical education should be made mandatory. Introduction of a quality assurance programme will not only improve standards but minimise possible negligence. The post-mortem reports will be seen to carry more weight in court.

  18. Virtual microscopy in pathology education.

    PubMed

    Dee, Fred R

    2009-08-01

    Technology for acquisition of virtual slides was developed in 1985; however, it was not until the late 1990s that desktop computers had enough processing speed to commercialize virtual microscopy and apply the technology to education. By 2000, the progressive decrease in use of traditional microscopy in medical student education had set the stage for the entry of virtual microscopy into medical schools. Since that time, it has been successfully implemented into many pathology courses in the United States and around the world, with surveys indicating that about 50% of pathology courses already have or expect to implement virtual microscopy. Over the last decade, in addition to an increasing ability to emulate traditional microscopy, virtual microscopy has allowed educators to take advantage of the accessibility, efficiency, and pedagogic versatility of the computer and the Internet. The cost of virtual microscopy in education is now quite reasonable after taking into account replacement cost for microscopes, maintenance of glass slides, and the fact that 1-dimensional microscope space can be converted to multiuse computer laboratories or research. Although the current technology for implementation of virtual microscopy in histopathology education is very good, it could be further improved upon by better low-power screen resolution and depth of field. Nevertheless, virtual microscopy is beginning to play an increasing role in continuing education, house staff education, and evaluation of competency in histopathology. As Z-axis viewing (focusing) becomes more efficient, virtual microscopy will also become integrated into education in cytology, hematology, microbiology, and urinalysis.

  19. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer ePolicy News November 2016 Head of the Rwanda Biomedical Center/National Reference Laboratory Dr. Jean Baptiste Mazarati Announces Innovative Telepathology Lab ‘Goes Live’ in Rwanda ISAC, ICCS and ASCP BOC to Launch New ...

  20. Anatomical pathology is dead? Long live anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, John M; Francis, Glenn D

    2011-10-01

    The standard diagnostic instrument used for over 150 years by anatomical pathologists has been the optical microscope and glass slide. The advent of immunohistochemistry in the routine laboratory in the 1980s, followed by in situ hybridisation in the 1990s, has increased the armamentaria available to the diagnostic pathologist, and this technology has led to changed patient management in a limited number of neoplastic diseases. The first decade of the 21 century has seen an increasing number of publications using proteomic technologies that promise to change disease diagnosis and management, the traditional role of an anatomical pathologist. Despite the plethora of publications on proteomics and pathology, to date there are actually limited data where proteomic technologies do appear to be of greater diagnostic value than the standard histological slide. Though proteomic techniques will become more prevalent in the future, it will need the expertise of an anatomical pathologist to dissect out and validate this added information.

  1. Vasoregression: A Shared Vascular Pathology Underlying Macrovascular And Microvascular Pathologies?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Akanksha

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vasoregression is a common phenomenon underlying physiological vessel development as well as pathological microvascular diseases leading to peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy, and vascular oculopathies. In this review, we describe the hallmarks and pathways of vasoregression. We argue here that there is a parallel between characteristic features of vasoregression in the ocular microvessels and atherosclerosis in the larger vessels. Shared molecular pathways and molecular effectors in the two conditions are outlined, thus highlighting the possible systemic causes of local vascular diseases. Our review gives us a system-wide insight into factors leading to multiple synchronous vascular diseases. Because shared molecular pathways might usefully address the diagnostic and therapeutic needs of multiple common complex diseases, the literature analysis presented here is of broad interest to readership in integrative biology, rational drug development and systems medicine. PMID:26669709

  2. Proteome analysis in thyroid pathology.

    PubMed

    Pagni, Fabio; L'Imperio, Vincenzo; Bono, Francesca; Garancini, Mattia; Roversi, Gaia; De Sio, Gabriele; Galli, Manuel; Smith, Andrew James; Chinello, Clizia; Magni, Fulvio

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has continuously increased due to its detection in the preclinical stage. Clinical research in thyroid pathology is focusing on the development of new diagnostic tools to improve the stratification of nodules that have biological, practical and economic consequences on the management of patients. Several clinical questions related to thyroid carcinoma remain open and the use of proteomic research in the hunt for new targets with potential diagnostic applications has an important role in the solutions. Many different proteomic approaches are used to investigate thyroid lesions, including mass spectrometry profiling and imaging technologies. These approaches have been applied to different human tissues (cytological specimens, frozen sections, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue or Tissue Micro Arrays). Moreover, other specimens are used for biomarker discovery, such as cell lines and the secretome. Alternative approaches, such as metabolomics and lipidomics, are also used and integrated within proteomics.

  3. [Ductoscopy for pathologic nipple discharge].

    PubMed

    Waaijer, Laurien; van Diest, Paul J; van der Pol, Carmen C; Verolme, Berna; Hennink, Annelies; Witkamp, Arjen J

    2013-01-01

    Pathologic nipple discharge is a symptom that frequently causes female patients to visit the outpatient breast clinic. In the vast majority of cases, the symptom is caused by a benign intraductal laesion. The options for diagnosis and treatment have long been limited; surgery was not infrequently the treatment of choice. With the advent of breast ductoscopy, a micro-endoscopic procedure, it is possible to visualise abnormalities in the ductal system. Tissue for histopathological investigation can be retrieved from the duct and the condition can be treated. The patient with nipple discharge is consequently prevented from having to undergo an invasive and fairly 'blindly' executed procedure under general anaesthesia. The miniscule dimensions of the duct in which the technique is carried out pose the greatest challenge to the further development of the ductoscope.

  4. A Suggested Molecular Pathology Curriculum for Residents: A Report of the Association for Molecular Pathology.

    PubMed

    Aisner, Dara L; Berry, Anna; Dawson, D Brian; Hayden, Randall T; Joseph, Loren; Hill, Charles E

    2016-03-01

    Molecular pathology is an essential element of pathology training. As more molecular tests have become available, there is an increasing need for pathology trainees to receive a strong foundation in molecular pathology. Appointed by the Training and Education Committee of the Association for Molecular Pathology, the Molecular Curriculum Task Force has developed a suggested curriculum in molecular pathology for residents. The foundations of molecular pathology are presented as a series of goals and objectives that residency programs can use to develop their educational programs. As pathologists continue to expand their roles to include regular clinical consultations in the realm of molecular testing, a strong foundation in molecular pathology and genomic medicine has become essential to the practice of pathology.

  5. Certification in molecular pathology in the United States: an update from the Association for Molecular Pathology Training and Education Committee.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, Alexander C; Wang, Y Lynn; Sahota, Amrik; Yeung, Cecilia C; Weck, Karen E

    2012-11-01

    The past 25 years have witnessed the field of molecular pathology evolving from an imprecisely defined discipline to a firmly established medical subspecialty that plays an essential role in patient care. During this time, the training, certification, and licensure requirements for directing and performing testing in a molecular pathology or molecular diagnostics laboratory have become better defined. The purpose of this document is to describe the various board certifications available to individuals seeking certification in molecular diagnostics at the level of laboratory director, supervisor, or technologist. Several national organizations offer certification in molecular pathology or molecular diagnostics for doctoral-level clinical scientists to function as the director of a molecular diagnostics laboratory. Furthermore, 12 states and Puerto Rico require licensing of medical technologists, including those working in molecular diagnostic laboratories. The information provided here updates a 2002 document by the Training and Education Committee of the Association for Molecular Pathology and has been expanded to include certification and licensing requirements for laboratory technologists.

  6. An assessment of mineral dust impact from China and Mongolia on air quality in the Seoul Metropolitan Area with a full year simulation for 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Youn-Seo; Kim, Sung-Tae; Yun, Hui-Young; Choi, Dae-Ryun; Cho, Jin-Sik

    2013-04-01

    Asian mineral dust from Gobi Desert, sand desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia has a major impact on the air quality in the SMA (Seoul Metropolitan Area). These mineral aerosols increase PM10 concentration over 1000 μg/m3 during the dust storm event and they also increase PM10 background concentrations as the fugitive soil dust during the non-dust period in Korea. The mineral dust modifies the formation mechanism of inorganic aerosols via the chemical interactions with atmospheric gas species. The PM10 prediction by a regional chemical transport model without the dust emission shows an intrinsic tendency to underestimation according to previous studies in this region, especially for the soil originated coarse PM. This is partially due to the uncertainty of fugitive dust emissions. The US EPA Models-3/CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality model) v5.0 by modifying the fugitive dust module was used to simulate the chemical transport including the mineral aerosols. The Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) and Westpal schemes for the dust emission with CMAQ were tested for their applicability in assessing the impact of mineral dust on air quality in the SMA for a full year of 2009. The performance of available dust emission schemes to depict not only the high PM10 concentrations and onset time for the dust storm period but also the level of background PM10 concentration for the non-dust event were evaluated against the surface measurements of and satellite measurements over East Asia. The surface observations were from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring NETwork in East Asia), API (Air Pollution Index) monitoring sites in China and the intensive monitoring stations in the SMA. The results show that the CMAQ predictions of PM10 with ADAM2 and Westpal scheme are relatively in a good agreement with the observations and influence of mineral dusts on the sulfate and nitrate formations is significant when the dust mixes with anthropogenic

  7. The UEMS section/board of pathology, chapter 6: requirement for recognition of postgraduate training in pathology: a presentation of the paris document.

    PubMed

    Tötsch, M; Cuvelier, C; Vass, L; Fassina, A

    2012-10-01

    After more than five years discussion the UEMS Section/Board of Pathology agreed a specification of requirements for recognition of post-graduate training in pathology, which is the key to the future of our discipline. The document published here, subject to ratification by UEMS Council, was voted on and accepted by the Pathology Board at the UEMS Paris meeting of 9 June 2012. Cytopathology is regarded as integral part of pathology: in general, training in pathology takes five years and maintains a common trunk of four (minimum three) years where surgical pathology, autopsy pathology and basic knowledge of neuropathology, dermatopathology and cytopathology are adequately trained and assessed. Training in so-called 'areas of interests' covers the remaining 12-24 months. Certificates of 'advanced level of competence' remain within the authority of national boards. As senior members of its Executive Board, we believe that the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS) should take responsibility for establishing 1) standards in the quality of cytopathology training, 2) training guidelines and qualification for advanced levels of competence in cytopathology, 3) manpower planning, 4) tutorials for pathologists and cytotechnologists and 4) standards of cytotechnologist training.

  8. Pathologic femoral neck fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Shrader, M Wade; Schwab, Joseph H; Shaughnessy, William J; Jacofsky, David J

    2009-02-01

    Pathologic fractures in children occur in a variety of malignant and benign pathologic processes. Pediatric pathologic femoral neck fractures are particularly rare. Until now, all reported cases have been isolated cases, small series, or cases reported in series of adult pathologic hip fractures. The present article is the first report of a relatively large series of pathologic femoral neck fractures in a pediatric population. We identified pathologic femoral neck fractures, including 2 basicervical fractures, in 15 children (9 boys, 6 girls) ranging in age from 18 months to 15 years (mean age, 9 years) and treated between 1960 and 2000. The pathologic diagnoses were fibrous dysplasia (5 children), unicameral bone cyst (2), Ewing's sarcoma (2), osteomyelitis (2), leukemia (1), rhabdomyosarcoma (1), osteogenesis imperfecta (1), and osteopetrosis (1). Treatment methods, including time to reduction and fixation, were reviewed in detail. One patient was lost to follow-up. All others were followed until union; mean long-term follow-up was 7 years (range, 1-16 years). All patients ultimately went on to union. Mean time to union was 19 weeks (range, 5-46 weeks). However, 2 patients died before 2 years. There was a 40% complication rate, with limb-length discrepancy being the most common (4 children). No patient developed avascular necrosis. Pathologic femoral neck fractures are rare in children. Pediatric patients who present with a pathologic hip fracture are at significant risk for complications. Physicians and family should be alerted to the prolonged course involved in treating these fractures to union.

  9. Pathology effects at radiation doses below those causing increased mortality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, Bruce A.; Gavrilova, Natalia; Grahn, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Mortality data from experiments conducted at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on the long-term effects of external whole-body irradiation on B6CF(1) mice were used to investigate radiation-induced effects at intermediate doses of (60)Co gamma rays or fission-spectrum neutrons either delivered as a single exposure or protracted over 60 once-weekly exposures. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to identify the lowest dose in the ANL data (within radiation quality, pattern of exposure, and sex) at which radiation-induced mortality caused by primary tumors could be detected (approximately 1-2 Gy for gamma rays and 10-15 cGy for neutrons). Doses at and below these levels were then examined for radiation-induced shifts in the spectrum of pathology detected at death. To do this, specific pathology events were pooled into larger assemblages based on whether they were cancer, cardiovascular disease or non-neoplastic diseases detected within the lungs and pleura, liver and biliary tract, reproductive organs, or urinary tract. Cancer and cardiovascular disease were further subdivided into categories based on whether they caused death, contributed to death, or were simply observed at death. Counts of how often events falling within each of these combined pathology categories occurred within a mouse were then used as predictor variables in logistic regression to determine whether irradiated mice could be distinguished from control mice. Increased pathology burdens were detected in irradiated mice at doses lower than those causing detectable shifts in mortality-22 cGy for gamma rays and 2 cGy for neutrons. These findings suggest that (1) models based on mortality data alone may underestimate radiation effects, (2) radiation may have adverse health consequences (i.e. elevated health risks) even when mortality risks are not detected, and (3) radiation-induced pathologies other than cancer do occur, and they involve multiple organ systems.

  10. Practical pathology of aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M.

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  11. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  12. Pathologizing sexual deviance: a history.

    PubMed

    De Block, Andreas; Adriaens, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a historical perspective on how both American and European psychiatrists have conceptualized and categorized sexual deviance throughout the past 150 years. During this time, quite a number of sexual preferences, desires, and behaviors have been pathologized and depathologized at will, thus revealing psychiatry's constant struggle to distinguish mental disorder--in other words, the "perversions," "sexual deviations," or "paraphilias"--from immoral, unethical, or illegal behavior. This struggle is apparent in the works of 19th- and early-20th-century psychiatrists and sexologists, but it is also present in the more recent psychiatric textbooks and diagnostic manuals, such as the consecutive editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). While much of the historical literature revolves around the controversy over homosexuality, this article also reviews the recent medicohistorical and sociohistorical work on other forms of sexual deviance, including the diagnostic categories listed in the latest edition, the DSM-IV-TR: exhibitionism, voyeurism, fetishism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, and transvestic fetishism.

  13. Pathology of soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Thway, K

    2009-11-01

    Sarcomas are a rare, complex group of childhood and adult neoplasms with differentiation towards mesenchymal tissue, which may arise almost anywhere in the body. Although pathologically diverse, they frequently exhibit similar clinical presentations and radiological features. Correct histopathological diagnosis is therefore crucial, but there is overlap between histological patterns of malignant tumours, between benign and malignant lesions, and with non-mesenchymal tumours. Immunohistochemistry and molecular genetic techniques, the latter to detect tumour-specific alterations, add significantly to histological interpretation, but several groups of tumours still lack reliable immunohistochemical markers or reproducible genetic changes. The classification of sarcomas is incomplete and continues to evolve, and although the biology of many remains relatively poorly understood, our increasing insight into molecular events occurring in these tumours is certain to aid future diagnosis and therapy. This paper aims to give a broad overview of several of the main soft tissue sarcomas from a clinicopathological perspective, discussing laboratory diagnosis and the use and limitations of ancillary investigations, including recent developments in molecular diagnosis.

  14. A history of pituitary pathology.

    PubMed

    Asa, Sylvia L; Mete, Ozgur

    2014-03-01

    The history of pituitary pathology is a long one that dates back to biblical times, but the last 25 years have represented an era of "coming of age." The role of the pituitary in health and disease was the subject of many studies over the last century. With the development of electron microscopy, immunoassays, and immunohistochemistry, the functional alterations associated with pituitary disease have been clarified. The additional information provided by molecular genetic studies has allowed progress in understanding the pathogenesis of pituitary disorders. Nevertheless, many questions remain to be answered. For example, pathologists cannot morphologically distinguish locally aggressive adenomas from carcinomas when tumor is confined to the sella. Sadly, basal cell carcinoma, the most common carcinoma of skin, usually causes less morbidity than pituitary adenomas, which occur in almost 20 % of the general population, can cause significant illness and even death, and yet are still classified as benign. The opportunity to increase awareness of the impact of these common lesions on quality of life is the current challenge for physicians and patients. We anticipate that ongoing multidisciplinary approaches to pituitary disease research will offer new insights into diseases arising from this fascinating organ.

  15. Hodgkin lymphoma: Pathology and biology.

    PubMed

    Mathas, Stephan; Hartmann, Sylvia; Küppers, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    The Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) tumor cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), as well as the lymphocyte predominant (LP) cells of nodular lymphocyte predominant HL (NLPHL), are derived from mature B cells. However, HRS cells have largely lost their B-cell phenotype and show a very unusual expression of many markers of other hematopoietic cell lineages, which aids in the differential diagnosis between classical HL (cHL) and NLPHL and distinguishes cHL from all other hematopoietic malignancies. The bi- or multinucleated Reed-Sternberg cells most likely derive from the mononuclear Hodgkin cells through a process of incomplete cytokinesis. HRS cells show a deregulated activation of numerous signaling pathways, which is partly mediated by cellular interactions in the lymphoma microenvironment and partly by genetic lesions. In a fraction of cases, Epstein-Barr virus contributes to the pathogenesis of cHL. Recurrent genetic lesions in HRS cells identified so far often involve members of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and JAK/STAT pathways and genes involved in major histocompatibility complex expression. However, further lead transforming events likely remain to be identified. We here discuss the current knowledge on HL pathology and biology.

  16. [Computer technologies in teaching pathological anatomy].

    PubMed

    Ponomarev, A B; Fedorov, D N

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives experience with personal computers used at the Academician A.L. Strukov Department of Pathological Anatomy for more than 20 years. It shows the objective necessity of introducing computer technologies at all stages of acquiring skills in anatomical pathology, including lectures, students' free work, test check, etc.

  17. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  18. Pathology of the parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Zubair W; LiVolsi, Virginia A

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews the embryology, histology and pathology of the human parathyroid glands. It emphasizes those pathologic lesions which are found in the setting of clinical hyperparathyroidism. Also discussed are certain molecular features of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands. The difficulties encountered in parathyroid FNA are reviewed and illustrated.

  19. Diagnosis and pathology of endocrine diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Shriver, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands.

  20. The Family Functioning of Female Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

    2009-01-01

    The available evidence suggests that pathological gambling significantly disrupts family relationships and has a substantial impact on family members. However, these conclusions are based almost exclusively on male pathological gamblers and their female spouses or partners. The current study, which was a secondary study derived from a treatment…

  1. Trends in pathology graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Alexander, C B

    2001-07-01

    Comprehensive data show trends in graduate medical education in pathology with regard to the numbers of accredited programs, persons certified from those programs, and demographics of the population of first year-trainees in pathology. Experience with US seniors and foreign-trained physicians in the PGY match process for pathology from 1991 through 2000 is presented, along with data on the types of medical schools generating pathology trainees for the PGY-1 year and the top medical schools of origin of US medical graduates who completed the program and became certified in pathology between 1995 and 1999. The impact of reimbursement of the credentialing year is also addressed through data collected from the PRODS Survey 2000, and those results are reviewed. Finally, turnover rates among pathology program directors of combined AP/CP programs and subspecialty programs since 1994 are presented. An analysis of these trends is provided, along with suggestions to improve both the perception of careers in pathology and the actual choice of a career in pathology.

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…

  3. Ophthalmic pathology laboratories in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Contreras, F

    1993-02-01

    Ocular pathology laboratories have been one of the main reasons for the progress and evolution of ophthalmology in Latin America. This has been made possible through pathologic reports, meetings, and seminars and through the valuable help of basic teaching in residency programs in ophthalmology.

  4. NADPH Oxidases in Vascular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of “kindling radicals,” which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the expression and activity of NADPH oxidases in the vessel wall. Recent Advances: There are seven isoforms in mammals: Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1 and Duox2. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and Nox5 are expressed in endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, or perivascular adipocytes. Other homologues have not been found or are expressed at very low levels; their roles have not been established. Nox1/Nox2 promote the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and inflammation. Nox4 may have a role in protecting the vasculature during stress; however, when its activity is increased, it may be detrimental. Calcium-dependent Nox5 has been implicated in oxidative damage in human atherosclerosis. Critical Issues: NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in vascular pathology as well as in the maintenance of normal physiological vascular function. We also discuss recently elucidated mechanisms such as the role of NADPH oxidases in vascular protection, vascular inflammation, pulmonary hypertension, tumor angiogenesis, and central nervous system regulation of vascular function and hypertension. Future Directions: Understanding the role of individual oxidases and interactions between homologues in vascular disease is critical for efficient pharmacological regulation of vascular NADPH oxidases in both the laboratory and clinical practice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2794–2814. PMID:24180474

  5. The digital pathologies of chronic laminitis.

    PubMed

    Grosenbaugh, D A; Morgan, S J; Hood, D M

    1999-08-01

    This review indicates that the patient-to-patient uniqueness commonly seen in chronic laminitis represents the variable presence of the digital pathologies. Although some degree of mechanical failure is always present, the secondary metabolic and growth dysplasias, vascular pathologies, and sepsis may or may not be evident. The presence and severity of these pathologies appear to have a more significant impact on the prognosis of individual cases than does the displacement of the distal phalanx. It should be reiterated that it is often the combined presence of these individual pathologies that gives rise to the patient that is totally refractory to treatment. In the absence of these pathologies, many horses with significant displacement of the distal phalanx are not in pain and are not in need of treatment. It thus follows that a key to the improved rehabilitation of difficult patients is focusing research on the physiopathology and diagnosis of these nonmechanical problems.

  6. Pediatric surgical pathology. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Dehner, L.P.

    1987-01-01

    The edition provides view of congenital, hereditary, infectious, and inflammatory neoplastic diseases occurring during the first two decades of life, with special reference to clinical, laboratory, and roentgenographic features. Material includes observations from some of the major national studies on Wilms' tumor and rhabdomyosarcomas, the new classification of pediatric malignant lymphomas, a discussion of the role of immunocytochemistry as it applies to the diagnosis of childhood infections and neoplasms, an examination of graft-versus-host disease in the liver and intestinal tract and more.

