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  1. Full PACS installation in Seoul National University Hospital, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, HyunWoo; Kim, DongOok; Ahn, JinYoung; Lee, DongHyuk; Lee, JinHyung; Park, HeeJung; Kim, JongHyo; Han, Jungu

    2002-05-01

    Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) is composed of two buildings and has more than 1500 beds for patients needing hospitalization. Marotech has provided full PACS to SNUH with total HIS Integration in this year. In this paper, the installation process and management experience for seven months will be presented. At SNUH, 1643.8 exams were held per day during seven month after PACS installation. It is about 40 Gigabytes per day. Two acquisition servers (ACQ 1, 2), two database servers (DB 1, 2), two storage servers (LTA, network attached storage-NAS), one backup server (DLT) totally 8 servers were installed. SNUH has 11 CRs, 4 CTs, 3 MRIs, 9 NMs, 4 RFs, 20 USs, 7 ESs, 4 SCs, 5 XAs, and 5 Film Ditigers. All these modalities were integrated with PACS. DICOM 3.0 standard was conformed for images. DICOM Gateways were installed for modalities that do not support DICOM. The doctor can query and view Endoscopes, pathologic and anatomic data as well as radiological data. All the past five years exams is accessed less than 10 Seconds via on-line. Through the cooperation with SNUH and Marotech, HIS and PACS work together in stable state. These systems were integrated with HL7 standards and IHE.

  2. Status report on the Seoul National University AMS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. C.; Youn, M.; Kim, I. C.; Park, J. H.; Song, Y. M.; Kang, J.; Choi, H. R.

    2004-08-01

    We report recent progress at the Seoul National University AMS facility in the area of sample preparations, facility maintenance, and briefly describe examples of present applications and future plans. The background level depending on the preparation methods is discussed, and water preparation line that are still under development is described. As the successful application of our facility, dating results of a historic site and a Paleolithic site, dating of Siberian permafrost and bomb pulse measurement are shown. Future plans for Be/Al AMS and biomedical application are discussed.

  3. Seoul National University Bundang Hospital's Electronic System for Total Care

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Lee, Kee Hyuck; Lee, Hak Jong; Ha, Kyooseob; Lim, Cheong; Chin, Ho Jun; Yun, Jonghoar; Cho, Eun-Young; Chung, Eunja; Baek, Rong-Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Chul Hee; Lee, Hai-Seok; Byeon, Nam-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, which is the first Stage 7 hospital outside of North America, has adopted and utilized an innovative and emerging information technology system to improve the efficiency and quality of patient care. The objective of this paper is to briefly introduce the major components of the SNUBH information system and to describe our progress toward a next-generation hospital information system (HIS). Methods SNUBH opened in 2003 as a fully digital hospital by successfully launching a new HIS named BESTCare, "Bundang hospital Electronic System for Total Care". Subsequently, the system has been continuously improved with new applications, including close-loop medication administration (CLMA), clinical data warehouse (CDW), health information exchange (HIE), and disaster recovery (DR), which have resulted in the achievement of Stage 7 status. Results The BESTCare system is an integrated system for a university hospital setting. BESTCare is mainly composed of three application domains: the core applications, an information infrastructure, and channel domains. The most critical and unique applications of the system, such as the electronic medical record (EMR), computerized physician order entry (CPOE), clinical decision support system (CDSS), CLMA, CDW, HIE, and DR applications, are described in detail. Conclusions Beyond our achievement of Stage 7 hospital status, we are currently developing a next-generation HIS with new goals of implementing infrastructure that is flexible and innovative, implementing a patient-centered system, and strengthening the IT capability to maximize the hospital value. PMID:22844650

  4. A Case Study of MOOCs Design and Administration at Seoul National University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Mihwa; Han, Songlee; Seo, Seungil

    2014-01-01

    This research, based on the case study of edX at Seoul National University, which is running Korea's first Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), discussed and proposed the roles of principal facilitators, the process, and the relationships among various facilitators in selecting, designing, opening and administrating MOOCs classes. Researches on…

  5. Re-Locating the National: Spatialization of the National Past in Seoul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soochul

    2009-01-01

    This article is an attempt to make sense of the emerging culture of mobility in Seoul in the 1990s. The 1990s in a South Korean context is emblematic of a changed social reality and transformation. Grand narratives of development, anti-state democratization activism and Cold War politics were losing their effect and authority. Meanwhile, new…

  6. Design Features and Commissioning of the Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J. Chung, K.; H. An, Y.; K. Jung, B.; Y. Lee, H.; C., Sung; S. Na, Y.; S. Hahm, T.; S. Hwang, Y.

    2013-03-01

    A new spherical torus called VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus) is designed, constructed and successfully commissioned at Seoul National University. A unique design feature of the VEST is two partial solenoid coils installed at both vertical ends of a center stack, which can provide sufficient magnetic fluxes to initiate tokamak plasmas while keeping a low aspect ratio configuration in the central region. According to initial double null merging start-up scenario using the partial solenoid coils, appropriate power supplies for driving a toroidal field coil, outer poloidal field coils, and the partial solenoid coils are fabricated and successfully commissioned. For reliable start-up, a pre-ionization system with two cost-effective homemade magnetron power supplies is also prepared. In addition, magnetic and spectroscopic diagnostics with appropriate data acquisition and control systems are well prepared for initial operation of the device. The VEST is ready for tokamak plasma operation by completing and commissioning most of the designed components.

  7. Evaluation of the Department of Neurosurgery of the Seoul National University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Neurosurgery (DNS) of the Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH), belongs to the largest and oldest such institutions in Korea. Because of its growing reputation it is hardly surprising that the DNS draws visitor and scholars for clinical education and academic exchange from far beyond Korea. I myself visited the SNUH in February and March 2013. During this time I composed this evaluation in which I compare the DNS to my home Department at the Johannes Gutenberg-University in Mainz/Germany, as well as the situation of Neurosurgery in Korea and Germany in general. In the first part this evaluation summarizes data concerning equipment, staff and organizational structure, as well as educational and scientific issues of the DNS. In the second part some issues of interest are discussed in special regard to the corresponding practices in Germany. PMID:23908698

  8. Design and Construction of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Younghwa; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Jung, Bongki; Lee, Hyunyeong; Sung, Choongki; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Na, Yong-Su; Hwang, Yong-Seok

    2011-10-01

    A new spherical torus, named as VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus), has been built at Seoul National University to investigate versatile research topics such as double null merging start-up, divertor engineering and non-inductive current drive. VEST is characterized by two partial solenoid coils installed at both vertical ends of a center stack, which will be used for double null merging start-up schemes. A poloidal field (PF) coil system including the partial solenoids for break-down and a long solenoid for the sustainment of merged plasma has been designed by solving circuit equations for the PF coils and vacuum vessel elements in consideration of required volt-second, null configuration and eddy current. To supply required currents to the PF coils and solenoids, power supplies based on double-swing circuit have been designed and fabricated with capacitor banks and thyristor switch assemblies. Also a power supply utilizing cost-effective commercial batteries has been developed for toroidal field(TF) coils. Detailed descriptions on the design of VEST and some initial test results will be presented.

  9. Design of interferometer system on Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D. H.; An, Y. H.; Chung, K. J.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    A 94 GHz heterodyne interferometer system was designed to measure the plasma density of VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus), which was recently built at Seoul National University. Two 94 GHz Gunn oscillators with a frequency difference of 40 MHz were used in the microwave electronics part of a heterodyne interferometer system. A compact beam focusing system utilizing a pair of plano-convex lenses and a concave mirror was designed to maximize the effective beam reception and spatial resolution. Beam path analysis based on Gaussian optics was used in the design of the beam focusing system. The design of the beam focusing system and the beam path analysis were verified with a couple of experiments that were done within an experimental framework that considered the real dimensions of a vacuum vessel. Optimum distances between the optical components and the beam radii along the beam path obtained from the experiments were in good agreement with the beam path analysis using the Gaussian optics. Both experimentation and numerical calculations confirmed that the designed beam focusing system maximized the spatial resolution of the measurement; moreover, the beam waist was located at the center of the plasma to generate a phase shift more effectively in plasmas. The interferometer system presented in this paper is expected to be used in the measurements of line integrated plasma densities during the start-up phase of VEST.

  10. Time series analysis of patients seeking orthodontic treatment at Seoul National University Dental Hospital over the past decade.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Woo; Park, Ji-Hoon; Park, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Shin-Jae

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes changes in the characteristics of patients seeking orthodontic treatment over the past decade and the treatment they received, to identify any seasonal variations or trends. This single-center retrospective cohort study included all patients who presented to Seoul National University Dental Hospital for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015. The study analyzed a set of heterogeneous variables grouped into the following categories: demographic (age, gender, and address), clinical (Angle Classification, anomaly, mode of orthodontic treatment, removable appliances for Phase 1 treatment, fixed appliances for Phase 2 treatment, orthognathic surgery, extraction, mini-plate, mini-implant, and patient transfer) and time-related variables (date of first visit and orthodontic treatment time). Time series analysis was applied to each variable. The sample included 14,510 patients with a median age of 19.5 years. The number of patients and their ages demonstrated a clear seasonal variation, which peaked in the summer and winter. Increasing trends were observed for the proportion of male patients, use of non-extraction treatment modality, use of ceramic brackets, patients from provinces outside the Seoul region at large, patients transferred from private practitioners, and patients who underwent orthognathic surgery performed by university surgeons. Decreasing trends included the use of metal brackets and orthodontic treatment time. Time series analysis revealed a seasonal variation in some characteristics, and several variables showed changing trends over the past decade.

  11. Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT): A Remotely Operated Robotic Telescope for Education and Research at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Myungshin; Choi, Changsu; Kim, Kihyun

    2015-08-01

    We introduce the Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT), a remotely operated, robotic 0.43-meter telescope. The telescope was installed at the Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, in 2014 October, to secure regular and exclusive access to the dark sky and excellent atmospheric conditions in the southern hemisphere from the Seoul National University (SNU) campus. Here, we describe the LSGT system and its performance, present example images from early observations, and discuss a future plan to upgrade the system. The use of the telescope includes (i) long-term monitoring observations of nearby galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and supernovae; (ii) rapid follow-up observations of transients such as gamma-ray bursts and gravitational wave sources; and (iii) observations for educational activities at SNU. Based on observations performed so far, we find that the telescope is capable of providing images to a depth of R=21.5 mag (point source detection) at 5-σ with 15 min total integration time under good obs-erving conditions.

  12. Kinetics of electrons and neutral particles in radio-frequency transformer coupled plasma H- ion source at Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, K. J.; Dang, J. J.; Kim, J. Y.; Cho, W. H.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-10-01

    In volume production H- ion sources, control of electron temperature is essential due to its close correlation with the generation of vibrationally-excited hydrogen molecules in the driver region as well as the generation of H- ions by dissociative attachment in the extraction region. In the ion source group at Seoul National University (SNU) in Korea, a lot of research effort has been made to the development of a volume production H- ion source based on radio-frequency (RF) transformer-coupled plasma (TCP) for long lifetime continuous wave (CW) operation. It has a spiral RF antenna located outside the discharge chamber to generate a plasma with high electron temperature in the driver region and employs a magnetic filter field to prevent high energy electrons from being transported to the extraction region. In this paper, we present the recent progress on understanding of the underlying physics of the RF TCP H- ion source at SNU. Special attention is paid to the characterization of electron kinetics regime for controlling electron energy distribution and the influence of relaxation of neutral particles during the transport across the magnetic filter region. Effect of the degree of dissociation on the production of H- ions is also discussed.

