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  1. Seoul National University Bundang Hospital's Electronic System for Total Care

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Lee, Kee Hyuck; Lee, Hak Jong; Ha, Kyooseob; Lim, Cheong; Chin, Ho Jun; Yun, Jonghoar; Cho, Eun-Young; Chung, Eunja; Baek, Rong-Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Chul Hee; Lee, Hai-Seok; Byeon, Nam-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, which is the first Stage 7 hospital outside of North America, has adopted and utilized an innovative and emerging information technology system to improve the efficiency and quality of patient care. The objective of this paper is to briefly introduce the major components of the SNUBH information system and to describe our progress toward a next-generation hospital information system (HIS). Methods SNUBH opened in 2003 as a fully digital hospital by successfully launching a new HIS named BESTCare, "Bundang hospital Electronic System for Total Care". Subsequently, the system has been continuously improved with new applications, including close-loop medication administration (CLMA), clinical data warehouse (CDW), health information exchange (HIE), and disaster recovery (DR), which have resulted in the achievement of Stage 7 status. Results The BESTCare system is an integrated system for a university hospital setting. BESTCare is mainly composed of three application domains: the core applications, an information infrastructure, and channel domains. The most critical and unique applications of the system, such as the electronic medical record (EMR), computerized physician order entry (CPOE), clinical decision support system (CDSS), CLMA, CDW, HIE, and DR applications, are described in detail. Conclusions Beyond our achievement of Stage 7 hospital status, we are currently developing a next-generation HIS with new goals of implementing infrastructure that is flexible and innovative, implementing a patient-centered system, and strengthening the IT capability to maximize the hospital value. PMID:22844650

  2. A Case Study of MOOCs Design and Administration at Seoul National University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Mihwa; Han, Songlee; Seo, Seungil

    2014-01-01

    This research, based on the case study of edX at Seoul National University, which is running Korea's first Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), discussed and proposed the roles of principal facilitators, the process, and the relationships among various facilitators in selecting, designing, opening and administrating MOOCs classes. Researches on…

  3. Re-Locating the National: Spatialization of the National Past in Seoul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soochul

    2009-01-01

    This article is an attempt to make sense of the emerging culture of mobility in Seoul in the 1990s. The 1990s in a South Korean context is emblematic of a changed social reality and transformation. Grand narratives of development, anti-state democratization activism and Cold War politics were losing their effect and authority. Meanwhile, new…

  4. Design and Construction of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Younghwa; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Jung, Bongki; Lee, Hyunyeong; Sung, Choongki; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Na, Yong-Su; Hwang, Yong-Seok

    2011-10-01

    A new spherical torus, named as VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus), has been built at Seoul National University to investigate versatile research topics such as double null merging start-up, divertor engineering and non-inductive current drive. VEST is characterized by two partial solenoid coils installed at both vertical ends of a center stack, which will be used for double null merging start-up schemes. A poloidal field (PF) coil system including the partial solenoids for break-down and a long solenoid for the sustainment of merged plasma has been designed by solving circuit equations for the PF coils and vacuum vessel elements in consideration of required volt-second, null configuration and eddy current. To supply required currents to the PF coils and solenoids, power supplies based on double-swing circuit have been designed and fabricated with capacitor banks and thyristor switch assemblies. Also a power supply utilizing cost-effective commercial batteries has been developed for toroidal field(TF) coils. Detailed descriptions on the design of VEST and some initial test results will be presented.

  5. Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT): A Remotely Operated Robotic Telescope for Education and Research at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Myungshin; Choi, Changsu; Kim, Kihyun

    2015-08-01

    We introduce the Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT), a remotely operated, robotic 0.43-meter telescope. The telescope was installed at the Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, in 2014 October, to secure regular and exclusive access to the dark sky and excellent atmospheric conditions in the southern hemisphere from the Seoul National University (SNU) campus. Here, we describe the LSGT system and its performance, present example images from early observations, and discuss a future plan to upgrade the system. The use of the telescope includes (i) long-term monitoring observations of nearby galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and supernovae; (ii) rapid follow-up observations of transients such as gamma-ray bursts and gravitational wave sources; and (iii) observations for educational activities at SNU. Based on observations performed so far, we find that the telescope is capable of providing images to a depth of R=21.5 mag (point source detection) at 5-σ with 15 min total integration time under good obs-erving conditions.

  6. Case study: analysis of end-user requests on electronic medical record and computerized physician order entry system of Seoul National University Hospital in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ah; Shin, Soo-Yong; Jo, Eun-Mi; Park, Chan-Hee; Hwang, Min-A; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Chung, Chun Kee

    2010-01-01

    Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in Korea has utilized the full Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system since October 2004. Unlike other countries, most EMR systems in Korean teaching and general hospitals are in-house development systems. Therefore, we can actively respond to user requests on EMR. Here, based on 5 years of experience in EMR system operation, we analyzed 2,339 SNUH EMR user requests from 2006 to 2008 for improvement of EMR system operation and management. We classify user requests into 9 criteria based on guidelines from the SNUH medical information management team. In conclusion, the most common requests (73%) are for improvement of improving quality of care. However, requests associated with hospital enterprise, public policy, and customer service are gradually increased every year. Therefore, we suggest that suitable EMR management criteria are necessary for reliable EMR operation and management.

  7. Clinical study on psoriasis patients for past 30 years (1982-2012) in Seoul National University Hospital Psoriasis Clinic.

    PubMed

    Na, Sun Jae; Jo, Seong Jin; Youn, Jai Il

    2013-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing disorder which shows variable clinical features. The long-term clinical study with many patients is important to elucidate the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical features of psoriasis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical features of psoriasis in Korean patients. Epidemiologic and clinic data and assessments for severity of extent and activity of psoriasis were collected from the medical records of 5084 patients, who had been newly diagnosed with psoriasis in the Psoriasis Clinic of Seoul National University Hospital between 1982 and 2012. The sex ratio of the psoriasis patients was 1.2:1 (male 54.6%, female 45.4%). The peak age of onset in males was 20s, while it was the teenage years in females. A total of 63.5% of patients developed psoriasis before 30 years of age. Family history of psoriasis was observed in 26.0% of patients. Moderate to severe extent of involvement were more frequently observed in male patients and patients under 30 years of onset age than in females and patients 30 years or over of onset age, respectively. Moderate to severe disease activity were also more frequently presented in male patients, but not in patients under 30 years of onset age. The most common morphological type was nummular (56.7%), followed by large plaque (28.5%) and guttate (8.5%). Nail involvement accompanied in 26.4% of patients. We demonstrated the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of psoriasis in Korean patients.

  8. Cyanide Poisoning Deaths Detected at the National Forensic Service Headquarters in Seoul of Korea: A Six Year Survey (2005~2010)

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Jong Sook; Yum, Hye Sun

    2012-01-01

    The records of 255 cyanide poisoning deaths obtained from National Forensic Service (NFS) headquarters, located in Seoul of Korea, from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age was 41.88 ± 13.09 and range was 6~80 years (unknown in seven cases). The number of deaths of males and females were 200 and 53, respectively (unknown in two cases). The largest number of cases occurred in people aged 40-49 years (81 cases, 31.8%), followed by the age groups 30~39 years (51 cases, 20%), 50~59 years (44 cases, 17.2%) and 20~29 years (43 cases, 16.9%). The total number of deaths among other age groups (below 10, 10~19, 60~69, 70~79, over 80 years and unknown) were 36, representing only 14.1%. Of all cyanide poisoning deaths, 97.3% were due to suicide, and 14.5% of the total number who died received medical treatment. The most frequent site for ingestion was the person's own residence (120 cases, 47.1%) and the route of administration was mainly oral (252, 98.8%). From the total of 255 cyanide poisoning cases, white powders were submitted for analysis in 92 cases. Potassium cyanide and sodium cyanide occupied 51 and 41 cases, respectively. This study showed that poisoning deaths due to cyanide are one of the continuously reported public health problems in Korea. Enforcement of regulations and safety education to prevent cyanide poisoning should be carried out by the government. PMID:24278610

  9. Cyanide poisoning deaths detected at the national forensic service headquarters in seoul of Korea: a six year survey (2005~2010).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ki; Rhee, Jong Sook; Yum, Hye Sun

    2012-09-01

    The records of 255 cyanide poisoning deaths obtained from National Forensic Service (NFS) headquarters, located in Seoul of Korea, from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age was 41.88 ± 13.09 and range was 6~80 years (unknown in seven cases). The number of deaths of males and females were 200 and 53, respectively (unknown in two cases). The largest number of cases occurred in people aged 40-49 years (81 cases, 31.8%), followed by the age groups 30~39 years (51 cases, 20%), 50~59 years (44 cases, 17.2%) and 20~29 years (43 cases, 16.9%). The total number of deaths among other age groups (below 10, 10~19, 60~69, 70~79, over 80 years and unknown) were 36, representing only 14.1%. Of all cyanide poisoning deaths, 97.3% were due to suicide, and 14.5% of the total number who died received medical treatment. The most frequent site for ingestion was the person's own residence (120 cases, 47.1%) and the route of administration was mainly oral (252, 98.8%). From the total of 255 cyanide poisoning cases, white powders were submitted for analysis in 92 cases. Potassium cyanide and sodium cyanide occupied 51 and 41 cases, respectively. This study showed that poisoning deaths due to cyanide are one of the continuously reported public health problems in Korea. Enforcement of regulations and safety education to prevent cyanide poisoning should be carried out by the government.

  10. Implementation Issues of Virtual Desktop Infrastructure and Its Case Study for a Physician's Round at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Kim, Seok; Kim, Taegi; Kim, Jon Soo; Baek, Rong-Min; Suh, Chang Suk; Chung, Chin Youb

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The cloud computing-based virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) allows access to computing environments with no limitations in terms of time or place such that it can permit the rapid establishment of a mobile hospital environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the empirical issues to be considered when establishing a virtual mobile environment using VDI technology in a hospital setting and to examine the utility of the technology with an Apple iPad during a physician's rounds as a case study. Methods Empirical implementation issues were derived from a 910-bed tertiary national university hospital that recently launched a VDI system. During the physicians' rounds, we surveyed patient satisfaction levels with the VDI-based mobile consultation service with the iPad and the relationship between these levels of satisfaction and hospital revisits, hospital recommendations, and the hospital brand image. Thirty-five inpatients (including their next-of-kin) and seven physicians participated in the survey. Results Implementation issues pertaining to the VDI system arose with regard to the highly availability system architecture, wireless network infrastructure, and screen resolution of the system. Other issues were related to privacy and security, mobile device management, and user education. When the system was used in rounds, patients and their next-of-kin expressed high satisfaction levels, and a positive relationship was noted as regards patients' decisions to revisit the hospital and whether the use of the VDI system improved the brand image of the hospital. Conclusions Mobile hospital environments have the potential to benefit both physicians and patients. The issues related to the implementation of VDI system discussed here should be examined in advance for its successful adoption and implementation. PMID:23346476

  11. Pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.; Farber, J.L. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 29 chapters. Some of the titles are: Genetic and Systemic Diseases; Cell Injury; Inflammation; The Gastrointestinal o Tract; The Pancreas; Environmental and Nutritional Pathology; Infectious and Parasitic Diseases; and Blood Vessels.

  12. Outcomes of cytopathology studies presented at national pathology meetings.

    PubMed

    Ciesla, M C; Wojcik, E M

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what factors influence the final publication status of cytopathology studies presented at national meetings. Abstracts involving cytopathology material were obtained from the following journals: Modern Pathology (volume 11, 1998), Acta Cytologica (volume 42, 1998), and the American Journal of Clinical Pathology (volumes 109 and 110, 1998). Using the National Library of Medicine Website, each abstract was searched by author and topic to determine if the study was published as a peer-reviewed article. The following parameters were evaluated: meeting where the abstract was presented, type of institution where the research was based, type of material used in the study, and application of ancillary techniques used in the study. The subsequent published articles were evaluated for journal and time to publication. Out of 257 studies presented in 1998, 85 (33%) were published in peer-reviewed journals by May 2000. The majority of papers were published in Diagnostic Cytopathology (n = 21), Acta Cytologica (n = 15), and Cancer (n = 18). The mean time for publication was 12.8 mo. The highest percentage of published studies was presented at the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology (USCAP) meeting (50% of presented abstracts), followed by American Society of Cytopathology (ASC) (28%) and American Society of Clinical Pathologists (ASCP) (17%) meetings. Ancillary techniques were applied in 40 of 85 (47%) published studies, 27 of 85 (32%) articles focused on morphology, and 18 of 85 (21%) papers covered other topics (e.g., quality assurance (QA), cost, and role of cytology). In nonpublished studies (n = 172), special techniques were the main focus in 40%, morphology in 25%, and other topics in 35% of abstracts. The great majority (97%) of published studies were from academic institutions. Gynecological and nongynecological material were roughly equally covered in published and nonpublished studies. Only a relatively small

  13. Persistent Seoul virus infection in Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Compton, S R; Jacoby, R O; Paturzo, F X; Smith, A L

    2004-07-01

    Mechanistic studies of hantavirus persistence in rodent reservoirs have been limited by the lack of a versatile animal model. This report describes findings from experimental infection of inbred Lewis rats with Seoul virus strain 80-39. Rats inoculated with virus intraperitoneally at 6 days of age became persistently infected without clinical signs. Tissues from Seoul virus-inoculated 6-day-old rats were assessed at 6, 9, and 12 weeks post-inoculation for viral RNA by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH) and for infectious virus by inoculation of Vero E6 cells. Virus was isolated from lung and kidney of infected rats at 6 weeks and viral RNA was detected in lung, kidney, pancreas, salivary gland, brain, spleen, liver and skin at 6, 9 and 12 weeks. Rats inoculated with Seoul virus intraperitoneally at 10 or 21 days of age became infected without clinical signs but had low to undetectable levels of viral RNA in tissues at 6 weeks post-inoculation. ISH identified vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells as common sites of persistent infection. Cultured rat smooth muscle cells and to a lesser extent cultured endothelial cells also were susceptible to Seoul virus infection. Pancreatic infection resulted in insulitis with associated hyperglycemia. These studies demonstrate that infant Lewis rats are uniformly susceptible to asymptomatic persistent Seoul virus infection. Additionally, they offer opportunities for correlative in vivo and in vitro study of Seoul virus interactions in host cell types that support persistent infection.

  14. Pathology of brucellosis in bison from Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhyan, Jack C.; Gidlewski, T.; Roffe, T.J.; Aune, K.; Philo, L.M.; Ewalt, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Between February 1995 and June 1999, specimens from seven aborted bison (Bison bison) fetuses or stillborn calves and their placentas, two additional placentas, three dead neonates, one 2-wk-old calf, and 35 juvenile and adult female bison from Yellowstone National Park (USA) were submitted for bacteriologic and histopathologic examination. One adult animal with a retained placenta had recently aborted. Serum samples from the 35 juvenile and adult bison were tested for Brucella spp. antibodies. Twenty-six bison, including the cow with the retained placenta, were seropositive, one was suspect, and eight were seronegative. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from three aborted fetuses and associated placentas, an additional placenta, the 2-wk-old calf, and 11 of the seropositive female bison including the animal that had recently aborted. Brucella abortus biovar 2 was isolated from one additional seropositive adult female bison. Brucella abortus was recovered from numerous tissue sites from the aborted fetuses, placentas and 2-wk-old calf. In the juvenile and adult bison, the organism was more frequently isolated from supramammary (83%), retropharyngeal (67%), and iliac (58%) lymph nodes than from other tissues cultured. Cultures from the seronegative and suspect bison were negative for B. abortus. Lesions in the B. abortus-infected, aborted placentas and fetuses consisted of necropurulent placentitis and mild bronchointerstitial pneumonia. The infected 2-wk-old calf had bronchointerstitial pneumonia, focal splenic infarction, and purulent nephritis. The recently-aborting bison cow had purulent endometritis and necropurulent placentitis. Immunohistochemical staining of tissues from the culture-positive aborted fetuses, placentas, 2-wk-old calf, and recently-aborting cow disclosed large numbers of B. abortus in placental trophoblasts and exudate, and fetal and calf lung. A similar study with the same tissue collection and culture protocol was done using six

  15. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank

    PubMed Central

    Erichsen, Rune; Lash, Timothy L; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J; Bjerregaard, Beth; Vyberg, Mogens; Pedersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic histological and cytological specimens are routinely stored in pathology department archives. These biobanks are a valuable research resource for many diseases, particularly if they can be linked to high quality population-based health registries, allowing large retrospective epidemiological studies to be carried out. Such studies are of significant importance, for example in the search for novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers in the era of personalized medicine. Denmark has a wealth of highly-regarded population-based registries that are ideally suited to conduct this type of epidemiological research. We describe two recent additions to these databases: the Danish National Pathology Registry (DNPR) and its underlying national online registration database, the Danish Pathology Data Bank (DPDB). The DNPR and the DPDB contain detailed nationwide records of all pathology specimens analyzed in Denmark since 1997, and an incomplete but nonetheless valuable record of specimens from some pathology departments dating back to the 1970s. The data are of high quality and completeness and are sufficient to allow precise and efficient localization of the specimens. We describe the relatively uncomplicated procedures required to use these pathology databases in clinical research and to gain access to the archived specimens. PMID:20865103

  16. Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: a national study.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    Researchers have studied whether some youth are "addicted" to video games, but previous studies have been based on regional convenience samples. Using a national sample, this study gathered information about video-gaming habits and parental involvement in gaming, to determine the percentage of youth who meet clinical-style criteria for pathological gaming. A Harris poll surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1,178 American youth ages 8 to 18. About 8% of video-game players in this sample exhibited pathological patterns of play. Several indicators documented convergent and divergent validity of the results: Pathological gamers spent twice as much time playing as nonpathological gamers and received poorer grades in school; pathological gaming also showed comorbidity with attention problems. Pathological status significantly predicted poorer school performance even after controlling for sex, age, and weekly amount of video-game play. These results confirm that pathological gaming can be measured reliably, that the construct demonstrates validity, and that it is not simply isomorphic with a high amount of play.

  17. Regulatory T cells enhance persistence of the zoonotic pathogen Seoul virus in its reservoir host.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, Judith D; Zink, M Christine; Klein, Sabra L

    2007-09-25

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic pathogens that maintain a persistent infection in their reservoir hosts, yet the mechanisms mediating persistence remain unknown. Regulatory T cell responses cause persistent infection by suppressing proinflammatory and effector T cell activity; hantaviruses may exploit these responses to cause persistence. To test this hypothesis, male Norway rats were inoculated with Seoul virus and regulatory T cells were monitored during infection. Increased numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+)Forkhead box P3(+) T cells and expression of Forkhead box P3 and TGF-beta were observed in the lungs of male rats during persistent Seoul virus infection. To determine whether regulatory T cells modulate Seoul virus persistence, regulatory T cells were inactivated in male rats by using an anti-rat CD25 monoclonal antibody (NDS-63). Inactivation of regulatory T cells reduced the amount of Seoul virus RNA present in the lungs and the proportion of animals shedding viral RNA in saliva. Because regulatory T cells suppress proinflammatory-induced pathogenesis, pathologic observations in the lungs were evaluated during infection. Subclinical acute multifocal areas of hemorrhage and edema were noted in the lungs during infection; inactivation of regulatory T cells reduced the amount of pathologic foci. Expression of TNF was suppressed during the persistent phase of infection; inactivation of regulatory T cells eliminated the suppression of TNF. Taken together, these data suggest that regulatory T cells mediate Seoul virus persistence, possibly through elevated transcription and synthesis of TGF-beta and suppression of TNF. These data provide evidence of regulatory T cell involvement in the persistence of a zoonotic pathogen in its natural reservoir host.

  18. [The inter-university learning website: a national university network for online teaching of pathology].

    PubMed

    Gauchotte, Guillaume; Ameisen, David; Boutonnat, Jean; Battistella, Maxime; Copie, Christiane; Garcia, Stéphane; Rigau, Valérie; Galateau-Sallé, Françoise; Terris, Benoit; Vergier, Béatrice; Wendum, Dominique; Bertheau, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    Building online teaching materials is a highly time and energy consuming task for teachers of a single university. With the help of the Collège des pathologistes, we initiated a French national university network for building mutualized online teaching pathology cases, tests and other pedagogic resources. Nineteen French universities are associated to this project, initially funded by UNF3S (http://www.unf3s.org/). One national e-learning Moodle platform (http://virtual-slides.univ-paris7.fr/moodle/) contains texts, medias and URL pointing toward decentralized virtual slides. The Moodle interface has been explained to the teachers since september 2011 using web-based conferences with screen-sharing. The following contents have been created: 20 clinical cases, several tests with multiple choices and short answer questions, and gross examination videos. A survey with 16 teachers and students showed a 94 % satisfaction rate, most of the 16 participants being favorable to the development of e-learning, in parallel with other courses in classroom. These tools will be further developed for the different study levels of pathology. In conclusion, these tools offer very interesting perspectives for pathology teaching. The organization of a national inter-university network is a useful way to create and share numerous and good-quality pedagogic resources. PMID:23790654

  19. Air pollution trends and countermeasures of Seoul metropolitan area last 20 years

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, K.C.; Ghim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.P.; Kim, J.Y.

    1999-07-01

    The city of Seoul is a mega-city with the area of 605 km{sup 2} (0.6% of the total area of South Korea) but has about 25% (11 million) of the total population, 32% of the total vehicles, and more than 40% of the total national production. As a result, severe environmental problems have arisen in Seoul including frequent visibility impairment episodes and signs of photochemical smog. The visibility, air quality and gaseous characteristics of Seoul metropolitan were measured during the last several years, and investigated the air pollution trends and causes of last twenty years. The major parameters such as particle size distribution, light extinction budget, meteorological parameters and particle characteristics were measured and simulated. For this study, many different measurements of previous researchers' results were used in order to analyze the causes and counter measures. The yearly average concentrations of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and total suspended particles were decreased due to strong Korean government air quality control and clean fuel supplying policies. But the yearly average concentrations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide have not been decreased due to the drastically increased the number of vehicles and other impacts, such as transport of air pollutants from outside of Seoul. The smog phenomena and visibility impairment causes are to be more investigated in near future.

  20. Study on User Interface of Pathology Picture Archiving and Communication System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dasueran; Kang, Peter; Yun, Jungmin; Park, Sung-Hye; Seo, Jeong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Objectives It is necessary to improve the pathology workflow. A workflow task analysis was performed using a pathology picture archiving and communication system (pathology PACS) in order to propose a user interface for the Pathology PACS considering user experience. Methods An interface analysis of the Pathology PACS in Seoul National University Hospital and a task analysis of the pathology workflow were performed by observing recorded video. Based on obtained results, a user interface for the Pathology PACS was proposed. Results Hierarchical task analysis of Pathology PACS was classified into 17 tasks including 1) pre-operation, 2) text, 3) images, 4) medical record viewer, 5) screen transition, 6) pathology identification number input, 7) admission date input, 8) diagnosis doctor, 9) diagnosis code, 10) diagnosis, 11) pathology identification number check box, 12) presence or absence of images, 13) search, 14) clear, 15) Excel save, 16) search results, and 17) re-search. And frequently used menu items were identified and schematized. Conclusions A user interface for the Pathology PACS considering user experience could be proposed as a preliminary step, and this study may contribute to the development of medical information systems based on user experience and usability. PMID:24627818

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Seoul Virus Strain Tchoupitoulas.

    PubMed

    Miles, Rory W; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Atkinson, Barry; Pullan, Steven T; Lloyd, Graham; Bailey, Daniel

    2016-06-09

    Seoul virus (genus Hantavirus; family Bunyaviridae) is an emerging pathogen associated with cases of acute kidney injury in several countries across the globe. We report here the whole-genome sequence of the Tchoupitoulas strain of Seoul virus isolated in New Orleans, LA.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Seoul Virus Strain Tchoupitoulas

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Kuiama; Pullan, Steven T.; Lloyd, Graham; Bailey, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Seoul virus (genus Hantavirus; family Bunyaviridae) is an emerging pathogen associated with cases of acute kidney injury in several countries across the globe. We report here the whole-genome sequence of the Tchoupitoulas strain of Seoul virus isolated in New Orleans, LA. PMID:27284149

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Seoul Virus Strain Tchoupitoulas.

    PubMed

    Miles, Rory W; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Atkinson, Barry; Pullan, Steven T; Lloyd, Graham; Bailey, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Seoul virus (genus Hantavirus; family Bunyaviridae) is an emerging pathogen associated with cases of acute kidney injury in several countries across the globe. We report here the whole-genome sequence of the Tchoupitoulas strain of Seoul virus isolated in New Orleans, LA. PMID:27284149

  4. The National Toxicology Program Web-based nonneoplastic lesion atlas: a global toxicology and pathology resource.

    PubMed

    Cesta, Mark F; Malarkey, David E; Herbert, Ronald A; Brix, Amy; Hamlin, Melvin H; Singletary, Emily; Sills, Robert C; Bucher, John R; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Toxicologists and pathologists worldwide will benefit from a new, website-based, and completely searchable Nonneoplastic Lesion Atlas just released by the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP). The atlas is a much-needed resource with thousands of high-quality, zoomable images and diagnostic guidelines for each rodent lesion. Liver, gallbladder, nervous system, bone marrow, lower urinary tract and skin lesion images, and diagnostic strategies are available now. More organ and biological systems will be added with a total of 22 chapters planned for the completed project. The atlas will be used by the NTP and its many pathology partners to standardize lesion diagnosis, terminology, and the way lesions are recorded. The goal is to improve our understanding of nonneoplastic lesions and the consistency and accuracy of their diagnosis between pathologists and laboratories. The atlas is also a useful training tool for pathology residents and can be used to bolster any organization's own lesion databases. Researchers have free access to this online resource at www.ntp.niehs.nih.gov/nonneoplastic.

  5. Impulsivity and cognitive distortions in pathological gamblers attending the UK National Problem Gambling Clinic: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Michalczuk, R.; Bowden-Jones, H.; Verdejo-Garcia, A.; Clark, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pathological gambling (PG) is a form of behavioural addiction that has been associated with elevated impulsivity and also cognitive distortions in the processing of chance, probability and skill. We sought to assess the relationship between the level of cognitive distortions and state and trait measures of impulsivity in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Method Thirty pathological gamblers attending the National Problem Gambling Clinic, the first National Health Service clinic for gambling problems in the UK, were compared with 30 healthy controls in a case-control design. Cognitive distortions were assessed using the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS). Trait impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P, which includes scales of urgency, the tendency to be impulsive in positive or negative mood states. Delay discounting rates were taken as a state measure of impulsive choice. Results Pathological gamblers had elevated impulsivity on several UPPS-P subscales but effect sizes were largest (Cohen's d>1.4) for positive and negative urgency. The pathological gamblers also displayed higher levels of gambling distortions, and elevated preference for immediate rewards, compared to controls. Within the pathological gamblers, there was a strong relationship between the preference for immediate rewards and the level of cognitive distortions (R2=0.41). Conclusions Impulsive choice in the gamblers was correlated with the level of gambling distortions, and we hypothesize that an impulsive decision-making style may increase the acceptance of erroneous beliefs during gambling play. PMID:21733207

  6. For Medical Technologists: The Frontier of Clinical Pathology. Six Interviews Conducted at the National Institutes of Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Clinical Center.

    The responses of six medical technologists to an interviewer's questions give a view of the working life in the clinical pathology laboratory of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The technologists cite the competence of co-workers, sophisticated equipment, opportunities to further their education, and the challenge of participation in…

  7. Evaluation of Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Forecasts during the MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, C.; Kim, S.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    We report forecasting model performance analysis results of Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) simulation evaluated with flight measurements during Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul (MAPS-Seoul) field campaign. The primary focus of this study is two-fold: (1) the air quality forecasting model performance for O3, PM10/2.5 and their precursors over the Yellow Sea to measure the model's ability to account for the transport process and (2) the utilization of modeled source-receptor relationship to understand the root of systematic model under-prediction for PM10 and PM2.5 forecasts. MAPS-Seoul, conducted in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in the summer of 2015, was an integrated research program covering ground monitoring and aloft measurement with aircrafts. To support this field campaign, air quality forecasting was performed with Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) - CAMx modeling framework. WRF model simulations initialized with National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecasting System (NOAA/NCEP-GFS) were prepared for daily meteorological forecasts. Emission inventories used in this study are Model Inter-Comparison Study-Asia (MICS-Asia) 2010 for Asia and Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) 2010 for South Korea. Simulated PM10 concentrations were evaluated with observed PM10 concentrations at ground monitoring sites of the AirKorea network in SMA. During the campaign period, average simulated PM10 concentrations showed significant underprediction, over 30% (~35 ㎍/㎥) lower than those observed at sites. To examine source-receptor relationship as a way to identify the cause of underprediction, we ran CAMx with Particulate matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT). The air quality forecasting model is based on the with 27-km horizontal grid resolution over Northeast Asia.

  8. National Strategies for Developing Human Resources through Technical and Vocational Education and Training. The 2001 KRIVET International Conference on Technical and Vocational Education and Training [Proceedings] (Seoul, South Korea, November 21-23, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korea Research Inst. for Vocational Education and Training, Seoul.

    This document contains 19 papers and case studies, in English and Korean, from a conference on national strategies for developing human resources through technical and vocational education and training. The following are representative: "The Need to Innovate and Optimize Resources [Keynote]" (Wataru Iwamoto); "School to Work Transition in…

  9. Wood Decay Fungi in South Korea: Polypores from Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeongseon; Jang, Seokyoon; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Hanbyul; Lee, Young Min; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Min, Mihee; Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Changmu

    2014-01-01

    In Seoul, a majority of plant communities have undergone significant changes over the last few decades; however, how wood decay fungi have responded and adapted to the changes in vegetation remains unknown. Through an ongoing investigation of Korean indigenous fungi, ca. 300 specimens with poroid basidiocarp were collected in Seoul during 2008~2012. Morphological examination and molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer and nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA region sequences helped identify 38 species belonging to 28 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders in this area. Among them, three polypores, Abundisporus pubertatis, Coriolopsis strumosa, and Perenniporia maackiae were found to be new to South Korea. PMID:25071382

  10. 2015 summertime characteristic variations of NMHCs in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbons(NMHCs) is well known as a precursor of ozone and organic aerosols along with nitrogen oxides compounds. Recently, SOA(secondary Organic Aerosol) dominant fine particles and episodic high O3 are frequently observed throughout major cities of the East Asia, especially SMA(Seoul Metropolitan Area). Even though NMHCs play an important role in their producions, we still have great uncertainties of it's emission, transport and chemistry. During MAPS-Seoul 2015 (Magacity Air Pollution Studies- Seoul)/KORUS-AQ(Korea-US Air Quality Study), we measured NMHCs using automated dual column/FID GC system with thermal desorption unit to address science questions both defined in KORUS-AQ and MAPS-Seoul White papers. One column was designed to separate low boiling point NMHC(C2~C6), the other for high boiling point NMHC(C7~C12). 56 NMHC compounds were measured from 18th May to 12th June, 2015 at an urban site in hill top of Korea Institute of Science and Technology campus.During the observation period, sum of NMHCs ranged from 27.6 ppbv to 54.1 ppbv. Among them, the mean concentrations of ethane was the highest (7.0 ppbv), and propane(6.7 ppbv), toluene(4.9ppbv), n-butane(3.3 ppbv) were followed. These four species represented 54% of total NMHCs concentration. The detailed behaviors of NMHC species were discussed further.

  11. Strategies and Procedures in Developing and Implementing Curriculum. Report of a Sub-Regional Training Workshop on Curriculum Development (Seoul, August 1-30, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand).

    Nine representatives of Thailand, Nepal, Iran, and the Republic of Korea met in Seoul during the month of August, 1977, for a curriculum development training workshop co-sponsored by the Korean National Commission for UNESCO and the Asian Centre of Educational Innovation for Development (ACEID). One aim of the workshop was to improve the…

  12. Clinical–Pathologic Stage Discrepancy in Bladder Cancer Patients Treated With Radical Cystectomy: Results From the National Cancer Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Phillip J.; Lin, Chun Chieh; Jemal, Ahmedin; Shipley, William U.; Fedewa, Stacey A.; Kibel, Adam S.; Kamat, Ashish M.; Virgo, Katherine S.; Blute, Michael L.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Efstathiou, Jason A.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To examine the accuracy of clinical staging and its effects on outcome in bladder cancer (BC) patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC), using a large national database. Methods and Materials: A total of 16,953 patients with BC without distant metastases treated with RC from 1998 to 2009 were analyzed. Factors associated with clinical–pathologic stage discrepancy were assessed by multivariate generalized estimating equation models. Survival analysis was conducted for patients treated between 1998 and 2004 (n=7270) using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: At RC 41.9% of patients were upstaged, whereas 5.9% were downstaged. Upstaging was more common in females, the elderly, and in patients who underwent a more extensive lymphadenectomy. Downstaging was less common in patients treated at community centers, in the elderly, and in Hispanics. Receipt of preoperative chemotherapy was highly associated with downstaging. Five-year overall survival rates for patients with clinical stages 0, I, II, III, and IV were 67.2%, 62.9%, 50.4%, 36.9%, and 27.2%, respectively, whereas those for the same pathologic stages were 70.8%, 75.8%, 63.7%, 41.5%, and 24.7%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, upstaging was associated with increased 5-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.80, P<.001), but downstaging was not associated with survival (HR 0.88, P=.160). In contrast, more extensive lymphadenectomy was associated with decreased 5-year mortality (HR 0.76 for ≥10 lymph nodes examined, P<.001), as was treatment at an National Cancer Institute–designated cancer center (HR 0.90, P=.042). Conclusions: Clinical–pathologic stage discrepancy in BC patients is remarkably common across the United States. These findings should be considered when selecting patients for preoperative or nonoperative management strategies and when comparing the outcomes of bladder sparing approaches to RC.

  13. Seasonal Variations of Quantified Organic Compounds in PM10 over Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, N.; Lee, J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2014-12-01

    The concentrations of 87 individual organic matters in the PM10 samples, systematically collected on the roof of the School of Public Health building at Seoul National University (mixed commercial and residential area), Seoul, South Korea on a daily basis from April 2010 to April 2011, were quantified by mean of Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The daily average concentrations of five organic groups, alkanes, PAHs, fatty acid, DCAs, and sugars were ranged from 498.40 ng m3 to 10.20 μg m3. The seasonal concentrations of the total quantified organic species were 1.73 μg m3 (Spring), 2.04 μg m3 (Summer), 3.11 μg m3 (Fall), and 3.60 μg m3 (Winter), respectively. All the organic groups showed higher average concentration in winter than in summer. However, some organic compounds among fatty acids, DCAs, and sugars showed reverse pattern. The seasonal concentration patterns and episode variation of individual organic compounds were studied to clarify the emission characteristics of organic matters in PM10.

  14. The National Outcomes Measurement System for Pediatric Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Robert; Schooling, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS) was developed in the late 1990s. The primary purpose was to serve as a source of data for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who found themselves called on to provide empirical evidence of the functional outcomes associated with their…

  15. The Spatial and Temporal Pattern of Heavy Precipitation in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. S.; Yu, J.; Im, J.; Jin, R.

    2014-12-01

    1.Introduction Combined with summer heavy rainfall and urbanization today's urban area face higher frequency of heavy rainfall with higher intensity in summer than before. Heavy rainfall in short time makes it low elevation area to be susceptible to more flooding than before. According to KMA it is announced as heavy rainfall warning whose precipitation amount is equal to or greater than 150mm per 12 hours. And sometimes, these rainfall events bring out severe disasters such as the case of flooding in Gangnam Station, Daechi Station and landslides which resulted in 20 person death in downtown Seoul on July 27th, 2011. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal pattern of heavy precipitation in Seoul. Ultimately it aims to contribute these results to the proper urban planning and management. 2. Materials and Methods In this study, the digital topograhic data and weather data in Seoul Metropolitan Area were used to figure out the spatial distribution of summer heavy rainfall. The precipitation data in summer (June to Sep.) season were used to detect the recent changes of temporal and spatial features from 1995 to 2014 (20 years) using Automatic Weather tation (AWS) data in Seoul Metropolitan Area. The precipitation amount in summer during the past 20 years has been on the rise but rainy days have barely changed,which reveals the daily precipitation intensity has increased. After deriving the characteristic of heavy rainfall, the relationship among precipitation, topography and land uses were interpreted and discussed. This study is to investigate the characteristics of flood prone area by focusing topographic and land use characteristics. Ultimately it contributes to prepare the guideline for flood preventive urban plannig.

  16. Air pollution and daily mortality in Seoul and Ulsan, Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J T; Shin, D; Chung, Y

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between air pollution and daily mortality for the period 1991-1995 was examined in two Korean cities, Seoul and Ulsan. The observed concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2; mean = 28.7 ppb), ozone (O3; mean = 29.2 ppb), and total suspended particulates (TSP; mean = 82.3 microg/m3) during the study period were at levels below Korea's current ambient air quality standards. Daily death counts were regressed separately in the two cities, using Poisson regression on SO2, O3, and/or TSP controlling for variability in the weather and seasons. When considered singly in Poisson regression models controlling for seasonal variations and weather conditions, the nonaccidental mortality associated with a 50-ppb increment in a 3-day moving average of SO2 concentrations, including the concurrent day and the preceding 2 days, was 1.078 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.057-1.099] for Seoul and 1.051 (CI, 0.991-1.115) for Ulsan. The rate ratio was 1.051 (CI, 1.031-1.072) in Seoul and 0.999 (CI, 0. 961-1.039) in Ulsan per 100 microg/m3 for TSP, and 1.015 (CI, 1. 005-1.025) in Seoul and 1.020 (0.889-1.170) in Ulsan per 50 ppb for 1-hr maximum O3. When TSP was considered simultaneously with other pollutants, the TSP association was no longer significant. We observed independent pollution effects on daily mortality even after using various approaches to control for either weather or seasonal variables in the regression model. This study demonstrated increased mortality associated with air pollution at both SO2 and O3 levels below the current World Health Organization recommendations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9924011

  17. Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, J.-B.; Hopke, P. K.; Yi, S.-M.

    2009-07-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at a centrally located urban monitoring site in Seoul, Korea, every third day from March 2003 to December 2006 and analyzed for their chemical constituents. Sources were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF). A total of 393 samples were obtained during the sampling period, and 20 chemical species were measured. Nine PM2.5 source categories were identified providing physically realistic profiles and interesting insights into the source contributions to the ambient mass concentrations. The major contributors of PM2.5 were secondary nitrate (20.9%), secondary sulfate (20.5%), gasoline-fueled vehicles (17.2%), and biomass burning (12.1%), with lesser contributions from diesel emissions (8.1%), soil (7.4%), industry (6.7%), road salt and two-stroke vehicles (5.1%), and aged sea salt (2.2%). PM2.5 levels in Seoul were influenced by both local urban activities and regional-scale transport. Conditional probability function (CPF) results identified possible source directions of local sources such as motor vehicles (gasoline and diesel), industry, and road salt. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) results showed that possible source areas contributing to the elevated secondary particle concentrations (sulfate and nitrate) in Seoul to be the major industrial areas in China.

  18. Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, J.-B.; Hopke, P. K.; Yi, S.-M.

    2008-12-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at a centrally located urban monitoring site in Seoul, Korea, every third day from March 2003 to December 2006 and analyzed for their chemical constituents. Sources were identified using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). A total of 393 samples were obtained during the sampling period, and 20 chemical species were measured. Nine PM2.5 sources were identified providing physically realistic profiles and interesting insights into the source contributions to the ambient mass concentrations. The major sources of PM2.5 were secondary nitrate (20%), secondary sulfate (20%), gasoline-fueled vehicles (17%), and biomass burning (12%), with lesser contributions from diesel emissions (8%), soil (7%), industry (6%), road salt and two-stroke engine (5%), and aged sea salt (2%). PM2.5 levels in Seoul were influenced by both local urban activities and regional-scale transport. Conditional Probability Function (CPF) results identified possible source directions of local sources such as motor vehicles (gasoline and diesel), industry, and road salt. Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) results showed that possible source areas contributing to the elevated secondary particle concentrations (sulfate and nitrate) in Seoul to be the major industrial areas in China.

  19. Evidence of Diachronic Sound Change: A Comparative Acoustic Study of Seoul and Kyungsang Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjung

    2013-01-01

    The phonetics and phonology of the Kyungsang dialect of Korean is distinct from those of the standard Seoul dialect with regard to segments and lexical pitch. However, whether the distinctive phonetics and phonology of Kyungsang Korean are maintained by younger speakers is questionable due to the increased exposure to Seoul Korean and the…

  20. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    PubMed

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  1. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006) and Mortality Rates (1997–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006) and data on mortality (1997–2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  2. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    PubMed

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  3. Should pathological gambling and obesity be considered addictive disorders? A factor analytic study in a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; García-Anaya, María; Wall, Melanie; de los Cobos, José Carlos Pérez; Swierad, Ewelina; Wang, Shuai; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pathological gambling (PG) is now aligned with substance use disorders in the DSM-5 as the first officially recognized behavioral addiction. There is growing interest in examining obesity as an addictive disorder as well. The goal of this study was to investigate whether epidemiological data provide support for the consideration of PG and obesity as addictive disorders. Method Factor analysis of data from a large, nationally representative sample of US adults (N=43,093), using nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, PG and obesity as indicators. It was hypothesized that nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence and drug use dependence would load on a single factor. It was further hypothesized that if PG and obesity were addictive disorders, they would load on the same factor as substance use disorders, whereas failure to load on the addictive factor would not support their conceptualization as addictive disorders. Results A model with one factor including nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence and PG, but not obesity, provided a very good fit to the data, as indicated by CFI=0.99, TLI=0.99 and RMSEA=.01 and loadings of all indicators >0.4. Conclusion Data from this study support the inclusion of PG in a latent factor with substance use disorders but do not lend support to the consideration of obesity, as defined by BMI, as an addictive disorder. Future research should investigate whether certain subtypes of obesity are best conceptualized as addictive disorders and the shared biological and environmental factors that account for the common and specific features of addictive disorders. PMID:25769392

  4. Seoul virus in patients and rodents from Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shu-qing; Zhang, Pan-he; Jiang, Jia-fu; Zhan, Lin; Wu, Xiao-ming; Zhao, Wen-juan; Wang, Ri-min; Tang, Fang; Dun, Zhe; Cao, Wu-chun

    2008-05-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a significant public health problem with an increasing incidence in Beijing, China (report of disease surveillance from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, China). Hantaviruses were detected using RT-PCR method in blood samples of HFRS patients and lung tissues of rodents captured in Beijing. Phylogenetic analyses of 724bp partial S segment of the hantavirus gene showed that the detected Seoul virus (SEOV) fell into three different lineages, two of which circulated in Beijing. A nucleotide sequence identity of 99.7% for one of the cases of HFRS--the human- and Rattus norvegicus-originated SEOV sequences--had only two silent substitutions, suggesting genetic analysis is an essential tool for "case-investigation."

  5. Seoul virus and hantavirus disease, Shenyang, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Dong, Xue; Li, Xin; Ma, Chao; Xiong, Hai-Ping; Yan, Guang-Jie; Gao, Na; Jiang, Dong-Mei; Li, Ming-Hui; Li, Lu-Ping; Zou, Yang; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    An outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurred among students in Shenyang Pharmaceutical University in 2006. We conducted a study to characterize etiologic agents of the outbreaks and clarify the origin of hantaviruses causing infections in humans and laboratory animals. Immunoglobulin (Ig) M or IgG antibodies against Seoul virus (SEOV) were detected in the serum samples of all 8 patients. IgG antibodies against hantavirus were also identified in laboratory rats, which were used by these students for their scientific research. Phylogenetic analysis showed that partial small segment sequences recovered from humans, laboratory rats, and local wild rats belonged to SEOV. Hantavirus sequences recovered from humans and laboratory rats clustered within 1 of 3 lineages of SEOV circulating among local wild rats in Shenyang. These results suggest that the HFRS outbreak in Shenyang was caused by SEOV that was circulating among local wild rats and had also infected the laboratory rats.

  6. Unequal geographic distribution of life expectancy in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmi; Yi, Seonju; Kim, Meekyung; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwayoung; Jeon, Taekryeon; Cho, Youngtae

    2015-03-01

    This study examined life expectancies in 25 gus, administrative districts of Seoul, the capital of Korea, by gender in 1995, 2002, and 2008 to explore trends in mortality inequality among areas. The authors constructed single-decrement life tables and employed between-group variance, the Theil index, and mean log deviation to measure absolute and relative disparities in life expectancy among areas during the periods 1995-2002 and 2002-2008. It was found that life expectancy gaps between gus have widened in absolute and relative terms in both genders over the decade, and that this pattern was particularly dramatic in females after 2002. This increasing gap could be attributable to the more negative health impact on females since the late 1990s stemming from the economic crisis, eventually reflected in their places of residence. Thus, a social buffer system to narrow the health gap between geographic areas and social classes must be established.

  7. Computational Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  8. Clinico-pathological Analysis of the Lungs from Patients with Lung Transplantation in a Single Institute in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Lee, Hyun Joo; Kim, Young Tae; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the numbers of lung transplantation (LT) has been increased in Korea. However, post-LT outcome has not been successful in all patients, which may be partially affected by the primary lung disease. Therefore comprehensive understanding in original pathological diagnosis of patients with LT would be needed for achieving better clinical outcome. To address this issue, we performed clinico-pathological analysis of the explanted lungs from 29 patients who underwent LT over a 9-yr period in Seoul National University Hospital. Among them, 26 patients received single (1/26) or double (25/26) LT, while heart-lung transplantation was performed in 3 patients. The final clinico-pathological diagnoses were idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) (n = 6), acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP)/diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (n = 4), AIP/non-specific interstitial pneumonia with DAD (n = 1), collagen vascular disease-related interstitial lung disease (CVD-ILD)/DAD (n = 3), CVD-ILD/UIP (n = 1), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (n = 1), bronchiectasis (n = 4), pulmonary arterial hypertension (n = 2), tuberculosis (n = 1), bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) (n = 1), and lung cancer (n = 1). Moreover, 4 patients who had chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation due to hematologic malignancy showed unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia with extensive fibrosis in the lungs. Our study demonstrates that pathology of the explanted lungs from Korean patients with LT is different from that of other countries except for interstitial lung disease and bronchiectasis, which may be helpful for optimization of selecting LT candidates for Korean patients.

  9. Domestically acquired seoul virus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome-Maryland, 2008.

    PubMed

    Woods, Christian; Palekar, Rakhee; Kim, Peter; Blythe, David; de Senarclens, Olivier; Feldman, Katherine; Farnon, Eileen C; Rollin, Pierre E; Albariño, Cesar G; Nichol, Stuart T; Smith, Margo

    2009-11-15

    Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses capable of causing human disease. The Seoul virus is a hantavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in East Asia. To our knowledge, we report the first domestically acquired case of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by the Seoul virus, confirmed by serology testing, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and nucleotide sequence analysis. The patient presented with myalgias and fever, and developed acute renal failure.

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of PM2.5 in Seoul to Emissions and Reaction Rates Using the GEOS-Chem and its Adjoint Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. M.; Park, R.; Henze, D. K.; Shim, C.; Shin, H. J.; Song, I. H.; Park, J. S.; Park, S. M.; Moon, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The sources of PM2.5 are poorly quantified in Seoul, Korea, where tens of millions of populations are daily exposed to the exceedance of PM2.5 concentrations to the air quality criteria. We used a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and its adjoint to investigate the sensitivities of PM2.5 concentrations in Seoul to emission sources, sectors, and chemical reaction rates. We first conduct forward model simulations using a nested version of GEOS-Chem with 0.25°x0.3125° spatial resolutions in East Asia for July 2012 - July 2013. We evaluated the model by comparing it with PM2.5 mass and chemical composition observations at National Institute of Environmental Research sites in Korea. The model reasonably reproduces the observed seasonal variability of PM2.5 concentrations (R=0.3-0.6), but tends to overestimate the observations in summer and underestimate them in winter. Our sensitivity analyses show the dominant contributions from local emission sources to PM2.5 concentrations in Seoul compared to the trans-boundary transport influences from the outside, which are important for long-lived tracers in spring. Other results including the model sensitivity to input parameters and the updated emissions are used to improve the model performance and to provide strategic information for the KORUS-AQ flight measurement campaign in May-June, 2016.

  11. Musculoskeletal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Peat, Frances J; Kawcak, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    The current understanding of pathology as it relates to common diseases of the equine musculoskeletal system is reviewed. Conditions are organized under the fundamental categories of developmental, exercise-induced, infectious, and miscellaneous pathology. The overview of developmental pathology incorporates the new classification system of juvenile osteochondral conditions. Discussion of exercise-induced pathology emphasizes increased understanding of the contribution of cumulative microdamage caused by repetitive cyclic loading. Miscellaneous musculoskeletal pathology focuses on laminitis, which current knowledge indicates should be regarded as a clinical syndrome with a variety of possible distinct mechanisms of structural failure that are outlined in this overview. PMID:26037607

  12. Microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Kim, M.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2012-12-01

    On 9 February 2010, a minor earthquake occurred in the northwest of South Korea. The earthquake was widely felt in the Seoul National Capital Area (SNCA). The earthquake attracted much attention from media, politicians, policy makers and the public, who raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million (as of 2007) and is ranked as the second largest metropolitan area in the world. The SNCA has been the center of the economics, politics, and culture during the past half millennium since the city has been designated as the capital city in 1394. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2010 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including two previously reported events and nine newly identified micro-earthquakes. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative events (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using the first-motion polarities. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. It is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of

  13. Diurnal characteristics of volatile organic compounds in the Seoul atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Kwangsam; Kim, Yong Pyo; Moon, Kil Choo

    Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at a site in central Seoul from 8 to 13 September 1998. On each sampling day, three 2-h-integrated canister samples were collected in the morning, afternoon and evening, respectively, to observe diural variations of VOCs. Most of the VOCs species showed diurnal variations with higher concentrations during the morning and evening, and lower concentrations during the afternoon. However, in the afternoon, the concentrations of aromatic compounds, closely correlated with solvent usage such as toluene, ethylbenzene, m-/p-xylene, and o-xylene, were slightly higher than or comparable to those in the morning. This may be due to the increase of evaporative emissions derived from the rise in ambient temperature and additional sources such as the use of solvents in painting, printing and dry cleaning. To estimate the participation of individual VOCs in ozone formation, propylene equivalent concentrations were calculated. The results showed that toluene was the most dominant contributor to ozone formation as well as ambient VOC concentrations. Toluene/benzene and m-/ p-xylene/benzene ratios showed a high observed in the afternoon and a low observed in the morning and evening. This may be because the contribution of evaporative emissions by solvent usage on the ambient VOC concentrations is more dominant than those of vehicle-related emissions and photochemical loss.

  14. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-07-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

  15. EZ lidar dust transit phenomena observations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, S.; Sauvage, L.; Loaec, S.

    2009-09-01

    Duststorms and sandstorms regularly devastate Northeast Asia and cause considerable damage to transportation system and public health; further, these events are conceived to be one of the very important indices for estimating the global warming and desertification. Previously, yellow sand events were considered natural phenomena that originate in deserts and arid areas. However, the greater scale and frequency of these events in recent years are considered to be the result of human activities such as overgrazing and over-cultivation. Japan, Korea, Cina and Mongolia are directly concerned to prevent and control these storms and have been able to some extent to provide forecasts and early warnings. In this framework, to improve the accuracy of forecasting , a compact and rugged eye safe lidar, the EZ LIDATM, developed together by Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et l'Environnement (LSCE) (CEA-CNRS) and LEOSPHERE, France) to study and investigate structural and optical properties of clouds and aerosols, thanks to the strong know-how of CEA and CNRS in the field of air quality measurements and cloud observation and analysis, was deployed in Seoul, Korea in order to detect and study yellow sand events, thanks to its depolarization channel and scan capabilities. The preliminary results, showed in this paper, of this measurement campaign put in evidence that EZ Lidar, for its capabilities of operating unattended day and night under each atmospheric condition, is mature to be deployed in a global network to study long-range transport, crucial in the forecasting model.

  16. Development and assessment of road weather information in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sanghoo; Lee, Jonghak; Kim, Mingyu; Choi, Youngjean

    2016-04-01

    Road-based transport is essential for populations operating in large urban environments. Driving conditions are impacted by the intensity of rainfall. However, rainfall is not directly measured on roads. In this study, we evaluated road weather prediction accuracy using representative rainfall days in Seoul, South Korea, during 2013.Data were collected by 190 weather stations, of which 33 were located within 20 meters of a road and were used as model validation sites, while the remaining 157 were used as model fitting sites. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK) based on variograms were considered for interpolation. We used the bias, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and correlation coefficient (CC) as the prediction performance criteria. The prediction performance of OK was higher than that of IDW. As expected, prediction performance increased when the number of rainfall observations increased. We also simulated road conditions using the accumulated historical rainfall data. Generating road information for the entire urban road network is very expensive; therefore, 177,599 road positions were reproduced from 22,184 road link units. Finally, safe driving speeds were calculated from simulated rainfall, stopping distance, and visibility distance.We hope that the results of this study will provide a basis for the safety information given to road users.

  17. Comprehensive monitoring of drinking well water quality in Seoul metropolitan city, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Susaya, Janice P; Park, Chan Goo; Uhm, Jung-Hoon; Hur, Jin

    2013-08-01

    In this research, the quality of drinking well waters from 14 districts around Seoul metropolitan city, Korea was assessed by measuring a number of parameters with established guideline (e.g., arsenic, fluoride, nitrate nitrogen, benzene, 1,2-dichloroethene, dichloromethane, copper, and lead) and without such criteria (e.g., hardness, chloride ion, sulfate ion, ammonia nitrogen, aluminum, iron, manganese, and zinc). Physical parameters such as evaporation residue (or total dissolved solids) and turbidity were also measured. The importance of each parameter in well waters was examined in terms of the magnitude and exceedance frequency of guideline values established by international (and national) health agencies. The results of this study indicate that among the eight parameters with well-established guidelines (e.g., WHO), arsenic and lead (guideline value of 0.01 mg L(-1) for both) recorded the highest exceedance frequency of 18 and 16 well samples ranging in 0.06-136 and 2-9 mg L(-1), respectively. As such, a number of water quality parameters measured from many well waters in this urban area were in critical levels which require immediate attention for treatment and continuous monitoring.

  18. Comprehensive monitoring of drinking well water quality in Seoul metropolitan city, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Susaya, Janice P; Park, Chan Goo; Uhm, Jung-Hoon; Hur, Jin

    2013-08-01

    In this research, the quality of drinking well waters from 14 districts around Seoul metropolitan city, Korea was assessed by measuring a number of parameters with established guideline (e.g., arsenic, fluoride, nitrate nitrogen, benzene, 1,2-dichloroethene, dichloromethane, copper, and lead) and without such criteria (e.g., hardness, chloride ion, sulfate ion, ammonia nitrogen, aluminum, iron, manganese, and zinc). Physical parameters such as evaporation residue (or total dissolved solids) and turbidity were also measured. The importance of each parameter in well waters was examined in terms of the magnitude and exceedance frequency of guideline values established by international (and national) health agencies. The results of this study indicate that among the eight parameters with well-established guidelines (e.g., WHO), arsenic and lead (guideline value of 0.01 mg L(-1) for both) recorded the highest exceedance frequency of 18 and 16 well samples ranging in 0.06-136 and 2-9 mg L(-1), respectively. As such, a number of water quality parameters measured from many well waters in this urban area were in critical levels which require immediate attention for treatment and continuous monitoring. PMID:23307049

  19. Osler's pathology.

    PubMed

    Pai, S A

    2000-12-01

    Sir William Osler, one of the giants of clinical medicine, had his initial training as a pathologist. He was one of the physicians responsible for the impact that autopsies have had on medicine. He also contributed to the development of laboratory medicine. Osler made significant discoveries in anatomic pathology and hematology. His expertise was restricted not just to human pathology, but also to veterinary pathology. His mentors played a fundamental role in his achievements in academics.

  20. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992: The JANUS Program Survival and Pathology Data

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, D.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.; Williamson, F.S.; Fox, C.

    1995-02-01

    A research reactor for exclusive use in experimental radiobiology was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1960`s. It was located in a special addition to Building 202, which housed the Division of Biological and Medical Research. Its location assured easy access for all users to the animal facilities, and it was also near the existing gamma-irradiation facilities. The water-cooled, heterogeneous 200-kW(th) reactor, named JANUS, became the focal point for a range of radiobiological studies gathered under the rubic of {open_quotes}the JANUS program{close_quotes}. The program ran from about 1969 to 1992 and included research at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to organism. More than a dozen moderate- to large-scale studies with the B6CF{sub 1} mouse were carried out; these focused on the late effects of whole-body exposure to gamma rays or fission neutrons, in matching exposure regimes. In broad terms, these studies collected data on survival and on the pathology observed at death. A deliberate effort was made to establish the cause of death. This archieve describes these late-effects studies and their general findings. The database includes exposure parameters, time of death, and the gross pathology and histopathology in codified form. A series of appendices describes all pathology procedures and codes, treatment or irradiation codes, and the manner in which the data can be accessed in the ORACLE database management system. A series of tables also presents summaries of the individual experiments in terms of radiation quality, sample sizes at entry, mean survival times by sex, and number of gross pathology and histopathology records.