  7. Ecology and pathology of amphibian ranaviruses.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew J; Miller, Debra L; Hoverman, Jason T

    2009-12-03

    Mass mortality of amphibians has occurred globally since at least the early 1990s from viral pathogens that are members of the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae. The pathogen infects multiple amphibian hosts, larval and adult cohorts, and may persist in herpetofaunal and osteichthyan reservoirs. Environmental persistence of ranavirus virions outside a host may be several weeks or longer in aquatic systems. Transmission occurs by indirect and direct routes, and includes exposure to contaminated water or soil, casual or direct contact with infected individuals, and ingestion of infected tissue during predation, cannibalism, or necrophagy. Some gross lesions include swelling of the limbs or body, erythema, swollen friable livers, and hemorrhage. Susceptible amphibians usually die from chronic cell death in multiple organs, which can occur within a few days following infection or may take several weeks. Amphibian species differ in their susceptibility to ranaviruses, which may be related to their co-evolutionary history with the pathogen. The occurrence of recent widespread amphibian population die-offs from ranaviruses may be an interaction of suppressed and naïve host immunity, anthropogenic stressors, and novel strain introduction. This review summarizes the ecological research on amphibian ranaviruses, discusses possible drivers of emergence and conservation strategies, and presents ideas for future research directions. We also discuss common pathological signs of ranaviral disease, methods for diagnostic evaluation, and ranavirus surveillance methods. In as much as ranaviral disease is listed as a notifiable disease by the World Organization for Animal Health and is a threat to amphibian survival, we recommend that biosecurity precautions are implemented by nations to reduce the likelihood of transporting ranavirus virions among populations. Biosecurity precautions include disinfecting footwear and equipment that comes in contact with surface water inhabited

  8. Main Neurosurgical Pathologies in Benin Republic

    PubMed Central

    Gandaho, Hugues Jean Thierry; Soumaila, Madougou; Hoinsou-Hans, Isaac; Djrolo, Gautier M. M.; Zevounou, Audrey A. S.; Adeleye, Amos O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Benin republic is a very low-income French-speaking country in West Africa The development of Neurosurgery in the Republic of Benin took off with the arrival of the first Beninese neurosurgeons in the year 2003. Aims: This study aims to evaluate patients’ attendance in a public neurosurgical center, and appreciate populations’ affordability to a new specialty. Settings and Design: In the year 2004, the Benin Armed Forces established the first Department of Neurosurgery in the Nation's Military Teaching Hospital. From the public authorities, that was a proof of motivation to develop this specialty in the Benin Republic. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional survey (September 2003 to December 2009) of the total neurosurgical patient population managed in a public pioneer hospital in a developing country. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were captured and analyzed with the SPSS software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and presented in descriptive statistics such as frequencies and proportions. Results: 2908 new patients, civilians, and militaries were registered. The surgical treatment was offered adult (86%) as well as pediatric (14%) patients. Spinal degenerative diseases (52.1%) were the most common pathology; neurotraumatology emergency cases (8.4%) appeared low in representation. Three-quarters of patients experienced financial difficulties to procure the required radiologic investigations and although 609 (20.94%) benefited from surgery, most patients could not pay for the surgical operations as well as the perioperative care. Conclusions: In spite of the great constraints of this country's privately-funded health-care delivery system on the affordability of neurosurgical treatment for the average Beninese, this study demonstrates a globally increasing attendance of the department. PMID:28163504

  9. [Current issues in pulmonary pathology. Report of the working group on pulmonary pathology of the German Society of Pathology].

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Ph A; Petersen, I; Junker, K

    2012-11-01

    The working group on pulmonary pathology of the German Society of Pathology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pathologie, DGP) developed very actively in the last year. Apart from the autumn meeting in Heidelberg in 2011 and the sessions at the annual DGP meeting in Berlin it was possible to realize a first publication with support and coauthorship of several members of the working group dealing with the classification of lung adenocarcinoma. In this report the key aspects of the activity related to the following issues are summarized including non-small cell lung carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors of the lungs, interstitial pulmonary diseases, cell blocks in cytology and banking in thoracic pathology.

  10. The Oral Pathology Related Articles Published in Iranian Journal of Pathology from 2006 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information about the oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal. This study aimed to audit the oral pathology related articles published in Iranian Journal of Pathology (Iran J Pathol) from 2006 to 2015. Methods: Bibliometric analysis of issues of Iran J Pathol from 2006 to 2015 was performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and individual topic of oral pathology. The articles published were also checked for authorship trends. Results: Out of the total 49 published articles related to oral pathology, case reports (21) and original articles (18) contributed the major share. The highest number of oral pathology related articles was published in 2011, 2014 and 2015 with 8 articles each and the least published year was 2012 with 1 article. Among the oral pathology related articles published, spindle cell neoplasms (7) followed by salivary gland tumors (5), jaw tumors (4), oral granulomatous conditions (4), lymphomas (4), oral cancer (3) and odontogenic cysts (3) form the major attraction of the contributors. The largest numbers of published articles related to oral pathology were received from Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Tehran (7) followed by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (6) and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (5). Conclusion: This paper may be considered as a baseline study for the bibliometric information regarding oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal. PMID:27799973

  11. Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

  12. Egocentric Social Network Analysis of Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Matthew K.; Clifton, Allan D.; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Goodie, Adam S.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To apply social network analysis (SNA) to investigate whether frequency and severity of gambling problems were associated with different network characteristics among friends, family, and co-workers. is an innovative way to look at relationships among individuals; the current study was the first to our knowledge to apply SNA to gambling behaviors. Design Egocentric social network analysis was used to formally characterize the relationships between social network characteristics and gambling pathology. Setting Laboratory-based questionnaire and interview administration. Participants Forty frequent gamblers (22 non-pathological gamblers, 18 pathological gamblers) were recruited from the community. Findings The SNA revealed significant social network compositional differences between the two groups: pathological gamblers (PGs) had more gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks than did nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). PGs had more individuals in their network with whom they personally gambled, smoked, and drank with than those with who were NPG. Network ties were closer to individuals in their networks who gambled, smoked, and drank more frequently. Associations between gambling severity and structural network characteristics were not significant. Conclusions Pathological gambling is associated with compositional but not structural differences in social networks. Pathological gamblers differ from non-pathological gamblers in the number of gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks. Homophily within the networks also indicates that gamblers tend to be closer with other gamblers. This homophily may serve to reinforce addictive behaviors, and may suggest avenues for future study or intervention. PMID:23072641

  13. Gender Differences in Treatment-Seeking British Pathological Gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Lutri, Vittorio; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Gambling is a widespread recreational activity in the UK. A significant percentage of gamblers develop subclinical or clinically relevant problem gambling issues, but only a low percentage of them seek treatment. Although characteristics of pathological gamblers from treatment-seeking population have been examined in some research, only a few studies have explored the differences between females and males. This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, and clinical variables in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Methods A total of 1,178 treatment-seeking individuals with gambling disorder were assessed at the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables, and gambling behavior habits were obtained during the assessment evaluation. Of the total sample, 92.5% were males and 7.5% were females. Results Males were more likely to be younger, white, and employed than females. In addition, compared to women, men showed a lower PGSI score, an earlier age of onset of gambling behavior, a higher gambling involvement, and preferred specific forms gambling. Female gamblers were more anxious and depressed, while men were more likely to use alcohol and illicit drugs. Conclusions Our findings support the importance of gender differences in a treatment-seeking population of pathological gamblers both in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling behavior variables, and clinical variables. Males and females might benefit from group-specific treatment. PMID:27348561

  14. Palliative care curriculum for speech-language pathology students.

    PubMed

    Mathisen, Bernice; Yates, Patsy; Crofts, Penny

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the experience of undergraduate speech-language pathology students at one university chosen for the implementation stage of the Palliative Care Curriculum for Undergraduates (PCC4U) Project. Funded by a government department for health and ageing through a national palliative care programme, the project was managed by a team of researchers from the discipline of nursing. The PCC4U project championed the inclusion of palliative care education as an integral part of medical, nursing, and allied healthcare undergraduate training. Of the pilot sites chosen for the PCC4U project, only one site, reported here, included both speech-language pathology and social work disciplines, providing an important opportunity for interdisciplinary collaboration on novel curriculum development in an area of mutual interest. This synergy served as an excellent foundation for ongoing opportunities for interdisciplinary teaching and learning in the university. Speech-language pathology students reported that the project was an invaluable addition to their education and preparation for clinical practice.

  15. [Accreditation in pathology. Systematic presentation and documentation of activities in pathology].

    PubMed

    Röcken, C; Manke, H

    2010-07-01

    In the last ten years, almost 60 departments of surgical pathology were accredited in Germany according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17020. Accreditation in pathology was accompanied by the adoption of a highly dynamic process, which requires staff to be more aware of quality and to introduce a quality-oriented system. The accreditation body in turn needed to consider all the duties, responsibilities and processes in surgical pathology and was supported in this regard by the Sector Committee of Pathology and Neuropathology of the DGA German Association for Accreditation. In this review we illustrate the various problems associated with accreditation in surgical pathology by answering eight questions that have arisen over many years of activity. These include the registration and appropriate presentation of the scope of accreditation, the terminology, as well as the extent and depth of documentation. A department of pathology applying for accreditation is required to document the entire step-wise process leading to a surgical pathological diagnosis.

  16. Investigation of spinal pathology in notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Savk, Oner; Savk, Ekin

    2005-06-01

    A possible association of spinal pathology with notalgia paresthetica (NP) was investigated through clinical and radiographic evaluation. Forty-three NP patients underwent dermatologic and orthopedic examination accompanied by radiography of the spine. Sixty-one lesions in 43 patients were evaluated. In 34 patients, various vertebral pathologies were observed radiographically by a blinded investigator, and in 28 of these cases these changes were most prominent in the vertebrae which corresponded to a lesional dermatome. Thirty-seven lesions were accompanied by spinal changes decided to be relevant (60.7%). The striking correlation of NP localization with spinal pathology suggests that spinal nerve impingement may contribute to the pathogenesis of this entity.

  17. Pathological narcissism and the obstruction of love.

    PubMed

    Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2014-03-01

    Pathological narcissism is a form of maladaptive self-regulation that impedes the capacity to love. Although narcissism is often construed as excessive self-love, individuals with pathological narcissism are impaired in being able to love themselves as well as others. With the subject of impaired love in mind, we review selected conceptualizations from an enormous and diverse psychodynamic literature on narcissism. Major theoretical approaches illustrate a number of psychodynamics associated with narcissistic self-regulatory problems. This paper provides a concise overview of major conceptual themes regarding pathological narcissism and impaired capacity to love.

  18. Homocysteine imbalance: a pathological metabolic marker.

    PubMed

    Schalinske, Kevin L; Smazal, Anne L

    2012-11-01

    Perturbations in methyl group metabolism and homocysteine balance have emerged over the past few decades as having defining roles in a number of pathological conditions. Numerous nutritional, hormonal, and genetic factors that are characterized by elevations in circulating homocysteine concentrations are also associated with specific pathological conditions, including cancer development, autoimmune diseases, vascular dysfunction, and neurodegenerative disease. Although much remains to be explored, our understanding of the relationship between disease, methyl balance, and epigenetic control of gene expression has steadily progressed. However, homocysteine balance and its role in health and disease are not as clearly understood. This review presents our current understanding of homocysteine metabolism and its link to specific pathologies.

  19. University of California, Irvine-Pathology Extraction Pipeline: the pathology extraction pipeline for information extraction from pathology reports.

    PubMed

    Ashish, Naveen; Dahm, Lisa; Boicey, Charles

    2014-12-01

    We describe Pathology Extraction Pipeline (PEP)--a new Open Health Natural Language Processing pipeline that we have developed for information extraction from pathology reports, with the goal of populating the extracted data into a research data warehouse. Specifically, we have built upon Medical Knowledge Analysis Tool pipeline (MedKATp), which is an extraction framework focused on pathology reports. Our particular contributions include additional customization and development on MedKATp to extract data elements and relationships from cancer pathology reports in richer detail than at present, an abstraction layer that provides significantly easier configuration of MedKATp for extraction tasks, and a machine-learning-based approach that makes the extraction more resilient to deviations from the common reporting format in a pathology reports corpus. We present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for information extraction in a real-world task, demonstrating performance improvement due to our approach for increasing extractor resilience to format deviation, and finally demonstrating the scalability of the pipeline across pathology reports for different cancer types.

  20. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology for Dental Hygienists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines for structuring a pathology curriculum for dental hygienists include: definition of the field and its subfields; relationships with other fields; primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives; and suggestions for sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational safety. (MSE)

  1. Standardization Efforts of Digital Pathology in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rojo, Marcial García; Daniel, Christel; Schrader, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background: EURO-TELEPATH is a European COST Action IC0604. It started in 2007 and will end in November 2011. Its main objectives are evaluating and validating the common technological framework and communication standards required to access, transmit, and manage digital medical records by pathologists and other medical specialties in a networked environment. Business Modelling: Working Group 1, “Business Modelling in Pathology,” has designed main pathology processes – Frozen Study, Formalin Fixed Specimen Study, Telepathology, Cytology, and Autopsy – using Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN). Informatics Standards in Pathology: Working Group 2 has been dedicated to promoting the application of informatics standards in pathology, collaborating with Integrating Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Health Level Seven (HL7), and other standardization bodies. Conclusion: Health terminology standardization research has become a topic of great interest. Future research work should focus on standardizing automatic image analysis and tissue microarrays imaging. PMID:21987588

  2. Update on the Pathology of Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Standaert, David G.

    2011-01-01

    Dystonia is a clinical syndrome with sustained muscle contraction, twisting, and abnormal postures. A number of different genetic forms have been defined, but most cases are sporadic in nature and of uncertain cause. Relatively few cases of dystonia have been studied pathologically. In primary dystonias, where dystonia is the main symptom, most reports describe little or no detectable neuropathology, although changes in brainstem neurons have been described in some cases. Secondary dystonias are associated with degenerative or destructive diseases of the nervous system; the pathology may be located in the basal ganglia, but in some cases the primary pathological changes are found in the cerebellum or cerebellar outflow pathways, suggesting both regions may be involved in the pathogenesis of dystonic symptoms. Overall the number of well-documented pathological cases available for study are few, and there is an urgent need for additional postmortem studies. PMID:21220015

  3. Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Aaron L; Lukowitsky, Mark R

    2010-01-01

    We review the literature on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and describe a significant criterion problem related to four inconsistencies in phenotypic descriptions and taxonomic models across clinical theory, research, and practice; psychiatric diagnosis; and social/personality psychology. This impedes scientific synthesis, weakens narcissism's nomological net, and contributes to a discrepancy between low prevalence rates of NPD and higher rates of practitioner-diagnosed pathological narcissism, along with an enormous clinical literature on narcissistic disturbances. Criterion issues must be resolved, including clarification of the nature of normal and pathological narcissism, incorporation of the two broad phenotypic themes of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability into revised diagnostic criteria and assessment instruments, elimination of references to overt and covert narcissism that reify these modes of expression as distinct narcissistic types, and determination of the appropriate structure for pathological narcissism. Implications for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the science of personality disorders are presented.

  4. Overview of Glutamatergic Dysregulation in Central Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Miladinovic, Tanya; Nashed, Mina G.; Singh, Gurmit

    2015-01-01

    As the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, glutamate plays a key role in many central pathologies, including gliomas, psychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative disorders. Post-mortem and serological studies have implicated glutamatergic dysregulation in these pathologies, and pharmacological modulation of glutamate receptors and transporters has provided further validation for the involvement of glutamate. Furthermore, efforts from genetic, in vitro, and animal studies are actively elucidating the specific glutamatergic mechanisms that contribute to the aetiology of central pathologies. However, details regarding specific mechanisms remain sparse and progress in effectively modulating glutamate to alleviate symptoms or inhibit disease states has been relatively slow. In this report, we review what is currently known about glutamate signalling in central pathologies. We also discuss glutamate’s mediating role in comorbidities, specifically cancer-induced bone pain and depression. PMID:26569330

  5. Pathological Grief: Causes, Recognition, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gort, George

    1984-01-01

    Although the incidence of pathological grief does not appear to be high, the morbidity and mortality of sufferers is significant. Because of attitudes about grieving and the reluctance to experience grief, patients may avoid sharing grief with the family physician, who may then fail to recognize pathological grief. This article discusses clinical manifestations and situations which can lead to pathological grief. The types of pathological grief—chronic, inhibited, delayed, and atypical—are also discussed, along with personality variables which predispose some people to difficult grieving. Failure to grieve may also lead to a higher incidence of physical disease and various forms of mental illness. In order to manage grief, the physician must encourage the patient to express all his feelings of sadness, anger, and guilt; reassure him that his anger and guilt are a normal reaction to loss; and later, give him permission to stop grieving. PMID:21279045

  6. Clearance of pathological antibodies using biomimetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Jonathan A.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Kang; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Pathological antibodies have been demonstrated to play a key role in type II immune hypersensitivity reactions, resulting in the destruction of healthy tissues and leading to considerable morbidity for the patient. Unfortunately, current treatments present significant iatrogenic risk while still falling short for many patients in achieving clinical remission. In the present work, we explored the capability of target cell membrane-coated nanoparticles to abrogate the effect of pathological antibodies in an effort to minimize disease burden, without the need for drug-based immune suppression. Inspired by antibody-driven pathology, we used intact RBC membranes stabilized by biodegradable polymeric nanoparticle cores to serve as an alternative target for pathological antibodies in an antibody-induced anemia disease model. Through both in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrated efficacy of RBC membrane-cloaked nanoparticles to bind and neutralize anti-RBC polyclonal IgG effectively, and thus preserve circulating RBCs. PMID:25197051

  7. Forensic veterinary pathology, today's situation and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Olsén, L; Gavier-Widén, D

    2014-11-08

    To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders.

  8. On Carcinomas and Other Pathological Entities

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Ceusters, Werner; Rosse, Cornelius

    2005-01-01

    Tumours, abscesses, cysts, scars and fractures are familiar types of what we shall call pathological continuant entities. The instances of such types exist always in or on anatomical structures, which thereby become transformed into pathological anatomical structures of corresponding types: a fractured tibia, a blistered thumb, a carcinomatous colon. In previous work on biomedical ontologies we showed how the provision of formal definitions for relations such as is_a, part_of and transformation_of can facilitate the integration of such ontologies in ways which have the potential to support new kinds of automated reasoning. We here extend this approach to the treatment of pathologies, focusing especially on those pathological continuant entities which arise when organs become affected by carcinomas. PMID:18629199

  9. International review of experimental pathology. Volume 27

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, G.W.; Epstein, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews the experimental pathology advancements made in recent years. Specifically discussed are - Epstein-Barr virus pathogenesis, immune deficient diseases, Hodgkin's disease, lymphomas and other lymphoproliferative disorders.

  10. American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join/Renew Member Resources Careers About History Bylaws Society Leadership Awards CME Mission and Goals Annual Report ... 7227 Toll-Free (240) 575-9880 Fax © American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology * Required * First Name: * ...

  11. Pathological grief: two Victorian case studies.

    PubMed

    Ramchandani, D

    1996-01-01

    Despite 75 years of investigation, the concept of pathological grief remains tenuous and controversial. The author turns to the stories of two nineteenth century women, one real and the other fictitious to examine the syndrome of grief gone away. He concludes that pathological grief may be best viewed on a continuum of psychopathology, the expression of which depends upon the interaction between the personality of the patient, the nature of the lost relationship, and the circumstances of its loss.

  12. White Matter Glia Pathology in Autism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21078227 5. Sundaram SK, Kumar A, Makki MI, Behen ME, Chugani HT, Chugani DC. Diffusion tensor imaging of frontal lobe in autism...other brain cells and analyzed for gene expression differences that might contribute to ASD pathology. The combination of LCM and transcriptional...analysis offer an innovative approach to determining the cellular basis of brain pathology in ASD. Due to the time intensive nature of LCM, the first

  13. Induction process of trainees in pathology residency

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Imran; Ali, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the induction process of pathology residency at The Aga Khan University hospital. The Department of Postgraduate Medical Education was established in 1985. The induction process is an exhaustive exercise that includes an admission test held simultaneously in Karachi, Hyderabad, Lahore, and Rawalpindi, followed by an interview of the shortlisted candidates. The pathology residency program was started 25 years ago and since then the induction process has undergone major changes with the course of time. PMID:27313487

  14. Relevance feedback for shape-based pathology in spine x-ray image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqian; Antani, Sameer; Lee, D. J.; Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    2006-03-01

    Relevance feedback (RF) has become an active research area in Content-based Image Retrieval (CBIR). RF attempts to bridge the gap between low-level image features and high-level human visual perception by analyzing and employing user feedback in an effort to refine the retrieval results to better reflect individual user preference. Need for overcoming this gap is more evident in medical image retrieval due to commonly found characteristics in medical images, viz., (1) images belonging to different pathological categories exhibit subtle differences, and (2) the subjective nature of images often elicits different opinions, even among experts. The National Library of Medicine maintains a collection of digitized spine X-rays from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). A pathology found frequently in these images is the Anterior Osteophyte (AO), which is of interest to researchers in bone morphometry and osteoarthritis. Since this pathology is manifested as deviation in shape, we have proposed the use of partial shape matching (PSM) methods for pathology-specific spinal X-ray image retrieval. Shape matching tends to suffer from the variability in the pathology expressed by the vertebral shape. This paper describes a novel weight-updating approach to RF. The algorithm was tested and evaluated on a subset of data selected from the image collection. The ground truth was established using Macnab's classification to determine pathology type and a grading system developed by us to express the pathology severity. Experimental results show nearly 20% overall improvement on retrieving the correct pathological category, from 69% without feedback to 88.75% with feedback.

  15. [Periodontal tissue pathology in pubertal children (pupils)].

    PubMed

    Shishniashvili, T E; Tsagareli, Z G; Gogiashvili, L E; Khimshiashvili, N B

    2012-03-01

    The study aimed at investigation of the rate of periodontal pathologies in juvenile adolescents, the analysis of the severity of the disease and detection of the correlation between the periodontal tissue pathology and hormonal status of pre-and pubertal periods. A stomatologic (dental) status of 618 pupils, 9-15 of ages in Tbilisi General Education Schools has been studied--to detect the rate and intensity of periodontal pathologies and analyze the influence of hormonal changes of juvenile periodontal tissues. According to the obtained results we can conclude that the high rate of periodontal diseases has been fixed in pre-pubertal and pubertal schoolchildren (pupils). It should be emphasized that the degree of periodontal tissue pathologies increases with age. In addition, the mentioned pathology was more frequently fixed and expressed in girls, 12-13 of ages and in boys, 14-15 of ages. Juvenile periodontal pathologies most frequently is generalized, which most frequently is aggravated with the existence of jaw-dental anomalies and the poor oral hygiene status.

  16. Availability of Pre-Admission Information to Prospective Graduate Students in Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekieli Koay, Mary Ellen; Lass, Norman J.; Parrill, Madaline; Naeser, Danielle; Babin, Kelly; Bayer, Olivia; Cook, Megan; Elmore, Madeline; Frye, Rachel; Kerwood, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    An extensive Internet search was conducted to obtain pre-admission information and acceptance statistics from 260 graduate programmes in speech-language pathology accredited by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) in the United States. ASHA is the national professional, scientific and credentialing association for members and…

  17. Forensic molecular pathology of violent deaths.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hitoshi; Zhu, Bao-li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi

    2010-12-15

    In forensic pathology, while classical morphology remains a core procedure to investigate deaths, a spectrum of ancillary procedures has been developed and incorporated to detail the pathology. Among them, postmortem biochemistry is important to investigate the systemic pathophysiological changes involved in the dying process that cannot be detected by morphology. In addition, recent advances in molecular biology have provided a procedure to investigate genetic bases of diseases that might present with sudden death, which is called 'molecular autopsy'. Meanwhile, the practical application of RNA analyses to postmortem investigation has not been accepted due to rapid decay after death; however, recent experimental and practical studies using real-time reverse transcription-PCR have suggested that the relative quantification of mRNA transcripts can be applied in molecular pathology for postmortem investigation of deaths, which may be called 'advanced molecular autopsy'. In a broad sense, forensic molecular pathology implies applied medical sciences to investigate the genetic basis of diseases, and the pathophysiology of diseases and traumas leading to death at a biological molecular level in the context of forensic pathology. The possible applications include analyses of local pathology, including tissue injury, ischemia/hypoxia and inflammation at the site of insult or specific tissue damage from intoxication, systemic responses to violence or environmental hazards, disorders due to intoxication, and systemic pathophysiology of fatal process involving major life-support organs. A review of previous studies suggests that systematic postmortem quantitative analysis of mRNA transcripts can be established from multi-faceted aspects of molecular biology and incorporated into death investigations in forensic pathology, to support and reinforce morphological evidence.