  13. Seoul National University Camera II (SNUCAM-II): The New SED Camera for the Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Changsu; Im, Myungshin

    2017-06-01

    We present the characteristics and the performance of the new CCD camera system, SNUCAM-II (Seoul National University CAMera system II) that was installed on the Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT) at the Siding Spring Observatory in 2016. SNUCAM-II consists of a deep depletion chip covering a wide wavelength from 0.3 μm to 1.1 μm with high sensitivity (QE at > 80% over 0.4 to 0.9 μm). It is equipped with the SDSS ugriz filters and 13 medium band width (50 nm) filters, enabling us to study spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of diverse objects from extragalactic sources to solar system objects. On LSGT, SNUCAM-II offers 15.7 × 15.7 arcmin field-of-view (FOV) at a pixel scale of 0.92 arcsec and a limiting magnitude of g = 19.91 AB mag and z=18.20 AB mag at 5σ with 180 sec exposure time for point source detection.}

  14. Books and National Development. Seminar Report April 27-29, 1968, Academy House, Seoul.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korean Publishers Association, Seoul.

    Representatives from Korea, China, Indonesia, Japan, Thailand, the United States and Southeast Asian Ministers of Education (SEAMES) attended an international seminar to reaffirm the importance of books as national development tools, to seek measures for having it reflected in the national policies and to promote international cooperation in book…

  15. An international survey of physicians regarding clinical trials: a comparison between Kyoto University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ito-Ihara, Toshiko; Hong, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Ock-Joo; Sumi, Eriko; Kim, Soo-Youn; Tanaka, Shiro; Narita, Keiichi; Hatta, Taichi; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Kyu-Jin; Miyagawa, Takuya; Minami, Manabu; Murayama, Toshinori; Yokode, Masayuki

    2013-10-25

    International clinical trials are now rapidly expanding into Asia. However, the proportion of global trials is higher in South Korea compared to Japan despite implementation of similar governmental support in both countries. The difference in clinical trial environment might influence the respective physicians' attitudes and experience towards clinical trials. Therefore, we designed a questionnaire to explore how physicians conceive the issues surrounding clinical trials in both countries. A questionnaire survey was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital (KUHP) and Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and 2 open-ended questions on broad key issues relating to clinical trials. The number of responders was 301 at KUHP and 398 at SNUH. Doctors with trial experience were 196 at KUHP and 150 at SNUH. Among them, 12% (24/196) at KUHP and 41% (61/150) at SUNH had global trial experience. Most respondents at both institutions viewed clinical trials favorably and thought that conducting clinical trials contributed to medical advances, which would ultimately lead to new and better treatments. The main reason raised as a hindrance to conducting clinical trials was the lack of personnel support and time. Doctors at both university hospitals thought that more clinical research coordinators were required to conduct clinical trials more efficiently. KUHP doctors were driven mainly by pure academic interest or for their desire to find new treatments, while obtaining credits for board certification and co-authorship on manuscripts also served as motivation factors for doctors at SNUH. Our results revealed that there might be two different approaches to increase clinical trial activity. One is a social level approach to establish clinical trial infrastructure providing sufficient clinical research professionals. The other is an individual level approach that would provide incentives to encourage doctors to participate in and

  16. An international survey of physicians regarding clinical trials: a comparison between Kyoto University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background International clinical trials are now rapidly expanding into Asia. However, the proportion of global trials is higher in South Korea compared to Japan despite implementation of similar governmental support in both countries. The difference in clinical trial environment might influence the respective physicians’ attitudes and experience towards clinical trials. Therefore, we designed a questionnaire to explore how physicians conceive the issues surrounding clinical trials in both countries. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital (KUHP) and Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and 2 open-ended questions on broad key issues relating to clinical trials. Results The number of responders was 301 at KUHP and 398 at SNUH. Doctors with trial experience were 196 at KUHP and 150 at SNUH. Among them, 12% (24/196) at KUHP and 41% (61/150) at SUNH had global trial experience. Most respondents at both institutions viewed clinical trials favorably and thought that conducting clinical trials contributed to medical advances, which would ultimately lead to new and better treatments. The main reason raised as a hindrance to conducting clinical trials was the lack of personnel support and time. Doctors at both university hospitals thought that more clinical research coordinators were required to conduct clinical trials more efficiently. KUHP doctors were driven mainly by pure academic interest or for their desire to find new treatments, while obtaining credits for board certification and co-authorship on manuscripts also served as motivation factors for doctors at SNUH. Conclusions Our results revealed that there might be two different approaches to increase clinical trial activity. One is a social level approach to establish clinical trial infrastructure providing sufficient clinical research professionals. The other is an individual level approach that would provide incentives to

  17. [Rythmic-pathology: the French national pathology network for thymic epithelial tumours].

    PubMed

    Chalabreysse, Lara; Thomas De Montpreville, Vincent; De Muret, Anne; Hofman, Véronique; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Parrens, Marie; Payan, Marie-José; Rouquette, Isabelle; Secq, Véronique; Girard, Nicolas; Marx, Alexander; Besse, Benjamin; Molina, Thierry Jo

    2014-02-01

    Epithelial thymic tumours are rare and sometimes difficult to classify. Since 2010, the French National Cancer Institute supports a French national network, called Rythmic, devoted to the treatment of these tumours through regional and national multidisciplinary conferences using the web. All the tumours are secondarily reviewed by a French pathology national network for classification and staging. This review focuses on the presentation of the Rythmic network, and mainly to the Pathology review process. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Cyanide Poisoning Deaths Detected at the National Forensic Service Headquarters in Seoul of Korea: A Six Year Survey (2005~2010)

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Jong Sook; Yum, Hye Sun

    2012-01-01

    The records of 255 cyanide poisoning deaths obtained from National Forensic Service (NFS) headquarters, located in Seoul of Korea, from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age was 41.88 ± 13.09 and range was 6~80 years (unknown in seven cases). The number of deaths of males and females were 200 and 53, respectively (unknown in two cases). The largest number of cases occurred in people aged 40-49 years (81 cases, 31.8%), followed by the age groups 30~39 years (51 cases, 20%), 50~59 years (44 cases, 17.2%) and 20~29 years (43 cases, 16.9%). The total number of deaths among other age groups (below 10, 10~19, 60~69, 70~79, over 80 years and unknown) were 36, representing only 14.1%. Of all cyanide poisoning deaths, 97.3% were due to suicide, and 14.5% of the total number who died received medical treatment. The most frequent site for ingestion was the person's own residence (120 cases, 47.1%) and the route of administration was mainly oral (252, 98.8%). From the total of 255 cyanide poisoning cases, white powders were submitted for analysis in 92 cases. Potassium cyanide and sodium cyanide occupied 51 and 41 cases, respectively. This study showed that poisoning deaths due to cyanide are one of the continuously reported public health problems in Korea. Enforcement of regulations and safety education to prevent cyanide poisoning should be carried out by the government. PMID:24278610

  19. Clinical study on psoriasis patients for past 30 years (1982-2012) in Seoul National University Hospital Psoriasis Clinic.

    PubMed

    Na, Sun Jae; Jo, Seong Jin; Youn, Jai Il

    2013-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing disorder which shows variable clinical features. The long-term clinical study with many patients is important to elucidate the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical features of psoriasis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical features of psoriasis in Korean patients. Epidemiologic and clinic data and assessments for severity of extent and activity of psoriasis were collected from the medical records of 5084 patients, who had been newly diagnosed with psoriasis in the Psoriasis Clinic of Seoul National University Hospital between 1982 and 2012. The sex ratio of the psoriasis patients was 1.2:1 (male 54.6%, female 45.4%). The peak age of onset in males was 20s, while it was the teenage years in females. A total of 63.5% of patients developed psoriasis before 30 years of age. Family history of psoriasis was observed in 26.0% of patients. Moderate to severe extent of involvement were more frequently observed in male patients and patients under 30 years of onset age than in females and patients 30 years or over of onset age, respectively. Moderate to severe disease activity were also more frequently presented in male patients, but not in patients under 30 years of onset age. The most common morphological type was nummular (56.7%), followed by large plaque (28.5%) and guttate (8.5%). Nail involvement accompanied in 26.4% of patients. We demonstrated the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of psoriasis in Korean patients.

  20. Seoul: Korea's high-tech hotbed.

    PubMed

    Rusoff, D

    1987-04-01

    Seoul, Korea, is in the throes of change--in the way its people live, in the jobs they do, and in the makeup of its populace. The city of Seoul proper houses 1 out of every 4 Koreans. Home to 95 of Korea's 100 largest trading companies and 42 of the 46 family-based industrial conglomerates--Seoul controls Korean commerce. Employment opportunities have kept pace with Seoul's rapidly growing labor supply resulting in low unemployment by developing country standards. Only 12.3% of Koreans now live below the poverty line, down from nearly 41% in 1962. The real per capita income in Seoul rose from a dismal $87 in 1962 to nearly $2000 in 1985. The completion of 2 commuter rail lines in 1974 accelerated the movement of people out of the city and into suburban areas, concentrating urban growth along the railway corridors. Population densities in the city's central wards make Seoul 1 of the world's most densely populated cities. Although Seoul's population is young--27.9% of the population was under age 15 in 1983-- it is becoming increasingly dominated by those of working age. Seoul is essentially a city of migrants; more than 1/2 of the city's grwoth since 1960 is attributable to in-migration. Although the trend is toward rising white-collar employment, Seoul is still a blue-collar town. Seoul's educational system is so highly regarded in Korea that families move to seoul just to enroll their children. Korean spending patterns are influenced greatly by the Korean penchant for higher education.

  1. Pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.; Farber, J.L. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 29 chapters. Some of the titles are: Genetic and Systemic Diseases; Cell Injury; Inflammation; The Gastrointestinal o Tract; The Pancreas; Environmental and Nutritional Pathology; Infectious and Parasitic Diseases; and Blood Vessels.

  2. Seoul's greenbelt: an experiment in urban containment

    Treesearch

    David N. Bengston; Youn Yeo-Chang

    2005-01-01

    Urban containment policies are considered by some to be a promising approach to growth management. The greenbelt-based urban containment policy of Seoul, Republic of Korea is examined as a case study. Seoul's greenbelt has generated both significant social costs and benefits. Korea's greenbelt policy is currently being revised, largely due to pressure from...

  3. 78 FR 42976 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Heterogeneous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ..., Tsinghua University, Beijing, PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA; Seoul National University, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul, REPUBLIC OF KOREA; Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla...