  1. Spatial regression analysis of traffic crashes in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Kyoung-Ah; Kim, Joon-Ki; Lee, Young-ihn; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F

    2016-06-01

    Traffic crashes can be spatially correlated events and the analysis of the distribution of traffic crash frequency requires evaluation of parameters that reflect spatial properties and correlation. Typically this spatial aspect of crash data is not used in everyday practice by planning agencies and this contributes to a gap between research and practice. A database of traffic crashes in Seoul, Korea, in 2010 was developed at the traffic analysis zone (TAZ) level with a number of GIS developed spatial variables. Practical spatial models using available software were estimated. The spatial error model was determined to be better than the spatial lag model and an ordinary least squares baseline regression. A geographically weighted regression model provided useful insights about localization of effects. The results found that an increased length of roads with speed limit below 30 km/h and a higher ratio of residents below age of 15 were correlated with lower traffic crash frequency, while a higher ratio of residents who moved to the TAZ, more vehicle-kilometers traveled, and a greater number of access points with speed limit difference between side roads and mainline above 30 km/h all increased the number of traffic crashes. This suggests, for example, that better control or design for merging lower speed roads with higher speed roads is important. A key result is that the length of bus-only center lanes had the largest effect on increasing traffic crashes. This is important as bus-only center lanes with bus stop islands have been increasingly used to improve transit times. Hence the potential negative safety impacts of such systems need to be studied further and mitigated through improved design of pedestrian access to center bus stop islands. PMID:26994374

  2. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  3. Summing up the Global Health Security Agenda 2015 High Level Meeting in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Ghsa Preparation Task Force Team

    2015-12-01

    The Second Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) 2015 High Level Meeting was successfully held in September 7 to 9 in Seoul, the Republic of Korea (ROK). Delegations from 46 countries including 26 ministerial level officials and 9 international organizations participated in the meeting. ROK, one of the 10 steering group countries of GHSA, shared the importance of multi-sectoral response through the experiences of Able Response Exercise, and MERS outbreak countermeasure with international communities. ROK promised to input 10 billion USD to strengthen the capacities to respond infectious diseases in developing countries. Seoul Declaration, the first collaborative efforts on heal security, was announced at the end of the meeting. Seoul Declaration holds GHSA vision promising international collaboration and commitment. PMID:27429903

  4. Gender difference in the affricate productions of young Seoul Korean speakers.

    PubMed

    Kong, Eun Jong; Kang, Soyoung; Seo, Misun

    2014-10-01

    This study explored gender-related differences in affricates' place of articulation of young Seoul Korean speakers. Word-initial and medial affricates before /a/ and /i/ collected from 42 adult Seoul speakers were compared with alveolar and palatalized fricatives in the same vowel conditions by examining spectral peak frequencies of the frication part of the consonants. Results showed evidence of gender differences in the acoustic realization of word-medial affricates, which implies a more anterior articulation in females' productions before /a/. Possibilities for sound change in affricates led by females or the use of anterior affricates as a socially indexed gender marker are discussed. PMID:25324118

  5. Oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  6. Properties of 21 Urban Agricultural Soils in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    The number of urban agriculture practitioners has been increasing rapidly in Korea like many other urbanized countries recently. The Korean government enacted a law for promoting urban agriculture in 2011. However, urban soil environment can be potential sources of many toxic contaminants including heavy metals making people concern about the safety of the agricultural products from the urban agriculture. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and plant by overuse of compost from animal waste was one of the raised concerns. This study was carried out to find out properties and total and phytoavailable (1.0 M NH4NO3 extractable) contents of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in 21 urban agricultural soils in Seoul. On the average, the investigated urban soils showed pH1:5 6.89, EC1:5 0.14 dS m-1, organic mater 2.22%, available P2O5 139 mg kg-1, cation exchange capacity (CEC) 11.36 cmolc kg-1 and total nitrogen 0.15%. The average exchangeable-Ca, -Mg, -K and -Na of the 21 samples were 6.71, 1.44, 1.06 and 0.30 cmol+ kg-1, respectively. Total heavy metal concentrations (Cd 0.97-3.17 mg kg-1, average 1.89 mg kg-1; Pb 8.10-46.27 mg kg-1, average 19.96 mg kg-1; Cu 8.97-133.40 mg kg-1, average 38.37 mg kg-1; and Zn 38.97-180.06 mg kg-1, average 97.73 mg kg-1) in urban agricultural soils were lower than those of the warning standard in the area 1 according to the Soil Environmental Conservation Act of Korea. Phytoavailable-Cu, -Pb, and -Zn concentrations of the samples showed 0.02-0.28, N.D-0.09 and 0.01-0.43 mg kg-1, respectively. Phytoavailable-Cd was not detected. The average phytoavailable-Cu concentration from this study was similar to that from the previous phytoavailable-Cu of the highly contaminated soils from nearby abandoned mines, which might be resulted from overuse of compost from animal waste. Results showed a necessity of long-term monitoring of soils for sustainable urban agriculture in Korea.

  7. Assessment of Flood Vulnerability to Climate Change Using Fuzzy Operators in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study is to apply the IPCC(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) concept of vulnerability to climate change and verify the use of a combination of vulnerability index and fuzzy operators to flood vulnerability analysis and mapping in Seoul using GIS. In order to achieve this goal, this study identified indicators influencing floods based on literature review. We include indicators of exposure to climate(daily max rainfall, days of 80㎜ over), sensitivity(slope, geological, average DEM, Impermeability layer, topography and drainage), and adaptive capacity(retarding basin and green-infra). Also, this research used fuzzy operator model for aggregating indicators, and utilized frequency ratio to decide fuzzy membership values. Results show that number of days of precipitation above 80㎜, the distance from river and impervious surface have comparatively strong influence on flood damage. Furthermore, when precipitation is over 269㎜, areas with scare flood mitigation capacities, industrial land use, elevation of 16˜20m, within 50m distance from rivers are quite vulnerable to floods. Yeongdeungpo-gu, Yongsan-gu, Mapo-gu include comparatively large vulnerable areas. The relative weight of each factor was then converted into a fuzzy membership value and integrated as a flood vulnerability index using fuzzy operators (fuzzy AND, fuzzy OR, fuzzy algebraic sum, and fuzzy algebraic product). Comparing the results of the highest for the fuzzy AND operator, fuzzy gamma operator (γ = 0.2) is higher with improved computational. This study improved previous flood vulnerability assessment methodology by adopting fuzzy operator model. Also, vulnerability map provides meaningful information for decision makers regarding priority areas for implementing flood mitigation policies. Acknowledgements: The authors appreciate the support that this study has received from "Development of Time Series Disaster Mapping Technologies through Natural Disaster Factor Spatial

  8. Pansteatitis of unknown etiology associated with large-scale Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) mortality in Kruger National Park, South Africa: pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Govender, Danny; Bengis, Roy G; Buss, Peter E; Hofmeyr, Markus; Myburgh, Jan G; Steyl, Johan C A; Pienaar, Daniel J; Kotze, Antoinette

    2013-12-01

    Annual mortality events in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Olifants River Gorge in Kruger National Park, South Africa, were experienced between 2008 and 2012, during which at least 216 crocodiles died. Live crocodiles were lethargic. Necropsy examination of 56 affected crocodiles showed dark yellow-brown firm nodules in both somatic fat and the abdominal fat body. In all of the 11 crocodiles submitted for histology, degenerative, necrotic, and inflammatory changes supported a diagnosis of steatitis in both fat types. Crocodiles are apex predators in this anthropogenically changed aquatic ecosystem that is used by humans upstream and downstream from the park for domestic, agricultural, fishing, and recreational purposes. This pathologic review of pansteatitis in crocodiles in the Olifants River system was part of a broad multidisciplinary research program. To date, no definitive causative agent has been identified. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that this event may have been a one-time event with long-standing repercussions on the health of the crocodiles. Pathologic findings are rarely documented in wild crocodilians. This study also reports on other conditions, including the presence of coccidian oocysts, capillarid and filaroid nematodes, digenetic trematodes, and pentastomes.

  9. General characteristics of causes of urban flood damage and flood forecasting/warning system in Seoul, Korea Young-Il Moon1, 2, Jong-Suk Kim1, 2 1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, South Korea 2 Urban Flood Research Inst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-Suk

    2015-04-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and climate change, the frequency of concentrated heavy rainfall has increased, causing urban floods that result in casualties and property damage. As a consequence of natural disasters that occur annually, the cost of damage in Korea is estimated to be over two billion US dollars per year. As interest in natural disasters increase, demands for a safe national territory and efficient emergency plans are on the rise. In addition to this, as a part of the measures to cope with the increase of inland flood damage, it is necessary to build a systematic city flood prevention system that uses technology to quantify flood risk as well as flood forecast based on both rivers and inland water bodies. Despite the investment and efforts to prevent landside flood damage, research and studies of landside-river combined hydro-system is at its initial stage in Korea. Therefore, the purpose of this research introduces the causes of flood damage in Seoul and shows a flood forecasting and warning system in urban streams of Seoul. This urban flood forecasting and warning system conducts prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and performs prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded area and also supports synthetic decision-making for prevention through real-time monitoring. Although we cannot prevent damage from typhoons or localized heavy rain, we can minimize that damage with accurate and timely forecast and a prevention system. To this end, we developed a flood forecasting and warning system, so in case of an emergency there is enough time for evacuation and disaster control. Keywords: urban flooding, flood risk, inland-river system, Korea Acknowledgments This research was supported by a grant (13AWMP-B066744-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program (AWMP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  10. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) at the urban core site of Seoul during 2015 MAPS / KORUS - AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    A few measurements of atmospheric PAN were made in Seoul for the last decade. One study showed the average and maximum PAN concentration in summer of 2004 and 2005 with 0.8 ppb and 10.4 ppb and another study specified 0.64 ppb and 5.03 ppb, respectively in 2011. In this study, the measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) have been conducted at an urban site situated in KIST campus (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 127° 2'E, 37° 36'N) from May 18 to June 12, 2015. PAN was measured every 2 minutes by a fast chromatography with luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. Concentration of PAN ranged from 0.15ppbv to 4.37ppbv, with the average of 0.57 ppbv. PAN revealed its peak between 2 and 4 pm matching with the photochemical activities and precursor emission. When comparing with historic data of PAN in urban Seoul during the past decade, it has decreased about 50%. The rather rapid decrease of summertime PAN level for last ten years in Seoul will be discussed further with the behaviors of its precursor species.

  11. Using a choice experiment to measure the environmental costs of air pollution impacts in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun; Lee, Joo-Suk

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution, a by-product of economic growth, has been incurring extensive environmental costs in Seoul, Korea. Unfortunately, air pollution impacts are not treated as a commercial item, and thus it is difficult to measure the environmental costs arising from air pollution. There is an imminent need to find a way to measure air pollution impacts so that appropriate actions can be taken to control air pollution. Therefore, this study attempts to apply a choice experiment to quantifying the environmental costs of four air pollution impacts (mortality, morbidity, soiling damage, and poor visibility), using a specific case study of Seoul. We consider the trade-offs between price and attributes of air pollution impacts for selecting a preferred alternative and derive the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) estimate for each attribute. According to the results, the households' monthly WTP for a 10% reduction in the concentrations of major pollutants in Seoul was found to be approximately 5494 Korean won (USD 4.6) and the total annual WTP for the entire population of Seoul was about 203.4 billion Korean won (USD 169.5 million). This study is expected to provide policy-makers with useful information for evaluating and planning environmental policies relating specifically to air pollution.

  12. An Incidence Survey of Battered Children in Two Elementary Schools of Seoul.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwang-iel; Ko, Bokja

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 1,142 elementary school students in Seoul (Korea) found that 8 percent were seriously battered, 58 percent were mildly battered, and 34 percent were unbattered in a 1-year period. Child battering was more serious in families in lower social strata, with poor living conditions, in broken families, and where parents were unskilled or…

  13. 76 FR 51350 - Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission (AESTM) to Seoul, Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... manner, including publication in the Federal Register ( http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr ), posting on ITA's... Seoul ADEX include foreign and Korean VIPs, government officials, senior company managers, and high... a close working relationship between the U.S. and Korean governments and private aerospace...

  14. Assessment of a Megacity Air Quality Management Policy using the GAINS-Korea : Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Ahn, Y. H.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Amann, M.; Wagner, F.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution in and near megacities are very severe because of their massive pollutant emissions and high population density. Korea has ambitiously set its 2nd phase capitol air quality improvement program called Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP), targeting the year 2024. The air quality improvement targets for the year 2024 are 30 ug/m3 and 20 ug/m3 for PM10 and pm2.5, respectively and planned expenditure are almost 4 billion US dollar. Emissions of PM10, PM2.5 are required to be decreased up to 35%, 45%, respectively, from their future baseline level. Various special measures, such as cap-and-trade, LNB, EURO standards program, will be implemented to control emissions over Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi-do area. Smart approach of reducing air pollution and GHGs are, however, required to maximize improvement of metropolitan air quality and climate change. IIASA's Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions aNd Synergies(GAINS) modeling framework is an widely used tool to design and manage smart emission control strategies that can achieve air quality/climate improvements with least costs. We have developed the national version of GAINS for Korea (GAINS-Korea) to set up those strategies for national and regional scale. In this study, we have implemented SAQMP in the GAINS-Korea Model and assess its effects of emissions reduction and air quality improvements. Various analysis results using the framework will be presented at site.

  15. Light Pollution Surveys around the Seoul Capital Area: Results from 2009 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinhee; An, Sung-Ho; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Roh, Eunji; Chiang, Howoo; Kim, Jinhyub; Kim, Seongjoong; Park, Songyoun

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a series of light pollution surveys in the periods of 2009/2010 and 2014/2015 at ~130 sites within the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We quantitatively measured the night sky brightness in the unit of mag/arcsec2 with the ‘SQM (Sky Quality Meter)-L’ by considering the following conditions: 1) fully dark sky after astronomical twilight, 2) good weather with the cloud amount less than 10%, and 3) ensure no contaminations from nearby street lights to the measured value. We find that the night sky is getting darker from the center of Seoul to the outskirts of Gyeonggi-do by a factor of ~40. In both surveys, for example, the brightest site is Namsan Elementary School (Jung-gu, Seoul: 16.3 and 16.5 mag/arcsec2 in 2009/2010 and 2014/2015, respectively), located nearly at the middle of Seoul. Also, the darkest site is Goseong-ri (Gapyeong-gun, Gyeonggi-do: 20.1 and 20.6 mag/arcsec2 in 2009/2010 and 2014/2015, respectively), situated ~50 km northeast of the brightest site. In addition, the night sky brightness in 2014/2015 is on average darker by ~0.4 mag/arcsec2 compared to the brightness in 2009/2010, which indicates the reduced light pollution in the Seoul Capital Area. In this contribution, we will present the maps of the night sky brightness in the capital region of Korea from both surveys, and discuss the possible reasons for the changes in night sky brightness within 5 years.

  16. [Clinical pathology].

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Jovan

    2006-05-01

    This work describes the basic elements of pathology used in clinical practice. Pathology plays an important role in clinical and scientific work, but only a few areas of pathology will be covered. Although the contribution of oncological and surgical pathology to therapy is the most well known, the cases chosen here will involve infectious pathology, diseases of the kidney and the liver, autoimmune diseases, as well as organ transplantation. Especially important is the description of methods that enable more accurate morphological diagnoses, such as histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and electronic microscopy. Previous experience and joint work with clinical doctors have enabled the definition of significant morphological elements as well as of essential methods of pathohistological diagnosis. Besides, as is often the case, although disease symptoms are difficult to discern and biochemical results do not show significant changes compared to normal values, the results of biopsy come as a surprise to clinical doctors. For example, in virus hepatitis B involving so-called asymptomatic HBsAg carriers, we discovered every morphological form of hepatitis, from minimal lesions to chronic, persistent, and active hepatitis. With hepatitis C, certain morphological lesions point to the etiopathogenesis of this disease and thus help to confirm the diagnosis and to instigate therapy on time. Another significant experience involves kidney biopsies in cases when clinical findings are asymptomatic. Often, in such cases, morphological findings point to glomerulonephritis and glomerulopathy at different stages. Timely and subtle morphological diagnostics offer a more precise explanation for the pathological injury of tissues than other diagnostic methods. In this way, by adopting new methods, the work of pathologists is included more and more in everyday clinical practice. The inclusion of pathologists in a transplantation team makes sure a proper selection of

  17. Evaluation of CMAQ and CAMx Ensemble Air Quality Forecasts during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.; Kim, S.; Bae, C.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of Air quality forecasts during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign was evaluated. An forecast system has been operated to support the campaign's daily aircraft route decisions for airborne measurements to observe long-range transporting plume. We utilized two real-time ensemble systems based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)-Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) modeling framework and WRF-SMOKE- Community Multi_scale Air Quality (CMAQ) framework over northeastern Asia to simulate PM10 concentrations. Global Forecast System (GFS) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) was used to provide meteorological inputs for the forecasts. For an additional set of retrospective simulations, ERA Interim Reanalysis from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) was also utilized to access forecast uncertainties from the meteorological data used. Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and National Institute of Environment Research (NIER) Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) emission inventories are used for foreign and domestic emissions, respectively. In the study, we evaluate the CMAQ and CAMx model performance during the campaign by comparing the results to the airborne and surface measurements. Contributions of foreign and domestic emissions are estimated using a brute force method. Analyses on model performance and emissions will be utilized to improve air quality forecasts for the upcoming KORUS-AQ field campaign planned in 2016.

  18. AB017. The extended newborn screening by tandem mass in Taiwan—results from two national newborn screening centers: Taipei Institute of Pathology & Chinese Foundation of Health

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Dau-Ming; Chiang, Chuan-Chi; Ho, Hui-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Since 2001, tandem mass spectrometry was introduced for newborn screening by two Taiwan national newborn screening centers: Taipei Institute of Pathology and Chinese Foundation of Health, in Taiwan, respectively. A total of 24 metabolic disorders, including 6 amino acidopathies, 8 organic acid disorders and 9 fatty acid disorders, etc., were screened and the newborns with positive screening result were referred to Taipei Veterans General Hospital for confirmatory diagnosis. Until Dec 2014, a total of 1,391,583 newborns have been screened by these two newborn screening centers. The overall incidence of inborn errors of metabolism identified by tandem mass was approximately 1/6,000. The most common inborn errors were defects of phenylalanine metabolism (phenylketonuria: 1/60,000; 6-pyruvoyltertrahydropterin synthase (PTPS): 1/110,000). Maple syrup urine disease was the second most common amino acidopathy (1/100,000) and, significantly, most MSUD patients (75%) belonged to the Austronesian aboriginal tribes of southern Taiwan. The most frequently detected organic acid disorder was 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (1/35,000). Glutaric aciduria type 1 and methylmalonic academia were the second most common organic acid disorders (1/100,000 for each disease). The incidence of fatty acid disorder is relatively less than most western countries. Out of them, carnitine transport defect was the most common fatty acid disease (1/100,000). In this report we will present this large population study of tandem mass newborn screening in Chinese population.

  19. Postoperative Radiotherapy for Pathologic N2 Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Review of the National Cancer Data Base

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Cliff G.; Patel, Aalok P.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; DeWees, Todd; Waqar, Saiama N.; Morgensztern, Daniel; Baggstrom, Maria Q.; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Bell, Jennifer M.; Guthrie, Tracey J.; Colditz, Graham A.; Crabtree, Traves D.; Kreisel, Daniel; Krupnick, Alexander S.; Patterson, G. Alexander; Meyers, Bryan F.; Puri, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the impact of modern postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) on overall survival (OS) for patients with N2 non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated nationally with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods Patients with pathologic N2 NSCLC who underwent complete resection and adjuvant chemotherapy from 2006 to 2010 were identified from the National Cancer Data Base and stratified by use of PORT (≥ 45 Gy). A total of 4,483 patients were identified (PORT, n = 1,850; no PORT, n = 2,633). The impact of patient and treatment variables on OS was explored using Cox regression. Results Median follow-up time was 22 months. On univariable analysis, improved OS correlated with younger age, treatment at an academic facility, female sex, urban population, higher income, lower Charlson comorbidity score, smaller tumor size, multiagent chemotherapy, resection with at least a lobectomy, and PORT. On multivariable analysis, improved OS remained independently predicted by younger age, female sex, urban population, lower Charlson score, smaller tumor size, multiagent chemotherapy, resection with at least a lobectomy, and PORT (hazard ratio, 0.886; 95% CI, 0.798 to 0.988). Use of PORT was associated with an increase in median and 5-year OS compared with no PORT (median OS, 45.2 v 40.7 months, respectively; 5-year OS, 39.3% [95% CI, 35.4% to 43.5%] v 34.8% [95% CI, 31.6% to 38.3%], respectively; P = .014). Conclusion For patients with N2 NSCLC after complete resection and adjuvant chemotherapy, modern PORT seems to confer an additional OS advantage beyond that achieved with adjuvant chemotherapy alone. PMID:25667283

  20. Radon exposure assessment for underground workers: a case of Seoul Subway Police officers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Myeong Han; Chang, Byung-Uck; Kim, Yongjae; Cho, Kun-Woo

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study is the systematic and individual assessment of the annual effective dose due to inhaled radon for the Seoul Subway Police officers, Korea. The annual average radon concentrations were found to be in the range of 18.9-114 Bq·m(-3) in their workplaces. The total annual effective doses which may likely to be received on duty were assessed to be in the range of 0.41-1.64 mSv·y(-1). These were well below the recommended action level 10 mSv·y(-1) by ICRP. However, the effective doses were higher than subway station staff in Seoul, Korea. PMID:21242168

  1. Air Shower Events of High-Energy Cosmic Rays Measured at Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Wooram; Shin, Jae-Ik; Kim, Hongki; Lee, Seulgi; Lim, Sunin; Nam, Sinwoo; Yang, Jongmann; Cheon, Byunggu; Bang, Hyungchan; Kwon, Youngjoon

    2011-09-01

    The COsmic ray Research and Education Array (COREA) collaboration has installed an array of six detector stations at two high schools in and near Seoul, Korea for measurement of air-shower events from high-energy cosmic rays. Three stations are installed at each site, where each station consists of four plastic scintillation detectors covering an area of 2m2. In this presentation, we report the currenst status of the COREA project, describing the experimental equipment and measurement of coincident events.

  2. Numbers of Stroke Patients and Stroke Subtypes According to Highest and Lowest Daily Temperatures in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong-Won; Yoon, Jee-Eun; Hwang, Hye-Won; Kim, Ji-Sun; Park, Sukh-Que; Roh, Hakjae; Ahn, Moo-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose There is conflicting evidence for whether or not the incidence of stroke is influenced by the daily temperature. The association between daily temperature and incidence of stroke is largely unknown in Korea. This study attempted to evaluate whether the maximum or minimum daily temperature is associated with increased numbers of strokes and stroke subtypes among Seoul residents. Methods We obtained the maximum and minimum daily temperatures in Seoul from the Korean Meteorological Administration between January 2005 and December 2014. Consecutive patients with acute stroke were registered who visited the emergency room or outpatient clinic in Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul. The residential addresses of cases were restricted to within a 2-kilometer radius of this hospital. The stroke events were prospectively recorded with onset time, and were classified by subtypes. The categories of daily temperature were divided by 10℃ from the mean temperature. The mean daily number of strokes was calculated during the study period. One-way analysis of variance and Duncan's post-hoc test were applied to compare the number of strokes among the temperature groups. Results In total, 2,313 acute strokes were identified during the period: 1,643 ischemic strokes and 670 hemorrhagic strokes. The number of cases was significantly higher when the maximum daily temperature was >32℃ or ≤3℃ (p=0.048) or the minimum daily temperature was ≤-11.0℃ (p=0.020). The lowest maximum daily temperature was associated with increased instances of intracerebral hemorrhage (p=0.029) and small-vessel occlusion (p=0.013), while the highest maximum daily temperature was associated with an increased instance of large-artery atherosclerosis (p=0.045). Conclusions The daily temperature had measurable and different associations with the number of strokes and strokes subtypes in Seoul, Korea.

  3. [Pathology of implants].

    PubMed

    Mittermayer, C; Eblenkamp, M; Richter, H A; Zwadlo-Klarwasser, G; Bhardwaj, R S; Klosterhalfen, B

    2002-01-01

    Progress in the surgery of implants and biomaterials can be accomplished by: 1. Painstakingly analysing and registering of defaulting implants after explantation within a "National Registry of Implant Pathology". 2. Development of a DNA-microarray named "Implantat/Chronic Wound" in order to discover the differential transcriptional activities of cells brought into contact with different foreign surfaces. 3. Predictive cell-engineering combined with custom-made implant surfaces with the aim of optimal patient care.

  4. OH Reactivity Observations during the MAPS-Seoul Campaign: Contrasts between Urban and Suburban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, D.; Jeong, D.; Blake, D. R.; Wang, M. D.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.; Ahn, J.; Cho, G.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    Direct total OH reactivity was observed in the urban and suburban environments of Seoul, South Korea using a comparative reactivity method (CRM) during the MAPS-Seoul field campaign. In addition, CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, VOCs, aerosol, physical, and chemical parameters were also deployed. By comparing the observed total OH reactivity results with calculated OH reactivity from the trace gas observational datasets, we will evaluate our current status in constraining reactive gases in the urban and suburban environments in the East Asian megacity. Observed urban OH reactivity will be presented in the context of the ability to constrain anthropogenic reactive trace gas emissions. It will then be compared to the observed suburban results from Taehwa Research Forest (located ~ 50 km from the Seoul City Center). Our understanding of reactive trace gases in an environment of high BVOC emissions in a mildly aged anthropogenic influences will be evaluated. Using an observational constrained box model with detailed VOC oxidation schemes (e.g. MCM), we will discuss: 1) what is the amount of missing OH reactivity 2) what are the potential sources of the missing OH reactivity, and 3) what are the implications on regional air quality?

  5. Estimation of Populations Exposed to Road Traffic Noise in Districts of Seoul Metropolitan Area of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaewon; Gu, Jinhoi; Park, Hyunggyu; Yun, Heekyung; Kim, Samsoo; Lee, Wooseok; Han, Jinseok; Cha, Jun-Seok

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to model road traffic noise levels and estimate the human exposure at the 25 districts in the metropolitan Seoul, Republic of Korea. The SoundPLAN® Version 7.1 software package was used to model noise levels and simulated road traffic noise maps were created. The people exposed to daytime/nighttime road traffic noise were also estimated. The proportions of the population exposed to road traffic noise in major cities in the EU were also estimated and compared. Eight (8) districts show the exceeded rate (percentage of the exposed population exceeding the daytime standard) of 20% or more, and eleven (11) districts show 10%-20% and six (6) districts show less than 10%, which indicates considerable variation among districts. Two districts (Nowon-gu and Yangcheon-gu) show the highest exposure rate during the daytime (35.2%). For nighttime noise levels, fourteen (14) districts show the exceeded rate (percentage of exposed population exceeding the nighttime standard) over 30%. The average percentages of the exposed population exceeding the daytime/nighttime standards in Seoul and the EU were 16.6%/34.8% and 13.0%/16.1%, respectively. The results show that road traffic noise reduction measures should urgently be taken for the nighttime traffic noise in Seoul. When the grid noise map and the 3-D façade noise map were compared, the 3-D façade noise map was more accurate in estimating exposed population in citywide noise mapping. PMID:24603496

  6. Determination of upwind and downwind areas of Seoul, Korea using trajectory analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, H. S.; Ghim, Y. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Chang, Y. S.

    2010-09-01

    To identify the domains that have the greatest impacts on air quality at the surface, both the upwind and downwind areas of Seoul were determined by season using refined wind fields. Four consecutive days were selected as the study period typical of each season. The mesoscale meteorology of the study period was reproduced by using the MM5 prognostic meteorological model (PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model) with horizontally nested grids. The gridded meteorological field, which was used on the study area of 242 km x 226 km with grid spacing of 2 km, was generated by using the CALMET diagnostic meteorological model. Upwind and downwind areas of Seoul were determined by calculating 24-hour backward and forward air parcel trajectories, respectively, with u, v, and w velocity vectors. The results showed that the upwind and downwind areas were extended far to the northwest and the southeast as a result of high wind speeds in the spring and winter, while they were restricted on the fringe of Seoul in the summer and fall.

  7. Drug testing at the 10th Asian Games and 24th Seoul Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Park, J; Park, S; Lho, D; Choo, H P; Chung, B; Yoon, C; Min, H; Choi, M J

    1990-01-01

    Drug testing (doping test) procedures in the 1986 10th Asian Olympic Games and 1988 24th Seoul Olympic Games are reported. The International Olympic Committee Medical Commission (IOC-MC) conducted its first doping tests at the 1968 Olympics in Grenoble. With the guidance of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) introduced doping tests at the 1986 10th Asian Olympic Games in Seoul, Korea, September 21st to October 5th, 1986. 585 samples were tested at the Doping Control Center, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (DCC/KAIST), for stimulants, narcotics, anabolic steroids, and beta-blockers by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, high pressure liquid chromatography, and fluorescence polarization immunoassay. These tests covered about 100 different drugs and another 400 as metabolites in addition to pharmacologically related substances. For the Seoul Olympic Games from September 17 to October 2, 1988, the IOC-MC with the DCC/KAIST conducted doping tests on 1601 samples for stimulants, narcotics, beta-blockers, diuretics, and anabolic steroids using GC, HPLC, GC/MSD, GC/MS, LC/MS, and TDx.

  8. Modeling Study on Air Quality Improvement due to Mobile Source Emission control Plan in Seoul Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Sunwoo, Y.; Hwang, I.; Song, S.; Sin, J.; Kim, D.

    2015-12-01

    A very high population and corresponding high number of vehicles in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) are aggravating the air quality of this region. The Korean government continues to make concerted efforts to improve air quality. One of the major policies that the Ministry of Environment of Korea enforced is "The Special Act for Improvement of Air Quality in SMA" and "The 1st Air Quality Management Plan of SMA". Mobile Source emission controls are an important part of the policy. Thus, it is timely to evaluate the air quality improvement due to the controls. Therefore, we performed a quantitative analysis of the difference in air quality using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and December, 2011 was set as the target period to capture the impact of the above control plans. We considered four fuel-type vehicle emission scenarios and compared the air quality improvement differences between them. The scenarios are as follows: no-control, gasoline vehicle control only, diesel vehicle control only, and control of both; utilizing the revised mobile source emissions from the Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS), which is the national emission inventory reflecting current policy.In order to improve the accuracy of the modeling data, we developed new temporal allocation coefficients based on traffic volume observation data and spatially reallocated the mobile source emissions using vehicle flow survey data. Furthermore, we calculated the PM10 and PM2.5 emissions of gasoline vehicles which is omitted in CAPSS.The results of the air quality modeling shows that vehicle control plans for both gasoline and diesel lead to a decrease of 0.65ppb~8.75ppb and 0.02㎍/㎥~7.09㎍/㎥ in NO2 and PM10 monthly average concentrations, respectively. The large percentage decreases mainly appear near the center of the metropolis. However, the largest NO2 decrease percentages are found in the northeast region of Gyeonggi-do, which is the province that surrounds the

  9. Risk factors for perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Young Hwa; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-09-01

    To identify the factors associated with perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, we analyzed the results from a series of city-wide cross-sectional surveys of HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to unmet medical needs. Among the 775 subjects included in the study, 15.4% had perceived unmet medical needs. Significant factors included age group (35-49 years; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.06), lower monthly income (aOR, 3.75 for the <$900/mo group and 2.44 for the $900-$1800/mo group; 95% CI, 1.68-8.35 and 1.18-5.04, respectively), beneficiaries of the National Medical Aid Program (aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01-3.17), recent CD4 cell counts <500/µL (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.33). Taken together, these data reveal strong associations of middle age and low socioeconomic status with perceived unmet medical needs among HIV-infected adults.

  10. Analysis of Land Surface Temperature Retrieved from High Resolution Satellites in Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, Joon-Bum; Choi, Young-Jean

    2015-04-01

    In order to analyze the land surface properties in Seoul and its surrounding metropolitan area in the South Korea, several indices and LST were calculated by the Landsat 8 and TERRA and AQUA MODIS satellites. The land surface properties used are the indices that represented Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Modified Normalized Difference Wetness Index (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Wetness Index (NDWI), Tasseled cap Brightness, Tasseled cap Greenness, Tasseled cap Wetness Index, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) and the LST of the area in and around Seoul. Most indices distinguish very well between urban, rural, mountain, building, river and road. In particular, most of the urbanization is represented in the new cities around Seoul. According to NDVI, NDBI and LST, urban expansion is displayed in the surrounding area of Seoul. The LST and surface elevation have a strong relationship with the distribution and structure of the vegetation/built-up indices such as NDVI and NDBI. While the NDVI is positively correlated with the LST and is also negatively correlated with the surface elevation, the NDBI have just the opposite correlations, respectively. In addition, in order to investigate the thermal properties in metropolitan, Landsat and MODIS land surface temperature, AWS (Automatic Weather Station) temperature, digital elevation model and landuse are used. Analysis method among the Landsat and MODIS LST and AWS temperature is basic statistics using by correlation coefficient, root-mean-square error (RMSE) and linear regression function etc. As a result, statistics of Landsat and MODIS LST are a correlation coefficient of 0.32 and RMSE of 4.61K, respectively. And statistics of Landsat and MODIS LST and AWS temperature have the correlations of 0.83 and 0.96 and the RMSE of 3.28K and 2.25K, respectively. Landsat and MODIS LST have relatively high correlation with AWS temperature, and the slope of the

  11. The spectrum of metanephric adenofibroma and related lesions: clinicopathologic study of 25 cases from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group Pathology Center.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, M R; Green, D M; Perlman, E J; Beckwith, J B; Argani, P

    2001-04-01

    The authors report nine new metanephric adenofibroma (MAFs; previously termed nephrogenic adenofibroma) and 16 related tumors from the files of the National Wilms Tumor Study Group Pathology Center (NWTSGPC). All tumors contained a variable amount of a bland spindle cell stroma, which is essentially identical to the recently described metanephric stromal tumor (MST). Features that distinguish this stroma from congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) include intratumoral angiodysplasia, concentric cuffing of entrapped tubules ("onion skinning"), and heterologous differentiation. The epithelial components of these lesions spanned a wide range of appearances. All tumors contained at least focally an inactive embryonal epithelium identical morphologically to metanephric adenoma (MA), and hence each case could be classified as containing MAF. The epithelium of nine tumors had this appearance throughout, and hence these were considered usual MAFs. The epithelium of four tumors demonstrated increased mitotic activity but was otherwise similar to MA. The epithelial component of seven tumors spanned a morphologic spectrum from inactive MA to malignant epithelial predominant Wilms tumor (WT), with gradual transitions noted in several cases. Five other tumors contained a carcinomatous component distinct from these lesions but identical morphologically to papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). In one of these cases, this component had metastasized to the regional lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis. No tumor recurred during follow-up, although almost all patients received adjuvant therapy for WT regardless of their tumor's histology and NWTSGPC diagnosis. In conclusion, MAF is a biphasic tumor that spans the morphologic spectrum between benign pure stromal (MST) and pure epithelial (MA) lesions, and can merge with the morphology of WT, supporting the concept that these are all related lesions. A relationship to PRCC is also evident. PMID:11257617

  12. A single immunization with a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 expressing the seoul virus Gn glycoprotein confers protective immunity against seoul virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zi-Guo; Li, Xiu-Ming; Mahmmod, Yasser Saad; Wang, Xiao-Hu; Xu, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xiu-Xiang

    2009-08-20

    Seoul virus (SEOV), a member of hantavirus genus, is one of the causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and afflicts tens of thousands of people annually. In this paper, we evaluate the immune response induced by a replication-competent recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 expressing the Gn protein of SEOV (rCAV-2-Gn) in BALB/c mice. Sera from immunized mice contained neutralizing antibodies that could specifically recognize SEOV and neutralize its infectivity in vitro. Moreover, the recombinant virus induced complete protection against a lethal challenge with the highly virulent SEOV strain CC-2. Protective level neutralizing antibodies were maintained for at least 20 weeks. The efficacy of the recombinant was similar to that induced by a currently available inactivated HFRS vaccine. This recombinant virus is therefore a potential alternative to the inactivated vaccine.

  13. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management.

  14. The environment modifies the relationship between social networks and secondhand smoke exposure among Korean nonsmokers in Seoul and California.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W; Unger, Jennifer B; Vollinger, Robert E; Latkin, Carl; Juon, Hee-Soon; Park, Hae-Ryun; Paik, Hee-Young; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2015-03-01

    This study compared risks of secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) among Korean nonsmokers in Seoul, South Korea and California, United States. Social networks were hypothesized to contain more smokers in Seoul than in California, and smokers were hypothesized to produce more secondhand smoke in Seoul than California, as Seoul's policies and norms are less restrictive. Telephone interviews were conducted with Korean adults in Seoul (N = 500) and California (N = 2830). In all, 69% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 64-74) of Koreans and 31% (95% CI = 29-33) of Korean Americans reported any SHSe. A total of 44% (95% CI = 40-47) of Korean family members smoked versus 29% (95% CI = 28-30) of Korean American family members (t = 7.84, P < .01). A 25% to 75% increase in the proportion of family members that smoked corresponded with a 13% (95% CI = 5-21) higher probability of any SHSe among Koreans compared with 6% (95% CI = 2-10) among Korean Americans. Network interventions in combination with policies and/or health campaigns may help reduce SHSe globally.

  15. About contaminant element composition of roadside dust samples from Budapest and Seoul, including Pt and Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, M.; Chon, H. T.; Marton, L.

    2012-04-01

    Roadside dust was sampled in Seoul megacity /Korea as well as in Budapest and some other places in Hungary, digested with reverse aqua regia in presence of bromine, and analyzed for 29 chemical elements with ICP-OES and ICP-MS methods. In addition to rather traditionally investigated elements, like Pb-Cd-Cr-Ni-As-Sb, newly emerging Pt and Pd from abrasion of automotive catalysts were included in the study. For the analysis of Pd, separation by precipitation with dithizone had to be applied. Principal component analysis was used as a tool to estimate the contribution of various sources. Geogenic element contents were used to estimate geogenic backgrounds und inputs from soils erosion. Seoul is an East Asian densely populated megacity, not far from the seaside, and surrounded by granite rocks. To the contrary, Budapest is a European continental city surrounded mainly by plains formed in the tertiary. Background concentrations were estimated from median concentrations in soils over alluvial deposits from the East of Austria, as well as from Poland. Background concentrations for Seoul were estimated from Shiheung farmland soil, a town close to the megacity. As a result, traffic related contaminations were highly effected by traffic related activities, like stop and go. Pt and Pb levels in roadside dusts from Budapest citiy were in the range of 2-133 μg/kg (av. 62,9 μg/kg), and 88 - 2838 mg/kg (av. 662 mg/kg) respectively. The highest Pt and Pb levels in roadside dust were found at major roads with high traffic volumes. Due to the geo-accumulation index, in all roadside soils sampled in Hungary, Cu-Pb-Zn were enriched, and Cd-Mo and occasionally Ba from Budapest in addition, but As-Co-Cr-Hg-Ni-Tl-V were not. In roadside dusts from Seoul, heavy contaminations of As-Cd-Cu-Mo-Pb-Zn were found, but no significant increase of Co-Cr-Ni-V. The pollution index, which refers to the permissible levels of As-Cd-Cu-Hg-Pb-Sb-Tl-V, indicates heavy pollution for roadside dusts from

  16. Chemical composition of major VOC emission sources in the Seoul atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Na, Kwangsam; Kim, Yong Pyo; Moon, Il; Moon, Kil-Choo

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes a chemical analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for five emission sources in Seoul. The source categories included motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline evaporation, paint solvents, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). These sources were selected because they have been known to emit significant quantities of VOCs in the Seoul area (more than 5% of the total emission inventory). Chemical compositions of the five emission sources are presented for a group of 45 C2-C9 VOCs. Motor vehicle exhaust profiles were developed by conducting an urban tunnel study. These emissions profiles were distinguished from the other emission profiles by a high weight percentage of butanes over seasons and propane in the wintertime. It was found that this is due to the wide use of butane-fueled vehicles. To obtain gasoline vapor profiles, gasoline samples from five major brands for each season were selected. The brands were blended on the basis of the marketshare of these brands in Seoul area. Raoult's law was used to calculate gasoline evaporative compositions based on the liquid gasoline compositions. The measured and estimated gasoline vapor compositions were found to be in good agreement. Vehicle and gasoline evaporation profiles were made over seasons because of the seasonal change in their compositions. Paint solvent emissions profiles were produced based on a product-use survey and sales figures. These profiles are a composite of four major oil-based paints and thinning solvent. The source profile of natural gas was made on a methane-free basis. It was found that Ethane and propane were the most abundant compounds accounting for 95% of the natural gas composition. LPG was largely composed of propane and ethane and the remaining components were minor contributors.

  17. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    PubMed

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Choi, Moo Young; Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare) bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized) "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  18. Sex differences in the recognition of and innate antiviral responses to Seoul virus in Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Michele F; Bajic, Vladimir B; Klein, Sabra L

    2008-05-01

    Among rodents that carry hantaviruses, more males are infected than females. Male rats also have elevated copies of Seoul virus RNA and reduced transcription of immune-related genes in the lungs than females. To further characterize sex differences in antiviral defenses and whether these differences are mediated by gonadal hormones, we examined viral RNA in the lungs, virus shedding in saliva, and antiviral defenses among male and female rats that were intact, gonadectomized neonatally, or gonadectomized in adulthood. Following inoculation with Seoul virus, high amounts viral RNA persisted longer in lungs from intact males than intact females. Removal of the gonads in males reduced the amount of viral RNA to levels comparable with intact females at 40 days post-inoculation (p.i.). Intact males shed more virus in saliva than intact females 15 days p.i.; removal of the gonads during either the neonatal period or in adulthood increased virus shedding in females and decreased virus shedding in males. Induction of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs; Tlr7 and Rig-I), expression of antiviral genes (Myd88, Visa, Jun, Irf7, Ifnbeta, Ifnar1, Jak2, Stat3, and Mx2), and production of Mx protein was elevated in the lungs of intact females compared with intact males. Gonadectomy had more robust effects on the induction of PRRs than on downstream IFNbeta or Mx2 expression. Putative androgen and estrogen response elements are present in the promoters of several of these antiviral genes, suggesting the propensity for sex steroids to directly affect dimorphic antiviral responses against Seoul virus infection.

  19. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, SeoYeon; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Chi, Byung Hoon; Kim, Jin Wook; Chang, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea.

  20. Mechanism and Trend Change of Sudden Increase of Total Ozone in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H.; Park, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, Y.; Mok, J.; Lee, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The total ozone column values have been observed by numerous satellites including TOMS and OMI, and extensive network of ground-based measurements (Dobson & Brewer Spectrophotometer etc.), over long time period over the globe, in which statistical long-term trend or ozone recovery are analyzed. In March 14th, 2006, sudden increase of the total ozone values are observed in East Asia, where the mixing ratio of ozone in ozonesonde data at Sapporo (14th Mar, 2006) increased between 10 and 15km remarkably. In general, stratospheric ozone does not change that abruptly. However from late winter to early spring, sudden increase of total ozone values were observed over the North-east Eurasian Continent and the Sea of Ohotsuku. In the beginning of this periods, observed total ozone values increased by more than 40~50 DU, compared with previous day’s value, maintaining abnormal condition for a few days. This mechanism is not understood clearly but in previous studies, this effect occurred by secondary ozone peak that is caused by Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange (STE). To explain this phenomenon, we select the highest 5% of total ozone values observed in Seoul since 1985 and analyze the back trajectory and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data between 10~20km at the same time. In the events of sudden total ozone increase, air parcels of 10~15km altitudes came mostly from arctic region, which is statistically evident. These `arctic origin air’ are ozone-rich in mixing ratio thus results in the secondary ozone peak and ozone enhancements in Seoul. These enhancements were occurred several times in a month. Thus, it changes the average of total ozone and climatological values, which affects the trend of stratospheric ozone recovery. In this study, using the ozonesonde and total ozone data, we separate the total ozone and sudden enhancement of ozone in Upper troposphere/ Lower Stratosphere and examine the effect of these changes on the ozone recovery trend in Seoul.

  1. Chemical composition of major VOC emission sources in the Seoul atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Na, Kwangsam; Kim, Yong Pyo; Moon, Il; Moon, Kil-Choo

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes a chemical analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for five emission sources in Seoul. The source categories included motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline evaporation, paint solvents, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). These sources were selected because they have been known to emit significant quantities of VOCs in the Seoul area (more than 5% of the total emission inventory). Chemical compositions of the five emission sources are presented for a group of 45 C2-C9 VOCs. Motor vehicle exhaust profiles were developed by conducting an urban tunnel study. These emissions profiles were distinguished from the other emission profiles by a high weight percentage of butanes over seasons and propane in the wintertime. It was found that this is due to the wide use of butane-fueled vehicles. To obtain gasoline vapor profiles, gasoline samples from five major brands for each season were selected. The brands were blended on the basis of the marketshare of these brands in Seoul area. Raoult's law was used to calculate gasoline evaporative compositions based on the liquid gasoline compositions. The measured and estimated gasoline vapor compositions were found to be in good agreement. Vehicle and gasoline evaporation profiles were made over seasons because of the seasonal change in their compositions. Paint solvent emissions profiles were produced based on a product-use survey and sales figures. These profiles are a composite of four major oil-based paints and thinning solvent. The source profile of natural gas was made on a methane-free basis. It was found that Ethane and propane were the most abundant compounds accounting for 95% of the natural gas composition. LPG was largely composed of propane and ethane and the remaining components were minor contributors. PMID:15006511

  2. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    PubMed

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Choi, Moo Young; Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare) bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized) "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow. PMID:24599221

  3. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea. PMID:27134497

  4. Molecular and serological evidence for Seoul virus in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Zhangmu, Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tingsong; Fan, Quanshui; Hu, Xiaobing; Deng, Bo; Chen, Gang; Gu, Liangqi; Li, Ming; Zheng, Ying; Yuan, Guihong; Qiu, Wei; Jiang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2015-05-01

    We report the detection of a virus, tentatively identified as Seoul virus (SEOV), from a rat (Rattus norvegicus) collected in the city of Zhangmu, Tibet. SEOV RNA was detected in lung tissue by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, followed by sequencing. Serum samples collected from Zhangmu were positive for SEOV-specific antibodies (indirect fluorescent antibody test that used SEO antigen). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial L and S sequences together with serology results suggest that the Zhangmu01 hantavirus is an isolate of SEOV, that hantaviruses circulate in Tibet, and that rats may act as natural reservoirs for the virus.

  5. Protective Informal Social Control of Child Maltreatment and Child Abuse Injury in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Eremina, Tatiana; Yang, Hye Lin; Yoo, Changgeun; Yoo, Jieun; Jang, Ja Kyung

    2015-11-01

    Previous findings on the relationship between neighborhood informal social control and child abuse have been mixed. We implemented a scale created by Emery, Trung, and Wu to study protective informal social control of child maltreatment (ISC_CM) by neighbors in a three-stage random cluster sample of 541 families in Seoul, South Korea. Random-effects regression models found that protective ISC_CM significantly moderated the relationship between very severe abuse and child injuries. Very severe abuse was associated with fewer injuries when levels of protective ISC_CM were higher. Implications are discussed.

  6. Seoul virus infection in a Wisconsin patient with recent travel to China, March 2009: first documented case in the Midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Carrie F; Sethi, Vishal; Petroll, Andrew E; Kazmierczak, James; Erickson, Bobbie R; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2010-12-01

    Diagnosis of Seoul virus-associated hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) cases among United States residents is rare. We describe confirmation of a Seoul virus infection in a 36-year-old scientist who worked with laboratory rats in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, but most likely acquired the infection during a trip to Shenyang, China.

  7. A Multilevel Analysis of the Compositional and Contextual Association of Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being in Seoul, South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Sehee; Kim, Heaseung; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between social capital and subjective well-being (life satisfaction) by using multilevel analysis considering both individual and area-level social capital while adjusting for various control variables at multiple-levels in Seoul, South Korea. The data was from the 2010 (Wave 2) Seoul Welfare…

  8. The continued emergence of hantaviruses: isolation of a Seoul virus implicated in human disease, United Kingdom, October 2012.

    PubMed

    Jameson, L J; Logue, C H; Atkinson, B; Baker, N; Galbraith, S E; Carroll, M W; Brooks, T; Hewson, R

    2013-01-03

    Following a suspected case of hantavirus in a patientsuffering from acute kidney injury, rodents fromthe patient’s property in Yorkshire and the Humber,United Kingdom (UK) were screened for hantaviruses.Hantavirus RNA was detected via RT-PCR in two Rattusnorvegicus. Complete sequencing and phylogeneticanalysis established the virus as a Seoul hantavirus,which we have provisionally designated as strainHumber. This is the first hantavirus isolated from wildrodents in the UK and confirms the presence of a pathogenicSeoul virus in Europe.

  9. Hospital information systems: experience at the fully digitized Seoul National University Bundang Hospital.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Hwang, Hee; Jheon, Sanghoon

    2016-08-01

    The different levels of health information technology (IT) adoption and its integration into hospital workflow can affect the maximization of the benefits of using of health IT. We aimed at sharing our experiences and the journey to the successful adoption of health IT over 13 years at a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. The integrated system of comprehensive applications for direct care, support care, and smart care has been implemented with the latest IT and a rich user information platform, achieving the fully digitized hospital. The users experience design methodology, barcode and radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, smartphone and mobile technologies, and data analytics were integrated into hospital workflow. Applications for user-centered electronic medical record (EMR) and clinical decision support (CDS), closed loop medication administration (CLMA), mobile EMR and dashboard system for care coordination, clinical data warehouse (CDW) system, and patient engagement solutions were designed and developed to improve quality of care, work efficiency, and patient safety. We believe that comprehensive electronic health record systems and patient-centered smart hospital applications will go a long way in ensuring seamless patient care and experience.

  10. Hospital information systems: experience at the fully digitized Seoul National University Bundang Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Hwang, Hee

    2016-01-01

    The different levels of health information technology (IT) adoption and its integration into hospital workflow can affect the maximization of the benefits of using of health IT. We aimed at sharing our experiences and the journey to the successful adoption of health IT over 13 years at a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. The integrated system of comprehensive applications for direct care, support care, and smart care has been implemented with the latest IT and a rich user information platform, achieving the fully digitized hospital. The users experience design methodology, barcode and radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, smartphone and mobile technologies, and data analytics were integrated into hospital workflow. Applications for user-centered electronic medical record (EMR) and clinical decision support (CDS), closed loop medication administration (CLMA), mobile EMR and dashboard system for care coordination, clinical data warehouse (CDW) system, and patient engagement solutions were designed and developed to improve quality of care, work efficiency, and patient safety. We believe that comprehensive electronic health record systems and patient-centered smart hospital applications will go a long way in ensuring seamless patient care and experience. PMID:27651940

  11. Hospital information systems: experience at the fully digitized Seoul National University Bundang Hospital.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Hwang, Hee; Jheon, Sanghoon

    2016-08-01

    The different levels of health information technology (IT) adoption and its integration into hospital workflow can affect the maximization of the benefits of using of health IT. We aimed at sharing our experiences and the journey to the successful adoption of health IT over 13 years at a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. The integrated system of comprehensive applications for direct care, support care, and smart care has been implemented with the latest IT and a rich user information platform, achieving the fully digitized hospital. The users experience design methodology, barcode and radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, smartphone and mobile technologies, and data analytics were integrated into hospital workflow. Applications for user-centered electronic medical record (EMR) and clinical decision support (CDS), closed loop medication administration (CLMA), mobile EMR and dashboard system for care coordination, clinical data warehouse (CDW) system, and patient engagement solutions were designed and developed to improve quality of care, work efficiency, and patient safety. We believe that comprehensive electronic health record systems and patient-centered smart hospital applications will go a long way in ensuring seamless patient care and experience. PMID:27651940

  12. Teaching Religious Studies to Undergraduate Non-Majors at Seoul National University, South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…

  13. Hospital information systems: experience at the fully digitized Seoul National University Bundang Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Hwang, Hee

    2016-01-01

    The different levels of health information technology (IT) adoption and its integration into hospital workflow can affect the maximization of the benefits of using of health IT. We aimed at sharing our experiences and the journey to the successful adoption of health IT over 13 years at a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. The integrated system of comprehensive applications for direct care, support care, and smart care has been implemented with the latest IT and a rich user information platform, achieving the fully digitized hospital. The users experience design methodology, barcode and radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, smartphone and mobile technologies, and data analytics were integrated into hospital workflow. Applications for user-centered electronic medical record (EMR) and clinical decision support (CDS), closed loop medication administration (CLMA), mobile EMR and dashboard system for care coordination, clinical data warehouse (CDW) system, and patient engagement solutions were designed and developed to improve quality of care, work efficiency, and patient safety. We believe that comprehensive electronic health record systems and patient-centered smart hospital applications will go a long way in ensuring seamless patient care and experience.

  14. Wet precipitation of major ions, polonium-210, and organic carbon in a metropolitan city, Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, G.; Kim, G.

    2011-12-01

    An extensive survey of chemical constituents in precipitation including dissolved organic carbon, dissolved nitrogen, major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides was conducted in a representative urban environment of Seoul over one-year period from 2009 to 2010. The sources for these chemical species were apportioned by applying principal component analysis (PCA) in association with commonly acknowledged key tracers, such as Na, K, Ca, and V. The fossil fuel combustion (especially coal) was shown to be the dominant source for most constituents being investigated, with biomass burning being recognized as another significant source. With the aid of air mass backward trajectory analyses, we concluded that the primary fraction of the chemical species in our precipitation samples originated locally in Korea, albeit the frequent long-range transport from the eastern and northeastern China might contribute substantially. Overall, our study suggests the significant role of human activities in altering the atmospheric environment of Seoul and presumably most urban areas around the world, highlighting its profound environmental implications, such as health risks posed by excessive polonium-210, enhanced rainwater acidity from organic acids, and radiative forcing by organic aerosols.

  15. Total mercury, methylmercury and ethylmercury in marine fish and marine fishery products sold in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju-Sung; Jung, So-Young; Son, Yeo-Joon; Choi, Su-Jeong; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Jeong-Gon; Park, So-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Me; Chae, Young-Zoo; Kim, Min-Young

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, a survey of 177 samples of fish and fishery products from the markets in Seoul was carried out to investigate total mercury and organic mercury (methylmercury) concentrations and to establish a correlation, if any, between total and organic mercury levels. Concentrations of total and organic mercury in canned tuna ranged 0.001-2.581 and 0.003-1.307 mg/kg, respectively; those for fish, such as cod or salmon, ranged 0.012-2.529 and 0.021-0.507 mg/kg, respectively. Ethylmercury was not detected. More than 50% of total mercury in the samples existed as organic mercury. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) between total mercury and methylmercury concentrations of fish and fishery products found to have methylmercury were 0.844 and 0.976, respectively, which was statistically significant. There was a higher correlation in fishery products than in fish. Although there was no product in which mercury exceeded the standard set by the Food Code in 2008, with the exception of marlin steak, a processed food, which contained 1.307 mg/kg methylmercury. None exceeded the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for mercury. Collectively, the results indicate that fish or fishery products marketed in Seoul, with the exception of marlin, have low levels of total or organic mercury and, thus, intake of these products is not a risk to public health. PMID:24786250

  16. Effects of the Asian dust events on daily mortality in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ho-Jang; Cho, Soo-Hun; Chun, Youngsin; Lagarde, Frederic; Pershagen, Göran

    2002-09-01

    The Korean peninsula has a long history of dust clouds blown by winds from the arid deserts of Mongolia and China in springtime; these are called Asian dust events. Public concern about the possible adverse effects of this dust has increased, because the dust arrives in Korea after having passed over heavily industrialized eastern China. The present study explored the effect of Asian dust events on daily mortality in Seoul, South Korea, during the period 1995-1998. We evaluated the association between daily death counts and the dust events using Poisson regression analysis, adjusted for time trends, weather variables, and the day of the week. Between 1995 and 1998, we identified 28 Asian dust days in Seoul. The estimated percentage increase in the rate of deaths from 3-day moving averages of exposure was 1.7% (95/ confidence interval: -1.6 to 5.3) for all causes, 2.2% (95% confidence interval: -3.5 to 8.3) for deaths of persons aged 65 years and older, and 4.1% (95% confidence interval: -3.8 to 12.6) for cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Our results provide weak evidence that the Asian dust events are associated with risk of death from all causes. However, the association between the dust events and deaths from cardiovascular and respiratory causes was stronger and it suggests that persons with advanced cardiovascular and respiratory disease may be susceptible to the Asian dust events.

  17. Assessment of airborne environmental bacteria and related factors in 25 underground railway stations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Yoon, Chung Sik; Ryu, Kyong Nam; Paik, Samuel Y.; Cho, Jun Ho

    2010-05-01

    This study assessed bacterial concentrations in indoor air at 25 underground railway stations in Seoul, Korea, and investigated various related factors including the presence of platform screen doors (PSD), depth of the station, year of construction, temperature, relative humidity, and number of passengers. A total of 72 aerosol samples were collected from all the stations. Concentrations of total airborne bacteria (TAB) ranged from not detected (ND) to 4997 CFU m -3, with an overall geometric mean (GM) of 191 CFU m -3. Airborne bacteria were detected at 23 stations (92%) and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were detected at two stations (8%). TAB concentrations of four stations (16%) exceeded 800 CFU m -3, the Korea indoor bio-aerosol guideline. The results of the study showed that TAB concentrations at the stations without PSD showed higher TAB concentrations than those with PSD, though not at statistically significant levels. TAB concentrations of deeper stations revealed significantly higher levels than those of shallower stations. Based on this study, it is recommended that mitigation measures be applied to improve the indoor air quality (IAQ) of underground railway stations in Seoul, with focused attention on deeper stations.