  18. Enterprise Implementation of Digital Pathology: Feasibility, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hartman, D J; Pantanowitz, L; McHugh, J S; Piccoli, A L; OLeary, M J; Lauro, G R

    2017-01-23

    Digital pathology is becoming technically possible to implement for routine pathology work. At our institution, we have been using digital pathology for second opinion intraoperative consultations for over 10 years. Herein, we describe our experience in converting to a digital pathology platform for primary pathology diagnosis. We implemented an incremental rollout for digital pathology on subspecialty benches, beginning with cases that contained small amounts of tissue (biopsy specimens). We successfully scanned over 40,000 slides through our digital pathology system. Several lessons (both challenges and opportunities) were learned through this implementation. A successful conversion to digital pathology requires pre-imaging adjustments, integrated software and post-imaging evaluations.

  19. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science.

  20. Content and formal problems of teaching pathology.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, H

    1981-09-01

    The present comment of mine will dwell mainly on my impressions about the format of teaching. It seems to be very difficult to judge how much classic practical training should be given since for example in histology, it may often go deep into details probably irrelevant for the students. It must be realized, however, that the rapid increase in general knowledge and in the special demands of various medical specialities also impose an ever-increasing stress on the pathologist himself. Therefore it is necessary to define certain limits, however difficult a problem this may be. I have proposed an integrated presentation. The integration should, however, not be made by the clinician as the first and the pathologist as the second violinist. In this case the clinician may misinterpret pathology and may interfere with the pathologist in presenting pathology with appropriate weight and adequate importance. The moderator is the director of the pathology department. No special clinical details are given but those sufficient to ensure a better understanding of the pathological changes presented. Under these conditions the pathologist has full control of the essential views and details given to the student, thus demonstrating the importance of pathology in medicine.

  1. Molecular imaging of Alzheimer disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, K

    2014-06-01

    Development of molecular imaging agents for fibrillar β-amyloid positron-emission tomography during the past decade has brought molecular imaging of Alzheimer disease pathology into the spotlight. Large cohort studies with longitudinal follow-up in cognitively normal individuals and patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease indicate that β-amyloid deposition can be detected many years before the onset of symptoms with molecular imaging, and its progression can be followed longitudinally. The utility of β-amyloid PET in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is greatest when there is no pathologic overlap between 2 dementia syndromes, such as in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer disease. However β-amyloid PET alone may be insufficient in distinguishing dementia syndromes that commonly have overlapping β-amyloid pathology, such as dementia with Lewy bodies and vascular dementia, which represent the 2 most common dementia pathologies after Alzheimer disease. The role of molecular imaging in Alzheimer disease clinical trials is growing rapidly, especially in an era when preventive interventions are designed to eradicate the pathology targeted by molecular imaging agents.

  2. Digital imaging applications in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Leong, F Joel W-M; Leong, Anthony S-Y

    2003-03-01

    Digital imaging has progressed at a rapid rate and is likely to eventually replace chemical photography in most areas of professional and amateur digital image acquisition. In pathology, digital microscopy has implications beyond that of taking a photograph. The arguments for adopting this new medium are compelling, and given similar developments in other areas of pathology and radiologic imaging, acceptance of the digital medium should be viewed as a component of the technological evolution of the laboratory. A digital image may be stored, replicated, catalogued, employed for educational purposes, transmitted for further interpretation (telepathology), analyzed for salient features (medical vision/image analysis), or form part of a wider digital healthcare strategy. Despite advances in digital camera technology, good image acquisition still requires good microscope optics and the correct calibration of all system components, something which many neglect. The future of digital imaging in pathology is very promising and new applications in the fields of automated quantification and interpretation are likely to have profound long-term influence on the practice of anatomic pathology. This paper discusses the state of the art of digital imaging in anatomic pathology.

  3. [Scrotal ultrasound: anatomy and pathological findings].

    PubMed

    Iannicelli, E; Sessa, B; Sapori, A; Cappucci, M; Briani, C; Federici, G F; Di Pietropaolo, M; Merola, S

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is the imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of scrotal disease. It provides high anatomical detail and in most cases, it is essential to enable a correct diagnosis and to obtain the right management of the patient. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a non invasive technique that aids important information about testicular perfusion, necessary in reaching a specific diagnosis in many pathologic conditions; moreover contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), recently introduced in the clinical practice, may be considered an additional tool in the classification and differentiation of testicular pathology. The purpose of this review, is to provide the state of the art on the role of ultrasonography in the evaluation of different scrotal pathologies including vaginal process' disorders, acute scrotum, varicocele, hydrocele, chronic inflammatory diseases and testicular tumours.

  4. Recent developments in preclinical toxicological pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, John M. . E-mail: john.finch@eur.crl

    2005-09-01

    In the late nineteenth century, microscopists developed a quaint method for examining the fine structure of biological specimens: paraffin embedding and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. This ancient technology is here to stay for the foreseeable future, because it can and does reveal the truth about biological processes. However, the role of pathology is developing with ever greater worldwide interaction between pathologists, and better communication and agreeing of international standards. Furthermore, recent techniques including immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and image analysis complement the traditional tried and tested tools. There is also in toxicologic pathology a willingness to use pathology methods and skills in new contexts, drug discovery in particular. But even in these days of genetic modification, proteomics and high throughput screening, pathologists continue to rely on dyes extracted from a Central American logwood used in Mexico before the Spanish invasion in 1520.

  5. Retrospective analysis of pathologic nipple discharge.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Wu, D; Fan, Z-M

    2015-02-13

    The cause of pathologic nipple discharge is mainly benign lesions, but there is still a possibility of malignancy. Pathologic nipple discharge may be the only or the first symptom of breast cancer. This study aimed to investigate the clinical factors associated with lesions in patients with pathologic nipple discharge using a retrospective analysis of clinical data in 207 cases. The univariate analysis showed that age >50 years, breast lumps, or breast calcifications were risk factors associated with breast cancer in nipple discharge patients (P < 0.05). Discharge characteristics, duration of disease, and identification of lesions had no clear clinical significance (P > 0.05). The multivariate analysis also showed that age >50 years, breast lumps, and breast calcifications were risk factors associated with breast cancer in nipple discharge patients (P < 0.05). Age, breast lumps, and breast calcifications had important clinical significance in identification of benign and malignant nipple discharge.

  6. Genetics meets pathology - an increasingly important relationship.

    PubMed

    Bonthron, David T; Foulkes, William D

    2017-01-01

    The analytical power of modern methods for DNA analysis has outstripped our capability to interpret and understand the data generated. To make good use of this genomic data in a biomedical setting (whether for research or diagnosis), it is vital that we understand the mechanisms through which mutations affect biochemical pathways and physiological systems. This lies at the centre of what genetics is all about, and it is the reason why genetics and genomics should go hand in hand whenever possible. In this Annual Review Issue of The Journal of Pathology, we have assembled a collection of 16 expert reviews covering a wide range of topics. Through these, we illustrate the power of genetic analysis to improve our understanding of normal physiology and disease pathology, and thereby to think in rational ways about clinical management. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Cytotoxic edema: mechanisms of pathological cell swelling

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Danny; Bhatta, Sergei; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J. Marc

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral edema is caused by a variety of pathological conditions that affect the brain. It is associated with two separate pathophysiological processes with distinct molecular and physiological antecedents: those related to cytotoxic (cellular) edema of neurons and astrocytes, and those related to transcapillary flux of Na+ and other ions, water, and serum macromolecules. In this review, the authors focus exclusively on the first of these two processes. Cytotoxic edema results from unchecked or uncompensated influx of cations, mainly Na+, through cation channels. The authors review the different cation channels that have been implicated in the formation of cytotoxic edema of astrocytes and neurons in different pathological states. A better understanding of these molecular mechanisms holds the promise of improved treatments of cerebral edema and of the secondary injury produced by this pathological process. PMID:17613233

  8. [Immunohistochemistry in ophthalmic pathology: applications and limitations].

    PubMed

    Pluot, M; Cahn, V; Ducasse, A

    2006-10-01

    We evaluate the applications of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in ophthalmic cytology and pathology. The principles of the techniques used in IHC are described. Recent improvements are highlighted, such as the polymeric labeling two-step method, tyramine signal amplification, rabbit monoclonal antibodies, and labeled nanocrystals. The results of the immunohistochemical methods are collected in bacterial and viral diseases and in tumors of the eye and its adnexa, the pathology of which varies greatly. The results in lymphomas, melanomas, and palpebral tumors were more details for practical reasons. There are widespread applications of IHC in ophthalmic pathology, extending from viral ocular and general diseases to the diagnosis of tumors. In some conditions, this technique needs to be associated with molecular biology investigations. Automation helps establish standard protocols, but IHC is a multistep diagnostic method requiring proper selection, fixation, processing, and staining procedures. From a general standpoint, good communication between pathologists and ophthalmologists is the best guarantee of satisfying results.

  9. Simulated learning environments in speech-language pathology: an Australian response.

    PubMed

    MacBean, Naomi; Theodoros, Deborah; Davidson, Bronwyn; Hill, Anne E

    2013-06-01

    The rising demand for health professionals to service the Australian population is placing pressure on traditional approaches to clinical education in the allied health professions. Existing research suggests that simulated learning environments (SLEs) have the potential to increase student placement capacity while providing quality learning experiences with comparable or superior outcomes to traditional methods. This project investigated the current use of SLEs in Australian speech-language pathology curricula, and the potential future applications of SLEs to the clinical education curricula through an extensive consultative process with stakeholders (all 10 Australian universities offering speech-language pathology programs in 2010, Speech Pathology Australia, members of the speech-language pathology profession, and current student body). Current use of SLEs in speech-language pathology education was found to be limited, with additional resources required to further develop SLEs and maintain their use within the curriculum. Perceived benefits included: students' increased clinical skills prior to workforce placement, additional exposure to specialized areas of speech-language pathology practice, inter-professional learning, and richer observational experiences for novice students. Stakeholders perceived SLEs to have considerable potential for clinical learning. A nationally endorsed recommendation for SLE development and curricula integration was prepared.

  10. Dental pathology in Pongo satyrus borneensis.

    PubMed

    Stoner, K E

    1995-11-01

    The Selenka orangutan collection obtained from 1892 to 1896 from wild-shot specimens in West Borneo, provides an excellent opportunity to examine dental pathology in free-ranging primates. Two hundred and twenty-three skulls from this collection were analyzed for dental conditions, including carious lesions, local infections (infra-alveolar and periapical osseous defects), horizontal bone loss, and premortem tooth loss. Specimens were sexed, divided into three broad age groups, and compared to ascertain sex-related or age-related differences in occurrence of dental pathology. None of the subadults displays any evidence of dental disease. One individual (2%) in the young adult group has a periapical osseous defect and evidence of horizontal bone loss, and another (2%) has two adjacent interproximal carious lesions. The old adults have a much higher prevalence of individuals afflicted with dental pathologies, including 6% carious lesions, 26% local infections, 23% horizontal bone loss, and 3% premortem tooth loss. The differences between the young and old adults in number of individuals afflicted with dental pathologies is statistically significant for local infections and horizontal bone loss. When compared by sex, the old adult group reveals that females have a higher occurrence of dental pathologies than males in all types of lesions recorded and these differences are statistically significant for local infections and horizontal bone loss. Considering the importance diet plays in the development of dental disease, it is suggested that ecological separation of the sexes, with the subsequent dietary differences, could be an important factor determining the higher prevalence of dental lesions observed in female orangutans. Additionally, the importance of local ecological factors, which may affect dietary patterns, are recognized as a potential source of variation in dental pathologies among different samples of orangutans.

  11. Sleep Pathology in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Peter; de Bruin, Gabriela S.; Wang, Leo H.; Ward, Beth A.; Ances, Beau M.; Lim, Miranda M.; Bucelli, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Associations between sleep and neurodegenerative diseases have become increasingly evident. This study aims to characterize the prevalence and type of sleep pathology in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), a rapidly progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease. Methods: In this observational cross-sectional cohort study, we performed a retrospective analysis of sleep signs and symptoms in a consecutive group of patients with definite CJD at a tertiary care medical center (n = 28). Polysomnography was performed in 14 patients. Results: Although only 5 of 28 patients carried a premorbid sleep diagnosis, signs/symptoms of sleep pathology were present in 25 patients. Eleven reported hypersomnia whereas 13 reported insomnia. Seven had restless legs symptoms and/or periodic limb movements of sleep, and nine reported parasomnias. Of the 14 patients who underwent polysomnography, 1 did not show sleep, 9 (69%) had poorly formed or absent sleep spindles and/or K-complexes, and 10 (77%) had sleep-disordered breathing. Of the 8 patients who experienced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep during the polysomnography, 3 (38%) showed REM sleep without atonia, and 2 patients met criteria for REM sleep behavior disorder. Median total sleep time was 226 (interquartile range [IQR] = 195–282) min. Median sleep efficiency was 58.5% (IQR = 41–65.5 %). Median REM time was 0.35% (IQR = 0–7.125%). Five patients (38%) demonstrated periodic limb movements during polysomnography. One case is presented. Conclusions: Sleep pathology is common in CJD, and screening for sleep pathology is indicated in the evaluation of patients with rapidly progressive dementias. Early identification and treatment of sleep pathology may provide an intervenable target for CJD. Citation: Kang P, de Bruin GS, Wang LH, Ward BA, Ances BM, Lim MM, Bucelli RC. Sleep pathology in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):1033–1039. PMID:27250807

  12. Surgical pathology in the 20th century at the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York.

    PubMed

    Geller, Stephen A

    2008-08-01

    How did the education of surgical pathology, and pathology in general, differ at Mount Sinai? Passing the examination of the American Board of Pathology was never the focus of the department. Learning criteria or quoting references was de-emphasized, but mastery of macroscopic pathology was required, supported in both word and action by two brilliant surgical pathologists, Otani and Kaneko, and by two extraordinary medical pathologists, Klemperer and Popper. Meticulous microscopy emphasized pattern rather than reliance on lists of discrete features. Otani developed a regular "problem case" meeting for a community of pathologists, made up of alumni and other interested pathologists, as well as active department members. These monthly sessions provided the highest level of "continuing medical education." Otani and Kaneko unequivocally believed in learning from cases, and Mount Sinai residents were fortunate both in the one-to-one teaching and in the wealth of material, in all systems, that came to surgical pathology. Outstanding pathologists who came from Mount Sinai settled throughout the country and provided the highest level of diagnoses, but, with the exception of Bernard Wagner, Emanuel Rubin, Fiorenzo Paronetto, Richard Horowitz, Michael Gerber, Marc Rosenblum, Bruce Wenig, Jaishree Jagirdar, Swan Thung, Cesar Moran, Hideko Kamino, Philip LeBoit, Alberto Marchevsky, and others, there were relatively few academic leaders. Otani and Kaneko did not have national reputations. Klemperer, although world renowned, was relatively unassuming, and his disciples numbered almost as many nonpathologists as pathologists. Popper did establish a major center for liver pathology, with students coming from around the world, but did not particularly promote general surgical pathology. Can the Mount Sinai approach still be applied? The decline in the numbers of autopsies performed, the demands for rapid turnaround time, the de-emphasis of gross pathology as newer technologies (eg

  13. Meeting report: Urinary Pathology; sixth Research Triangle Park Rodent Pathology Course.

    PubMed

    Boyle, M C; Boyle, M H

    2013-05-01

    Urinary system toxicity is a significant concern to pathologists in the hazard identification, drug and chemical safety evaluation, and diagnostic service industries worldwide. There are myriad known human and animal urinary system toxicants, and investigatory renal toxicology and pathology is continually evolving. The system-specific Research Triangle Park (RTP) Rodent Pathology Course biennially serves to update scientists on the latest research, laboratory techniques, and debates. The Sixth RTP Rodent Pathology Course, Urinary Pathology, featured experts from the government, pharmaceutical, academic, and diagnostic arenas sharing the state of the science in urinary pathology. Speakers presented on a wide range of topics including background lesions, treatment-related non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions, transgenic rodent models of human disease, diagnostic imaging, biomarkers, and molecular analyses. These seminars were accompanied by case presentation sessions focused on usual and unusual lesions, grading schemes, and tumors.

  14. The interscrotal approach to inguinoscrotal pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Soualili, Zineddine; Achouri, Djelloul; Haif, Assia; Touabti, Souhem; Yahia, Smain Ait; Benmahmoud, Mahmoud; Choutri, Hichem; Nedjar, Sameh; Mimoune, Malika; Chouaib, Sayah

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficiency of the interscrotal approach to inguinoscrotal pathologies. Patients and methods We report the use of the interscrotal approach in 21 boys, from September 2012 to November 2013, operated using an interscrotal access through a vertical incision on the median raphe. Results The approach was used for bilateral inguinal hernia (48%), bilateral ectopic testis (19%), torsion of the spermatic cord (19%), testicular biopsy (10%) and webbing of the penis (5%). Conclusion Inter-scrotal access is an option for inguinoscrotal pathologies, with the advantages of a single incision, much less dissection and disruption of tissue, and greater comfort for the ‘day-case’ child. PMID:26413342

  15. Giant clival chordoma causing pathological laughter

    PubMed Central

    Gripp, Daniel Andrade; do Souto, Antonio Aversa; Gonsales, Douglas; Christiani, Marcio de Miranda Chaves; Nogueira, Janio; Lopes, Helio Ferreira; Torres, Yasmine Coura

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chordomas are rare slowly growing tumors that originate from remnants of the notochord. They have a malignant local behavior, causing symptoms due to bone infiltration and compression of neurovascular structures. Only a few cases of brain tumors associated with pathological laughter have been reported in the literature. Case Description: We report a case of a 42-year-old male patient with this atypical clinical presentation treated at our institution, and discuss the concerning literature. Conclusion: Although being a very rare presentation of chordomas, pathological laughter is usually expected to improve after brain stem decompression. PMID:24778906

  16. Treatment of pathological gambling - integrative systemic model.

    PubMed

    Mladenović, Ivica; Lažetić, Goran; Lečić-Toševski, Dušica; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Pathological gambling was classified under impulse control disorders within the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) (WHO 1992), but the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-V), (APA 2013), has recognized pathological gambling as a first disorder within a new diagnostic category of behavioral addictions - Gambling disorder. Pathological gambling is a disorder in progression, and we hope that our experience in the treatment of pathological gambling in the Daily Hospital for Addictions at The Institute of Mental Health, through the original "Integrative - systemic model" would be of use to colleagues, dealing with this pathology. This model of treatment of pathological gambling is based on multi-systemic approach and it primarily represents an integration of family and cognitive-behavioral therapy, with traces of psychodynamic, existential and pharmacotherapy. The model is based on the book "Pathological gambling - with self-help manual" by Dr Mladenovic and Dr Lazetic, and has been designed in the form of a program that lasts 10 weeks in the intensive phase, and then continues for two years in the form of "extended treatment" ("After care"). The intensive phase is divided into three segments: educational, insight with initial changes and analysis of the achieved changes with the definition of plans and areas that need to be addressed in the extended treatment. "Extended treatment" lasts for two years in the form of group therapy, during which there is a second order change of the identified patient, but also of other family members. Pathological gambling has been treated in the form of systemic-family therapy for more than 10 years at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH), in Belgrade. For second year in a row the treatment is carried out by the modern "Integrative-systemic model". If abstinence from gambling witihin the period of one year after completion of the intensive phase of treatment is taken as the main criterion of

  17. Chronic Ifosfamide toxicity: kidney pathology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Akilesh, Shreeram; Juaire, Noemie; Duffield, Jeremy S; Smith, Kelly D

    2014-05-01

    Ifosfamide is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as both a first-line and a salvage chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of testicular germ cell tumors, various sarcomas, carcinomas, and some lymphomas. A well-known complication of ifosfamide therapy is transient acute kidney injury. However, in a minority of patients, the reduction in kidney function is progressive and permanent, sometimes occurring long after exposure to ifosfamide. Scattered reports have described the pathologic findings in kidneys permanently affected by ifosfamide toxicity. We present the findings of an illustrative case and review the pathology and molecular mechanisms of long-term ifosfamide toxicity with implications for personalized medicine.

  18. Laser polarimetry tomography of biotissue pathological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolenko, Serhiy B.; Angelsky, Oleg V.; Ushenko, Alexander G.; Pishak, Vasyl P.; Pishak, Olga V.

    2001-06-01

    Recently the photometric and spectrophotometric methods of biotissue diagnostics, based on searching interrelation of scalar characteristics of optical radiation field with their structural parameters. The complex of investigation of transformation processes of linear-polarized radiation in biotissues has demonstrated the new possibilities of diagnostics of their pathological biotissues (human skin derma, the whit matter and tissues of the gray matter, tissue of aorta side, necrotic ulcer, bone tissue, etc.). The report presented deals with researching possibilities of laser polarized diagnostics of arising and proceeding of pathological changes of biotissue morphological structure.

  19. Current Density Reconstruction With Multi-Scale Grid Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    MULTI-SCALE GRID AP- PROACH J-M. Han1, I. B. Lee, J. H. Hahm, Y. J. Kim and K. S. Park2 Interdisciplinary Program in Biomedical Engineering , Seoul...National University 1Institute of Biomedical Engineering , Seoul National University 2Department of Biomedical Engineering , Seoul National University...Number Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) Insitute of Biomedical Engineering Seoul National University Seoul Korea Performing

  20. Proceedings of The Second International Molecular Pathological Epidemiology (MPE) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Shuji; Campbell, Peter T.; Nishihara, Reiko; Phipps, Amanda I.; Beck, Andrew H.; Sherman, Mark E.; Chan, Andrew T.; Troester, Melissa A.; Bass, Adam J.; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C.; Irizarry, Rafael A.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Nan, Hongmei; Peters, Ulrike; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Qian, Zhi Rong; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Zhang, Xuehong; Giovannucci, Edward L.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Wang, Molin; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Begg, Colin B.