  4. A National Program for Instructional Development in Veterinary Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Billy, C.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a study by the American College of Veterinary Pathologists to investigate mechanisms to facilitate sharing of audiovisual programs include a content analysis in veterinary pathology, a guidebook for the preparation of instruction, 20 instructional programs, a lesson evaluation mechanism, and a proposal for sharing programs. (JMD)

  5. First Nations English Dialects in Canada: Implications for Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jessica; Bernhardt, B. May

    2008-01-01

    The current study reports preliminary information gathered about First Nations English dialects in Canada and considers implications for speech-language pathology practice. Information was gathered from literature searches and forums of First Nations and non-First Nations speech-language pathologists, developmentalists, and linguists. The…

  6. Pathology of brucellosis in bison from Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhyan, Jack C.; Gidlewski, T.; Roffe, T.J.; Aune, K.; Philo, L.M.; Ewalt, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Between February 1995 and June 1999, specimens from seven aborted bison (Bison bison) fetuses or stillborn calves and their placentas, two additional placentas, three dead neonates, one 2-wk-old calf, and 35 juvenile and adult female bison from Yellowstone National Park (USA) were submitted for bacteriologic and histopathologic examination. One adult animal with a retained placenta had recently aborted. Serum samples from the 35 juvenile and adult bison were tested for Brucella spp. antibodies. Twenty-six bison, including the cow with the retained placenta, were seropositive, one was suspect, and eight were seronegative. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from three aborted fetuses and associated placentas, an additional placenta, the 2-wk-old calf, and 11 of the seropositive female bison including the animal that had recently aborted. Brucella abortus biovar 2 was isolated from one additional seropositive adult female bison. Brucella abortus was recovered from numerous tissue sites from the aborted fetuses, placentas and 2-wk-old calf. In the juvenile and adult bison, the organism was more frequently isolated from supramammary (83%), retropharyngeal (67%), and iliac (58%) lymph nodes than from other tissues cultured. Cultures from the seronegative and suspect bison were negative for B. abortus. Lesions in the B. abortus-infected, aborted placentas and fetuses consisted of necropurulent placentitis and mild bronchointerstitial pneumonia. The infected 2-wk-old calf had bronchointerstitial pneumonia, focal splenic infarction, and purulent nephritis. The recently-aborting bison cow had purulent endometritis and necropurulent placentitis. Immunohistochemical staining of tissues from the culture-positive aborted fetuses, placentas, 2-wk-old calf, and recently-aborting cow disclosed large numbers of B. abortus in placental trophoblasts and exudate, and fetal and calf lung. A similar study with the same tissue collection and culture protocol was done using six

  7. Do emergency department patients receive a pathological diagnosis? A nationally-representative sample.

    PubMed

    Wen, Leana S; Espinola, Janice A; Kosowsky, Joshua M; Camargo, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the cause of patients' symptoms often requires identifying a pathological diagnosis. A single-center study found that many patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) do not receive a pathological diagnosis. We analyzed 17 years of data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) to identify the proportion of patients who received a pathological diagnosis at ED discharge. We hypothesized that many patients do not receive a pathological diagnosis, and that the proportion of pathological diagnoses increased between 1993 and 2009. Using the NHAMCS data from 1993-2009, we analyzed visits of patients age ≥18 years, discharged from the ED, who had presented with the three most common chief complaints: chest pain, abdominal pain, and headache. Discharge diagnoses were coded as symptomatic versus pathological based on a pre-defined coding system. We compared weighted annual proportions of pathological discharge diagnoses with 95% CIs and used logistic regression to test for trend. Among 299,919 sampled visits, 44,742 met inclusion criteria, allowing us to estimate that there were 164 million adult ED visits presenting with the three chief complaints and then discharged home. Among these visits, the proportions with pathological discharge diagnosis were 55%, 71%, and 70% for chest pain, abdominal pain, and headache, respectively. The total proportion of those with a pathological discharge diagnosis decreased between 1993 and 2009, from 72% (95% CI, 69-75%) to 63% (95% CI, 59-66%). In the multivariable logistic regression model, those more likely to receive pathological diagnoses were females, African-American as compared to Caucasian, and self-pay patients. Those more likely to receive a symptomatic diagnosis were patients aged 30-79 years, with visits to EDs in the South or West regions, and seen by a physician in the ED. In this analysis of a nationally-representative database of ED visits, many patients were discharged

  8. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank

    PubMed Central

    Erichsen, Rune; Lash, Timothy L; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J; Bjerregaard, Beth; Vyberg, Mogens; Pedersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic histological and cytological specimens are routinely stored in pathology department archives. These biobanks are a valuable research resource for many diseases, particularly if they can be linked to high quality population-based health registries, allowing large retrospective epidemiological studies to be carried out. Such studies are of significant importance, for example in the search for novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers in the era of personalized medicine. Denmark has a wealth of highly-regarded population-based registries that are ideally suited to conduct this type of epidemiological research. We describe two recent additions to these databases: the Danish National Pathology Registry (DNPR) and its underlying national online registration database, the Danish Pathology Data Bank (DPDB). The DNPR and the DPDB contain detailed nationwide records of all pathology specimens analyzed in Denmark since 1997, and an incomplete but nonetheless valuable record of specimens from some pathology departments dating back to the 1970s. The data are of high quality and completeness and are sufficient to allow precise and efficient localization of the specimens. We describe the relatively uncomplicated procedures required to use these pathology databases in clinical research and to gain access to the archived specimens. PMID:20865103

  9. Measurements on atmospheric trace species at Mt. Kwanak, the southern suburb of Seoul, Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gangwoong; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

    1996-12-31

    Although there has been increasing awareness of the photochemical pollution in Seoul, comprehensive scientific studies are too sparse to understand behaviors and interactions of photochemically reactive species. To extend our knowledge on chemical characteristics of atmosphere in Seoul, we made concurrent measurements of various atmospheric trace species and meteorological parameters in the campus of Seoul National University on the high foot of Mt. Kwanak, from 22 November to 2 December 1995. Among them are reactive atmospheric trace gases (NO, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, HCl, Formic acid), water-soluble ions of aerosols (Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NH{sup +}{sub 4} Na{sup +}), and conservative trace gases (CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, CFC-11, CFC-12, N{sub 2}O).

  10. Pathological narcissism and maladaptive self-regulatory behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Rice, Simon M; Oliffe, John L

    2017-10-01

    Clinical observation has linked externalizing coping strategies such as substance overuse and aggressive behaviours with narcissistic personality dysfunction. This study examined the relationship between pathological narcissism and maladaptive self-regulatory behaviours among Canadian men. An online survey was distributed among a stratified, nationally representative sample of 1000 men from across Canada. The survey included brief self-report measures of pathological narcissism, maladaptive externalizing coping behaviours, and general psychological distress. After controlling for the effects of age and general psychological distress, pathological narcissism was found to be significantly associated with alcohol overuse and aggressive behaviour. Significant though modest interaction effects were found between pathological narcissism and age - with regards to drug use - and distress - with regards to risk-taking behaviour. The findings point to the need for attention to narcissistic dysfunction as a clinical and public health issue among men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: a national study.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    Researchers have studied whether some youth are "addicted" to video games, but previous studies have been based on regional convenience samples. Using a national sample, this study gathered information about video-gaming habits and parental involvement in gaming, to determine the percentage of youth who meet clinical-style criteria for pathological gaming. A Harris poll surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1,178 American youth ages 8 to 18. About 8% of video-game players in this sample exhibited pathological patterns of play. Several indicators documented convergent and divergent validity of the results: Pathological gamers spent twice as much time playing as nonpathological gamers and received poorer grades in school; pathological gaming also showed comorbidity with attention problems. Pathological status significantly predicted poorer school performance even after controlling for sex, age, and weekly amount of video-game play. These results confirm that pathological gaming can be measured reliably, that the construct demonstrates validity, and that it is not simply isomorphic with a high amount of play.

  12. National standards in pathology education: developing competencies for integrated medical school curricula.

    PubMed

    Sadofsky, Moshe; Knollmann-Ritschel, Barbara; Conran, Richard M; Prystowsky, Michael B

    2014-03-01

    Medical school education has evolved from department-specific memorization of facts to an integrated curriculum presenting knowledge in a contextual manner across traditional disciplines, integrating information, improving retention, and facilitating application to clinical practice. Integration occurs throughout medical school using live data-sharing technologies, thereby providing the student with a framework for lifelong active learning. Incorporation of educational teams during medical school prepares students for team-based patient care, which is also required for pay-for-performance models used in accountable care organizations. To develop learning objectives for teaching pathology to medical students. Given the rapid expansion of basic science knowledge of human development, normal function, and pathobiology, it is neither possible nor desirable for faculty to teach, and students to retain, this vast amount of information. Courses teaching the essentials in context and engaging students in the learning process enable them to become lifelong learners. An appreciation of pathobiology and the role of laboratory medicine underlies the modern practice of medicine. As such, all medical students need to acquire 3 basic competencies in pathology: an understanding of disease mechanisms, integration of mechanisms into organ system pathology, and application of pathobiology to diagnostic medicine. We propose the development of 3 specific competencies in pathology to be implemented nationwide, aimed at disease mechanisms/processes, organ system pathology, and application to diagnostic medicine. Each competency will include learning objectives and a means to assess acquisition, integration, and application of knowledge. The learning objectives are designed to be a living document managed (curated) by a group of pathologists representing Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited medical schools nationally. Development of a coherent set of learning objectives will

  13. First Nations English dialects in Canada: implications for speech-language pathology.

    PubMed

    Ball, Jessica; Bernhardt, B May

    2008-08-01

    The current study reports preliminary information gathered about First Nations English dialects in Canada and considers implications for speech-language pathology practice. Information was gathered from literature searches and forums of First Nations and non-First Nations speech-language pathologists, developmentalists, and linguists. The exploratory findings suggest that First Nations English dialects are shaped both by transference of features from the ancestral languages and by cultural patterns of communication. The dialects likely represent late stages of depidginization and decreolization. Examples of phonological and syntactic dialectal features illustrate the importance of recognizing non-standard varieties of English when assessing speakers of First Nations communities and setting up goals and strategies for treatment. Research is urgently needed to identify features of First Nations English dialects both for linguistic documentation and to help speech-language pathologists and other educators to distinguish between language impairments and dialect differences and to develop culturally relevant assessment and intervention practices.

  14. [The inter-university learning website: a national university network for online teaching of pathology].

    PubMed

    Gauchotte, Guillaume; Ameisen, David; Boutonnat, Jean; Battistella, Maxime; Copie, Christiane; Garcia, Stéphane; Rigau, Valérie; Galateau-Sallé, Françoise; Terris, Benoit; Vergier, Béatrice; Wendum, Dominique; Bertheau, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    Building online teaching materials is a highly time and energy consuming task for teachers of a single university. With the help of the Collège des pathologistes, we initiated a French national university network for building mutualized online teaching pathology cases, tests and other pedagogic resources. Nineteen French universities are associated to this project, initially funded by UNF3S (http://www.unf3s.org/). One national e-learning Moodle platform (http://virtual-slides.univ-paris7.fr/moodle/) contains texts, medias and URL pointing toward decentralized virtual slides. The Moodle interface has been explained to the teachers since september 2011 using web-based conferences with screen-sharing. The following contents have been created: 20 clinical cases, several tests with multiple choices and short answer questions, and gross examination videos. A survey with 16 teachers and students showed a 94 % satisfaction rate, most of the 16 participants being favorable to the development of e-learning, in parallel with other courses in classroom. These tools will be further developed for the different study levels of pathology. In conclusion, these tools offer very interesting perspectives for pathology teaching. The organization of a national inter-university network is a useful way to create and share numerous and good-quality pedagogic resources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Air pollution trends and countermeasures of Seoul metropolitan area last 20 years

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, K.C.; Ghim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.P.; Kim, J.Y.