  18. Projections of Future Summer Weather in Seoul and Their Impacts on Urban Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. O.; Kim, J. H.; Yun, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    Climate departure from the past variability was projected to start in 2042 for Seoul. In order to understand the implication of climate departure in Seoul for urban agriculture, we evaluated the daily temperature for the June-September period from 2041 to 2070, which were projected by the RCP8.5 climate scenario. These data were analyzed with respect to climate extremes and their effects on growth of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), one of the major crops in urban farming. The mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures in 2041-2070 approached to the 90th percentile in the past 30 years (1951- 1980). However, the frequency of extreme events such as heat waves and tropical nights appeared to exceed the past variability. While the departure of mean temperature might begin in or after 2040, the climate departure in the sense of extreme weather events seems already in progress. When the climate scenario data were applied to the growth and development of hot pepper, the departures of both planting date and harvest date are expected to follow those of temperature. However, the maximum duration for hot pepper cultivation, which is the number of days between the first planting and the last harvest, seems to have already deviated from the past variability.

  19. The Seoul Metropolitan Lifestyle Intervention Program and Metabolic Syndrome Risk: A Retrospective Database Study

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Jina; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Ryu, Hosihn; Park, Mi-Suk; Lee, Hyang Sook; Park, Yoo Mi; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Since 2011, the Seoul Metabolic Syndrome Management (SMESY) program has been employed as a community-wide, lifestyle modification intervention in Seoul, Korea. We aimed to determine if the SMESY intervention would be significantly associated with improvements in metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. This retrospective database study included data from 25,449 participants aged 30–64 years between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2013. In the SMESY program, 3 risk-stratified groups by the number of MetS factors were followed for 12 months with different intensity and timeframe of intervention. Among the high-(n = 7116) and moderate-risk groups (n = 14,762), all MetS factors (except triglycerides among the moderate-risk group) as well as MetS z-scores significantly improved over 12 months (all p < 0.05). Among the low-risk group (n = 3571), all factors aggravated significantly over 12 months (all p < 0.05). We observed temporal associations between the implementation of the SMESY program and improvements in MetS risk factors. However, such improvements differed by risk-stratified group, being most robust for the high-risk group, modest for the moderate-risk group, and aggravated for the low-risk group. Thus, more intensive interventions targeting different risk-stratified groups are needed, given a better understanding of the increase in risk factors observed in the low-risk group. PMID:27384576

  20. An analysis of the characteristics of aerosol light scattering coefficients at Seoul and Baengnyeongdo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Eun, S.; Seo, W.; Park, J.; Ahn, J.; Moon, K.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere can scatter and absorb solar radiation and their spatial/temporal distributions are highly inhomogeneous due to short lifetimes (about a few weeks or less). Through scattering and absorption of solar radiation, aerosols directly affect visibility and climate through the modification of the Earth's energy budget (Charlson et al., 1992; Yan, 2007; Wang, 2012). This study investigates long-term trends and characteristics of aerosol light scattering coefficient at Seoul and Baengnyeongdo, 100 km upstream of Seoul, in Korea. Aerosol scattering coefficients were measured continuously with nephelometers. The analysis period is limited to one year of 2011. For the relationship analysis of extinction coefficients (σext) to visibility and aerosol optical depth, σsp observed at 3 p.m. have been used with help of aerosol absorption coefficients (σap) in order to remove its dependence upon relative humidity (RH), and also those of rainy period have been excluded. As expected, σext estimated are inversely proportional to visibility observation by eye. Aerosol extinction coefficients have been vertically integrated with an assumption of nearly well-mixed within an e-folding height to determine aerosol optical depth (τa), and compared with those retrieved from sunphotometer. The results show a reasonable agreement in spite of an inherent difference of each definition. We expect these findings would help to eventually understand aerosol radiative forcing and its effect on the regional climate change around Korea.

  1. Guidelines for biomarker testing in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: a national consensus of the Spanish Society of Pathology and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology.

    PubMed

    García-Carbonero, R; Vilardell, F; Jiménez-Fonseca, P; González-Campora, R; González, E; Cuatrecasas, M; Capdevila, J; Aranda, I; Barriuso, J; Matías-Guiu, X

    2014-03-01

    The annual incidence of neuroendocrine tumours in the Caucasian population ranges from 2.5 to 5 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours is a family of neoplasms widely variable in terms of anatomical location, hormone composition, clinical syndromes they cause and in their biological behaviour. This high complexity and clinical heterogeneity, together with the known difficulty of predicting their behaviour from their pathological features, are reflected in the many classifications that have been developed over the years in this field. This article reviews the main tissue and clinical biomarkers and makes recommendations for their use in medical practice. This document represents a consensus reached jointly by the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) and the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP).

  2. Letter from Seoul: Correspondence from the International Arts Education Symposium and the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprill, Arnold; Schroeder-Yu, Gigi

    2006-01-01

    Arts educator Gigi Schroeder-Yu and Arnold Aprill arrived in Seoul, Korea to participate in the International Arts Education Symposium and in the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference that are part of the wind up for the pitch of the UNESCO World Conference on Arts Education to be held in Lisbon in March 2006. In this article, they reflect on their…

  3. Complete genome sequence of Seoul virus isolated from Rattus norvegicus in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li-Si; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Pu, Yun; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Liu, Yong-Xian; Liu, Yang; Cao, Xiao-mei; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Jing; Hu, Kong-Xin; Xu, Bao-Liang

    2012-12-01

    Seoul virus (SEOV) is responsible for 25% of cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia. Here we report the complete genome of strain DPRK08. The sequence information provided here is useful for understanding the molecular character of SEOV in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the circulation of SEOV in East Asia.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Mutation of Seoul Virus Isolated from Suncus murinus in the Fujian Province of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Jian-Min; Cao, Xiao-Mei; Han, Hui; Huang, Ye-Neng; Wang, Hai-Ling; Chen, Min; Gao, Bo; Yao, Li-Si

    2015-04-02

    Suncus murinus has been identified as the host for Seoul virus (SEOV). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of SEOV strain Fj372/2013, which was isolated from the lung tissue of Suncus murinus in the Fujian Province of China. A mutation A38C was observed in an open reading fragment of the middle segment.

  5. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMAs), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

    2014-07-01

    Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and particulate matter (PM) simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Pennsylvania State Meso-scale Model (MM5)/the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN)/the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)/the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from a performance check of CTM predictions, we consecutively assessed the effects of PFT area deviations on the MEGAN BVOC and CTM O3 predictions, and we further considered the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT data sets considered were (1) the Korean PFT, developed with Korea-specific vegetation database; (2) the CDP PFT, adopted from the community data portal (CDP) of US National Center for Atmospheric Research in the United States (NCAR); (3) MODIS PFT, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Although the CMAQ performance check reveals that all of the three different PFT data sets are applicable choices for regulatory modeling practice, noticeable primary data (i.e., PFT and Leaf Area Index (LAI)) was observed to be missing in many geographic locations. Based on the assessed effect of such missing data on CMAQ O3 predictions, we found that this missing data can cause spatially increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, it must be resolved in the near future to obtain more accurate biogenic emission and chemistry transport modeling results. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf

  6. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associations between Particulate Chemical Constituents and Mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Kweon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked fine particles [≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] and health. Most studies focused on the total mass of the particles, although the chemical composition of the particles varies substantially. Which chemical components of fine particles that are the most harmful is not well understood, and research on the chemical composition of PM2.5 and the components that are the most harmful is particularly limited in Asia. Objectives: We characterized PM2.5 chemical composition and estimated the effects of cause-specific mortality of PM2.5 mass and constituents in Seoul, Korea. We compared the chemical composition of particles to those of the eastern and western United States. Methods: We examined temporal variability of PM2.5 mass and its composition using hourly data. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model, adjusting for time, day of week, temperature, and relative humidity to investigate the association between risk of mortality and PM2.5 mass and its constituents in Seoul, Korea, for August 2008 through October 2009. Results: PM2.5 and chemical components exhibited temporal patterns by time of day and season. The chemical characteristics of Seoul’s PM2.5 were more similar to PM2.5 found in the western United States than in the eastern United States. Seoul’s PM2.5 had lower sulfate (SO4) contributions and higher nitrate (NO3) contributions than that of the eastern United States, although overall PM2.5 levels in Seoul were higher than in the United States. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in magnesium (Mg) (0.05 μg/m3) was associated with a 1.4% increase (95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 2.6%) in total mortality on the following day. Several components that were among the largest contributors to PM2.5 total mass—NO3, SO4, and ammonium (NH4)—were moderately associated with same-day cardiovascular mortality at the p < 0.10 level. Other components with smaller mass contributions [Mg and

  7. Introduction: human pathology within the broad scope of comparative pathology.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, H E

    1996-01-01

    Pathologic integration is the basic phenomenon of comparative pathology. Since man evolved as earth's most influential species, he was unequally influenced the progression and prevention of diseases in himself and other species. This has both positive and negative ramifications. Positive influences have been life-style, the prolongation of life under healthy conditions and medical progress as seen in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, dental hygiene and other factors, such as the decrease of infectious and parasitic diseases, which are still dominating factors in developing nations. Negative influences are side effects of medical treatments, the appearance of occupational, and certain recreational diseases. These are the pathologic effects of man's life-style to which car accidents, smoking and other factors can be added. Different species are affected by environmental changes such as pollution, ozone, acidic rain, polluted food, and transmission of different diseases from one species to another. Interspecies-specifically the direct influence of man in the extermination of other species, or the indirect influence such as through pollutants in the environment producing chain reactions in different species, can be distinguished. The physical environment has been changed as can be seen in air pollution in large cities, the damage to the ozone layer and the increase of malignant melanoma in certain regions of western Australia. The industrialized nations are dominated by non-infectious diseases such as atherosclerosis and neoplasms, whereas in the developing nations parasitic and infectious diseases stand in the fore-front. Particular diseases like acquired immunodeficiency syndrome increase in both types of nations. These diseases may have developed from other species, e.g. the plague which was originally a disease of rodents, especially rats where it was transmitted by the flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, Rothschild. The principle of foremost importance is the disruption

  8. The application of the biosphere reserve concept to urban areas: the case of green rooftops for habitat network in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwi-Gon

    2004-06-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first shows how the principles of the ecosystem approach can be applied to green rooftops, and the second attempts to illustrate it through a case study. In particular, it suggests new approaches and techniques for creation of green rooftops in a perspective of urban habitat network and urban biosphere reserve. To endow urban rooftops with the roles and functions of urban habitat network and urban biosphere reserve, it is necessary to apply "an ecosystem approach to urban management." In this article, an ecosystem approach to urban management is illustrated with Seoul as an example. The Habitat Network in Seoul will be reviewed with a focus on the model suggested by MAB Urban Group. Then, the roles and functions of Myeongdong UNESCO Green Rooftop and its possible contribution to building the Seoul Urban Biosphere Network will be described. The UNESCO Green Rooftop is 628 m(2) and was created on the 12th floor rooftop of UNESCO Building in Myeongdong 2-ga, Jung-ku, Seoul. In the green rooftop, which was created with goals of securing green areas and biotopes in downtown, creating an urban econetwork, securing a base for urban ecosystem study and environment education, and disseminating an idea of coexistence between nature and humankind, wetland, meadow, scrub and woodland, wall revegetation, and a vegetable field are created. Also, rainwater recycling facilities and a solar energy water circulation system were set up. Rest facilities including observation and education facilities were built. Based on the Seoul example, as well as urban biosphere reserve models suggested by the MAB Urban Group, we suggest several principles to be applied for a green rooftops to qualify as a category of urban biosphere reserves.

  9. Regional Differences in Fall-Related Physical Fitness of the Elderly between Seoul, Korea and Gifu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sohee; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Sung, Soon-Chang; Yabumoto, Tamotsu; Kasuga, Kosyo; Kim, Kijeong; Matsuoka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Falling is a leading cause of severe injuries among the elderly, such as hip fracture. This study examined the regional and sex differences in fall-related physical fitness of the elderly between Seoul, Korea and Gifu, Japan. The study included 87 elderly residents of Seoul (mean age 75.4 years; 21 males and 66 females) and 91 elderly residents of Gifu (mean age 71.9 years; 17 males and 74 females). The participants underwent various physical tests, and two-way ANCOVA (region × sex) with age as a covariate was used for statistical analysis. Significant interaction was shown by the one-legged stance (OLS) with eyes open test, which was higher in elderly females from Gifu than in those from Seoul. Significant main effects for the region were shown by the 30-s chair stand (CS-30) and reaction time tests, wherein the Gifu group performed better than the Seoul group. Significant main effects for sex were shown by the sit and reach, handgrip strength, and knee extension strength tests, which were higher for females in the sit and reach test and lower for females in the handgrip and knee extension strength tests compared to the corresponding males in both the cases. Lastly, elderly from Gifu performed better than those from Seoul in the reaction time, CS-30, and OLS tests. Since the ability to move quickly and maintain balance to avoid falling are factors necessary for reducing fall risk, fall prevention classes and exercise programs are required to improve these abilities in the elderly. PMID:27020687

  10. 77 FR 59941 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Terahertz Scanning Systems for Cancer Pathology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Systems for Cancer Pathology AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION... systems for cancer pathology. Upon the expiration or termination of the exclusive evaluation...

  11. Exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in Seoul metropolitan subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Hyeon Tae

    2011-01-01

    The exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi were assessed in the workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and passengers' activity areas (station precinct, inside the passenger carriage, and platform) of the Seoul metropolitan subway. Among investigated areas, the levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in the workers' bedroom and station precincts were relatively high. No significant difference was found in the concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi between the underground and above ground activity areas of the subway. The genera identified in all subway activity areas with a 5% or greater detection rate were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Corynebacterium for airborne bacteria and Penicillium, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Aspergillus for airborne fungi. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus comprised over 50% of the total airborne bacteria and Penicillium and Cladosporium comprised over 60% of the total airborne fungi, thus these four genera are the predominant genera in the subway station. PMID:21173524

  12. The rate of Salmonella spp. infection in zoo animals at Seoul Grand Park, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Y. H.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, J. G.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, T. J.; Park, J. H.; Chung, B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease that affects both people and animals. The incidence of reptile-associated salmonellosis has increased in Western countries due to the increasing popularity of reptiles as pets. In Korea, where reptiles are not popular as pets, many zoos offer programs in which people have contact with animals, including reptiles. So, we determined the rate of Salmonella spp. infection in animals by taking anal swabs from 294 animals at Seoul Grand Park. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 14 of 46 reptiles (30.4%), 1 of 15 birds (6.7%) and 2 of 233 mammals (0.9%). These findings indicate that vigilance is required for determining the presence of zoonotic pathogen infections in zoo animals and contamination of animal facilities to prevent human infection with zoonotic diseases from zoo facilities and animal exhibitions. In addition, prevention of human infection requires proper education about personal hygiene. PMID:18487939

  13. No detection of severe Fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus from ixodid ticks collected in seoul.

    PubMed

    Ham, Heejin; Jo, Sukju; Jang, Jungim; Choi, Sungmin

    2014-04-01

    Larvae, nymphs, and adult stages of 3 species of ixodid ticks were collected by tick drag methods in Seoul during June-October 2013, and their infection status with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus was examined using RT-PCR. During the period, 732 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 62 Haemaphysalis flava, and 2 Ixodes nipponensis specimens were collected. Among the specimens of H. longicornis, the number of female adults, male adults, nymphs, and larvae were 53, 11, 240, and 446, respectively. Ticks were grouped into 63 pools according to the collection site, species, and developmental stage, and assayed for SFTS virus. None of the pools of ticks were found to be positive for SFTS virus gene.

  14. First evidence of Seoul hantavirus in the wild rat population in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Lõhmus, Mare; Sundström, Karin; Strand, Tanja M; Verkerk, Monique; Reusken, Chantal; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; van de Goot, Frank; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-01-01

    We report the first detection of Seoul hantavirus (SEOV)-specific antibodies in the wild brown rat population in the Netherlands. SEOV-reactive antibodies were found in three rats out of 16 in a repeated series of tests including immunofluorescence assay, immunoblot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Focus reduction neutralization test confirmed the presence of SEOV-specific antibodies, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the presence of hantaviral RNA. This discovery follows the recent findings of SEOV infections in wild and pet brown rats and humans in England, Wales, France, Belgium, and Sweden, indicating an even higher importance of this hantavirus for public health in large areas of Europe. PMID:25656468

  15. Analysis on the flood vulnerability in the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area, Korea using spatial database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mung-Jin

    2015-04-01

    In the future, temperature rises and precipitation increases are expected from climate change due to global warming. Concentrated heavy rain, typhoons, flooding, and other weather phenomena bring hydrologic variations. In this study, the flood susceptibility of the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area was analyzed and validated using a GIS based on a frequency ratio model and a logistic regression model with training and validation datasets of the flooded area. The flooded area in 2010 was used to train the model, and the flooded area in 2011 was used to validate the model. Using data is that topographic, geological, and soil data from the study areas were collected, processed, and digitized for use in a GIS. Maps relevant to the specific capacity were assembled in a spatial database. Then, flood susceptibility maps were created. Finally, the flood susceptibility maps were validated using the flooded area in 2011, which was not used for training. To represent the flood susceptible areas, this study used the probability-frequency ratio. The frequency ratio is the probability of occurrence of a certain attribute. Logistic regression allows for investigation of multivariate regression relations between one dependent and several independent variables. Logistic regression has a limit in that the calculation process cannot be traced because it repeats calculations to find the optimized regression equation for determining the possibility that the dependent variable will occur. In case of Seoul, The frequency ratio and logistic regression model results showed 79.61% and 79.05% accuracy. And the case of Busan, logistic regression model results showed 82.30%. This information and the maps generated from it could be applied to flood prevention and management. In addition, the susceptibility map provides meaningful information for decision-makers regarding priority areas for implementing flood mitigation policies.

  16. Differential expression of immunoregulatory genes in male and female Norway rats following infection with Seoul virus.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sabra L; Cernetich, Amy; Hilmer, Sara; Hoffman, Eric P; Scott, Alan L; Glass, Gregory E

    2004-09-01

    Males of many species are more susceptible than females to infections caused by parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Following inoculation with Seoul virus, male rats have more virus present in target organs and shed virus longer than females. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that variation in the expression of genes associated with immune function mediates sex differences in hantavirus infection. Using DNA microarrays, we examined changes in gene expression in lung tissue during the early (when animals are viremic and shedding virus; Day 15 post-inoculation (p.i.)) and late (animals have low levels of infectious virus, but high antibody titers; Day 40 p.i.) phases of infection in adult male and female rats. After normalizing the gene expression levels from infected animals to the gene expression levels from same-sex uninfected controls, our data revealed that 1,813 genes were differentially expressed between the sexes during infection. The expression of key transcriptional factors (e.g., eIF-2 alpha, NF-kappa B, IRF-1, NF-IL-6, and STAT6) and genes that encode for proinflammatory (e.g., TNF alpha R, IL-1R, and IL-1RAcP), antiviral (e.g., IFN gamma R and Mx proteins), T cell (e.g., CD3 and TCR), and Ig superfamily (e.g., IgM, IgG, and MHC class I and II) proteins was higher in females than males. Conversely, males had higher expression of heat shock protein genes (e.g., hsp70) suggesting that cellular stress is elevated in males. These data provide candidate genes and cellular pathways that may underlie sex differences in responses to Seoul virus and possibly other hemorrhagic fever viruses.

  17. Meteorological effects on the evolution of high ozone episodes in the greater Seoul area.

    SciTech Connect

    Ghim, Y. S.; Oh, H. S.; Chang, Y.-S.; Environmental Assessment; Korea Inst. of Science and Tech.

    2001-02-01

    Three high O{sub 3} episodes - 7 days in 1992 (July 3-July 9), 9 days in 1994 (July 21-July 29), and another 3 days in 1994 (August 22-August 24) - were selected on the basis of morning (7:00 a.m.-10:00 a.m.) average wind direction and speed and daily maximum O{sub 3} concentrations in the greater Seoul, Korea, of 1990-1997. To better understand their characteristics and life cycles, surface data from the Seoul Weather Station (SWS) and surface and 850-hPa wind field data covering northeast Asia around the Korean Peninsula were used for the analysis. In the July 1992 episode, westerly winds were most frequent as a result of the influence of a high-pressure system west of the Korean Peninsula behind a trough. In contrast, in the July 1994 episode, easterly winds were most frequent as a result of the effect of a typhoon moving north from the south of Japan. Despite different prevailing wind directions, the peak O{sub 3} concentrations for each episode occurred when a sea/land breeze developed in association with weak synoptic forcing. The August 1994 episode, which was selected as being representative of calm conditions, was another typical example in which a well-developed sea/land breeze helped cause the peak O{sub 3} concentration to rise to a record high of 322 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). All three high O3 episodes ended as a result of precipitation, and subsequent rises in O3 concentrations were also suppressed by a series of precipitation events afterwards. In particular, two heavy rainfalls were the main reason why the August 1994 episode, which had the highest and second-highest O{sub 3} concentrations, lasted only a few days.

  18. Human impacts on groundwater flow and contamination deduced by multiple isotopes in Seoul City, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Takahiro; Ikawa, Reo; Shimada, Jun; Nakano, Takanori; Saito, Mitsuyo; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Lee, Kang-Kun; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2009-04-15

    The influence of human activities on the flow system and contamination of groundwater were investigated in Seoul City, South Korea, one of the largest Asian cities, using a combination of isotopes (deltaD, T, delta15N, delta18O, delta34S, and 87Sr/86Sr). Eighteen representative groundwater and river water samples, which were collected over a wide area of the city, were compared with previously reported data. The distribution of stable isotopes (deltaD and delta18O) with groundwater potential data shows that recharged groundwater from either the surrounding mountainous area as well as the Han River and other surface streams discharged towards the northern-central part of the city, where a subway tunnel pumping station is located. It is suggested from T values (3.3 to 5.8 T.U.) that groundwater was recharged in the last 30 to 40 years. The delta34S and delta15N of SO4(2-) and NO3- data were efficiently used as indicators of contamination by human activities. These isotopes clarified that the contribution of anthropogenic contaminants i.e., industrial and household effluents, waste landfills, and fertilizers, are responsible for the enrichment by SO4(2-) (>30 ppm as SO4(2-)) and NO3- (>20 ppm as NO3-) of groundwater. The 87Sr/86Sr values of groundwater vary (0.71326 to 0.75058) in accordance with the host rocks of different origins. Mineral elements such as Ca are also suggested to be derived naturally from rocks. The groundwater under Seoul City is greatly affected by transportation of pollutants along the groundwater flow controlled by subway tunnel pumping, contributing to the degradation of water quality in urbanized areas.

  19. Updated guidelines for biomarker testing in colorectal carcinoma: a national consensus of the Spanish Society of Pathology and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology.

    PubMed

    García-Alfonso, P; García-Foncillas, J; Salazar, R; Pérez-Segura, P; García-Carbonero, R; Musulén-Palet, E; Cuatrecasas, M; Landolfi, S; Ramón Y Cajal, S; Navarro, S

    2015-04-01

    Publication of this consensus statement is a joint initiative of the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP) and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM), intended to revise and update the diagnostic and treatment recommendations published 2 years ago on biomarker use and the management of patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC), thereby providing an opportunity to improve healthcare efficiency and resource use in these patients. This expert group recommends testing for KRAS and NRAS status in all patients with metastatic CRC being considered for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) therapy, as this type of treatment should only be used in patients not harbouring mutations in these genes. In contrast, testing for BRAF, EGFR, PI3K and PTEN mutation status is not necessary for therapeutic decision making, so does not need to be done routinely.

  20. Optimization of Seoul-Fluor-based lipid droplet bioprobes and their application in microalgae for bio-fuel study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngjun; Na, Sangcheol; Lee, Sanghee; Jeon, Noo Li; Park, Seung Bum

    2013-05-01

    We synthesized a series of Seoul-Fluor-based lipid droplet bioprobes with a linear range of lipophilicity and identified SF44 and SF58 as SF-based LD bioprobes in microalgae for biofuel research as well as in mammalian cells. Unlike Nile Red, SF-based bioprobes can stain algal LDs with excellent efficiency under the non-invasive and non-cytotoxic conditions.

  1. Impact of outdoor air pollution on the incidence of tuberculosis in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung-sik; Kang, Sungchan; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Sung Koo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Although indoor air pollution is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), the possible link between outdoor air pollution and TB development has not been examined fully. We assessed the impact of outdoor air pollution on TB development in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea. Methods The mean concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 levels in Seoul, between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2006, were determined. Furthermore, their association with the risk of developing TB after adjusting for socioeconomic status, between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, was investigated. Results Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, a total of 41,185 TB cases were reported in Seoul. Concentrations of PM10, O3, CO, and NO2 were not associated with TB incidence in males or females. However, the interquartile increase in SO2 concentration was associated with a 7% increment in TB incidence (relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.03 to 1.12) in males but not in females (RR, 1.02; 95% CrI, 0.98 to 1.07). Conclusions Long-term exposure to ambient SO2 increased the risk of TB in males. PMID:24648801

  2. Social status does not predict responses to Seoul virus infection or reproductive success among male Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Ella R; Hannah, Michele F; Norris, Douglas E; Glass, Gregory E; Klein, Sabra L

    2006-03-01

    Trade-offs exist among life history strategies that are used to increase survival and reproduction; such that, males that engage in more competitive behaviors may be more susceptible to infection. Hantaviruses are transmitted horizontally between rodents through the passage of virus in saliva during wounding and male rodents are more likely to be infected with hantaviruses than females. To determine whether a trade-off exists between dominance and susceptibility to Seoul virus infection, male Long Evans rats were group housed (3/cage) with a female rat and aggressive and subordinate behaviors were monitored during a 10 day group housing condition. After behavioral testing, males were individually housed, inoculated with Seoul virus, and blood, saliva, and fecal samples were collected. Dominant males initiated more aggressive encounters than subordinate males. Dominant and subordinate males, however, had similar steroid hormone concentrations, anti-Seoul virus IgG responses, and weight gain over the course of infection. A similar proportion of dominant and subordinate males shed virus in saliva and feces during infection. Using microsatellite DNA markers paternity was assigned to pups derived during the group housing period. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, dominant and subordinate males sired a similar percentage of pups. Taken together, host social status may not predict reproductive success or susceptibility to hantaviruses in rodent reservoir populations.

  3. Molecular characterization of hepatitis A virus isolated from acute gastroenteritis patients in the Seoul region of Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, S-H; Kim, E-J; Lee, J-H; Choi, S-S; Kim, M-S; Jung, S-S; Han, G-Y; Yun, H-S; Chun, D-S; Oh, S-S; Kim, H-S

    2009-10-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a major public health problem throughout the world. As a result of declining HAV endemic in Korea, an increasing number of children and adolescents have become susceptible to HAV infection. HAV is related with sanitation conditions of the environment and is transmitted via the fecal-oral route, either through person-to-person contact or by contaminated water and food. The present study has been carried out to determine the phylogenetic analysis and circulating patterns of HAV strains detected from hospitalized patients with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the Seoul region of Korea. In total, 2,782 stool specimens from hospitalized patients with AGE collected in October 2006 to September 2007 in Seoul were tested for HAV. A pair comparison of the nucleic acid sequence of a 159-bp base region at the putative VP1/2A junction of 85 Seoul isolates revealed that the most common HAV strain circulating in the region during 2006-2007 was subgenotype IA. HAV phylogenetic studies can provide important information on the genetic characteristics of HAV from AGE patients who may subsequently become the source of infection in Korea.

  4. Evaluation of the Relative Importance of Radical Sources in Determining the Regional Tropospheric Oxidation Capacity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, D.; Sanchez, D.; Blake, D. R.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.; Ahn, J.; Cho, G.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    We will discuss oxidation capacity in the boundary layer of the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) by analyzing a comprehensive field observational datasets of trace gases, radicals, and radical precursors. Two intensive field observations will be discussed. From mid-May to mid-June of 2015, we conducted a field observation in the middle of Seoul, representing a region with high anthropogenic emissions and photochemistry near the source region. We deployed an identical suite of instrumentation (i.e., CO, NOX, O3, SO2, VOCs, ClNO2, HONO, and PANs) at Taehwa Research Forest (TRF), ~ 50 km from the center of Seoul in early September of 2015. The site has been characterized as an ideal region in probing roles of biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) in a moderately polluted regional background. Therefore, the comparisons between two datasets will allow us to assess regional oxidation capacity of a megacity surrounded by forests, which is a typical set-up in the East Asian region. The main focus of the discussion was to investigate the following: (i) relative impact of nighttime radical reservoirs (i.e., HONO and ClNO2) in the morning radical budget in the urban and suburban environments and (ii) relative importance of unconstrained primary and recycling (e.g., BVOC oxidation) OH production at the isoprene dominated TRF region. An observationally constrained box model with detailed VOC chemical oxidation schemes (e.g., MCM) will be used for the comprehensive evaluations.

  5. SNOMED CT in pathology.

    PubMed

    García-Rojo, Marcial; Daniel, Christel; Laurinavicius, Arvydas

    2012-01-01

    Pathology information systems have been using SNOMED II for many years, and in most cases, they are in a migration process to SNOMED CT. COST Action IC0604 (EURO-TELEPATH) has considered terminology normalization one of its strategic objectives. This paper reviews the use of SNOMED CT in healthcare, with a special focus in pathology. Nowadays, SNOMED CT is mainly used for concept search and coding of clinical data. Some ontological errors found in SNOMED CT are described. The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative has fostered the use of SNOMED CT, also in Pathology, as recommended in the Supplement Anatomic Pathology Structured Reports of the IHE Anatomic Pathology Technical Framework. Rule governing concept post-coordination is also described. Some recent initiatives are trying to define a SNOMED CT subset for Pathology. The Spanish Society of Pathology has defined a subset for specimens and procedures in Pathology. Regarding diagnosis coding, the morphological abnormality sub-hierarchy of SNOMED CT need to be significantly extended and improved to become useful for pathologists. A consensus is needed to encode pathology reports with the adequate hierarchies and concepts. This will make the implementation of pathology structured reports more feasible.

  6. Effect of diurnal temperature range on cardiovascular markers in the elderly in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Bae, Sanghyuk; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2013-07-01

    While diurnal temperature range (DTR) has been found to be a risk factor for mortality, evaluation of the underlying mechanisms involved in this association are lacking. To explain the association between DTR and health effects, we investigated how cardiovascular markers responded to DTR. Data was obtained from 560 participants who regularly attended a community elderly welfare center located in Seoul, Korea. Data collection was conducted a total of five times over a 3-year period beginning in August, 2008. We examined systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Mixed-effects models and generalized additive mixed models were used to assess the relationship of DTR with BP, HR, and HRV. BP was not associated significantly with rapid temperature changes during the day. While HR was associated linearly with increments of DTR, the relationship between DTR and HRV showed nonlinear associations, or the presence of a cutoff around median DTR. At the cutoff level of DTR determined by an inflection point in the graph, standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and root mean square successive difference (RMSSD) were peaked, whereas the low frequency:high frequency (LF:HF) ratio was elevated with decreasing DTR below the cutoff level. The study demonstrated that HR increases with increasing temperature range during the day, and that HRV is reduced at small or large DTR, which suggests minimal cardiovascular stress around the median level of temperature range during the day.

  7. Pollution of airborne metallic species in Seoul, Korea from 1998 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ezaz; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Park, Jai-Koo; Chambers, Scott; Feng, Xinbin; Sohn, Jong Ryeul; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis was made to characterize the long-term changes in concentration of seven key heavy metal species (iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and cadmium (Cd)) bound to total suspended particles (TSP) in Seoul, Korea, from 1998 to 2010. Their mean values over this period were: 1579 ± 652, 174 ± 54.3, 63.6 ± 8.60, 46.0 ± 15.2, 11.7 ± 9.58, 9.34 ± 8.87, and 1.78 ± 0.64 ng m-3, respectively. Most of the metals exhibited a strong seasonality with maxima in spring (Mn, Fe, and Ni), winter (Pb and Cd), or fall (Cr and Cu) but minima in summer. The most prominent reductions of 71.5% (Pb) and 91.1% (Cu) were seen from early in the study period (1999-2002) to the most recent year (2010). Despite many advances in air quality, these latest concentration values were still higher than in many Western cities. It is thus still desirable to reduce their levels even further to ensure air quality improvement in the coming years.

  8. Changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area Urban Heat Environment with Residential Redevelopment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Je-Woo; Hong, Jinkyu

    2016-04-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the geographical extent of cities has increased around the world. In particular, following three decades of rapid regional economic growth, many Asian megacities have emerged and continue to expand. Short-term urban redevelopment is, therefore, inevitable. However, in this region the microclimatic impacts of urban redevelopment have not been extensively investigated using long-term in-situ observations. In this study, changes in surface sensible heat exchange, heat storage, and anthropogenic heat emissions due to urban residential redevelopment were quantified and analyzed based on a three-year micrometeorological record from the Seoul metropolitan area. The results show that following urban redevelopment of compact high-rise residential buildings, 1) the daily minimum air temperature near the ground surface increased by ˜0.6 K; 2) the ratio between surface sensible heat and net radiation increased by ˜ 9% (summer) to 31% (winter), anthropogenic heat emissions increased by 12 Wm-2 (spring) to 26 Wm-2 (summer), and daily maximum heat storage ranged by 35 Wm-2 (spring) to 55 Wm-2 (summer), and; 3) there was a transition of local circulation with changes in the surface properties of heat sources and roughness.

  9. Urban Flood Management with Integrated Inland-River System in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Y. I.; Kim, J. S.; Yuk, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming and climate change have caused significant damage and loss of life worldwide. The pattern of natural disasters has gradually diversified and their frequency is increasing. The impact of climate change on flood risk in urban rivers is of particular interest because these areas are typically densely populated. The occurrence of urban river flooding due to climate change not only causes significant loss of life and property but also causes health and social problems. It is therefore necessary to develop a scientific urban flood management system to cope with and reduce the impacts of climate change, including flood damage. In this study, we are going to introduce Integrated Inland-River Flood Analysis System in Seoul to conduct predictions on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and perform prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded areas. In addition, this urban flood management system can be used as a tool for decision making of systematic disaster prevention through real-time monitoring.

  10. Assessment of radiation exposure from cesium-137 contaminated roads for epidemiological studies in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Keun; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik; Yim, Sang-Hyuk; Yoo, Sang-Chul; Lee, Jieon; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Burm, Eunae; Ha, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the radiation exposure for epidemiologic investigation in residents exposed to radiation from roads that were accidentally found to be contaminated with radioactive cesium-137 (137Cs) in Seoul. Methods Using information regarding the frequency and duration of passing via the 137Cs contaminated roads or residing/working near the roads from the questionnaires that were obtained from 8875 residents and the measured radiation doses reported by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, we calculated the total cumulative dose of radiation exposure for each person. Results Sixty-three percent of the residents who responded to the questionnaire were considered as ever-exposed and 1% of them had a total cumulative dose of more than 10 mSv. The mean (minimum, maximum) duration of radiation exposure was 4.75 years (0.08, 11.98) and the geometric mean (minimum, maximum) of the total cumulative dose was 0.049 mSv (<0.001, 35.35) in the exposed. Conclusions An individual exposure assessment was performed for an epidemiological study to estimate the health risk among residents living in the vicinity of 137Cs contaminated roads. The average exposure dose in the exposed people was less than 5% of the current guideline. PMID:26184047

  11. A study on nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior of elementary school children in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Suil; Shin, Na-Ri; Jung, Eun-Im; Park, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Hong-Mie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrition and diet related knowledge, attitude, and behavior of elementary school children in Seoul. The subjects included were 439 (male 236, female 203) elementary school children in the 4th to the 6th grades. The statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 12.0 program. The average obesity index (OI) was 104.98 and 99.82 for male and female subjects, respectively. The average percentage of underweight, normal, overweight and obese of subjects was 33.7%, 32.8%, 12.3%, and 19.4%, respectively. The percentage of the underweight group of female subjects was higher than that of the male subjects. The percentage of the obese group of male subjects was higher than that of the female subjects. The average score of nutrition knowledge, nutrition attitude and dietary behavior was 6.8, 7.44, and 7.34, respectively. Dietary behavior of male subjects was positively correlated with parents' education levels, monthly household income and nutrition attitude. Dietary behavior of female subjects was positively correlated with monthly household income, nutrition knowledge and nutrition attitude. Dietary behavior of female subjects was positively correlated with obesity index (OI). Proper nutrition education and intervention are required for the improvement of elementary school children's nutrition knowledge, nutrition attitudes and dietary behaviors. PMID:20016735

  12. Impact of future urban growth on regional climate changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsu; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-11-15

    The influence of changes in future urban growth (e.g., land use changes) on the future climate variability in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), Korea was evaluated using the WRF model and an urban growth model (SLEUTH). The land use changes in the study area were simulated using the SLEUTH model under three different urban growth scenarios: (1) current development trends scenario (SC 1), (2) managed development scenario (SC 2) and (3) ecological development scenario (SC 3). The maximum difference in the ratio of urban growth between SC 1 and SC 3 (SC 1 - SC 3) for 50years (2000-2050) was approximately 6.72%, leading to the largest differences (0.01°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively) in the mean air temperature at 2m (T2) and wind speed at 10m (WS10). From WRF-SLEUTH modeling, the effects of future urban growth (or future land use changes) in the SMA are expected to result in increases in the spatial mean T2 and WS10 of up to 1.15°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively, possibly due to thermal circulation caused by the thermal differences between urban and rural regions.

  13. Genetic characterization of seoul hantavirus originated from norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) captured in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Plyusnina, Angelina; Heyman, Paul; Baert, Kristof; Stuyck, Jan; Cochez, Christel; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2012-08-01

    Hantaviruses (genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae) cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia and hantavirus (cardio)pulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas. So far, in Europe, four pathogenic hantaviruses have been found, often in co-circulation: Puumala virus (PUUV), Dobrava virus (DOBV), Saaremaa virus (SAAV), and Seoul virus (SEOV). Of those, only PUUV was found in Belgium. Recently, in our search for hantaviruses in the Flanders region of Belgium we collected genetic and serological evidence for the presence of SEOV virus in local brown rats. In this article, the results of (phylo)genetic analysis of wild-type SEOV strain from the Flanders are presented. The analysis based on the complete S segment sequence and also partial M- and L-segment sequences revealed that the Belgian SEOV strain was related most closely to strains from France, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, Cambodia (those associated with the species Rattus norvegicus) and Vietnam. Such a clustering was in perfect agreement with the results of direct sequence comparison and suggested the same evolutionary history for all three genome segments of the Belgian SEOV strain (i.e., no reassortment of genome segments). So far, SEOV has been found in two European countries, France and Belgium, and there is every reason to believe that the area of the virus distribution in Europe is not restricted to those countries.

  14. Epidemiological characteristics of the first water-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Shinje; Kwak, Wooseok; Lee, Sangwon; Kim, Won; Oh, Jaeyeon; Youn, Seung-Ki

    2013-07-01

    The first case of human cryptosporidiosis was reported in Korea in 1995; however, an outbreak of Cryptosporidium has not been reported in Korea until now. This paper describes the first outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Korea. On May 24, 2012, a local public health center filed a report on 126 residents with gastrointestinal symptoms in an old apartment complex in Seoul. Epidemiological investigations were implemented on 125 of the 126 patients. The patients were reported continuously over a period of 22 days. Diarrhea was the most common clinical symptom, and lasted for 5 days on average. The tap water was the only common exposure of the patients. During the environmental investigation it was discovered that the water and septic tanks were situated closely and that the waste water pipes were corroded where they passed over the water pipes. Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 3 of the 7 stool specimens by PCR-RFLP. A number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were also detected in the water specimens from the water tank. In conclusion, Cryptosporidium parvum was the key causal pathogen of this outbreak. It is presumed that the tap water was contaminated by a sewage leak from the aged pipelines.

  15. Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air at Four Residential Locations in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ho, Duy Xuan; Park, Chan Goo; Ma, Chang-Jin; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Lee, Sung Chun; Jeong, Ho Jin; Lee, Soon Hee

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the environmental behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban areas, their concentrations were measured at four urban monitoring sites (namely, N, S, E, and W) in Seoul, Korea (February to December 2009). A total of 27 compounds were quantified that consist of four chemical groups: aromatic (AR), halogenated aromatic, halogenated paraffin, and halogenated olefin. Results were evaluated by focusing on these four functional groups just mentioned and their summation term as total VOC (TVOC) along with several individual species (mainly AR species, that is, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene). The highest concentration of chemical groups was found from AR (71.1±42.1 ppbC), while that for individual species confirmed the dominance of toluene (7.48±3.88 ppb). The analysis of spatial distribution indicated that high TVOC levels were recorded at sites N and W, while it was not so significant such as S and E in terms of TVOC budget. Seasonal variation of these VOCs was characterized by the peak values in December to reflect the combined effects of pronounced source activities and meteorological conditions. Analysis of spatial variations in VOC levels between the four urban sites indicated that their distributions are tightly affected by local source processes in each area. PMID:22969269

  16. Roles of Uncontrollable VOC Emissions in the Regional Air Quality of the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Jeong, D.; Lee, M.; Shim, H.; Kim, H. Y.; Park, J.; Park, H.; Kim, S.; Wolfe, G. M.; Guenther, A. B.; He, A.; Hong, Y.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    Roles of natural (uncontrollable) reactive gas emissions in the suburbs of East Asian megacities have been highlighted in determining secondary pollutant formation processes. We will discuss oxidation capacity controlled by anthropogenic-biogenic interactions by presenting a trace gas observational dataset from a forest research site near the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). As uncertainty in isoprene-OH interaction from low to intermediate NO conditions has not been fully resolved yet, we will particularly highlight implications of uncertainty in OH levels to ozone production regimes and OVOC production potentials using an observationally constrained 0-D box model (UWCM v 2.1). Multiple scenarios such as different isopreneperoxy radical photochemistry schemes are adapted for the assessments. In addition, the evaluation of NO2 overestimation by a conventional chemiluminescence instrument with a Mo-converter routinely utilized NO2 observations in East Asia will be also discussed by comparing observational datasets from a Thermo 42i NOx analyzer and a LGR CRDS NO2 instrument from summer to fall. The discussion will be evolved to assess potential uncertainty caused by the overestimation from the previous regional photochemistry assessment studies.

  17. Responses of Two Invasive Plants Under Various Microclimate Conditions in the Seoul Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, Eun Ju

    2012-06-01

    The possible consequences of global warming on plant communities and ecosystems have wide-ranging ramifications. We examined how environmental change affects plant growth as a function of the variations in the microclimate along an urban-suburban climate gradient for two allergy-inducing, invasive plants, Humulus japonicus and Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior. The environmental factors and plant growth responses were measured at two urban sites (Gangbuk and Seongbuk) and two suburban sites (Goyang and Incheon) around Seoul, South Korea. The mean temperatures and CO2 concentrations differed significantly between the urban (14.8 °C and 439 ppm CO2) and suburban (13.0 °C and 427 ppm CO2) sites. The soil moisture and nitrogen contents of the suburban sites were higher than those at the urban sites, especially for the Goyang site. The two invasive plants showed significantly higher biomasses and nitrogen contents at the two urban sites. We conducted experiments in a greenhouse to confirm the responses of the plants to increased temperatures, and we found consistently higher growth rates under conditions of higher temperatures. Because we controlled the other factors, the better performance of the two invasive plants appears to be primarily attributable to their responses to temperature. Our study demonstrates that even small temperature changes in the environment can confer significant competitive advantages to invasive species. As habitats become urbanized and warmer, these invasive plants should be able to displace native species, which will adversely affect people living in these areas.

  18. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in children in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong

    2015-03-01

    The present study reports past-year prevalence of and comorbidities associated with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) disorders in 1645 children aged 6 to 12 years in Seoul, Korea. The diagnosis was based on the parental version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Our participants completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). The estimated prevalence of any full-syndrome and subthreshold DSM-IV disorders were 16.2% and 28.1%, respectively. The most prevalent disorders were specific phobia (9.6%), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 5.9%), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD; 4.9%). The estimated prevalence of depressive disorder was 0.1% according to the DISC-IV and1.9% according to the CDI. ADHD, ODD, and anxiety disorders were highly comorbid. Our study highlights the importance of obtaining children's self-report data in addition to the parents' interview, particularly for depression, and the importance of early detection of subthreshold conditions and considering comorbid diagnoses.

  19. Speciation and source identification of organic compounds in PM₁₀ over Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Na Rae; Lee, Se Pyo; Lee, Ji Yi; Jung, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2016-02-01

    Seventy three individual organic compounds in the atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to a nominal 10 μm (PM10) over Seoul were identified and quantified from April 2010 to April 2011 using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These organic compounds were classified into five groups, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-carboxylic acids, di-carboxylic acids (DCAs), and sugars based on their chemical structures and properties. The organic compounds showed higher seasonal average concentrations from fall to winter than from spring to summer due to source strength, except some organic compounds among mono-carboxylic acids, DCAs, sugars such as undecanoic acid, methylmalonic acid, and fructose. Through qualitative data analysis using seasonal concentration variations and relevant diagnostic parameters, it was found that (1) anthropogenic sources such as combustion of fossil fuel and biomass burning attributed more to the formation of the organic aerosols than biogenic sources, and (2) the ambient level of n-alkanes, PAHs, and some compounds of DCAs and sugars was elevated in winter due to the increased primary emissions and larger transport from outside of the organic compounds in winter.

  20. Speciation and source identification of organic compounds in PM₁₀ over Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Na Rae; Lee, Se Pyo; Lee, Ji Yi; Jung, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2016-02-01

    Seventy three individual organic compounds in the atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to a nominal 10 μm (PM10) over Seoul were identified and quantified from April 2010 to April 2011 using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These organic compounds were classified into five groups, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-carboxylic acids, di-carboxylic acids (DCAs), and sugars based on their chemical structures and properties. The organic compounds showed higher seasonal average concentrations from fall to winter than from spring to summer due to source strength, except some organic compounds among mono-carboxylic acids, DCAs, sugars such as undecanoic acid, methylmalonic acid, and fructose. Through qualitative data analysis using seasonal concentration variations and relevant diagnostic parameters, it was found that (1) anthropogenic sources such as combustion of fossil fuel and biomass burning attributed more to the formation of the organic aerosols than biogenic sources, and (2) the ambient level of n-alkanes, PAHs, and some compounds of DCAs and sugars was elevated in winter due to the increased primary emissions and larger transport from outside of the organic compounds in winter. PMID:26517386

  1. Daily variation of organic aerosol concentration and composition in Seoul, Korea during KORUS pre-campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, H. J.; Lee, J.; Choi, A. Y.; Park, S. M.; Park, J. S.; Song, I. H.; Hong, Y. D.

    2015-12-01

    Daily variation of Organic Aerosol (OA) as well as organic tracer compounds have been observed in aerosol samples collected during KORUS-AQ (Korea-US Air Quality Study) pre-campaign (From May 18 to June 12) in Seoul, Korea. NR-PM1 bounded OA was measured by HR-TOF-AMS (Aerodyne) and the temporal variation, composition of OA by family group characterization, and oxidation state of OA was studied. And to distinguish the source characteristics (such as HOA, COA, NOA, SV-OOA, LV-OOA, etc…) of the organic, AMS-PMF model will be used.For the observation of organic tracer compounds, solvent extractable fractions were analyzed by GC-MS. More than 80 organic compounds were detected in the aerosol samples and grouped by source characterized classes, including vehicular emission tracers, biomass burning tracers, coal emission tracers, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers. The main objective of this study is evaluation of the validity of OA fractionation based on the AMS measurement. So, we will compare daily variation of OA composition measured by AMS with daily variation of organic tracer compounds. Further, we will specify source characteristics estimated using AMS-PMF model by comparing the results of source apportionment of OA using PMF of organic tracer compounds.

  2. Characteristic Distributions of O3 at Taewha Research Forest near Seoul Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, H.; Kim, H.; Lee, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, G.; Park, H.

    2015-12-01

    The measurements of O3, NOx, CO, and SO2 were conducted at 6 heights (4.1, 9.5, 15, 20, 31, 39 m) of 41 m tower at Mt. Taehwa, near Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) from 2011 to 2014. In addition, VOCs were measured seasonally for a short period using a PTR-QMS (Proton Transfer Reaction - Quadruple Mass Spectrometer). In vertical distribution of O3, the mean concentration was slightly higher at 39 m (above canopy) than at 15 m (below canopy). Ozone reached the maximum and minimum concentration at 15:00 and 07:00, respectively. The monthly mean concentration of O3 was the highest in June, which was in accordance with the highest concentration of isoprene and monoterpenes and maximum PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation). NOx was transported from nearby highway mostly in the morning, which fueled O3 formation. At Taehwa Research Forest, it was well constrained the evolution of biogenic VOCs mixed with urban emission and their impact on O3.

  3. Fibrinogen Seoul (FGG Ala341Asp): a novel mutation associated with hypodysfibrinogenemia.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung Soon; Park, Noh Jin; Choi, Jong Rak; Doh, Hyun Joo; Chung, Kwang Hoe

    2006-07-01

    Dysfibrinogenemia is a coagulation disorder caused by a variety of structural abnormalities in the fibrinogen molecule that result in fibrinogen function. The molecular basis of hypodysfibrinogenemia was investigated in a 66-year-old woman with peripheral artery obstructive disease and in her family members. Plasma level of functional fibrinogen determined using the Clauss method was lower (75 mg/dL; normal, 140-460 mg/dL) than that measured with immunologic nephelometric assay (137 mg/dL; normal, 180-400 mg/dL). Similar results were also observed in two family members through two generations. DNA was extracted from whole blood, and the coding regions and intron/exon boundaries of gamma chain gene (FGG) were amplified. A novel (Fibrinogen Seoul) heterozygous FGG mutation (GCT->GAT, Ala341Asp) was identified in all three affected family members. Thrombin-catalyzed polymerization was found to be defective on the analysis of purified fibinogen from the propositus. Molecular modeling also showed a conformational change of fibrinogen structure.

  4. Assessment of Urban Vegetation using Remote Sensing Data: a Case Study in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, J.; Yeom, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Vegetation in the city has various positive effects on the entire urban ecosystem: it reduces CO2 and air temperature, improves air quality, helps to maintain the water balance of natural ground, decreases surface overflow during floods, and provides food source as well as living space for diverse wildlife. Urban green areas also have a social and educational role, e.g. for recreational activity, positive experience in a natural environment, and perception of seasonal changes. In addition, citizens can find a balance between urban green and built up spaces. However, the very high intensity of land use in urban areas changes the local urban ecosystem to a large degree and leads to enormous stress for the urban vegetation. In this study, we aim to develop a method for assessing effects of urban vegetation on ecosystem function using remote sensing technology. We use multispectral RapidEye satellite and LiDAR data for the classification of urban vegetation types in metropolitan area Seoul and test different kinds of vegetation indices focusing on the red edge of RapidEye data to assess the stress degree of the vegetation.

  5. Land-use regression panel models of NO2 concentrations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngkook; Guldmann, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-01

    Transportation and land-use activities are major air pollution contributors. Since their shares of emissions vary across space and time, so do air pollution concentrations. Despite these variations, panel data have rarely been used in land-use regression (LUR) modeling of air pollution. In addition, the complex interactions between traffic flows, land uses, and meteorological variables, have not been satisfactorily investigated in LUR models. The purpose of this research is to develop and estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) panel models based on the LUR framework with data for Seoul, Korea, accounting for the impacts of these variables, and their interactions with spatial and temporal dummy variables. The panel data vary over several scales: daily (24 h), seasonally (4), and spatially (34 intra-urban measurement locations). To enhance model explanatory power, wind direction and distance decay effects are accounted for. The results show that vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT) and solar radiation have statistically strong positive and negative impacts on NO2 concentrations across the four seasonal models. In addition, there are significant interactions with the dummy variables, pointing to VKT and solar radiation effects on NO2 concentrations that vary with time and intra-urban location. The results also show that residential, commercial, and industrial land uses, and wind speed, temperature, and humidity, all impact NO2 concentrations. The R2 vary between 0.95 and 0.98.

  6. Current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-12-01

    Recently the need to manage food allergies in schools has been growing. This study aimed to examine the current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in cooperation with the School Dietician Association during April 2009. Among the participating 154 schools, a total of 109 (71%) were determining students' food allergy status through parental surveys based on self-reported food allergies. A total of 72 (47%) had experienced student visits to a school health room due to food allergies within one year before the survey. Over 80 percent of the schools relied on self-care only without any school-wide measures for food allergies in place. Among the 890 menu items most frequently served in school lunch programs, a total of 664 (75%) were found to contain more than one food allergen. It is highly suggested that preventive plans and treatment measures should be established to manage food allergies in schools. PMID:23059601

  7. Ambient particulate matter in a central urban area of Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ma, Chang-Jin; Kang, Chang-Hee; Lee, Jin-Hong; Kim, Ik-Soo; Brown, Richard J C

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were monitored at a central urban area of Yongsan (YS), Seoul, Korea during 2013. The daily average concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 fractions, were 26.6±12.6 and 45.0±20.4 μg m(-3), respectively. The observed PM2.5 concentration slightly exceeded the annual standard value (25 μg m(-3)) set by the Korean Ministry of Environment (KMOE), while that of PM10 was slightly lower than its guideline value (50 μg m(-3)). Comparison of the monthly mean values (μg m(-3)) of both PM fractions showed maximum concentrations in January (PM2.5: 36.9 and PM10: 59.7) and minimum concentrations in September (PM10: 28.1) and October (PM2.5: 14.9). The existence of strong correlations between the concentrations of PM and some gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, SO2, and NOx) indicated the commonality of contributing source processes, such as traffic and industrial emissions. The results of a back-trajectory (BT) analysis also suggests that the PM pollution in the study area is likely to have been affected by many sources such as Asian dust, volcanic emissions, and industrial activities in the surrounding countries (China, Russia, and Japan).

  8. Analysis of aerosol optical properties over Korea during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul campaign using AERONET and GOCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; KIM, M.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate aerosol characteristics over East Asia, many campaigns using in-situ measurements, ground and satellite based remote sensing, and air quality modeling have been conducted as ACE-Asia in 2001, ABC-EAREX in 2005, and DRAGON-NE Asia in 2012, and planned KORUS-AQ in 2016. Planned KORUS-AQ 2016 campaigns provides excellent opportunity to monitor and analyze air quality including aerosol and trace gases from diverse platform including ground-based, airborne, shipborne and satellite platform. Prior to the upcoming KORUS-AQ campaign, the Megacity Air Pollution Studies (MAPS)-Seoul campaign was held from May 18 to June14, 2015. During the campaign, total 8 AERONET sunphotometers are deployed over Korea. GOCI Yonsei aerosol retrieval (YAER) algorithm was developed, improved and evaluated through the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. GOCI YAER AOD at 550 nm with spatial resolution of 6 km showed good agreement with AERONET AOD (R > 0.88) during the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. In this study, aerosol optical properties from AERONET and GOCI are analyzed together during the MAPS-Seoul campaign. Mean AERONET AOD at 550 nm over a megacity site, Seoul and a coastal site Gosan shows the lowest values in 2015 as 0.338 and 0.214, respectively, compared with values during the same period from 2011 to 2014 (0.557-0.645 at Seoul, and 0.447-0.618 at Gosan). GOCI YAER algorithm uses the minimum reflectivity technique from the composited Rayleigh-corrected reflectance during a month thus low AOD increase a possibility to find clear pixels to obtain accurate surface reflectance. To improve surface reflectance quality, multi-year GOCI data are also analyzed. Furthermore higher spatial resolution retrieval in 3 km is tested to detect small-scale aerosol features and point sources in megacities. DRAGON-NE Asia in 2012, MAPS-Seoul in 2015, and planned KORUS-AQ in 2016 field campaigns contribute to the continuous assessment of GOCI YAER algorithm performance for the improvements.

  9. Discovery, understanding, and bioapplication of organic fluorophore: a case study with an indolizine-based novel fluorophore, Seoul-Fluor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Lee, Youngjun; Lee, Sanghee; Park, Seung Bum

    2015-03-17

    Owing to its high sensitivity and great applicability, the fluorescence phenomenon has been considered as an inevitable research tool in the modern scientific fields of chemistry, biology, materials science, biomedical science, and their interfaces. Many strategies have been pursued to understand and manipulate the photophysical properties of fluorescent materials, but the scientific community has been focused on the repeated application of existing organic fluorophores or the identification of unique fluorescence properties in a trial-and-error basis without systematic studies. Moreover, recent studies are emphasizing the necessity of deeper understanding about the structure-photophysical property relationship of organic fluorophores for the development of better fluorescent probes. Herein, we provide an overview of a novel fluorescent molecular framework, Seoul-Fluor, which can be rationally engineered to furnish a wide variety of fluorophores in terms of the photophysical properties. Seoul-Fluor is built on an indolizine-based fluorescent platform with three different positions to introduce various substituents: R(1) and R(2) substituents for electronic perturbation; R(3) substituent as a functional handle for bioconjugation. Over the past decade, we have demonstrated that the Seoul-Fluor system has (i) tunable and predictable emission wavelength covering a full visible-color range; (ii) controllable quantum yield via photoinduced electron transfer phenomenon; and (iii) environment-sensitive fluorogenic properties that can be modified through intramolecular charge transfer processes. We convincingly demonstrated the prediction of photophysical properties, that is, emission wavelength and quantum yield, through the construction of a systematic set of analogues and the subsequent analysis of their photophysical properties without the highly sophisticated theoretical support. Guided by quantifiable parameters such as the Hammett substituent constants or energy

  10. Application of Molecular Pathology in Endocrine Pathology.

    PubMed

    Linke, Ebru Serinsoz; Tezel, Gaye Güler

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth in knowledge of cell and molecular biology led to the increased usage of molecular techniques in anatomical pathology. This is also due to the advances achieved in the techniques introduced in the last few years which are less laborious as compared to the techniques used at the beginning of the "molecular era". The initial assays were also very expensive and were not performed except for selected centers. Moreover, the clinicians were not sure how to make use of the accumulating molecular information. That situation has also changed and molecular techniques are being performed in a wide variety of medical settings which also has a reflection on the endocrine system pathology among other organ systems. This review will provide an update of genetic changes observed in different endocrine system pathologies and their diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic values.