    2015-01-01

    Disease classification system increasingly incorporates information on pathogenic mechanisms to predict clinical outcomes and response to therapy and intervention. Technological advancements to interrogate omics (genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, metagenomics, interactomics, etc.) provide widely-open opportunities in population-based research. Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) represents integrative science of molecular pathology and epidemiology. This unified paradigm requires multidisciplinary collaboration between pathology, epidemiology, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and computational biology. Integration of these fields enables better understanding of etiologic heterogeneity, disease continuum, causal inference, and the impact of environment, diet, lifestyle, host factors (including genetics and immunity), and their interactions on disease evolution. Hence, the Second International MPE Meeting was held in Boston in December 2014, with aims to: (1) develop conceptual and practical frameworks; (2) cultivate and expand opportunities; (3) address challenges; and (4) initiate the effort of specifying guidelines for MPE. The meeting mainly consisted of presentations of method developments and recent data in various malignant neoplasms and tumors (breast, prostate, ovarian and colorectal cancers, renal cell carcinoma, lymphoma, and leukemia), followed by open discussion sessions on challenges and future plans. In particular, we recognized need for efforts to further develop statistical methodologies. This meeting provided an unprecedented opportunity for interdisciplinary collaboration, consistent with the purposes of the BD2K (Big Data to Knowledge), GAME-ON (Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology), and Precision Medicine Initiatives of the U.S.A. National Institute of Health. The MPE Meeting Series can help advance transdisciplinary population science, and optimize training and education systems for 21st century

  1. Effect of cognitive reserve markers on Alzheimer pathologic progression.

    PubMed

    Lo, Raymond Y; Jagust, William J

    2013-01-01

    Education, occupation, premorbid intelligence, and brain size are surrogate markers for cognitive reserve. Whether these markers have biological influence on Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology is not known. We thus aimed to investigate the effect of cognitive reserve proxies on longitudinal change of AD biomarkers. A total of 819 participants with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and mild AD were enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and followed up with repeated measures of cerebrospinal fluid, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess whether biomarker rates of change were modified by reserve proxies. Cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 decline was slower in normal cognition participants with higher cognitive reserve indexed by education, occupation, and American National Adult Reading Test (ANART). The decline of [F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography uptake was slower in AD participants with better performance on the ANART. Education, occupation, and ANART did not modify the rates of magnetic resonance imaging hippocampal atrophy in any group. These findings remained unchanged after accounting for APOE 4, longitudinal missing data, and baseline cognitive performance. Higher levels of reserve markers may slow the rate of amyloid deposition before cognitive impairment and preserve glucose metabolism at the dementia stage over the course of AD pathologic progression.

  2. Kenneth Frank Baker--pioneer leader in plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Cook, R James

    2005-01-01

    Kenneth F. Baker (1908-1996) made major contributions to understanding diseases of ornamental plants, seed pathology, soil-borne plant pathogens, biological control, and history of plant pathology. His work set the stage for the success of today's ornamentals and nursery industries. His leadership and writings created the scientific framework for research and teaching on soil-borne plant pathogens and biological control. After B.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from Washington State University in 1930 and 1934, respectively, and one year as a National Research Council Fellow with B.M. Dugger at Wisconsin, he took jobs in 1935 with the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Nebraska on establishment of shelter belts and 1936-39 with the Pineapple Producers Cooperative Association in Hawaii. He worked on diseases of ornamental plants at the University of California, Los Angeles, starting in 1939, moving to Berkeley in 1961 when the UCLA program closed. He retired in 1975 and moved to Corvallis, OR, as Emeritus Professor, Oregon State University, and Collaborator, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. He spent four sabbatical leaves in Australia, and was elected fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1950, fellow of the American Phytopathological Society in 1969, and the Horticultural Hall of Fame in 1976.

  3. Lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis. Etiologic and pathologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Quiles, M; Marchisello, P J; Tsairis, P

    1978-03-01

    The etiologic factors and pathologic findings in 38 patients with lumbar arachnoiditis are presented. Lumbar spine surgery and the injection of contrast materials prior to the diagnosis of this condition are considered the most important factors in its genesis. In this series, there was microscopic evidence of arachnoiditis ossificans in 3 patients and arachnoiditis calcificans in 1 patient.

  4. [Peculiarities of thyroid pathology in the childhood].

    PubMed

    Buriak, V N; Murashko, E S

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with etiopathogenetic and clinical peculiarities, and also therapeutic methods during the pathological processes in the thyroid system in the childhood. The most common of these processes is the diffuse nontoxic goiter, which results in abnormality of metabolic processes regulation in the child's growing organism and often signals to the beginning of many thyropathies.

  5. Pathological Left-Handedness: An Explanatory Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satz, Paul

    Reported was an explanatory conceptual model for pathological left-handedness (PLH) and related hypotheses, some of which could not be tested empirically due to lack of information. The model was reported to provide an explanation for the relationship between handedness and specific learning disability, and handedness and cerebral dominance for…

  6. History of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Elizabeth W; Burges, H Denis

    2005-05-01

    Scientists studying diseases of invertebrates in the USA, Europe, and Asia began to meet at international congresses in the 1950s and early 1960s, and soon recognized that they needed both a society and a journal where their common interests could be discussed and their findings presented. Edward A. Steinhaus played a major role in bringing together scientists from across the globe with common interests in these diseases. As a consequence, the Journal of Invertebrate Pathology (then Journal of Insect Pathology) was initiated in 1959 and Steinhaus became its first editor. Along with Albert Sparks he organized a meeting at Seattle, Washington in 1967 that led to the founding of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology with Steinhaus as its first President. The Society held its first meeting at Ohio State University in 1968, and has continued to meet annually. The Society has instituted a Founder's Lecture series, graduate student awards, and Divisions of Microbial Control, Microsporidia, Bacteriology, Fungi, Viruses, and Nematodes. Members enjoy several social functions at meetings as well as symposia, submitted papers, and poster sessions. The Society for Invertebrate Pathology is a truly international organization which to date has held meetings in 13 countries and 14 US states, usually attended by members from at least 20 countries.

  7. Brain pathologies in extreme old age

    PubMed Central

    Neltner, Janna H.; Abner, Erin L.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Patel, Ela; Poon, Leonard W.; Gearing, Marla; Green, Robert C.; Davey, Adam; Johnson, Mary Ann; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Kim, Sangkyu; Davis, Daron; Woodard, John L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Nelson, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    With an emphasis on evolving concepts in the field, we evaluated neuropathologic data from very old research volunteers whose brain autopsies were performed at University of Kentucky (UK-ADC), incorporating data from the Georgia Centenarian Study (N=49 cases included), the Nun Study (N=17), and UK-ADC (N=11) cohorts. Average age of death was 102.0 years (range: 98–107) overall. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology was not universal (62% with “moderate” or “frequent” neuritic amyloid plaque densities) whereas frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) was absent. By contrast, some hippocampal neurofibrillary tangles (including primary age-related tauopathy [PART]) were observed in every case. Lewy body pathology was seen in 16.9% of subjects, hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging) in 20.8%. We describe anatomical distributions of pigment-laden macrophages, expanded Virchow-Robin spaces, and arteriolosclerosis among Georgia Centenarians. Moderate or severe arteriolosclerosis pathology, throughout the brain, was associated with both HS-Aging pathology and an ABCC9 gene variant. These results provide fresh insights into the complex cerebral multimorbidity, and a novel genetic risk factor, at the far end of the human aging spectrum. PMID:26597697

  8. Testicular Vasculitis: A Sonographic and Pathologic Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Hague, Cameron; Bicknell, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Very little has been published about single-organ vasculitis of the testicle in the radiological literature. Consequently, it is a diagnosis that is unfamiliar to most radiologists. This case report describes the sonographic, pathologic, and laboratory findings of testicular vasculitis and reviews the available literature with regard to this subject. PMID:28246567

  9. Speech-Language Pathology: Preparing Early Interventionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelock, Patricia A.; Deppe, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain the role of speech-language pathology in early intervention. The expected credentials of professionals in the field are described, and the current numbers of practitioners serving young children are identified. Several resource documents available from the American Speech-­Language Hearing Association are…

  10. The Chernobyl thyroid cancer experience: pathology.

    PubMed

    LiVolsi, V A; Abrosimov, A A; Bogdanova, T; Fadda, G; Hunt, J L; Ito, M; Rosai, J; Thomas, G A; Williams, E D

    2011-05-01

    The Chernobyl accident was followed by a large increase in the incidence of thyroid carcinoma in the areas exposed to high levels of fallout. The Chernobyl Tumor Bank was set up in 1998 to make tumours available for study internationally, and a pathology panel reviewed all the tumours and established an agreed diagnosis. The thyroid tumours that were discovered after the Chernobyl nuclear accident were virtually all (95%) of the papillary carcinoma type. Rare examples of other tumour types were identified. Within the papillary group, several subtypes were noted, including classical or usual type, follicular variant, solid variant and mixed patterns Diffuse sclerosis variant, cribriform/morular type and Warthin-like variant were rare. No tall cell or columnar cell variants were identified. The tumours examined by the Pathology Panel of the Chernobyl Tumor Bank constitute a large representative sample (estimated at about 50%) of the tumours that developed in this population. This overview describes the method adopted by the panel and the different diagnostic categories adopted; illustrates the pathology of these neoplasms; compares the pathological characteristics of the early lesions with those identified after long latency periods and the institution of screening programmes and outlines the possible associated causes for the various morphological patterns seen.

  11. Validation: the new challenge for pathology.

    PubMed

    Cardiff, Robert D; Rosner, Andrea; Hogarth, Michael A; Galvez, Jose J; Borowsky, Alexander D; Gregg, Jeffrey P

    2004-01-01

    Modern pathologists have been challenged to "validate" mouse models of human cancer. Validation requires matching of morphological attributes of the model to human disease. Computers can assist in the validation process. However, adequate controlled, computer-readable vocabularies that can match terms do not currently exist in mouse pathology. Further, current standard diagnostic terminologies do not include the new concepts discussed here such as pathway pathology and mammary intraepithelial neoplasia. The terminologies must be revised and improved to meet the challenge. Human medicine has traditionally used "guilt-by-association" to validate interpretations of disease. Experimental pathology uses experimental verification exemplified by "test-by-transplantation." Genetically Engineered Mice (GEM) develop unique tumor phenotypes bringing new structural-functional insights and reevaluation of concepts. Novel GEM-related tumors appear in all organ systems but mouse models of human breast cancer are prototypes. For example, mammary tumors induced by Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV), chemical, radiation or other carcinogenic stimuli have limited phenotypes. These "spontaneous" or induced mammary tumors have never resembled human breast cancers. GEM tumors created with genes associated with human cancer are strikingly different. GEM tumors have unique histological phenotypes. Depending on the genes, the tumors may: 1) resemble MMTV-induced tumors, 2) display "signature" phenotypes, and 3) mimic human breast cancers. The phenotypes can be placed into structural and functional clusters with shared characteristics leading to the concepts of Pathway Pathology: tumor phenotype reflects the genotype.

  12. Voice data mining for laryngeal pathology assessment.

    PubMed

    Hemmerling, Daria; Skalski, Andrzej; Gajda, Janusz

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of different methods of speech signal analysis in the detection of voice pathologies. Firstly, an initial vector was created consisting of 28 parameters extracted from time, frequency and cepstral domain describing the human voice signal based on the analysis of sustained vowels /a/, /i/ and /u/ all at high, low and normal pitch. Afterwards we used a linear feature extraction technique (principal component analysis), which enabled a reduction in the number of parameters and choose the most effective acoustic features describing the speech signal. We have also performed non-linear data transformation which was calculated using kernel principal components. The results of the presented methods for normal and pathological cases will be revealed and discussed in this paper. The initial and extracted feature vectors were classified using the k-means clustering and the random forest classifier. We found that reasonably good classification accuracies could be achieved by selecting appropriate features. We obtained accuracies of up to 100% for classification of healthy versus pathology voice using random forest classification for female and male recordings. These results may assist in the feature development of automated detection systems for diagnosis of patients with symptoms of pathological voice.

  13. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  14. THz imaging of histo-pathological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Pascal; Schmalstieg, K.; Koch, Martin; Rehberg, E.; Vauti, F.; Donhuijsen, K.

    2001-10-01

    We investigate the potential of THz imaging for the examination of histo-pathological samples. Data obtained on a pig larynx and on a human liver containing cancerous tissue are presented. Different types of tissue are clearly resolved due to their distinct spectral absorption characteristics or due to a density dependent THz transmission.

  15. Digital pathology: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Al-Janabi, Shaimaa; Huisman, André; Van Diest, Paul J

    2012-07-01

    During the last decade pathology has benefited from the rapid progress of image digitizing technology. The improvement in this technology had led to the creation of slide scanners which are able to produce whole slide images (WSI) which can be explored by image viewers in a way comparable to the conventional microscope. The file size of the WSI ranges from a few megabytes to several gigabytes, leading to challenges in the area of image storage and management when they will be used routinely in daily clinical practice. Digital slides are used in pathology for education, diagnostic purposes (clinicopathological meetings, consultations, revisions, slide panels and, increasingly, for upfront clinical diagnostics) and archiving. As an alternative to conventional slides, WSI are generally well accepted, especially in education, where they are available to a large number of students with the full possibilities of annotations without the problem of variation between serial sections. Image processing techniques can also be applied to WSI, providing pathologists with tools assisting in the diagnosis-making process. This paper will highlight the current status of digital pathology applications and its impact on the field of pathology.

  16. Whole-slide imaging: routine pathologic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Toby C; Swapp, Ryan E; Kaplan, Keith J

    2012-05-01

    Digital pathology systems offer pathologists an alternate, emerging mechanism to manage and interpret information. They offer increasingly fast and scalable hardware platforms for slide scanning and software that facilitates remote viewing, slide conferencing, archiving, and image analysis. Deployed initially and validated largely within the research and biopharmaceutical industries, WSI is increasingly being implemented for direct patient care. Improvements in image quality, scan times, and imageviewing browsers will hopefully allow pathologists to more seamlessly convert to digital pathology, much like our radiology colleagues have done before us. However, WSI creates both opportunities and challenges. Although niche applications of WSI technology for clinical, educational, and research purposes are clearly successful, it is evident that several areas still require attention and careful consideration before more widespread clinical adoption of WSI takes place. These include regulatory issues, development of standards of practice and validation guidelines, workflow modifications, as well as defining situations where WSI technology will really improve practice in a cost-effective way. Current progress on these and other issues, along with improving technology, will no doubt pave the way for increased adoption over the next decade, allowing the pathology community as a whole to harness the true potential of WSI for patient care. The digital decade will likely redefine how pathology is practiced and the role of the pathologist.

  17. Gynecological pelvic pain as emergency pathology.

    PubMed

    Rivera Domínguez, A; Mora Jurado, A; García de la Oliva, A; de Araujo Martins-Romeo, D; Cueto Álvarez, L

    Acute pelvic pain is a common condition in emergency. The sources of acute pelvic pain are multifactorial, so it is important to be familiar with this type of pathologies. The purpose of this article is review the main causes of gynecological acute pelvic pain and their radiologic appearances to be able to make an accurate diagnosis and provide objective criteria for patient management.

  18. Mobile Technology for the Practice of Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Douglas J

    2016-03-01

    Recently, several technological advances have been introduced to mobile phones leading some people to refer to them as "smartphones." These changes have led to widespread consumer adoption. A similar adoption has occurred within the medical field and this revolution is changing the practice of medicine, including pathology. Several mobile applications have been published for dermatology, orthopedics, ophthalmology, neurosurgery, and clinical pathology. The applications are wide ranging, including mobile technology to increase patient engagement, self-monitoring by patients, clinical algorithm calculation, facilitation between experts to resource-poor environments. These advances have been received with mixed reviews. For anatomic pathology, mobile technology applications can be broken into 4 broad categories: (a) educational uses, (b) microscope with mobile phone, (c) mobile phone as microscope/acquisition device, and (d) miscellaneous. Using a mobile phone as an acquisition device paired with a microscope seems to be the most interesting current application because of the need for expert consultation with resource-poor environments. However, several emerging uses for mobile technology may become more prominent as the technology matures including image analysis, alternative light sources, and increased opportunities for clinician and patient engagement. The flexibility represented by mobile technology represents a burgeoning field in pathology informatics.

  19. Preface: Insect Pathology, 2nd ed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pathology is an essential component of entomology and provides a non-chemical alternative for insect pest management. There are several groups of organisms that can infect and kill insects including viruses, fungi, microsporidia, bacteria, protists, and nematodes. The dilemma in insect patho...

  20. [Pathological gambling: a clinical and therapeutic-evolutive study of a group of pathologic gamblers].

    PubMed

    Saiz Ruiz, J; Moreno Oliver, I; López-Ibor Aliño, J J

    1992-01-01

    Gambling dependence or pathological gambling is a psychiatric disorder, recognised as such by the North American Psychiatric Association since 1980. Since 1981 we are carrying out a treatment program for patients who suffer from pathological gambling at the Psychiatric Service of "Ramón y Cajal" Hospital. There is an individualized treatment for each patient and their inclusion in group therapy discussions. We present a descriptive study of the most representative socio-demographic, clinical and therapeutic-evolutive data of 46 patients following treatment in our program. All fulfill the diagnostic criteria of DSM III-R for pathological gambling. They were 37 males and 9 females, with an average age of 39 years. More than half of the patients (58%) were consumers of alcoholic beverages; the drug consumption index found was 4% and practically they all were smokers (87%). The excessive drinking and pathological gambling incidence found among family were 35% and 20% respectively. Our therapeutic results support the idea that pathological gambling is a treatable disorder. After an average of two years following treatment 46% of our patients stopped or notably reduced its impulse to gamble. The high incidence of alcohol or drugs consumption among pathological gamblers and their families suggest a biological and psychological relationship between pathological gambling and the classical addictive disorders.

  1. Reactive microglia drive tau pathology and contribute to the spreading of pathological tau in the brain.

    PubMed

    Maphis, Nicole; Xu, Guixiang; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N; Jiang, Shanya; Cardona, Astrid; Ransohoff, Richard M; Lamb, Bruce T; Bhaskar, Kiran

    2015-06-01

    Pathological aggregation of tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies. We have previously shown that the deficiency of the microglial fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) led to the acceleration of tau pathology and memory impairment in an hTau mouse model of tauopathy. Here, we show that microglia drive tau pathology in a cell-autonomous manner. First, tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation occur as early as 2 months of age in hTauCx3cr1(-/-) mice. Second, CD45(+) microglial activation correlates with the spatial memory deficit and spread of tau pathology in the anatomically connected regions of the hippocampus. Third, adoptive transfer of purified microglia derived from hTauCx3cr1(-/-) mice induces tau hyperphosphorylation within the brains of non-transgenic recipient mice. Finally, inclusion of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (Kineret®) in the adoptive transfer inoculum significantly reduces microglia-induced tau pathology. Together, our results suggest that reactive microglia are sufficient to drive tau pathology and correlate with the spread of pathological tau in the brain.

  2. Surgical pathology and the patient: a systematic review evaluating the primary audience of pathology reports.

    PubMed

    Mossanen, Matthew; True, Lawrence D; Wright, Jonathan L; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Lavallee, Danielle; Gore, John L

    2014-11-01

    The pathology report is a critical document that helps guide the management of patients with cancer. More and more patients read their reports, intending to participate in decisions about their care. However, a substantial subset of patients may lack the ability to comprehend this often technical and complex document. We hypothesized that most literature on pathology reports discusses reports from the perspective of other physicians and not from the perspective of patients. An expert panel of physicians developed a list of search criteria, which we used to identify articles on PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Reviews, and Google Scholar databases. Two reviewers independently evaluated all articles to identify for detailed review those that met search criteria. We identified the primary audience of the selected articles and the degree to which these articles addressed clarity of communication of pathology reports with patients. Of 801 articles identified in our search, 25 involved the formatting of pathology reports for clarity of communication. Recurrent themes in proposed improvements in reports included content standardization, variation in terminology, clarity of communication, and quality improvement. No articles discussed patients as their target audience. No study evaluated the health literacy level required of patients to comprehend pathology reports. In summary, there is a scarcity of patient-centered approaches to improve pathology reports. The literature on pathology reports does not include patients as a target audience. Limited resources are available to help patients comprehend their reports. Efforts to improve patient-centered communication are desirable to address this overlooked aspect of patient care.

  3. Pathological α-synuclein Distribution in Subjects with Coincident Alzheimer’s and Lewy Body Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Jon B.; Gopal, Pallavi; Raible, Kevin; Irwin, David J.; Brettschneider, Johannes; Sedor, Samantha; Watts, Kayla; Boluda, Susana; Grossman, Murray; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Lee, Edward B.; Arnold, Steven E.; Duda, John E.; Hurtig, Howard; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Adler, Charles H.; Beach, Thomas G.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the distribution patterns of Lewy body related pathology (LRP) and the effect of coincident Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology using a data-driven clustering approach that identified groups with different LRP pathology distributions without any diagnostic or researcher’s input in two cohorts including: Parkinson disease patients without (PD, n=141) and with AD (PD-AD, n=80), dementia with Lewy bodies subjects without AD (DLB, n=13) and demented subjects with AD and LRP pathology (Dem-AD-LB, n=308). This latter group presented two LRP patterns, olfactory-amygdala and limbic LRP with negligible brainstem pathology, that were absent in the PD groups, are not currently included in the DLB staging system and lacked extracranial LRP as opposed to the PD group. The Dem-AD-LB individuals showed relative preservation of substantia nigra cells and dopamine active transporter in putamen. PD cases with AD pathology showed increased LRP. The cluster with occipital LRP was associated with non-AD type dementia clinical diagnosis in the Dem-AD-LB group and a faster progression to dementia in the PD groups. We found that 1) LRP pathology in Dem-AD-LB shows a distribution that differs from PD, without significant brainstem or extracranial LRP in initial phases, 2) coincident AD pathology is associated with increased LRP in PD indicating an interaction, 3) LRP and coincident AD pathology independently predict progression to dementia in PD, and 4) evaluation of LRP needs to acknowledge different LRP spreading patterns and evaluate substantia nigra integrity in the neuropathological assessment and consider the implications of neuropathological heterogeneity for clinical and biomarker characterization. PMID:26721587

  4. [Psychosomatic and mental pathology as essential and interrelated parts of general human pathology].

    PubMed

    Khitrov, N K; Saltykov, A B

    2003-01-01

    The authors suggest extending the list of conventionally studied general pathological processes with psychosomatic and mental variants of pathology. These variants are relatively new in respect to evolution, are characteristic only for man and, in much lesser degree, for higher animals and have gained recognition in the last 50-100 years by defining the modern specificity of the nosological principle in medicine. The analysis of psychosomatic and psychic aspects of diseases may be of key importance for further development of general human pathology as a science.