    1999-07-01

    The city of Seoul is a mega-city with the area of 605 km{sup 2} (0.6% of the total area of South Korea) but has about 25% (11 million) of the total population, 32% of the total vehicles, and more than 40% of the total national production. As a result, severe environmental problems have arisen in Seoul including frequent visibility impairment episodes and signs of photochemical smog. The visibility, air quality and gaseous characteristics of Seoul metropolitan were measured during the last several years, and investigated the air pollution trends and causes of last twenty years. The major parameters such as particle size distribution, light extinction budget, meteorological parameters and particle characteristics were measured and simulated. For this study, many different measurements of previous researchers' results were used in order to analyze the causes and counter measures. The yearly average concentrations of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and total suspended particles were decreased due to strong Korean government air quality control and clean fuel supplying policies. But the yearly average concentrations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide have not been decreased due to the drastically increased the number of vehicles and other impacts, such as transport of air pollutants from outside of Seoul. The smog phenomena and visibility impairment causes are to be more investigated in near future.

  16. Using a Team-Based Learning Approach at National Meetings to Teach Residents Genomic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Haspel, Richard L.; Ali, Asma M.; Huang, Grace C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating data suggest that team-based learning (TBL) is more effective than lecture-based teaching strategies. Educational sessions at national meetings, however, tend to be lecture-based, and unlike most examples of TBL, involve participants who do not know each other or the instructor. Objective We evaluated a 1-day TBL genomic pathology workshop for residents held at 3 national meetings. Methods A committee of experts developed the workshop. Prior to attending, participants were provided access to readings and asked to answer preparation questions. Each of the 4 modules within the workshop consisted of a 60-minute TBL activity flanked by 15- to 30-minute preactivity and postactivity lectures. We used surveys to acquire participant evaluation of the workshop. Results From 2013–2014, 86 pathology residents from 61 programs participated in 3 workshops at national meetings. All workshops were well received, with over 90% of attendees indicating that they would recommend them to other residents and that the material would help them as practicing pathologists. An incremental approach facilitated decreasing faculty presence at the workshops: the first 2 workshops had 7 faculty each (1 facilitator for each team and 1 circulating faculty member), while the final workshop involved only 2 faculty for 6 teams. For this final session, participants agreed that circulating faculty provided adequate support. Participant “buy-in” (requiring completion of a preworkshop survey) was critical in enabling a TBL approach. Conclusions These results demonstrate that TBL is a feasible and effective strategy for teaching genomic medicine that is acceptable to pathology residents at national meetings. PMID:26913108

  17. Using a Team-Based Learning Approach at National Meetings to Teach Residents Genomic Pathology.

    PubMed

    Haspel, Richard L; Ali, Asma M; Huang, Grace C

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating data suggest that team-based learning (TBL) is more effective than lecture-based teaching strategies. Educational sessions at national meetings, however, tend to be lecture-based, and unlike most examples of TBL, involve participants who do not know each other or the instructor. We evaluated a 1-day TBL genomic pathology workshop for residents held at 3 national meetings. A committee of experts developed the workshop. Prior to attending, participants were provided access to readings and asked to answer preparation questions. Each of the 4 modules within the workshop consisted of a 60-minute TBL activity flanked by 15- to 30-minute preactivity and postactivity lectures. We used surveys to acquire participant evaluation of the workshop. From 2013-2014, 86 pathology residents from 61 programs participated in 3 workshops at national meetings. All workshops were well received, with over 90% of attendees indicating that they would recommend them to other residents and that the material would help them as practicing pathologists. An incremental approach facilitated decreasing faculty presence at the workshops: the first 2 workshops had 7 faculty each (1 facilitator for each team and 1 circulating faculty member), while the final workshop involved only 2 faculty for 6 teams. For this final session, participants agreed that circulating faculty provided adequate support. Participant "buy-in" (requiring completion of a preworkshop survey) was critical in enabling a TBL approach. These results demonstrate that TBL is a feasible and effective strategy for teaching genomic medicine that is acceptable to pathology residents at national meetings.

  18. The Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS) simulation for thermal characteristics in different urban locations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Gon; Lee, Jisu; Kim, Baek-Jo

    2016-04-01

    The Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS) being tailored for simulating detailed climate was applied to investigate the temperature distribution around the Seonjeongneung Royal Tombs that includes forest and grassland and in the surrounding high-density buildings in Seoul, Korea for a hot summer days of August 6-7, 2015. In this study, we used the digitalized topographical and land-use data of the 5 m resolution and wind and air temperature fields of 100 m resolution produced by the numerical model MetPhoMod (MPM), part of the CAS for the area of interest with an area of 25,000,000 m2. The difference of the temperatures compared with the representative meteorological station of Seoul was analyzed by considering the presence or absence of the Seonjeongneung Royal Tombs. For the case of heat wave issued in Seoul from August 6th, 06 LST to 7th, 18 LST, 2015, the simulation results presented that averaged temperatures in the green area were 2 °C lower than the one of the standard weather station, whereas they showed 1.5 °C higher when the green area was replaced with the building area. From this simulation result, we can suggest that the green area has a temperature reduction effect of 1-3 °C and its influence can be extended up to 150 m from the boundary of the green area. This fact reconfirms that the urban green area generates a micro-scale cool-island effect and this local phenomenon can reduce heat stress produced by surplus thermal sources of the surrounding buildings and paved roads during the hot summer days. Key words: Climate Analysis Seoul (CAS), Urban Green Area, Cool-Island Effect

  19. Characterization of norovirus infections in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghun; Jung, Jihun; Oh, Seah; Jung, Hyowon; Oh, Younghee; Cho, Seokju; Cho, Seogju; Cho, Sungja; Park, Hyongsug; Jo, Namsook; Bae, Kyungwon; Choi, Sungmin; Kim, Bogsoon; Kim, Junghun; Chae, Youngzoo; Jung, Haesook; Cheon, Doosung; Kim, Hyunsoo

    2012-10-01

    The present study has determined the detection rate of norovirus (NoV) with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in hospitalized children and describes the molecular epidemiology of NoV circulating in Seoul, Korea. Six hundred and eighty-three (9.8%) of samples were positive for NoV. Of these, the NoV GII genogroup was the most commonly found, with a prevalence of 96.2% (683 of 710). Only 27 samples were positive for the NoV GI genogroup. Ten kinds of GI genotype (GI/1, GI/2, GI/3, GI/4, GI/5, GI/6, GI/7, GI/9, GI/12, and GI/13) and eight kinds of GII genotype (GII/2, GII/3, GII/4, GII/8, GII/14, GII/15, GII/16, and GII/17) were identified in children with AGE during the years 2008-2011.

  20. Study on user interface of pathology picture archiving and communication system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dasueran; Kang, Peter; Yun, Jungmin; Park, Sung-Hye; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Park, Peom

    2014-01-01

    It is necessary to improve the pathology workflow. A workflow task analysis was performed using a pathology picture archiving and communication system (pathology PACS) in order to propose a user interface for the Pathology PACS considering user experience. An interface analysis of the Pathology PACS in Seoul National University Hospital and a task analysis of the pathology workflow were performed by observing recorded video. Based on obtained results, a user interface for the Pathology PACS was proposed. Hierarchical task analysis of Pathology PACS was classified into 17 tasks including 1) pre-operation, 2) text, 3) images, 4) medical record viewer, 5) screen transition, 6) pathology identification number input, 7) admission date input, 8) diagnosis doctor, 9) diagnosis code, 10) diagnosis, 11) pathology identification number check box, 12) presence or absence of images, 13) search, 14) clear, 15) Excel save, 16) search results, and 17) re-search. And frequently used menu items were identified and schematized. A user interface for the Pathology PACS considering user experience could be proposed as a preliminary step, and this study may contribute to the development of medical information systems based on user experience and usability.

  1. Reemergence of the bedbug Cimex lectularius in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Yong; Ree, Han-Il; An, Song-Jun; Linton, John Alderman

    2008-01-01

    A healthy 30-yr-old woman carrying an insect that had been caught in her living room visited the International Clinic at Severance Hospital, Seoul, in December 2007. The insect she brought was identified to be a nymph of a bedbug, Cimex lectularius, and her skin rashes looked typical bedbug's bites. Her apartment was investigated, and a dead body of a bedbug, cast skins, and hatched eggs were found in her rooms and neighbors' rooms in the same building. She was living in that apartment in Seoul for 9 months since she had moved from New Jersey, USA. We assume that the bedbugs were introduced from abroad, since there had been no report on bedbugs in Seoul for more than 2 decades at least. This is a report of a reemergence of the common bedbug, C. lectularius in Seoul, Korea. PMID:19127335

  2. Reemergence of the bedbug Cimex lectularius in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Yong; Ree, Han-Il; An, Song-Jun; Linton, John Alderman; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2008-12-01

    A healthy 30-yr-old woman carrying an insect that had been caught in her living room visited the International Clinic at Severance Hospital, Seoul, in December 2007. The insect she brought was identified to be a nymph of a bedbug, Cimex lectularius, and her skin rashes looked typical bedbug's bites. Her apartment was investigated, and a dead body of a bedbug, cast skins, and hatched eggs were found in her rooms and neighbors' rooms in the same building. She was living in that apartment in Seoul for 9 months since she had moved from New Jersey, USA. We assume that the bedbugs were introduced from abroad, since there had been no report on bedbugs in Seoul for more than 2 decades at least. This is a report of a reemergence of the common bedbug, C. lectularius in Seoul, Korea.

  3. Evaluation of Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Forecasts during the MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, C.; Kim, S.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    We report forecasting model performance analysis results of Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) simulation evaluated with flight measurements during Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul (MAPS-Seoul) field campaign. The primary focus of this study is two-fold: (1) the air quality forecasting model performance for O3, PM10/2.5 and their precursors over the Yellow Sea to measure the model's ability to account for the transport process and (2) the utilization of modeled source-receptor relationship to understand the root of systematic model under-prediction for PM10 and PM2.5 forecasts. MAPS-Seoul, conducted in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in the summer of 2015, was an integrated research program covering ground monitoring and aloft measurement with aircrafts. To support this field campaign, air quality forecasting was performed with Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) - CAMx modeling framework. WRF model simulations initialized with National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecasting System (NOAA/NCEP-GFS) were prepared for daily meteorological forecasts. Emission inventories used in this study are Model Inter-Comparison Study-Asia (MICS-Asia) 2010 for Asia and Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) 2010 for South Korea. Simulated PM10 concentrations were evaluated with observed PM10 concentrations at ground monitoring sites of the AirKorea network in SMA. During the campaign period, average simulated PM10 concentrations showed significant underprediction, over 30% (~35 ㎍/㎥) lower than those observed at sites. To examine source-receptor relationship as a way to identify the cause of underprediction, we ran CAMx with Particulate matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT). The air quality forecasting model is based on the with 27-km horizontal grid resolution over Northeast Asia.

  4. National Information Policies for the Asia Oceania Region. Proceedings of the General Assembly and Congress of the International Federation for Information and Documentation Commission for Asia and Oceania (11th, Seoul, Korea, October 29-31, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Ian, Ed.; Dwyer, Lisa, Ed.