  11. Handheld computing in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  12. Opportunities in Speech Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Parley W.

    The importance of speech is discussed and speech pathology is described. Types of communication disorders considered are articulation disorders, aphasia, facial deformity, hearing loss, stuttering, delayed speech, voice disorders, and cerebral palsy; examples of five disorders are given. Speech pathology is investigated from these aspects: the…

  13. Uterine pathology and infertility.

    PubMed

    Flamigni, C; Gianaroli, L; Ferraretti, A P; Jasonni, V M; Melega, C; Possati, G

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the factors influencing implantation with reference to uterine pathology; the role that it plays both in the case of failure of implantation and in the case of repeated abortions is discussed and the techniques of treatment in the presence of uterine pathology affecting fertility are listed.

  14. Radiographic pathology for technologists

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, J.D.; Kowalczyk, N.

    1988-01-01

    This book explains the fundamentals of disease mechanisms and relates this to the practice of radiologic science. Each chapter begins with a discussion of normal anatomy and physiology, then covers pathology and demonstrates how the pathology appears on film. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound are also discussed. Clinical case studies are included.

  15. Effects of land-use type on urban groundwater quality, Seoul metropolitan city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Yun, S.; Chae, G.; So, C.; Kweon, S.; Lee, P.

    2001-12-01

    The progressive degradation of urban groundwater becomes an important environmental problem encountered in South Korea. This study aims to examine the relationships between land-use type and groundwater quality in Seoul metropolitan city, based on the results of hydrogeochemical monitoring. For this purpose, land-use type was divided into five categories (green zone, housing, agricultural, traffic, and industrialized). The mean concentrations of TDS (total dissolved solids) effectively reflect the degree of anthropogenic contamination and increase in the following order: green zone (152.5 mg/l), then agricultural (380.7 mg/l) and housing (384.2 mg/l), then traffic (457.0 mg/l), and finally industrialized area (554.5 mg/l). Among major dissolved solutes, the concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, HCO3, and Cl increase with increasing TDS. In case of Na and Ca, de-icing salts and sewage are considered as major contamination sources. The corrosion of cements may also increase Ca. Nitrate concentration is characteristically very high in housing and agricultural areas, reflecting the severe contamination from domestic sewage and fertilizer. Sulfate and magnesium are enriched in industrialized area, possibly due to their derivation from industrial facilities. Chlorine ion is considered to be derived from de-chlorination of hydrocarbons as well as de-icing salts. Bicarbonate also increases with increasing TDS, for which cement dissolution and oxidation of organics are considered as source materials. However, enhanced water-rock(or construction materials) interaction also may increase the bicarbonate, because acidic wastewater in urban area is very corrosive. Trace metals and organic compounds generally does not show any distinct pattern of regional variation. However, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn, TCE, and PCE tend to increase locally in industrialized area, whereas high concentrations of Br, Ni, and Cu are found in traffic area. The groundwaters with very high concentrations of Fe, Zn, and

  16. First molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sukyee; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the status of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was assessed in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea, with PCR and phylogenetic analyses. Nested PCR on 1058 collected blood samples revealed only one A. phagocytophilum positive sample (female, age <1year, mixed breed, collected from the north of the Han River). The genetic variability of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated by genotyping, using the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 gene sequences of the positive sample. BLASTn analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes had 99.6%, 99.9%, and 100% identity with the following sequences deposited in GenBank: a cat 16S rRNA sequence from Korea (KR021166), a rat groEL sequence from Korea (KT220194), and a water deer msp2 sequence from Korea (HM752099), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses classified the groEL gene into two distinct groups (serine and alanine), whereas the msp2 gene showed a general classification into two groups (USA and Europe) that were further subgrouped according to region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the molecular diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reared in Korea. In addition, the high genetic identity of the 16S rRNA and groEL sequences between humans and dogs from the same region suggests a possible epidemiological relation. Given the conditions of climate change, tick ecology, and recent incidence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Korea, the findings of this study underscore the need to establish appropriate control programs for tick-borne diseases in Korea. PMID:27130537

  17. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater, Seoul, Korea: The impact of subway tunnels on groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Yu, Soon-Young; Jo, Ho-Young; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Yun-Jong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2008-10-01

    Hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data for subway tunnel seepage waters in Seoul (Republic of Korea) were examined to understand the effect of underground tunnels on the degradation of urban groundwater. A very large quantity of groundwater (up to 63 million m 3 year - 1 ) is discharged into subway tunnels with a total length of 287 km, resulting in a significant drop of the local groundwater table and the abandonment of groundwater wells. For the tunnel seepage water samples ( n = 72) collected from 43 subway stations, at least one parameter among pathogenic microbes (total coliform, heterotrophic bacteria), dissolved Mn and Fe, NH 4+, NO 3-, turbidity, and color exceeded the Korean Drinking Water Standards. Locally, tunnel seepage water was enriched in dissolved Mn (avg. 0.70 mg L - 1 , max. 5.58 mg L - 1 ), in addition to dissolved Fe, NH 4+, and pathogenic microbes, likely due to significant inflow of sewage water from broken or leaking sewer pipes. Geochemical modeling of redox reactions was conducted to simulate the characteristic hydrochemistry of subway tunnel seepage. The results show that variations in the reducing conditions occur in urban groundwater, dependent upon the amount of organic matter-rich municipal sewage contaminating the aquifer. The organic matter facilitates the reduction and dissolution of Mn- and Fe-bearing solids in aquifers and/or tunnel construction materials, resulting in the successive increase of dissolved Mn and Fe. The present study clearly demonstrates that locally significant deterioration of urban groundwater is caused by a series of interlinked hydrogeologic and hydrochemical changes induced by underground tunnels.

  18. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater, Seoul, Korea: the impact of subway tunnels on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Yu, Soon-Young; Jo, Ho-Young; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Yun-Jong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2008-10-23

    Hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data for subway tunnel seepage waters in Seoul (Republic of Korea) were examined to understand the effect of underground tunnels on the degradation of urban groundwater. A very large quantity of groundwater (up to 63 million m3 year(-1)) is discharged into subway tunnels with a total length of 287 km, resulting in a significant drop of the local groundwater table and the abandonment of groundwater wells. For the tunnel seepage water samples (n = 72) collected from 43 subway stations, at least one parameter among pathogenic microbes (total coliform, heterotrophic bacteria), dissolved Mn and Fe, NH4+, NO3(-), turbidity, and color exceeded the Korean Drinking Water Standards. Locally, tunnel seepage water was enriched in dissolved Mn (avg. 0.70 mg L(-1), max. 5.58 mg L(-1)), in addition to dissolved Fe, NH4+, and pathogenic microbes, likely due to significant inflow of sewage water from broken or leaking sewer pipes. Geochemical modeling of redox reactions was conducted to simulate the characteristic hydrochemistry of subway tunnel seepage. The results show that variations in the reducing conditions occur in urban groundwater, dependent upon the amount of organic matter-rich municipal sewage contaminating the aquifer. The organic matter facilitates the reduction and dissolution of Mn- and Fe-bearing solids in aquifers and/or tunnel construction materials, resulting in the successive increase of dissolved Mn and Fe. The present study clearly demonstrates that locally significant deterioration of urban groundwater is caused by a series of interlinked hydrogeologic and hydrochemical changes induced by underground tunnels. PMID:18725171

  19. Chemical compositions of subway particles in Seoul, Korea determined by a quantitative single particle analysis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sunni; Hwang, HeeJin; Park, YooMyung; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2008-12-15

    A novel single particle analytical technique, low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis, was applied to characterize seasonal subway samples collected at a subway station in Seoul, Korea. For all 8 samples collected twice in each season, 4 major types of subway particles, based on their chemical compositions, are significantly encountered: Fe-containing; soil-derived; carbonaceous; and secondary nitrate and/or sulfate particles. Fe-containing particles are generated indoors from wear processes at rail-wheel-brake interfaces while the others may be introduced mostly from the outdoor urban atmosphere. Fe-containing particles are the most frequently encountered with relative abundances in the range of 61-79%. In this study, it is shown that Fe-containing subway particles almost always exist either as partially or fully oxidized forms in underground subway microenvironments. Their relative abundances of Fe-containing particles increase as particle sizes decrease. Relative abundances of Fe-containing particles are higher in morning samples than in afternoon samples because of heavier train traffic in the morning. In the summertime samples, Fe-containing particles are the most abundantly encountered, whereas soil-derived and nitrate/sulfate particles are the least encountered, indicating the air-exchange between indoor and outdoor environments is limited in the summer, owing to the air-conditioning in the subway system. In our work, it was observed that the relative abundances of the particles of outdoor origin vary somewhat among seasonal samples to a lesser degree, reflecting that indoor emission sources predominate. PMID:19174870

  20. Seoul virus enhances regulatory and reduces proinflammatory responses in male Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, Judith D; Klein, Sabra L

    2008-07-01

    Zoonotic pathogens, including hantaviruses, are maintained in the environment by causing persistent infection in the absence of disease in their reservoir hosts. Spillover of hantaviruses to humans can cause severe disease that is mediated by excessive proinflammatory responses. The mechanisms mediating hantaviral persistence in rodent reservoirs remain largely unknown. Male Norway rats were inoculated with their species-specific hantavirus, Seoul virus (SEOV), and viral RNA, cytokine, and chemokine responses were evaluated in spleen and lung tissue. More viral RNA was detectable in the lungs than spleen, with copies of SEOV peaking 15-30 days post-inoculation (p.i.) and persisting for 60 days p.i. In the lungs, the expression and production of proinflammatory mediators (i.e., IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, CCL5, CCL2, CX3CL1, CXCL10, VCAM, VEGF, and NOS2) remained at or below baseline throughout SEOV infection; whereas, regulatory factors, including TGF-beta and FoxP3 were elevated. Conversely, in the spleen, proinflammatory responses were induced while regulatory responses remained unchanged during infection. To determine whether reduced proinflammatory responses mediate hantavirus persistence in the lungs, male rats were administered rIL-1beta or vehicle for 30 days during SEOV infection. SEOV persistence and shedding were not affected by IL-1beta treatment. Proinflammatory responses were elevated in rIL-1beta-treated rats, but remained within physiological levels, suggesting that supra-physiological concentrations may be necessary for viral clearance at the cost of causing disease. Elevated regulatory responses may suppress excessively high proinflammatory responses at a site of elevated SEOV replication to contribute to viral persistence and prevent proinflammatory-mediated disease in reservoir hosts.

  1. Migration of Norway rats resulted in the worldwide distribution of Seoul hantavirus today.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Wang, Wen; Zou, Yang; Hao, Zong-Yu; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Dong, Xue; Qu, Yong-Gang; Li, Ming-Hui; Tian, Hai-Feng; Wen, Jian-Fan; Plyusnin, Alexander; Xu, Jianguo; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Despite the worldwide distribution, most of the known Seoul viruses (SEOV) are closely related to each other. In this study, the M and the S segment sequences of SEOV were recovered from 130 lung tissue samples (mostly of Norway rats) and from six patient serum samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Genetic analysis revealed that all sequences belong to SEOV and represent 136 novel strains. Phylogenetic analysis of all available M and S segment sequences of SEOV, including 136 novel Chinese strains, revealed four distinct groups. All non-Chinese SEOV strains and most of the Chinese variants fell into the phylogroup A, while the Chinese strains originating from mountainous areas clustered into three other distinct groups (B, C, and D). We estimated that phylogroup A viruses may have arisen only within the last several centuries. All non-Chinese variants appeared to be directly originated from China. Thus, phylogroup A viruses distributed worldwide may share a recent ancestor, whereas SEOV seems to be as diversified genetically as other hantaviruses. In addition, all available mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of Norway rats, including our 44 newly recovered mtDNA sequences, were divided into two phylogenetic groups. The first group, which is associated with the group A SEOV variants, included most of rats from China and also all non-Chinese rats, while the second group consisted of a few rats originating only from mountain areas in China. We hypothesize that an ancestor of phylogroup A SEOV variants was first exported from China to Europe and then spread through the New World following the migration of Norway rats.

  2. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater, Seoul, Korea: the impact of subway tunnels on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Yu, Soon-Young; Jo, Ho-Young; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Yun-Jong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2008-10-23

    Hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data for subway tunnel seepage waters in Seoul (Republic of Korea) were examined to understand the effect of underground tunnels on the degradation of urban groundwater. A very large quantity of groundwater (up to 63 million m3 year(-1)) is discharged into subway tunnels with a total length of 287 km, resulting in a significant drop of the local groundwater table and the abandonment of groundwater wells. For the tunnel seepage water samples (n = 72) collected from 43 subway stations, at least one parameter among pathogenic microbes (total coliform, heterotrophic bacteria), dissolved Mn and Fe, NH4+, NO3(-), turbidity, and color exceeded the Korean Drinking Water Standards. Locally, tunnel seepage water was enriched in dissolved Mn (avg. 0.70 mg L(-1), max. 5.58 mg L(-1)), in addition to dissolved Fe, NH4+, and pathogenic microbes, likely due to significant inflow of sewage water from broken or leaking sewer pipes. Geochemical modeling of redox reactions was conducted to simulate the characteristic hydrochemistry of subway tunnel seepage. The results show that variations in the reducing conditions occur in urban groundwater, dependent upon the amount of organic matter-rich municipal sewage contaminating the aquifer. The organic matter facilitates the reduction and dissolution of Mn- and Fe-bearing solids in aquifers and/or tunnel construction materials, resulting in the successive increase of dissolved Mn and Fe. The present study clearly demonstrates that locally significant deterioration of urban groundwater is caused by a series of interlinked hydrogeologic and hydrochemical changes induced by underground tunnels.

  3. First molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sukyee; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the status of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was assessed in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea, with PCR and phylogenetic analyses. Nested PCR on 1058 collected blood samples revealed only one A. phagocytophilum positive sample (female, age <1year, mixed breed, collected from the north of the Han River). The genetic variability of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated by genotyping, using the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 gene sequences of the positive sample. BLASTn analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes had 99.6%, 99.9%, and 100% identity with the following sequences deposited in GenBank: a cat 16S rRNA sequence from Korea (KR021166), a rat groEL sequence from Korea (KT220194), and a water deer msp2 sequence from Korea (HM752099), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses classified the groEL gene into two distinct groups (serine and alanine), whereas the msp2 gene showed a general classification into two groups (USA and Europe) that were further subgrouped according to region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the molecular diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reared in Korea. In addition, the high genetic identity of the 16S rRNA and groEL sequences between humans and dogs from the same region suggests a possible epidemiological relation. Given the conditions of climate change, tick ecology, and recent incidence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Korea, the findings of this study underscore the need to establish appropriate control programs for tick-borne diseases in Korea.

  4. Spatial analysis of PM10 and cardiovascular mortality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yu-Ra; Bae, Hyun-Joo; Lim, Youn-Hee; Yu, Seungdo; Kim, Geun-Bae; Cho, Yong-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Numerous studies have revealed the adverse health effects of acute and chronic exposure to particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10). The aim of the present study was to examine the spatial distribution of PM10 concentrations and cardiovascular mortality and to investigate the spatial correlation between PM10 and cardiovascular mortality using spatial scan statistic (SaTScan) and a regression model. Methods From 2008 to 2010, the spatial distribution of PM10 in the Seoul metropolitan area was examined via kriging. In addition, a group of cardiovascular mortality cases was analyzed using SaTScan-based cluster exploration. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was applied to investigate the correlation between PM10 concentrations and cardiovascular mortality. Results An examination of the regional distribution of the cardiovascular mortality was higher in provincial districts (gu) belonging to Incheon and the northern part of Gyeonggido than in other regions. In a comparison of PM10 concentrations and mortality cluster (MC) regions, all those belonging to MC 1 and MC 2 were found to belong to particulate matter (PM) 1 and PM 2 with high concentrations of air pollutants. In addition, the GWR showed that PM10 has a statistically significant relation to cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions To investigate the relation between air pollution and health impact, spatial analyses can be utilized based on kriging, cluster exploration, and GWR for a more systematic and quantitative analysis. It has been proven that cardiovascular mortality is spatially related to the concentration of PM10. PMID:25116367

  5. Susceptibility to ambient particulate matter on emergency care utilization for ischemic heart disease in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jungwoo; You, Seng Chan; Cho, Jaelim; Choi, Yoon Jung; Joung, Boyoung; Kim, Changsoo

    2016-10-01

    Many epidemiological studies have reported associations between ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects associated with PM that promote cardiovascular events among susceptible populations who may respond differently than the general population to the same ambient air pollutants remain unclear. We conducted a time-series study with generalized additive models to assess the association between ambient PM10 and emergency department (ED) visits for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Seoul, Republic of Korea from 2005 to 2009. The ED data and previous medical records within the 5 years of each IHD event to examine the effect of PM10 in a susceptible population were obtained from Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Overall, the adjusted relative risks (RRs) of ED visits for IHD were not statistically significant for PM10, but significant positive RRs were found for groups with hypertension (1.018; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.002-1.035) and those who are ≥80 years of age (1.019; 1.002-1.037) for same-day exposure and with diabetes (1.019; 1.002-1.037) for single-lag models. Subgroup analyses revealed gender differences in ED visits for IHD in hypertensive patients and those who are ≥80 years of age; positive correlations were found only in males with the lag models. Our study suggests that ambient PM10 is significantly associated with ED visits for IHD, especially in males with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or who are aged ≥80 years. Identification of populations susceptible to air pollution is of paramount importance to establishing recommendations or guidelines for high-risk individuals. PMID:27380182

  6. Ten-Year Experience With Bowel Transplantation at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital.

    PubMed

    Chang, H K; Kim, S Y; Kim, J I; Kim, S I; Whang, J K; Choi, J Y; Park, J M; Jung, E S; Rha, S E; Kim, D G; Moon, I S; Lee, M D

    2016-03-01

    A retrospective review of intestinal transplantation (ITx) at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital was made by collecting clinical data over the past 10 years. Fifteen consecutive cases from 2004 were analyzed. Five children and 10 adults (6 months to 69 years of age) were included. Primary diseases in adults included 4 mesenteric vessel thromboses, 2 strangulations, and 1 each of visceral myopathy, malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), mesenteric lymphangiectasis, and injury. Pediatric cases involved 2 Hirschsprung disease, 2 visceral myopathy, and 1 necrotizing enterocolitis. Three of 7 stomas were closed using a serial transverse enteroplasty procedure before transplantation. The ITx were performed using 3 living-donor Itx, 12 deceased-donor ITx, 14 isolated Itx, and 1 modified multivisceral transplantation. Daclizumab, basiliximab, alemtusumab, or basiliximab with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) was used for the induction; tacrolimus monotherapy was used as the basic maintenance immunosuppressant; and m-TOR inhibitor was used for renal dysfunction patients. Seven cases of acute cellular rejection were treated with rATG. Three cases of antibody-mediated rejection were treated with rituximab alone or with rituximab and bortezomib combination. There were 4 cases of early mortality within 6 months after Itx. Causes of death were declamping shock, cardiac tamponade with acute cellular rejection, dysmotility, and sepsis. Surgical complications consisted of 1 feeding jejunostomy displacement, and a minor leakage at a colo-colostomy site. One-year survival of the patient and graft was 73.33% (Kaplan-Meier survival curve). Although the total number of ITx is small, its social impact has been remarkable in changing the related laws and reimbursement policy in Korea. PMID:27109981

  7. Survival to admission after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Seoul, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Hue; Uhm, Tai-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) data derived according to the Utstein Style guidelines was used to try to determine factors influencing survival to admission (STA) and epidemiological rates of OHCA. Patients and methods This was an observational study of all age groups based on data from prehospital care reports in Seoul, South Korea. The collected data were reported according to the Utstein Style template for OHCA and analyzed in order to compare STA with non-STA. Univariate analysis was conducted using a binomial logistic regression model to identify predictors associated with trauma patients. Results Eighty-three (4.8%) OHCA survivors were admitted to the emergency department with carotid pulse. The median time from arrest to emergency medical personnel defibrillation was statistically significantly shorter in STA cases (8.0 minutes) than in non-STA cases (12.0 minutes; P<0.001). Factors independently associated with better prognosis in terms of trauma patients were female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.50–0.91; P=0.01), arrest at home (OR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.27–0.49; P<0.001), and witnessed arrest (OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.94–3.39; P<0.001). Conclusion Early basic life support, performed by either a layperson or emergency medical personnel, had a positive effect on STA. Male sex, arrest outside of the home, and witnessed arrest are significantly associated with trauma. PMID:27147881

  8. Measurements of physical and chemical properties of urban aerosols and their CCN activities in Seoul during the KORUS-AQ pre-campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, N.; Yum, S. S.; Park, M.; Shin, H. J.; Bae, G. N.; Kwak, K. H.; Park, J. S.; Park, S. M.; Ahn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Interest in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) has been increasing for the last few decades due to their first order effects on radiative and microphysical properties of clouds. Particularly, scientific understanding of CCN from anthropogenic sources becomes important because it is now considered that large uncertainties in climate change predictions stem from insufficient understanding of CCN. CCN activity is influenced by size and chemical component of aerosols. The KORUS-AQ campaign, jointly organized by National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) of Korea and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aims at understanding various aspects of air quality problem in Korea and will be held in spring, 2016. In preparation for this campaign, pre-campaign was held during May 18-June 13, 2015, in Seoul where numerous local anthropogenic sources exist and influence of Chinese continental outflow directly affects. Here we present some of the important results from the pre-campaign. Chemical properties of aerosols were measured with AMS. Aerosol and CCN number concentrations, aerosol size distribution and aerosol hygroscopic growth factor were measured by CPC, CCN counter, SMPS and H-TDMA, respectively. Average diurnal variation of aerosol number concentration showed three dominant peaks at around 0600_UTC and morning and evening rush hours. Each peak seemed to have different characteristics and therefore detailed analyses of physical and chemical properties of aerosols during the peaks as well as during some special events will be made. The hygroscopicity parameter, kappa, will be estimated by examining CCN activity, H-TDMA measured hygroscopic growth factor and mixing rule of aerosol chemical components, and the result will be compared as well.

  9. [Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].

    PubMed

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-02-01

    Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy.

  10. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  11. Determinants of pathologic mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Physiologic mineralization is necessary for the formation of skeletal tissues and for their appropriate functions during adulthood. Mineralization has to be controlled and restricted to specific regions. If the mineralization process occurs in regions that normally do not mineralize, there can be severe consequences (pathologic or ectopic mineralization). Recent findings have indicated that physiologic and pathologic mineralization events are initiated by matrix vesicles, membrane-enclosed particles released from the plasma membranes of mineralization-competent cells. The understanding of how these vesicles are released from the plasma membrane and initiate the mineralization process may provide novel therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic mineralization. In addition, other regulators (activators and inhibitors) of physiologic mineralization have been identified and characterized, and there is evidence that the same factors also contribute to the regulation of pathologic mineralization. Finally, programmed cell death (apoptosis) may be a contributor to physiologic mineralization and if occurring after tissue injury may induce pathologic mineralization and mineralization-related differentiation events in the injured and surrounding areas. This review describes how the understanding of mechanisms and factors regulating physiologic mineralization can be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic or ectopic mineralization events.

  12. Genetic and environmental influences on self-concept in female preadolescent twins: comparison of Minnesota and Seoul data.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2005-08-01

    It has been argued that culture significantly influences the developmental basis of self-concept. The goal of the present study is to compare the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors to explain individual differences in various dimensions of self-concept in female preadolescents of Minnesota in the United States and Seoul in South Korea. Two hundred and eighteen monozygotic (MZ) and 137 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS) and 74 MZ and 42 DZ twin pairs from the Seoul Twin Family Study (STFS) completed the 6 cluster scales of the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (P-H). The 6 cluster scales of the P-H include Popularity, Physical Appearance and Attributes, Behavior, Intellectual Competence and School Status, Anxiety, and Happiness and Satisfaction. Univariate model-fitting analyses were performed. In both samples, a model incorporating shared and nonshared environmental influences fitted the data best for Popularity, Anxiety, and Intellectual Competence and School Status, whereas a model including additive genetic and nonshared environmental factors provided the best fit for Physical Appearance and Attributes, and Behavior. The univariate model did not yield an adequate fit for Happiness and Satisfaction. For Physical Appearance and Attributes, and Intellectual Competence and School Status, estimates of additive genetic and environmental factors were significantly different between the MTFS and the STFS samples. For Popularity, Anxiety, and Behavior, however, the genetic and environmental estimates were comparable between the two samples.

  13. Formation and evolution of mesoscale convective systems that brought the heavy rainfall over Seoul on September 21, 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Woomi; Lee, Tae-Young

    2013-11-01

    An investigation has been carried out using observational data and a numerical model to explain the formation and development of heavy precipitation systems on September 21, 2010. These systems were responsible for heavy rainfall over the middle Korean peninsula, with a maximum 24-h rainfall amount greater than 290 mm in the Seoul metropolitan area. Both observational analysis and a numerical simulation indicate that an important starting condition for this heavy rainfall event is the presence of a pressure trough over the Shandong peninsula and the Yellow Sea. Convective cells formed in the early morning over this trough area, grew into larger systems as they moved eastward, and induced the formation of a meso low over the Yellow Sea around 0000 UTC on September 21, 2010. A stationary front with significant vertical circulation developed in response to the deformation of flow associated with the meso low. In the meantime, multicell-type convective systems continuously developed and moved along the front. These storms developed further and produced heavy rainfall over the middle Korean peninsula, which includes the Seoul metropolitan area. According to observations, the band structure appeared to change after 0700 UTC as a narrow convection band developed over the sea, upstream of the existing band of multicell storms. Numerical simulation showed a similar transition. However, it failed to reproduce the stationary behavior of the observed band.

  14. OH reactivity in urban and suburban regions in Seoul, South Korea - an East Asian megacity in a rapid transition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Saewung; Sanchez, Dianne; Wang, Mark; Seco, Roger; Jeong, Daun; Hughes, Stacey; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R; Jung, Jinsang; Kim, Deugsoo; Lee, Gangwoong; Lee, Meehye; Ahn, Joonyoung; Lee, Sang-Deok; Cho, Gangnam; Sung, Min-Young; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Dan Bi; Kim, Younha; Woo, Jung-Hun; Jo, Duseong; Park, Rokjin; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Hong, You-Deog; Hong, Ji-Hyung

    2016-07-18

    South Korea has recently achieved developed country status with the second largest megacity in the world, the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). This study provides insights into future changes in air quality for rapidly emerging megacities in the East Asian region. We present total OH reactivity observations in the SMA conducted at an urban Seoul site (May-June, 2015) and a suburban forest site (Sep, 2015). The total OH reactivity in an urban site during the daytime was observed at similar levels (∼15 s(-1)) to those previously reported from other East Asian megacity studies. Trace gas observations indicate that OH reactivity is largely accounted for by NOX (∼50%) followed by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (∼35%). Isoprene accounts for a substantial fraction of OH reactivity among the comprehensive VOC observational dataset (25-47%). In general, observed total OH reactivity can be accounted for by the observed trace gas dataset. However, observed total OH reactivity in the suburban forest area cannot be largely accounted for (∼70%) by the trace gas measurements. The importance of biogenic VOC (BVOCs) emissions and oxidations used to evaluate the impacts of East Asian megacity outflows for the regional air quality and climate contexts are highlighted in this study. PMID:27138104

  15. Wavelength dependence of Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo observed by skyradiometer in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Eck, Thomas F.; Lee, Yun Gon; Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Mijin; Jung, Ukkyo; Yoon, Jongmin; Mok, Jungbin; Cho, Hi-Ku

    2016-11-01

    Absorption and scattering characteristics of various aerosol events are investigated using 2-years of measurements from a skyradiometer at Yonsei University in Seoul, Korea. Both transported dust and anthropogenic aerosols are observed at distinct geo-location of Seoul, a megacity located a few thousand kilometers away from dust source regions in China. We focus on the wavelength dependence of Ångström exponent (AE) and single scattering albedo (SSA), showing the characteristics of regional aerosols. The correlation between spectral SSAs and AEs calculated using different wavelength pairs generally indicates relatively weak absorption of fine-mode aerosols (urban pollution and/or biomass burning) and strong absorption of coarse-mode aerosols (desert dust) at this location. AE ratio (AER), a ratio of AEs calculated using wavelength pair between shorter (340-675 nm) and longer wavelength pair (675-1020 nm) correlates differently with SSA according to the dominant size of local aerosols. Correlations between SSA and AER show strong absorption of aerosols for AER < 1.0 and weak absorption for AER > 2.0. Based on the seasonal pattern of wavelength dependence of AER and SSA, this correlation difference looks to reveal the separated characteristics of transported dust and anthropogenic particles from urban pollution respectively. The seasonal characteristics of AER and SSAs also show that the skyradiometer measurement with multiple wavelengths may be able to detect the water soluble brown carbon, one of the important secondary organic aerosols in the summertime atmospheric composition.

  16. Analysis of Aerosol Distribution over North East Asia Using a Geostationary Satellite Measurement during Filed Campaigns of DRAGON-Asia 2012 and MAPS-Seoul 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Choi, M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J.; Ahn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Considering diverse source and high concentration of aerosol, numerous manners have been applied to detect aerosol properties in North East Asia (NEA). Above all, a geostationary orbit satellite, COMS has monitored atmosphere and ocean conditions over the NEA using two payloads of Meteorological Imager (MI) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) since 2010. By using the MI measurements, an AOD retrieval algorithm was developed (Kim et al., 2014). Additionally, a number of ground-based network such as Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Sky Radiometer Network (SKYNET), and Mie-scattering Light Detector and Ranging (LIDAR) Network have been in operation to capture aerosol variability. And, occasionally, field campaigns were conducted. In 2012 (March to May), the DRAGON-Asia campaign was performed by AERONET science team and NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), and 40 sun/sky-radiometer was deployed. Subsequently, MAPS-Seoul campaign for detecting air quality was performed with 8 AERONET sites and 6 Pandora instruments in Korea. Those ground-based measurements provide validation dataset for satellite retrieval algorithm, as well as detect detail of aerosol characteristics at each local point. Thus, in this study, the AODs obtained from the aforementioned campaigns were applied to assess and improve the accuracy of MI AOD. For the DRAGON-Asia 2012, the comparison between MI AOD and AERONET AOD shows correlation coefficient of 0.85, regression slope of 1.00 and RMSE of 0.18. Furthermore, AOPs obtained from those field campaign results and the MI AOD were analyzed to understand temporal and spatial variance of aerosol in NEA during spring.

  17. Molecular Pathology Informatics.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somak

    2015-06-01

    Molecular informatics (MI) is an evolving discipline that will support the dynamic landscape of molecular pathology and personalized medicine. MI provides a fertile ground for development of clinical solutions to bridge the gap between clinical informatics and bioinformatics. Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in the clinical arena has triggered major endeavors in MI that are expected to bring a paradigm shift in the practice of pathology. This brief review presents a broad overview of various aspects of MI, particularly in the context of NGS based testing. PMID:26065793

  18. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice.

  19. Reinforcement pathology and obesity.

    PubMed

    Carr, Katelyn A; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence and addiction. In this review we discuss the application of reinforcement pathology to obesity, and implications of this approach for obesity treatment. PMID:21999693

  20. Reinforcement pathology and obesity.

    PubMed

    Carr, Katelyn A; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence and addiction. In this review we discuss the application of reinforcement pathology to obesity, and implications of this approach for obesity treatment.

  1. Source identification and trends in concentrations of gaseous and fine particulate principal species in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Choong-Min; Kang, Byung-Wook; Lee, Hak Sung

    2006-07-01

    Ambient measurements were made using two sets of annular denuder system during the four seasons (April 2001 to February 2002) and were then compared with the results during the period of 1996-1997 to estimate the trends and seasonal variations in concentrations of gaseous and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) principal species. Annual averages of gaseous HNO3 and NH3 increased by 11% and 6%, respectively, compared with those of the previous study, whereas HONO and SO2 decreased by 11% and 136%, respectively. The PM2.5 concentration decreased by -17%, 35% for SO4(2-), and 29% for NH4+, whereas NO3- increased by 21%. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were 12.8 and 5.98 microg/m(-3), accounting for -26 and 12% of PM2.5 concentration, respectively. The species studied accounted for 84% of PM2.5 concentration, ranging from 76% in winter to 97% in summer. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis was used to identify possible source areas affecting air pollution levels at a receptor site in Seoul. High possible source areas in concentrations of PM2.5, NO3-, SO4(2-), NH4+, and K+ were coastal cities of Liaoning province (possibly emissions from oil-fired boilers on ocean liners and fishing vessels and industrial emissions), inland areas of Heibei/Shandong provinces (the highest density areas of agricultural production and population) in China, and typical port cities (Mokpo, Yeosu, and Busan) of South Korea. In the PSCF map for OC, high possible source areas were also coastal cities of Liaoning province and inland areas of Heibei/Shandong provinces in China. In contrast, high possible source areas of EC were highlighted in the south of the Yellow Sea, indicating possible emissions from oil-fired boilers on large ships between South Korea and Southeast Asia. In summary, the PSCF results may suggest that air pollution levels in Seoul are affected considerably by long-range transport from external areas, such as the coastal zone in China and other

  2. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  3. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  4. Pathological fractures in children

    PubMed Central

    De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated. PMID:23610658

  5. Next-Generation Pathology.

    PubMed

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.

  6. Spatial variation of contaminant elements of roadside dust samples from Budapest (Hungary) and Seoul (Republic of Korea), including Pt, Pd and Ir.

    PubMed

    Sager, Manfred; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Marton, Laszlo

    2015-02-01

    Roadside dusts were studied to explain the spatial variation and present levels of contaminant elements including Pt, Pd and Ir in urban environment and around Budapest (Hungary) and Seoul (Republic of Korea). The samples were collected from six sites of high traffic volumes in Seoul metropolitan city and from two control sites within the suburbs of Seoul, for comparison. Similarly, road dust samples were obtained two times from traffic focal points in Budapest, from the large bridges across the River Danube, from Margitsziget (an island in the Danube in the northern part of Budapest, used for recreation) as well as from main roads (no highways) outside Budapest. The samples were analysed for contaminant elements by ICP-AES and for Pt, Pd and Ir by ICP-MS. The highest Pt, Pd and Ir levels in road dusts were found from major roads with high traffic volume, but correlations with other contaminant elements were low, however. This reflects automobile catalytic converter to be an important source. To interpret the obtained multi-element results in short, pollution index, contamination index and geo-accumulation index were calculated. Finally, the obtained data were compared with total concentrations encountered in dust samples from Madrid, Oslo, Tokyo and Muscat (Oman). Dust samples from Seoul reached top level concentrations for Cd-Zn-As-Co-Cr-Cu-Mo-Ni-Sn. Just Pb was rather low because unleaded gasoline was introduced as compulsory in 1993. Concentrations in Budapest dust samples were lower than from Seoul, except for Pb and Mg. Compared with Madrid as another continental site, Budapest was higher in Co-V-Zn. Dust from Oslo, which is not so large, contained more Mn-Na-Sr than dust from other towns, but less other metals.

  7. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. PMID:25863424

  8. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Seoul frog Rana chosenica (Amphibia, Ranidae): comparison of R. chosenica and R. plancyi.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2011-06-01

    Here, we have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Seoul frog Rana chosenica (Amphibia, Ranidae), which is known as a Korean endemic species. It is listed as a vulnerable species by IUCN Red List and also an endangered species in South Korea. The complete mitochondrial genome of R. chosenica consists of 18,357 bp. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with those of other Rana frogs. We compared the mitochondrial genome of R. chosenica with that of the Peking frog Rana plancyi that has been known closely related to R. chosenica. Nucleotide sequence similarity between the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 95.7%, and the relatively low similarity seems to indicate that the two species are distinctly separated on the species level. The information of mitochondrial genome comparison of the two species was discussed in detail.

  10. Stable isotope analysis of Joseon people skeletons from the cemeteries of Old Seoul City, the capital of Joseon Dynasty

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jeong-A; Oh, Chang Seok; Hong, Jong Ha; Min, So Ri; Oh, Seugn Whan; Kim, Yi-Suk; Park, Jun Bum

    2014-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis reveals the diets of different human populations in history. In this study, we performed stable isotope analysis on human skeletons from Joseon-period cemeteries discovered around Old Seoul City (Hansung). Our data clearly showed that Joseon individuals consumed more C3-based than C4-based foods as the main staples, and that the proteins they ate were mainly of terrestrial, but not of marine origin. Stable isotope values exhibited unique patterns in each of our sample subgroups. Whereas the δ13C values did not show any statistical differences among the subgroups, significantly higher values of δ15N were found in males than in females, which might reflect dietary differences between the sexes. For a fuller understanding of the dietary patterns of pre-industrial (pre-20th century) Koreans, additional studies on Joseon samples from Korean archaeological sites will be necessary. PMID:25548722

  11. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents’ weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents’ weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. PMID:25863424

  12. Implementing the Use of Rapid HIV Tests in Public Health Centers in Seoul: Results of a Pilot Project, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-jin; Lee, Young Hwa; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether rapid HIV tests in public health centers might encourage voluntary HIV testing, a pilot project was conducted in four selected public health centers in Seoul, 2014. During the period April 10 to November 28 of pilot project, 3,356 rapid tests were performed, and 38 were confirmed as positive. The monthly average numbers of voluntary HIV tests and HIV-positive cases were up to nine-fold and six-fold larger, respectively, than those of the period before application of the rapid HIV test. Among 2,051 examinees that completed questionnaires, 90.3% were satisfied. In conclusion, the use of rapid HIV tests in public health centers promoted voluntary HIV testing and was satisfactory for examinees. PMID:26955251

  13. 9-Aryl-1,2-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-b]indolizin-3-one (Seoul-Fluor) as a smart platform for colorful ratiometric fluorescent pH sensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Lee, Sanghee; Park, Seung Bum

    2011-07-21

    In this communication, we report that 9-aryl-1,2-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-b]indolizin-3-one (Seoul-Fluor) can serve as a potential platform for colorful ratiometric fluorescent pH sensors by simple incorporation of pH responsive elements on Seoul-Fluor. Seoul-Fluor-based fluorescent pH sensors allow the emission- and pH-tuning ability upon protonation by varying their pK(a) values and electronic characteristics of substituents by a rational design.

  14. A ten-year survey of Giardia cysts in drinking water supplies of Seoul, the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mok-Young; Cho, Eun-Joo; Lee, Jin-Hyo; Han, Sun-Hee; Park, Yong-Sang

    2011-03-01

    To understand the distribution of Giardia cysts in drinking water supplies in Seoul, Korea, we collected water samples quarterly at 6 intakes in the Han River, its largest stream and 6 conventional water treatment plants (WTPs) serving drinking water, from 2000 to 2009. Giardia cysts in each of 10 L water were confirmed in 35.0% of intake water samples and the arithmetic mean was 1.65 cysts/10 L (range 0-35 cysts/10 L). The lowest cyst density was observed at Paldang and Kangbuk intakes, and the pollution level was higher at 4 intakes downstream. It seemed that these 4 intakes were under influence of Wangsuk stream at the end of which cysts were found in all samples with the mean of 140 cysts/10 L. The annual mean number of cysts was 0.21-4.21 cysts/10 L, and the cyst level at the second half of the 10 years was about 1/5 of that at first half on average. The cysts were more frequently found in winter, and their mean density was 3.74 cysts/10 L in winter and 0.80-1.08 cysts/10 L in other seasons. All finished water samples collected at 6 WTPs were negative for Giardia in each of 100 L sample for 10 years and cyst removal by physical process was average 2.9-log. It was concluded that conventional water treatment at 6 WTPs of Seoul appears to remove the cysts effectively under the present level of their source water. Domestic wastewater from the urban region could be an important source of Giardia pollution in the river.

  15. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    PubMed Central

    Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823

  16. [Czech eponyms in pathology].

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    The 24th European Congress of Pathology taking place in Prague is an opportunity to remind our society of the Czech names appearing as eponyms in pathological terminology: Karel Rokitanský - R. protuberance in dermoid cyst; R. thrombogenic theory of atherosclerosis; Mayer - R. - Küster - Hauser - Winckel syndrome (congenital malformation of the vagina and uterus); Václav Treitz - T. duodenal ligament; T. retroperitoneal hernia; T. uremic colitis; Vilém Dušan Lambl - L. excrescences of heart valves; Lamblia (Giardia) intestinalis, and also the foundation of urological cytology; Stanislav Provázek - Prowazek - Halberstädter bodies (trachoma), Rickettsia Prowazeki (typhus fever); Josef Vaněk - V. tumor (gastric inflammatory fibroid polyp), and also discovery of the etiology of pneumocystic pneumonia; Otto Jírovec - Pneumocystis Jiroveci; Blahoslav Bednář - B. tumor (pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans).

  17. Teaching Residents Genomic Pathology: A Novel Approach for New Technology

    PubMed Central

    Haspel, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Genomics-based diagnostics have become part of patient care. As pathologists have the expertise in clinical laboratory testing as well as access to patient samples, all genomic medicine is genomic pathology. This article will review the evidence that there is a critical need for pathology resident training in genomics. Several individual program curricula are described as well as the progress of the Training Residents in Genomic (TRIG) Working Group. This group has made significant advances towards developing, implementing and evaluating a national curriculum in genomics for pathology residents. The novel approach of the TRIG Working Group can be used as a model for training pathology professionals in any new technology. PMID:23399798

  18. [Pathology of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Theegarten, D; Hager, T

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and the second most frequent cause in women. The pathology of lung tumors is of special relevance concerning therapy and prognosis and current classification systems have to be taken into consideration. The results of molecular tissue subtyping allow further classification and therapeutic options. The histological entities are mainly associated with typical X‑ray morphological features. PMID:27495784

  19. Pathology and emerging infections--quo vadimus?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, D. A.; Bryan, R. T.; Hughes, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    There have been dramatic changes in the occurrence of infectious diseases throughout the world in the previous two decades. The emergence of new microbial agents, and the reemergence of infections previously believed to be controlled, threatens the health of all populations. The emergence of these infectious diseases has occurred during a period of breakdown in the capabilities of the public health surveillance systems, prevention programs, and disease control efforts. Expertise in pathology is critical to provide a strong national control program for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Despite the many significant achievements made by pathologists in improving understanding of the pathogenesis and diagnosis of infectious diseases, the field of pathology remains largely oriented toward neoplastic diseases, and has not yet identified infectious disease diagnosis as an important component of anatomic pathology training and research, even in the face of the current threats posed by microbial agents. In addition, there is currently a dearth of infectious disease pathologists in the United States and elsewhere in the world, and the use of the autopsy, a prime pathological tool for diagnosis of emerging infections, is on the wane. The most serious problem is that no formal training program for infectious disease pathology currently exists in the United States or elsewhere in the world. As a consequence of this lack of training opportunities, there is a severe deficiency of young, well-educated pathologists with infectious disease expertise. This article explores the historical linkages between the disciplines of infectious diseases and pathology, and suggests that infectious disease pathology as a subspecialty be strengthened and training programs be initiated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7495275

  20. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2016-03-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. PMID:26851666

  1. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  2. Pathology subspecialty fellowship application reform 2007 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Crawford, James M; Hoffman, Robert D; Black-Schaffer, W Stephen

    2011-06-01

    The specialty of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine has entered into a phase when the 4-year sequence of Anatomic Pathology and/or Clinical Pathology Residency Training is almost universally followed by 1 or more years of Subspecialty Fellowship Training. Such training may occur in one of the American Board of Pathology-recognized subspecialties or any number of "subspecialty fellowships" that, although not leading to subspecialty board certification, may nevertheless fall under the oversight of the local institutional Graduate Medical Education Committee and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Review Committee for Pathology. Unlike the application process for first-year Pathology Residency, which is run through the National Resident Matching Program, applications for Subspecialty Pathology Fellowships are not coordinated by any consistent schedule. Competition for Subspecialty Pathology Fellowships has consistently resulted in undesirable drift of the fellowship application process to dates that are unacceptably early for many fellowship applicants. Responding to widespread dissatisfaction voiced by national pathology resident organizations, in 2007, the Association of Pathology Chairs began evaluation and potential intervention in the fellowship application process. Three years of intermittently intense discussion, surveys, and market analysis, have led the Council of the Association of Pathology Chairs to recommend implementation of a Pathology Subspecialty Fellowship Matching program starting in the 2011 to 2012 recruiting year, for those Applicants matriculating in fellowship programs July 2013. We report on the data that informed this decision and discuss the pros and cons that are so keenly felt by the stakeholders in this as-yet-incomplete reform process.

  3. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Pike, John G.; Leonard, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. SOURCES OF INFORMATION This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for literature on phimosis and circumcision referrals and on our experience at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Urology Clinic. MeSH headings used in our MEDLINE search included “phimosis,” “referral and consultation,” and “circumcision.” Most of the available articles about phimosis and foreskin referrals were retrospective reviews and cohort studies (levels II and III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. Great anxiety exists among patients and parentsregarding non-retractile foreskins. Most phimosis referrals seen in pediatric urology clinics are normal physiologically phimotic foreskins. Referrals of patients with physiologic phimosis to urology clinics can create anxiety about the need for surgery among patients and parents, while unnecessarily expanding the waiting list for specialty assessment. Uncircumcised penises require no special care. With normal washing, using soap and water, and gentle retraction during urination and bathing, most foreskins will become retractile over time. CONCLUSION Physiologic phimosis is often seen by family physicians. These patients and their parents require reassurance of normalcy and reinforcement of proper preputial hygiene. Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management. PMID:17872680

  4. Marketing the pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  5. Nanotechnology: Toxicologic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hubbs, Ann F.; Sargent, Linda M.; Porter, Dale W.; Sager, Tina M.; Chen, Bean T.; Frazer, David G.; Castranova, Vincent; Sriram, Krishnan; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Reynolds, Steven H.; Battelli, Lori A.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Fluharty, Kara L.; Mercer, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves technology, science, and engineering in dimensions less than 100 nm. A virtually infinite number of potential nanoscale products can be produced from many different molecules and their combinations. The exponentially increasing number of nanoscale products will solve critical needs in engineering, science, and medicine. However, the virtually infinite number of potential nanotechnology products is a challenge for toxicologic pathologists. Because of their size, nanoparticulates can have therapeutic and toxic effects distinct from micron-sized particulates of the same composition. In the nanoscale, distinct intercellular and intracellular translocation pathways may provide a different distribution than that obtained by micron-sized particulates. Nanoparticulates interact with subcellular structures including microtubules, actin filaments, centrosomes, and chromatin; interactions that may be facilitated in the nanoscale. Features that distinguish nanoparticulates from fine particulates include increased surface area per unit mass and quantum effects. In addition, some nanotechnology products, including the fullerenes, have a novel and reactive surface. Augmented microscopic procedures including enhanced dark-field imaging, immunofluorescence, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy are useful when evaluating nanoparticulate toxicologic pathology. Thus, the pathology assessment is facilitated by understanding the unique features at the nanoscale and the tools that can assist in evaluating nanotoxicology studies. PMID:23389777

  6. Temporal and Spatial Variations in PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 in the Seoul Metropolitan Area between 2002 and 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghim, Y.; Jung, K.; Kang, M.

    2010-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM; PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations at ambient air monitoring stations located in Seoul between 2002 and 2008 were analyzed. In Korea, PM10 is regulated as a criteria pollutant and thus is monitored as a part of the urban ambient air pollution monitoring network. PM2.5 is currently not a criteria pollutant but will be soon designated as a criteria pollutant. The hourly-average PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected using the beta-ray absorption method. In this study, data from 14 stations with consistent measurements during the study period were used. As in other major cities, primary factors determining the PM concentrations in Seoul are vehicle emissions (including emissions from other combustion sources) and secondary formation. However, in Seoul, fugitive dust comprising crustal elements accounts for a large proportion of total PM, especially coarse particles (PM10-2.5). During the past several years, the Korean Government as well as the City Government has strived to lessen the PM pollution in Seoul and its satellite cities. Temporal and spatial variations in fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM10-2.5) were analyzed to discern behaviors according to the particle size of fugitive dust. Variations in annual averages were examined to assess the effects of policy on PM levels. The influence of fugitive dust was found to be high in the springtime due to low relative humidity and high wind speed, even excluding the Asian dust events. In contrast, PM levels are affected primarily by combustion-related emissions in winter and active secondary formation in later spring and fall. Typical seasonal characteristics and diurnal variations were also explored based on data for high PM2.5 days only. Spatial variability of PM and PM10-2.5 were examined on both all and high PM2.5 days and compared with those of other pollutants.

  7. Seasonal variations in the light-absorbing properties of water-soluble and insoluble organic aerosols in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwajin; Kim, Jin Young; Jin, Hyoun Cher; Lee, Ji Yi; Lee, Se Pyo

    2016-03-01

    The spectral properties of light-absorbing organic aerosol extractions were investigated using 24-h average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements from October 2012 to September 2013 in Seoul, Korea. The light-absorption spectra of water and methanol extracts exhibited strong evidence of brown carbon with Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE; fitted between 300 and 700 nm) ranges of 5.84-9.17 and 4.08-5.75, with averages of 7.23 ± 1.58 and 5.05 ± 0.67, respectively. The light absorption of both extracts at 365 nm (Abs365), which is typically used as a proxy for brown carbon (BrC), displayed strong seasonal variations and was well correlated with both water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC; r = 0.81) and organic carbon (OC; r = 0.85), indicating that both primary and secondary organics were sources of BrC in this region. Normalizing the Abs365 of water and methanol extracts to the mass of WSOC and OC yielded average solution mass absorption efficiency (MAE365) of 0.28-1.18 and 0.44-1.45 m2 g-1 C, respectively. MAE365 in Korea were in the same range or slightly lower than those in China, however, despite the same ranges, the seasonal variations were different, suggesting that the sources of light absorbers could be different. Combining the AAE, Abs365, and MAE365 of both extracts and a detailed chemical speciation of filter extracts identified the compounds responsible for the temporal variations of BrC in Korea. During summer, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), photochemically generated from anthropogenic emissions, was the major source; however, during winter, long range transported organics or transported BrC seem to be a source of BrC in Korea, a downwind site of China, where severe smog and BrC were observed during this season. Biomass burning was also an important source; however, unlike in previous studies, where it was identified as a major source during winter, here, it contributed during the whole year. Although many of its properties, sources, and potential

  8. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO2 in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the Δ14C in ginkgo leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Hong, W.; Park, G.; Sung, K. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. E.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Woo, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  9. A study on the characteristics of silt loading on paved roads in the Seoul metropolitan area using a mobile monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Han, Sehyun; Jung, Yong-Won

    2012-07-01

    This study is considered the first attempt to apply a mobile monitoring system to estimating silt loading on paved roads in a megacity such as the Seoul metropolitan area. Using a mobile monitoring system developed in 2005, we estimated silt loadings on representative paved roads in the Seoul metropolitan area, including the city of Incheon, over a period of 3 yr. The temporal and spatial characteristics of silt loading were investigated for the carefully selected roads that may reflect the characteristics of the cities of Seoul and Incheon. In this study, changes in the average silt loading values were investigated in terms of land use, the temporal resolution of data acquisition (i.e., seasonal, daily, three-hour scale), the road width or number of lanes, and rainfall, which may affect the characteristics of the average silt loading significantly. It was found that the advantages of using the mobile monitoring system are its ability to obtain a large quantity of silt loading data in a short period of time and over a wide area and its ability to create a silt loading map showing the relative magnitude of silt loading in relation to a specific location, which makes it possible to easily locate hot spots.

  10. Exploring Household-level Risk Factors for Self-reported Prevalence of Allergic Diseases Among Low-income Households in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, SungChul; Paul, Christopher; Yoo, Young; Choung, Ji Tae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Indoor risk factors for allergic diseases in low-income households in Korea have been characterized only partially. We evaluated the prevalences of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis in Seoul, Korea, to identify key housing and behavioral risk factors of low-income households. Methods Statistical analysis of the prevalence of these diseases and various risk factors was conducted using data from a 2010 Ministry of Environment household survey. Logistic regression models were generated using data from 511 low-income household apartments in districts of Seoul. Results In general, housing factors such as renovation history (P<0.1) and crowding status (P<0.01) were associated with allergic rhinitis, whereas behavioral factors such as frequency of indoor ventilation (P<0.05) and cleaning (P<0.1) were inversely correlated with atopic dermatitis. Indoor smoking was a major trigger of asthma and atopic dermatitis in low-income households (P<0.05). The presence of mold and water leakage in houses were the most important risk factors for all three diseases (P<0.05). Conclusions Various risk factors play a role in triggering allergic diseases among low-income households in Seoul, and health or environmental programs mitigating allergic diseases should be tailored to address appropriate housing or behavioral factors in target populations. PMID:25228999

  11. [Molecular pathology of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Uezato, Akihito; Nishikawa, Toru

    2013-04-01

    Dopamine hypothesis has dominated as a molecular pathology of schizophrenia over the past few decades and anti-dopaminergic drugs are currently the most widespread available treatment option. Converging lines of evidence suggest altered regulation of other neurotransmitters including glutamate, GABA and acetylcholine, results in the dysregulation of dopaminergic neurons in schizophrenia, and is involved in the comprehensive symptoms such as positive, negative, and cognitive dysfunction. In the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia; dysfunctional NMDA-type glutamate receptors on GABAergic interneurons cause disinhibition of pyramidal glutamatergic neurons, resulting in increase in the firing of dopaminergic neurons. Cognitive dysfunction of schizophrenia may be a representation of asynchronous glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. In addition to the effects of NMDA receptor modulators including D-serine, emerging evidences of the roles of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on glutamatergic and dopaminergic regulations suggest new treatment options for schizophrenia.

  12. Molecular Pathology and Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ha, Patrick K; Stenman, Göran

    2016-01-01

    The field of salivary gland tumor biology is quite broad, given the numerous subtypes of both benign and malignant tumors originating from the major and minor salivary glands. Knowledge about the molecular pathology of these lesions is still limited, and there are few clinically useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. However, recent discoveries of certain key genomic alterations, such as chromosome translocations, copy number alterations, and mutations, provide new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of these lesions and may help to better define them. It is also hoped that this new knowledge can help to guide therapy, but this translation has been somewhat slow to develop, perhaps due to the rarity of these tumors and the lack of large, randomized studies. However, because of the limitations inherent in what surgery and radiation can provide, there is an urgent need for understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis in these tumors individually, so that chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy can be rationally selected.

  13. Imaging of pituitary pathology.

    PubMed

    Buchfelder, Michael; Schlaffer, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques play a vital role in the diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment monitoring of patients with pituitary disease. For its high soft tissue contrast, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides detailed information about the localization and extent of a lesion. It is thus, to date, the most important imaging technique for documenting or ruling out structural lesions. It is usually the first and only imaging procedure to be employed in pituitary pathology. While large pituitary adenomas are reliably depicted in standard T1-weighted sequences, small microadenomas, such as in Cushing's disease, may only become visible if repeat studies, sophisticated techniques and high-field scanners are employed. For monitoring treatment effects after surgical procedures, drug applications, or irradiation, follow-up studies with identical parameters should be employed, preferably at the same investigation site. Some space is devoted to intraoperative imaging, which not only allows assessment of how radical tumor resection needs to be during pituitary tumor surgery, but also provides extremely accurate structural data for neuronavigation. Less frequent lesions, such as craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germ cell tumors, gliomas, skull base tumors, hypothalamic hamartomas, vascular malformations, inflammatory and developmental lesions and other, even less frequent pathologies should be considered in the differential diagnosis. The particular strength of computed tomography (CT) is the direct depiction of calcification, a weakness of MRI, and the high resolution of bone structures at the skull base. This chapter presents the characteristics of both frequent and less commonly encountered tumoral lesions, with an emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25248586

  14. Pathologic tooth migration.

    PubMed

    Brunsvold, Michael A

    2005-06-01

    Pathologic tooth migration (PTM) is a common complication of moderate to severe periodontitis and is often the motivation for patients to seek periodontal therapy. In this review of the literature, available information concerning prevalence, etiology, treatment, and prevention of pathologic tooth migration is summarized. Prevalence of PTM among periodontal patients has been reported to range from 30.03% to 55.8%. A survey of the literature regarding chief complaints of periodontal patients support these high prevalence findings. The etiology of PTM appears to be multifactorial. Periodontal bone loss appears to be a major factor in the etiology of PTM. Many aspects of occlusion can contribute to abnormal migration of teeth, and more than one of those factors may be present in an individual patient. Soft tissue forces of the tongue, cheeks, and lips are known to cause tooth movement and in some situations can cause PTM. Also considered important in the etiology of PTM is pressure produced from inflammatory tissues within periodontal pockets. Because extrusion is a common form of PTM, clinical observations support the theory that eruption forces sometimes play a role in the etiology of PTM. Many oral habits have been associated with PTM which are often difficult for the therapist to detect. Most cases of severe PTM require a team approach to achieve success. Periodontal, orthodontic, and prosthodontic treatment are often required. Many patient variables enter into the selection of treatment for PTM. In early stages of PTM, spontaneous correction of migrated teeth sometimes occurs after periodontal therapy. Light intrusive forces are used successfully to treat extrusion and flaring forms of PTM. Based on the literature reviewed, it appears that many cases of PTM could be prevented through the early diagnosis and treatment of periodontal disease, occlusal contributing factors, gingival enlargement, and oral habits. PMID:15948679

  15. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

  16. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air.