  5. The Modified POSAS: A Novel Approach to Defining Pathologic and Non-Pathologic Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Fearmonti, Regina; Bond, Jennifer; Erdmann, Detlev; Levin, L. Scott; Pizzo, Salvatore V; Levinson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Background Scarring is a highly prevalent and multifactorial process, yet no studies to date have attempted to distinguish pathologic from non-pathologic scarring. Methods This article defines and proposes methods of classifying pathologic scarring as it pertains to clinical presentation. Results We propose a new scar scale that incorporates pain and functional impairment. Conclusion The modified POSAS scar assessment scale is the first of its kind to factor in the functional deficits, pain and pruritus of scarring into measurements of associated morbidity. This has great potential in evaluating patient response to treatment and analyzing clinical outcomes. PMID:21200219

  6. Teachers and Their Use of Educational Technology. Report of a Regional Training Workshop (Seoul, South Korea, September 16-27, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The workshop described in this report focused on uses of educational technology in the training and upgrading of teachers and on promoting the use of appropriate educational technology techniques by teachers. Experiences in the use of educational technology are described for each of the participating nations, i.e., Bangladesh, India, Indonesia,…

  7. Correlations Between the Incidence of National Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Public Open Data, Including Meteorological Factors and Medical Facility Resources

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jin-Hwa; Lee, Ji-Hae; Je, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Myeong-Ji; Bae, Young Mee; Son, Hyeon Seok; Ahn, Insung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the incidence of national notifiable infectious diseases (NNIDs) and meteorological factors, air pollution levels, and hospital resources in Korea. Methods: We collected and stored 660 000 pieces of publicly available data associated with infectious diseases from public data portals and the Diseases Web Statistics System of Korea. We analyzed correlations between the monthly incidence of these diseases and monthly average temperatures and monthly average relative humidity, as well as vaccination rates, number of hospitals, and number of hospital beds by district in Seoul. Results: Of the 34 NNIDs, malaria showed the most significant correlation with temperature (r=0.949, p<0.01) and concentration of nitrogen dioxide (r=-0.884, p<0.01). We also found a strong correlation between the incidence of NNIDs and the number of hospital beds in 25 districts in Seoul (r=0.606, p<0.01). In particular, Geumcheon-gu was found to have the lowest incidence rate of NNIDs and the highest number of hospital beds per patient. Conclusions: In this study, we conducted a correlational analysis of public data from Korean government portals that can be used as parameters to forecast the spread of outbreaks. PMID:26265666

  8. [The psychologist and adults: pathology and pseudo-pathology in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, M; Bianchi Di Castelbianco, F

    2002-12-01

    The difficulty an adult has in identifyng a pathology and distinguishing it from a pseudo-pathology in adolescence, is examined. Adults have the task of determining the uneasiness of the adolescent but very often they are conditioned by their own point of view. Moreover, it can often happen that parents consider a strange behaviour as pathologic symptoms and adolescents who have a good progress at school are not considered as problematic subjects, even if the present a withdrawal attitude both at home and outside. Pseudo-pathology today is presented as a confusion in educational styles, a lack of boundaries and roles, individual struggles for power which can even threaten the role of the therapeutist if the latter is not able to mediate between the past and the present both on a deep emotional level and in the review of theories and diagnostic pictures.

  9. Delivering a pathology curriculum in an integrated medical course.

    PubMed

    Carr, Norman J; Olmos, Martin; Bushnell, John

    2008-10-01

    Modern integrated medical curricula usually do not include a separate pathology course. Consequently, there is a risk that important pathological principles may be omitted. We aimed to ensure that pathology is properly represented by developing a core pathology curriculum created in consultation with local pathologists. Appropriate information technology to track the delivery of this material within the integrated curriculum structure was developed using a learning content management system in which a metadata schema was constructed. This allows a sophisticated view of where and how pathology appears in the course and can also increase the visibility of the subject by demonstrating the central place of pathology in medicine. In conclusion, a core curriculum in pathology that can be tracked by information technology with sufficient power and flexibility is a solution to the potential loss of pathology from integrated medical courses. We believe the result is superior to a stand-alone pathology course.

  10. A method for normalizing pathology images to improve feature extraction for quantitative pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, Allison; Barker, Jocelyn; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: With the advent of digital slide scanning technologies and the potential proliferation of large repositories of digital pathology images, many research studies can leverage these data for biomedical discovery and to develop clinical applications. However, quantitative analysis of digital pathology images is impeded by batch effects generated by varied staining protocols and staining conditions of pathological slides. Methods: To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel, fully automated stain normalization method to reduce batch effects and thus aid research in digital pathology applications. Their method, intensity centering and histogram equalization (ICHE), normalizes a diverse set of pathology images by first scaling the centroids of the intensity histograms to a common point and then applying a modified version of contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization. Normalization was performed on two datasets of digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides of different tissue slices from the same lung tumor, and one immunohistochemistry dataset of digitized slides created by restaining one of the H&E datasets. Results: The ICHE method was evaluated based on image intensity values, quantitative features, and the effect on downstream applications, such as a computer aided diagnosis. For comparison, three methods from the literature were reimplemented and evaluated using the same criteria. The authors found that ICHE not only improved performance compared with un-normalized images, but in most cases showed improvement compared with previous methods for correcting batch effects in the literature. Conclusions: ICHE may be a useful preprocessing step a digital pathology image processing pipeline.

  11. Pathological overproduction: the bad side of adenosine.

    PubMed

    Borea, Pier Andrea; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Varani, Katia

    2017-03-02

    Adenosine is an endogenous ubiquitous purine nucleoside, which is increased by hypoxia, ischaemia and tissue damage and mediates a number of physiopathological effects by interacting with four GPCRs, identified as A1 , A2A , A2B and A3 . Physiological and acutely increased adenosine is mostly associated with beneficial effects that include vasodilatation and a decrease in inflammation. In contrast, chronic overproduction of adenosine occurs in important pathological states, where long-lasting increases in the nucleoside levels are responsible for the bad side of adenosine associated with chronic inflammation, fibrosis and organ damage. In this review, we describe and critically discuss the pathological overproduction of adenosine and analyse when, where and how adenosine exerts its detrimental effects throughout the body.

  12. The historical background to aerospace pathology.

    PubMed

    Hill, I R

    1982-01-01

    The Joint Committee on Aviation Pathology was born on 14 Nov., 1955. Its formation coincided with the advent of jet-powered commercial air transport, a step recognised by aviators and governments as being of tremendous significance in that it implied a considerable technological advance. Since then, supersonic air transport has become possible and man has walked upon the moon. Although aerospace pathology-which led the way to accident/injury research- has contributed greatly to the very much improved safety record of aviation, it is obvious that additional work is required. A closer relationship between research and development of future aircraft and pathologists is necessary if further inroads are to be made.

  13. Pathological changes in anabolic androgenic steroid users.

    PubMed

    Lusetti, Monia; Licata, Manuela; Silingardi, Enrico; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Palmiere, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Several classes of recreational and prescription drugs have additional effects on the heart and vasculature, which may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in chronic users. The study presented herein focuses on pathological changes involving the heart possibly due to anabolic androgenic steroid use. The role these hormones may play in their occurrence of sudden cardiac death is also investigated. 98 medico-legal cases including 6 anabolic androgenic steroid users were retrospectively reviewed. Autopsies, histology, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry and toxicology were performed in all cases. Pathological changes consisted of various degrees of interstitial and perivascular fibrosis as well as fibroadipous metaplasia and perineural fibrosis within the myocardium of the left ventricle. Within the limits of the small number of investigated cases, our results appear to confirm former observations on this topic and suggest anabolic androgenic steroid's potential causative role in the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac deaths in chronic users.

  14. Gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology in chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Charles H.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2014-01-01

    Some patients with chronic constipation may undergo colectomy yielding tissue appropriate to diagnosis of underlying neuromuscular pathology. The analysis of such tissue has, over the past 40 years, fuelled research that has explored the presence of neuropathy, myopathy and more recently changes in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). In this chapter, the data from these studies have been critically reviewed in the context of the significant methodological and interpretative issues that beset the field of gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology. On this basis, reductions in ICC appear to a consistent finding but one whose role as a primary cause of slow transit constipation requires further evaluation. Findings indicative of significant neuropathy or myopathy are variable and in many studies subject to considerable methodological bias. Methods with practical diagnostic utility in the individual patient have rarely been employed and require further validation in respect of normative data. PMID:21382578

  15. Wildfire risk as a socioecological pathology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, A. Paige; Spies, Thomas A; Steelman, Toddi A; Moseley, Cassandra; Johnson, Bart R.; Bailey, John D.; Ager, Alan A; Bourgeron, Patrick S.; Charnley, Susan; Collins, Brandon M.; Kline, Jeffrey D; Leahy, Jessica E; Littell, Jeremy; Millington, James D. A.; Nielsen-Pincus, Max; Olsen, Christine S; Paveglio, Travis B; Roos, Christopher I.; Steen-Adams, Michelle M; Stevens, Forrest R; Vukomanovic, Jelena; White, Eric M; Bowman, David M J S

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire risk in temperate forests has become a nearly intractable problem that can be characterized as a socioecological “pathology”: that is, a set of complex and problematic interactions among social and ecological systems across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Assessments of wildfire risk could benefit from recognizing and accounting for these interactions in terms of socioecological systems, also known as coupled natural and human systems (CNHS). We characterize the primary social and ecological dimensions of the wildfire risk pathology, paying particular attention to the governance system around wildfire risk, and suggest strategies to mitigate the pathology through innovative planning approaches, analytical tools, and policies. We caution that even with a clear understanding of the problem and possible solutions, the system by which human actors govern fire-prone forests may evolve incrementally in imperfect ways and can be expected to resist change even as we learn better ways to manage CNHS.

  16. [Molecular Pathological Aspects in Visceral Surgery].

    PubMed

    Unger, T; Sändig, I; Wittekind, C

    2016-04-01

    New insights gained in the field of molecular medicine have led to fundamental progress in the diagnosis and treatment of tumour patients. Individualised treatment has been essentially facilitated by molecular diagnostics, which, by identifying and interpreting characteristic genetic alterations (biomarkers) in single cells and tissues, provide specific information to confirm the diagnosis and support the treatment of numerous diseases. Particularly with regard to the use of new targeted drugs, which often require the presence or absence of specific target structures or genetic alterations to induce response, the molecular pathological determination of predictive biomarkers plays an increasing role and helps clinicians to decide on optimal therapies for individual patients. The aim of this review is to highlight general aspects of molecular tumour pathology for relevant tumour entities and to present available targeted therapies.

  17. Functions of Autophagy in Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenhua; Wang, Jian; Yang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is the response of heart to various biomechanical and physiopathological stimuli, such as aging, myocardial ischemia and hypertension. However, a long-term exposure to the stress makes heart progress to heart failure. Autophagy is a dynamic self-degradative process necessary for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Accumulating evidence has revealed a tight link between cardiomyocyte autophagy and cardiac hypertrophy. Sophisticatedly regulated autophagy protects heart from various physiological and pathological stimuli by degradating and recycling of protein aggregates, lipid drops, or organelles. Here we review the recent progresses concerning the functions of autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy induced by various hypertrophic stimuli. Moreover, the therapeutic strategies targeting autophagy for cardiac hypertrophy will also be discussed. PMID:25999790

  18. A survey of equine oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Anthony, James; Waldner, Cheryl; Grier, Candace; Laycock, Amanda R

    2010-01-01

    Dental abnormalities in horses can lead to weight-loss, poor performance, pain, behavioral abnormalities, and illness. Despite this impact, the occurrence and type of dental disease in horse populations is infrequently reported in veterinary medicine. The purpose of this cross-sectional survey of horses presented for slaughter at a processing plant in Western Canada was to measure the prevalence of equine oral abnormalities, examine associations between the most common abnormalities, and consider the relationship between the age of horse and types of abnormalities observed. The horses used in this research consisted of a variety of ages, breeds, body conditions, and origins. Horses ranged in age from 18-months to 30-years (median = 11-years). The most common oral pathologies included sharp edges, buccal abrasions, calculus, lingual ulcers, gingival recession, periodontal pockets, ramps, and waves. Several types of pathology were strongly associated with other dental disorders. The prevalence of periodontal pockets, gingival recession, and waves was highest in older horses.

  19. Multispectral image segmentation of breast pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornak, Joseph P.; Blaakman, Andre; Rubens, Deborah; Totterman, Saara

    1991-06-01

    The signal intensity in a magnetic resonance image is not only a function of imaging parameters but also of several intrinsic tissue properties. Therefore, unlike other medical imaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows the imaging scientist to locate pathology using multispectral image segmentation. Multispectral image segmentation works best when orthogonal spectral regions are employed. In MRI, possible spectral regions are spin density (rho) , spin-lattice relaxation time T1, spin-spin relaxation time T2, and texture for each nucleus type and chemical shift. This study examines the ability of multispectral image segmentation to locate breast pathology using the total hydrogen T1, T2, and (rho) . The preliminary results indicate that our technique can locate cysts and fibroadenoma breast lesions with a minimum number of false-positives and false-negatives. Results, T1, T2, and (rho) algorithms, and segmentation techniques are presented.

  20. Matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Simona Roxana; Crăciun, Alexandra Mărioara

    2016-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein is a vitamin K-dependent protein secreted by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The presence of matrix Gla protein was reported in arterial and venous walls, lungs, kidney, uterus, heart, tooth cementum and eyes. Several studies identified matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology. Until recently, it was thought to only have an inhibitory role of physiological and ectopic calcification. New studies demonstrated that it also has a role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis, as well as in tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to report the latest findings related to the expression and clinical implications of matrix Gla protein in different types of cancer with an emphasis on cerebral tumors.

  1. [Eosinophilic esophagitis, a pathology on the rise].

    PubMed

    Miranda García, M; Gutiérrez Teira, B

    2013-10-01

    The eosinophilic esofagitis is a pathology that consists of an inflammatory condition of the esophagus, which is characterized for having a high percentage of eosinophils. It is a problem of allergic origin and his diagnosis is increasing in the population, especially in children and adult young persons, throughout last decade. The fisiopathology is not completely established nowadays. The diagnosis is confirmed with endoscopia and capture of biopsies. The differential diagnosis is necessary to be done with the disease for reflux gastroesofágico, gastroenteritis eosinofílica, by Crohn's disease, pathology of connective fabric, syndrome hipereosinofílico, infections and response of hypersensitivity to medicaments. Nowadays there is no a treatment that is definitive. We present a clinical case, which was valued initially for the consultation of Primary care.

  2. Towards a functional pathology of hereditary neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Weis, Joachim; Claeys, Kristl G; Roos, Andreas; Azzedine, Hamid; Katona, Istvan; Schröder, J Michael; Senderek, Jan

    2017-04-01

    A growing number of hereditary neuropathies have been assigned to causative gene defects in recent years. The study of human nerve biopsy samples has contributed substantially to the discovery of many of these neuropathy genes. Genotype-phenotype correlations based on peripheral nerve pathology have provided a comprehensive picture of the consequences of these mutations. Intriguingly, several gene defects lead to distinguishable lesion patterns that can be studied in nerve biopsies. These characteristic features include the loss of certain nerve fiber populations and a large spectrum of distinct structural changes of axons, Schwann cells and other components of peripheral nerves. In several instances the lesion patterns are directly or indirectly linked to the known functions of the mutated gene. The present review is designed to provide an overview on these characteristic patterns. It also considers other aspects important for the manifestation and pathology of hereditary neuropathies including the role of inflammation, effects of chemotherapeutic agents and alterations detectable in skin biopsies.

  3. Multidetector CT of hepatic artery pathologies.

    PubMed

    Karaosmanoglu, D; Erol, B; Karcaaltincaba, M

    2012-01-01

    The hepatic artery can be involved by a variety of pathology and diseases.Today MDCT enables high quality imaging of the hepatic artery using axial, MIP and volume rendered images. We illustrate MDCT findings of anatomical variations, aneurysm, dilatation, dissection, arteriovenous fistula, thrombosis and stenosis. Aneurysms can be saccular, fusiform and multiple and may develop due to atherosclerosis, vasculitis, trauma and biopsy. Dilatation of hepatic artery can be seen in portal hypertension, Osler-Weber-Rendu disease and hemangiomatosis. Hepatic artery can be occluded after trauma and transplantation. Dissection develops due to atherosclerosis, Marfan and Ehler Danlos syndromes and during pregnancy. Arteriovenous fistula can be congenital and acquired. We conclude that various hepatic artery pathologies can be confidently diagnosed by MDCT.

  4. White Matter Glial Pathology in Autism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    The majority of total nuclear-encoded non-ribosomal RNA in a human cell is “ dark matter ” un-annotated RNA. BMC Biol. 8, 149 (2010). 9. Ginsberg, S...DATE September 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Sep 2013 - 31 Aug 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE White Matter Glial Pathology in...stages of preparation due to poor sample quality factors such as low RIN or insufficient sequencing reads. Superficial white matter was laser

  5. Astrocytic TDP-43 pathology in Alexander disease.

    PubMed

    Walker, Adam K; Daniels, Christine M LaPash; Goldman, James E; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Messing, Albee

    2014-05-07

    Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the presence of eosinophilic inclusions known as Rosenthal fibers (RFs) within astrocytes, and is caused by dominant mutations in the coding region of the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP is the major astrocytic intermediate filament, and in AxD patient brain tissue GFAP is a major component of RFs. TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is the major pathological protein in almost all cases of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ∼50% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), designated as FTLD-TDP. In ALS and FTLD-TDP, TDP-43 becomes insoluble, ubiquitinated, and pathologically phosphorylated and accumulates in cytoplasmic inclusions in both neurons and glia of affected brain and spinal cord regions. Previously, TDP-43 was detected in RFs of human pilocytic astrocytomas; however, involvement of TDP-43 in AxD has not been determined. Here we show that TDP-43 is present in RFs in AxD patient brains, and that insoluble phosphorylated full-length and high molecular weight TDP-43 accumulates in white matter of such brains. Phosphorylated TDP-43 also accumulates in the detergent-insoluble fraction from affected brain regions of Gfap(R236H/+) knock-in mice, which harbor a GFAP mutation homologous to one that causes AxD in humans, and TDP-43 colocalizes with astrocytic RF pathology in Gfap(R236H/+) mice and transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type GFAP. These findings suggest common pathogenic mechanisms in ALS, FTLD, and AxD, and this is the first report of TDP-43 involvement in a neurological disorder primarily affecting astrocytes.

  6. The role of Alzheimer’s and cerebrovascular pathology in mediating the effects of age, race, and apolipoprotein E genotype on dementia severity in pathologically confirmed Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Gavett, Brandon E.; John, Samantha E.; Gurnani, Ashita S.; Bussell, Cara A.; Saurman, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dementia severity can be modeled as the construct δ, representing the “cognitive correlates of functional status.” Objective We recently validated a model for estimating δ in the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center’s Uniform Data Set; however, δ’s association with neuropathology remains untested. Methods We used data from 727 decedents evaluated at Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) Centers nationwide. Participants spoke English, had no genetic abnormalities, and were pathologically diagnosed with AD as a primary or contributing etiology. Clinical data from participants’ last visit prior to death were used to estimate dementia severity (δ). Results A structural equation model using age, education, race, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype (number of ε2 and ε4 alleles) as predictors and latent AD pathology and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) pathology as mediators fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.031; CFI = .957). AD pathology mediated the effects of age and APOE genotype on dementia severity. An older age at death and more ε2 alleles were associated with less AD pathology and, in turn, with less severe dementia. In contrast, more ε4 alleles were associated with more pathology and more severe dementia. Although age and race contributed to differences in CVD pathology, CVD pathology was not related to dementia severity in this sample of decedents with pathologically confirmed AD. Conclusions Using δ as an estimate of dementia severity fits well within a structural model in which AD pathology directly affects dementia severity and mediates the relationship between age and APOE genotype on dementia severity. PMID:26444761

  7. A perspective on digital and computational pathology

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthy, Bhagavathi; Coffman, Frederick D.; Cohen, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    The digitization of images has not only led to increasingly sophisticated methods of quantitating information from those images themselves, but also to the development of new physics-based techniques for extracting information from the original specimen and presenting this as visual data in both two and three-dimensional (3D) forms. This evolution of an image-based discipline has reached maturity in Radiology, but it is only just beginning in Pathology. An historical perspective is provided both on the current state of computational imaging in pathology and of the factors that are impeding further progress in the development and application of these approaches. Emphasis is placed on barriers to the dissemination of information in this area. The value of computational imaging in basic and translational research is clear. However, while there are many examples of “virtual diagnostics” in Radiology, there are only relatively few in Pathology. Nevertheless, we can do cellular level analysis of lesions accessible by endoscopic or catheterization procedures, and a number of steps have been taken toward real-time imaging as adjuncts to traditional biopsies. Progress in computational imaging will greatly expand the role of pathologists in clinical medicine as well as research. PMID:26110096

  8. [Pathology of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease].

    PubMed

    Oka, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Although genetic testing is available, nerve biopsy is useful in selected patients for the diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). These are sporadic cases of hereditary neuropathy, or familial cases in which genetic testing is negative. CMT is caused by mutations of various genes. The pathological features of CMT have mostly been investigated using nerve biopsy, which may shed light on the presumed functions of mutated gene products. PMP22 duplication in CMT1A induces numerous large onion bulb lesions (OB). Compared to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, the differential features of CMT1A are patchy distribution of OB and non-inflammatory lesions. CMT1B also manifests as OB, but presents abnormal compaction of myelin sheaths caused by uncompacted myelin or excessive myelin folding. CMT2 includes axonal neuropathies and many causative genes have been found. CMT2A (MFN2 mutation) shows abnormal mitochondria with a spherical morphology instead of tubular in the longitudinal direction. CMT4 consists of autosomal recessive forms with demyelinating pathology. Most subtypes have mutations of genes relating to myelin maintenance, and pathologically, they show abnormal folding of the myelin structure.

  9. [Comparative pathology of the microcirculatory bed].

    PubMed

    Strukov, A I; Vorob'eva, A A

    1976-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of publications, mostly by Soviet authores, on clinical studies and morphological examinations of the microcirculatory bed in different pathology. It is concluded that the microcirculatory bed should be regarded as an integral system responding to the pathological effects by a local and general reaction of its structural components and by changing the rheological properties of blood. Two types of changes develop in the microcirculatory system -- sterotyped ones, typical for extreme states (various kinds of shock, hypertensive crisis, stress situations), and those specific for certain diseases (diabetes melitus, essential hypertension, athersclerosis, collagenoses, etc.). In all the above diseases the pathological process affects the functional structures of microcirculation that undergo a rearrangement in accordance with the requirements of the body. In the initial period of the disease this re-arrangement is of a compensatory nature and passes ahead of the clinical manifestations. A comparison of the pictutrs obtained by biomicroscopy of the bulbconjunctiva of the eye and of other mucosae with film preparations of the serosae demonstrates their complete similarity. Therefore, the method of biomicroscopy of the eyeball and of the mucosae as a method reflecting the state of microcirculation in the body as a whole should become an integral part of the clinical examination of patients.

  10. Neuroanatomy and pathology of sporadic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Braak, Heiko; Del Tredici, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    The proteinopathy sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD) is the second most frequent degenerative disorder of the human nervous system after Alzheimer's disease. The alpha-synuclein inclusion body pathology (Lewy pathology) associated with sPD is distributed throughout the central, peripheral, and enteric nervous systems. The resulting nonrandom neuronal dysfunction and, in some regions, neuronal loss is reflected in a topographic distribution pattern of the Lewy pathology that, in the brain, can be staged. Except for olfactory structures and spinal cord constituents of the pain system, sensory components of the nervous system remain uninvolved or virtually intact. The most disease-related damage revolves around motor areas--particularly around superordinate centers of the limbic and visceromotor systems as well as portions of the somatomotor system. Vulnerable regions are interconnected anatomically and susceptible nerve cell types are not neurotransmitter-dependent. Not all clinical symptoms emerging in the course of sPD can be explained by a lack of dopamine in the nigrostriatal system. These include autonomic dysfunction, pain, hyposmia or anosmia, excessive daytime sleepiness, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavioral disorder, depression, anxiety, cognitive decline, and dementia. Against the background of the normal morphology and anatomy, the authors analyze the pathoanatomy of sPD in the nervous system at various neuropathological stages and summarize the potential functional consequences of the lesions.