    The 18 papers presented at this conference address national information policies, information for industry, and electronic publishing. The titles of the papers are as follows: (1) "Industrial Information Policies of Developing Countries" (keynote address, Sung Jin Choi); (2) "National Information Policy. Current Trends and…

  5. Impulsivity and cognitive distortions in pathological gamblers attending the UK National Problem Gambling Clinic: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Michalczuk, R.; Bowden-Jones, H.; Verdejo-Garcia, A.; Clark, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pathological gambling (PG) is a form of behavioural addiction that has been associated with elevated impulsivity and also cognitive distortions in the processing of chance, probability and skill. We sought to assess the relationship between the level of cognitive distortions and state and trait measures of impulsivity in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Method Thirty pathological gamblers attending the National Problem Gambling Clinic, the first National Health Service clinic for gambling problems in the UK, were compared with 30 healthy controls in a case-control design. Cognitive distortions were assessed using the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS). Trait impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P, which includes scales of urgency, the tendency to be impulsive in positive or negative mood states. Delay discounting rates were taken as a state measure of impulsive choice. Results Pathological gamblers had elevated impulsivity on several UPPS-P subscales but effect sizes were largest (Cohen's d>1.4) for positive and negative urgency. The pathological gamblers also displayed higher levels of gambling distortions, and elevated preference for immediate rewards, compared to controls. Within the pathological gamblers, there was a strong relationship between the preference for immediate rewards and the level of cognitive distortions (R2=0.41). Conclusions Impulsive choice in the gamblers was correlated with the level of gambling distortions, and we hypothesize that an impulsive decision-making style may increase the acceptance of erroneous beliefs during gambling play. PMID:21733207

  6. Uniform Labeling of Blocks and Slides in Surgical Pathology: Guideline From the College of American Pathologists Pathology and Laboratory Quality Center and the National Society for Histotechnology.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard W; Della Speranza, Vincent; Alvarez, Janice O; Eisen, Richard N; Frishberg, David P; Rosai, Juan; Santiago, Jerry; Tunnicliffe, Janet; Colasacco, Carol; Lacchetti, Christina; Thomas, Nicole E

    2015-12-01

    The labeling of paraffin blocks and microscopic glass slides in the practice of surgical pathology varies from institution to institution and introduces potential risk of preanalytic error. Currently there are no evidence-based guidelines regarding the uniform labeling of these materials. To develop recommendations that will address the need for adequate patient identification and provide a consistent method of identifying slides originating from a particular block. - The College of American Pathologists Pathology and Laboratory Quality Center and the National Society for Histotechnology convened a panel of pathologists and histotechnologists with expertise in histology laboratory quality practices to develop labeling recommendations. A systematic evidence review was conducted to address 6 main key questions. Recommendations were derived from strength of evidence, open comment feedback, and expert panel consensus. Twelve guideline statements were established to assist pathology laboratories in developing standardized block and slide labeling practices. These guidelines call for the use of 2 patient identifiers, 1 of which includes the accession number and case type, on all paraffin blocks and slides. Recommendations were also developed to address the order and format in which identifying elements should appear. Uniform labeling of paraffin blocks and slides derived from patient specimens will provide an important enhancement to patient safety by assuring that all preparations derived from a patient's tissue can be uniquely and unambiguously linked to that patient. Adoption of standardized practices additionally will improve patient care by facilitating interpretation of histologic sections when they are referred in consultation to a second institution.

  7. National Strategies for Developing Human Resources through Technical and Vocational Education and Training. The 2001 KRIVET International Conference on Technical and Vocational Education and Training [Proceedings] (Seoul, South Korea, November 21-23, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korea Research Inst. for Vocational Education and Training, Seoul.

    This document contains 19 papers and case studies, in English and Korean, from a conference on national strategies for developing human resources through technical and vocational education and training. The following are representative: "The Need to Innovate and Optimize Resources [Keynote]" (Wataru Iwamoto); "School to Work…

  8. Review of the national external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for breast pathology in the UK.

    PubMed

    Rakha, Emad A; Bennett, Rachel L; Coleman, Derek; Pinder, Sarah E; Ellis, Ian O

    2017-01-01

    The National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP; pathology) external quality assurance (EQA) scheme aims to provide a mechanism for examination and monitoring of concordance of pathology reporting within the UK. This study aims to review the breast EQA scheme performance data collected over a 24-year period following its introduction. Data on circulations, number of cases and diagnosis were collected. Detailed analyses with and without combinations of certain diagnostic entities, and over different time periods were performed. Overall, of 576 cases (172 benign, 11 atypical hyperplasia, 98 ductal carcinoma in situ/microinvasive and 295 invasive disease), consistency of assessment of diagnostic parameters was very high (overall k=0.80; k for benign diagnosis=0.79; k for invasive disease=0.91). For distinguishing benign versus malignant lesions, no further improvement is considered possible in view of the limitations of the scheme methodology. Although diagnostic consistency of atypical hyperplasia remains at a low level, combining it with the benign category results in a high level of agreement (k=0.93). The level of consistency of reporting prognostic information is variable and some items such as lymphovascular invasion and tumour size measurement may need further intervention to improve their reporting consistency. Although the level of consistency of reporting of histological grade remained at a moderate level overall (k=0.48), it was variable among cases and appears to have levelled off; no further significant improvement is expected and no significant impact of the previous publication of guidelines is observed. These results provide further evidence to indicate the value of the breast EQA scheme in monitoring performance and the identification of specific areas where improvement or new approaches are required. For most parameters, the concordance of reporting reached a plateaux a few years after the introduction of the EQA scheme. It is

  9. Gender Identity, Sexual Orientation, and Eating-related Pathology in a National Sample of College Students

    PubMed Central

    Diemer, Elizabeth W.; Grant, Julia D.; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A.; Patterson, David A.; Duncan, Alexis E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined associations of gender identity and sexual orientation with self-reported eating disorder (SR-ED) diagnosis and compensatory behaviors (CB) in trans- and cis-gender college students. Methods Data came from 289,024 students from 223 U.S. universities participating in The American College Health Association – National College Health Assessment II (median age 20 years). Rates of self-reported past year SR-ED diagnosis and past month use of diet pills and vomiting or laxatives were compared among transgender students (n=479) and cisgender sexual minority male (n=5,977) and female (n=9,445), unsure male (n=1,662) and female (n=3,395), and heterosexual male (n=91,599) and female (n=176,467) students using chi-squared tests. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of eating-related pathology outcomes after adjusting for covariates. Results Rates of past year SR-ED diagnosis and past month use of diet pills and vomiting or laxatives were highest among transgender students and lowest cisgender heterosexual men. Compared to cisgender heterosexual women, transgender students had greater odds of past year SR-ED diagnosis (OR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.41-6.26) and past month use of diet pills (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.48-2.83) and vomiting or laxatives (OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.83-3.30). Although cisgender sexual minority men and unsure men and women also had elevated rates of SR-ED diagnosis than heterosexual women, the magnitudes of these associations were lower than for transgender individuals (ORs: 1.40-1.54). Conclusions Transgender and cisgender sexual minority young adults have elevated rates of CB and SR-ED diagnosis. Appropriate interventions for these populations are urgently needed. PMID:25937471

  10. Wood Decay Fungi in South Korea: Polypores from Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeongseon; Jang, Seokyoon; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Hanbyul; Lee, Young Min; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Min, Mihee; Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Changmu

    2014-01-01

    In Seoul, a majority of plant communities have undergone significant changes over the last few decades; however, how wood decay fungi have responded and adapted to the changes in vegetation remains unknown. Through an ongoing investigation of Korean indigenous fungi, ca. 300 specimens with poroid basidiocarp were collected in Seoul during 2008~2012. Morphological examination and molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer and nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA region sequences helped identify 38 species belonging to 28 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders in this area. Among them, three polypores, Abundisporus pubertatis, Coriolopsis strumosa, and Perenniporia maackiae were found to be new to South Korea. PMID:25071382

  11. Gender Identity, Sexual Orientation, and Eating-Related Pathology in a National Sample of College Students.

    PubMed

    Diemer, Elizabeth W; Grant, Julia D; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Patterson, David A; Duncan, Alexis E

    2015-08-01

    This study examined associations of gender identity and sexual orientation with self-reported eating disorder (SR-ED) diagnosis and compensatory behaviors in transgender and cisgender college students. Data came from 289,024 students from 223 U.S. universities participating in the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (median age, 20 years). Rates of past-year SR-ED diagnosis and past-month use of diet pills and vomiting or laxatives were compared among transgender students (n = 479) and cisgender sexual minority (SM) male (n = 5,977) and female (n = 9,445), unsure male (n = 1,662) and female (n = 3,395), and heterosexual male (n = 91,599) and female (n = 176,467) students using chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of eating-related pathology outcomes after adjusting for covariates. Rates of past-year SR-ED diagnosis and past-month use of diet pills and vomiting or laxatives were highest among transgender students and lowest among cisgender heterosexual men. Compared to cisgender heterosexual women, transgender students had greater odds of past-year SR-ED diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 4.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.41-6.26) and past-month use of diet pills (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.48-2.83) and vomiting or laxatives (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.83-3.30). Although cisgender SM men and unsure men and women also had elevated rates of SR-ED diagnosis than heterosexual women, the magnitudes of these associations were lower than those for transgender individuals (ORs; 1.40-1.54). Transgender and cisgender SM young adults have elevated rates of compensatory behavior and SR-ED diagnosis. Appropriate interventions for these populations are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 2015 summertime characteristic variations of NMHCs in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbons(NMHCs) is well known as a precursor of ozone and organic aerosols along with nitrogen oxides compounds. Recently, SOA(secondary Organic Aerosol) dominant fine particles and episodic high O3 are frequently observed throughout major cities of the East Asia, especially SMA(Seoul Metropolitan Area). Even though NMHCs play an important role in their producions, we still have great uncertainties of it's emission, transport and chemistry. During MAPS-Seoul 2015 (Magacity Air Pollution Studies- Seoul)/KORUS-AQ(Korea-US Air Quality Study), we measured NMHCs using automated dual column/FID GC system with thermal desorption unit to address science questions both defined in KORUS-AQ and MAPS-Seoul White papers. One column was designed to separate low boiling point NMHC(C2~C6), the other for high boiling point NMHC(C7~C12). 56 NMHC compounds were measured from 18th May to 12th June, 2015 at an urban site in hill top of Korea Institute of Science and Technology campus.During the observation period, sum of NMHCs ranged from 27.6 ppbv to 54.1 ppbv. Among them, the mean concentrations of ethane was the highest (7.0 ppbv), and propane(6.7 ppbv), toluene(4.9ppbv), n-butane(3.3 ppbv) were followed. These four species represented 54% of total NMHCs concentration. The detailed behaviors of NMHC species were discussed further.