  17. Spatial distribution of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in Seoul Metropolitan Subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Roh, Young Man; Lee, Cheol Min; Kim, Chi Nyon

    2008-06-15

    The aims of this study are to examine the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in areas within the Seoul Metropolitan Subway network and to provide fundamental data in order to protect respiratory health of subway workers and passengers from air pollutants. A total of 22 subway stations located on lines 1-4 were selected based on subway official's guidance. At these stations both subway worker areas (station offices, rest areas, ticket offices and driver compartments) and passengers areas (station precincts, subway carriages and platforms) were the sites used for measuring the levels of PM. The mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were relatively higher on platforms, inside subway carriages and in driver compartments than in the other areas monitored. The levels of PM10 and PM2.5 for station precincts and platforms exceeded the 24-h acceptable threshold limits of 150 microg/m3 for PM10 and 35 microg/m3 for PM2.5, which are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, levels measured in station and ticket offices fell below the respective threshold. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on platforms located underground were significantly higher than those at ground level (p<0.05). PMID:18036738

  18. Seasonal variation in airborne endotoxin levels in indoor environments with different micro-environmental factors in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Dong Jin; Park, Wha Me; Park, Dong Uk; Ahn, Jae Kyoung; Yoon, Chung Sik

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the variation over a year in airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environment of five university laboratories in Seoul, South Korea, and examined the micro-environmental factors that influenced endotoxin levels. These included temperature, relative humidity, CO2, CO, illumination, and wind velocity. A total of 174 air samples were collected and analyzed using the kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Endotoxin levels ranged from <0.001 to 8.90EU/m(3), with an overall geometric mean of 0.240EU/m(3). Endotoxin levels showed significantly negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.529, p<0.001), CO2 (r=-0.213, p<0.001) and illumination (r=-0.538, p<0.001). Endotoxin levels tended to be higher in winter. Endotoxin levels in laboratories with rabbits were significantly higher than those of laboratories with mice. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the environmental factors affecting endotoxin levels were temperature (coefficient=-0.388, p<0.001) and illumination (coefficient=-0.370, p<0.001). Strategies aimed at reducing airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environments may be most effective if they focus on illumination. PMID:26656510

  19. Optical and microphysical properties of column-integrated aerosols at a SKYNET site downwind of Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Park, J. S.; Ghim, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    A skyradiometer (POM-02, Prede Co. Ltd.) has been operated to investigate aerosol properties at a SKYNET (SKYradiometer NETwork) site, YGN (Yongin) for six years starting from November 2008. The site is at the rooftop of a five-story building on the hill, about 35 km southeast of downtown Seoul (37.34 °N, 127.27 °E and 167 m above sea level). POM-02 measures the diffuse radiation at six minute intervals at 11 wavelengths. Using version 5 of the skyrad.pack, aerosol optical (aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo) and microphysical (volume size distribution) properties were retrieved from the measurements at five wavelengths such as 400, 500, 675, 870 and 1020 nm. In comparison with CIMEL sun photometers used in AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork), another worldwide ground-based network, skyradiometers have an advantage that they can provide larger number of aerosol property data at shorter time intervals. However, standard procedures for instrument operation and data retrieval have not been established. In this study, we first showed how we calibrated the instrument and how we obtained cloud screened and quality assured data. Next, we presented variations in aerosol optical and microphysical properties, depending on air masses and/or meteorological conditions, and examined the characteristic of high aerosol loading episodes including Asian dust storm and smog.

  20. Identification of Dobrava, Hantaan, Seoul, and Puumala viruses by one-step real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Aitichou, Mohamed; Saleh, Sharron S; McElroy, Anita K; Schmaljohn, C; Ibrahim, M Sofi

    2005-03-01

    We developed four assays for specifically identifying Dobrava (DOB), Hantaan (HTN), Puumala (PUU), and Seoul (SEO) viruses. The assays are based on the real-time one-step reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with the small segment used as the target sequence. The detection limits of DOB, HTN, PUU, and SEO assays were 25, 25, 25, and 12.5 plaque-forming units, respectively. The assays were evaluated in blinded experiments, each with 100 samples that contained Andes, Black Creek Canal, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever and Sin Nombre viruses in addition to DOB, HTN, PUU and SEO viruses. The sensitivity levels of the DOB, HTN, PUU, and SEO assays were 98%, 96%, 92% and 94%, respectively. The specificity of DOB, HTN and SEO assays was 100% and the specificity of the PUU assay was 98%. Because of the high levels of sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, we believe that these assays can be useful for diagnosing and differentiating these four Old-World hantaviruses.

  1. Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays to detect Hantaan virus and Seoul virus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dan; Hao, Lina; Zhang, Jinhai; Yao, Pingping; Zhang, Qi; Lv, Heng; Gong, Xiufang; Pan, Xiuzhen; Cao, Min; Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Yun; Feng, Youjun; Wang, Changjun

    2015-09-01

    We developed two assays based on one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) to identify Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Seoul virus (SEOV), members of the Hantavirus genus that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Our results showed that these assays can be conducted within 30min under isothermal conditions. The detection limit for HTNV was around 10 copies per reaction, similar to detection levels for quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. The detection limit for SEOV was 100 copies per reaction, a sensitivity that was 10-fold lower than that for qRT-PCR assays but 10-fold higher than that for RT-PCR assays. The method we developed was specific for both HTNV and SEOV without any cross-reaction with other pathogens. We conclude that RT-LAMP assays could be useful for the rapid and direct detection of HTNV and SEOV clinically, and for the epidemiological investigation of HFRS.

  2. Seoul virus suppresses NF-kappaB-mediated inflammatory responses of antigen presenting cells from Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Au, Rebecca Y; Jedlicka, Anne E; Li, Wei; Pekosz, Andrew; Klein, Sabra L

    2010-04-25

    Hantavirus infection reduces antiviral defenses, increases regulatory responses, and causes persistent infection in rodent hosts. To address whether hantaviruses alter the maturation and functional activity of antigen presenting cells (APCs), rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and macrophages (BMDMs) were generated and infected with Seoul virus (SEOV) or stimulated with TLR ligands. SEOV infected both DCs and macrophages, but copies of viral RNA, viral antigen, and infectious virus titers were higher in macrophages. The expression of MHCII and CD80, production of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha, and expression of Ifnbeta were attenuated in SEOV-infected APCs. Stimulation of APCs with poly I:C prior to SEOV infection increased the expression of activation markers and production of inflammatory cytokines and suppressed SEOV replication. Infection of APCs with SEOV suppressed LPS-induced activation and innate immune responses. Hantaviruses reduce the innate immune response potential of APCs derived from a natural host, which may influence persistence of these zoonotic viruses in the environment.

  3. Measurement of cosmic-ray neutron dose onboard a polar route flight from New York to Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Lee, Jaejin; Yajima, Kazuaki; Hwang, Jung A; Sakai, Kazuo

    2011-07-01

    Exposure to cosmic radiation in operation of a jet aircraft is considered to be a part of the occupational exposure. Cosmic radiation doses received in aviation are generally evaluated by numerical model simulations. The precision of the model calculation should be verified by measurements. From the viewpoint of radiological protection, neutrons are the most contributing radiation component and have to be precisely measured. Neutron measurements were thus performed in a long-haul flight using a relatively new transportable neutron monitor (WENDI-II) which responds fairly well to the cosmic-ray neutrons. The in-flight measurement was carried out on 5-6 November 2009 on a polar route flight from New York/John F. Kennedy airport to Seoul/Incheon airport. The flying time was ~14 h. The observations obtained as 1 cm ambient dose equivalent were compared with model calculations using a computer program developed by the authors for the calculation of aviation route doses 'JISCARD EX'. Good agreements between the measured and calculated values were observed over the polar route where the geomagnetic cut-off rigidity is the lowest.

  4. An analysis on the concentration characteristics of PM2.5 in Seoul, Korea from 2005 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Miyeon

    2014-11-01

    PM2.5 is a big issue as it is considerably more harmful than other sizes of particulate matter. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends 25 μg m-3 as the daily average concentration, and 10 μg m-3 per day as an annual average. To keep up with global trends, it is first necessary to understand the current status and characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations in Korea. Using the PM2.5 data measured by Seoul Metropolitan City from November 2005 to March 2012, the author analyzed its statistical characteristics and correlations with other air pollutants. For the time period from 2005 to 2012, the annual average concentration of PM2.5 was 27 μg m-3, three times the WHO standard. Also, the daily average PM2.5 concentration of 215 days per year also exceeded the WHO standard. However, the number days exceeding the Korean daily average standard of 50 μg m-3 to be enacted in 2014 was only three. PM2.5 concentration had a high correlation (r = 0.84) with PM10, and also showed high correlations with gaseous pollutants, such as SO2, NO2, and CO, but not O3. This study suggests that the Korean government should strengthen their standard to match the criteria used by WHO.

  5. Observation of Periodic and Transient Cosmic Ray Flux Variations by the Daejeon Neutron Monitor and the Seoul muon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Suyeon; Kang, Jeongsoo

    2013-09-01

    Recently, two instruments of cosmic ray are operating in South Korea. One is Seoul muon detector after October 1999 and the other is Daejeon neutron monitor (Kang et al. 2012) after October 2011. The former consists of four small plastic scintillators and the latter is the standard 18 NM 64 type. In this report, we introduce the characteristics of both instruments. We also analyze the flux variations of cosmic ray such as diurnal variation and Forbush decrease. As the result, the muon flux shows the typical seasonal and diurnal variations. The neutron flux also shows the diurnal variation. The phase which shows the maximum flux in the diurnal variation is around 13-14 local time. We found a Forbush decrease on 7 March 2012 by both instruments. It is also identified by Nagoya multi-direction muon telescope and Oulu neutron monitor. The observation of cosmic ray at Jangbogo station as well as in Korean peninsula can support the important information on space weather in local area. It can also enhance the status of Korea in the international community of cosmic ray experiments.

  6. The Study on Flood Reduction and Securing Instreamflow by applying Decentralized Rainwater Retention Facilities for Chunggyechun in Seoul of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Jun, S. M.; Park, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    Recently abnormal climate phenomena and urbanization recently causes the changes of the hydrological environment. To restore the hydrological cycle in urban area some fundamental solutions such as decentralized rainwater management system and Low Impact Development (LID) techniques may be choosed. In this study, SWMM 5 was used to analyze the effects of decentralized stormwater retention for preventing the urban flood and securing the instreamflow. The Chunggyechun stream watershed(21.29㎢) which is located in Seoul city(Korea) and fully developed as urban area was selected as the study watershed, and the runoff characteristics of urban stream with various methods of LID techniques (Permeable pavement, small rainwater storage tank, large rainwater storage tank) were analyzed. By the simulation results, the permeability of pavement materials and detention storage at the surface soil layer make high effect to the flood discharge, and the initial rainfall retention at the rainwater storage tank effected to reduce the flood peak. The peak discharge was decreased as 22% for the design precipitation. Moreover the instreamflow was increased as 55% by using adequate LID techniques These kind of data could be used as the basis data for designing urban flood prevention facilities, urban regeneration planning in the view of the integrated watershed management.

  7. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  8. Seasonal variation in airborne endotoxin levels in indoor environments with different micro-environmental factors in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Dong Jin; Park, Wha Me; Park, Dong Uk; Ahn, Jae Kyoung; Yoon, Chung Sik

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the variation over a year in airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environment of five university laboratories in Seoul, South Korea, and examined the micro-environmental factors that influenced endotoxin levels. These included temperature, relative humidity, CO2, CO, illumination, and wind velocity. A total of 174 air samples were collected and analyzed using the kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Endotoxin levels ranged from <0.001 to 8.90EU/m(3), with an overall geometric mean of 0.240EU/m(3). Endotoxin levels showed significantly negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.529, p<0.001), CO2 (r=-0.213, p<0.001) and illumination (r=-0.538, p<0.001). Endotoxin levels tended to be higher in winter. Endotoxin levels in laboratories with rabbits were significantly higher than those of laboratories with mice. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the environmental factors affecting endotoxin levels were temperature (coefficient=-0.388, p<0.001) and illumination (coefficient=-0.370, p<0.001). Strategies aimed at reducing airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environments may be most effective if they focus on illumination.

  9. Characteristics of High Time-Resolved Concentrations of Particulate Inorganic Ions and Black Carbon Downwind of Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Choi, Y.; Kim, C.; Ghim, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Concentrations of inorganic ions and black carbon (BC) in PM2.5 were continuously measured using PILS (particle-into-liquid sampler, ADI 2081, Applikon) and MAAP (Multiangle Absorption Photometer, Model 5012, Thermo), respectively, for three and half months from mid-February to May, at intervals of 20-30 minutes. The measurements were made at the Global Campus of Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, about 35 km southeast of downtown Seoul, the general area of which is affected by prevailing northwesterlies. The site is considered to be an ideal place for exploring transport of air pollutants and formation of secondary ions by photochemical reactions since there are no major emission sources nearby except a 4-lane road running about 1.4 km to the west. Analyses were made by two stages. In the first stage, typical types of diurnal variations in inorganic ions and BC concentrations were identified using cluster analysis. Diurnal variations in concentrations of each cluster were compared with the mean diurnal variations during the measurement period. Factors causing the differences in diurnal variations were discussed by cluster and by species. In the second stage, high and low concentration episodes were determined based on three-day moving averages of the sum of concentrations of particulate inorganic ions and BC. Mean concentrations and compositions in each episode were compared with those during the measurement period.

  10. Effects of land use on the spatial distribution of trace metals and volatile organic compounds in urban groundwater, Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seong-Sook; Kim, Soon-Oh; Yun, Seong-Taek; Chae, Gi-Tak; Yu, Soon-Young; Kim, Seungki; Kim, Young

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the urban groundwater contamination by eight trace metals and 69 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in relation to land use in Seoul, a total of 57 groundwater samples collected from wells were examined using a non-parametric statistical analysis. Land use was classified into five categories: less-developed, residential, agricultural, traffic, and industrial. A comparison of analyzed data with US EPA and Korean standards for drinking water showed that some metals and VOCs exceeded the standards in a few localities, such as Fe ( N=5), Mn ( N=6), Cu ( N=1), TCE ( N=6), PCE ( N=8), 1,2-DCA ( N=1), and 1,2-dichloropropane ( N=1). Among the 69 investigated VOCs, 19 compounds such as some gasoline-related compounds (e.g., toluene) and chlorinated compounds (e.g., chloroform, PCE, TCE) were detected in groundwater. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed that the concentrations of most trace metals (Fe, Mn, As, Cr, Pb, Cd) and some VOCs (especially, TCE, PCE, chloroform; toluene, carbon tetrachloride, bromodichloromethane, CFC113) are significantly higher in the industrial, residential, and traffic areas ( P<0.05), indicating that anthropogenic contamination of urban groundwater by those chemicals is growing. Those chemicals can be used as effective indicators of anthropogenic contamination of groundwater in urban areas and therefore a special attention is warranted for a safe water supply in those areas. The results of this study suggest that urban groundwater quality in urban areas is closely related with land use.

  11. Influence of trans-boundary air pollution from China on multi-day high PM10 episodes in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, H. R.; Ho, C. H.; Kim, J.; Chen, D.; Lee, S.; Choi, Y. S.; Chang, L. S.; Song, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality problems have become a serious global issue as it causes over 3 million deaths per year all over the world. With generations of massive air pollutants in China, the effects of trans-boundary transports of air pollutants on human health have become a serious international concern in East Asia. However, only a limited number of studies are available for providing scientific evidences for quantifying the sources and transports of air pollutants over major countries in East Asia. Here, it is shown that particulate matters originated from China played major role in the occurrence of multi-day (≥ 4 days) severe air pollution episodes in Seoul, Korea, in which the concentration of particulate matter of diameters ≤ 10 μm exceeds 100 μg m-3. Observations show that these multi-day severe air quality episodes occur when a strong high-pressure system resides over the eastern China - Korea region. Such a weather condition confines air pollutants within the atmospheric boundary layer and spread them by slow westerlies within the boundary layer from China into the neighboring countries. Understanding such dynamical processes is a key for advancing the predictability of trans-boundary air pollutants and their health impacts in East Asia as well as developing international measures to improve air quality for the region.

  12. Analysis of foodborne disease outbreaks for improvement of food safety programs in Seoul, Republic of Korea, from 2002 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jib Ho; Lee, Joon-Hak; Kim, Moo Sang; Park, Seog Gee

    2009-03-01

    Foodborne disease (FBD) is a common food safety problem in Seoul, Republic of Korea. To identify target areas for improvement of the food safety programs, FBD outbreaks from 2002 to 2006 were analyzed with regard to facility, monthly occurrences, and causative agents. A total of 147 FBD outbreaks were reported, with an average of 29.4 FBD outbreaks per year and 49 cases per outbreak. Restaurants and school lunches were two main facilities associated with 76.2% of the outbreaks. A majority of FBD cases (73.1%) were from school lunches. The highest number of outbreaks and cases occurred in June, followed by March. Among the seven identified causative agents, norovirus was the most significant in the number of outbreaks and cases. Among the outbreaks and cases with causative agents identified, norovirus and Staphylococcus aureus were responsible for 61.7% of outbreaks and 81.5% of cases. The analysis indicates that the efficiency of current food safety programs could be enhanced if critical control points in school lunch programs are identified and incorporated in the training and inspection. Identifying risk factors for contamination of norovirus and Staphylococcus aureus would also be beneficial. PMID:19326670

  13. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air. PMID:26405807

  14. Estimation of the seasonal variation of particulate nitrate and sensitivity to the emission changes in the greater Seoul area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sihye; Ghim, Young Sung; Kim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Jin Young

    Seasonal variation of fine particulate nitrate and sensitivity of fine particle mass concentration to the emission changes of VOCs and NO x were estimated in the greater Seoul area. SBOX, a photochemical box model was used to obtain the total nitric acid (HNO 3T) concentration, and SCAPE2, a gas/particle equilibrium model was used to determine the partitioning of nitric acid/nitrate and particulate water content. Most HNO 3T existed as nitrate except in summer (˜60%) since there was enough ammonia to form particulate ammonium nitrate. In summer, high temperature was favorable to gaseous nitric acid. Also, because of average relative humidity (RH) higher than the deliquescence points of most salts, water content in summer was higher than those in other seasons by a factor of two. For all seasons, fine particle mass concentration (the sum of ion concentrations and water content) increased until considerable amount of NO x emissions was reduced. This phenomenon is a typical example of the so-called 'NO x disbenefits' that has been discussed in relation to the abatement of ozone pollution.

  15. [Otto Lubarsch (1860-1933) and pathology at the Berlin Charité from 1917 to 1928. From the trauma of war time destruction to the daily routine of a German national university teacher of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Prüll, C R

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the interdependence of medicine and society in a situation of political crisis. The example of the Pathological Institute at the University of Berlin illustrates how non-scientific, political measures exerted an influence on daily scientific work via the Science Ministry as well as the director and the staff of the Institute. Not only did financial problems of the German State and difficulties of the Prussian Science Ministry in keeping the Institute running hamper successful work in Pathology; moreover, the political ambitions of its director, Otto Lubarsch, and the changes in daily life as a result of the general situation of misery had their impact on scientific work. Therefore, an examination of the interdependence between medical science and politics should not be limited to physicians who are enrolled in a political party. Furthermore, research must be undertaken on the level of laboratory communities and everyday-life with the help of archive material. PMID:9522647

  16. [Otto Lubarsch (1860-1933) and pathology at the Berlin Charité from 1917 to 1928. From the trauma of war time destruction to the daily routine of a German national university teacher of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Prüll, C R

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the interdependence of medicine and society in a situation of political crisis. The example of the Pathological Institute at the University of Berlin illustrates how non-scientific, political measures exerted an influence on daily scientific work via the Science Ministry as well as the director and the staff of the Institute. Not only did financial problems of the German State and difficulties of the Prussian Science Ministry in keeping the Institute running hamper successful work in Pathology; moreover, the political ambitions of its director, Otto Lubarsch, and the changes in daily life as a result of the general situation of misery had their impact on scientific work. Therefore, an examination of the interdependence between medical science and politics should not be limited to physicians who are enrolled in a political party. Furthermore, research must be undertaken on the level of laboratory communities and everyday-life with the help of archive material.

  17. Nontraditional applications in clinical pathology.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Holly L; Register, Thomas C; Tripathi, Niraj K; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Everds, Nancy; Zelmanovic, David; Poitout, Florence; Bounous, Denise I; Wescott, Debra; Ramaiah, Shashi K

    2014-10-01

    Most published reviews of preclinical toxicological clinical pathology focus on the fundamental aspects of hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis in routine toxicology animal species, for example, rats, mice, dogs, and nonhuman primates. The objective of this continuing education course was to present and discuss contemporary examples of nonroutine applications of clinical pathology endpoints used in the drug development setting. Area experts discussed bone turnover markers of laboratory animal species, clinical pathology of pregnant and growing laboratory animals, clinical pathology of nonroutine laboratory animal species, and unique applications of the Siemens Advia(®) hematology analyzer. This article is a summary based on a presentation given at the 31st Annual Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, during the Continuing Education Course titled "Nontraditional Applications of Clinical Pathology in Drug Discovery and Preclinical Toxicology."

  18. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    PubMed

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715

  19. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    PubMed

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness.

  20. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  1. Microchimerism in endocrine pathology.

    PubMed

    Rust, Daniel W; Bianchi, Diana W

    2009-01-01

    Chimerism in an individual refers to the coexistence of cells arising from two distinct organisms. It can arise iatrogenically via transplant or blood transfusion, and physiologically via twin to twin transfer, or from trafficking between mother and fetus during pregnancy. Many of the diseases associated with microchimerism affect the endocrine system (e.g., autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1). Microchimerism is relevant to endocrine pathology because (a) it is associated with pregnancy, a condition of complex endocrine physiology; (b) materno-fetal and feto-maternal cellular migration must involve the placenta, itself an endocrine organ; and (c) in some species, chimerism results in states of intersexuality, a condition intimately involved with endocrine physiology. Studies of feto-maternal microchimerism in the thyroid have documented the presence of fetal cells in association with Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves' disease, thyroid adenoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Studies of materno-fetal microchimerism have documented the presence of maternal cells in juvenile diabetes and other pediatric conditions. Microchimerism plays a potential role in the repair of diseased thyroid and pancreatic tissues.

  2. Rabies: ocular pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Haltia, M; Tarkkanen, A; Kivelä, T

    1989-01-01

    Ocular pathology in the first European case of human bat-borne rabies is described. The patient was a 30-year-old bat scientist who seven weeks after bat bite developed neurological symptoms and died 23 days later. Rabies virus antigens were detected in brain smears. After extensive virological studies the virus turned out to be a rabies-related virus, closely resembling the Duvenhage virus isolated from bats in South Africa in 1980. By light microscopy focal chronic inflammatory infiltration of the ciliary body and of the choroid was found. PAS-positive exudate was seen in the subretinal and in the outer plexiform layers of the retina, and retinal veins showed endothelial damage and perivascular inflammation. Many of the retinal ganglion cells were destroyed. The presence of rabies-related viral antigen in the retinal ganglion cells was shown by positive cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, though electron microscopy failed to identify definite viral structures in the retina. By immunohistochemistry glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the Müller's cells, which are normally negative for this antigen but express it as a reactive change when the retina is damaged. Synaptophysin, a constituent of presynaptic vesicles of normal retinal neurons, was not detected in the retina. Images PMID:2920157

  3. Pathology of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Domingo, M; Vidal, E; Marco, A

    2014-10-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic granulomatous caseous-necrotising inflammatory process that mainly affects the lungs and their draining lymph nodes (Ln.). The pathological changes associated with bTB infection reflect the interplay between the host defence mechanisms and the mycobacterial virulence factors and the balance between the immunologic protective responses and the damaging inflammatory processes. Inhalation is the most common infection route and causes lesions of the nasopharynx and lower respiratory tract, including its associated lymph nodes. The initial infection (primary complex) may be followed by chronic (post-primary) tuberculosis or may be generalised. Goat tuberculosis often produces liquefactive necrosis and caverns, similarly to human TB. The assessment of the severity of TB lesions is crucial for vaccine trials. Semi-quantitative gross lesion scoring systems have been developed for cattle, but imaging technology has allowed the development of more standardised, objective, and quantitative methods, such as multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), which provides quantitative measures of lesion volume. PMID:24731532

  4. Analysis of Regional Climate Changes adjusted Future Urban Growth Scenarios and possibility of the future air quality prediction in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Jeong, J.

    2012-12-01

    Land-use changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere, but future urban growth has not been considered widely to predict the future regional climate change because it is hard to predict the future land-use changes. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on Cellular Automata (CA) technique to predict the future land-use (especially, urban growth) changes. Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the research area in this study, is the most explosively developed region in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. SLEUTH was calibrated to know the pattern and process of the urban growth and expansion in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from WAter Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) historical trends of urban growth (SC1), (2) future urban policy and plan (SC2), (3) ecological protection and growth (SC3). We used the FNL data of NCEP/NCAR for one month, Oct. in 2005 to evaluate the performance of the WRF on the long-term climate simulation and compared results of WRF with the ASOS/AWS (Automated Surface Observing Systems and Automated Weather System) observation data of the Korea Meteorology Administration. Based on the accuracy of the model, we performed various numerical experiments by the urban growth scenarios using the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany on Oct. for 5 years (2046-2050), respectively. The difference of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA consequently caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase in the urban area. PBL height with a maximum of about 200m also appeared locally in newly

  5. Chemical Composition Characteristics of Particulate Matter in Seoul Metropolitan Area during the Pre-campaign Period of KORUS-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Ahn, J.; Seong, M.; Jeon, H.; Yoo, S.; Kim, H.; Soo, C. J.; Hong, Y.; Hong, J.

    2015-12-01

    While the current concentration of particulate matter (PM10) in the metropolitan areas of South Korea shows a continuous decreasing tendency, the high concentration episodes have reportedly been increasing. The Ministry of Environment of Korea plans to promote the Korea-US Air Quality Campaign (hereinafter referred to as KORUS-AQ) in cooperation with NASA, to identify the drivers of particulate matter and ozone and improve the accuracy of forecasting models. The purpose of this research is to identify the chemical composition characteristics of particulate matters (PM10 and PM2.5) by analyzing the filters collected at the Seoul intensive monitoring site during the pre-campaign period. From May 18 through June 19 in 2015, we collected the PM10 and PM2.5 samples from 10 am to 9 am the next day every day for 23 hours by using the low-volume air sampler at KIST, located in Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, Korea, to analyse fine dust concentration and ionic, carbonaceous, and elemental components. During the research period, the PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations were within 21.1 - 78.5 ug/m3 and 12.0 - 56.0 ug/m3, respectively and the average PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations were 42.5 ug/m3 and 24.6 ug/m3, respectively. In 24.6 ug/m3 of the average PM2.5 mass concentration, anions were 37.1 %( 9.7 ug/m3) and cations were 13.9%( 3.6 ug/m3), indicating that 51% of the PM2.5 components were ions. In the ionic components of PM2.5, sulfate showed the highest concentration (7.03 ug/m3), followed by nitrate (2.61 ug/m3), chloride (0.08 ug/m3), ammonium (3.14 mu/m3), sodium (0.17 ug/m3), kalium (0.15 ug/m3), calcium (0.11 ug/m3), and magnesium (0.01 ug/m3). The average concentrations of carbonaceous components of PM2.5 were 4.2 ug/m3 (18.7 %) for organic carbon (OC) and 2.2 ug /m3 (9.8 %) for inorganic carbon (EC), indicating that PM2.5 had total 6.4 ug/m3 (28.5 %) of carbon. As a result of the analysis on elemental components, it was shown that PM2.5 had 1.61 ug/m3

  6. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

    2013-09-01

    Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and PM simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic VOC emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. Also, this paper attempts to provide important implications for biogenic emissions modeling studies for CTM simulations. MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from MEGAN biogenic emissions analysis with three different sources of PFT input data, US EPA CMAQ O3 simulation results were evaluated by surface O3 monitoring datasets and further considered on the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT datasets considered were "(1)KORPFT", developed with a region specific vegetation database; (2) CDP, adopted from US NCAR; and (3) MODIS, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf trees (BT) are the most significant contributor, followed by needleleaf trees (NT), shrub (SB), and herbaceous plants (HB) to the total biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). In addition, isoprene from BT and terpene from NT were recognized as significant primary and secondary BVOC species in terms of BVOC emissions distributions and O3-forming potentials in the study domain. Multiple regression analyses with the different PFT data (δO3 vs. δPFTs) suggest that KORPFT can provide reasonable information to the framework of MEGAN biogenic emissions modeling and CTM O3 predictions. Analyses of the CMAQ performance statistics suggest that deviations of BT areas can significantly affect CMAQ isoprene and O3 predictions. From further evaluations of the isoprene and O

  7. Deinococcus seoulensis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from sediment at Han River in Seoul, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Park, Su-Jin; Lim, Sangyong; Jeong, Sun-Wook; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Young-Je; Kim, Myung Kyum; Jung, Hee-Young

    2016-08-01

    Strain 16F1E(T) was isolated from a 3-kGy-irradiated sediment sample collected at Han River in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Cells of this strain were observed to be Gram-positive, pililike structure, and short rod shape, and colonies were red in color. The strain showed the highest degree of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (98.8%), Deinococcus depolymerans TDMA-24(T) (98.1%), Deinococcus caeni Ho-08(T) (98.0%), and Deinococcus grandis DSM 3963(T) (97.0%). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified this strain as a member of the genus Deinococcus (Family: Deinococcaceae). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 16F1ET was 66.9 mol%. The low levels of DNA-DNA hybridization (< 56.2%) with the species mentioned above identified strain 16F1E(T) as a novel Deinococcus species. Its oxidase and catalase activities as well as the production of acid from glucose were positive. Growth of the strain was observed at 10-37°C (optimum: 20-30°C) and pH 4-10 (optimum: pH 7-8). The cells tolerated less than 5% NaCl and had low resistance to gamma radiation (D10 < 4 kGy). Strain 16F1ET possessed the following chemotaxonomic characteristics: C16:0, C15:1 ω6c, and C16:1 ω7c as the major fatty acids; phosphoglycolipid as the predominant polar lipid; and menaquinone-8 as the predominant respiratory isoprenoid quinone. Based on the polyphasic evidence, as well as the phylogenetic, genotypic, phenotypic, and chemotaxonomic characterization results, strain 16F1E(T) (=KCTC 33793(T) =JCM 31404(T)) is proposed to represent the type strain of a novel species, Deinococcus seoulensis sp. nov. PMID:27480633

  8. Chemical speciation of size-segregated floor dusts and airborne magnetic particles collected at underground subway stations in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hae-Jin; Kim, BoWha; Malek, Md Abdul; Koo, Yong Sung; Jung, Jong Hoon; Son, Youn-Suk; Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2012-04-30

    Previous studies have reported the major chemical species of underground subway particles to be Fe-containing species that are generated from wear and friction processes at rail-wheel-brake and catenaries-pantographs interfaces. To examine chemical composition of Fe-containing particles in more details, floor dusts were collected at five sampling locations of an underground subway station. Size-segregated floor dusts were separated into magnetic and non-magnetic fractions using a permanent magnet. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX), iron metal, which is relatively harmless, was found to be the dominating chemical species in the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions with minor fractions of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, S, and C. From SEM analysis, the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions collected on railroad ties appeared to be smaller than 10 μm, indicating that their characteristics should somewhat reflect the characteristics of airborne particles in the tunnel and the platform. As most floor dusts are magnetic, PM levels at underground subway stations can be controlled by removing magnetic indoor particles using magnets. In addition, airborne subway particles, most of which were smaller than 10 μm, were collected using permanent magnets at two underground subway stations, namely Jegi and Yangjae stations, in Seoul, Korea. XRD and SEM/EDX analyses showed that most of the magnetic aerosol particles collected at Jegi station was iron metal, whereas those at Yangjae station contained a small amount of Fe mixed with Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and C. The difference in composition of the Fe-containing particles between the two subway stations was attributed to the different ballast tracks used. PMID:22381374

  9. Deinococcus seoulensis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from sediment at Han River in Seoul, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Park, Su-Jin; Lim, Sangyong; Jeong, Sun-Wook; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Young-Je; Kim, Myung Kyum; Jung, Hee-Young

    2016-08-01

    Strain 16F1E(T) was isolated from a 3-kGy-irradiated sediment sample collected at Han River in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Cells of this strain were observed to be Gram-positive, pililike structure, and short rod shape, and colonies were red in color. The strain showed the highest degree of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (98.8%), Deinococcus depolymerans TDMA-24(T) (98.1%), Deinococcus caeni Ho-08(T) (98.0%), and Deinococcus grandis DSM 3963(T) (97.0%). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified this strain as a member of the genus Deinococcus (Family: Deinococcaceae). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 16F1ET was 66.9 mol%. The low levels of DNA-DNA hybridization (< 56.2%) with the species mentioned above identified strain 16F1E(T) as a novel Deinococcus species. Its oxidase and catalase activities as well as the production of acid from glucose were positive. Growth of the strain was observed at 10-37°C (optimum: 20-30°C) and pH 4-10 (optimum: pH 7-8). The cells tolerated less than 5% NaCl and had low resistance to gamma radiation (D10 < 4 kGy). Strain 16F1ET possessed the following chemotaxonomic characteristics: C16:0, C15:1 ω6c, and C16:1 ω7c as the major fatty acids; phosphoglycolipid as the predominant polar lipid; and menaquinone-8 as the predominant respiratory isoprenoid quinone. Based on the polyphasic evidence, as well as the phylogenetic, genotypic, phenotypic, and chemotaxonomic characterization results, strain 16F1E(T) (=KCTC 33793(T) =JCM 31404(T)) is proposed to represent the type strain of a novel species, Deinococcus seoulensis sp. nov.

  10. Use of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotypes bearing hantaan or seoul virus envelope proteins in a rapid and safe neutralization test.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Michiko; Ebihara, Hideki; Lee, Byoung-Hee; Araki, Koichi; Lundkvist, Ake; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro

    2003-01-01

    A vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotype bearing hantavirus envelope glycoproteins was produced and used in a neutralization test as a substitute for native hantavirus. The recombinant VSV, in which the enveloped protein gene (G) was replaced by the green fluorescent protein gene and complemented with G protein expressed in trans (VSVDeltaG*G), was kindly provided by M. A. Whitt. 293T cells were transfected with plasmids for the expression of envelope glycoproteins (G1 and G2) of HTNV or SEOV and were then infected with VSVDeltaG*G. Pseudotype VSV with the Hantaan (VSVDeltaG*-HTN) or Seoul (VSVDeltaG*-SEO) envelope glycoproteins were harvested from the culture supernatant. The number of infectious units (IU) of the pseudotype VSVs ranged from 10(5) to 10(6)/ml. The infectivity of VSVDeltaG*-HTN and VSVDeltaG*-SEO was neutralized with monoclonal antibodies, immune rabbit sera, and sera from patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, and the neutralizing titers were similar to those obtained with native hantaviruses. These results show that VSVDeltaG*-HTN and -SEO can be used as a rapid, specific, and safe neutralization test for detecting hantavirus-neutralizing antibodies as an effective substitute for the use of native hantaviruses. Furthermore, the IU of VSVDeltaG*-HTN and -SEO did not decrease by more than 10-fold when stored at 4 degrees C for up to 30 days. The stability of the pseudotype viruses allows distribution of the material to remote areas by using conventional cooling boxes for use as a diagnostic reagent.

  11. Chemical speciation of size-segregated floor dusts and airborne magnetic particles collected at underground subway stations in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hae-Jin; Kim, BoWha; Malek, Md Abdul; Koo, Yong Sung; Jung, Jong Hoon; Son, Youn-Suk; Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2012-04-30

    Previous studies have reported the major chemical species of underground subway particles to be Fe-containing species that are generated from wear and friction processes at rail-wheel-brake and catenaries-pantographs interfaces. To examine chemical composition of Fe-containing particles in more details, floor dusts were collected at five sampling locations of an underground subway station. Size-segregated floor dusts were separated into magnetic and non-magnetic fractions using a permanent magnet. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX), iron metal, which is relatively harmless, was found to be the dominating chemical species in the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions with minor fractions of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, S, and C. From SEM analysis, the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions collected on railroad ties appeared to be smaller than 10 μm, indicating that their characteristics should somewhat reflect the characteristics of airborne particles in the tunnel and the platform. As most floor dusts are magnetic, PM levels at underground subway stations can be controlled by removing magnetic indoor particles using magnets. In addition, airborne subway particles, most of which were smaller than 10 μm, were collected using permanent magnets at two underground subway stations, namely Jegi and Yangjae stations, in Seoul, Korea. XRD and SEM/EDX analyses showed that most of the magnetic aerosol particles collected at Jegi station was iron metal, whereas those at Yangjae station contained a small amount of Fe mixed with Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and C. The difference in composition of the Fe-containing particles between the two subway stations was attributed to the different ballast tracks used.

  12. [Attitudes of women college students in Seoul towards population and family planning (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Song, K Y

    1975-06-01

    The Korean Institute for Family Planning conducted a survey of participants in a 1-day population and family planning training seminar for college students. The data was collected from women participants from September-November, 1974. Of a sample of 977, 94% answered that the current population increase rate (2% annually) should be greatly reduced to promote national development. 95% thought family size should be greatly reduced for improvement of living conditions. The average desired age at marriage was 24.5 years, similar to the actual age at marriage (24.3). The average preferred number of children was 2.3, including 2.3 sons. The expected number of children (living children plus number desired was 2.7. The proportion of respondents favoring 2 or less children was 72%. 83% of the respondents wanted to terminate childbearing before age 30; 15% between the ages of 30-34. 99% had heard of at least 1 contraceptive method. Few knew how to use the method: 26% oral pill, 24% rhythm, 19% condom. 76% received contraceptive information from school education, 45% newspapers and magazines, and 19% posters and other printed material. 93% wanted more knowledge and information on methods before their marriage. Attitudes among college women were generally more modern than those of unmarried women not in college. Most women did not have enough knowledge to regulate their family size. (Author's Modified)

  13. Digital pathology and anatomic pathology laboratory information system integration to support digital pathology sign-out

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huazhang; Birsa, Joe; Farahani, Navid; Hartman, Douglas J.; Piccoli, Anthony; O’Leary, Matthew; McHugh, Jeffrey; Nyman, Mark; Stratman, Curtis; Kvarnstrom, Vanja; Yousem, Samuel; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adoption of digital pathology offers benefits over labor-intensive, time-consuming, and error-prone manual processes. However, because most workflow and laboratory transactions are centered around the anatomical pathology laboratory information system (APLIS), adoption of digital pathology ideally requires integration with the APLIS. A digital pathology system (DPS) integrated with the APLIS was recently implemented at our institution for diagnostic use. We demonstrate how such integration supports digital workflow to sign-out anatomical pathology cases. Methods: Workflow begins when pathology cases get accessioned into the APLIS (CoPathPlus). Glass slides from these cases are then digitized (Omnyx VL120 scanner) and automatically uploaded into the DPS (Omnyx® Integrated Digital Pathology (IDP) software v.1.3). The APLIS transmits case data to the DPS via a publishing web service. The DPS associates scanned images with the correct case using barcode labels on slides and information received from the APLIS. When pathologists remotely open a case in the DPS, additional information (e.g. gross pathology details, prior cases) gets retrieved from the APLIS through a query web service. Results: Following validation of this integration, pathologists at our institution have signed out more than 1000 surgical pathology cases in a production environment. Integration between the APLIS and DPS enabled pathologists to review digital slides while simultaneously having access to pertinent case metadata. The introduction of a digital workflow eliminated costly manual tasks involving matching of glass slides and avoided delays waiting for glass slides to be delivered. Conclusion: Integrating the DPS and APLIS were instrumental for successfully implementing a digital solution at our institution for pathology sign-out. The integration streamlined our digital sign-out workflow, diminished the potential for human error related to matching slides, and improved the sign

  14. Image Analysis in Surgical Pathology.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Mark C; Monaco, James P; Bui, Marilyn M

    2016-06-01

    Digitization of glass slides of surgical pathology samples facilitates a number of value-added capabilities beyond what a pathologist could previously do with a microscope. Image analysis is one of the most fundamental opportunities to leverage the advantages that digital pathology provides. The ability to quantify aspects of a digital image is an extraordinary opportunity to collect data with exquisite accuracy and reliability. In this review, we describe the history of image analysis in pathology and the present state of technology processes as well as examples of research and clinical use. PMID:27241112

  15. A selective Seoul-Fluor-based bioprobe, SfBP, for vaccinia H1-related phosphatase--a dual-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Myeong Seon; Kim, Eunha; Kang, Hyo Jin; Choi, Eun Joung; Cho, Alvin R; Chung, Sang J; Park, Seung Bum

    2012-07-01

    We report a Seoul-Fluor-based bioprobe, SfBP, for selective monitoring of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). A rational design based on the structures at the active site of dual-specific PTPs can enable SfBP to selectively monitor the activity of these PTPs with a 93-fold change in brightness. Moreover, screening results of SfBP against 30 classical PTPs and 35 dual-specific PTPs show that it is selective toward vaccinia H1-related (VHR) phosphatase, a dual-specific PTP (DUSP-3).

  16. Cue reactivity in active pathological, abstinent pathological, and regular gamblers.

    PubMed

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-one treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, 21 pathological gamblers in recovery, and 21 recreational gamblers watched two video-taped exciting gambling scenarios and an exciting roller-coaster control scenario while their arousal (heart rate and subjective excitement) and urge to gamble were being measured. The gamblers did not differ significantly in cue-elicited heart rate elevations or excitement. However, the active pathological gamblers reported significantly greater urges to gamble across all cues compared to the abstinent pathological gamblers and, with marginal significance (p = 0.06), also compared to the social gamblers. Further exploration of these findings revealed that active pathological gamblers experience urges to gamble in response to exciting situations, whether or not they are gambling related, whereas abstinent and social gamblers only report urges to an exciting gambling-related cue. This suggests that for pathological gamblers excitement itself, irrespective of its source, may become a conditioned stimulus capable of triggering gambling behavior. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19662519

  17. Meckel on developmental pathology.

    PubMed

    Opitz, John M; Schultka, Rüdiger; Göbbel, Luminita

    2006-01-15

    cartilage named after him, and as having interpreted, correctly, the developmental nature of the "Meckel" diverticulum. It is virtually unknown that Meckel also first enuntiated the concept and distinction between primary and secondary malformations/anomalies, introduced the notion of heredity into the causal analysis of congenital anomalies, was the father of syndromology (the Meckel syndrome), had a clear understanding of pleiotropy and heterogeneity, and can unequivocally be regarded as the father of developmental pathology. In hindsight, and inspite of much professional success, Meckel emerges as a tragic figure in the history of biology, his life cut short at 52 without an ability to incorporate cell theory and the embryological insights of his younger contemporaries into his intellectual edifice which might have made it possible for him to finally and clearly see "analogy" (now homology), of which he was the greatest expert in his era, as incontrovertible evidence for descent. In that case, Darwin and Haeckel might have even had the courtesy of a tip-of-the-hat in Meckel's direction. PMID:16353245

  18. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Clinical Pathology Expands List of Commonly Used Tests and Treatments Physicians and Patients Should Question CMS Listens to ASCP, Gives Providers more Flexibility in MACRA Implementation ePolicy News September 2016 Urge ...

  19. Detection of peripheral nerve pathology

    PubMed Central

    Seelig, Michael J.; Baker, Jonathan C.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Pestronk, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare accuracy of ultrasound and MRI for detecting focal peripheral nerve pathology, excluding idiopathic carpal or cubital tunnel syndromes. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients referred for neuromuscular ultrasound to identify patients who had ultrasound and MRI of the same limb for suspected brachial plexopathy or mononeuropathies, excluding carpal/cubital tunnel syndromes. Ultrasound and MRI results were compared to diagnoses determined by surgical or, if not performed, clinical/electrodiagnostic evaluation. Results: We identified 53 patients who had both ultrasound and MRI of whom 46 (87%) had nerve pathology diagnosed by surgical (n = 39) or clinical/electrodiagnostic (n = 14) evaluation. Ultrasound detected the diagnosed nerve pathology (true positive) more often than MRI (43/46 vs 31/46, p < 0.001). Nerve pathology was correctly excluded (true negative) with equal frequency by MRI and ultrasound (both 6/7). In 25% (13/53), ultrasound was accurate (true positive or true negative) when MRI was not. These pathologies were typically (10/13) long (>2 cm) and only occasionally (2/13) outside the MRI field of view. MRI missed multifocal pathology identified with ultrasound in 6 of 7 patients, often (5/7) because pathology was outside the MRI field of view. Conclusions: Imaging frequently detects peripheral nerve pathology and contributes to the differential diagnosis in patients with mononeuropathies and brachial plexopathies. Ultrasound is more sensitive than MRI (93% vs 67%), has equivalent specificity (86%), and better identifies multifocal lesions than MRI. In sonographically accessible regions ultrasound is the preferred initial imaging modality for anatomic evaluation of suspected peripheral nervous system lesions. PMID:23553474

  20. Preliminary Results from High Time-Resolution Measurements of Particulate Inorganic Ions and Black Carbon Downwind of Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghim, Y.; Lee, Y.; Kim, C.; Choi, Y.; Lee, T.

    2011-12-01

    Concentrations of inorganic ions and black carbon (BC) in PM2.5 were measured using PILS (particle-into-liquid sampler, ADI 2081, Applikon) and MAAP (Multiangle Absorption Photometer, Model 5012, Thermo), respectively, at intervals of 20-30 minutes. The measurements were made at the Yongin campus of Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, about 35 km southeast of downtown Seoul, which is affected by prevailing northwesterlies. The site is considered as an ideal place for exploring transport of air pollutants and variations of secondary ion formation caused by photochemical reactions since there are no major emission sources nearby except a 4-lane road running about 1.4 km to the west. The concentration of BC has been continuously measured since July 2010. However, the concentrations of inorganic ions were measured intermittently since February 2011. In the measurements in February, nitrate accounted for about 39% of the total inorganic ion concentrations and showed the highest correlation coefficient of 0.93 with ammonium. The fraction of sulfate among inorganic ions was about 31%, and the correlation coefficient with ammonium was 0.85, lower than that of nitrate. As was in other rural areas in Korea, potassium was highly correlated with major secondary ions such as sulfate, nitrate and ammonium, whose correlation coefficients were 0.70-0.74. Total inorganic ion concentrations were highest at 09:30 local time (LT) on February 9 probably due to the effect of vehicle emissions during the morning rush hour, but the concentration of nitrate was the highest at 13:00 LT on February 17 because of secondary ion formation just before a full development of the convective boundary layer. BC concentrations during the measurement period in February were generally higher at midnight than in the daytime including rush hours. BC showed moderately higher correlations with secondary ions. The BC concentration from MAAP obtained by aerosol absorption coefficient divided by mass

  1. In-situ measurements of nighttime radical species (NO3 and N2O5) from Seoul N Tower in Korea during MAPS 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of nitrate radical (NO3) chemistry has been emphasized in the nocturnal atmosphere which influences on the air quality in following day. This chemistry could gather its importance even more in urban setting or in downwind area of large urban emission sources. In support of these issue, efforts in investigating the nighttime chemical mechanisms has been made during MAPS 2015 (Megacity Air Pollution Study 2015) at Seoul in Korea from May 18th to June 12th of 2015. By deploying NOAA's state-of-the-art instrument, ARNOLD (Airborne Ring-down Nitrogen Oxide Laser Detector), high time resolution in-situ measurement of nitrate (NO3), dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) as well as other related trace gases species (e.g. NO, NO2, NOy, and O3) were made on the Seoul N Tower (inlet height: 362m ASL). The in-situ measurements of NO3 radical will provide good observational constraints on night time oxidation processes. The NO3 and N2O5 equilibrium and reactivity will be analyzed by comparison of their lifetimes to those calculated from VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) measurements and kinetic calculations. Implications for nitrogen oxides species will be discussed.

  2. Communication skills in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Bosman, Fred T

    2016-01-01

    Communication is an essential element of good medical practice also in pathology. In contrast to technical or diagnostic skills, communication skills are not easy to define, teach, or assess. Rules almost do not exist. In this paper, which has a rather personal character and cannot be taken as a set of guidelines, important aspects of communication in pathology are explored. This includes what should be communicated to the pathologist on the pathology request form, communication between pathologists during internal (interpathologist) consultation, communication around frozen section diagnoses, modalities of communication of a final diagnosis, with whom and how critical and unexpected findings should be communicated, (in-)adequate routes of communication for pathology diagnoses, who will (or might) receive pathology reports, and what should be communicated and how in case of an error or a technical problem. An earlier more formal description of what the responsibilities are of a pathologist as communicator and as collaborator in a medical team is added in separate tables. The intention of the paper is to stimulate reflection and discussion rather than to formulate strict rules.

  3. The pathology of shin splints.

    PubMed

    Kues, J M

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate experimental evidence describing the pathology associated with shin splints. Shin splints are defined as medial or posteromedial leg pain which is brought about by walking, running, or related activities and which decreases with rest. The evidence indicates that shin splints may be due to pathology of the posteromedial tibial cortex, the periosteum of the posteromedial tibia, or the crural fascia of the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Research is needed to determine if increased pressure in the deep posterior compartment of the leg or pathology of the muscles, tendons, or interosseous membrane of the leg are associated with shin splints. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1990;12(3):115-121.

  4. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    PubMed

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD.

  5. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  6. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way. PMID:26283037

  7. [Fibronectin, aging and related pathologies].

    PubMed

    Labat-Robert, J; Chevalier, X

    1991-01-01

    It could be demonstrated that plasma and tissue fibronectin (FN) increase with age. Some age dependent diseases as diabetes, osteoarthritis and Werner syndrome produce also an increase of tissue fibronectin biosynthesis. Plasma fibronectin decreases in diabetes and in breast cancer. Alternative splicing of the FN gene appears also to vary with age and in some related pathologies. Nutritional status and UV light also influence FN biosynthesis. It appears therefore that the determination of plasma FN and its isoforms as well as the study of tissue FN may be of interest for the study of chronological aging and related pathologies. PMID:1835421

  8. Current diagnosis of temporomandibular pathologies.

    PubMed

    Learreta, Jorge A; Matos, Jane L F; Matos, Marcelo Freire; Durst, Andreas C

    2009-04-01

    The current scientific knowledge of TMJ pathologies points to the importance of etiological research and the need for differential diagnosis using the most modem technological resources. Those include MRI, computed tomography, serologic studies, genetic mapping, and bioelectronic instruments which allow clinicians to study, understand, and measure respectively, the structural changes of soft and hard tissues, infections, genetic susceptibility for autoimmune diseases, and stomatognathic function. The purpose of this article is an overview of the current knowledge and related tools for the diagnosis of TMJ pathologies.

  9. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5-1.0) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42-60% (by weight) of fin...

  10. The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V.; Aller, Raymond D.; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J.; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B.; Friedman, Bruce A.; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold. PMID:23869286

  11. Relationship between pathological gambling, alcoholism and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Baldo, V; Cristofoletti, M; Majori, S; Cibin, M; Peron, C; Dal Zotto, A; Zampieri, N; Saia, M; Trivello, R

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to evaluate the distribution of pathological gamblers treated in an alcohol or drug addiction treatment program run by the Italian National Health Service providing assistance to alcohol and drug abusers in Venice (North east Italy) from September 1 to December 31, 2001. Each drug- or alcohol-dependent patient retained for treatment for at least one month was administrated an anonymous precoded questionnaire to collect personal and socio-demographic features. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) was used to measure pathological gambling and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) to measure psychological distress levels and psychiatric symptoms. Among the 113 enrolled subjects we found a greater prevalence of pathological gamblers among drug users than among alcoholics and drug abusers were younger than alcoholics; moreover, there was a prevalence of single status, low schooling, and a low-medium income despite full-time occupation. Only pathological gamblers revealed a significant positive correlation with a family history of gambling and reached positive scores (>1.5) for some likely psychiatric symptoms. Abuse disorders and pathological gambling are frequently associated with multidependence personality traits. Preventing substance abuse may reduce the pathological gambling rates and better results can be obtained with educational campaigns beginning earlier in life. PMID:16649512

  12. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  13. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  14. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  15. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  16. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  17. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  18. Giving your heart to pathology.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Jim

    2015-10-17

    Jim KIaassen recently joined Axiom Veterinary Laboratories as a clinical pathologist. During his career, Dr Klaassen has worked in small animal practice, lectured in clinical pathology, undertaken preclinical research and held senior roles in commercial veterinary laboratories in the USA, including as chief medical officer of Antech Diagnostics.

  19. Surgical pathology of urologic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Javadpour, N.; Barsky, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    This text details recent advances in methods for detecting, diagnosing, and managing genitourinary diseases. Included are chapters on imaging techniques (including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound; tumor markers (such as alphafetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, prostatic specific antigen, and T-antigens); immunocytochemistry; pediatric urologic pathology; and other key topics.

  20. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  1. Generation of E3-deleted canine adenovirus type 2 expressing the Gc glycoprotein of Seoul virus by gene insertion or deletion of related terminal region sequences.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zi-Guo; Luo, Sheng-Jun; Xu, Hui-Juan; Wang, Xiao-Hu; Li, Juan; Yuan, Li-Guo; He, Le-Tian; Zhang, Xiu-Xiang

    2010-07-01

    Seoul virus (SEOV) is one of the four hantaviruses known to cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The medium genome segment encodes the Gn/Gc glycoproteins of SEOV, which form the major structural part of the virus envelope. Gc and/or Gn are the candidate antigens of hantavirus for induction of a highly immunogenic response for hantavirus vaccine. In this study, the immune response induced by a replication-competent recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 expressing the Gc protein of SEOV was evaluated in BALB/c mice. Sera from immunized mice contained neutralizing antibodies that could specifically recognize SEOV and neutralize its infectivity in vitro. Moreover, the recombinant virus induced complete protection against an intensive infectious challenge with approximately 1000 50 % infective doses for SEOV strain CC-2. Protective-level neutralizing antibodies were maintained for at least 20 weeks. This recombinant virus is therefore a potential alternative to the inactivated vaccine.

  2. Microparticles in physiological and in pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Roos, Maria Augusta; Gennero, Luisa; Denysenko, Tetyana; Reguzzi, Stefano; Cavallo, Giovanni; Pescarmona, Gian Piero; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2010-10-01

    Chronic diseases pose a severe burden to modern National Health Systems. Individuals nowadays have a far more extended lifespan than in the past, but healthy living was only scantily extended. As much as longer life is desirable, it is saddened by chronic diseases and organ malfunctions. One contributor to these problems was recognized to be represented by microparticles (MPs). Our purpose is to better understand MPs, to contrast their ominous threat and possible clinical importance. For this intent we correlated MPs with thrombotic pathologies, hemophilia, malaria, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, endothelial dysfunctions, pulmonary hypertension, ischemic stroke, pre-eclampsia, rheumatologic diseases-rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis-dermatomyositis, angiogenesis and tumor progression-cancer; we listed the possibilities of using them to improve transfusion methods, as a marker for acute allograft rejection, in stem cell transplantation, as neuronal biomarkers, to understand gender-specific susceptibility for diseases and to improve vaccination methods and we presented some methods for the detection of MPs. PMID:20941744

  3. Interleukin-22: immunobiology and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Hanash, Alan M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T-helper (Th)-17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Knowledge of IL-22 biology has rapidly evolved since its discovery in 2000, and a role for IL-22 has been identified in numerous tissues including the intestines, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, pancreas and skin. IL-22 primarily targets non-hematopoietic epithelial and stromal cells where it can promote proliferation and play a role in tissue regeneration. In addition, IL-22 regulates host defense at barrier surfaces. However, IL-22 has also been linked to several conditions involving inflammatory tissue pathology. In this review, we will assess the current understanding of this cytokine, including its physiologic and pathologic effects on epithelial cell function. PMID:25706098

  4. α-Synuclein: Experimental Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masato; Nonaka, Takashi; Masuda-Suzukake, Masami

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein, which is present as a small, soluble, cytosolic protein in healthy subjects, is converted to amyloid-like fibrils in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Bulk synthesis of purified α-synuclein has made it more convenient to study the nature of the normal protein and the mechanism of its conversion to an abnormal form in vitro and in vivo. Synthetic α-synuclein fibrils and pathological α-synuclein from diseased brains can act as triggers to convert normal α-synuclein to an abnormal form via prion-like mechanisms. In this article, we describe the experimental pathologies of α-synuclein both in vitro and in vivo in human and animal models. Prion-like spreading of abnormal α-synuclein from cell to cell can account for the progression of these α-synucleinopathies. PMID:27481772

  5. Rotator cuff and subacromial pathology.

    PubMed

    Yablon, Corrie M; Jacobson, Jon A

    2015-07-01

    Both MRI and ultrasound (US) demonstrate equivalent accuracy in the evaluation of the rotator cuff. Both modalities have their advantages, disadvantages, and pitfalls. Radiography is an important complementary modality in that it can demonstrate occult sources of shoulder pain. MRI is recommended for the evaluation of shoulder pain in patients < 40 years of age because labral pathology is frequently identified. However, in patients > 40 years, US should be the first-line modality because the incidence of rotator cuff pathology increases with age. US is useful to guide procedures such as subacromial injection and calcific tendinosis lavage. Radiologists should be knowledgeable of both MRI and US of the shoulder to tailor these examinations to the specific needs of their patients.