  11. Hypertext atlas of fetal and neonatal pathology.

    PubMed

    Jezová, Marta; Múcková, Katarína; Soucek, Ondrej; Feit, Josef; Vlasín, Pavel

    2008-07-15

    Hypertext atlas of fetal and neonatal pathology is a free resource for pregraduate students of medicine, pathologists and other health professionals dealing with prenatal medicine. The atlas can be found at http://www.muni.cz/atlases. The access is restricted to registered users. Concise texts summarize the gross and microscopic pathology, etiology, and clinical signs of both common and rare fetal and neonatal conditions. The texts are illustrated with over 300 images that are accompanied by short comments. The atlas offers histological pictures of high quality. Virtual microscope interface is used to access the high-resolution histological images. Fetal ultrasound video clips are included. Case studies integrate clinical history, prenatal ultrasonographic examination, gross pathology and histological features. The atlas is available in English (and Czech) and equipped with an active index. The atlas is suitable both for medical students and pathologists as a teaching and reference tool. The atlas is going to be further expanded while keeping the high quality of the images.

  12. Unexpected cellular players in Rett syndrome pathology.

    PubMed

    Cronk, James C; Derecki, Noel C; Litvak, Vladimir; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Rett syndrome is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder, primarily caused by mutations of methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Although the genetic cause of disease was identified over a decade ago, a significant gap still remains in both our clinical and scientific understanding of its pathogenesis. Neurons are known to be primary players in pathology, with their dysfunction being the key in Rett syndrome. While studies in mice have demonstrated a clear causative - and potential therapeutic - role for neurons in Rett syndrome, recent work has suggested that other tissues also contribute significantly to progression of the disease. Indeed, Rett syndrome is known to present with several common peripheral pathologies, such as osteopenia, scoliosis, gastrointestinal problems including nutritional defects, and general growth deficit. Mouse models assessing the potential role of non-neuronal cell types have confirmed both roles in disease and potential therapeutic targets. A new picture is emerging in which neurons both initiate and drive pathology, while dysfunction of other cell types and peripheral tissues exacerbate disease, possibly amplifying further neurologic problems, and ultimately result in a positive feedback loop of progressively worsening symptoms. Here, we review what is known about neuronal and non-neuronal cell types, and discuss how this new, integrative understanding of the disease may allow for additional clinical and scientific pathways for treating and understanding Rett syndrome.

  13. Metabolic Shifts during Aging and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yina; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The heart is a very special organ in the body and has a high requirement for metabolism due to its constant workload. As a consequence, to provide a consistent and sufficient energy a high steady-state demand of metabolism is required by the heart. When delicately balanced mechanisms are changed by physiological or pathophysiological conditions, the whole system’s homeostasis will be altered to a new balance, which contributes to the pathologic process. So it is no wonder that almost every heart disease is related to metabolic shift. Furthermore, aging is also found to be related to the reduction in mitochondrial function, insulin resistance, and dysregulated intracellular lipid metabolism. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as an energy sensor to detect intracellular ATP/AMP ratio and plays a pivotal role in intracellular adaptation to energy stress. During different pathology (like myocardial ischemia and hypertension), the activation of cardiac AMPK appears to be essential for repairing cardiomyocyte’s function by accelerating ATP generation, attenuating ATP depletion, and protecting the myocardium against cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis. In this overview, we will talk about the normal heart’s metabolism, how metabolic shifts during aging and different pathologies, and how AMPK regulates metabolic changes during these conditions. PMID:25880509

  14. Sensorineural Tinnitus: Its Pathology and Probable Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Aage R.

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is not a single disease but a group of different diseases with different pathologies and therefore different treatments. Regarding tinnitus as a single disease is hampering progress in understanding of the pathophysiology of tinnitus and perhaps, more importantly, it is a serious obstacle in development of effective treatments for tinnitus. Subjective tinnitus is a phantom sound that takes many different forms and has similarities with chronic neuropathic pain. The pathology may be in the cochlea, in the auditory nerve, or, most commonly, in the brain. Like chronic neuropathic pain tinnitus is not life threatening but influences many normal functions such as sleep and the ability to concentrate on work. Some forms of chronic tinnitus have two components, a (phantom) sound and a component that may best be described as suffering or distress. The pathology of these two components may be different and the treatment that is most effective may be different for these two components. The most common form of treatment of tinnitus is pharmacological agents and behavioral treatment combined with sound therapy. Less common treatments are hypnosis and acupuncture. Various forms of neuromodulation are becoming in use in an attempt to reverse maladaptive plastic changes in the brain. PMID:26977153

  15. Photomatrix LED therapy of extensive cutaneous pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Zharova, I. Z.; Leviev, Dmitry O.; Tsarev, V. N.; Sarantsev, V. P.; Krusic, Joze

    2000-05-01

    Standard sources of radiation have not sufficient efficiency at treating spatially extended pathology, especially when pathologic areas involve opposite sides of the human being's body or when they are uneven in shape. The typical examples of such pathology are extensive burns, oedema, inflammatory processes, infectious wounds, actinic keratosis, psoriasis, arthritis and neurological diseases. Superbright LEDs gathered in a matrix and grasping the area of irradiation are the most suitable sources of radiation. This article presents the result of investigation of the effectiveness of various types of the blue-to-infrared spectrum range LED array that allow irradiating a surface with an area from several cm2 to several thousand cm2 including the whole human being's body with the intensity varying from 1 to 100 mW/cm2. Besides the matrixes, composed of separate light diodes, modular systems with separate monolithic hybrid chips with a high density of positioning the sources of radiation are considered. The peculiarities and results of applying such systems to treat oedema, cancer, weight regulation, neurological diseases, different infections diseases in combination with PDT, stomatitis and paradontosis are analyzed. The parameters of the photomatrix LED for different spectral regions and different geometry from flat shape to semispherical and cylindrical are presented. The perspective combination photomatrix LED with another therapeutical devices including photovacuum and photomagnetic therapy are considered.

  16. The genetics and pathology of mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Alston, Charlotte L; Rocha, Mariana C; Lax, Nichola Z; Turnbull, Doug M; Taylor, Robert W

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are double-membrane-bound organelles that are present in all nucleated eukaryotic cells and are responsible for the production of cellular energy in the form of ATP. Mitochondrial function is under dual genetic control - the 16.6-kb mitochondrial genome, with only 37 genes, and the nuclear genome, which encodes the remaining ∼1300 proteins of the mitoproteome. Mitochondrial dysfunction can arise because of defects in either mitochondrial DNA or nuclear mitochondrial genes, and can present in childhood or adulthood in association with vast clinical heterogeneity, with symptoms affecting a single organ or tissue, or multisystem involvement. There is no cure for mitochondrial disease for the vast majority of mitochondrial disease patients, and a genetic diagnosis is therefore crucial for genetic counselling and recurrence risk calculation, and can impact on the clinical management of affected patients. Next-generation sequencing strategies are proving pivotal in the discovery of new disease genes and the diagnosis of clinically affected patients; mutations in >250 genes have now been shown to cause mitochondrial disease, and the biochemical, histochemical, immunocytochemical and neuropathological characterization of these patients has led to improved diagnostic testing strategies and novel diagnostic techniques. This review focuses on the current genetic landscape associated with mitochondrial disease, before focusing on advances in studying associated mitochondrial pathology in two, clinically relevant organs - skeletal muscle and brain. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Talc pneumoconiosis: a pathologic and mineralogic study.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, A E; Pooley, F D; Griffiths, D M; Mitha, R; Craighead, J E; Ruttner, J R

    1992-12-01

    Seventeen cases of "talc pneumoconiosis" were examined pathologically and mineralogically to ascertain whether a true talc pneumoconiosis existed and also to compare these results in primary, secondary, and tertiary exposures. Mineralogic analyses were performed on wet tissue or tissue blocks by a variety of techniques, including analytical transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Overall, the pathologic appearance of the tissues was similar in primary, secondary, and tertiary exposures, although ferruginous bodies and foreign body giant cells were not always present in cases caused by secondary exposures. Mixed dust fibrotic lesions were found in two cases in which there were substantial quantities of quartz present. There was great variation in the minerals found within the lung tissues. Several cases showed significant quantities of mica and kaolin in addition to talc. One case consisted predominantly of mica and in fact could be regarded as "mica pneumoconiosis"; this diagnosis was correctly attributed because of the mineralogic findings. Tremolite fibers were found in only two cases. Substantial quantities of crocidolite and amosite fibers were found in one case. This study shows that "talcosis" frequently represents disease associated with a variety of minerals and that talc is a common denominator. It shows also the usefulness of lung dust mineral analysis, particularly in secondary industries, for evaluating the cause of a pathologic reaction when exposures are especially complex.

  18. Characterizing "Adversity" of Pathology Findings in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The identification of adverse health effects has a central role in the development and risk/safety assessment of chemical entities and pharmaceuticals. There is currently a need for better alignment in the toxicologic pathology community regarding how nonclinical adversity is determined and characterized. The European Society of Toxicologic Pathology (ESTP) therefore coordinated a workshop in June 2015 to review available definitions of adversity, weigh determining and qualifying factors of adversity based on case examples, and recommend a practical approach to define and characterize adversity in toxicology reports. The international group of expert pathologists and toxicologists emphasized that a holistic, weight-of-evidence, case-specific approach should be followed for each adversity assessment. It was recommended that nonclinical adversity should typically be determined at a morphological level (most often the organ) in the pathology report and should refer specifically to the test species. Final adversity calls, integration of target pharmacology/pathway information, and consideration of human translation should generally be made in toxicology overview reports. Differences in interpretation and implications of adversity calls between (agro)chemical and pharmaceutical industries and among world regions were highlighted. The results of this workshop should serve a valuable prerequisite for future organ- or lesion-specific workshops planned by the ESTP. This

  19. Biopsy-verified bronchiolitis obliterans and other noninfectious lung pathologies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Uhlving, Hilde Hylland; Andersen, Claus B; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Gormsen, Magdalena; Pedersen, Karen Damgaard; Buchvald, Frederik; Heilmann, Carsten; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Mortensen, Jann; Moser, Claus; Sengeløv, Henrik; Müller, Klaus Gottlob

    2015-03-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Lung biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis. This study describes the course of BO and assesses the congruity between biopsy-verified BO and a modified version of the National Institutes of Health's consensus criteria for BO syndrome (BOS) based exclusively on noninvasive measures. We included 44 patients transplanted between 2000 and 2010 who underwent lung biopsy for suspected BO. Of those, 23 were diagnosed with BO and 21 presented other noninfectious pulmonary pathologies, such as cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, diffuse alveolar damage, interstitial pneumonia, and nonspecific interstitial fibrosis. Compared with patients with other noninfectious pulmonary pathologies, BO patients had significantly lower values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity, and maximal mid-expiratory flow throughout follow-up, but there was no difference in the change in pulmonary function from the time of lung biopsy. The BO diagnosis was not associated with poorer overall survival. Fifty-two percent of patients with biopsy-verified BO and 24% of patients with other noninfectious pulmonary pathology fulfilled the BOS criteria. Pathological BO diagnosis was not superior to BOS criteria in predicting decrease in pulmonary function beyond the time of biopsy. A lung biopsy may provide a characterization of pathological patterns that can extend our knowledge on the pathophysiology of HSCT-related lung diseases.

  20. Neuropsychiatric symptom profile differs based on pathology in patients with clinically diagnosed behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Léger, Gabriel C; Banks, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is pathologically heterogeneous. With emerging therapeutics, determining underlying pathology during life is increasingly important. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are prevalent and diagnostic in bvFTD. Methods We assessed the neuropsychiatric profile in patients with clinically diagnosed bvFTD as a function of pathology at autopsy. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of bvFTD at initial visit were selected from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database. Neuropsychiatric symptoms endorsed on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire were analyzed. Results Of 149 patients with clinically diagnosed bvFTD, pathology was primarily Alzheimer's disease in 20.5%. These patients differed from those with underlying frontotemporal lobar degeneration: patients with AD pathology (plaques and tangles) were more likely to have hallucinations, delusions, or agitation. Patients were further differentiated into tau positive (30 % of cases, including Pick's disease, frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism with tau-positive, and other tauopathies) or tau-negative (70% of cases including bvFTD tau-negative ubiquitin-positive inclusions). These patients also differed in some of the neuropsychiatric symptoms seen. Tau-negative cases were more likely to demonstrate depression, delusions, and changes in appetite and eating. Conclusions These preliminary findings contribute to our increasing ability to predict, using simple clinical tools the neuropathological underpinnings of bvFTD during life. PMID:24135712

  1. An investigation of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia typhi, and Seoul hantavirus in rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada: is pathogen presence a reflection of global and local rat population structure?

    PubMed

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Wood, Heidi; DiBernardo, Antonia; Lindsay, Robbin; Bidulka, Julie; Tang, Patrick; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David

    2015-01-01

    Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are reservoirs for variety of zoonotic pathogens. Many of these pathogens, including Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., and Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), are thought to be endemic in rat populations worldwide; however, past field research has found these organisms to be absent in certain rat populations. Rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada, were tested for exposure to and/or infection with SEOV and R. typhi (using serology and PCR), as well as Bartonella spp. (using culture and sequencing). Approximately 25% of 404 rats tested were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, which demonstrated significant geographic clustering within the study area. Infection was associated with both season and sexual maturity. Seroreactivity against R. typhi and SEOV was observed in 0.36% and 1.45% of 553 rats tested, respectively, although PCR screening results for these pathogens were negative, suggesting that they are not endemic in the study population. Overall, these results suggest that the geographic distribution of rat-associated zoonoses, including R. typhi, SEOV, and Bartonella spp., is less ubiquitous than previously appreciated, and is likely dependent on patterns of dispersion and establishment of the rat reservoir host. Further study on global and local Rattus spp. population structures may help to elucidate the ecology of zoonotic organisms in these species.

  2. Alzheimer disease and cerebrovascular pathology: an update.

    PubMed

    Jellinger, K A

    2002-05-01

    Recent epidemiological and clinico-pathologic data suggest overlaps between Alzheimer disease (AD) and cerebrovascular lesions that may magnify the effect of mild AD pathology and promote progression of cognitive decline or even may precede neuronal damage and dementia. Vascular pathology in the aging brain and in AD includes: 1. cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) with an incidence of 82-98% often associated with ApoE epsilon 2 and causing a) cerebral mass hemorrhages (around 70%, mainly in the frontal and parietal lobes), b) multiple or recurrent microhemorrhages (15%), and c) ischemic (micro-)infarcts or lacunes (around 20%). The frequency of these lesions increases with the severity of CAA and shows no correlation with that of senile amyloid plaques. CAA, significantly more frequent in patients with cerebral hemorrhages or infarcts than in aged controls, is an important risk factor for cerebrovascular lesions in AD. 2. Microvascular changes with decreased density and structural abnormalities causing regional metabolic and blood-brain barrier dysfunctions with ensuing neuronal damage. In large autopsy series of demented aged subjects, around 80% show Alzheimer type pathology, 20-40% with additional, often minor vascular lesions, 7-10% "pure" vascular dementia, and 3-5% "mixed" dementia (combination of AD and vascular encephalopathy). AD cases with additional minor cerebrovascular lesions have significantly more frequent histories of hypertension or infarcts than "pure" AD patients. Vascular lesions in AD include cortical microinfarcts, subcortical lacunes, white matter lesions / leukoencephalopathy, small hemorrhages and corticosubcortical infarcts, while in mixed type dementia multiple larger or hemispheral infarcts are more frequent. Small infarcts in AD patients have no essential impact on global cognitive decline which mainly depends on the severity of Alzheimer pathology, but in early stage of AD they may influence and promote the development of dementia

  3. Guidelines for resident training in veterinary clinical pathology. III: cytopathology and surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Kidney, Beverly A; Dial, Sharon M; Christopher, Mary M

    2009-09-01

    The Education Committee of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology has identified a need for improved structure and guidance of training residents in clinical pathology. This article is the third in a series of articles that address this need. The goals of this article are to describe learning objectives and competencies in knowledge, abilities, and skills in cytopathology and surgical pathology (CSP); provide options and ideas for training activities; and identify resources in veterinary CSP for faculty, training program coordinators, and residents. Guidelines were developed in consultation with Education Committee members and peer experts and with evaluation of the literature. The primary objectives of training in CSP are: (1) to develop a thorough, extensive, and relevant knowledge base of biomedical and clinical sciences applicable to the practice of CSP in domestic animals, laboratory animals, and other nondomestic animal species; (2) to be able to reason, think critically, investigate, use scientific evidence, and communicate effectively when making diagnoses and consulting and to improve and advance the practice of pathology; and (3) to acquire selected technical skills used in CSP and pathology laboratory management. These guidelines define expected competencies that will help ensure proficiency, leadership, and the advancement of knowledge in veterinary CSP and will provide a useful framework for didactic and clinical activities in resident-training programs.

  4. The Rise of Forensic Pathology in Human Medicine: Lessons for Veterinary Forensic Pathology.

    PubMed

    Pollanen, M S

    2016-09-01

    The rise of forensic pathology in human medicine has greatly contributed to the administration of justice, public safety and security, and medical knowledge. However, the evolution of human forensic pathology has been challenging. Veterinary forensic pathologists can learn from some of the lessons that have informed the growth and development of human forensic pathology. Three main observations have emerged in the past decade. First, wrongful convictions tell us to use a truth-seeking stance rather than an a priori "think dirty" stance when investigating obscure death. Second, missed homicides and concealed homicides tell us that training and certification are the beginning of reliable forensic pathology. Third, failure of a sustainable institutional arrangement that fosters a combination of service, research, and teaching will lead to stagnation of knowledge. Forensic pathology of humans and animals will flourish, help protect society, and support justice if we embrace a modern biomedical scientific model for our practice. We must build training programs, contribute to the published literature, and forge strong collaborative institutions.

  5. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…

  6. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493....1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493....1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493....1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493....1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493....1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  11. Instrumental Dimensioning of Normal and Pathological Phonation Using Acoustic Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putzer, Manfred; Barry, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the dimensions of normal and pathological phonation. Separation of normal voices from pathological voices is tested under different aspects. Using a new parametrization of voice-quality properties in the acoustic signal, the vowel productions of 534 speakers (267 M, 267 F) without any reported voice pathology and the…

  12. Clowns Benefit Children Hospitalized for Respiratory Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Bertini, Mario; Isola, Elena; Paolone, Giuseppe; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The study aims at evaluating health-generating function of humor therapy in a hospital ward hosting children suffering from respiratory pathologies. The main scope of this study is to investigate possible positive effects of the presence of a clown on both the clinical evolution of the on-going disease, and on some physiological and pain parameters. Forty-three children with respiratory pathologies participated in the study: 21 of them belonged to the experimental group (EG) and 22 children to the control group (CG). During their hospitalization, the children of the EG interacted with two clowns who were experienced in the field of pediatric intervention. All participants were evaluated with respect to clinical progress and to a series of physiological and pain measures both before and after the clown interaction. When compared with the CG, EG children showed an earlier disappearance of the pathological symptoms. Moreover, the interaction of the clown with the children led to a statistically significant lowering of diastolic blood pressure, respiratory frequency and temperature in the EG as compared with the control group. The other two parameters of systolic pressure and heart frequency yielded results in the same direction, without reaching statistical significance. A similar health-inducing effect of clown presence was observed on pain parameters, both by self evaluation and assessment by nurses. Taken together, our data indicate that the presence of clowns in the ward has a possible health-inducing effect. Thus, humor can be seen as an easy-to-use, inexpensive and natural therapeutic modality to be used within different therapeutic settings. PMID:21785637

  13. Inflammatory breast carcinoma: pathological or clinical entity?

    PubMed

    Amparo, R S; Angel, C D; Ana, L H; Antonio, L C; Vicente, M S; Carlos, F M; Vicente, G P

    2000-12-01

    Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) diagnosis is usually based in the presence of typical clinical symptoms (redness and edema in more than 2/3 of the breast), which are not always associated with pathologic characteristics (subdermal lymphatics involvement). Whether exclusively pathologic findings without clinical symptoms are sufficient for IBC diagnosis remains controversial. A retrospective analysis of 163 clinically diagnosed IBC (CIC) either with dermal lymphatics invasion or not, was compared with another group of 99 patients with dermal lymphatics invasion without clinical symptoms (occult inflammatory carcinoma) (OIC). The following clinical and pathological characteristics have been analyzed and compared: age, menopausal status, clinical axillar node involvement, symptoms duration before diagnosis, grade, estrogen receptors, presence of metastases at diagnosis, local recurrence, metastasic dissemination, disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Median age was younger in CIC (52.3 vs. 63.8 years; p < 0.001). Symptom duration before diagnosis were significantly shorter in CIC (3.4 vs. 6.8 months: p < 0.0001). Visceral (36.2% vs. 17.2%; p = 0.001) and brain metastases (7.4% vs. 1%; p = 0.02) was significantly more frequent in CIC. Negative estrogen receptors were more frequent in CIC (34.9% vs. 65.1%: p < 0.004). Five-years DFS (25.6 vs. 51.6%; p < 0.0001) and OS (28.6 vs. 40%; p < 0.05) were shorter in CIC. CIC (regardless of subdermal lymphatics involvement) must be clearly differentiated from OIC. Prognosis of CIC patients is poorer, so this two entities should be clearly differentiated when therepeutic results are reported.

  14. Clowns benefit children hospitalized for respiratory pathologies.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Mario; Isola, Elena; Paolone, Giuseppe; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The study aims at evaluating health-generating function of humor therapy in a hospital ward hosting children suffering from respiratory pathologies. The main scope of this study is to investigate possible positive effects of the presence of a clown on both the clinical evolution of the on-going disease, and on some physiological and pain parameters. Forty-three children with respiratory pathologies participated in the study: 21 of them belonged to the experimental group (EG) and 22 children to the control group (CG). During their hospitalization, the children of the EG interacted with two clowns who were experienced in the field of pediatric intervention. All participants were evaluated with respect to clinical progress and to a series of physiological and pain measures both before and after the clown interaction. When compared with the CG, EG children showed an earlier disappearance of the pathological symptoms. Moreover, the interaction of the clown with the children led to a statistically significant lowering of diastolic blood pressure, respiratory frequency and temperature in the EG as compared with the control group. The other two parameters of systolic pressure and heart frequency yielded results in the same direction, without reaching statistical significance. A similar health-inducing effect of clown presence was observed on pain parameters, both by self evaluation and assessment by nurses. Taken together, our data indicate that the presence of clowns in the ward has a possible health-inducing effect. Thus, humor can be seen as an easy-to-use, inexpensive and natural therapeutic modality to be used within different therapeutic settings.