  13. Effectiveness of Varicella Vaccination Program in Preventing Laboratory-Confirmed Cases in Children in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hwa; Choe, Young June; Cho, Sung Il; Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Oh, Myoung Don; Lee, Jong Koo

    2016-12-01

    A universal one-dose varicella vaccination program was introduced in 2005 in Republic of Korea. However, the incidence of varicella in Korea has tripled over the last decade. We conducted a community based 1:1 matched case-control study to assess the effectiveness of one MAV strain-based vaccine and three Oka strain-based vaccines licensed for use in Korea. All cases were children in Seoul, Korea with varicella who were reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System in Seoul during 2013. The controls were age-matched children with mumps or scarlet fever but no history of varicella. We included 537 cases and 537 controls. The overall effectiveness of one dose of varicella vaccination was 13% (95% confidence interval [CI], -17.3-35.6). Of the four licensed varicella vaccines, only one was highly effective (88.9%; 95% CI, 52.1-97.4). The vaccine effectiveness for the other vaccines were 71.4% (95% CI, -37.5-94.1), -5% (95% CI, -61.9-31.9), and -100% (95% CI, -700-50.0). The overall effectiveness of vaccination was 75.8% (95% CI, 22.8-92.4) in the first year after vaccination and decreased thereafter; the effectiveness became -7.2% (95% CI, -130.9-59.2) in the fourth year after vaccination. Further studies are warranted to investigate reduced effectiveness of varicella vaccines in Korea.

  14. Seasonal Variations of Quantified Organic Compounds in PM10 over Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, N.; Lee, J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2014-12-01

    The concentrations of 87 individual organic matters in the PM10 samples, systematically collected on the roof of the School of Public Health building at Seoul National University (mixed commercial and residential area), Seoul, South Korea on a daily basis from April 2010 to April 2011, were quantified by mean of Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The daily average concentrations of five organic groups, alkanes, PAHs, fatty acid, DCAs, and sugars were ranged from 498.40 ng m3 to 10.20 μg m3. The seasonal concentrations of the total quantified organic species were 1.73 μg m3 (Spring), 2.04 μg m3 (Summer), 3.11 μg m3 (Fall), and 3.60 μg m3 (Winter), respectively. All the organic groups showed higher average concentration in winter than in summer. However, some organic compounds among fatty acids, DCAs, and sugars showed reverse pattern. The seasonal concentration patterns and episode variation of individual organic compounds were studied to clarify the emission characteristics of organic matters in PM10.

  15. Schizophrenic delusions in Seoul, Shanghai and Taipei: a transcultural study.

    PubMed

    Kim, K; Hwu, H; Zhang, L D; Lu, M K; Park, K K; Hwang, T J; Kim, D; Park, Y C

    2001-02-01

    In this transcultural study of schizophrenic delusions among patients in Seoul, Shanghai and Taipei, we discovered that both the frequency and content of delusions differed among the three groups; and that these differences could perhaps be explained by varying sociocultural and political situations. Delusional themes that are sensitive to sociocultural or political situations include guilt, love/sex, religion, somatic damage, economy/business and politics. Delusions regarding longevity, love/sex, dysmorphophobia/dysosmophobia, religion or supernatural matters, and espionage/spy stories were most frequent in Seoul patients. Those in Taipei predominantly had delusions about possession, religion or supernatural matters, hypnotism, and mass media/computers. Shanghai patients often had delusions of poisons, being prickled by poisoned needles, their brain and viscera extracted and being a family member of political authorities.

  16. Schizophrenic delusions in Seoul, Shanghai and Taipei: a transcultural study.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K.; Hwu, H.; Zhang, L. D.; Lu, M. K.; Park, K. K.; Hwang, T. J.; Kim, D.; Park, Y. C.

    2001-01-01

    In this transcultural study of schizophrenic delusions among patients in Seoul, Shanghai and Taipei, we discovered that both the frequency and content of delusions differed among the three groups; and that these differences could perhaps be explained by varying sociocultural and political situations. Delusional themes that are sensitive to sociocultural or political situations include guilt, love/sex, religion, somatic damage, economy/business and politics. Delusions regarding longevity, love/sex, dysmorphophobia/dysosmophobia, religion or supernatural matters, and espionage/spy stories were most frequent in Seoul patients. Those in Taipei predominantly had delusions about possession, religion or supernatural matters, hypnotism, and mass media/computers. Shanghai patients often had delusions of poisons, being prickled by poisoned needles, their brain and viscera extracted and being a family member of political authorities. PMID:11289407

  17. Air pollution and daily mortality in Seoul and Ulsan, Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J T; Shin, D; Chung, Y

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between air pollution and daily mortality for the period 1991-1995 was examined in two Korean cities, Seoul and Ulsan. The observed concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2; mean = 28.7 ppb), ozone (O3; mean = 29.2 ppb), and total suspended particulates (TSP; mean = 82.3 microg/m3) during the study period were at levels below Korea's current ambient air quality standards. Daily death counts were regressed separately in the two cities, using Poisson regression on SO2, O3, and/or TSP controlling for variability in the weather and seasons. When considered singly in Poisson regression models controlling for seasonal variations and weather conditions, the nonaccidental mortality associated with a 50-ppb increment in a 3-day moving average of SO2 concentrations, including the concurrent day and the preceding 2 days, was 1.078 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.057-1.099] for Seoul and 1.051 (CI, 0.991-1.115) for Ulsan. The rate ratio was 1.051 (CI, 1.031-1.072) in Seoul and 0.999 (CI, 0. 961-1.039) in Ulsan per 100 microg/m3 for TSP, and 1.015 (CI, 1. 005-1.025) in Seoul and 1.020 (0.889-1.170) in Ulsan per 50 ppb for 1-hr maximum O3. When TSP was considered simultaneously with other pollutants, the TSP association was no longer significant. We observed independent pollution effects on daily mortality even after using various approaches to control for either weather or seasonal variables in the regression model. This study demonstrated increased mortality associated with air pollution at both SO2 and O3 levels below the current World Health Organization recommendations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9924011

  18. The Spatial and Temporal Pattern of Heavy Precipitation in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. S.; Yu, J.; Im, J.; Jin, R.

    2014-12-01

    1.Introduction Combined with summer heavy rainfall and urbanization today's urban area face higher frequency of heavy rainfall with higher intensity in summer than before. Heavy rainfall in short time makes it low elevation area to be susceptible to more flooding than before. According to KMA it is announced as heavy rainfall warning whose precipitation amount is equal to or greater than 150mm per 12 hours. And sometimes, these rainfall events bring out severe disasters such as the case of flooding in Gangnam Station, Daechi Station and landslides which resulted in 20 person death in downtown Seoul on July 27th, 2011. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal pattern of heavy precipitation in Seoul. Ultimately it aims to contribute these results to the proper urban planning and management. 2. Materials and Methods In this study, the digital topograhic data and weather data in Seoul Metropolitan Area were used to figure out the spatial distribution of summer heavy rainfall. The precipitation data in summer (June to Sep.) season were used to detect the recent changes of temporal and spatial features from 1995 to 2014 (20 years) using Automatic Weather tation (AWS) data in Seoul Metropolitan Area. The precipitation amount in summer during the past 20 years has been on the rise but rainy days have barely changed,which reveals the daily precipitation intensity has increased. After deriving the characteristic of heavy rainfall, the relationship among precipitation, topography and land uses were interpreted and discussed. This study is to investigate the characteristics of flood prone area by focusing topographic and land use characteristics. Ultimately it contributes to prepare the guideline for flood preventive urban plannig.

  19. Urban vegetation and heat-related mortality in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Ji-Young; Lane, Kevin J; Lee, Jong-Tae; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-11-01

    Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to heat-related health outcomes. Simultaneous trends of climate change and urbanization may increase the urban heat-related health burden. We investigated the effects of urban vegetation on heat-related mortality, and evaluated whether different levels of vegetation and individuals' characteristics affect the temperature-mortality associations within Seoul, Korea 2000-2009. We used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess the urban vegetation within Seoul. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model with interaction term between temperature and indicator of NDVI group (categorized in 3 levels) to assess the effect modification of the temperature-mortality association by urban vegetation. We conducted stratified analysis to explore whether associations are affected by individual characteristics of sex and age. The association between total mortality and a 1°C increase in temperature above the 90th percentile (25.1°C) (the "heat effect") was the highest for gus with low NDVI. The heat effect was a 4.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3, 5.9%), 3.0% (95% CI 0.2, 5.9%), and 2.2% (95% CI -0.5, 5.0%) increase in mortality risk for low, medium, and high NDVI group, respectively. Estimated risks showed similar effects by sex and age. Our findings suggest a higher mortality effect of high temperature in areas with lower vegetation in Seoul, Korea.

  20. Pathological gambling, problem gambling and sleep complaints: an analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey: Replication (NCS-R).

    PubMed

    Parhami, Iman; Siani, Aaron; Rosenthal, Richard J; Fong, Timothy W

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between sleep disturbances and gambling behavior. Data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R) was used to examine the relationship between three specific sleep complaints (difficulty initiating sleep [DIS], difficulty maintaining sleep [DMS], and early morning awakening [EMA]) and gambling behavior. Bivariate logistic regression models were used to control for potentially confounding psychiatric disorders and age. Almost half of respondents with problem gambling behavior (45.9%) and two thirds (67.7%) of respondents with pathological gambling behavior reported at least one sleep compliant. Compared to respondents with no gambling pathology, respondents with pathological gambling were significantly more likely to report at least one sleep complaint (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 3.444, 95% CI = 1.538-7.713), to report all sleep complaints (AOR = 3.449, 95% CI = 1.503-7.914), and to report any individual complaint (DIS: OR = 2.300, 95% CI = 1.069-4.946; DMS: AOR = 4.604, 95% CI = 2.093-10.129; EMA: AOR = 3.968, 95% CI = 1.856-8.481). The relationship between problem gambling and sleep complaints were more modest (any sleep complaint: AOR = 1.794, 95% CI = 1.142-2.818; all three sleep complaints: AOR = 2.144, 95% CI = 1.169-3.931; DIS: AOR = 1.961, 95% CI = 1.204-3.194; DMS: AOR = 1.551, 95% CI = 0.951-2.529; EMA: AOR = 1.796, 95% CI = 1.099-2.935). Given the individual and societal ramifications linked with the presence of sleep problems, this study presents another health-related repercussion associated with gambling pathology rarely discussed in the literature.

  1. Clinical–Pathologic Stage Discrepancy in Bladder Cancer Patients Treated With Radical Cystectomy: Results From the National Cancer Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Phillip J.; Lin, Chun Chieh; Jemal, Ahmedin; Shipley, William U.; Fedewa, Stacey A.; Kibel, Adam S.; Kamat, Ashish M.; Virgo, Katherine S.; Blute, Michael L.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Efstathiou, Jason A.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To examine the accuracy of clinical staging and its effects on outcome in bladder cancer (BC) patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC), using a large national database. Methods and Materials: A total of 16,953 patients with BC without distant metastases treated with RC from 1998 to 2009 were analyzed. Factors associated with clinical–pathologic stage discrepancy were assessed by multivariate generalized estimating equation models. Survival analysis was conducted for patients treated between 1998 and 2004 (n=7270) using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: At RC 41.9% of patients were upstaged, whereas 5.9% were downstaged. Upstaging was more common in females, the elderly, and in patients who underwent a more extensive lymphadenectomy. Downstaging was less common in patients treated at community centers, in the elderly, and in Hispanics. Receipt of preoperative chemotherapy was highly associated with downstaging. Five-year overall survival rates for patients with clinical stages 0, I, II, III, and IV were 67.2%, 62.9%, 50.4%, 36.9%, and 27.2%, respectively, whereas those for the same pathologic stages were 70.8%, 75.8%, 63.7%, 41.5%, and 24.7%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, upstaging was associated with increased 5-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.80, P<.001), but downstaging was not associated with survival (HR 0.88, P=.160). In contrast, more extensive lymphadenectomy was associated with decreased 5-year mortality (HR 0.76 for ≥10 lymph nodes examined, P<.001), as was treatment at an National Cancer Institute–designated cancer center (HR 0.90, P=.042). Conclusions: Clinical–pathologic stage discrepancy in BC patients is remarkably common across the United States. These findings should be considered when selecting patients for preoperative or nonoperative management strategies and when comparing the outcomes of bladder sparing approaches to RC.