  6. Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation. PMID:22778743

  7. Quality in pathology laboratory practice.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, S

    1995-06-01

    Quality refers not only to analytical quality control, a traditional area of laboratory excellence, but to the entire science of quality management. As measures of quality, structural indicators refer to staffing and physical facilities, process indicators to the institutions operations and, perhaps most importantly, outcome indicators address the ultimate patient care uses that pathology information is put to. Comparison of performance to peer laboratories, external quality control, is a practical, if limited, yardstick of performance. Customer satisfaction and turn-around-time of tests are receiving more recent attention as quality measures. Blood banking, because of its inherently complex cycle from donor phlebotomy to product infusion, requires special considerations with regard to quality management. Reporting of anatomical pathology, where the only gold standard is a consensus of experts, also does not lend itself to classical numerical quality assessment. PMID:7670717

  8. Pathology of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Finnie, John W

    2014-12-01

    Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently encountered in veterinary practice in companion animals, livestock and horses, inflicted head injury is a common method of euthanasia in domestic livestock, and malicious head trauma can lead to forensic investigation, the pathology of TBI has generally received little attention in the veterinary literature. This review highlights the pathology and pathogenesis of cerebral lesions produced by blunt, non-missile and penetrating, missile head injuries as an aid to the more accurate diagnosis of neurotrauma cases. If more cases of TBI in animals that result in fatality or euthanasia are subjected to rigorous neuropathological examination, this will lead to a better understanding of the nature and development of brain lesions in these species, rather than extrapolating data from human studies. PMID:25178417

  9. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Noura B.; Gratuze, Maud; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Bretteville, Alexis; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF). NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99%) is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease. Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM) might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since Tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia. PMID:24574966

  10. [Pathological horseshoe kidney. Therapeutic aspects].

    PubMed

    Bennani, S; Touijer, A; Aboutaieb, R; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1994-01-01

    The authors report the various therapeutic modalities of uropathies associated with horseshoe kidney, based on a series of 20 pathologic horseshoe kidneys, associated with 12 cases of renal stones, 5 ureteropelvic junction obstructions, 3 kidney tumors, 2 cases of pyonephrosis and finally 1 traumatic horseshoe kidney. The specific anatomic and surgical features of this uncommon malformation are emphasized and the therapeutic features of each uropathy associated with horseshoe kidney are discussed. PMID:7825982

  11. Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351 PMID:23305209

  12. The molecular pathology of haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Larner, A J

    1987-06-01

    The great success of recombinant DNA technology in unravelling the pathology of the thalassaemias at a molecular level has encouraged the application of these methods to other single gene disorders of man in the hope of gaining a deeper insight into the biochemical defects underlying them. An example of this approach is provided by the sex-linked recessive disorders of blood clotting: haemophilia and Christmas disease. These clinically indistinguishable, life-long disorders result from the deficiency or abnormality of the clotting proteins factor VIII and factor IX, respectively, which both participate in the activation of factor X in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. This paper looks at the information concerning the molecular biology and pathology of the haemophilias which has recently been forthcoming. The genes for factor VIII and factor IX have both been successfully cloned within the past five years, with that of factor VIII, achieved in 1984, being a particular tour de force. It encompasses 0.1 per cent of the human X chromosome and is the largest gene yet characterised. Gene cloning is the starting point from which gene probes can be designed to elucidate the molecular pathology of the haemophilias. The implications of these discoveries for the practice of clinical medicine are reviewed, with special emphasis on prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection by means of restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and replacement therapy with recombinant factor VIII.

  13. Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658

  14. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  15. [Urothelial carcinoma. Does surgical pathology learn from molecular pathology?].

    PubMed

    Hofstädter, F

    2008-11-01

    The question is raised whether the new theories about initiation and progression of urothelial carcinoma gained by molecular techniques show effects on the classification and histopathological diagnosis. As fundamental new concepts are considered: two pathways of tumor progression, clonality of synchronous and metachronous tumors, tumor-analogous molecular findings in flat lesions, and stromal invasion as dominant principle of molecular tumor classification.The dual pathogenesis of molecular pathology is reflected by the WHO 2004 classification by the differentiation into low and high grade malignancy, but diluted by the use of PUNLMP (papillary urothelial neoplasia of low malignant potential). The new concept of frequent oligoclonality should induce investigations about the mechanism of propagation of these migrating or metastasizing cells and whether they possess stem cell characteristics. The role of flat urothelial lesions must be revised from a molecular pathological view point, but the histological diagnosis does not gain profit till now. The expression signatures of stromal invasive tumors compared with non-invasive ones points to the major importance of an exact histopathological diagnosis in this area.

  16. Interactions of Pathological Hallmark Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Judit; Vincze, Orsolya; Virók, Dezső; Simon, Dóra; Bozsó, Zsolt; Tőkési, Natália; Horváth, István; Hlavanda, Emma; Kovács, János; Magyar, Anna; Szűcs, Mária; Orosz, Ferenc; Penke, Botond; Ovádi, Judit

    2011-01-01

    The disordered tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) was found to be co-enriched in neuronal and glial inclusions with α-synuclein in Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy, respectively; however, co-occurrence of α-synuclein with β-amyloid (Aβ) in human brain inclusions has been recently reported, suggesting the existence of mixed type pathologies that could result in obstacles in the correct diagnosis and treatment. Here we identified TPPP/p25 as an interacting partner of the soluble Aβ oligomers as major risk factors for Alzheimer disease using ProtoArray human protein microarray. The interactions of oligomeric Aβ with proteins involved in the etiology of neurological disorders were characterized by ELISA, surface plasmon resonance, pelleting experiments, and tubulin polymerization assay. We showed that the Aβ42 tightly bound to TPPP/p25 (Kd = 85 nm) and caused aberrant protein aggregation by inhibiting the physiologically relevant TPPP/p25-derived microtubule assembly. The pair-wise interactions of Aβ42, α-synuclein, and tubulin were found to be relatively weak; however, these three components formed soluble ternary complex exclusively in the absence of TPPP/p25. The aggregation-facilitating activity of TPPP/p25 and its interaction with Aβ was monitored by electron microscopy with purified proteins by pelleting experiments with cell-free extracts as well as by confocal microscopy with CHO cells expressing TPPP/p25 or amyloid. The finding that the interaction of TPPP/p25 with Aβ can produce pathological-like aggregates is tightly coupled with unusual pathology of the Alzheimer disease revealed previously; that is, partial co-localization of Aβ and TPPP/p25 in the case of diffuse Lewy body disease with Alzheimer disease. PMID:21832049

  17. Pathological gambling and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, S; Halpern, A L; Portnow, S L

    1986-01-01

    There exists significant interdisciplinary support for eliminating the volitional component of the insanity defense. Somewhat in contrast to this trend is the presentation of pathological gambling as a potentially exculpatory condition in criminal trials. The authors discuss three federal appellate court decisions on this attempted inappropriate usage of psychiatric diagnostic nomenclature. All have upheld convictions, and thereby rejected contentions that such an impulse disorder can form the basis for a valid plea of lack of criminal responsibility. It is suggested that the public interest will be served by statutorily making disturbances of behavioral control insufficient to raise a defense of insanity.

  18. Pathological buying and partnership status.

    PubMed

    Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina; Mitchell, James E; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2016-05-30

    This pilot study investigated the partnership status and the level of pathological buying (PB) in 157 female patients with PB and 1153 women from a German population-based sample. Slightly more than half of both samples were currently living with a partner. The results suggest a protective effect of being in a couple relationship in the representative sample. In contrast, having a partner was not related to the severity of PB among patients. Future studies should address the question of whether the characteristics and quality of partnership have an impact on the severity and course of PB, and vice versa.

  19. Iliopsoas: Pathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christian N

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of the iliopsoas can be a significant source of groin pain in the athletic population. Commonly described pathologic conditions include iliopsoas bursitis, tendonitis, impingement, and snapping. The first-line treatment for iliopsoas disorders is typically conservative, including activity modification, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections. Surgical treatment can be considered if the patient fails conservative measures and typically involves arthroscopic lengthening of the musculotendinous unit and treatment of concomitant intra-articular abnormality. Tendon release has been described: in the central compartment, in the peripheral compartment, and at the lesser trochanter, with similar outcomes observed between the techniques. PMID:27343394

  20. Hippocrates' humoral pathology in nowaday's reflections.

    PubMed

    Bujalkova, M; Straka, S; Jureckova, A

    2001-01-01

    Ancient medicine integrated three components: experience (empirical observation), religion/magic and speculations of natural philosophers. The Greek medicine out-achieved medicine of other ancient nations in starting to investigate the true causes of health and diseases and thus laying foundations for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Hippocrates, the most famous physician of the ancient times, made a synthesis of existing philosophical opinions from the point of view of a physician. His 58 writings were preserved in the collection "Corpus Hippocraticum". The most relevant writing in it--"Peri fyseos anthropu" (On the nature of man)--is ascribed to Hippocrates' son-in-law Polybos to whom we are grateful for the ancient humoral-pathological theory. In explaining human organism and its processes the author integrated ancient teachings on 4 basic humors (humoral theory), elements and qualities with observations of manifestations of health and disease. Normal condition (health) was defined as balance between the body fluids (eukrasia) and external environment. If this balance is disturbed, the result is dyskrasia, i.e. disease studied by pathology. According to Hippocrates disease causes can be understood only through empirical study. A man has a power to overcome disease, but to achieve it the right diet is necessary to keep harmony in body fluids of an organism. The role of a physician was just to support the nature. "Prognosis", another writing included in "Corpus Hippocraticum", reflects Hippocrates' understanding of prognosis as a necessary development of diagnosis based on past knowledge (anamnesis) and present observation. Ideas of Hippocrates and his medical school are still valuable and inspiring especially for today's very sophisticated medicine--concept of fighting diseases by natural means: maintaining healthy lifestyle and harmony within the organism, or an effort for perfect understanding of human creature and for humanization of medicine. (Fig. 3

  1. Digital pathology in Europe: coordinating patient care and research efforts.

    PubMed

    Garcia Rojo, Marcial; Punys, Vytenis; Slodkowska, Janina; Schrader, Thomas; Daniel, Christel; Blobel, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    user needs. Following a recent IHE proposal, coordination with public health services like national or regional tumor registries must also be supported. Virtual or digital slides are fostering the use of image processing and analysis in pathology not only for research purposes, but also in daily practice. Nowadays, further discussion is needed on the adequacy of current existing technical solutions, including for instance quality of images obtained by scanners, or the efficiency of image analysis applications. PMID:19745463

  2. Digital pathology in Europe: coordinating patient care and research efforts.

    PubMed

    Garcia Rojo, Marcial; Punys, Vytenis; Slodkowska, Janina; Schrader, Thomas; Daniel, Christel; Blobel, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    user needs. Following a recent IHE proposal, coordination with public health services like national or regional tumor registries must also be supported. Virtual or digital slides are fostering the use of image processing and analysis in pathology not only for research purposes, but also in daily practice. Nowadays, further discussion is needed on the adequacy of current existing technical solutions, including for instance quality of images obtained by scanners, or the efficiency of image analysis applications.

  3. [Cartilage tumors : Pathology and radiomorphology].

    PubMed

    Uhl, M; Herget, G; Kurz, P

    2016-06-01

    Primary cartilage-forming tumors of the bone are frequent entities in the daily work of skeletal radiologists. This article describes the correlation of pathology and radiology in cartilage-forming skeletal tumors, in particular, enchondroma, osteochondroma, periosteal chondromas, chondroblastoma and various forms of chondrosarcoma. After reading, the radiologist should be able to deduce the different patterns of cartilage tumors on radiographs, CT, and MRI from the pathological aspects. Differentiation of enchondroma and chondrosarcoma is a frequent diagnostic challenge. Some imaging parameters, e. g., deep cortical scalloping (more than two thirds of the cortical thickness), cortical destruction, or a soft-tissue mass, are features of a sarcoma. Osteochondromas are bony protrusions with a continuous extension of bone marrow from the parent bone, the host cortical bone runs continuously from the osseous surface of the tumor into the shaft of the osteochondroma and the osteochondroma has a cartilage cap. Chondromyxoid fibromas are well-defined lytic and eccentric lesions of the metaphysis of the long bones, with nonspecific MRI findings. Chondroblastomas have a strong predilection for the epiphysis of long tubular bones and develop an intense perifocal bone marrow edema. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas are bimorphic lesions with a low-grade chondrogenic component and a high-grade noncartilaginous component. Most chondrogenic tumors have a predilection with regard to site and age at manifestation. PMID:27233920

  4. Virtual microscopy in pathology education.

    PubMed

    Dee, Fred R

    2009-08-01

    Technology for acquisition of virtual slides was developed in 1985; however, it was not until the late 1990s that desktop computers had enough processing speed to commercialize virtual microscopy and apply the technology to education. By 2000, the progressive decrease in use of traditional microscopy in medical student education had set the stage for the entry of virtual microscopy into medical schools. Since that time, it has been successfully implemented into many pathology courses in the United States and around the world, with surveys indicating that about 50% of pathology courses already have or expect to implement virtual microscopy. Over the last decade, in addition to an increasing ability to emulate traditional microscopy, virtual microscopy has allowed educators to take advantage of the accessibility, efficiency, and pedagogic versatility of the computer and the Internet. The cost of virtual microscopy in education is now quite reasonable after taking into account replacement cost for microscopes, maintenance of glass slides, and the fact that 1-dimensional microscope space can be converted to multiuse computer laboratories or research. Although the current technology for implementation of virtual microscopy in histopathology education is very good, it could be further improved upon by better low-power screen resolution and depth of field. Nevertheless, virtual microscopy is beginning to play an increasing role in continuing education, house staff education, and evaluation of competency in histopathology. As Z-axis viewing (focusing) becomes more efficient, virtual microscopy will also become integrated into education in cytology, hematology, microbiology, and urinalysis.

  5. The evolution of anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Stanley; Coffman, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Science advances both by conceptual leaps and by improved observational and analytic tools. Mechanism and function in biological systems can best be understood in the context of the complex microenvironments in which they occur, and for this purpose morphologic analysis can be critical. Technological advances in cell and tissue imaging are currently finding application in a wide variety of basic, translational, and clinical biomedical studies. "Biophotonics in Pathology" was designed as a multi-authored work to describe the various kinds of imaging strategies that have been developed as computational power keeps increasing. Some of these overlap with radiologic techniques and others do not. The field is continuously evolving, and in this commentary I will touch on additional techniques for morphology-based interrogation of cells and tissues that have recently been described. However, it is important to note that though we are expanding our armamentarium as pathologists, our radiological colleagues have been doing this for many years. Clearly, they have embraced new imaging techniques to a greater extent than have pathologists. This commentary discusses some of the factors responsible for this, and suggests that pathology and radiology are converging towards a more holistic approach to diagnostic imaging.

  6. Dental radiology and oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Halstead, C L; Hoard, B C

    1991-01-01

    This article represents an overview of normal and pathological findings of the oral structures for the practicing radiologist. Some of the disease processes discussed are of dental etiology, whereas others are manifestations of systemic diseases. Normal tooth development is described followed by an overview of radiolucent, radiopaque, and mixed lucent-opaque lesions. In the radiolucent category, normal anatomical landmarks of the jaws include the mental foramen, manidbular canal, incisive canal and maxillary sinuses. Other lucencies that represent normal structures or variations include developing tooth buds and root apices, healing dental extraction sites, prominent submandibular fossae and nutrient canals. In the radiopaque category, normal anatomical landmarks of the jaws include the genial tubercle, mental ridge, external oblique ridge, walls of the submandibular canal, walls of the maxillary sinus, nasal septum, stylohyoid ligament, and zygomatic process. Other opacities that represent normal structures or variations include dental restoration material, dental endodontic material, retained roots, sialoliths, salivary duct calculi, calcified lymph nodes, recent extraction sites, hypercementosis, and foreign bodies. Pathological entities which present radiographically as lucencies, opacities, and mixed lucent-opaque areas include inflammatory lesions, cysts, fibro-osseous disease, benign neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and lesions secondary to metabolic disorders.

  7. ILO/KRIVET National Tripartite Workshop: Workplace Learning in a Globalizing World [Proceedings] (Seoul, South Korea, November 29-30, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korea Research Inst. for Vocational Education and Training, Seoul.

    This document contains the following five papers, all in both English and Korean, from a workshop on on-the-job training held in Korea in 2001: "Issues in Knowledge and Skills Development: Globalization and the Effective Use of New Technologies" (S. Ian Cummings); "The Knowledge Economy and Vocational Training Policy in Korea" (Chul-Gyun Jung); "A…

  8. Correlation between bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and real-time measurable environmental items: A case study from KORUS-AQ pre-campaign in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Due to global climate change, bioaerosols are more globally mixed with a more random manner. During a long-distance traveling dust event, the number of microbes significantly increases in bioaerosol, and the chance for bioaerosol to contain human pathogenic microorganisms may also increase. Recently, we have found that bioaerosol microbial community characteristics (copy number of total bacterial 16S rRNA genes, and population diversity and composition) are correlated with the quantitative detection of potential human pathogens. However, bioaerosol microbial community characteristics cannot be directly used in real-time monitoring because the DNA-based detection method requires at least couple days or a week to get reliable data. To circumvent this problem, a correlation of microbial community characteristics with real-time measurable environmental items (PM10, PM2.5, temperature, humidity, NOx, O3 etc.), if any, will be useful in frequent assessment of microbial risk from available real-time measured environmental data. In this work, we monitored bioaerosol microbial communities using a high-throughput DNA sequencing method (Mi-seq) during the KORUS-AQ (KoreaUS-Air Quality) pre-campaign (May to June, 2015) in Seoul, and investigated whether any correlation exists between the bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and the real-time measureable environmental items simultaneously attained during the pre-campaign period. At the pre-campaign site (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul), bioaerosol samples were collected using high volume air sampler, and their 16S rRNA gene based bacterial communities were analyzed by Miseq sequencing and bioinformatics. Simultaneously, atmosphere environmental items were monitored at the same site. Using Decision Tree, a non-linear multi-variant correlation was observed between the bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and the real-time measured atmosphere chemistry data, and a rule induction was developed

  9. Time-course monitoring of urban bioaerosol bacterial communities and its use in microbial hazard identification during Asian Dust events in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    The microbial communities transported by Asian dust events have attracted much attention as bioaerosols because the transported airborne microbes may strongly influence the downwind ecosystems and potentially human health in East Asia. Bioaerosol study has received relatively little attention and their characterization and risk assessments remain poorly developed. We used high throughput 16S rRNA gene targeted pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to monitor airborne bacterial communities and assess their potential risk. We monitored microbial communities in bioaerosol in Seoul between 2011 and 2013 using high volume air samplers. Six samples were collected during Asian dust (AD) events and the other 34 samples were urban air collected during non-Asian dust (non-AD) events. According to the qPCR result, the gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes were significantly higher during the AD events (P < 0.05) and their abundances were positively correlated with PM10 concentrations and bacterial diversities. The most abundant bacterial members (genus level) in the AD samples were Bacillus, Neisseria and E.coli/Shigella. To identify pathogenic populations, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and virulence tests were applied using culture methods. 16S rRNA gene sequences of several pathogens were detected and their relative abundances appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM10. About 1% of Bacillus isolates were identified as known pathogenic B. cereus, confirming their presence in Asian dust samples. The qPCR detection of bceT gene, which codes for an enterotoxin in B. cereus group, was significantly increased in the AD dust samples over the non-AD samples. The following MLST assessment and virulence test of cultivated Bacillus isolates showed that B. cereus, B. licheniformis and B. mycoides were identified as pathogenic bacteria, and these pathogenic bacteria were usually more abundant during AD events. To assess the possible associations of

  10. Asian dust event observed in Seoul, Korea, during 29-31 May 2008: analysis of transport and vertical distribution of dust particles from lidar and surface measurements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Yoon, Soon-Chang; Kim, Jiyoung; Kang, Jung-Yoon; Sugimoto, Nobuo

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the transport of dust particles, its vertical distribution, and the associated meteorological conditions during an Asian dust event that was observed in Seoul, Korea on May 29-31, 2008. This study analyzes data from ground-based and space-borne 2-wavelength polarization lidars, particulate mass concentrations, and synoptic weather data. Surface meteorological station observations of dust phenomena, dust transport model, and weather maps consistently show that the dust particles were transported from the source regions (Inner Mongolia, Man-Ju, and Ordos areas) to Korea via the northeastern part of China. Network observations of the PM(10) concentrations in Korea revealed that a majority of the heavy dust particles traveled across South Korea from the northwest to the southeast direction with a horizontal scale of 250-300km and a traveling speed of approximately 40kmh(-1). This extraordinary dust event, in terms of its intensity and timing during the year, occurred due to the blockage of an unusually intensified low-pressure system in the northeastern part of China as well as high-pressure system centered over the Sea of Okhotsk and the Kuril Islands. The low values of the particle depolarization ratio (delta(532)) (Seoul (delta(532) approximately 0.136+/-0.027). The value of delta(532) during the 2nd multilayered dust episode ranged between 0.081 and 0.120 for near-surface dust layers, and between 0.076 and 0.114 for elevated dust layers. The CALIPSO measurements of beta(532), delta(532), and CR also revealed the presence of dense dust

  11. The Neuropsychopharmacology of Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Kourosh; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder with prevalence estimates in the range of 0.2–2% in the general population. PG can significantly impact one’s ability to function as it may negatively influence social, financial, and occupational aspects of life. Historically, PG has received relatively little attention from researchers and clinicians, and few treatments, particularly pharmacological, have been both validated and widely employed. Given the clinical relevance of PG, it is important that researchers examine pharmacological and behavioral treatments for their safety and efficacy and that clinicians use empirically validated therapies. Multiple neurochemicals, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and opioids, and related neurocircuitry, particularly ventral cortico-striatal pathways, have been implicated in PG. The neurobiological rationale for therapies, particularly pharmacological ones, is reviewed with a perspective on the generation of improved prevention and treatment strategies for PG. PMID:24288522

  12. Pathology of growth hormone excess.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, K

    1988-09-01

    This paper briefly reviews the pathology of growth hormone excess. Prolonged oversecretion of growth hormone is associated with elevated serum growth hormone as well as somatomedian C levels and the clinical signs and symptoms of acromegaly or gigantism. Morphologic studies, including immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, revealed that several distinct morphologic lesions can be present in the pituitary gland of patients with acromegaly or gigantism. Although substantial progress has been achieved during the last two decades, more work is required to correlate the morphologic features of adenoma cells with their biologic behavior. We feel that the future can be viewed with optimism and further exciting results can be expected by the interaction of pathologists, clinical endocrinologists and basic scientists. PMID:3070506

  13. Molecular pathology in real time.

    PubMed

    Ryška, Aleš

    2016-03-01

    With the development of sophisticated individualized therapeutic approaches, the role of pathology in classification of tumors is enormously increasing. The solely morphological characterization of neoplastic process is no more sufficient for qualified decision on optimal therapeutic approach. Thus, morphologic diagnosis must be supplemented by molecular analysis of the lesion with emphasis on the detection of status of certain markers used as predictive factors for targeted therapy. Both intrinsic and acquired types of intratumor heterogeneity have an impact at various moments of cancer diagnostics and therapy. The primary heterogeneity of neoplastic tissue represents a significant problem in patients, where only limited biopsy samples from the primary tumor are available for diagnosis, such as core needle biopsy specimens in breast cancer, transthoracic or endobronchial biopsies in lung cancer, or endoscopic biopsies in gastric cancer. Detection of predictive markers may be influenced by this heterogeneity, and the marker detection may be falsely negative or (less probably) falsely positive. In addition, as these markers are often detected in the tissue samples from primary tumor, the differences between molecular features of the primary lesion and its metastases may be responsible for failure of systemic therapy in patients with discordant phenotype between primary and metastatic disease. The fact of tumor heterogeneity must be taken into consideration already in establishing pathological diagnosis. One has to be aware that limited biopsy specimen must not always be fully representative of the entire tumor volume. To overcome these limitations, there does not exist one single simple solution. Examination of more tissue (preference of surgical resection specimens over biopsies, whenever possible), use of ultra-sensitive methods able to identify the minute subclones as a source of possible resistance to treatment, and detection of secondary molecular events from

  14. Determination of toxic congeners of 17 PCDDs/PCDFs and 12 dl-PCBs using polyurethane foam passive air samplers in ten cities around Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yoonki, Min; Jongwon, Heo; Meehye, Lee

    2014-09-01

    Twenty-nine toxic congeners including 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were determined using passive air samplers (PAS) at ten satellite cities of Seoul for two years. Chemical analysis was done by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The ten monitoring sites represent urban-residential, industrial, urban-rural mixed, and rural types of regions in Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. The concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs ranged from 0.59 pg·day(-1) to 29.7 pg·day(-1) and from 3.44 pg·day(-1) to 99.7 pg·day(-1), respectively with the highest values at industrial areas. The relative abundance of more toxic congeners (tetra- and penta-chlorinated PCDDs/PCDFs) was the highest in urban-rural mixed group despite the less emission sources than industrial group. It implies that this group was under the influence of fugitive emissions that have not yet been identified or regulated. This study reports the first attempt of atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs and dl-PCB measurements with PAS in the monitoring network of Korea, which highlights the efficacy of PAS in continuous and long-term monitoring of those species particularly at regions that could easily slip out of environmental governance or of low accessibility to monitoring.

  15. A multivariate study for characterizing particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) in Seoul metropolitan subway stations, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Jeong, Wootae; Park, Duckshin; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2015-10-30

    Given that around eight million commuters use the Seoul Metropolitan Subway (SMS) each day, the indoor air quality (IAQ) of its stations has attracted much public attention. We have monitored the concentration of particulate matters (PMx) (i.e., PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) in six major transfer stations per minute for three weeks during the summer, autumn, and winter in 2014 and 2015. The data were analyzed to investigate the relationship between PMx concentration and multivariate environmental factors using statistical methods. The average PM concentration observed was approximately two or three times higher than outdoor PM10 concentration, showing similar temporal patterns at concourses and platforms. This implies that outdoor PM10 is the most significant factor in controlling indoor PM concentration. In addition, the station depth and number of trains passing through stations were found to be additional influences on PMx. Principal component analysis (PCA) and self-organizing map (SOM) were employed, through which we found that the number of trains influences PM concentration in the vicinity of platforms only, and PMx hotspots were determined. This study identifies the external and internal factors affecting PMx characteristics in six SMS stations, which can assist in the development of effective IAQ management plans to improve public health.

  16. Development of a speciated, hourly, and gridded air pollutants emission modeling system--a case study on the precursors of photochemical smog in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, D Y; Kim, J W

    2000-03-01

    A speciated, hourly, and gridded air pollutants emission modeling system (SHEMS) was developed and applied in predicting hourly nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) levels in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). The primary goal of the SHEMS was to produce a systemized emission inventory for air pollutants including ozone precursors for modeling air quality in urban areas. The SHEMS is principally composed of three parts: (1) a pre-processor to process emission factors, activity levels, and spatial and temporal information using a geographical information system; (2) an emission model for each source type; and (3) a post-processor to produce report and input data for air quality models through database modeling. The source categories in SHEMS are point, area, mobile, natural, and other sources such as fugitive emissions. The emission database produced by SHEMS contains 22 inventoried compounds: sulfur dioxide, NO2, carbon monoxide, and 19 speciated volatile organic compounds. To validate SHEMS, the emission data were tested with the Urban Airshed Model to predict NO2 and O3 concentrations in the SMA during selected episode days in 1994. The results turned out to be reliable in describing temporal variation and spatial distribution of those pollutants.

  17. Association between Maternal Characteristics and Neonatal Birth Weight in a Korean Population Living in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea: A Birth Cohort Study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kim, Kyung Won; Yu, Jinho; Ahn, Kang Mo; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that maternal characteristics may be associated with neonatal outcomes. However, the influence of maternal characteristics on birth weight (BW) has not been adequately determined in Korean populations. We investigated associations between maternal characteristics and BW in a sample of 813 Korean women living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea recruited using data from the prospective hospital-based COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) between 2007 and 2011. The mean maternal age at delivery was 32.3 ± 3.5 yr and prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) was 20.7 ± 2.5 kg/m2. The mean BW of infant was 3,196 ± 406 g. The overall prevalence of a maternal history of allergic disease was 32.9% and the overall prevalence of allergic symptoms was 65.1%. In multivariate regression models, prepregnancy maternal BMI and gestational age at delivery were positively and a maternal history of allergic disease and nulliparity were negatively associated with BW (all P < 0.05). Presence of allergic symptoms in the mother was not associated with BW. In conclusion, prepregnancy maternal BMI, gestational age at delivery, a maternal history of allergic disease, and nulliparity may be associated with BW, respectively. PMID:23579316

  18. A waterborne outbreak and detection of cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water of an older high-rise apartment complex in seoul.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-Joo; Yang, Jin-Young; Lee, Eun-Sook; Kim, Se-Chul; Cha, So-Yang; Kim, Sung-Tek; Lee, Man-Ho; Han, Sun-Hee; Park, Young-Sang

    2013-08-01

    From May to June 2012, a waterborne outbreak of 124 cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred in the plumbing systems of an older high-rise apartment complex in Seoul, Republic of Korea. The residents of this apartment complex had symptoms of watery diarrhea and vomiting. Tap water samples in the apartment complex and its adjacent buildings were collected and tested for 57 parameters under the Korean Drinking Water Standards and for additional 11 microbiological parameters. The microbiological parameters included total colony counts, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus, fecal streptococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts, total culturable viruses, and Norovirus. While the tap water samples of the adjacent buildings complied with the Korean Drinking Water Standards for all parameters, fecal bacteria and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the tap water samples of the outbreak apartment complex. It turned out that the agent of the disease was Cryptosporidium parvum. The drinking water was polluted with sewage from a septic tank in the apartment complex. To remove C. parvum oocysts, we conducted physical processes of cleaning the water storage tanks, flushing the indoor pipes, and replacing old pipes with new ones. Finally we restored the clean drinking water to the apartment complex after identification of no oocysts.

  19. [Pathology in Russia: where are we going?].

    PubMed

    Permiakov, N K

    1998-01-01

    The history of Russian pathologic anatomy from the postwar time to nowadays is briefly reviewed. Negative effects of some legislative acts of the all levels of public health, profound financial crisis are shown. Particularly negative were consequences of a narrow specialization of medicine which affected also pathologic anatomy. Insufficient classical education that includes theoretical and prosecutor training of the general profile results in the fall of interest to general pathology this having a negative effect on the prestige of this profession. PMID:9582980

  20. The practice of pathology in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kaschula, Ronald Otto Christian

    2013-06-01

    In attempting to advance the health of women and children in Africa, practitioners should be cognizant of the history of health care delivery in the continent and the nature of the existing systems. Although autopsies began in Africa several millennia ago, traditional healers have held sway for many centuries and continue to do so for most of Africa's people. The role of laboratory medicine in advancing modern health care has been impeded by its ever-increasing high cost, lack of confidence in the system, lack of adequately trained personnel, and inadequate provision of facilities and training opportunities. This is partly caused by the continent having the highest proportion of young children in the world, an exceptionally heavy disease burden, and a low proportion of tax payers. For laboratory medicine to have its intended effect in making accurate diagnoses, national, minimal standards for certification and practice should be formulated. There should be periodic inspections, rewards for excellence, and opportunities for professional development. It is recommended that laboratory medicine be practiced in a 4-tier system, with the highest in teaching hospitals, and the lowest in primary health care clinics. For the practice of anatomic pathology to advance, an effective referral system and an equitable minimal and maximal workload for each pathologist are needed. The changing dynamics of urbanization, with massive unemployment rates, unhealthy life styles, and the continued role of traditional healers calls for gifted leaders to come to the fore and facilitate internal and external cooperation with diverse health care agencies. PMID:23721269

  1. Certification in molecular pathology in the United States: an update from the Association for Molecular Pathology Training and Education Committee.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, Alexander C; Wang, Y Lynn; Sahota, Amrik; Yeung, Cecilia C; Weck, Karen E

    2012-11-01

    The past 25 years have witnessed the field of molecular pathology evolving from an imprecisely defined discipline to a firmly established medical subspecialty that plays an essential role in patient care. During this time, the training, certification, and licensure requirements for directing and performing testing in a molecular pathology or molecular diagnostics laboratory have become better defined. The purpose of this document is to describe the various board certifications available to individuals seeking certification in molecular diagnostics at the level of laboratory director, supervisor, or technologist. Several national organizations offer certification in molecular pathology or molecular diagnostics for doctoral-level clinical scientists to function as the director of a molecular diagnostics laboratory. Furthermore, 12 states and Puerto Rico require licensing of medical technologists, including those working in molecular diagnostic laboratories. The information provided here updates a 2002 document by the Training and Education Committee of the Association for Molecular Pathology and has been expanded to include certification and licensing requirements for laboratory technologists.

  2. A history of pituitary pathology.

    PubMed

    Asa, Sylvia L; Mete, Ozgur

    2014-03-01

    The history of pituitary pathology is a long one that dates back to biblical times, but the last 25 years have represented an era of "coming of age." The role of the pituitary in health and disease was the subject of many studies over the last century. With the development of electron microscopy, immunoassays, and immunohistochemistry, the functional alterations associated with pituitary disease have been clarified. The additional information provided by molecular genetic studies has allowed progress in understanding the pathogenesis of pituitary disorders. Nevertheless, many questions remain to be answered. For example, pathologists cannot morphologically distinguish locally aggressive adenomas from carcinomas when tumor is confined to the sella. Sadly, basal cell carcinoma, the most common carcinoma of skin, usually causes less morbidity than pituitary adenomas, which occur in almost 20 % of the general population, can cause significant illness and even death, and yet are still classified as benign. The opportunity to increase awareness of the impact of these common lesions on quality of life is the current challenge for physicians and patients. We anticipate that ongoing multidisciplinary approaches to pituitary disease research will offer new insights into diseases arising from this fascinating organ.

  3. Transgenerational inheritance of stress pathology.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Stephen G; Phillips, David I

    2012-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that maternal exposure to adversity during pregnancy leads to life-long effects in offspring. While there appears to be some commonality in the effects of maternal stress on endocrine and behavioral outcomes in the first generation offspring, it is clear that effects are highly dependent on species, sex and age, as well as on the time in pregnancy when stress is experienced. Recent studies have identified that the effects of maternal stress are not confined to the first generation and that they can extend over multiple generations. These effects are also evident in humans. While our understanding of the potential mechanisms by which transgenerational programming of the stress response occurs remain largely undetermined, recent studies have begun to identify potential mechanisms of transfer. These include modified maternal adaptations to pregnancy, altered maternal behavior and transgenerational epigenetic programming. Such transgenerational programming of stress responses and pathologies has important societal consequences as it could provide a biological explanation for the generational persistence of human behaviors in populations exposed to adversity.

  4. Pathological Gambling: Neuropsychopharmacology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Scott A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) affects about 0.2–2% of adults and the impact extends to family members, employers and society as a whole. Recent research has identified similarities in the pathophysiologies of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs). As such, findings regarding SUDs provide a framework for investigating PG. The aims of the manuscript are two-fold. First, we will briefly revivew neural systems implicated in PG. Cortico-limbic circuitry involving the ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are discussed as are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioids, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This background will provide a framework for reviewing the psychopharmacological treatments that have been tested for efficacy and safety in treating PG. Of medications, the strongest data suggest the efficacy and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of PG, and other agents have varying degree of empirical support. As behavioral therapies have also shown efficacy, they will be briefly considered as well. Future research is needed to understand how treatments work in PG and for whom specific treatments might work best. PMID:24349964

  5. Practical pathology of aging mice.

    PubMed

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  6. [Pathological diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Jun-ichi

    2014-03-01

    This lymphoma was recognized by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. In 1865, Samuel Wilks named it Hodgkin disease. Now, the term Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is acceptable over Hodgkin disease. Since the neoplastic cells of the disease is well-recognized to be a lymphoid cell, especially B lymphocyte. In WHO classification published in 2008, HLs are divided into two entities: Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte predominat HL. The former is composed of four different subtypes: nodular sclerosis (NS), mixed cellularity (MC), lymphocyte rich (LR), and lymphocyte depletion (LD). HL is characterized by the morphological feature comprising a minority of neoplastic cells, Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells and popcorn (LP) cells and a majority of non-neoplastic reactive cells. Antigen receptor gene analyses by prevailing molecular methods and flow cytometry are not appropriate method for the diagnosis of HL, because of small number of neoplastic cells. They are, however, very useful in the differential diagnosis to rule out other lymphomas. Even the present when science progressed, pathological (morphological and immunohistochemical) examination is very worth for diagnosis of HL. PMID:24724402

  7. Bone Remodeling Under Pathological Conditions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenmei; Li, Shuai; Pacios, Sandra; Wang, Yu; Graves, Dana T

    2016-01-01

    Bone is masterfully programmed to repair itself through the coupling of bone formation following bone resorption, a process referred to as coupling. In inflammatory or other conditions, the balance between bone resorption and bone formation shifts so that a net bone loss results. This review focuses on four pathologic conditions in which remodeling leads to net loss of bone, postmenopausal osteoporosis, arthritis, periodontal disease, and disuse bone loss, which is similar to bone loss associated with microgravity. In most of these there is an acceleration of the resorptive process due to increased formation of bone metabolic units. This initially leads to a net bone loss since the time period of resorption is much faster than the time needed for bone formation that follows. In addition, each of these processes is characterized by an uncoupling that leads to net bone loss. Mechanisms responsible for increased rates of bone resorption, i.e. the formation of more bone metabolic units, involve enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines and increased expression of RANKL. Moreover, the reasons for uncoupling are discussed which range from a decrease in expression of growth factors and bone morphogenetic proteins to increased expression of factors that inhibit Wnt signaling. PMID:26599114

  8. Pathologizing sexual deviance: a history.

    PubMed

    De Block, Andreas; Adriaens, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a historical perspective on how both American and European psychiatrists have conceptualized and categorized sexual deviance throughout the past 150 years. During this time, quite a number of sexual preferences, desires, and behaviors have been pathologized and depathologized at will, thus revealing psychiatry's constant struggle to distinguish mental disorder--in other words, the "perversions," "sexual deviations," or "paraphilias"--from immoral, unethical, or illegal behavior. This struggle is apparent in the works of 19th- and early-20th-century psychiatrists and sexologists, but it is also present in the more recent psychiatric textbooks and diagnostic manuals, such as the consecutive editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). While much of the historical literature revolves around the controversy over homosexuality, this article also reviews the recent medicohistorical and sociohistorical work on other forms of sexual deviance, including the diagnostic categories listed in the latest edition, the DSM-IV-TR: exhibitionism, voyeurism, fetishism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, and transvestic fetishism. PMID:23480073

  9. Hodgkin lymphoma: Pathology and biology.

    PubMed

    Mathas, Stephan; Hartmann, Sylvia; Küppers, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    The Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) tumor cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), as well as the lymphocyte predominant (LP) cells of nodular lymphocyte predominant HL (NLPHL), are derived from mature B cells. However, HRS cells have largely lost their B-cell phenotype and show a very unusual expression of many markers of other hematopoietic cell lineages, which aids in the differential diagnosis between classical HL (cHL) and NLPHL and distinguishes cHL from all other hematopoietic malignancies. The bi- or multinucleated Reed-Sternberg cells most likely derive from the mononuclear Hodgkin cells through a process of incomplete cytokinesis. HRS cells show a deregulated activation of numerous signaling pathways, which is partly mediated by cellular interactions in the lymphoma microenvironment and partly by genetic lesions. In a fraction of cases, Epstein-Barr virus contributes to the pathogenesis of cHL. Recurrent genetic lesions in HRS cells identified so far often involve members of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and JAK/STAT pathways and genes involved in major histocompatibility complex expression. However, further lead transforming events likely remain to be identified. We here discuss the current knowledge on HL pathology and biology. PMID:27496304

  10. Practical pathology of aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M.

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  11. Pathology effects at radiation doses below those causing increased mortality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, Bruce A.; Gavrilova, Natalia; Grahn, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Mortality data from experiments conducted at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on the long-term effects of external whole-body irradiation on B6CF(1) mice were used to investigate radiation-induced effects at intermediate doses of (60)Co gamma rays or fission-spectrum neutrons either delivered as a single exposure or protracted over 60 once-weekly exposures. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to identify the lowest dose in the ANL data (within radiation quality, pattern of exposure, and sex) at which radiation-induced mortality caused by primary tumors could be detected (approximately 1-2 Gy for gamma rays and 10-15 cGy for neutrons). Doses at and below these levels were then examined for radiation-induced shifts in the spectrum of pathology detected at death. To do this, specific pathology events were pooled into larger assemblages based on whether they were cancer, cardiovascular disease or non-neoplastic diseases detected within the lungs and pleura, liver and biliary tract, reproductive organs, or urinary tract. Cancer and cardiovascular disease were further subdivided into categories based on whether they caused death, contributed to death, or were simply observed at death. Counts of how often events falling within each of these combined pathology categories occurred within a mouse were then used as predictor variables in logistic regression to determine whether irradiated mice could be distinguished from control mice. Increased pathology burdens were detected in irradiated mice at doses lower than those causing detectable shifts in mortality-22 cGy for gamma rays and 2 cGy for neutrons. These findings suggest that (1) models based on mortality data alone may underestimate radiation effects, (2) radiation may have adverse health consequences (i.e. elevated health risks) even when mortality risks are not detected, and (3) radiation-induced pathologies other than cancer do occur, and they involve multiple organ systems.

  12. The Family Functioning of Female Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

    2009-01-01

    The available evidence suggests that pathological gambling significantly disrupts family relationships and has a substantial impact on family members. However, these conclusions are based almost exclusively on male pathological gamblers and their female spouses or partners. The current study, which was a secondary study derived from a treatment…

  13. Pathological Gambling and Related Problems among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Robert; Boudreault, Normand; Jacques, Christian; Vitaro, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates the prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among 3,426 students in junior and senior high schools in Quebec City. Results indicate that 77% have gambled in the last twelve months and 13% gamble at least once a week. Results also reveal that pathological gambling is associated with drug and alcohol use, poor grades, and…

  14. [Computer technologies in teaching pathological anatomy].

    PubMed

    Ponomarev, A B; Fedorov, D N

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives experience with personal computers used at the Academician A.L. Strukov Department of Pathological Anatomy for more than 20 years. It shows the objective necessity of introducing computer technologies at all stages of acquiring skills in anatomical pathology, including lectures, students' free work, test check, etc.

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…

  16. Diagnosis and pathology of endocrine diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Shriver, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands.

  17. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Performing Tests of Moderate Complexity (including the Subcategory), High Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  18. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Performing Tests of Moderate Complexity (including the Subcategory), High Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  19. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  20. Advances in salivary gland pathology.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, W; Chan, J K C

    2007-07-01

    This review summarizes the new findings on salivary gland pathology under the following categories: immunohistochemistry; molecular genetics; newly recognized tumour types; known tumour entities with new findings; and progression of salivary gland tumours. In the application of immunohistochemistry, CD117 can aid in highlighting the luminal cell component of various salivary gland tumours, whereas p63 or maspin can aid in highlighting the abluminal cell component. A high Ki67 index remains the most useful marker to predict adverse outcome in salivary gland carcinoma. Specific chromosomal translocations are recognized in pleomorphic adenoma (with translocation involving PLGA1 or HMGA2 gene) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (with MECT1-MAML2 gene fusion). Newly recognized entities include: sclerosing polycystic adenosis (with recent molecular evidence supporting its neoplastic nature), sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia, keratocystoma, adenoma with additional stromal component (lymphadenoma, lipoadenoma and adenofibroma), cribriform adenocarcinoma of the tongue and signet ring adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland. Known tumour entities with new findings include: salivary duct carcinoma (with newly recognized mucinous, micropapillary and sarcomatoid variants), intraductal carcinoma (with controversies in terminology), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (with newly proposed grading parameters and oncocytic variant), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (with newly recognized morphological variants), small cell carcinoma (with most cases being related to Merkel cell carcinoma), extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (with specific chromosomal translocation) and chronic sclerosing sialadenitis (being a component of IgG4-related sclerosing disease). Progression of salivary gland tumours can take the form of malignant transformation of a benign tumour, progression from low-grade to high-grade carcinoma, dedifferentiation, or stromal invasion of an in situ carcinoma.

  1. Analysis of Parasitic Diseases Diagnosed by Tissue Biopsy Specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (1984-2005) in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jong-Phil; Jiang, Meihua; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Bum-Shik; Kim, Deog-Gon; Park, Yong-Koo

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (KMC) from 1984 to 2005. The total number of parasite infection cases was 150 (0.07%) out of the total 211,859 biopsy specimens submitted for histopathological examinations. They consisted of 62 cysticercosis, 23 sparganosis, 16 paragonimiasis, 15 amebiasis, 11 anisakiasis, 11 clonorchiasis, 3 ascariasis, 2 scabies, 2 enterobiasis, 2 trichuriasis, 1 leishmaniasis, 1 taeniasis, and 1 thelaziasis. Out of 62 cysticercosis cases, 55 were detected in subcutaneous tissues or the central nerve system. Eighteen out of 23 sparganosis cases were involved in muscular and subcutaneous tissues. In most anisakiasis cases, the involved organ was the stomach. The lung and the pleura were the most common site of paragonimiasis. The incidence of parasitic diseases during the first 5 years (1984-1988) was the highest of all observed periods. After 1989, similar incidences were shown throughout the period. Whereas cysticercosis was diagnosed in 34 cases during 1984-1988, no case has been diagnosed since 2000. In the case of sparganosis, the chronological incidence was almost uniform throughout the period 1984-2005. Paragonimiasis showed a similar tendency to cysticercosis. In gender and age distribution of parasitic diseases, men showed higher incidence rates than females, and the age groups of the 40s or older indicated higher infection frequencies than other age groups. Therefore, these results are a significant report to appear the tendency of human parasitic disease diagnosed by tissue biopsy in association with parasitosis at KMC in Seoul. PMID:20333293

  2. Analysis of parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (1984-2005) in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Hyung; Chu, Jong-Phil; Jiang, Meihua; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Bum-Shik; Kim, Deog-Gon; Park, Yong-Koo

    2010-03-01

    We analyzed parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (KMC) from 1984 to 2005. The total number of parasite infection cases was 150 (0.07%) out of the total 211,859 biopsy specimens submitted for histopathological examinations. They consisted of 62 cysticercosis, 23 sparganosis, 16 paragonimiasis, 15 amebiasis, 11 anisakiasis, 11 clonorchiasis, 3 ascariasis, 2 scabies, 2 enterobiasis, 2 trichuriasis, 1 leishmaniasis, 1 taeniasis, and 1 thelaziasis. Out of 62 cysticercosis cases, 55 were detected in subcutaneous tissues or the central nerve system. Eighteen out of 23 sparganosis cases were involved in muscular and subcutaneous tissues. In most anisakiasis cases, the involved organ was the stomach. The lung and the pleura were the most common site of paragonimiasis. The incidence of parasitic diseases during the first 5 years (1984-1988) was the highest of all observed periods. After 1989, similar incidences were shown throughout the period. Whereas cysticercosis was diagnosed in 34 cases during 1984-1988, no case has been diagnosed since 2000. In the case of sparganosis, the chronological incidence was almost uniform throughout the period 1984-2005. Paragonimiasis showed a similar tendency to cysticercosis. In gender and age distribution of parasitic diseases, men showed higher incidence rates than females, and the age groups of the 40s or older indicated higher infection frequencies than other age groups. Therefore, these results are a significant report to appear the tendency of human parasitic disease diagnosed by tissue biopsy in association with parasitosis at KMC in Seoul.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii B1 Gene Detection in Feces of Stray Cats around Seoul, Korea and Genotype Analysis of Two Laboratory-Passaged Isolates.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lim, Hyemi; Cho, Jaeeun; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Song, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2015-06-01

    The increasing prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the human population in the Republic of Korea (= Korea) is due to various reasons such as an increase in meat consumption. However, the importance of cats in transmitting T. gondii infection through oocysts to humans has seldom been assessed. A total of 300 fecal samples of stray cats captured around Seoul from June to August 2013 were examined for T. gondii B1 gene (indicating the presence of oocysts) using nested-PCR. Fourteen (4.7%) of 300 cats examined were positive for B1 gene. Female cats (7.5%) showed a higher prevalence than male cats (1.4%). Cats younger than 3 months (5.5%) showed a higher prevalence than cats (1.5%) older than 3 months. For laboratory passage of the positive samples, the fecal suspension (0.2 ml) of B1 gene positive cats was orally inoculated into experimental mice. Brain tissues of the mice were obtained after 40 days and examined for the presence of tissue cysts. Two isolates were successfully passaged (designated KNIH-1 and KNIH-2) and were molecularly analyzed using the SAG5D and SAG5E gene sequences. The SAG5D and SAG5E gene sequences showed high homologies with the ME49 strain (less virulent strain). The results indicated the importance of stray cats in transmitting T. gondii to humans in Korea, as revealed by detection of B1 gene in fecal samples. T. gondii isolates from cats were successfully passaged in the laboratory for the first time in Korea.

  4. Infections by Leptospira interrogans, Seoul virus, and Bartonella spp. among Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the urban slum environment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Porter, Fleur Helena; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; de Faria, Marcus Tucunduva; Wunder, Elsio A; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Kosoy, Michael Y; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E

    2014-01-01

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Studies evaluating the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in tropical Norway rat populations are rare, and data on co-infection with multiple pathogens are nonexistent. Herein, we describe the prevalence of leptospiral carriage, Seoul virus (SEOV), and Bartonella spp. infection independently, in addition to the rates of co-infection among urban, slum-dwelling Norway rats in Salvador, Brazil, trapped during the rainy season from June to August of 2010. These data were complemented with previously unpublished Leptospira and SEOV prevalence information collected in 1998. Immunofluorescence staining of kidney impressions was used to identify Leptospira interrogans in 2010, whereas isolation was used in 1998, and western blotting was used to detect SEOV antibodies in 2010, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in 1998: in 2010, Bartonella spp. were isolated from a subsample of rats. The most common pathogen in both years was Leptospira spp. (83%, n=142 in 1998, 63%, n=84 in 2010). SEOV was detected in 18% of individuals in both 1998 and 2010 (n=78 in 1998; n=73 in 2010), and two species of Bartonella were isolated from 5 of 26 rats (19%) tested in 2010. The prevalence of all agents increased significantly with rat mass/age. Acquisition of Leptospira spp. occurred at a younger mass/age than SEOV and Bartonella spp. infection, suggesting differences in the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. These data indicate that Norway rats in Salvador serve as reservoir hosts for all three of these zoonotic pathogens and that the high prevalence of leptospiral carriage in Salvador rats poses a high degree of risk to human health.

  5. Seoul virus-infected rat lung endothelial cells and alveolar macrophages differ in their ability to support virus replication and induce regulatory T cell phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Klein, Sabra L

    2012-11-01

    Hantaviruses cause a persistent infection in reservoir hosts that is attributed to the upregulation of regulatory responses and downregulation of proinflammatory responses. To determine whether rat alveolar macrophages (AMs) and lung microvascular endothelial cells (LMVECs) support Seoul virus (SEOV) replication and contribute to the induction of an environment that polarizes CD4(+) T cell differentiation toward a regulatory T (Treg) cell phenotype, cultured primary rat AMs and LMVECs were mock infected or infected with SEOV and analyzed for viral replication, cytokine and chemokine responses, and expression of cell surface markers that are related to T cell activation. Allogeneic CD4(+) T cells were cocultured with SEOV-infected or mock-infected AMs or LMVECs and analyzed for helper T cell (i.e., Treg, Th17, Th1, and Th2) marker expression and Treg cell frequency. SEOV RNA and infectious particles in culture media were detected in both cell types, but at higher levels in LMVECs than in AMs postinfection. Expression of Ifnβ, Ccl5, and Cxcl10 and surface major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) and MHC-I was not altered by SEOV infection in either cell type. SEOV infection significantly increased Tgfβ mRNA in AMs and the amount of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) in LMVECs. SEOV-infected LMVECs, but not AMs, induced a significant increase in Foxp3 expression and Treg cell frequency in allogeneic CD4(+) T cells, which was virus replication and cell contact dependent. These data suggest that in addition to supporting viral replication, AMs and LMVECs play distinct roles in hantavirus persistence by creating a regulatory environment through increased Tgfβ, PD-L1, and Treg cell activity.

  6. Corticosteroids modulate Seoul virus infection, regulatory T-cell responses and matrix metalloprotease 9 expression in male, but not female, Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, Judith D; Klein, Sabra L

    2008-11-01

    Human hantaviral disease is mediated by excessive proinflammatory and CD8+ T-cell responses, which can be alleviated by administration of corticosteroids. In contrast with humans, male rats that are infected with their species-specific hantavirus, Seoul virus (SEOV), have reduced proinflammatory and elevated regulatory T-cell responses in tissues where virus persists. To determine the effects of glucocorticoids on SEOV persistence and immune responses during infection, male and female Norway rats received sham surgeries (sham) or were adrenalectomized (ADX0), in some of which corticosterone was replaced at low (ADX10) or high (ADX80) doses. Rats were inoculated with SEOV and serum corticosterone, SEOV RNA, gene expression and protein production were measured at different time points post-inoculation. We observed that SEOV infection suppressed corticosterone in sham males to concentrations seen in ADX0 males. Furthermore, males with low corticosterone had more SEOV RNA in the lungs than either females or males with high corticosterone concentrations during peak infection. Although high concentrations of corticosterone suppressed the expression of innate antiviral and proinflammatory mediators to a greater extent in females than in males, these immunomodulatory effects did not correlate with SEOV load. Males with low corticosterone concentrations and high viral load had elevated regulatory T-cell responses and expression of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9. MMP-9 is a glycogenase that disrupts cellular matrices and may facilitate extravasation of SEOV-infected cells from circulation into lung tissue. Suppression of glucocorticoids may thus contribute to more efficient dissemination of SEOV in male than in female rats.

  7. Food deserts in Korea? A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012 data

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dohyeong; Seo, Dong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective. SUBJECTS/METHODS We first evaluated the applicability of food deserts in a Korean setting and identified four Korean-specific unhealthy food consumption indicators, including insufficient food consumption due to financial difficulty, limited consumption of fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption of junk food, and excessive consumption of instant noodles. The KNHANES 2008-2012 data in Seoul were analyzed with stratified sampling weights to understand the trends and basic characteristics of these eating patterns in each category. GIS analyses were then conducted for the data spatially aggregated at the sub-district level in order to create maps identifying areas of concern regarding each of these indicators and their combinations. RESULTS Despite significant reduction in the rate of food insufficiency due to financial difficulty, the rates of excessive consumption of unhealthy foods (junk food and instant noodles) as well as limited consumption of fruits and vegetables have increased or remained high. These patterns tend to be found among relatively younger and more educated groups, regardless of income status. CONCLUSIONS A GIS-based analysis demonstrated several hotspots as potential "food deserts" tailored to the Korean context based on the observed spatial patterns of undesirable food consumption. These findings could be used as a guide to prioritize areas for targeted intervention programs to facilitate healthy food consumption behaviors and thus

  8. Food deserts in Korea? A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012 data

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dohyeong; Seo, Dong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective. SUBJECTS/METHODS We first evaluated the applicability of food deserts in a Korean setting and identified four Korean-specific unhealthy food consumption indicators, including insufficient food consumption due to financial difficulty, limited consumption of fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption of junk food, and excessive consumption of instant noodles. The KNHANES 2008-2012 data in Seoul were analyzed with stratified sampling weights to understand the trends and basic characteristics of these eating patterns in each category. GIS analyses were then conducted for the data spatially aggregated at the sub-district level in order to create maps identifying areas of concern regarding each of these indicators and their combinations. RESULTS Despite significant reduction in the rate of food insufficiency due to financial difficulty, the rates of excessive consumption of unhealthy foods (junk food and instant noodles) as well as limited consumption of fruits and vegetables have increased or remained high. These patterns tend to be found among relatively younger and more educated groups, regardless of income status. CONCLUSIONS A GIS-based analysis demonstrated several hotspots as potential "food deserts" tailored to the Korean context based on the observed spatial patterns of undesirable food consumption. These findings could be used as a guide to prioritize areas for targeted intervention programs to facilitate healthy food consumption behaviors and thus

  9. Sources of variation in nutrient intake and the number of days to assess usual intake among men and women in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Woo; Kyung Park, Min; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Kyungwon; Joung, Hyojee; Lee, Jung Eun; Paik, Hee Young

    2013-12-14

    Sources of variation in nutrient intake have been examined for Western diets, but little is known about the sources of variation and their differences by age and sex among Koreans. We examined sources of variation in nutrient intake and calculated the number of days needed to estimate usual intake using 12 d of dietary records (DR). To this end, four 3 d DR including two weekdays and one weekend day were collected throughout four seasons of 1 year from 178 male and 236 female adults aged 20-65 years residing in Seoul, Korea. The sources of variation were estimated using the random-effects model, and the variation ratio (within-individual:between-individual) was calculated to determine a desirable number of days. Variations attributable to the day of the week, recording sequence and seasonality were generally small, although the degree of variation differed by sex and age (20-45 years and 46-65 years). The correlation coefficient between the true intake and the observed intake (r) increased with additional DR days, reaching 0·7 at 3-4 d and 0·8 at 6-7 d. However, the degree of increase became attenuated with additional days: r increased by 13·0-26·9 % from 2 to 4 d, by 6·5-16·4 % from 4 to 7 d and by 4·0-11·6 % from 7 to 12 d for energy and fifteen nutrients. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the day of the week, recording sequence and seasonality minimally contribute to the variation in nutrient intake. To measure Korean usual dietary intake using open-ended dietary instruments, 3-4 d may be needed to achieve modest precision (r>0·7) and 6-7 d for high precision (r>0·8).