  15. Cognitive plasticity in normal and pathological aging

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Botella, Juan; Zamarrón, María Dolores; Molina, María Ángeles; Cabras, Emilia; Schettini, Rocío; Tárraga, Lluis

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of the present study is to examine to what extent age and cognitive impairment contribute to learning performance (cognitive plasticity, cognitive modifiability, or learning potential). To address this question, participants coming from four studies (Longitudinal Study of Active Aging, age range, 55–75 years, N = 458; Longitudinal Study in the very old [90+], age range, 90–102, N = 188, and Cognitive Plasticity within the Course of Cognitive Impairment, 97 “Normal”, 57 mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 98 Alzheimer’s disease [AD] patients) were examined through a measure of verbal learning (developed from Rey). The results show that all age, MCI, and AD groups learned across the five learning trials of that test, but significant differences were found due to age, pathology, and education. The effects of pathology (MCI and AD) can be expressed in a metric of “years of normal decline by age”; specifically, being MCI means suffering an impairment in performance that is equivalent to the decline of a normal individual during 15 years, whereas the impact of AD is equivalent to 22.7 years. Likewise, the improvement associated with about 5 years of education is equivalent to about 1 year less of normal aging. Also, the two pathological groups significantly differed from “normal” groups in the delayed trial of the test. The most dramatic difference is that between the “normal” group and the AD patients, which shows relatively poorer performance for the AD group in the delayed trial than in the first learning trial. The potential role of this unique effect for quick detection purposes of AD is assessed (in the 75–89 years age range, sensitivity and specificity equal 0.813 and 0.917, respectively). PMID:22291469

  16. Pathology in drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Jubb, Adrian M; Koeppen, Hartmut; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2014-01-01

    The rapid pace of drug discovery and drug development in oncology, immunology and ophthalmology brings new challenges; the efficient and effective development of new targeted drugs will require more detailed molecular classifications of histologically homogeneous diseases that show heterogeneous clinical outcomes. To this end, single companion diagnostics for specific drugs will be replaced by multiplex diagnostics for entire therapeutic areas, preserving tissue and enabling rapid molecular taxonomy. The field will move away from the development of new molecular entities as single agents, to which resistance is common. Instead, a detailed understanding of the pathological mechanisms of resistance, in patients and in preclinical models, will be key to the validation of scientifically rational and clinically effective drug combinations. To remain at the heart of disease diagnosis and appropriate management, pathologists must evolve into translational biologists and biomarker scientists. Herein, we provide examples of where this metamorphosis has already taken place, in lung cancer and melanoma, where the transformation has yet to begin, in the use of immunotherapies for ophthalmology and oncology, and where there is fertile soil for a revolution in treatment, in efforts to classify glioblastoma and personalize treatment. The challenges of disease heterogeneity, the regulatory environment and adequate tissue are ever present, but these too are being overcome in dedicated academic centres. In summary, the tools necessary to overcome the 'whens' and 'ifs' of the molecular revolution are in the hands of pathologists today; it is a matter of standardization, training and leadership to bring these into routine practice and translate science into patient benefit. This Annual Review Issue of the Journal of Pathology highlights the central role for pathology in modern drug discovery and development.

  17. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty: radiological-pathological correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Saffitz, J.E.; Totty, W.G.; McClennan, B.L.; Gilula, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Radiological and pathological assessment of the degree and extent of arterial injury caused by balloon angioplasty was performed in 20 renal arteries obtained at autopsy. Intact arteries were studied angiographically before and after dilatation and then examined histologically. Both normal and diseased arteries were subjected to varying degrees of dilatation. Damage ranged from minimal inimal disruption to major tears of the muscular media. Equivalent dilatory force created greater damage in the distal (muscular) than in the proximal (elastic) portion of the renal artery. There was no evidence of plaque remodling or compression.

  18. Lymphadenectomy in urologic oncology: pathologic considerations.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Riley E; Sung, Ming-Tse; Cheng, Liang

    2011-11-01

    Lymphadenectomy (LAD) is an important staging and treatment modality of oncologic surgery. LAD in genitourinary malignancies presents inherent difficulties to the urologist and pathologist because of the differences in anatomic sites and primary histologic type. This review focuses on pathologic evaluation and how communication between urologist and pathologist is necessary to provide optimal care. Recommendations covering general specimen submission and processing are discussed, as well as more specific recommendations concerning the kidney, upper urinary tract, urinary bladder, prostate, testes, and penis. Emerging areas of prognostic significance and the impact that improved molecular techniques are contributing to diagnostic interpretation are highlighted.

  19. Kalirin Signaling: Implications for Synaptic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Remmers, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Spine morphogenesis and plasticity are intimately linked to cognition, and there is strong evidence that aberrant regulation of spine plasticity is associated with physiological, behavioral, and pathological conditions. The neuronal guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) kalirin is emerging as a key regulator of structural and functional plasticity at dendritic spines. Here, we review recent studies that have genetically and functionally linked kalirin signaling to a number of human disorders. Kalirin signaling may thus represent a disease mechanism and provide a novel therapeutic target. PMID:22194219

  20. The Neurophysiology and Pathology of Brain Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Sensi, Stefano L.; Paoletti, Pierre; Koh, Jae-Young; Aizenman, Elias; Bush, Ashley I.; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the roles played by zinc in the physiological and pathological functioning of the brain is rapidly expanding. The increased availability of genetically modified animal models, selective zinc-sensitive fluorescent probes, and novel chelators is producing a remarkable body of exciting new data that clearly establishes this metal ion as a key modulator of intracellular and intercellular neuronal signaling. In this Mini-Symposium, we will review and discuss the most recent findings that link zinc to synaptic function as well as the injurious effects of zinc dyshomeostasis within the context of neuronal death associated with major human neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22072659

  1. Hierarchical nucleus segmentation in digital pathology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi; Ratner, Vadim; Zhu, Liangjia; Diprima, Tammy; Kurc, Tahsin; Tannenbaum, Allen; Saltz, Joel

    2016-03-01

    Extracting nuclei is one of the most actively studied topic in the digital pathology researches. Most of the studies directly search the nuclei (or seeds for the nuclei) from the finest resolution available. While the richest information has been utilized by such approaches, it is sometimes difficult to address the heterogeneity of nuclei in different tissues. In this work, we propose a hierarchical approach which starts from the lower resolution level and adaptively adjusts the parameters while progressing into finer and finer resolution. The algorithm is tested on brain and lung cancers images from The Cancer Genome Atlas data set.

  2. Hierarchical nucleus segmentation in digital pathology images

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi; Ratner, Vadim; Zhu, Liangjia; Diprima, Tammy; Kurc, Tahsin; Tannenbaum, Allen; Saltz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Extracting nuclei is one of the most actively studied topic in the digital pathology researches. Most of the studies directly search the nuclei (or seeds for the nuclei) from the finest resolution available. While the richest information has been utilized by such approaches, it is sometimes difficult to address the heterogeneity of nuclei in different tissues. In this work, we propose a hierarchical approach which starts from the lower resolution level and adaptively adjusts the parameters while progressing into finer and finer resolution. The algorithm is tested on brain and lung cancers images from The Cancer Genome Atlas data set. PMID:27375315

  3. Special communicationthe critical role of mechanical forces in blood vessel development, physiology and pathology

    PubMed

    Gimbrone; Anderson; Topper; Langille; Clowes; Bercel; Davies; Stenmark; Frid; Weiser-Evans; Aldashev; Nemenoff; Majesky; Landerholm; Lu; Ito; Arras; Scholz; Imhof; Aurrand-Lions; Schaper; Nagel; Resnick; Dewey; Gimbrone; Davies

    1999-06-01

    The following extended abstracts were presented at the Research Initiatives in Vascular Disease Conference, Movers and Shakers in the Vascular Tree-Hemodynamic and Biomechanical Factors in Blood Vessel Pathology, sponsored by The Lifeline Foundation and the Cardiovascular & Interventional Radiology Research and Educational Foundation; jointly sponsored by the International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter, The Society for Vascular Surgery, and The Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology; in cooperation with the National Institutes of Health-National Heart, Lung &Blood Institute on Mar 11-12, 1999, in Bethesda, Md.

  4. Best Practice No 177: Best practice guideline: writing a business case for service development in pathology.

    PubMed

    Galloway, M J

    2004-04-01

    This guideline reviews the introduction and development of business planning in the National Health Service. A guideline for writing a business case for service development that would form part of a pathology business plan has been developed. This guideline outlines six steps that are required in the preparation of a business case. The format of the guideline has been developed largely from other national guidelines that have been published for the development of capital projects. In view of the publication of these guidelines, the scope of this guideline excludes business cases for information, management, and technology projects and large capital projects.

  5. Personality pathology comorbidity in adult females with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Pham-Scottez, Alexandra; Mels, Saskia; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Guelfi, Julien Daniel; Braet, Caroline; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-03-01

    Personality pathology is examined in 100 female in-patients diagnosed with eating disorders. The Eating Disorder Inventory-II and the NEO-PI-R were self-administered and personality pathology was assessed using a structured interview. Clinicians additionally evaluated patients' global functioning. The results indicated sizeable personality disorder comorbidity, and two dimensions of personality pathology, for example, an internalizing and an externalizing factor, could be identified. Patients' global functioning was primarily associated with dimensions of personality pathology, but not with eating disorder symptoms. Assessment and therapeutic interventions should focus on this co-occurring pathology in order to improve patients' functioning.

  6. Spontaneous correction of pathologically migrated teeth with periodontal therapy alone

    PubMed Central

    Dadlani, Himanshu; Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2013-01-01

    Pathological tooth migration is a characteristic sign of an advanced form of chronic periodontitis. The etiology of pathological tooth migration is complex and multifactorial. Usually treatment of pathological migration includes a multidisciplinary approach. However, in some cases, spontaneous repositioning of the pathologically migrated teeth has been reported following periodontal therapy alone. In the present report, following periodontal surgery, there was a spontaneous repositioning of the migrated teeth and restoration of dento-facial esthetics. The treatment options in cases of pathological tooth migration, based on the severity, are also discussed. PMID:24174739

  7. Human prefrontal cortex: evolution, development, and pathology.

    PubMed

    Teffer, Kate; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is critical to many cognitive abilities that are considered particularly human, and forms a large part of a neural system crucial for normal socio-emotional and executive functioning in humans and other primates. In this chapter, we survey the literature regarding prefrontal development and pathology in humans as well as comparative studies of the region in humans and closely related primate species. The prefrontal cortex matures later in development than more caudal regions, and some of its neuronal subpopulations exhibit more complex dendritic arborizations. Comparative work suggests that the human prefrontal cortex differs from that of closely related primate species less in relative size than it does in organization. Specific reorganizational events in neural circuitry may have taken place either as a consequence of adjusting to increases in size or as adaptive responses to specific selection pressures. Living in complex environments has been recognized as a considerable factor in the evolution of primate cognition. Normal frontal lobe development and function are also compromised in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. A phylogenetically recent reorganization of frontal cortical circuitry may have been critical to the emergence of human-specific executive and social-emotional functions, and developmental pathology in these same systems underlies many psychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism and schizophrenia.

  8. [Flexor tendon pulley system: anatomy, pathology, treatment].

    PubMed

    Moutet, F

    2003-02-01

    Flexor tendon pulley has been very early noticed and described. Terminology usually accepted recognizes 6 arcifom pulleys (A0 to A5) and 3 cruciform pulleys (C1 to C3). Anatomy and physiology of this flexor tendon gliding and reflection system at the level of the digital sheet are exposed. The integrity necessity of this system became obvious regarding the flexor tendons repair. Four main pathologies may be concerned: the trigger finger congenital or progressive, due to a chondroid metaplasia of the A1 pulley; tenosynovial ganglions arising at the weak point between A1 and A2 pulley; lesions of the flexor tendon sheet during traumatic lacerations or surgical repairs; quite experimental lesions creating isolated ruptures of one or several pulleys which occur during sport practice, especially high level rock climbing. The repair techniques are exposed to allow to graduate and hierarchy the reparation technique regarding the pathology. A2 and A4 repair is always indicated. The best reconstruction material is an extensor retinaculum graft. But its poor surface available often draws to use conventional palmaris longus free graft.

  9. Pathological gambling: understanding relapses and dropouts.

    PubMed

    Aragay, Núria; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Ramos-Grille, Irene; Cardona, Sara; Garrido, Gemma; Anisul Islam, Mohammed; Menchón, José M; Vallès, Vicenç

    2015-02-01

    There is little available information on the factors that influence relapses and dropouts during therapy for pathological gambling (PG). The aim of this study was to determine socio-demographic, clinical, personality, and psychopathological predictors of relapse and dropout in a sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. A total of 566 consecutive outpatients diagnosed with PG according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were included. All patients underwent an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment program. We analyzed predictors of relapse during 6months of treatment and during the subsequent 6months of follow-up, and predictors of dropout over the entire therapeutic program. Eighty patients (14.1%) experienced at least one relapse during the entire follow-up of the study: 50 (8.8%) within the treatment period and 12 (2.1%) during the subsequent 6-month follow-up period. The main predictors of relapse were single marital status, spending less than 100euros/week on gambling, active gambling behavior at treatment inclusion, and high scores on the TCI-R Harm Avoidance personality dimension. One hundred fifty-seven patients (27.8%) missed 3 or more therapeutic sessions over the entire therapeutic program. The main predictors of dropout were single marital status, younger age, and high scores on the TCI-R Novelty Seeking personality dimension. The presence of these factors at inclusion should be taken into account by physicians dealing with PG patients.

  10. Clinico-pathological correlation in dementias.

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, F; Alonso, E; Romero, V; Ortíz, A; Martínez, C; Otero, E

    1995-01-01

    The object of this study is to investigate whether or not there are clinical signs and symptoms in patients with dementia that, by themselves or jointly, can be associated with the pathological diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Twelve patients with dementia were studied, in whom the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease was made according to established criteria. A sample of leptomeninges, cortex and subcortical white matter was obtained from each patient and was processed for light and electron microscopy. In the cases in whom neuritic plaques and neurofibrilary tangles were present, pathological changes were quantified. The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease was confirmed in 5 cases, whereas in 3 patients spongiform encephalopathy was present. In the remaining patients, the number of neuritic plaques was within normal limits for the age of the subjects. Comparison of the data in Alzheimer (n = 5) and non-Alzheimer (n = 7) groups showed an increased, statistically significant incidence of acalculia, abnormalities of judgment, impairment of abstraction and primitive reflexes in the former. Although good fitting models were obtained, none achieved perfect discrimination. The model that included alterations of judgment and acalculia gave the best fit. PMID:7647080

  11. Directed peer review in surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maxwell L; Raab, Stephen S

    2012-09-01

    Second pathologist peer review is used in many surgical laboratory quality-assurance programs to detect error. Directed peer review is 1 method of second review and involves the selection of specific case types, such as cases from a particular site of anatomic origin. The benefits of using the directed peer review method are unique and directed peer review detects both errors in diagnostic accuracy and precision and this detection may be used to improve practice. We utilize the Lean quality improvement A3 method of problem solving to investigate these issues. The A3 method defines surgical pathology diagnostic error and describes the current state in surgical pathology, performs root cause analysis, hypothesizes an ideal state, and provides opportunities for improvement in error reduction. Published data indicate that directed peer review practices may be used to prevent active cognitive errors that lead to patient harm. Pathologists also may use directed peer review data to target latent factors that contribute to error and improve diagnostic precision.

  12. Classification and basic pathology of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Duyckaerts, Charles; Delatour, Benoît; Potier, Marie-Claude

    2009-07-01

    The lesions of Alzheimer disease include accumulation of proteins, losses of neurons and synapses, and alterations related to reactive processes. Extracellular Abeta accumulation occurs in the parenchyma as diffuse, focal or stellate deposits. It may involve the vessel walls of arteries, veins and capillaries. The cases in which the capillary vessel walls are affected have a higher probability of having one or two apoepsilon 4 alleles. Parenchymal as well as vascular Abeta deposition follows a stepwise progression. Tau accumulation, probably the best histopathological correlate of the clinical symptoms, takes three aspects: in the cell body of the neuron as neurofibrillary tangle, in the dendrites as neuropil threads, and in the axons forming the senile plaque neuritic corona. The progression of tau pathology is stepwise and stereotyped from the entorhinal cortex, through the hippocampus, to the isocortex. The neuronal loss is heterogeneous and area-specific. Its mechanism is still discussed. The timing of the synaptic loss, probably linked to Abeta peptide itself, maybe as oligomers, is also controversial. Various clinico-pathological types of Alzheimer disease have been described, according to the type of the lesions (plaque only and tangle predominant), the type of onset (focal onset), the cause (genetic or sporadic) and the associated lesions (Lewy bodies, vascular lesions, hippocampal sclerosis, TDP-43 inclusions and argyrophilic grain disease).

  13. Modern Age Pathology of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Stacher, Elvira; Graham, Brian B.; Hunt, James M.; Gandjeva, Aneta; Groshong, Steve D.; McLaughlin, Vallerie V.; Jessup, Marsha; Grizzle, William E.; Aldred, Michaela A.; Cool, Carlyne D.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: The impact of modern treatments of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) on pulmonary vascular pathology remains unknown. Objectives: To assess the spectrum of pulmonary vascular remodeling in the modern era of PAH medication. Methods: Assessment of pulmonary vascular remodeling and inflammation in 62 PAH and 28 control explanted lungs systematically sampled. Measurements and Main Results: Intima and intima plus media fractional thicknesses of pulmonary arteries were increased in the PAH group versus the control lungs and correlated with pulmonary hemodynamic measurements. Despite a high variability of morphological measurements within a given PAH lung and among all PAH lungs, distinct pathological subphenotypes were detected in cohorts of PAH lungs. These included a subset of lungs lacking intima or, most prominently, media remodeling, which had similar numbers of profiles of plexiform lesions as those in lungs with more pronounced remodeling. Marked perivascular inflammation was present in a high number of PAH lungs and correlated with intima plus media remodeling. The number of profiles of plexiform lesions was significantly lower in lungs of male patients and those never treated with prostacyclin or its analogs. Conclusions: Our results indicate that multiple features of pulmonary vascular remodeling are present in patients treated with modern PAH therapies. Perivascular inflammation may have an important role in the processes of vascular remodeling, all of which may ultimately lead to increased pulmonary artery pressure. Moreover, our study provides a framework to interpret and design translational studies in PAH. PMID:22679007

  14. Pulmonary pathology in pediatric cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Milner, Danny; Factor, Rachel; Whitten, Rich; Carr, Richard A; Kamiza, Steve; Pinkus, Geraldine; Molyneux, Malcolm; Taylor, Terrie

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory signs are common in African children where malaria is highly endemic, and thus, parsing the role of pulmonary pathology in illness is challenging. We examined the lungs of 100 children from an autopsy series in Blantyre, Malawi, many of whom death was attributed to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Our aim was to describe the pathologic manifestations of fatal malaria; to understand the role of parasites, pigment, and macrophages; and to catalog comorbidities. From available patients, which included 55 patients with cerebral malaria and 45 controls, we obtained 4 cores of lung tissue for immunohistochemistry and morphological evaluation. We found that, in patients with cerebral malaria, large numbers of malaria parasites were present in pulmonary alveolar capillaries, together with extensive deposits of malaria pigment (hemozoin). The number of pulmonary macrophages in this vascular bed did not differ between patients with cerebral malaria, noncerebral malaria, and nonmalarial diagnoses. Comorbidities found in some cerebral malaria patients included pneumonia, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, and systemic activation of coagulation. We conclude that the respiratory distress seen in patients with cerebral malaria does not appear to be anatomic in origin but that increasing malaria pigment is strongly associated with cerebral malaria at autopsy.

  15. The preanalytic phase in veterinary clinical pathology.

    PubMed

    Braun, Jean-Pierre; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Trumel, Cathy

    2015-03-01

    This article presents the general causes of preanalytic variability with a few examples showing specialists and practitioners that special and improved care should be given to this too often neglected phase. The preanalytic phase of clinical pathology includes all the steps from specimen collection to analysis. It is the phase where most laboratory errors occur in human, and probably also in veterinary clinical pathology. Numerous causes may affect the validity of the results, including technical factors, such as the choice of anticoagulant, the blood vessel sampled, and the duration and conditions of specimen handling. While the latter factors can be defined, influence of biologic and physiologic factors such as feeding and fasting, stress, and biologic and endocrine rhythms can often not be controlled. Nevertheless, as many factors as possible should at least be documented. The importance of the preanalytic phase is often not given the necessary attention, although the validity of the results and consequent clinical decision making and medical management of animal patients would likely be improved if the quality of specimens submitted to the laboratory was optimized.

  16. Protection by Neuroglobin Expression in Brain Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Baez, Eliana; Echeverria, Valentina; Cabezas, Ricardo; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Barreto, George E.

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes play an important role in physiological, metabolic, and structural functions, and when impaired, they can be involved in various pathologies including Alzheimer, focal ischemic stroke, and traumatic brain injury. These disorders involve an imbalance in the blood flow and nutrients such as glucose and lactate, leading to biochemical and molecular changes that cause neuronal damage, which is followed by loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous studies have shown that astrocytes are more resilient than neurons during brain insults as a consequence of their more effective antioxidant systems, transporters, and enzymes, which made them less susceptible to excitotoxicity. In addition, astrocytes synthesize and release different protective molecules for neurons, including neuroglobin, a member of the globin family of proteins. After brain injury, neuroglobin expression is induced in astrocytes. Since neuroglobin promotes neuronal survival, its increased expression in astrocytes after brain injury may represent an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. Here, we review the role of neuroglobin in the central nervous system, its relationship with different pathologies, and the role of different factors that regulate its expression in astrocytes. PMID:27672379

  17. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Infection and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Bohmwald, Karen; Espinoza, Janyra A; Rey-Jurado, Emma; Gómez, Roberto S; González, Pablo A; Bueno, Susan M; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2016-08-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is by far the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) worldwide in infants and children younger than 2 years. The overwhelming number of hospitalizations due to hRSV-induced ALRTI each year is due, at least in part, to the lack of licensed vaccines against this virus. Thus, hRSV infection is considered a major public health problem and economic burden in most countries. The lung pathology developed in hRSV-infected individuals is characterized by an exacerbated proinflammatory and unbalanced Th2-type immune response. In addition to the adverse effects in airway tissues, hRSV infection can also cause neurologic manifestations in the host, such as seizures and encephalopathy. Although the origins of these extrapulmonary symptoms remain unclear, studies with patients suffering from neurological alterations suggest an involvement of the inflammatory response against hRSV. Furthermore, hRSV has evolved numerous mechanisms to modulate and evade the immune response in the host. Several studies have focused on elucidating the interactions between hRSV virulence factors and the host immune system, to rationally design new vaccines and therapies against this virus. Here, we discuss about the infection, pathology, and immune response triggered by hRSV in the host.

  18. Evidence-based pathology: umbilical cord coiling.

    PubMed

    Khong, T Y

    2010-12-01

    The generation of a pathology test result must be based on criteria that are proven to be acceptably reproducible and clinically relevant to be evidence-based. This review de-constructs the umbilical cord coiling index to illustrate how it can stray from being evidence-based. Publications related to umbilical cord coiling were retrieved and analysed with regard to how the umbilical coiling index was calculated, abnormal coiling was defined and reference ranges were constructed. Errors and other influences that can occur with the measurement of the length of the umbilical cord or of the number of coils can compromise the generation of the coiling index. Definitions of abnormal coiling are not consistent in the literature. Reference ranges defining hypocoiling or hypercoiling have not taken those potential errors or the possible effect of gestational age into account. Even the way numerical test results in anatomical pathology are generated, as illustrated by the umbilical coiling index, warrants a critical analysis into its evidence base to ensure that they are reproducible or free from errors.