  2. Cognitive distortions and ADHD in pathological gambling: A national longitudinal case-control cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Romo, Lucia; Legauffre, Cindy; Guilleux, Alice; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The primary outcome of our study was to assess the links between the level of cognitive distortions and the severity of gambling disorder. We also aimed at assessing the links between patient gambling trajectories and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials and methods The study population (n = 628) was comprised of problem and non-problem gamblers of both sexes between 18 and 65 years of age, who reported gambling on at least one occasion during the previous year. Data encompassed socio-demographic characteristics, gambling habits, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey – 23, the Wender Utah Rating Scale – Child, and the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale. Results The cognitive distortions with the greatest correlation to the severity of gambling disorder were the “Chasing” and “Emotions.” These two dimensions were able to distinguish between problem gamblers seeking treatment or not. While age of onset of gambling and length of gambling practice were not associated with the level of distorted cognitions, a period of abstinence of at least 1 month was associated with a lower level of distorted cognitions. The presence of ADHD resulted in a higher level of distorted cognitions. Conclusion Cognitive work is essential to the prevention, and the treatment, of pathological gambling, especially with respect to emotional biases and chasing behavior. The instauration of an abstinence period of at least 1 month under medical supervision could be a promising therapeutic lead for reducing gambling-related erroneous thoughts and for improving care strategies of pathological gamblers. PMID:27774813

  3. The National Outcomes Measurement System for Pediatric Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Robert; Schooling, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS) was developed in the late 1990s. The primary purpose was to serve as a source of data for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who found themselves called on to provide empirical evidence of the functional outcomes associated with their…

  4. The National Outcomes Measurement System for Pediatric Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Robert; Schooling, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS) was developed in the late 1990s. The primary purpose was to serve as a source of data for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who found themselves called on to provide empirical evidence of the functional outcomes associated with their…

  5. Evidence-based speech-language pathology practices in schools: findings from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Lavae M; Ireland, Marie; Hall-Mills, Shannon; Flynn, Perry

    2013-07-01

    This study documented evidence-based practice (EBP) patterns as reported by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) employed in public schools during 2010-2011. Using an online survey, practioners reported their EBP training experiences, resources available in their workplaces, and the frequency with which they engage in specific EBP activities, as well as their resource needs and future training format preferences. A total of 2,762 SLPs in 28 states participated in the online survey, 85% of whom reported holding the Certificate of Clinical Competence in Speech-Language Pathology credential. Results revealed that one quarter of survey respondents had no formal training in EBP, 11% of SLPs worked in school districts with official EBP procedural guidelines, and 91% had no scheduled time to support EBP activities. The majority of SLPs posed and researched 0 to 2 EBP questions per year and read 0 to 4 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) journal articles per year on either assessment or intervention topics. Use of ASHA online resources and engagement in EBP activities were documented to be low. However, results also revealed that school-based SLPs have high interest in additional training and resources to support scientifically based practices. Suggestions for enhancing EBP support in public schools and augmenting knowledge transfer are provided.

  6. Analysis of Biogenic VOCs Emissions During the MAPS-Seoul Aircraft Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Bu, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, M. H.; Eo, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The MAPS-Seoul (Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul) aircraft mission was conducted in May - June 2016 to understand atmospheric environment over the South Korea. BVOCs emissions forecasting, along with other components, were conducted daily in support of the aircraft mission planning. The biogenic emissions as well as anthropogenic ones were very important factor to model and analyze atmospheric environment since more than 80% of global VOCs emission comes from biogenic sources. This also could be true for South Korea, since more than 70% of its land area are vegetated such as forest, cropland. For modeling-based BVOC emission estimation, geographical distribution of PFT (plant functional type) and LAI (Leaf Area Index) are considered as very important driving variables. Most of cases, PFTs and LAI were derived from the low-resolution satellite-based information which are not quite ideal for relatively small area like South Korea. In this study, we developed the more reliable Korean PFT and LAI cover derived from Korean landcover maps and modeled satellite images. The WRF-MEGAN modeling framework over South Korea for the period of May to June 2016 was used to estimate re-analysis BVOCs emission field. Analysis of different PFT and LAI inputs affected local and national biogenic emission estimations will be presented at site. Acknowledgements : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea.

  7. Drought over Seoul and Its Association with Solar Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Hyeok; Chang, Heon-Young

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated drought periodicities occurred in Seoul to find out any indication of relationship between drought in Korea and solar activities. It is motivated, in view of solar-terrestrial connection, to search for an example of extreme weather condition controlled by solar activity. The periodicity of drought in Seoul has been re-examined using the wavelet transform technique as the consensus is not achieved yet. The reason we have chosen Seoul is because daily precipitation was recorded for longer than 200 years, which meets our requirement that analyses of drought frequency demand long-term historical data to ensure reliable estimates. We have examined three types of time series of the Effective Drought Index (EDI). We have directly analyzed EDI time series in the first place. And we have constructed and analyzed time series of histogram in which the number of days whose EDI is less than -1.5 for a given month of the year is given as a function of time, and one in which the number of occasions where EDI values of three consecutive days are all less than -1.5 is given as a function of time. All the time series data sets we analyzed are periodic. Apart from the annual cycle due to seasonal variations, periodicities shorter than the 11 year sunspot cycle, ~ 3, ~ 4, ~ 6 years, have been confirmed. Periodicities to which theses short periodicities (shorter than Hale period) may be corresponding are not yet known. Longer periodicities possibly related to Gleissberg cycles, ~ 55, ~ 120 years, can be also seen. However, periodicity comparable to the 11 year solar cycle seems absent in both EDI and the constructed data sets.

  8. Evidence of Diachronic Sound Change: A Comparative Acoustic Study of Seoul and Kyungsang Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjung

    2013-01-01

    The phonetics and phonology of the Kyungsang dialect of Korean is distinct from those of the standard Seoul dialect with regard to segments and lexical pitch. However, whether the distinctive phonetics and phonology of Kyungsang Korean are maintained by younger speakers is questionable due to the increased exposure to Seoul Korean and the…

  9. Evidence of Diachronic Sound Change: A Comparative Acoustic Study of Seoul and Kyungsang Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjung

    2013-01-01

    The phonetics and phonology of the Kyungsang dialect of Korean is distinct from those of the standard Seoul dialect with regard to segments and lexical pitch. However, whether the distinctive phonetics and phonology of Kyungsang Korean are maintained by younger speakers is questionable due to the increased exposure to Seoul Korean and the…

  10. PATHOLOGIC LESIONS IN CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGYLODYTES SCHWEINFURTHII) FROM GOMBE NATIONAL PARK, TANZANIA, 2004–2010

    PubMed Central

    Terio, Karen A.; Kinsel, Michael J.; Raphael, Jane; Mlengeya, Titus; Lipende, Iddi; Kirchhoff, Claire A.; Gilagiza, Baraka; Wilson, Michael L.; Kamenya, Shadrack; Estes, Jacob D.; Keele, Brandon F.; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Liu, Weimin; Patton, Sharon; Collins, Anthony; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Travis, Dominic A.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.

    2013-01-01

    During a population decline or disease outbreak, the true risk of specific diseases to a wild population is often difficult to determine because of a lack of baseline disease information. To better understand the risk of disease in an endangered and scientifically important population of chimpanzees (Pan trogylodytes schweinfurthii), a health monitoring program was initiated in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. As part of this health monitoring program, comprehensive necropsies with histopathology were conducted on chimpanzees (n =11; 5 male, 6 female), ranging in age from fetal to 44 yr, that were found dead between August 2004 and January 2010. In contrast to previous reports, respiratory disease was not noted as a cause of morbidity or mortality. Trauma was the most common cause of death in these 11 chimpanzees. All of the chimpanzees greater than 1 yr of age had intestinal and mesenteric parasitic granulomas associated with true strongyles consistent with Oesophagostomum spp. The relative numbers of granulomas increased with age and, in some cases, may have been a cause of weight loss and diarrhea. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)cpz infection was documented in four deceased apes, all of whom exhibited varying amounts of lymphoid depletion including two females with marked CD4+ T cell loss consistent with end-stage SIVmac or human immunodeficiency virus infections. Myocardial megalokaryosis was common in chimpanzees greater than 1 mo of age; yet myocardial interstitial fibrosis, a common lesion in captive chimpanzees, was uncommon and only noted in two aged chimpanzees. These findings provide important information on causes of morbidity and mortality in wild chimpanzees, information that can be used to interpret findings during population declines and lead to better management of this population in the context of disease risk. PMID:22204054

  11. Smoking trajectories among Koreans in Seoul and California: exemplifying a common error in age parameterization.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W; Unger, Jennifer B; Irvin, Veronica L; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2012-01-01

    Immigration to a nation with a stronger anti-smoking environment has been hypothesized to make smoking less common. However, little is known about how environments influence risk of smoking across the lifecourse. Research suggested a linear decline in smoking over the lifecourse but these associations, in fact, might not be linear. This study assessed the possible nonlinear associations between age and smoking and examined how these associations differed by environment through comparing Koreans in Seoul, South Korea and Korean Americans in California, United States. Data were drawn from population based telephone surveys of Korean adults in Seoul (N=500) and California (N=2,830) from 2001-2002. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (lowess) was used to approximate the association between age and smoking with multivariable spline logistic regressions, including adjustment for confounds used to draw population inferences. Smoking differed across the lifecourse between Korean and Korean American men. The association between age and smoking peaked around 35 years among Korean and Korean American men. From 18 to 35 the probability of smoking was 57% higher (95%CI, 40 to 71) among Korean men versus 8% (95%CI, 3 to 19) higher among Korean American men. A similar difference in age after 35, from 40 to 57 years of age, was associated with a 2% (95%CI, 0 to 10) and 20% (95%CI, 16 to 25) lower probability of smoking among Korean and Korean American men. A nonlinear pattern was also observed among Korean American women. Social role transitions provide plausible explanations for the decline in smoking after 35. Investigators should be mindful of nonlinearities in age when attempting to understand tobacco use.