  10. Pediatric surgical pathology. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Dehner, L.P.

    1987-01-01

    The edition provides view of congenital, hereditary, infectious, and inflammatory neoplastic diseases occurring during the first two decades of life, with special reference to clinical, laboratory, and roentgenographic features. Material includes observations from some of the major national studies on Wilms' tumor and rhabdomyosarcomas, the new classification of pediatric malignant lymphomas, a discussion of the role of immunocytochemistry as it applies to the diagnosis of childhood infections and neoplasms, an examination of graft-versus-host disease in the liver and intestinal tract and more.

  11. The Oral Pathology Related Articles Published in Iranian Journal of Pathology from 2006 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information about the oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal. This study aimed to audit the oral pathology related articles published in Iranian Journal of Pathology (Iran J Pathol) from 2006 to 2015. Methods: Bibliometric analysis of issues of Iran J Pathol from 2006 to 2015 was performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and individual topic of oral pathology. The articles published were also checked for authorship trends. Results: Out of the total 49 published articles related to oral pathology, case reports (21) and original articles (18) contributed the major share. The highest number of oral pathology related articles was published in 2011, 2014 and 2015 with 8 articles each and the least published year was 2012 with 1 article. Among the oral pathology related articles published, spindle cell neoplasms (7) followed by salivary gland tumors (5), jaw tumors (4), oral granulomatous conditions (4), lymphomas (4), oral cancer (3) and odontogenic cysts (3) form the major attraction of the contributors. The largest numbers of published articles related to oral pathology were received from Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Tehran (7) followed by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (6) and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (5). Conclusion: This paper may be considered as a baseline study for the bibliometric information regarding oral pathology related articles published in a pathology journal. PMID:27799973

  12. Ecology and pathology of amphibian ranaviruses.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew J; Miller, Debra L; Hoverman, Jason T

    2009-12-01

    Mass mortality of amphibians has occurred globally since at least the early 1990s from viral pathogens that are members of the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae. The pathogen infects multiple amphibian hosts, larval and adult cohorts, and may persist in herpetofaunal and osteichthyan reservoirs. Environmental persistence of ranavirus virions outside a host may be several weeks or longer in aquatic systems. Transmission occurs by indirect and direct routes, and includes exposure to contaminated water or soil, casual or direct contact with infected individuals, and ingestion of infected tissue during predation, cannibalism, or necrophagy. Some gross lesions include swelling of the limbs or body, erythema, swollen friable livers, and hemorrhage. Susceptible amphibians usually die from chronic cell death in multiple organs, which can occur within a few days following infection or may take several weeks. Amphibian species differ in their susceptibility to ranaviruses, which may be related to their co-evolutionary history with the pathogen. The occurrence of recent widespread amphibian population die-offs from ranaviruses may be an interaction of suppressed and naïve host immunity, anthropogenic stressors, and novel strain introduction. This review summarizes the ecological research on amphibian ranaviruses, discusses possible drivers of emergence and conservation strategies, and presents ideas for future research directions. We also discuss common pathological signs of ranaviral disease, methods for diagnostic evaluation, and ranavirus surveillance methods. In as much as ranaviral disease is listed as a notifiable disease by the World Organization for Animal Health and is a threat to amphibian survival, we recommend that biosecurity precautions are implemented by nations to reduce the likelihood of transporting ranavirus virions among populations. Biosecurity precautions include disinfecting footwear and equipment that comes in contact with surface water inhabited

  13. Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

  14. Bar Coding and Tracking in Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2015-06-01

    Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology.

  15. The pathology of primary blast overpressure injury.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, M A

    1997-07-25

    Primary blast injury occurs in civilian and military detonations and from the firing of weapon systems. The pathology of primary blast injury has been reported for the last 70 years and has primarily been limited to descriptions of gross pathology and histology. Commonly accepted tenets have not been confirmed as blast overpressure experiments in enclosures and with multiple detonations have been conducted. Organ systems other than the ear and the lung are playing a greater role in injury definition and research importance. This paper is an overview and update of the current understanding of the pathology of primary blast injury.

  16. Pathological narcissism and the obstruction of love.

    PubMed

    Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2014-03-01

    Pathological narcissism is a form of maladaptive self-regulation that impedes the capacity to love. Although narcissism is often construed as excessive self-love, individuals with pathological narcissism are impaired in being able to love themselves as well as others. With the subject of impaired love in mind, we review selected conceptualizations from an enormous and diverse psychodynamic literature on narcissism. Major theoretical approaches illustrate a number of psychodynamics associated with narcissistic self-regulatory problems. This paper provides a concise overview of major conceptual themes regarding pathological narcissism and impaired capacity to love.

  17. "Slide less pathology": Fairy tale or reality?

    PubMed

    Indu, M; Rathy, R; Binu, M P

    2016-01-01

    Pathology practice is significantly advanced in various frontiers. Therefore, "slide less digital" pathology will not be a mere imagination in near future. Digitalization of histopathological slides (whole slide imaging [WSI]) is possible with the help of whole slide scanner. The WSI has a positive impact not only in routine practice but also in research field, medical education and bioindustry. Even if digital pathology has definitive advantages, its widespread use is not yet possible. As it is an upcoming technology in our field, this article is aimed to discussessential aspects of WSI. PMID:27601824

  18. University of California, Irvine-Pathology Extraction Pipeline: the pathology extraction pipeline for information extraction from pathology reports.

    PubMed

    Ashish, Naveen; Dahm, Lisa; Boicey, Charles

    2014-12-01

    We describe Pathology Extraction Pipeline (PEP)--a new Open Health Natural Language Processing pipeline that we have developed for information extraction from pathology reports, with the goal of populating the extracted data into a research data warehouse. Specifically, we have built upon Medical Knowledge Analysis Tool pipeline (MedKATp), which is an extraction framework focused on pathology reports. Our particular contributions include additional customization and development on MedKATp to extract data elements and relationships from cancer pathology reports in richer detail than at present, an abstraction layer that provides significantly easier configuration of MedKATp for extraction tasks, and a machine-learning-based approach that makes the extraction more resilient to deviations from the common reporting format in a pathology reports corpus. We present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for information extraction in a real-world task, demonstrating performance improvement due to our approach for increasing extractor resilience to format deviation, and finally demonstrating the scalability of the pipeline across pathology reports for different cancer types.

  19. Gender Differences in Treatment-Seeking British Pathological Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Lutri, Vittorio; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-06-01

    Background and aim Gambling is a widespread recreational activity in the UK. A significant percentage of gamblers develop subclinical or clinically relevant problem gambling issues, but only a low percentage of them seek treatment. Although characteristics of pathological gamblers from treatment-seeking population have been examined in some research, only a few studies have explored the differences between females and males. This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, and clinical variables in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Methods A total of 1,178 treatment-seeking individuals with gambling disorder were assessed at the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables, and gambling behavior habits were obtained during the assessment evaluation. Of the total sample, 92.5% were males and 7.5% were females. Results Males were more likely to be younger, white, and employed than females. In addition, compared to women, men showed a lower PGSI score, an earlier age of onset of gambling behavior, a higher gambling involvement, and preferred specific forms gambling. Female gamblers were more anxious and depressed, while men were more likely to use alcohol and illicit drugs. Conclusions Our findings support the importance of gender differences in a treatment-seeking population of pathological gamblers both in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling behavior variables, and clinical variables. Males and females might benefit from group-specific treatment. PMID:27348561

  20. Palliative care curriculum for speech-language pathology students.

    PubMed

    Mathisen, Bernice; Yates, Patsy; Crofts, Penny

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the experience of undergraduate speech-language pathology students at one university chosen for the implementation stage of the Palliative Care Curriculum for Undergraduates (PCC4U) Project. Funded by a government department for health and ageing through a national palliative care programme, the project was managed by a team of researchers from the discipline of nursing. The PCC4U project championed the inclusion of palliative care education as an integral part of medical, nursing, and allied healthcare undergraduate training. Of the pilot sites chosen for the PCC4U project, only one site, reported here, included both speech-language pathology and social work disciplines, providing an important opportunity for interdisciplinary collaboration on novel curriculum development in an area of mutual interest. This synergy served as an excellent foundation for ongoing opportunities for interdisciplinary teaching and learning in the university. Speech-language pathology students reported that the project was an invaluable addition to their education and preparation for clinical practice.

  1. Vocal Fold Pathologies and Three-Dimensional Flow Separation Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostoli, Adam G.; Weiland, Kelley S.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Polyps and nodules are two different pathologies, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, and have been shown to significantly disrupt a person's ability to communicate. Although the mechanism by which the vocal folds self-oscillate and the three-dimensional nature of the glottal jet has been studied, the effect of irregularities caused by pathologies is not fully understood. Examining the formation and evolution of vortical structures created by a geometric protuberance is important, not only for understanding the aerodynamic forces exerted by these structures on the vocal folds, but also in the treatment of the above-mentioned pathological conditions. Using a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, the present investigation considers three-dimensional flow separation induced by a model vocal fold polyp. Building on previous work using skin friction line visualization, both the velocity flow field and wall pressure measurements around the model polyp are presented and compared. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-1236351 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  2. Data Set for Pathology Reporting of Cutaneous Invasive Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Meagan J.; Evans, Alan; Frishberg, David P.; Prieto, Victor G.; Thompson, John F.; Trotter, Martin J.; Walsh, Maureen Y.; Walsh, Noreen M.G.; Ellis, David W.

    2013-01-01

    An accurate and complete pathology report is critical for the optimal management of cutaneous melanoma patients. Protocols for the pathologic reporting of melanoma have been independently developed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA), Royal College of Pathologists (United Kingdom) (RCPath), and College of American Pathologists (CAP). In this study, data sets, checklists, and structured reporting protocols for pathologic examination and reporting of cutaneous melanoma were analyzed by an international panel of melanoma pathologists and clinicians with the aim of developing a common, internationally agreed upon, evidence-based data set. The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting cutaneous melanoma expert review panel analyzed the existing RCPA, RCPath, and CAP data sets to develop a protocol containing “required” (mandatory/core) and “recommended” (nonmandatory/noncore) elements. Required elements were defined as those that had agreed evidentiary support at National Health and Medical Research Council level III-2 level of evidence or above and that were unanimously agreed upon by the review panel to be essential for the clinical management, staging, or assessment of the prognosis of melanoma or fundamental for pathologic diagnosis. Recommended elements were those considered to be clinically important and recommended for good practice but with lesser degrees of supportive evidence. Sixteen core/required data elements for cutaneous melanoma pathology reports were defined (with an additional 4 core/required elements for specimens received with lymph nodes). Eighteen additional data elements with a lesser level of evidentiary support were included in the recommended data set. Consensus response values (permitted responses) were formulated for each data item. Development and agreement of this evidence-based protocol at an international level was accomplished in a timely and efficient manner, and the processes described herein may

  3. Relationship of Nicotine Dependence, Subsyndromal and Pathological Gambling, and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E.; Desai, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nicotine dependence frequently co-occurs with subsyndromal and pathological levels of gambling. The relationship of nicotine dependence, levels of gambling pathology, and other psychiatric disorders, however, is incompletely understood. Method To use nationally representative data to examine the influence of DSM-IV nicotine dependence on the association between pathological gambling severities and other psychiatric disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 43,093 household and group-quarters adults in the United States. The main outcome measure was the co-occurrence of current nicotine dependence and Axis I and II disorders and severity of gambling based on the ten inclusionary diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling. Results Among non-nicotine-dependent respondents, increasing gambling severity was associated with greater psychopathology for the majority of Axis I and II disorders. This pattern was not uniformly observed among nicotine dependent subjects. Significant nicotine-by-gambling-group interactions were observed for multiple Axis I and II disorders. All significant interactions involved stronger associations between gambling and psychopathology in the non-nicotine-dependent group. Conclusions In a large national sample, nicotine dependence influences the associations between gambling and multiple psychiatric disorders. Subsyndromal levels of gambling are associated with significant psychopathology. Nicotine dependence accounts for some of the elevated risks for psychopathology associated with subsyndromal and problem/pathological levels of gambling. Additional research is needed to examine specific prevention and treatment for individuals with problem/pathological gambling with and without nicotine dependence. PMID:19254518

  4. [Pathological gambling--what do we know?].

    PubMed

    Gisela Buchner, Ursula; Wodarz, Norbert

    2011-08-01

    According to epidemiological studies, there are 103 000-290 000 people in Germany afflicted by pathological gambling. In many cases the disorder remains hidden for a long time with only a few of the problematic or pathological gamblers seeking help in the professional helping network. Focussing on the relevant results for Germany, this review summarizes the recent research concerning "pathological gambling". The main topics are diagnosis, nosological status, epidemiology, gender-related differences and common screening instruments. Furthermore, the increasing probability for the development of pathological gambling upon existing other psychiatric disorders, e. g. personality disorder, mood and anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders or ADHD, is discussed as well as the current approaches in treatment.

  5. Problem and Pathological Gambling among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinchfield, Randy; Hanson, William E.; Olson, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines problem and pathological gambling among college students and reports on prevalence rate, risk and protective factors, prevention and intervention, and recommendations for college student personnel and other university administrators.

  6. Clearance of pathological antibodies using biomimetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Jonathan A.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Kang; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Pathological antibodies have been demonstrated to play a key role in type II immune hypersensitivity reactions, resulting in the destruction of healthy tissues and leading to considerable morbidity for the patient. Unfortunately, current treatments present significant iatrogenic risk while still falling short for many patients in achieving clinical remission. In the present work, we explored the capability of target cell membrane-coated nanoparticles to abrogate the effect of pathological antibodies in an effort to minimize disease burden, without the need for drug-based immune suppression. Inspired by antibody-driven pathology, we used intact RBC membranes stabilized by biodegradable polymeric nanoparticle cores to serve as an alternative target for pathological antibodies in an antibody-induced anemia disease model. Through both in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrated efficacy of RBC membrane-cloaked nanoparticles to bind and neutralize anti-RBC polyclonal IgG effectively, and thus preserve circulating RBCs. PMID:25197051

  7. American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention of Cervical Cancer ASCCP has endorsed American Society of Clinical Oncology's Guidelines for Secondary Prevention of ... 7227 Toll-Free (240) 575-9880 Fax © American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology * Required * First Name: * ...

  8. Forensic veterinary pathology, today's situation and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Olsén, L; Gavier-Widén, D

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders.

  9. On Carcinomas and Other Pathological Entities

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Ceusters, Werner; Rosse, Cornelius

    2005-01-01

    Tumours, abscesses, cysts, scars and fractures are familiar types of what we shall call pathological continuant entities. The instances of such types exist always in or on anatomical structures, which thereby become transformed into pathological anatomical structures of corresponding types: a fractured tibia, a blistered thumb, a carcinomatous colon. In previous work on biomedical ontologies we showed how the provision of formal definitions for relations such as is_a, part_of and transformation_of can facilitate the integration of such ontologies in ways which have the potential to support new kinds of automated reasoning. We here extend this approach to the treatment of pathologies, focusing especially on those pathological continuant entities which arise when organs become affected by carcinomas. PMID:18629199

  10. Types of Psychotherapy for Pathological Gamblers

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Several types of psychotherapy are currently used to treat pathological gamblers. These include Gambler's Anonymous, cognitive behavioral therapy, behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and family therapy. Research into which types of psychotherapy are the most effective for pathological gambling is limited but is a growing area of study. Group therapy, namely Gambler's Anonymous, provides peer support and structure. Cognitive behavior therapy aims to identify and correct cognitive distortions about gambling. Psychodynamic psychotherapy can help recovering gamblers address core conflicts and hidden psychological meanings of gambling. Family therapy is helpful by providing support and education and eliminating enabling behaviors. To date, no single type of psychotherapy has emerged as the most effective form of treatment. As in other addictive disorders, treatment retention of pathological gamblers is highly variable. Understanding the types of psychotherapy that are available for pathological gamblers, as well their underlying principles, will assist clinicians in managing this complex behavioral disorder. PMID:21152147

  11. Assessment and management of pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1988-08-01

    This article describes a brief treatment--imaginal desensitization--which enables pathological gamblers to retain control of gambling, discusses its development and advances evidence from 2-9 years' follow-up of its efficacy.

  12. Overview of Glutamatergic Dysregulation in Central Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Miladinovic, Tanya; Nashed, Mina G.; Singh, Gurmit

    2015-01-01

    As the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, glutamate plays a key role in many central pathologies, including gliomas, psychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative disorders. Post-mortem and serological studies have implicated glutamatergic dysregulation in these pathologies, and pharmacological modulation of glutamate receptors and transporters has provided further validation for the involvement of glutamate. Furthermore, efforts from genetic, in vitro, and animal studies are actively elucidating the specific glutamatergic mechanisms that contribute to the aetiology of central pathologies. However, details regarding specific mechanisms remain sparse and progress in effectively modulating glutamate to alleviate symptoms or inhibit disease states has been relatively slow. In this report, we review what is currently known about glutamate signalling in central pathologies. We also discuss glutamate’s mediating role in comorbidities, specifically cancer-induced bone pain and depression. PMID:26569330

  13. Induction process of trainees in pathology residency

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Imran; Ali, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the induction process of pathology residency at The Aga Khan University hospital. The Department of Postgraduate Medical Education was established in 1985. The induction process is an exhaustive exercise that includes an admission test held simultaneously in Karachi, Hyderabad, Lahore, and Rawalpindi, followed by an interview of the shortlisted candidates. The pathology residency program was started 25 years ago and since then the induction process has undergone major changes with the course of time. PMID:27313487

  14. Human Vision Pathology Diagnostics by Photogrammetrics Means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murynin, A.; Knyaz, V.; Mateev, I.

    2014-06-01

    One of the reasons of such vision pathology as human stereoscopic vision capability dysfunction is an asymmetry of a human face. As a rule, such dysfunctions occur as early as in the babyhood, when diagnostic methods applied for adults are ineffective. Early diagnostics and prophylaxis could help in treatment of such pathology and face 3D modeling is one of the promising ways to solve this problem.

  15. Demystified … Molecular pathology in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, J

    2002-01-01

    In the past 10 years, molecular biology has found major applications in pathology, particularly in oncology. This has been a field of enormous expansion, where pure science has found a place in clinical practice and is now of everyday use in any academic unit. This demystified review will discuss the techniques used in molecular pathology and then provide examples of how these can be used in oncology. PMID:12456768

  16. Endothelial TWIST1 Promotes Pathological Ocular Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Liu, Chi-Hsiu; Sun, Ye; Gong, Yan; Fu, Zhongjie; Evans, Lucy P.; Tian, Katherine T.; Juan, Aimee M.; Hurst, Christian G.; Mammoto, Akiko; Chen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Pathological neovessel formation impacts many blinding vascular eye diseases. Identification of molecular signatures distinguishing pathological neovascularization from normal quiescent vessels is critical for developing new interventions. Twist-related protein 1 (TWIST1) is a transcription factor important in tumor and pulmonary angiogenesis. This study investigated the potential role of TWIST1 in modulating pathological ocular angiogenesis in mice. Methods. Twist1 expression and localization were analyzed in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Pathological ocular angiogenesis in Tie2-driven conditional Twist1 knockout mice were evaluated in both OIR and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization models. In addition, the effects of TWIST1 on angiogenesis and endothelial cell function were analyzed in sprouting assays of aortic rings and choroidal explants isolated from Twist1 knockout mice, and in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells treated with TWIST1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Results. TWIST1 is highly enriched in pathological neovessels in OIR retinas. Conditional Tie2-driven depletion of Twist1 significantly suppressed pathological neovessels in OIR without impacting developmental retinal angiogenesis. In a laser-induced choroidal neovascularization model, Twist1 deficiency also resulted in significantly smaller lesions with decreased vascular leakage. In addition, loss of Twist1 significantly decreased vascular sprouting in both aortic ring and choroid explants. Knockdown of TWIST1 in endothelial cells led to dampened expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and decreased endothelial cell proliferation. Conclusions. Our study suggests that TWIST1 is a novel regulator of pathologic ocular angiogenesis and may represent a new molecular target for developing potential therapeutic treatments to suppress pathological neovascularization in vascular eye diseases. PMID:25414194

  17. Relevance feedback for shape-based pathology in spine x-ray image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqian; Antani, Sameer; Lee, D. J.; Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    2006-03-01

    Relevance feedback (RF) has become an active research area in Content-based Image Retrieval (CBIR). RF attempts to bridge the gap between low-level image features and high-level human visual perception by analyzing and employing user feedback in an effort to refine the retrieval results to better reflect individual user preference. Need for overcoming this gap is more evident in medical image retrieval due to commonly found characteristics in medical images, viz., (1) images belonging to different pathological categories exhibit subtle differences, and (2) the subjective nature of images often elicits different opinions, even among experts. The National Library of Medicine maintains a collection of digitized spine X-rays from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). A pathology found frequently in these images is the Anterior Osteophyte (AO), which is of interest to researchers in bone morphometry and osteoarthritis. Since this pathology is manifested as deviation in shape, we have proposed the use of partial shape matching (PSM) methods for pathology-specific spinal X-ray image retrieval. Shape matching tends to suffer from the variability in the pathology expressed by the vertebral shape. This paper describes a novel weight-updating approach to RF. The algorithm was tested and evaluated on a subset of data selected from the image collection. The ground truth was established using Macnab's classification to determine pathology type and a grading system developed by us to express the pathology severity. Experimental results show nearly 20% overall improvement on retrieving the correct pathological category, from 69% without feedback to 88.75% with feedback.

  18. Estimation of PM10 concentrations over Seoul using multiple empirical models with AERONET and MODIS data collected during the DRAGON-Asia campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Holben, B. N.; Kim, S.-W.; Song, C. H.; Lim, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of various empirical linear models to estimate the concentrations of surface-level particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) was evaluated using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data collected in Seoul during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON)-Asia campaign from March to May 2012. An observed relationship between the PM10 concentration and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) was accounted for by several parameters in the empirical models, including boundary layer height (BLH), relative humidity (RH), and effective radius of the aerosol size distribution (Reff), which was used here for the first time in empirical modeling. Among various empirical models, the model which incorporates both BLH and Reff showed the highest correlation, which indicates the strong influence of BLH and Reff on the PM10 estimations. Meanwhile, the effect of RH on the relationship between AOD and PM10 appeared to be negligible during the campaign period (spring), when RH is generally low in northeast Asia. A large spatial dependency of the empirical model performance was found by categorizing the locations of the collected data into three different site types, which varied in terms of the distances between instruments and source locations. When both AERONET and MODIS data sets were used in the PM10 estimation, the highest correlations between measured and estimated values (R = 0.76 and 0.76 using AERONET and MODIS data, respectively) were found for the residential area (RA) site type, while the poorest correlations (R = 0.61 and 0.68 using AERONET and MODIS data, respectively) were found for the near-source (NS) site type. Significant seasonal variations of empirical model performances for PM10 estimation were found using the data collected at Yonsei University (one of the DRAGON campaign sites) over a period of 17 months including the DRAGON campaign

  19. Annual and seasonal variations in atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs levels in satellite cities of Seoul, Korea during 2003-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Yoonki; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Donggi; Heo, Jongwon

    2013-10-01

    Long-term measurements of atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were conducted in six satellite cities of Seoul, the capital of South Korea, from January 2003 to December 2009. Of the six sites, three were located in residential areas (Suwon, Anyang, and Seongnam) and the other three were in industrial areas (Ansan, Bucheon, and Siheung). For the 7 years, the average concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs and dl-PCBs were higher at industrial sites than those at residential sites, and their lowest and highest concentrations were 0.113 ± 0.073 pg international toxicity equivalency quantity (I-TEQ) m-3 and 0.0071 ± 0.0040 pg World Health Organization (WHO)-TEQ m-3 at Seongnam and 0.625 ± 0.597 pg I-TEQ m-3 and 0.0376 ± 0.0285 pg WHO-TEQ m-3 at Ansan, respectively. The annual averages of these compounds tended to decrease from 2003 to 2009, with the most apparent change in 2006 when the regulation of dioxin emission standard was reinforced for flue gas from incineration facilities. Complying with the reinforced standard, the concentrations of PCDFs were reduced more effectively than those of PCDDs, leading to increase in ratios of PCDDs to PCDFs since 2006. Additionally, a seasonal tendency was observed for PCDDs/PCDFs with higher concentrations in winter than summer, which was opposite for dl-PCBs. This seasonal difference suggests their sources such as combustion processes and volatilization and the influence of synoptic-scale circulation. The congener profiles indicated that 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDF, OCDD, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD were the most abundant, comprising 65.0% of the 17 toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs mass. The three congeners of 2,3‧,4,4‧,5-PeCB, 2,3,3‧,4,4‧-PeCB, and 3,3‧,4,4‧-TeCB comprised 75.9% of the 12 dl-PCBs.

  20. Pathological pregnancy and psychological symptoms in women.

    PubMed

    Bjelanović, Vedran; Babić, Dragan; Oresković, Slavko; Tomić, Vajdana; Martinac, Marko; Juras, Josip

    2012-09-01

    Pregnancy is followed by many physiologic, organic and psychological changes and disorders, which can become more serious in pregnancy followed by complications, especially in women with pathological conditions during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to find out and analyze the prevalence and intensity of psychological disorders in women with pathological conditions during pregnancy and compare it with conditions in pregnant women who had normal development of pregnancy. The research is approved by the Ethical committee of the Mostar University Hospital Center, and it was made in accordance with Helsinki declaration and good clinical practices. The research conducted section for pathology of pregnancy of Department for gynecology and obstetrics of the Mostar University Hospital Center. It included 82 pregnant women with disorders in pregnancy developement and control group consisted of pregnant women who had normal development of pregnancy. The research work was conducted from September 2007 to August 2008 in Mostar University Hospital Center. Pregnant women had Standard and laboratory tests, Ultrasound. CTG examinations were done for all pregnant women and additional tests for those women with complications during pregnancy. Pregnant women completed sociobiographical, obstetrical-clinical and psychological SCL 90-R questionnaire. Pregnant women with pathological pregnancy exibited significantly more psychological symptoms in comparison to pregnant women with normal pregnancy (p < 0.001 to p = 0.004). Frequency and intensity of psychical symptoms and disorders statisticly are more characteristic in pathological pregnancy (61%/40.6%). The statistical data indicate a significantly higher score of psychological disorders in those pregnant women with primary school education (p = 0.050), those who take more than 60% carbohydrates (p = 0.001), those with pathological CTG records (p < 0.001), those with pathological ultrasound results (p < 0.001 to 0.216) and

  1. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science.

  2. Equine laryngeal hemiplegia. Part IV. Muscle pathology.

    PubMed

    Cahill, J I; Goulden, B E

    1986-11-01

    This study confirmed that neurogenic muscle pathology exists in intrinsic laryngeal muscles supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerves in horses subclinically and clinically affected with laryngeal hemiplegia. An important additional observation was the occurrence in three out of four laryngeal hemiplegic horses of neurogenic muscle changes in a hindlimb muscle, the extensor digitorum longus, a muscle supplied by another long peripheral nerve. This finding suggests that a polynenropathy exists in laryngeal hemiplegic horses, and supports the classification of this disease as a distal axonopathy. Comparison of the degree of pathology in the intrinsic laryngeal muscles and that of the recurrent laryngeal nerves innervating them, demonstrated a strong correlation between the extent of damage in the distal left recurrent laryngeal nerve and the overall degree of muscle pathology. The muscle damage in clinically affected horses is a reflection of the nerve damage present in the most distal portion of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. The more variable pathological changes found in proximal levels of the left and right recurrent laryngeal nerves probably reflects the ongoing nature of the pathological process affecting nerve fibres. The existence of a subclinically affected group of horses, the earliest involvement of an adductor, the left cricoarytenoideus lateralis muscle, and the presence of changes in the right intrinsic laryngeal muscles all confirmed the findings of previous workers.

  3. Widespread cytoskeletal pathology characterizes corticobasal degeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Feany, M. B.; Dickson, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare, progressive neurological disorder characterized by widespread neuronal and glial pathology. Using immunohistochemistry and laser confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that the nonamyloid cortical plaques of CBD are actually collections of abnormal tau in the distal processes of astrocytes. These glial cells express both vimentin and CD44, markers of astrocyte activation. Glial pathology also includes tau-positive cytoplasmic inclusions, here localized to Leu 7-expressing oligodendrocytes. In addition, a wide array of neuronal pathology is defined with tau-positive inclusions in multiple domains of a variety of cortical neurons. CBD thus exhibits widespread glial and neuronal cytoskeletal pathology, including a novel structure, the astrocytic plaque. CBD is a disease of generalized cytoskeletal disruption affecting several cell types and multiple domains of these cells. The further definition of CBD pathology refines the diagnosis and pathophysiological understanding of this unique disease and has important implications for other neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's disease, characterized by abnormal tau deposition. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7778678

  4. Molecular imaging of Alzheimer disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, K

    2014-06-01

    Development of molecular imaging agents for fibrillar β-amyloid positron-emission tomography during the past decade has brought molecular imaging of Alzheimer disease pathology into the spotlight. Large cohort studies with longitudinal follow-up in cognitively normal individuals and patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease indicate that β-amyloid deposition can be detected many years before the onset of symptoms with molecular imaging, and its progression can be followed longitudinally. The utility of β-amyloid PET in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is greatest when there is no pathologic overlap between 2 dementia syndromes, such as in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer disease. However β-amyloid PET alone may be insufficient in distinguishing dementia syndromes that commonly have overlapping β-amyloid pathology, such as dementia with Lewy bodies and vascular dementia, which represent the 2 most common dementia pathologies after Alzheimer disease. The role of molecular imaging in Alzheimer disease clinical trials is growing rapidly, especially in an era when preventive interventions are designed to eradicate the pathology targeted by molecular imaging agents.

  5. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. PMID:27515387

  6. Availability of Pre-Admission Information to Prospective Graduate Students in Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekieli Koay, Mary Ellen; Lass, Norman J.; Parrill, Madaline; Naeser, Danielle; Babin, Kelly; Bayer, Olivia; Cook, Megan; Elmore, Madeline; Frye, Rachel; Kerwood, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    An extensive Internet search was conducted to obtain pre-admission information and acceptance statistics from 260 graduate programmes in speech-language pathology accredited by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) in the United States. ASHA is the national professional, scientific and credentialing association for members and…

  7. Antibodies as Mediators of Brain Pathology.

    PubMed

    Brimberg, Lior; Mader, Simone; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Arinuma, Yoshiyuki; Kowal, Czeslawa; Volpe, Bruce T; Diamond, Betty

    2015-11-01

    The brain is normally sequestered from antibody exposure by the blood brain barrier. However, antibodies can access the brain during fetal development before the barrier achieves full integrity, and in disease states when barrier integrity is compromised. Recent studies suggest that antibodies contribute to brain pathology associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and neuromyelitis optica, and can lead to transient or permanent behavioral or cognitive abnormalities. We review these findings here and examine the circumstances associated with antibody entry into the brain, the routes of access and the mechanisms that then effect pathology. Understanding these processes and the nature and specificity of neuronal autoantibodies may reveal therapeutic strategies toward alleviating or preventing the neurological pathologies and behavioral abnormalities associated with autoimmune disease.

  8. Microscopic colitis: pathologic considerations, changing dogma.

    PubMed

    Robert, Marie E

    2004-01-01

    Microscopic colitis as an entity was first recognized in 1976, and has become one of the most frequent diseases to exclude on colonic mucosal biopsies. In some pathology practices, up to 30% of colonic biopsies received are from patients in whom microscopic colitis is the clinical question. In this review, the evolution of the terminology and early studies describing the pathology of microscopic colitis are discussed. The pathology of lymphocytic and collagenous colitis is reviewed in detail, including common diagnostic pitfalls, and what is currently known about the pathogenesis of these diseases. The differential diagnosis of microscopic colitis includes other idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's and ulcerative colitis), infections, and drug reactions. The distinction between these entities and microscopic colitis is discussed in detail. Finally, recent studies have revealed new histopathologic changes in microscopic colitis that challenge the currently held concepts of how microscopic colitis fits into the spectrum of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  9. Antibodies as Mediators of Brain Pathology.

    PubMed

    Brimberg, Lior; Mader, Simone; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Arinuma, Yoshiyuki; Kowal, Czeslawa; Volpe, Bruce T; Diamond, Betty

    2015-11-01

    The brain is normally sequestered from antibody exposure by the blood brain barrier. However, antibodies can access the brain during fetal development before the barrier achieves full integrity, and in disease states when barrier integrity is compromised. Recent studies suggest that antibodies contribute to brain pathology associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and neuromyelitis optica, and can lead to transient or permanent behavioral or cognitive abnormalities. We review these findings here and examine the circumstances associated with antibody entry into the brain, the routes of access and the mechanisms that then effect pathology. Understanding these processes and the nature and specificity of neuronal autoantibodies may reveal therapeutic strategies toward alleviating or preventing the neurological pathologies and behavioral abnormalities associated with autoimmune disease. PMID:26494046

  10. A cognitive model of pathological worry

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Colette R.; Mathews, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We present an evidence-based model of pathological worry in which worry arises from an interaction between involuntary (bottom-up) processes, such as habitual biases in attention and interpretation favouring threat content, and voluntary (top-down) processes, such as attentional control. At a pre-conscious level, these processes influence the competition between mental representations when some correspond to the intended focus of attention and others to threat distracters. Processing biases influence the probability of threat representations initially intruding into awareness as negative thoughts. Worry in predominantly verbal form then develops, influenced by conscious processes such as attempts to resolve the perceived threat and the redirection of attentional control resources to worry content, as well as the continuing influence of habitual processing biases. After describing this model, we present evidence for each component process and for their causal role in pathological worry, together with implications for new directions in the treatment of pathological worry. PMID:22863541

  11. Investigation of spinal pathology in notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Savk, Oner; Savk, Ekin

    2005-06-01

    A possible association of spinal pathology with notalgia paresthetica (NP) was investigated through clinical and radiographic evaluation. Forty-three NP patients underwent dermatologic and orthopedic examination accompanied by radiography of the spine. Sixty-one lesions in 43 patients were evaluated. In 34 patients, various vertebral pathologies were observed radiographically by a blinded investigator, and in 28 of these cases these changes were most prominent in the vertebrae which corresponded to a lesional dermatome. Thirty-seven lesions were accompanied by spinal changes decided to be relevant (60.7%). The striking correlation of NP localization with spinal pathology suggests that spinal nerve impingement may contribute to the pathogenesis of this entity. PMID:15928634

  12. Personality Pathology and Interpersonal Problem Stability

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Scott, Lori N.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are often described as stable, which ignores the important dynamic processes and shifts that are observed clinically in individuals with PD. The current study examined patterns of variability in problematic interpersonal functioning, a core feature of personality pathology. Participants (N=150) were assessed for personality pathology at baseline and also completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems–Circumplex Scales at baseline and every three months over the course of a year. Baseline PD was used to predict individual means and variability parameters in generalized interpersonal distress, agentic problems, and communal problems across repeated assessments. Disorders associated with disinhibition predicted variability in generalized distress and agentic problems, whereas only antagonism related disorders predicted variability in communal problems. These associations reveal dynamic processes involved in multiple dimensions of personality pathology and suggest that future research on instability is needed that expands beyond the historical focus on borderline PD. PMID:25562539

  13. Antibodies as Mediators of Brain Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Brimberg, Lior; Mader, Simone; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Arinuma, Yoshiyuki; Kowal, Czeslawa; Volpe, Bruce T.; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    The brain is normally sequestered from antibody exposure by the blood brain barrier. However, antibodies can access the brain during fetal development before the barrier achieves full integrity, and in disease states when barrier integrity is compromised. Recent studies suggest that antibodies contribute to brain pathology associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and neuromyelitis optica, and can lead to transient or permanent behavioral or cognitive abnormalities. We review these findings here and examine the circumstances associated with antibody entry into the brain, the routes of access and the mechanisms that then effect pathology. Understanding these processes and the nature and specificity of neuronal autoantibodies may reveal therapeutic strategies toward alleviating or preventing the neurological pathologies and behavioral abnormalities associated with autoimmune disease. PMID:26494046

  14. Giant clival chordoma causing pathological laughter

    PubMed Central

    Gripp, Daniel Andrade; do Souto, Antonio Aversa; Gonsales, Douglas; Christiani, Marcio de Miranda Chaves; Nogueira, Janio; Lopes, Helio Ferreira; Torres, Yasmine Coura

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chordomas are rare slowly growing tumors that originate from remnants of the notochord. They have a malignant local behavior, causing symptoms due to bone infiltration and compression of neurovascular structures. Only a few cases of brain tumors associated with pathological laughter have been reported in the literature. Case Description: We report a case of a 42-year-old male patient with this atypical clinical presentation treated at our institution, and discuss the concerning literature. Conclusion: Although being a very rare presentation of chordomas, pathological laughter is usually expected to improve after brain stem decompression. PMID:24778906

  15. [Pathology and clinical medicine. An introduction].

    PubMed

    Baumann, R P

    1977-05-01

    In the introduction the author presents a review of themes connected with the autopsy and some problems of pathology which are not discussed in further detail during the course of the symposium. Thus, the signification and influence of religious, metaphysical, legal, socioeconomical and certain technical factors of the autopsy practice are briefly described, followed by a synopsis of the situation of the pathologist facing the demands of medicine, science, education, and administration. As a conclusion, follows a survey of the history and the activities of the Neuchâtel Institute of pathological anatomy.

  16. Adrenoleukodystrophy: molecular genetics, pathology, and Lorenzo's oil.

    PubMed

    Moser, H W; Powers, J M; Smith, K D

    1995-07-01

    Knowledge about adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a disorder which was described first in 1923, has increased greatly during recent years. The principal biochemical abnormality, the presumed enzyme defect, and the gene defect, have been defined. A dietary therapy has been proposed and attracted world-wide attention through a motion picture. Nevertheless, many questions remain and cannot be answered without a more fundamental understanding of pathology and pathogenesis. This article will provide a review of the history, clinical features, pathology, biochemistry, and the gene defect, and then appraise current efforts to clarify pathogenesis and develop therapeutic approaches.

  17. [The pathology of smoldering multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Hirohiko

    2015-01-01

    The precursor states (named as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance [MGUS] and smoldering multiple myeloma [SMM]) consistently exist before symptomatic multiple myeloma is diagnosed. After approximately 30 years have passed since Kyle et al. advocated MGUS and SMM for the first time, the pathology and prognosis of these diseases have been clarified considerably. Recently, the safety and efficacy of the early treatment for the patients with high risk SMM are shown. In this article, the current understanding of the pathology of SMM as well as MGUS including the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment is reviewed. PMID:25626300

  18. Departmental audit in surgical anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Hocking, G R; Niteckis, V N; Cairns, B J; Hayman, J A

    1997-11-01

    Internal auditing of performance by pathology providers is a necessary component of total quality management. In this study a peer review of 10% of departmental surgical anatomical pathology accessions received over a seven month period was performed. A number of critical performance parameters were analysed including turn-around times, accuracy of reports and technical proficiency. The results demonstrated an approximate 2% significant error rate in macroscopic and microscopic descriptions, technically good quality sections and stains and generally satisfactory turn-around times. The value and costing of such an audit and changes initiated by the audit are discussed.

  19. [Topical preparations for therapy of tonsillar pathology].

    PubMed

    Kriukov, A I; Kunel'skaia, N L; Tsarapkin, G Y U; Izotova, G N; Tovmasian, A S

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights clinical and diagnostic aspects of tonsillar pathology with special reference to modern methods for the treatment of pharyngeal diseases of different etiology. A detailed characteristic of local symptomatic therapy is presented including the use of NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). These agents have advantages over other medications for local therapy due to high anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Also, they significantly improve the patients' quality of life. The use of a local anti-inflammatory drug is a major component of the treatment of inflammatory pharyngeal pathology. Regardless of the nature of the disease, either bacterial or viral. PMID:26288210

  20. Surgical pathology in the 20th century at the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York.

    PubMed

    Geller, Stephen A

    2008-08-01

    How did the education of surgical pathology, and pathology in general, differ at Mount Sinai? Passing the examination of the American Board of Pathology was never the focus of the department. Learning criteria or quoting references was de-emphasized, but mastery of macroscopic pathology was required, supported in both word and action by two brilliant surgical pathologists, Otani and Kaneko, and by two extraordinary medical pathologists, Klemperer and Popper. Meticulous microscopy emphasized pattern rather than reliance on lists of discrete features. Otani developed a regular "problem case" meeting for a community of pathologists, made up of alumni and other interested pathologists, as well as active department members. These monthly sessions provided the highest level of "continuing medical education." Otani and Kaneko unequivocally believed in learning from cases, and Mount Sinai residents were fortunate both in the one-to-one teaching and in the wealth of material, in all systems, that came to surgical pathology. Outstanding pathologists who came from Mount Sinai settled throughout the country and provided the highest level of diagnoses, but, with the exception of Bernard Wagner, Emanuel Rubin, Fiorenzo Paronetto, Richard Horowitz, Michael Gerber, Marc Rosenblum, Bruce Wenig, Jaishree Jagirdar, Swan Thung, Cesar Moran, Hideko Kamino, Philip LeBoit, Alberto Marchevsky, and others, there were relatively few academic leaders. Otani and Kaneko did not have national reputations. Klemperer, although world renowned, was relatively unassuming, and his disciples numbered almost as many nonpathologists as pathologists. Popper did establish a major center for liver pathology, with students coming from around the world, but did not particularly promote general surgical pathology. Can the Mount Sinai approach still be applied? The decline in the numbers of autopsies performed, the demands for rapid turnaround time, the de-emphasis of gross pathology as newer technologies (eg

  1. Simulated learning environments in speech-language pathology: an Australian response.

    PubMed

    MacBean, Naomi; Theodoros, Deborah; Davidson, Bronwyn; Hill, Anne E

    2013-06-01

    The rising demand for health professionals to service the Australian population is placing pressure on traditional approaches to clinical education in the allied health professions. Existing research suggests that simulated learning environments (SLEs) have the potential to increase student placement capacity while providing quality learning experiences with comparable or superior outcomes to traditional methods. This project investigated the current use of SLEs in Australian speech-language pathology curricula, and the potential future applications of SLEs to the clinical education curricula through an extensive consultative process with stakeholders (all 10 Australian universities offering speech-language pathology programs in 2010, Speech Pathology Australia, members of the speech-language pathology profession, and current student body). Current use of SLEs in speech-language pathology education was found to be limited, with additional resources required to further develop SLEs and maintain their use within the curriculum. Perceived benefits included: students' increased clinical skills prior to workforce placement, additional exposure to specialized areas of speech-language pathology practice, inter-professional learning, and richer observational experiences for novice students. Stakeholders perceived SLEs to have considerable potential for clinical learning. A nationally endorsed recommendation for SLE development and curricula integration was prepared.

  2. Imaging of Common Arthroscopic Pathology of the Ankle.

    PubMed

    Grambart, Sean T

    2016-10-01

    Arthroscopy of the ankle is used in the treatment and diagnosis of a spectrum of intra-articular pathology including soft tissue and osseous impingement, osteochondral lesions, arthrofibrosis, and synovitis. To help identify the correct pathology, imaging techniques are often used to aid the surgeon in diagnosing pathology and determining best treatment options. This article discusses the use of imaging in various ankle pathologies.

  3. Proceedings of The Second International Molecular Pathological Epidemiology (MPE) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Shuji; Campbell, Peter T.; Nishihara, Reiko; Phipps, Amanda I.; Beck, Andrew H.; Sherman, Mark E.; Chan, Andrew T.; Troester, Melissa A.; Bass, Adam J.; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C.; Irizarry, Rafael A.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Nan, Hongmei; Peters, Ulrike; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Qian, Zhi Rong; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Zhang, Xuehong; Giovannucci, Edward L.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Wang, Molin; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Begg, Colin B.

    2015-01-01

    Disease classification system increasingly incorporates information on pathogenic mechanisms to predict clinical outcomes and response to therapy and intervention. Technological advancements to interrogate omics (genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, metagenomics, interactomics, etc.) provide widely-open opportunities in population-based research. Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) represents integrative science of molecular pathology and epidemiology. This unified paradigm requires multidisciplinary collaboration between pathology, epidemiology, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and computational biology. Integration of these fields enables better understanding of etiologic heterogeneity, disease continuum, causal inference, and the impact of environment, diet, lifestyle, host factors (including genetics and immunity), and their interactions on disease evolution. Hence, the Second International MPE Meeting was held in Boston in December 2014, with aims to: (1) develop conceptual and practical frameworks; (2) cultivate and expand opportunities; (3) address challenges; and (4) initiate the effort of specifying guidelines for MPE. The meeting mainly consisted of presentations of method developments and recent data in various malignant neoplasms and tumors (breast, prostate, ovarian and colorectal cancers, renal cell carcinoma, lymphoma, and leukemia), followed by open discussion sessions on challenges and future plans. In particular, we recognized need for efforts to further develop statistical methodologies. This meeting provided an unprecedented opportunity for interdisciplinary collaboration, consistent with the purposes of the BD2K (Big Data to Knowledge), GAME-ON (Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology), and Precision Medicine Initiatives of the U.S.A. National Institute of Health. The MPE Meeting Series can help advance transdisciplinary population science, and optimize training and education systems for 21st century

  4. The interpersonal core of personality pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that personality pathology is, at its core, fundamentally interpersonal. We review the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 redefinition of personality pathology involving self and interpersonal dysfunction, which we regard as a substantial improvement over the DSM-IV (and DSM-5 Section 2) definition. We note similarities between the proposed scheme and contemporary interpersonal theory and interpret the DSM-5 Section 3 definition using the underlying assumptions and evidence base of the interpersonal paradigm in clinical psychology. We describe how grounding the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 definition in interpersonal theory, and in particular a focus on the “interpersonal situation”, adds to its theoretical texture, empirical support, and clinical utility. We provide a clinical example that demonstrates the ability of contemporary interpersonal theory to augment the DSM-5 definition of personality pathology. We conclude with directions for further research that could clarify the core of personality pathology, and how interpersonal theory can inform research aimed at enhancing the DSM-5 Section 3 proposal and ultimately justify its migration to DSM-5 Section 2. PMID:23735037

  5. Lone atrial fibrillation: Pathologic or not?

    PubMed

    Chambers, Patrick William

    2007-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation risk has been strongly associated with increasing age and visceral obesity. These characteristics are strongly associated with diabetes, decreased heart rate variability, and chronic inflammation. Lone atrial fibrillation (LAF) on the other hand exhibits a predilection for the physically fit and the middle aged, especially males. Given these opposing features it is postulated that pathologic AF is due to cardiac fibrosis and other age related changes while LAF is due to physiologic neurohormonal changes related to autonomic tone, insulin sensitivity, and electrolyte imbalance and that pathologic AF and LAF can be reliably differentiated via an anthropometric approach using weight, height, hip, and waist measurements. An anthropometric study is undertaken from an LAF database to test this hypothesis. Such individuals in addition to being younger and predominantly male appear to be taller with less central adiposity vs. those with pathologic AF. The ramifications of these findings with respect to insulin resistance, sympathetic tone, inflammation and hypertension, often associated with pathologic atrial fibrillation, are discussed. Speculation is drawn about possible etiologic link with mitral valve prolapse, which is commonly encountered in the tall and thin and which shares multiple clinical features with LAF. PMID:17005327

  6. Anxious Writers: Distinguishing Anxiety from Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Martin

    An exploration of writing anxiety suggests that it is a normal form of behavior rather than a pathology, but that it varies in degrees of its dysfunctionality. Excerpts from the log books of college students in a writing anxiety workshop illustrate four broad categories of writing anxiety: procrastination, feeling emotionally distressed, thinking…

  7. Speech-Language Pathology: Preparing Early Interventionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelock, Patricia A.; Deppe, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain the role of speech-language pathology in early intervention. The expected credentials of professionals in the field are described, and the current numbers of practitioners serving young children are identified. Several resource documents available from the American Speech-­Language Hearing Association are…

  8. Speech-Language-Pathology and Audiology Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains State Education Department rules and regulations that govern speech-language pathology and audiology in New York State. The handbook also describes licensure and first registration as a licensed speech-language pathologist or audiologist. The introduction discusses professional regulation in New York State while the second…

  9. Mild Cognitive Impairment: Pathology and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mufson, Elliott J.; Binder, Lester; Counts, Scott E.; DeKosky, Steven T.; deTolledo-Morrell, Leyla; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Ikonomovic, Milos D.; Perez, Sylvia E.; Scheff, Stephen W.

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is rapidly becoming one of the most common clinical manifestations affecting the elderly. The pathologic and molecular substrate of people diagnosed with MCI is not well established. Since MCI is a human specific disorder and neither the clinical nor the neuropathological course appears to follows a direct linear path, it is imperative to characterize neuropathology changes in the brains of people who came to autopsy with a well-characterized clinical diagnosis of MCI. Herein, we discuss findings derived from clinical pathologic studies of autopsy cases with various subtypes of MCI antemortem. The heterogeneity of clinical MCI imparts significant challenges to any review of this subject. The pathologic substrate of MCI is equally complex and must take into account not only conventional plaque and tangle pathology but also a wide range of cellular biochemical and molecular deficits many of which relate to cognitive decline as well as compensatory responses to the progressive disease process. The multifaceted nature of the neuronal disconnection syndrome associated with MCI, suggests that there is no single event, which precipitates this prodromal stage of AD. In fact, it can be argued that neuronal degeneration initiated at different levels of the central nervous system drive cognitive decline as a final common pathway at this stage of the dementing disease process. PMID:22101321

  10. Risk factors of peri-implant pathology.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; Mano Azul, António; Rocha, Evangelista; Maló, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify risk factors for the incidence of peri-implant pathology. One-thousand, two-hundred and seventy-fifty patients (255 cases and 1020 controls), rehabilitated with dental implants, were included. Peri-implant pathology was defined as the presence of peri-implant pockets ≥ 5 mm, bleeding on probing, vertical bone loss, and loss of attachment ≥ 2 mm. Cases and controls were matched for age, gender, and duration of follow-up. A logistic regression model was used, with estimation of the OR for each variable and interaction, with a level of significance of 5%. The risk factors for peri-implant pathology were: history of periodontitis (OR = 19), bacterial plaque (OR = 3.6), bleeding (OR = 2.9), bone level on the medium third of the implant (OR = 13.9), lack of prosthetic fit or non-optimal screw joint (OR = 5.9), metal-ceramic restorations (OR = 3.9), and the interaction between bacterial plaque and the proximity of other teeth or implants (PROXI) (OR = 4.3). PROXI (OR = 0.44) exerted a protective effect when independent. Based on the results, peri-implant pathology represents a group of multifactorial situations with interaction of biological and biomechanical components in its pathogenesis. It was possible to model the condition and to assess, with high precision, the risk profile of each patient. PMID:25894059

  11. Pathological Left-Handedness: An Explanatory Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satz, Paul

    Reported was an explanatory conceptual model for pathological left-handedness (PLH) and related hypotheses, some of which could not be tested empirically due to lack of information. The model was reported to provide an explanation for the relationship between handedness and specific learning disability, and handedness and cerebral dominance for…

  12. Urologic pathology with clinical and radiologic correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Someren, A.

    1989-01-01

    This book is devoted to the kidneys, urinary passages, renal transplantation, male genitalia, and adrenal glands. Each chapter has the same format: congenital conditions are discussed then, inflammatory and nonneoplastic disorders; and, finally, neoplasms. For each disease process, the clinical presentation, radiologic findings, pathologic characteristics, therapy, and prognosis are discussed.

  13. Tau pathology induces intraneuronal cholesterol accumulation.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Frauke; Ohm, Thomas G

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental data suggest the involvement of cholesterol metabolism in the development and progression of Alzheimer disease and Niemann-Pick type C disease, but not of frontotemporal dementias. In these 3 neurodegenerative diseases, however, protein tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation into neurofibrillary tangles are observed. To elucidate the relationship between cholesterol and tau, we compared sterol levels of neurons burdened with neurofibrillary tangles with those of their unaffected neighbors using semiquantitative filipin fluorescence microscopy in mice expressing P301L mutant human tau (a well-described model of FTDP-17) and in P301L transgenic mice lacking apolipoprotein E (the major cholesterol transporter in the brain). Cellular unesterified cholesterol was higher in neurons affected by tau pathology irrespective of apolipoprotein E deficiency. This argues for an impact of tau pathology on cellular cholesterol homeostasis. We suggest that there is a bidirectional mode of action: Disturbances in cellular cholesterol metabolism may promote tau pathology, but tau pathology may also alter neuronal cholesterol homeostasis; once it is established, a vicious cycle may promote neurofibrillary tangle formation.

  14. Preface: Insect Pathology, 2nd ed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pathology is an essential component of entomology and provides a non-chemical alternative for insect pest management. There are several groups of organisms that can infect and kill insects including viruses, fungi, microsporidia, bacteria, protists, and nematodes. The dilemma in insect patho...

  15. The Chernobyl thyroid cancer experience: pathology.

    PubMed

    LiVolsi, V A; Abrosimov, A A; Bogdanova, T; Fadda, G; Hunt, J L; Ito, M; Rosai, J; Thomas, G A; Williams, E D

    2011-05-01

    The Chernobyl accident was followed by a large increase in the incidence of thyroid carcinoma in the areas exposed to high levels of fallout. The Chernobyl Tumor Bank was set up in 1998 to make tumours available for study internationally, and a pathology panel reviewed all the tumours and established an agreed diagnosis. The thyroid tumours that were discovered after the Chernobyl nuclear accident were virtually all (95%) of the papillary carcinoma type. Rare examples of other tumour types were identified. Within the papillary group, several subtypes were noted, including classical or usual type, follicular variant, solid variant and mixed patterns Diffuse sclerosis variant, cribriform/morular type and Warthin-like variant were rare. No tall cell or columnar cell variants were identified. The tumours examined by the Pathology Panel of the Chernobyl Tumor Bank constitute a large representative sample (estimated at about 50%) of the tumours that developed in this population. This overview describes the method adopted by the panel and the different diagnostic categories adopted; illustrates the pathology of these neoplasms; compares the pathological characteristics of the early lesions with those identified after long latency periods and the institution of screening programmes and outlines the possible associated causes for the various morphological patterns seen.

  16. Mobile Technology for the Practice of Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Douglas J

    2016-03-01

    Recently, several technological advances have been introduced to mobile phones leading some people to refer to them as "smartphones." These changes have led to widespread consumer adoption. A similar adoption has occurred within the medical field and this revolution is changing the practice of medicine, including pathology. Several mobile applications have been published for dermatology, orthopedics, ophthalmology, neurosurgery, and clinical pathology. The applications are wide ranging, including mobile technology to increase patient engagement, self-monitoring by patients, clinical algorithm calculation, facilitation between experts to resource-poor environments. These advances have been received with mixed reviews. For anatomic pathology, mobile technology applications can be broken into 4 broad categories: (a) educational uses, (b) microscope with mobile phone, (c) mobile phone as microscope/acquisition device, and (d) miscellaneous. Using a mobile phone as an acquisition device paired with a microscope seems to be the most interesting current application because of the need for expert consultation with resource-poor environments. However, several emerging uses for mobile technology may become more prominent as the technology matures including image analysis, alternative light sources, and increased opportunities for clinician and patient engagement. The flexibility represented by mobile technology represents a burgeoning field in pathology informatics.

  17. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  18. [Pathological gambling: a clinical and therapeutic-evolutive study of a group of pathologic gamblers].

    PubMed

    Saiz Ruiz, J; Moreno Oliver, I; López-Ibor Aliño, J J

    1992-01-01

    Gambling dependence or pathological gambling is a psychiatric disorder, recognised as such by the North American Psychiatric Association since 1980. Since 1981 we are carrying out a treatment program for patients who suffer from pathological gambling at the Psychiatric Service of "Ramón y Cajal" Hospital. There is an individualized treatment for each patient and their inclusion in group therapy discussions. We present a descriptive study of the most representative socio-demographic, clinical and therapeutic-evolutive data of 46 patients following treatment in our program. All fulfill the diagnostic criteria of DSM III-R for pathological gambling. They were 37 males and 9 females, with an average age of 39 years. More than half of the patients (58%) were consumers of alcoholic beverages; the drug consumption index found was 4% and practically they all were smokers (87%). The excessive drinking and pathological gambling incidence found among family were 35% and 20% respectively. Our therapeutic results support the idea that pathological gambling is a treatable disorder. After an average of two years following treatment 46% of our patients stopped or notably reduced its impulse to gamble. The high incidence of alcohol or drugs consumption among pathological gamblers and their families suggest a biological and psychological relationship between pathological gambling and the classical addictive disorders. PMID:1529750

  19. Reactive microglia drive tau pathology and contribute to the spreading of pathological tau in the brain.

    PubMed

    Maphis, Nicole; Xu, Guixiang; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N; Jiang, Shanya; Cardona, Astrid; Ransohoff, Richard M; Lamb, Bruce T; Bhaskar, Kiran

    2015-06-01

    Pathological aggregation of tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies. We have previously shown that the deficiency of the microglial fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) led to the acceleration of tau pathology and memory impairment in an hTau mouse model of tauopathy. Here, we show that microglia drive tau pathology in a cell-autonomous manner. First, tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation occur as early as 2 months of age in hTauCx3cr1(-/-) mice. Second, CD45(+) microglial activation correlates with the spatial memory deficit and spread of tau pathology in the anatomically connected regions of the hippocampus. Third, adoptive transfer of purified microglia derived from hTauCx3cr1(-/-) mice induces tau hyperphosphorylation within the brains of non-transgenic recipient mice. Finally, inclusion of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (Kineret®) in the adoptive transfer inoculum significantly reduces microglia-induced tau pathology. Together, our results suggest that reactive microglia are sufficient to drive tau pathology and correlate with the spread of pathological tau in the brain.

  20. Reactive microglia drive tau pathology and contribute to the spreading of pathological tau in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Maphis, Nicole; Xu, Guixiang; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N.; Jiang, Shanya; Cardona, Astrid; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Lamb, Bruce T.