  19. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipankar; Ramachandra, Varsha; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Koul, Akanksha; Deka, Panna; Deka, Apurba

    2016-01-01

    Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa) or multicellular (helminths and arthropods). The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field. PMID:27958200

  20. Cranial Pathologies in a Specimen of Pachycephalosaurus

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Joseph E.; Vittore, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    Background A frontoparietal dome of a large pachycephalosaurid collected from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation in 2001 is identified as Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis. The specimen features two large oval depressions on the dorsal surface, accompanied by numerous circular pits on the margin and inner surface of the larger depressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to identify the origin of these structures, computed tomography (CT) data and morphological characteristics of the specimen are analyzed and compared with similar osteological structures in fossil and extant archosaurs caused by taphonomic processes, non-pathologic bone resorption, and traumatic infection/inflammatory origins. The results of these analyses suggest that the structures are pathologic lesions likely resulting from a traumatic injury and followed by secondary infection at the site. Conclusions/Significance The presence of lesions on a frontoparietal dome, and the exclusivity of their distribution along the dorsal dome surface, offers further insight into frontoparietal dome function and supports previously hypothesized agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurids. PMID:22558394

  1. Objective pathological diagnosis of coal workers' pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, E.R.; Watkins, G.; Lam, N.V.; Tsuda, H.; Hermann, C.; Johal, J.; Liu, H.

    1981-05-08

    Pertinent pathological features of lungs obtained at autopsies from 99 coal miners were compared with those observed in the lungs of 268 male town dwellers of comparable age who were not occupationally related to the coal mining or other industries at risk for development of pneumoconiosis. The degree of anthracotic pigment deposition and severity of type of pigmented lesion with its accompanying reticulum fiber formation and fibrosis were significantly greater in lungs of miners. There was a high degree of overlap in degrees of pigment deposition, particularly those quantitated as grades 1 and 2 and in lesions regarded as types 1 and 2. The greatest divergence was observed for prevalence of nodular pulmonary lesions (type 4). There was also a considerable divergence in the type 3 alteration characterized by nonnodular aggregates of carbon-laden macrophages accompanied by minimal reactive fibrosis. It appears that an objective pathological diagnosis of coal workers' pneumoconiosis can be rendered only by the demonstration of type 4 lesions. Approximately 25% of coal miners exhibited unequivocal features of CWP. No significant differences concerning incidence or types of emphysema or frequency of chronic cor pulmonale were encountered between the two populations.

  2. Objective pathological diagnosis of coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, E.R.; Watkins, G.; Lam, N.V.; Tsuda, H.; Hermann, C.; Johal, J.; Liu, H.

    1981-05-08

    Pertinent pathological features of lungs obtained at autopsies from 99 coal miners were compared with those observed in the lungs of 268 male town dwellers of comparable age who were not occupationally related to the coal mining or other industries at risk for development of pneumoconiosis. The degree of anthracotic pigment deposition and severity of type of pigmented lesion with its accompanying reticulum fiber formation and fibrosis were significantly greater in lungs of miners. There was a high degree of overlap in degree of pigment deposition, particularly those quantitated as grades 1 and 2 and in lesions regarded as types 1 and 2. The greatest divergence was observed for prevalence of nodular pulmonary lesions (type 4). There was also a considerable divergence in the type 3 alteration characterized by nonnodular aggregates of carbon-laden macrophages accompanied by minimal reactive fibrosis. It appears that an objective pathological diagnosis of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) can be rendered only by the demonstration of type 4 lesions. Approximately 25% of coal miners exhibited unequivocal features of CWP. No significant differences concerning incidence or types of emphysema or frequency of chronic cor pulmonale were encountered between the two populations.

  3. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  4. Multidetector CT of emergent biliary pathologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neel B; Oto, Aytekin; Thomas, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Various biliary pathologic conditions can lead to acute abdominal pain. Specific diagnosis is not always possible clinically because many biliary diseases have overlapping signs and symptoms. Imaging can help narrow the differential diagnosis and lead to a specific diagnosis. Although ultrasonography (US) is the most useful imaging modality for initial evaluation of the biliary system, multidetector computed tomography (CT) is helpful when US findings are equivocal or when biliary disease is suspected. Diagnostic accuracy can be increased by optimizing the CT protocol and using multiplanar reformations to localize biliary obstruction. CT can be used to diagnose and stage acute cholecystitis, including complications such as emphysematous, gangrenous, and hemorrhagic cholecystitis; gallbladder perforation; gallstone pancreatitis; gallstone ileus; and Mirizzi syndrome. CT also can be used to evaluate acute biliary diseases such as biliary stone disease, benign and malignant biliary obstruction, acute cholangitis, pyogenic hepatic abscess, hemobilia, and biliary necrosis and iatrogenic complications such as biliary leaks and malfunctioning biliary drains and stents. Treatment includes radiologic, endoscopic, or surgical intervention. Familiarity with CT imaging appearances of emergent biliary pathologic conditions is important for prompt diagnosis and appropriate clinical referral and treatment.

  5. Alzheimer's pathology in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Rossor, Martin N.; Warren, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disorder with language impairment as the primary feature. Different subtypes have been described and the 3 best characterized are progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), semantic dementia (SD) and logopenic/phonological aphasia (LPA). Of these subtypes, LPA is most commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, the features of PPA associated with AD have not been fully defined. Here we retrospectively identified 14 patients with PPA and either pathologically confirmed AD or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers consistent with AD. Analysis of neurological and neuropsychological features revealed that all patients had a syndrome of LPA with relatively nonfluent spontaneous speech, phonemic errors, and reduced digit span; most patients also had impaired verbal episodic memory. Analysis of the pattern of cortical thinning in these patients revealed left posterior superior temporal, inferior parietal, medial temporal, and posterior cingulate involvement and in patients with more severe disease, increasing involvement of left anterior temporal and frontal cortices and right hemisphere areas in the temporo-parietal junction, posterior cingulate, and medial temporal lobe. We propose that LPA may be a “unihemispheric” presentation of AD, and discuss this concept in relation to accumulating evidence concerning language dysfunction in AD. PMID:20580129

  6. Domoic Acid Toxicologic Pathology: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Olga M.

    2008-01-01

    Domoic acid was identified as the toxin responsible for an outbreak of human poisoning that occurred in Canada in 1987 following consumption of contaminated blue mussels [Mytilus edulis]. The poisoning was characterized by a constellation of clinical symptoms and signs. Among the most prominent features described was memory impairment which led to the name Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning [ASP]. Domoic acid is produced by certain marine organisms, such as the red alga Chondria armata and planktonic diatom of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Since 1987, monitoring programs have been successful in preventing other human incidents of ASP. However, there are documented cases of domoic acid intoxication in wild animals and outbreaks of coastal water contamination in many regions world-wide. Hence domoic acid continues to pose a global risk to the health and safety of humans and wildlife. Several mechanisms have been implicated as mediators for the effects of domoic acid. Of particular importance is the role played by glutamate receptors as mediators of excitatory neurotransmission and the demonstration of a wide distribution of these receptors outside the central nervous system, prompting the attention to other tissues as potential target sites. The aim of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of ASP, DOM induced pathology including ultrastructural changes associated to subchronic oral exposure, and discussion of key proposed mechanisms of cell/tissue injury involved in DOM induced brain pathology and considerations relevant to food safety and human health. PMID:18728725

  7. Genetics and underlying pathology of dementia.

    PubMed

    Ferencz, Beata; Gerritsen, Lotte

    2015-03-01

    As the population steadily ages, dementia, in all its forms, remains a great societal challenge. Yet, our knowledge of their etiology remains rather limited. To this end, genetic studies can give us insight into the underlying mechanisms that lead to the development of dementia, potentially facilitating treatments in the future. In this review we cover the most recent genetic risk factors associated with the onset of the four most common dementia types today, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Vascular Dementia (VaD), Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) and Lewy Body Dementia (LBD). Moreover, we discuss the overlap in major underlying pathologies of dementia derived from their genetic associations. While all four dementia types appear to involve genes associated with tau-pathology and neuroinflammation only LBD, AD and VaD appear to involve amyloid genes while LBD and FTLD share alpha synuclein genes. Together these findings suggest that some of the dementias may exist along a spectrum and demonstrates the necessity to conduct large-scale studies pinpointing the etiology of the dementias and potential gene and environment interactions that may influence their development.

  8. Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yuankai K.; Shen, Dejun; Sheikine, Yuri; Ahsen, Osman O.; Wang, Helen H.; Schmolze, Daniel B.; Johnson, Nicole B.; Brooker, Jeffrey S.; Cable, Alex E.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid intraoperative assessment of breast excision specimens is clinically important because up to 40% of patients undergoing breast-conserving cancer surgery require reexcision for positive or close margins. We demonstrate nonlinear microscopy (NLM) for the assessment of benign and malignant breast pathologies in fresh surgical specimens. A total of 179 specimens from 50 patients was imaged with NLM using rapid extrinsic nuclear staining with acridine orange and intrinsic second harmonic contrast generation from collagen. Imaging was performed on fresh, intact specimens without the need for fixation, embedding, and sectioning required for conventional histopathology. A visualization method to aid pathological interpretation is presented that maps NLM contrast from two-photon fluorescence and second harmonic signals to features closely resembling histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Mosaicking is used to overcome trade-offs between resolution and field of view, enabling imaging of subcellular features over square-centimeter specimens. After NLM examination, specimens were processed for standard paraffin-embedded histology using a protocol that coregistered histological sections to NLM images for paired assessment. Blinded NLM reading by three pathologists achieved 95.4% sensitivity and 93.3% specificity, compared with paraffin-embedded histology, for identifying invasive cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ versus benign breast tissue. Interobserver agreement was κ = 0.88 for NLM and κ = 0.89 for histology. These results show that NLM achieves high diagnostic accuracy, can be rapidly performed on unfixed specimens, and is a promising method for intraoperative margin assessment. PMID:25313045

  9. Diagnostic difficulties in inflammatory bowel disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Yantiss, R K; Odze, R D

    2006-01-01

    This review summarizes some of the common diagnostic problems encountered by pathologists when evaluating patients with chronic colitis and in whom inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is either suspected or within the differential diagnosis. Both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) show characteristic, but non-specific, pathological features that may overlap and result in a diagnosis of 'indeterminate colitis' (IC). However, other reasons why pathologists may entertain a diagnosis of IC include failure to recognize or accept certain 'hardcore' histological features as indicative of CD, an attempt to classify cases of chronic colitis based on mucosal biopsy material or in the absence of adequate clinical and radiographic information, and the presence of other disease processes that mask, or mimic, IBD. In addition, some cases of UC may show unusual CD-like features, such as discontinuous or patchy disease, ileal inflammation, extracolonic inflammation, granulomatous inflammation in response to ruptured crypts, aphthous ulcers, or transmural inflammation. Furthermore, other forms of colitis, such as microscopic colitis, diverticulitis and diversion colitis may, on occasion, also show IBD-like changes. The clinical and pathological features that aid in the distinction between these entities, and others, are covered in detail in this review.

  10. Isolated Sphenoid Sinus Lesions: Experience with a Few Rare Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Sadashiva, Nishanth; Nandeesh, B. N.; Shukla, Dhaval; Bhat, Dhananjaya; Somanna, Sampath; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The sphenoid sinus is often neglected because of its difficult access. The deep position of the sphenoid sinus hinders early diagnosis of pathologies in that location. Delayed diagnosis can cause serious complications due to proximity to many important structures. Objectives: The aim of this study is to demonstrate different pathologies which can affect the sphenoid sinus and elucidate the findings. Methods: Cases of isolated sphenoid sinus lesions encountered in the neurosurgical setting which had rare pathologies are discussed. Pathologies such as Langerhans cell histiocytosis, solitary plasmacytoma, chordoma, pituitary adenoma, leiomyosarcoma, fungal infection, and mucocele which appeared primarily in sphenoid sinus are discussed along with their imaging features and pathological findings. Conclusion: Multitude of different pathologies can occur in sphenoid sinus. Detailed preoperative imaging is very helpful, but transnasal biopsy and histological study are required often for definitive diagnosis. The possible advantages of early diagnosis before spread of pathology for prognosis cannot be overemphasized. PMID:28149092

  11. Pathological and Clinical Spectrum of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: With Special Reference to Astrocytic Tau Pathology.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yuichi; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Shiga, Atsushi; Tada, Mari; Kitamura, Hideaki; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Onodera, Osamu; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Someya, Toshiyuki; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a four-repeat tauopathy with tau-positive, argyrophilic tuft-shaped astrocytes (TAs). We performed a pathological and clinical investigation in 40 consecutive autopsied Japanese patients with pathological diagnoses of PSP or PSP-like disease. Unequivocal TAs were present in 22 cases, all of which were confirmed to be PSP. Such TAs were hardly detected in the other 18 cases, which instead exhibited tau-positive, argyrophilic astrocytes, appearing as comparatively small clusters with central nuclei of irregularly shaped, coarse structures (equivocal TAs). Cluster analysis of the distribution pattern of tau-related pathology for these 18 cases identified two subgroups, pallido-nigro-luysian atrophy (PNLA) Type 1 (n = 9) and Type 2 (n = 9), the former being distinguished from the latter by the presence of tau-related lesions in the motor cortex, pontine nucleus and cerebellar dentate nucleus in addition to the severely affected PNL system. The duration from symptom onset until becoming wheelchair-bound was significantly longer in PNLA Type 1. Immunoblotting of samples from the three disease conditions revealed band patterns of low-molecular-mass tau fragments at ∼35 kDa. These findings shed further light on the wide pathological and clinical spectrum of four-repeat tauopathy, representing PSP in the broad sense rather than classical PSP.

  12. 'One medicine---one pathology': are veterinary and human pathology prepared?

    PubMed

    Cardiff, Robert D; Ward, Jerrold M; Barthold, Stephen W

    2008-01-01

    The American Medical Association and the American Veterinary Medical Association have recently approved resolutions supporting 'One Medicine' or 'One Health' that bridge the two professions. The concept is far from novel. Rudolf Virchow, the Father of Modern Pathology, and Sir William Osler, the Father of Modern Medicine, were outspoken advocates of the concept. The concept in its modern iteration was re-articulated in the 1984 edition of Calvin Schwabe's 'Veterinary Medicine and Human Health.' The veterinary and medical pathology professions are steeped in a rich history of 'One Medicine,' but they have paradoxically parted ways, leaving the discipline of pathology poorly positioned to contribute to contemporary science. The time has come for not only scientists but also all pathologists to recognize the value in comparative pathology, the consequences of ignoring the opportunity and, most importantly, the necessity of preparing future generations to meet the challenge inherent in the renewed momentum for 'One Medicine.' The impending glut of new genetically engineered mice creates an urgent need for prepared investigators and pathologists.

  13. Anomia-Pathological Verbal Dominance. Agnosic Behavior in Anomia: A Case of Pathological Verbal Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlannan, Frances, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Summarized are three articles concerned with research on neurological aspects of learning disabilities entitled "Anomia-A Case of Pathological Verbal Dominance;""Brain--Right Hemisphere--Man's So Called 'Minor Hemisphere;""Neurology-A Special Neurological Examination of Children with Learning Disabilities". (DB)

  14. Alpha-mannosidosis: characterization of CNS pathology and correlation between CNS pathology and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Borgwardt, L; Danielsen, E R; Thomsen, C; Månsson, J E; Taouatas, N; Thuesen, A M; Olsen, K J; Fogh, J; Dali, C I; Lund, A M

    2015-07-23

    Alpha-mannosidosis (AM) (OMIM 248500) is a rare lysosomal storage disease. The understanding of the central nervous system (CNS) pathology is limited. This study is the first describing the CNS pathology and the correlation between the CNS pathology and intellectual disabilities in human AM. Thirty-four patients, aged 6-35 years, with AM were included. Data from 13 healthy controls were included in the analysis of the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Measurements of CNS neurodegeneration biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), CSF-oligosaccharides, and performance of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRS were carried out. On MRI, 5 of 10 patients had occipital white matter (WM) signal abnormalities, and 6 of 10 patients had age-inappropriate myelination. MRS demonstrated significantly elevated mannose complex in gray matter and WM. We found elevated concentrations of tau-protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurofilament light protein in 97 patients, 74% and 41% of CSF samples, respectively. A negative correlation between CSF-biomarkers and cognitive function and CSF-oligosaccharides and cognitive function was found. The combination of MRS/MRI changes, elevated concentrations of CSF-biomarkers and CSF-oligosaccharides suggests gliosis and reduced myelination, as part of the CNS pathology in AM. Our data demonstrate early neuropathological changes, which may be taken into consideration when planning initiation of treatment.

  15. The Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine: The Most Widely Read Pathology Journal Today.

    PubMed

    Allen, Timothy Craig

    2016-09-01

    The Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine was first published in 1926 as a subspecialty journal of the American Medical Association. It became the official journal of the College of American Pathologists in 1995. Under the dynamic leadership of its most recent editor-in-chief, Philip T. Cagle, MD, and his vibrant editorial board, the Archives has nearly doubled its impact factor and become the most widely read general pathology journal today. Dr Cagle has consistently added leading pathologists to the editorial board, and the collective expertise of these individuals is clearly evident in new, cutting-edge journal masthead sections. The Archives has featured innovative content in the field of digital pathology, including articles on the utilization of smart phones in pathology and incorporation of whole-slide images and videos into the content of articles. Special sections have characterized the Archives during the current editorial board's tenure and have proven immensely popular with the journal's readership. As the Archives celebrates its 90th anniversary, its editorial board remains committed to providing insightful and relevant medical knowledge. The journal's open access Web site ( www.archivesofpathology.org ) allows the dissemination of this knowledge to every corner of the globe at no expense to those who wish to be educated or improve their medical practice.

  16. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5–1.0) and Coarse (PM10–2.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%–60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM2.5–1.0) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5–1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%–6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM10–2.5) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%–83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM10–2.5 (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM10–2.5 than PM2.5–1.0. Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM10–2.5 than in PM2.5–1.0. Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM2.5–1.0 and PM10-2.5 simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations. PMID:25689348

  17. The "Shaken Baby" syndrome: pathology and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Squier, Waney

    2011-11-01

    The "Shaken Baby" syndrome (SBS) is the subject of intense controversy; the diagnosis has in the past depended on the triad of subdural haemorrhage (SDH), retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy. While there is no doubt that infants do suffer abusive injury at the hands of their carers and that impact can cause catastrophic intracranial damage, research has repeatedly undermined the hypothesis that shaking per se can cause this triad. The term non-accidental head injury has therefore been widely adopted. This review will focus on the pathology and mechanisms of the three physiologically associated findings which constitute the "triad" and are seen in infants suffering from a wide range of non-traumatic as well as traumatic conditions. "Sub" dural bleeding in fact originates within the deep layers of the dura. The potential sources of SDH include: the bridging veins, small vessels within the dura itself, a granulating haemorrhagic membrane and ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Most neuropathologists do not routinely examine eyes, but the significance of this second arm of the triad in the diagnosis of Shaken Baby syndrome is such that it merits consideration in the context of this review. While retinal haemorrhage can be seen clinically, dural and subarachnoid optic nerve sheath haemorrhage is usually seen exclusively by the pathologist and only rarely described by the neuroradiologist. The term encephalopathy is used loosely in the context of SBS. It may encompass anything from vomiting, irritability, feeding difficulties or floppiness to seizures, apnoea and fulminant brain swelling. The spectrum of brain pathology associated with retinal and subdural bleeding from a variety of causes is described. The most important cerebral pathology is swelling and hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Mechanical shearing injury is rare and contusions, the hallmark of adult traumatic brain damage, are vanishingly rare in infants under 1 year of age. Clefts and haemorrhages in the immediate

  18. Pathology of Hodgkin's disease: anything new?

    PubMed

    Wright, D H

    1989-01-01

    This presentation deals with the gross and microscopic pathology of HD. Recent advances in immunohistochemistry, gene rearrangement studies and cell culture are not discussed, except where they shed light on the pathology. Clinical and pathological experience, over the past 2 decades, suggests that HD should be divided into six subtypes, as originally proposed by Lukes et al. (1966b), rather than the four subtypes included in the Rye classification. Nodular lymphocyte/histiocyte predominant HD forms a clinicopathological entity separate from the other subtypes. It most frequently presents at a single nodal site and, even without therapy, progresses only slowly over a period of many years. A proportion of the patients (in the region of 10%) develop large cell NHL and a smaller number develop other types of Hodgkin's disease. This progression is not due to therapy since it most frequently occurs in untreated patients. Characteristic polylobated RS cell variants are seen in NLPHD. These differ from classic RS cells in that they have a B-cell phenotype, they do not show light chain restriction and, therefore, they do not appear to be a clonal proliferation. Although current dogma states that classic RS cells must be identified before a diagnosis of HD, including NLPHD, is made, it is the author's contention, supported by immunohistochemistry, that this type of RS cell does not occur in NLPHD. Polylobated RS cell variants in the appropriate cellular setting are, in themselves, diagnostic of NLPHD. They also serve to differentiate NLPHD from progressive transformation of germinal centres, an unusual proliferative expansion that may occur in association with HD but which, in itself, appears to be an entirely benign, reactive process. Diffuse lymphocyte/histiocyte predominant HD (DLPHD) differs from NLPHD in its diffuse growth pattern and the frequent presence of larger numbers of histiocytes. Polylobated RS cells are characteristic of both diseases. In some biopsies

  19. [Forensic medicine and the overlap with pathology].

    PubMed

    Riepert, T

    2010-07-01

    Forensic medicine incorporates research, teaching and professional service. In the routine practice this encompasses interdisciplinary cooperation with physicians, natural scientists and the legal profession. Lectures in forensic medicine include the correct performance of an external examination of corpses, which every physician must be capable of, just as medical questions and the evidential documentation of injuries. Clinical forensic medicine encompasses the examination and documentation of living victims of physical and/or sexual violence. For further training to become a specialist for forensic medicine it is mandatory to undertake a 6-month training period in pathology. Fatalities with an unclear or unnatural manner of death must be registered with the police. On suspicion of third party involvement the public prosecutor will request a legal autopsy, which is carried out and documented by two physicians in accordance with the penal code. Imaging procedures are standard for an autopsy. Extensive samples are taken for additional testing, such as toxicological and molecular biological investigations.

  20. Epicardial Fat: Physiological, Pathological, and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan; Luzardo, Eliana; Mejías, José Carlos; Ferreira, Antonio; Rivas-Ríos, José Ramón; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2016-01-01

    Epicardial fat is closely related to blood supply vessels, both anatomically and functionally, which is why any change in this adipose tissue's behavior is considered a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease development. When proinflammatory adipokines are released from the epicardial fat, this can lead to a decrease in insulin sensitivity, low adiponectin production, and an increased proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. These adipokines move from one compartment to another by either transcellular passing or diffusion, thus having the ability to regulate cardiac muscle activity, a phenomenon called vasocrine regulation. The participation of these adipokines generates a state of persistent vasoconstriction, increased stiffness, and weakening of the coronary wall, consequently contributing to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, epicardial adipose tissue thickening should be considered a risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, a potential therapeutic target for cardiovascular pathology and a molecular point of contact for “endocrine-cardiology.” PMID:27213076