    2015-01-01

    Pathological aggregation of tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and related tauopathies. We have previously shown that the deficiency of the microglial fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) led to the acceleration of tau pathology and memory impairment in an hTau mouse model of tauopathy. Here, we show that microglia drive tau pathology in a cell-autonomous manner. First, tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation occur as early as 2 months of age in hTauCx3cr1−/− mice. Second, CD45+ microglial activation correlates with the spatial memory deficit and spread of tau pathology in the anatomically connected regions of the hippocampus. Third, adoptive transfer of purified microglia derived from hTauCx3cr1−/− mice induces tau hyperphosphorylation within the brains of non-transgenic recipient mice. Finally, inclusion of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (Kineret®) in the adoptive transfer inoculum significantly reduces microglia-induced tau pathology. Together, our results suggest that reactive microglia are sufficient to drive tau pathology and correlate with the spread of pathological tau in the brain. PMID:25833819

  1. The Modified POSAS: A Novel Approach to Defining Pathologic and Non-Pathologic Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Fearmonti, Regina; Bond, Jennifer; Erdmann, Detlev; Levin, L. Scott; Pizzo, Salvatore V; Levinson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Background Scarring is a highly prevalent and multifactorial process, yet no studies to date have attempted to distinguish pathologic from non-pathologic scarring. Methods This article defines and proposes methods of classifying pathologic scarring as it pertains to clinical presentation. Results We propose a new scar scale that incorporates pain and functional impairment. Conclusion The modified POSAS scar assessment scale is the first of its kind to factor in the functional deficits, pain and pruritus of scarring into measurements of associated morbidity. This has great potential in evaluating patient response to treatment and analyzing clinical outcomes. PMID:21200219

  2. Matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology

    PubMed Central

    GHEORGHE, SIMONA ROXANA; CRĂCIUN, ALEXANDRA MĂRIOARA

    2016-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein is a vitamin K-dependent protein secreted by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The presence of matrix Gla protein was reported in arterial and venous walls, lungs, kidney, uterus, heart, tooth cementum and eyes. Several studies identified matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology. Until recently, it was thought to only have an inhibitory role of physiological and ectopic calcification. New studies demonstrated that it also has a role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis, as well as in tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to report the latest findings related to the expression and clinical implications of matrix Gla protein in different types of cancer with an emphasis on cerebral tumors. PMID:27547048

  3. Conflicting pathology reports: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Tal; Rozovski, Uri; Shapira, Yuval; Nossek, Erez; Zelikovich, Bracha; Jossiphov, Joseph; Ram, Zvi; Kanner, Andrew A; Siegal, Tali; Blumenthal, Deborah T; Lavon, Iris

    2015-02-01

    The differential diagnosis of a brain lesion with two discordant pathology reports includes the presence of collision tumor, metaplastic changes, and labeling errors that occurred during the processing of the specimen. The authors present a case in which the first brain biopsy from a 47-year-old patient with a history of heavy smoking was compatible with metastatic small cell carcinoma, and the second biopsy taken during decompression craniotomy 3 weeks later was compatible with WHO Grade IV glioblastoma. Using short tandem repeat (STR) analysis of the two specimens and nontumor-derived patient DNA, the authors found that the two specimens did not belong to the same individual. The authors conclude that allele imbalance or loss of heterozygosity detected by STR analysis is a reliable and valuable diagnostic tool for clarifying discrepancies in discordant pathology reports.

  4. Personality disorders and dimensions in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2012-06-01

    Comorbid DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders appear to be common in pathological gambling (PG) and may contribute to the chronic problems often associated with the disorder. This study sought to examine the relationship between PG, personality disorders, and impulsivity in a sample of pathological gamblers. Personality assessments included the SCID-II, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. A total of 77 individuals with DSM-IV PG were included in this study, of which 35 (45.5%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder. Specific aspects of impulsivity were associated with certain personality disorders in PG when grouped by cluster, yet the presence of a personality disorder was not positively correlated with gambling severity. It remains unclear how the presence of a personality disorder and aspects of impulsivity may affect treatment outcome. Further exploration of these disorders and dimensions of personality may encourage a more inclusively global treatment approach.

  5. Epidemiology of pathological gambling in Edmonton.

    PubMed

    Bland, R C; Newman, S C; Orn, H; Stebelsky, G

    1993-03-01

    Thirty lifetime pathological gamblers (DSM-III, no exclusion criteria) were identified when 7,214 randomly selected household residents of Edmonton were interviewed by trained lay interviewers using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. The lifelong prevalence of pathological gambling was 0.42% (ratio of males to females 3:1). The peak age of onset was 25 to 29 years. Gamblers had high rates of comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. They were likely to have made suicide attempts (13.3%), to have been convicted of offences (26.7%), to be spouse and child abusers (23.3% and 16.7% respectively) and to have spent long periods unemployed (40%). In addition, 80% had trouble at home or work because of gambling, and 60% borrowed or stole to gamble.

  6. Pathologic changes induced by an euthanasia agent.

    PubMed

    Port, C D; Garvin, P J; Ganote, C E; Sawyer, D C

    1978-08-01

    Dogs and cats killed by intravenous injection of either 0.3 ml/kg body weight T-61 or 100 mg/kg body weight pentoarbital and necropsied at less than 5 minutes or at 15 minutes after injection did not have gross or microscopic pathological changes. However, dogs and cats killed with T-61 at a dose of 1.0--1.5 ml/kg body weight and necropsied at 15 minutes after injection had significant gross and microscopic pathological lesions. Grossly, the lungs were severely edematous, did not collapse, and were deep red. Microscopically, the lungs had severe pulmonary edema and endothelial necrosis. Endothelial swelling of glomerular tuft vessels was also present. These lung and kidney lesions are classified as an euthanasia artefact. PMID:703253

  7. Matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Simona Roxana; Crăciun, Alexandra Mărioara

    2016-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein is a vitamin K-dependent protein secreted by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The presence of matrix Gla protein was reported in arterial and venous walls, lungs, kidney, uterus, heart, tooth cementum and eyes. Several studies identified matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology. Until recently, it was thought to only have an inhibitory role of physiological and ectopic calcification. New studies demonstrated that it also has a role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis, as well as in tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to report the latest findings related to the expression and clinical implications of matrix Gla protein in different types of cancer with an emphasis on cerebral tumors. PMID:27547048

  8. Wildfire risk as a socioecological pathology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, A. Paige; Spies, Thomas A; Steelman, Toddi A; Moseley, Cassandra; Johnson, Bart R; Bailey, John D.; Ager, Alan A; Bourgeron, Patrick S.; Charnley, Susan; Collins, Brandon M.; Kline, Jeffrey D; Leahy, Jessica E; Littell, Jeremy; Millington, James D A; Nielsen-Pincus, Max; Olsen, Christine S; Paveglio, Travis B; Roos, Christopher I.; Steen-Adams, Michelle M; Stevens, Forrest R; Vukomanovic, Jelena; White, Eric M; Bowman, David M J S

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire risk in temperate forests has become a nearly intractable problem that can be characterized as a socioecological “pathology”: that is, a set of complex and problematic interactions among social and ecological systems across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Assessments of wildfire risk could benefit from recognizing and accounting for these interactions in terms of socioecological systems, also known as coupled natural and human systems (CNHS). We characterize the primary social and ecological dimensions of the wildfire risk pathology, paying particular attention to the governance system around wildfire risk, and suggest strategies to mitigate the pathology through innovative planning approaches, analytical tools, and policies. We caution that even with a clear understanding of the problem and possible solutions, the system by which human actors govern fire-prone forests may evolve incrementally in imperfect ways and can be expected to resist change even as we learn better ways to manage CNHS.

  9. Pathology of the uterine tubal junction.

    PubMed

    Biffignandi, F

    1982-01-01

    First the Author reviews briefly the anatomy and the physiology of the Uterine-Tubal Junction (UTJ) with a main concern for the muscular pattern and the secretory activity of this part of the tube, in relation with the hormonal and nervous control. Speaking about the pathology of the UTJ that can impair fertility, different are the causes: chronic infections and their sequelae, salpingitis isthmica nodosa, polyps, iatrogenic lesions (mainly following sterilization procedures), congenital malformations. Other pathologies might be: ectopic pregnancies - 2.5% of all tubal pregnancies - and neoplasms even if not related to infertility. The therapy in most cases for restoring the continuity and hopefully the function of the tube is surgery through a microsurgical approach.

  10. Multidetector CT of hepatic artery pathologies.

    PubMed

    Karaosmanoglu, D; Erol, B; Karcaaltincaba, M

    2012-01-01

    The hepatic artery can be involved by a variety of pathology and diseases.Today MDCT enables high quality imaging of the hepatic artery using axial, MIP and volume rendered images. We illustrate MDCT findings of anatomical variations, aneurysm, dilatation, dissection, arteriovenous fistula, thrombosis and stenosis. Aneurysms can be saccular, fusiform and multiple and may develop due to atherosclerosis, vasculitis, trauma and biopsy. Dilatation of hepatic artery can be seen in portal hypertension, Osler-Weber-Rendu disease and hemangiomatosis. Hepatic artery can be occluded after trauma and transplantation. Dissection develops due to atherosclerosis, Marfan and Ehler Danlos syndromes and during pregnancy. Arteriovenous fistula can be congenital and acquired. We conclude that various hepatic artery pathologies can be confidently diagnosed by MDCT.

  11. Pathologies Associated with the p53 Response

    PubMed Central

    Gudkov, Andrei V.; Komarova, Elena A.

    2010-01-01

    Although p53 is a major cancer preventive factor, under certain extreme stress conditions it may induce severe pathologies. Analyses of animal models indicate that p53 is largely responsible for the toxicity of ionizing radiation or DNA damaging drugs contributing to hematopoietic component of acute radiation syndrome and largely determining severe adverse effects of cancer treatment. p53-mediated damage is strictly tissue specific and occurs in tissues prone to p53-dependent apoptosis (e.g., hematopoietic system and hair follicles); on the contrary, p53 can serve as a survival factor in tissues that respond to p53 activation by cell cycle arrest (e.g., endothelium of small intestine). There are multiple experimental indications that p53 contributes to pathogenicity of acute ischemic diseases. Temporary reversible suppression of p53 by small molecules can be an effective and safe approach to reduce severity of p53-associated pathologies. PMID:20595398

  12. Pathology of drug-associated gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Price, Ashley B

    2003-11-01

    A large number of drugs have gastrointestinal side-effects of which diarrhoea or constipation, nausea and vomiting are amongst the commonest. In relatively few are there diagnostic pathological changes and this review draws attention to the most common. Incriminating a drug as a cause of specific pathological changes requires the drug to be associated with the changes, for the latter to resolve when the drug is withdrawn and for them to re-appear when a patient is rechallenged with the drug. Individual histological features such as apoptosis, tissue infiltration by eosinophils and increased intra-epithelial lymphocytes within the gut mucosa can be clues to an iatrogenic aetiology but these are by no means specific. Amongst the few pathognomonic patterns of drug reactions is pseudomembranous colitis and diaphragm disease. These, along with others such as reactive gastritis and the collagenous and lymphocytic forms of microscopic colitis, in which drugs have also been implicated, are described here. PMID:14651719

  13. Pathology of renal diseases in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Boonpucknavig, Vijitr; Soontornniyomkij, Virawudh

    2003-01-01

    Renal diseases unique to the tropics are those that occur in association with infectious diseases including dengue hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, shigellosis, leptospirosis, lepromatous leprosy, malaria, opisthorchiasis, and schistosomiasis. These renal complications can be classified on the basis of their clinical and pathologic characteristics into acute transient reversible glomerulonephritis, chronic progressive irreversible glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis, and acute renal failure (ARF) resulting from acute tubular necrosis, acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, and thrombotic microangiopathy. Certain primary glomerular diseases including immunoglobulin (Ig) M nephropathy and focal segmental and global glomerulosclerosis are prevalent in some tropical countries. Renal complications of venomous snakebites also are common in the tropics. This article discusses and summarizes important works in the literature in respect to the clinical syndromes, pathologic features, and pathogenesis of tropical renal diseases both in humans and experimental animal models.

  14. [Pathology and viral metagenomics, a recent history].

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Pauline; Albina, Emmanuel; Eloit, Marc; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Human, animal and plant viral diseases have greatly benefited from recent metagenomics developments. Viral metagenomics is a culture-independent approach used to investigate the complete viral genetic populations of a sample. During the last decade, metagenomics concepts and techniques that were first used by ecologists progressively spread into the scientific field of viral pathology. The sample, which was first for ecologists a fraction of ecosystem, became for pathologists an organism that hosts millions of microbes and viruses. This new approach, providing without a priori high resolution qualitative and quantitative data on the viral diversity, is now revolutionizing the way pathologists decipher viral diseases. This review describes the very last improvements of the high throughput next generation sequencing methods and discusses the applications of viral metagenomics in viral pathology, including discovery of novel viruses, viral surveillance and diagnostic, large-scale molecular epidemiology, and viral evolution.

  15. Pathological changes in anabolic androgenic steroid users.

    PubMed

    Lusetti, Monia; Licata, Manuela; Silingardi, Enrico; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Palmiere, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Several classes of recreational and prescription drugs have additional effects on the heart and vasculature, which may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in chronic users. The study presented herein focuses on pathological changes involving the heart possibly due to anabolic androgenic steroid use. The role these hormones may play in their occurrence of sudden cardiac death is also investigated. 98 medico-legal cases including 6 anabolic androgenic steroid users were retrospectively reviewed. Autopsies, histology, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry and toxicology were performed in all cases. Pathological changes consisted of various degrees of interstitial and perivascular fibrosis as well as fibroadipous metaplasia and perineural fibrosis within the myocardium of the left ventricle. Within the limits of the small number of investigated cases, our results appear to confirm former observations on this topic and suggest anabolic androgenic steroid's potential causative role in the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac deaths in chronic users.

  16. Pathological and Molecular Evaluation of Pancreatic Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Rishi, Arvind; Goggins, Michael; Wood, Laura D.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic neoplasms are morphologically and genetically heterogeneous and include wide variety of neoplasms ranging from benign to malignant with an extremely poor clinical outcome. Our understanding of these pancreatic neoplasms has improved significantly with recent advances in cancer sequencing. Awareness of molecular pathogenesis brings in new opportunities for early detection, improved prognostication, and personalized gene-specific therapies. Here we review the pathological classification of pancreatic neoplasms from their molecular and genetic perspective. All of the major tumor types that arise in the pancreas have been sequenced, and a new classification that incorporates molecular findings together with pathological findings is now possible (Table 1). This classification has significant implications for our understanding of why tumors aggregate in some families, for the development of early detection tests, and for the development of personalized therapies for patients with established cancers. Here we describe this new classification using the framework of the standard histological classification. PMID:25726050

  17. [Chondroblastoma of the patella with pathological fracture].

    PubMed

    Rischke, B; Engels, C; Pietsch, E; Werner, M; Delling, G

    2000-10-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign bone tumor of cartilaginous origin. The typical localization of a chondroblastoma is the epiphysis of long tubular bones--the patella is a very unusual site with an estimated occurrence of 2%. We report a case of a 16-year-old patient with a chondroblastoma of the patella associated with a pathologic fracture. Partial resection of the patella was performed. This is the sixth case in the literature that associates patellar chondroblastoma with fracture.

  18. [Pathology of alcoholism. Experiences and treatment possibilities].

    PubMed

    Gallimberti, L; Benussi, G; Gasparini, V; Sottile, F

    1981-12-22

    In the present study, the state of art of alcohol-related pathology is described, and the most credited etiological theories reviewed. An effort has been made to apply theory to the daily practice of the health practitioner and the social worker, who operate in the field. Particular emphasis has been given to the experience in the County of Dolo, Italy, where alcohol-related problems have been successfully dealt with by the Alcoholism Unit of the local General Hospital.

  19. On the Existence of Pathological Detonation Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C M

    2003-07-11

    Pathological detonation waves with velocities greater than Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) have been proposed theoretically but never observed experimentally in gaseous, liquid or solid explosives. Two types of pathological chemical reaction zones have been identified within the Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) model: an exothermic chemical decomposition with a mole decrease during from the von Neumann spike state to the C-J state and an exothermic reaction followed by an endothermic reaction (eigenvalue detonation). The high temperatures reached in detonation reaction zones cause sufficient radial and atom formation to insure overall mole increases in gaseous H{sub 2} + O{sub 2} detonations. Aluminized explosives exhibit a slight mole decrease when the solid aluminum particles are oxidized, but this does not negate the large mole increase that occurs during explosive decomposition. Porous solid explosives whose products form with more cold compression energy than that of the solid are an unlikely possibility for pathological detonation. Eigenvalue detonations have been postulated for H{sub 2} + Cl{sub 2} gas phase detonations and for plastic bonded solid explosives if endothermic binder decomposition follows exothermic explosive decomposition. Chemical kinetic and physical arguments are presented to eliminate these possible pathological detonations. In the case of H{sub 2} + Cl{sub 2}, highly vibrationally excited HCl molecules dissociate Cl{sub 2} molecules during the exothermic portion of the reaction zone rather than later in the flow process. In the plastic bonded explosives, the binders are located on the surfaces of explosive particles and thus are exposed to ''hot spots'' created by the three-dimensional Mach stem shock front. Any remaining binder material rapidly reacts in collisions with the high, vibrationally excited reaction products formed during explosive decomposition. Therefore eigenvalue detonations are extremely unlikely to occur in gaseous, liquid or

  20. Odontoid process pathologic fracture in spinal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ould-Slimane, M; Lenoir, T; Dauzac, C; Breitel, D; Hoffmann, E; Guigui, P; Ilharreborde, B

    2010-02-01

    Craniovertebral junction tuberculosis is a rare lesion in which treatment remains controversial. Options range from conservative treatment to surgery, independently of any associated neurological threat. We here report the first case of pathologic odontoid fracture in a context of spinal tuberculosis, complicated by unusual neurological evolution. The patient presented with non-contiguous multifocal tuberculosis, of which there have previously been only 6 reported cases.

  1. Facts about artefacts in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pattari, S K; Dey, P

    2002-01-01

    Literal meaning of artefact given by 'Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary' is 'a thing made by people'. In medical science 'the fact' is not true; but we observe routinely is called artefact. We face various types of artefacts in daily reporting of pathology specimen. Many times artefacts hinder the actual diagnosis. The artefacts i. e. fixation artefact, processing artefact, staining artefact, mounting artefact, air bubbles etc. can cause difficulty in diagnosis and a pathologist should be trained to identify those artefacts. PMID:12593582

  2. Facts about artefacts in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pattari, S K; Dey, P

    2002-01-01

    Literal meaning of artefact given by 'Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary' is 'a thing made by people'. In medical science 'the fact' is not true; but we observe routinely is called artefact. We face various types of artefacts in daily reporting of pathology specimen. Many times artefacts hinder the actual diagnosis. The artefacts i. e. fixation artefact, processing artefact, staining artefact, mounting artefact, air bubbles etc. can cause difficulty in diagnosis and a pathologist should be trained to identify those artefacts.

  3. Temporal bone pathology in scuba diving deaths.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, P J; Parell, G J; Becker, G D; Paparella, M M

    1993-09-01

    Scuba diving has long been associated with otologic injuries; however, little is known about temporal bone pathology in diving-related deaths. We examined 18 temporal bones from 11 divers who died, primarily from complications of rapid ascent. Bleeding into the middle ear and mastoid air cells was nearly universal. Inner ear damage included hemorrhage around Reissner's membrane and the round window membrane and rupture of the utricle and saccule. Most of the observed inner ear damage was not surgically treatable.

  4. Pathological Gambling: Biological and Clinical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Topf, Jocelyn L.; Yip, Sarah W.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is categorized as an impulse control disorder (ICD). Phenomenological, neurobiological and pharmacological data suggest similarities in the pathophysiologies of substance use disorders (SUDs) and PG. Both behavioral and pharmacological approaches, including those that have been empirically validated for SUDs, have shown promise in the treatment of PG. Findings from biological studies of PG are reviewed, and treatment approaches based on controlled studies are summarized. PMID:20161094

  5. An Anatomic Pathology System Using the File Manager

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, R. E.; Tatarczuk, J. R.; Roy, G. R.

    1981-01-01

    An Anatomic Pathology System incorporating patient data from surgical pathology, cytopathology and autopsy pathology is presented. The System includes four interconnected files created with the aid of the File Manager. One file, containing patient demographic data, can be used as a connecting node to other patient databases. Five MUMPS routines, using File Manager functions, allow System users unfamiliar with computers and computer programming to easily enter, edit and retrieve patient information. Retrieved information is in a format to reconstruct, when possible, a patient's medical history from the pathology database and to correlate surgical pathology, cytopathology and autopsy pathology data.

  6. A perspective on digital and computational pathology.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, Bhagavathi; Coffman, Frederick D; Cohen, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    The digitization of images has not only led to increasingly sophisticated methods of quantitating information from those images themselves, but also to the development of new physics-based techniques for extracting information from the original specimen and presenting this as visual data in both two and three-dimensional (3D) forms. This evolution of an image-based discipline has reached maturity in Radiology, but it is only just beginning in Pathology. An historical perspective is provided both on the current state of computational imaging in pathology and of the factors that are impeding further progress in the development and application of these approaches. Emphasis is placed on barriers to the dissemination of information in this area. The value of computational imaging in basic and translational research is clear. However, while there are many examples of "virtual diagnostics" in Radiology, there are only relatively few in Pathology. Nevertheless, we can do cellular level analysis of lesions accessible by endoscopic or catheterization procedures, and a number of steps have been taken toward real-time imaging as adjuncts to traditional biopsies. Progress in computational imaging will greatly expand the role of pathologists in clinical medicine as well as research. PMID:26110096

  7. The pathology roadmap in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Surmeier, D. James; Sulzer, David

    2013-01-01

    An under-appreciated clue about pathogenesis in Parkinson disease (PD) is the distribution of pathology in the early and middle stages of the disease. This pathological ‘roadmap’ shows that in addition to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), a significant number of other central and peripheral neuronal populations exhibit Lewy pathology, phenotypic dysregulation or frank degeneration in PD patients. This spatially distributed, at-risk population of neurons shares a number of features, including autonomously generated activity, broad action potentials, low intrinsic calcium buffering capacity and long, poorly myelinated, highly branched axons. Many, and perhaps all, of these traits add to the metabolic burden in these neurons, suggesting that mitochondrial deficits could drive pathogenesis in PD—in agreement with a large segment of the literature. What is less clear is how this neuronal phenotype might shape the susceptibility to proteostatic dysfunction or to the spread of α-synuclein fibrils deposited in the extracellular space. The review explores the literature on these issues and their translational implications. PMID:23324593

  8. [Pathology of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease].

    PubMed

    Oka, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Although genetic testing is available, nerve biopsy is useful in selected patients for the diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). These are sporadic cases of hereditary neuropathy, or familial cases in which genetic testing is negative. CMT is caused by mutations of various genes. The pathological features of CMT have mostly been investigated using nerve biopsy, which may shed light on the presumed functions of mutated gene products. PMP22 duplication in CMT1A induces numerous large onion bulb lesions (OB). Compared to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, the differential features of CMT1A are patchy distribution of OB and non-inflammatory lesions. CMT1B also manifests as OB, but presents abnormal compaction of myelin sheaths caused by uncompacted myelin or excessive myelin folding. CMT2 includes axonal neuropathies and many causative genes have been found. CMT2A (MFN2 mutation) shows abnormal mitochondria with a spherical morphology instead of tubular in the longitudinal direction. CMT4 consists of autosomal recessive forms with demyelinating pathology. Most subtypes have mutations of genes relating to myelin maintenance, and pathologically, they show abnormal folding of the myelin structure.

  9. Tripartite motif 32 prevents pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jia; Ji, Yanxiao; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wang, Pixiao; Deng, Keqiong; Jiang, Xi; Ma, Genshan

    2016-01-01

    TRIM32 (tripartite motif 32) is widely accepted to be an E3 ligase that interacts with and eventually ubiquitylates multiple substrates. TRIM32 mutants have been associated with LGMD-2H (limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2H). However, whether TRIM32 is involved in cardiac hypertrophy induced by biomechanical stresses and neurohumoral mediators remains unclear. We generated mice and isolated NRCMs (neonatal rat cardiomyocytes) that overexpressed or were deficient in TRIM32 to investigate the effect of TRIM32 on AB (aortic banding) or AngII (angiotensin II)-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiography and both pathological and molecular analyses were used to determine the extent of cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent fibrosis. Our results showed that overexpression of TRIM32 in the heart significantly alleviated the hypertrophic response induced by pressure overload, whereas TRIM32 deficiency dramatically aggravated pathological cardiac remodelling. Similar results were also found in cultured NRCMs incubated with AngII. Mechanistically, the present study suggests that TRIM32 exerts cardioprotective action by interruption of Akt- but not MAPK (mitogen-dependent protein kinase)-dependent signalling pathways. Additionally, inactivation of Akt by LY294002 offset the exacerbated hypertrophic response induced by AB in TRIM32-deficient mice. In conclusion, the present study indicates that TRIM32 plays a protective role in AB-induced pathological cardiac remodelling by blocking Akt-dependent signalling. Therefore TRIM32 could be a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. PMID:26884348

  10. Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of Organized Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Nobuo; Watanabe, Tomoo; Ito, Tsukasa; Kubota, Toshinori; Suzuki, Yusuke; Ishida, Akihiro; Aoyagi, Masaru; Matsubara, Atsushi; Izuhara, Kenji; Kakehata, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To study the clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with organized hematoma with malignant features in maxillary sinuses. Subjects and Methods. This was a retrospective study of five patients who were treated surgically for organized hematoma. The preoperative CT and MRI findings were studied clinically. The expressions of CD31, CD34, and periostin in surgical samples were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results. The clinical features of organized hematoma, such as a mass expanding from the maxillary sinus with bone destruction, resembled those of maxillary carcinoma. However, CT and MRI provided sufficient and useful information to differentiate this condition from malignancy. Surgical resection was the first-line treatment because of the presence of a firm capsule. Characteristic histopathological findings were a mixture of dilated vessels, hemorrhage, fibrin exudation, fibrosis, hyalinization, and neovascularization. The expressions of periostin, CD31, and CD34 were observed in organized hematoma of the maxillary sinus. Conclusion. The expressions of periostin, CD31, and CD34 were observed in organized hematoma of the maxillary sinus. Organized hematoma is characterized pathologically by a mixture of bleeding, dilated vessels, hemorrhage, fibrin exudation, fibrosis, hyalinization, and neovascularization. CT and MRI show heterogeneous findings reflecting a mixture of these pathological entities. PMID:23533421

  11. Long head of the biceps tendon pathology

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Maximiliano; Calvo, Ana Belén; Alvarez, Victoria; Lepore, Salvador; Ibañez, Federico; Reybet, Juan; Vedova, Franco Della; Aeschlimann, Mauro; Taborro, Betina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Disorders of the long head of the biceps tendon can exist in conjunction with other shoulder pathologies. It was proposed as a cause of pain in patients with rotator cuff injury. A detailed history, thorough physical examination and radiographical evaluation are necessary for a correct diagnosis. The aim of our study was to describe the surgical technique and analyze the results obtained in patients based on the same. Materials and Methods: Were included in this retrospective study 70 patients who had lesions in the long head of the biceps tendon, diagnosed with MRI treated at our institution with arthroscopic biotenodesis technique of the tendon with interference screw in the lower portion of the bicipital groove since January 2009 to January 2012. Functional clinical evaluation was performed with the appropriate scores for the disease (ASES, Rowe, Simple Shoulder Test, Constant Murley). Pain was evaluated using Visual Analog Scale. Results: The Rowe score was 86 points, 81 points ASES, SST 9 points, Constant and Murley 87 points. The VAS showed poor post surgical pain. At the time, no associated deformity similar to a Popeye sign was observed. Discussion: The decision to perform a surgical management of the long head of the biceps pathology depends on the clinical presentation, thorough physical examination with specific test, the presence of associated pathologies and failure of nonsurgical treatment.

  12. A perspective on digital and computational pathology

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthy, Bhagavathi; Coffman, Frederick D.; Cohen, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    The digitization of images has not only led to increasingly sophisticated methods of quantitating information from those images themselves, but also to the development of new physics-based techniques for extracting information from the original specimen and presenting this as visual data in both two and three-dimensional (3D) forms. This evolution of an image-based discipline has reached maturity in Radiology, but it is only just beginning in Pathology. An historical perspective is provided both on the current state of computational imaging in pathology and of the factors that are impeding further progress in the development and application of these approaches. Emphasis is placed on barriers to the dissemination of information in this area. The value of computational imaging in basic and translational research is clear. However, while there are many examples of “virtual diagnostics” in Radiology, there are only relatively few in Pathology. Nevertheless, we can do cellular level analysis of lesions accessible by endoscopic or catheterization procedures, and a number of steps have been taken toward real-time imaging as adjuncts to traditional biopsies. Progress in computational imaging will greatly expand the role of pathologists in clinical medicine as well as research. PMID:26110096

  13. Photomatrix LED therapy of extensive cutaneous pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Zharova, I. Z.; Leviev, Dmitry O.; Tsarev, V. N.; Sarantsev, V. P.; Krusic, Joze

    2000-05-01

    Standard sources of radiation have not sufficient efficiency at treating spatially extended pathology, especially when pathologic areas involve opposite sides of the human being's body or when they are uneven in shape. The typical examples of such pathology are extensive burns, oedema, inflammatory processes, infectious wounds, actinic keratosis, psoriasis, arthritis and neurological diseases. Superbright LEDs gathered in a matrix and grasping the area of irradiation are the most suitable sources of radiation. This article presents the result of investigation of the effectiveness of various types of the blue-to-infrared spectrum range LED array that allow irradiating a surface with an area from several cm2 to several thousand cm2 including the whole human being's body with the intensity varying from 1 to 100 mW/cm2. Besides the matrixes, composed of separate light diodes, modular systems with separate monolithic hybrid chips with a high density of positioning the sources of radiation are considered. The peculiarities and results of applying such systems to treat oedema, cancer, weight regulation, neurological diseases, different infections diseases in combination with PDT, stomatitis and paradontosis are analyzed. The parameters of the photomatrix LED for different spectral regions and different geometry from flat shape to semispherical and cylindrical are presented. The perspective combination photomatrix LED with another therapeutical devices including photovacuum and photomagnetic therapy are considered.

  14. [Incidental finding of pathological coagulation parameters].

    PubMed

    Luxembourg, B; Lindhoff-Last, E

    2014-10-01

    Pathological coagulation parameters may reflect life-threatening hemorrhagic or thromboembolic diseases but may also be a laboratory result without any clinical significance, result from in vitro phenomena or preanalytical errors. This article gives an overview of potential pitfalls in coagulation diagnostics, lists the differential diagnoses of pathological coagulation parameters and describes further steps in the diagnostic approach to clarify pathological results. The focus lies on coagulation parameters that are frequently determined in routine clinical investigations, e.g. platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen. Besides heparin, fondaparinux, danaparoid, and vitamin K antagonists, direct factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors are nowadays available for therapeutic anticoagulation. This article gives an overview of the influence of anticoagulants on coagulation parameters which depends on the dose, the time of the last administration, as well as the method used for the determination of coagulation parameters. Moreover, common reasons for elevation of the fibrin degradation product D-dimer are presented. The clinical utility of D-dimer assays is limited by their poor specificity. Elevated D-dimer concentrations can be found in various diseases and also under normal physiological circumstances (e.g. in the elderly). Thus, the most useful clinical application of D-dimer is evidence of normal values to essentially rule out venous thromboembolism. PMID:25190093

  15. Sensorineural Tinnitus: Its Pathology and Probable Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Aage R.

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is not a single disease but a group of different diseases with different pathologies and therefore different treatments. Regarding tinnitus as a single disease is hampering progress in understanding of the pathophysiology of tinnitus and perhaps, more importantly, it is a serious obstacle in development of effective treatments for tinnitus. Subjective tinnitus is a phantom sound that takes many different forms and has similarities with chronic neuropathic pain. The pathology may be in the cochlea, in the auditory nerve, or, most commonly, in the brain. Like chronic neuropathic pain tinnitus is not life threatening but influences many normal functions such as sleep and the ability to concentrate on work. Some forms of chronic tinnitus have two components, a (phantom) sound and a component that may best be described as suffering or distress. The pathology of these two components may be different and the treatment that is most effective may be different for these two components. The most common form of treatment of tinnitus is pharmacological agents and behavioral treatment combined with sound therapy. Less common treatments are hypnosis and acupuncture. Various forms of neuromodulation are becoming in use in an attempt to reverse maladaptive plastic changes in the brain. PMID:26977153

  16. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging.

    PubMed

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A

    2016-03-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience," which aims at elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in aging. Progeroid mouse models are frequently used in geroscience as they provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the highly complex process of natural aging. This review provides an overview of the most commonly reported nonneoplastic macroscopic and microscopic pathologic findings in progeroid mouse models (eg, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease, intervertebral disc degeneration, kyphosis, sarcopenia, cutaneous atrophy, wound healing, hair loss, alopecia, lymphoid atrophy, cataract, corneal endothelial dystrophy, retinal degenerative diseases, and vascular remodeling). Furthermore, several shortcomings in pathologic analysis and descriptions of these models are discussed. Progeroid mouse models are valuable models for aging, but thorough knowledge of both the mouse strain background and the progeria-related phenotype is required to guide interpretation and translation of the pathology data. PMID:26864891

  17. Sensorineural Tinnitus: Its Pathology and Probable Therapies.

    PubMed

    Møller, Aage R

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is not a single disease but a group of different diseases with different pathologies and therefore different treatments. Regarding tinnitus as a single disease is hampering progress in understanding of the pathophysiology of tinnitus and perhaps, more importantly, it is a serious obstacle in development of effective treatments for tinnitus. Subjective tinnitus is a phantom sound that takes many different forms and has similarities with chronic neuropathic pain. The pathology may be in the cochlea, in the auditory nerve, or, most commonly, in the brain. Like chronic neuropathic pain tinnitus is not life threatening but influences many normal functions such as sleep and the ability to concentrate on work. Some forms of chronic tinnitus have two components, a (phantom) sound and a component that may best be described as suffering or distress. The pathology of these two components may be different and the treatment that is most effective may be different for these two components. The most common form of treatment of tinnitus is pharmacological agents and behavioral treatment combined with sound therapy. Less common treatments are hypnosis and acupuncture. Various forms of neuromodulation are becoming in use in an attempt to reverse maladaptive plastic changes in the brain. PMID:26977153

  18. Clinical pathology services: remapping our strategic itinerary.

    PubMed

    Blanckaert, Norbert

    2010-07-01

    Both technological advances and economic drivers have led to major changes in clinical laboratories across the world, with vastly improved testing productivity. However, the production process capability advances have far outpaced the clinical pathologists' success in assuring optimal test utilization and interpretation. While productivity of 'commodity' testing increases, our healthcare value productivity decreases. Such developments constitute a serious threat to our clinical pathology specialty, not only because pathologists may lose direct control of the commodity testing production activities, but also because the present evolution exposes a failure of our core clinical activities, the pathologist's knowledge processes that translate 'commodity' results into medical outcomes optimization. At a time when a revolution in health care organization is inescapable in the years ahead, clinical pathology must proceed from a merely reactive strategy (to fulfill the 'more with less' demands) to a proactive strategy where we build excellence and visibility in knowledge services on a strong foothold of operational excellence. Based on a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats analysis, we argue that clinical pathology should safeguard and expand its healthcare value productivity by assuming leadership in building integrated laboratory services networks. We also suggest that the core knowledge processes deserve a system approach, for example, by applying a risk-based quality management system. PMID:20491600

  19. Pathology of cloaca anomalies with case correlation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anita; Bischoff, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    During the fourth week of human embryo development, a transient common channel known as a cloaca is formed from which three cavities with three external orifices arises. Cloaca anomalies occur when there is failure of separation of the rectum, vagina, and urethra channel resulting in a single drain into the perineum. In our previous institutional studies, Runck et al. compared human and mouse cloaca development and found early mis-patterning of the embryonic cloaca deranged hedgehog and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling. Also, our group reported the embryological correlation of the epithelial and stromal histology found in step sections of the common channel in 14 cloaca malformations in humans. In this review, we present the pathology of a 4-year-old female with a cloaca and VACTERL complex, and summarize our current knowledge of cloaca pathology. Furthermore, we suggest that careful pathological examination of cloaca specimens in conjunction with surgical orientation may result in a better understanding of the etiology of this condition. PMID:26969228

  20. Clinical pathology services: remapping our strategic itinerary.

    PubMed

    Blanckaert, Norbert

    2010-07-01

    Both technological advances and economic drivers have led to major changes in clinical laboratories across the world, with vastly improved testing productivity. However, the production process capability advances have far outpaced the clinical pathologists' success in assuring optimal test utilization and interpretation. While productivity of 'commodity' testing increases, our healthcare value productivity decreases. Such developments constitute a serious threat to our clinical pathology specialty, not only because pathologists may lose direct control of the commodity testing production activities, but also because the present evolution exposes a failure of our core clinical activities, the pathologist's knowledge processes that translate 'commodity' results into medical outcomes optimization. At a time when a revolution in health care organization is inescapable in the years ahead, clinical pathology must proceed from a merely reactive strategy (to fulfill the 'more with less' demands) to a proactive strategy where we build excellence and visibility in knowledge services on a strong foothold of operational excellence. Based on a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats analysis, we argue that clinical pathology should safeguard and expand its healthcare value productivity by assuming leadership in building integrated laboratory services networks. We also suggest that the core knowledge processes deserve a system approach, for example, by applying a risk-based quality management system.

  1. Unexpected cellular players in Rett syndrome pathology.

    PubMed

    Cronk, James C; Derecki, Noel C; Litvak, Vladimir; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Rett syndrome is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder, primarily caused by mutations of methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Although the genetic cause of disease was identified over a decade ago, a significant gap still remains in both our clinical and scientific understanding of its pathogenesis. Neurons are known to be primary players in pathology, with their dysfunction being the key in Rett syndrome. While studies in mice have demonstrated a clear causative - and potential therapeutic - role for neurons in Rett syndrome, recent work has suggested that other tissues also contribute significantly to progression of the disease. Indeed, Rett syndrome is known to present with several common peripheral pathologies, such as osteopenia, scoliosis, gastrointestinal problems including nutritional defects, and general growth deficit. Mouse models assessing the potential role of non-neuronal cell types have confirmed both roles in disease and potential therapeutic targets. A new picture is emerging in which neurons both initiate and drive pathology, while dysfunction of other cell types and peripheral tissues exacerbate disease, possibly amplifying further neurologic problems, and ultimately result in a positive feedback loop of progressively worsening symptoms. Here, we review what is known about neuronal and non-neuronal cell types, and discuss how this new, integrative understanding of the disease may allow for additional clinical and scientific pathways for treating and understanding Rett syndrome.

  2. The role of Alzheimer’s and cerebrovascular pathology in mediating the effects of age, race, and apolipoprotein E genotype on dementia severity in pathologically confirmed Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Gavett, Brandon E.; John, Samantha E.; Gurnani, Ashita S.; Bussell, Cara A.; Saurman, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dementia severity can be modeled as the construct δ, representing the “cognitive correlates of functional status.” Objective We recently validated a model for estimating δ in the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center’s Uniform Data Set; however, δ’s association with neuropathology remains untested. Methods We used data from 727 decedents evaluated at Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) Centers nationwide. Participants spoke English, had no genetic abnormalities, and were pathologically diagnosed with AD as a primary or contributing etiology. Clinical data from participants’ last visit prior to death were used to estimate dementia severity (δ). Results A structural equation model using age, education, race, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype (number of ε2 and ε4 alleles) as predictors and latent AD pathology and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) pathology as mediators fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.031; CFI = .957). AD pathology mediated the effects of age and APOE genotype on dementia severity. An older age at death and more ε2 alleles were associated with less AD pathology and, in turn, with less severe dementia. In contrast, more ε4 alleles were associated with more pathology and more severe dementia. Although age and race contributed to differences in CVD pathology, CVD pathology was not related to dementia severity in this sample of decedents with pathologically confirmed AD. Conclusions Using δ as an estimate of dementia severity fits well within a structural model in which AD pathology directly affects dementia severity and mediates the relationship between age and APOE genotype on dementia severity. PMID:26444761

  3. Biopsy-verified bronchiolitis obliterans and other noninfectious lung pathologies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Uhlving, Hilde Hylland; Andersen, Claus B; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Gormsen, Magdalena; Pedersen, Karen Damgaard; Buchvald, Frederik; Heilmann, Carsten; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Mortensen, Jann; Moser, Claus; Sengeløv, Henrik; Müller, Klaus Gottlob

    2015-03-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Lung biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis. This study describes the course of BO and assesses the congruity between biopsy-verified BO and a modified version of the National Institutes of Health's consensus criteria for BO syndrome (BOS) based exclusively on noninvasive measures. We included 44 patients transplanted between 2000 and 2010 who underwent lung biopsy for suspected BO. Of those, 23 were diagnosed with BO and 21 presented other noninfectious pulmonary pathologies, such as cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, diffuse alveolar damage, interstitial pneumonia, and nonspecific interstitial fibrosis. Compared with patients with other noninfectious pulmonary pathologies, BO patients had significantly lower values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity, and maximal mid-expiratory flow throughout follow-up, but there was no difference in the change in pulmonary function from the time of lung biopsy. The BO diagnosis was not associated with poorer overall survival. Fifty-two percent of patients with biopsy-verified BO and 24% of patients with other noninfectious pulmonary pathology fulfilled the BOS criteria. Pathological BO diagnosis was not superior to BOS criteria in predicting decrease in pulmonary function beyond the time of biopsy. A lung biopsy may provide a characterization of pathological patterns that can extend our knowledge on the pathophysiology of HSCT-related lung diseases. PMID:25498923

  4. Association of cognitive distortions with problem and pathological gambling in adult male twins.

    PubMed

    Xian, Hong; Shah, Kamini R; Phillips, Sharon M; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Volberg, Rachel; Eisen, Seth A

    2008-09-30

    Treatment studies suggest that gambling-related irrational beliefs and attitudes (i.e., cognitive distortions (CDs)) contribute to the risk for problem gambling behavior. In a community sample of men, we investigated the associations among lifetime gambling-related CDs, psychiatric disorders other than pathological gambling , and problem gambling severity. Subjects were 1354 members of the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Problem gambling and gambling-related CDs were derived from a 2002 interview using the National Opinion Research Center DSM-IV Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS). Exploratory factor analysis was performed with the 12 CD items to identify an underlying construct. Generalized linear models were computed to test for associations among CDs, psychiatric disorders other than pathological gambling, and gambling problem severity. Co-twin control analyses of monozygotic twin pairs discordant for problem gambling severity adjusted for genetic and shared environmental influences. Twelve CD items related to one underlying CD construct. After adjustment for lifetime psychiatric disorders, pathological gambling symptoms were positively associated with higher CD scores. Pathological gambling symptoms remained significantly associated with CD scores after controlling for genetic and shared environmental influence. These results provide empirical support for an association between gambling-related CDs and gambling problem severity, even after controlling for genetic and shared environmental influences and non-pathological gambling psychiatric disorders. Public health messages and therapeutic interventions that reinforce the randomness of gambling and draw attention to distorted thinking may prevent the development of problem gambling and improve treatment outcomes.

  5. The Rise of Forensic Pathology in Human Medicine: Lessons for Veterinary Forensic Pathology.

    PubMed

    Pollanen, M S

    2016-09-01

    The rise of forensic pathology in human medicine has greatly contributed to the administration of justice, public safety and security, and medical knowledge. However, the evolution of human forensic pathology has been challenging. Veterinary forensic pathologists can learn from some of the lessons that have informed the growth and development of human forensic pathology. Three main observations have emerged in the past decade. First, wrongful convictions tell us to use a truth-seeking stance rather than an a priori "think dirty" stance when investigating obscure death. Second, missed homicides and concealed homicides tell us that training and certification are the beginning of reliable forensic pathology. Third, failure of a sustainable institutional arrangement that fosters a combination of service, research, and teaching will lead to stagnation of knowledge. Forensic pathology of humans and animals will flourish, help protect society, and support justice if we embrace a modern biomedical scientific model for our practice. We must build training programs, contribute to the published literature, and forge strong collaborative institutions.

  6. Guidelines for resident training in veterinary clinical pathology. III: cytopathology and surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Kidney, Beverly A; Dial, Sharon M; Christopher, Mary M

    2009-09-01

    The Education Committee of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology has identified a need for improved structure and guidance of training residents in clinical pathology. This article is the third in a series of articles that address this need. The goals of this article are to describe learning objectives and competencies in knowledge, abilities, and skills in cytopathology and surgical pathology (CSP); provide options and ideas for training activities; and identify resources in veterinary CSP for faculty, training program coordinators, and residents. Guidelines were developed in consultation with Education Committee members and peer experts and with evaluation of the literature. The primary objectives of training in CSP are: (1) to develop a thorough, extensive, and relevant knowledge base of biomedical and clinical sciences applicable to the practice of CSP in domestic animals, laboratory animals, and other nondomestic animal species; (2) to be able to reason, think critically, investigate, use scientific evidence, and communicate effectively when making diagnoses and consulting and to improve and advance the practice of pathology; and (3) to acquire selected technical skills used in CSP and pathology laboratory management. These guidelines define expected competencies that will help ensure proficiency, leadership, and the advancement of knowledge in veterinary CSP and will provide a useful framework for didactic and clinical activities in resident-training programs.

  7. Imaging of Common Arthroscopic Pathology of the Ankle.

    PubMed

    Grambart, Sean T

    2016-10-01

    Arthroscopy of the ankle is used in the treatment and diagnosis of a spectrum of intra-articular pathology including soft tissue and osseous impingement, osteochondral lesions, arthrofibrosis, and synovitis. To help identify the correct pathology, imaging techniques are often used to aid the surgeon in diagnosing pathology and determining best treatment options. This article discusses the use of imaging in various ankle pathologies. PMID:27599435

  8. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493....1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  9. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…

  10. Instrumental Dimensioning of Normal and Pathological Phonation Using Acoustic Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putzer, Manfred; Barry, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the dimensions of normal and pathological phonation. Separation of normal voices from pathological voices is tested under different aspects. Using a new parametrization of voice-quality properties in the acoustic signal, the vowel productions of 534 speakers (267 M, 267 F) without any reported voice pathology and the…

  11. Clowns benefit children hospitalized for respiratory pathologies.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Mario; Isola, Elena; Paolone, Giuseppe; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The study aims at evaluating health-generating function of humor therapy in a hospital ward hosting children suffering from respiratory pathologies. The main scope of this study is to investigate possible positive effects of the presence of a clown on both the clinical evolution of the on-going disease, and on some physiological and pain parameters. Forty-three children with respiratory pathologies participated in the study: 21 of them belonged to the experimental group (EG) and 22 children to the control group (CG). During their hospitalization, the children of the EG interacted with two clowns who were experienced in the field of pediatric intervention. All participants were evaluated with respect to clinical progress and to a series of physiological and pain measures both before and after the clown interaction. When compared with the CG, EG children showed an earlier disappearance of the pathological symptoms. Moreover, the interaction of the clown with the children led to a statistically significant lowering of diastolic blood pressure, respiratory frequency and temperature in the EG as compared with the control group. The other two parameters of systolic pressure and heart frequency yielded results in the same direction, without reaching statistical significance. A similar health-inducing effect of clown presence was observed on pain parameters, both by self evaluation and assessment by nurses. Taken together, our data indicate that the presence of clowns in the ward has a possible health-inducing effect. Thus, humor can be seen as an easy-to-use, inexpensive and natural therapeutic modality to be used within different therapeutic settings. PMID:21785637

  12. Clowns Benefit Children Hospitalized for Respiratory Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Bertini, Mario; Isola, Elena; Paolone, Giuseppe; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The study aims at evaluating health-generating function of humor therapy in a hospital ward hosting children suffering from respiratory pathologies. The main scope of this study is to investigate possible positive effects of the presence of a clown on both the clinical evolution of the on-going disease, and on some physiological and pain parameters. Forty-three children with respiratory pathologies participated in the study: 21 of them belonged to the experimental group (EG) and 22 children to the control group (CG). During their hospitalization, the children of the EG interacted with two clowns who were experienced in the field of pediatric intervention. All participants were evaluated with respect to clinical progress and to a series of physiological and pain measures both before and after the clown interaction. When compared with the CG, EG children showed an earlier disappearance of the pathological symptoms. Moreover, the interaction of the clown with the children led to a statistically significant lowering of diastolic blood pressure, respiratory frequency and temperature in the EG as compared with the control group. The other two parameters of systolic pressure and heart frequency yielded results in the same direction, without reaching statistical significance. A similar health-inducing effect of clown presence was observed on pain parameters, both by self evaluation and assessment by nurses. Taken together, our data indicate that the presence of clowns in the ward has a possible health-inducing effect. Thus, humor can be seen as an easy-to-use, inexpensive and natural therapeutic modality to be used within different therapeutic settings. PMID:21785637

  13. Uncommon Manifestations of Intervertebral Disk Pathologic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Diehn, Felix E; Maus, Timothy P; Morris, Jonathan M; Carr, Carrie M; Kotsenas, Amy L; Luetmer, Patrick H; Lehman, Vance T; Thielen, Kent R; Nassr, Ahmad; Wald, John T

    2016-01-01

    Beyond the familiar disk herniations with typical clinical features, intervertebral disk pathologic conditions can have a wide spectrum of imaging and clinical manifestations. The goal of this review is to illustrate and discuss unusual manifestations of intervertebral disk pathologic conditions that radiologists may encounter, including disk herniations in unusual locations, those with atypical imaging features, and those with uncommon pathophysiologic findings. Examples of atypical disk herniations presented include dorsal epidural, intradural, symptomatic thoracic (including giant calcified), extreme lateral (retroperitoneal), fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-avid, acute intravertebral (Schmorl node), and massive lumbar disk herniations. Examples of atypical pathophysiologic conditions covered are discal cysts, fibrocartilaginous emboli to the spinal cord, tiny calcified disks or disk-level spiculated osteophytes causing spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and intracranial hypotension, and pediatric acute calcific discitis. This broad gamut of disease includes a variety of sizes of disk pathologic conditions, from the tiny (eg, the minuscule calcified disks causing high-flow CSF leaks) to the extremely large (eg, giant calcified thoracic intradural disk herniations causing myelopathy). A spectrum of clinical acuity is represented, from hyperacute fibrocartilaginous emboli causing spinal cord infarct, to acute Schmorl nodes, to chronic intradural herniations. The entities included are characterized by a range of clinical courses, from the typically devastating cord infarct caused by fibrocartilaginous emboli, to the usually spontaneously resolving pediatric acute calcific discitis. Several conditions have important differential diagnostic considerations, and others have relatively diagnostic imaging findings. The pathophysiologic findings are well understood for some of these entities and poorly defined for others. Radiologists' knowledge of this broad scope of

  14. Clowns benefit children hospitalized for respiratory pathologies.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Mario; Isola, Elena; Paolone, Giuseppe; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The study aims at evaluating health-generating function of humor therapy in a hospital ward hosting children suffering from respiratory pathologies. The main scope of this study is to investigate possible positive effects of the presence of a clown on both the clinical evolution of the on-going disease, and on some physiological and pain parameters. Forty-three children with respiratory pathologies participated in the study: 21 of them belonged to the experimental group (EG) and 22 children to the control group (CG). During their hospitalization, the children of the EG interacted with two clowns who were experienced in the field of pediatric intervention. All participants were evaluated with respect to clinical progress and to a series of physiological and pain measures both before and after the clown interaction. When compared with the CG, EG children showed an earlier disappearance of the pathological symptoms. Moreover, the interaction of the clown with the children led to a statistically significant lowering of diastolic blood pressure, respiratory frequency and temperature in the EG as compared with the control group. The other two parameters of systolic pressure and heart frequency yielded results in the same direction, without reaching statistical significance. A similar health-inducing effect of clown presence was observed on pain parameters, both by self evaluation and assessment by nurses. Taken together, our data indicate that the presence of clowns in the ward has a possible health-inducing effect. Thus, humor can be seen as an easy-to-use, inexpensive and natural therapeutic modality to be used within different therapeutic settings.

  15. [Pathology of travelers in the Antilles. Role of imported metropolitan pathology].

    PubMed

    Strobel, M; Gabriel, J M; Cousin, P; Daijardin, J B; De Caunes, F; Dorak, B

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary and retrospective review--with a southern perspective--of some traveller's pathologies, mostly imported, and leading to hospital admission in Guadeloupe (FWI). End stage patients (cancer, AIDS...) frequently travel for a last, "compassional" trip. Ischemic heart disease is the leading pathology imported from the mother country (France). As well as in diabetes or psychiatric illness, destabilization frequently occurs as a consequence of travel (jet lag). Compulsive tennis plus dehydration cause the very common stone passage of nephrolithiasis. Concern is growing for heroin withdrawal syndrome or cocaine (crack)-abuse, and for supply for rare and expensive anticancer, antigraft rejection or antinfective (AIDS) agents. Much more familiar to us are photodermatitis, larva migrans, dengue, or ciguaterra, locally acquired. On the other hand some pathologies are quite "exotic" to us: Kaposi sarcoma, Lyme, or Behçet disease, familial mediterranean fever, brucellosis.

  16. Manpower in pathology 1969-1975

    PubMed Central

    Greenbury, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    An attempt has been made to assess for the period 1969-1975 the demand for consultant pathologists and the adequacy of the trainee cadre to fulfil this demand. In addition new data have been acquired on the way in which pathologists apportion their time between specialties and the availability of specialist opinion and other derived information. The demand for consultants in all specialties, with the exception of morbid anatomy, is likely to exceed the supply. The shortfall is greatest in medical microbiology and chemical pathology, but may be felt equally in haematology in the short term. PMID:5094688

  17. Manpower in pathology 1969-1975.

    PubMed

    Greenbury, C L

    1971-09-01

    An attempt has been made to assess for the period 1969-1975 the demand for consultant pathologists and the adequacy of the trainee cadre to fulfil this demand. In addition new data have been acquired on the way in which pathologists apportion their time between specialties and the availability of specialist opinion and other derived information. The demand for consultants in all specialties, with the exception of morbid anatomy, is likely to exceed the supply. The shortfall is greatest in medical microbiology and chemical pathology, but may be felt equally in haematology in the short term.

  18. Comparative and experimental pathology of fibrosing colonopathy.

    PubMed

    van Velzen, D; Ball, L M; Dezfulian, A R; Southgate, A; Howard, C V

    1996-03-01

    Although the occurrence of fibrosing colonopathy is temporally associated with the introduction of high-strength pancreatic enzyme supplements, its pathogenesis remains uncertain. The UK case-control study showed fibrosing colonopathy to be associated with high doses of high-strength pancreatic enzyme supplements and with a group of brands which occupy only 30% of the market. Two alternative hypotheses were proposed to explain the aetiology of fibrosing colonopathy: exposure to high levels of enzymes or to as yet unidentified components of the formulation. Comparison of the anatomical pathology of fibrosing colonopathy with that of previously encountered forms of obstructive gastrointestinal pathology, such as stricturing lesions due to potassium chloride preparations and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, confirmed it to be a previously unencountered, long-segment lesion of the colon. Thus the use of the descriptive term 'stricture' is a misnomer leading to much clinical confusion when discussing obstructive bowel pathology in cystic fibrosis patients. Gavage studies in the rat with one of the two monomers (ethyl acrylate) forming the methacrylic acid copolymer (Eudragit L30D55) used for the enteric coating of the high-strength pancreatic enzyme supplements, have shown pathology comparable to fibrosing colonopathy. These findings prompted a series of exploratory studies in adolescent pigs. After seven days caecal gavage of Eudragit L30D55 at doses of 10, 50 or 500 mg/kg/day (comparable to human intake), extensive fibrosing colonopathy-like changes, inclusive of dense submucosal fibrosis, were noted at all dose levels in seven out of nine animals. Similar studies of the monomer components of the Eudragit L30D55 copolymer, at dose levels of 0.015 to 50 mg/kg/day, representing possible residues in Eudragit L30D55, did not produce comparable changes. The conclusion is that, although the precise mechanisms have not been elucidated, the role of enteric coatings

  19. Hierarchical nucleus segmentation in digital pathology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi; Ratner, Vadim; Zhu, Liangjia; Diprima, Tammy; Kurc, Tahsin; Tannenbaum, Allen; Saltz, Joel

    2016-03-01

    Extracting nuclei is one of the most actively studied topic in the digital pathology researches. Most of the studies directly search the nuclei (or seeds for the nuclei) from the finest resolution available. While the richest information has been utilized by such approaches, it is sometimes difficult to address the heterogeneity of nuclei in different tissues. In this work, we propose a hierarchical approach which starts from the lower resolution level and adaptively adjusts the parameters while progressing into finer and finer resolution. The algorithm is tested on brain and lung cancers images from The Cancer Genome Atlas data set.

  20. The Pathology of Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitch, Jay H

    2016-05-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare and severe liver disease that usually develops in 8 weeks or less in individuals without preexisting liver disease. Its chief causes worldwide are hepatitis virus infections (hepatitis A, B, and E) and drug hepatotoxicity (particularly intentional or unintentional acetaminophen toxicity). Massive hepatic necrosis is often seen in liver specimens in ALF and features marked loss of hepatocytes, variable degrees of inflammation, and a stereotypic proliferation of bile ductular structures (neocholangioles) derived from activated periportal hepatic progenitor cells. This paper reviews the liver pathology in ALF, including forms of zonal necrosis and their etiologies. PMID:27058243