  12. Effectiveness of Varicella Vaccination Program in Preventing Laboratory-Confirmed Cases in Children in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A universal one-dose varicella vaccination program was introduced in 2005 in Republic of Korea. However, the incidence of varicella in Korea has tripled over the last decade. We conducted a community based 1:1 matched case-control study to assess the effectiveness of one MAV strain-based vaccine and three Oka strain-based vaccines licensed for use in Korea. All cases were children in Seoul, Korea with varicella who were reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System in Seoul during 2013. The controls were age-matched children with mumps or scarlet fever but no history of varicella. We included 537 cases and 537 controls. The overall effectiveness of one dose of varicella vaccination was 13% (95% confidence interval [CI], −17.3–35.6). Of the four licensed varicella vaccines, only one was highly effective (88.9%; 95% CI, 52.1–97.4). The vaccine effectiveness for the other vaccines were 71.4% (95% CI, −37.5–94.1), −5% (95% CI, −61.9–31.9), and −100% (95% CI, −700–50.0). The overall effectiveness of vaccination was 75.8% (95% CI, 22.8–92.4) in the first year after vaccination and decreased thereafter; the effectiveness became −7.2% (95% CI, −130.9–59.2) in the fourth year after vaccination. Further studies are warranted to investigate reduced effectiveness of varicella vaccines in Korea. PMID:27822926

  13. Assessment of the Air Quality Improvement Potentials for Seoul Metropolitan Area using GAINS-Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Ahn, Y. H.; Kim, J.; Bu, C.; Lee, Y.; Choi, K. C.; Amann, M.; Kim, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    Urban areas are very important places for climate change and air pollution because they have been emitting a significant amount of Green House Gases (GHGs) and air pollutants. Cause they have massive pollutant emissions and high population density with amount of vehicles. Korea's government has set the 2nd phase capital air quality improvement program called Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP), targeting the year 2024. The air quality improvement targets are to achieve annual mean PM10 and pm2.5concentration for SMA Area 30 ug/m3 and 20 ug/m3, respectively. To achieve this target, emissions of PM10, PM2.5 are required to be decreased up to 35%, 45%, respectively, from their future baseline level. In this study, we found the emission level of some pollutants for the year 2030 will be decreased compare with the baseline level but the concentration cannot meet their target even with more stringent control measures. The more in-depth analysis of future PM concentration, estimated from Source-Receptor(S-R) relationship, were conducted for more accurate air quality improvement assessment. As the result, we found that secondary and transboundary pollution have been plying significant role in Seoul Metro air quality. Not only direct/in-region measures, therefore, but indirect measures/international cooperation have to be conducted to achieve target air quality. ** This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea.

  14. Investigation of norovirus occurrence in groundwater in metropolitan Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heetae; Kim, Misoon; Lee, Jung Eun; Lim, Miyoung; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Ju-Mi; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Kim, Jongmin; Ko, GwangPyo

    2011-05-01

    Groundwater is an important source of drinking and household water worldwide. Hence, the quality of groundwater is very important for preventing waterborne disease outbreaks and should be properly monitored. This study investigated the prevalence of waterborne viruses and fecal indicators in groundwater in metropolitan Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. A total of 116 samples of groundwater were taken using NanoCeram filters during both summer (June to August) and fall-winter seasons (October to December) in 2008. Among 71 sampling sites, 28 (48.3%) and 18 (35.3%) were positive for norovirus (NoV) from the summer and fall-winter season, respectively. The identified genotypes of NoV include GI-1, 4, 8, 9 and GII-4, 10, 11 (or 17), 13, 15 (or 16). None of fecal indicators was significantly correlated with NoV in groundwater. Among the tested fecal indicators, somatic coliphage (95.3%) showed an excellent true-negative rate of NoV occurrence. The combination of chemical, microbial and viral indicators increased the positive predictive value (50-100%). This study demonstrated a high prevalence of NoV in groundwater in metropolitan Seoul areas and characterized the positive and negative predictive values of a fecal indicator for predicting NoV prevalence.

  15. Initial Analysis of VOCs Speciation in CREATE Emissions Inventory using the MAPS-Seoul Aircraft Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, C.; Woo, J. H.; Lee, Y.; Kim, J.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, Y.; Kim, J.; Jang, Y. K.; Kim, S.

    2016-12-01

    As the first international cooperative air quality field study, the MAPS-Seoul (Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul) aircraft mission was conducted in May - June 2016 over the South Korea, to understand of climate and atmospheric environment. The aircraft carried observation instruments for measurements of GHGs, ozone and its precursors, aerosols, and chemical tracers. The CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Environment) emissions inventory and SMOKE-Asia emission processing system were used to support chemical forecasting and to serve as a priori for evaluation. Initial results of comparison studies show large discrepancies in VOC species over the South Korea - especially over urban regions. Several VOC species observed high near megacities and petro-chemical plants but under-predicted by chemical transport models (CTMs) - possibly due to relatively low emissions. The chemical speciation profiles and emissions inventory for each emission sources, therefore, have to be re-visited to improve emissions information. In this study, we have; 1) re-examined our emissions inventory and emission speciation processes, 2) and tried to find possible missing sources and alternative chemical speciation profiles, to improve our modelling emissions inventory. Initial review of the mapping and classification profiles, the original US chemical speciation profiles were found to be low in partitioning painting and surface coating sources, although they are the very significant contributors. Unlike other major national cities in China, Shanghai's VOC emissions fraction seems very similar to that of Seoul. Continuous analysis of major urban and industrial areas of the country will be presented at site.Acknowledgements : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment

  16. Hygroscopic properties of urban aerosols and their cloud condensation nuclei activities measured in Seoul during the MAPS-Seoul campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Najin; Park, Minsu; Yum, Seong Soo; Park, Jong Sung; Song, In Ho; Shin, Hye Jung; Ahn, Joon Young; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Hwajin; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Lee, Gangwoong

    2017-03-01

    Aerosol physical properties, chemical compositions, hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities were measured in Seoul, the highly populated capital city of Korea, during the Megacity Air Pollution Studies (MAPS-Seoul) campaign, in May-June 2015. The average aerosol concentration for particle diameters >10 nm was 11787 ± 7421 cm-3 with dominant peaks at morning rush hours and in the afternoon due to frequent new particle formation (NPF) events. The average CCN concentration was 4075 ± 1812 cm-3 at 0.6% supersaturation, with little diurnal variation. The average hygroscopicity parameter (κ) value determined using a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) ranged 0.17-0.27 for a range of particle diameters (30-150 nm). The κ values derived using the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) data with three different methods were 0.32-0.34, significantly higher than those from HTDMA due to the uncertainties in the hygroscopicity values of different chemical compositions, especially organics and black carbon. Factors affecting the aerosol hygroscopicity seemed to be traffic and chemical processes during the NPF events. The CCN concentration predicted based on HTDMA κ data showed very good agreement with the measured one. Because of the overestimation of κ, CCN closure with the predicted CCN concentration based on AMS κ data over-predicted CCN concentration although the linear correlation between measured and predicted CCN concentration was still very good.

  17. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006) and Mortality Rates (1997–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006) and data on mortality (1997–2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  18. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    PubMed

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  19. Photochemical Pollution over the suburban forest in Seoul South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Saewung; Sanchez, Dianne; Jeong, Daun; Seco, Roger; Gu, Dasa; Guenther, Alex; Lee, Meehye

    2017-04-01

    We will present long term photo-chemical observations at Taehwa Research Forest a suburban forest near by Seoul Metropolitan Area a home of 23 million. The discussion is mainly about observations during KORUS-AQ 2016 a NASA-NIER collaborative field campaign in the late spring. There were a couple of pollution stagnation episodes during the campaign and we will present how intensified pollution elevate ozone forming potentials by interacting with BVOC from surrounding forest. During the campaign, we conducted a comprehensive suite of trace gas observations along with OH reactivity and radical precursor observations. We will comprehensively examine atmospheric oxidation capacity and reactivity to evaluate the accuracy of our photochemical understanding in diagnosing regional pollution.

  20. Should pathological gambling and obesity be considered addictive disorders? A factor analytic study in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Carlos; García-Anaya, María; Wall, Melanie; de Los Cobos, José Carlos Pérez; Swierad, Ewelina; Wang, Shuai; Petry, Nancy M

    2015-05-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is now aligned with substance use disorders in the DSM-5 as the first officially recognized behavioral addiction. There is growing interest in examining obesity as an addictive disorder as well. The goal of this study was to investigate whether epidemiological data provide support for the consideration of PG and obesity as addictive disorders. Factor analysis of data from a large, nationally representative sample of US adults (N=43,093), using nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, PG and obesity as indicators. It was hypothesized that nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence and drug use dependence would load on a single factor. It was further hypothesized that if PG and obesity were addictive disorders, they would load on the same factor as substance use disorders, whereas failure to load on the addictive factor would not support their conceptualization as addictive disorders. A model with one factor including nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence and PG, but not obesity, provided a very good fit to the data, as indicated by CFI=0.99, TLI=0.99 and RMSEA=0.01 and loadings of all indicators >0.4. Data from this study support the inclusion of PG in a latent factor with substance use disorders but do not lend support to the consideration of obesity, as defined by BMI, as an addictive disorder. Future research should investigate whether certain subtypes of obesity are best conceptualized as addictive disorders and the shared biological and environmental factors that account for the common and specific features of addictive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Should pathological gambling and obesity be considered addictive disorders? A factor analytic study in a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; García-Anaya, María; Wall, Melanie; de los Cobos, José Carlos Pérez; Swierad, Ewelina; Wang, Shuai; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pathological gambling (PG) is now aligned with substance use disorders in the DSM-5 as the first officially recognized behavioral addiction. There is growing interest in examining obesity as an addictive disorder as well. The goal of this study was to investigate whether epidemiological data provide support for the consideration of PG and obesity as addictive disorders. Method Factor analysis of data from a large, nationally representative sample of US adults (N=43,093), using nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, PG and obesity as indicators. It was hypothesized that nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence and drug use dependence would load on a single factor. It was further hypothesized that if PG and obesity were addictive disorders, they would load on the same factor as substance use disorders, whereas failure to load on the addictive factor would not support their conceptualization as addictive disorders. Results A model with one factor including nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence and PG, but not obesity, provided a very good fit to the data, as indicated by CFI=0.99, TLI=0.99 and RMSEA=.01 and loadings of all indicators >0.4. Conclusion Data from this study support the inclusion of PG in a latent factor with substance use disorders but do not lend support to the consideration of obesity, as defined by BMI, as an addictive disorder. Future research should investigate whether certain subtypes of obesity are best conceptualized as addictive disorders and the shared biological and environmental factors that account for the common and specific features of addictive disorders. PMID:25769392

  2. Microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Kim, M.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2012-12-01

    On 9 February 2010, a minor earthquake occurred in the northwest of South Korea. The earthquake was widely felt in the Seoul National Capital Area (SNCA). The earthquake attracted much attention from media, politicians, policy makers and the public, who raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million (as of 2007) and is ranked as the second largest metropolitan area in the world. The SNCA has been the center of the economics, politics, and culture during the past half millennium since the city has been designated as the capital city in 1394. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2010 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including two previously reported events and nine newly identified micro-earthquakes. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative events (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using the first-motion polarities. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. It is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of

  3. Esophageal eosinophilia is increased in rural areas with low population density: results from a national pathology database.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Elizabeth T; Hoffman, Kate; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Genta, Robert M; Dellon, Evan S

    2014-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an increasingly prevalent chronic disease arising from an allergy/immune-mediated process. Generally, the risk of atopic disease differs in rural and urban environments. The relationship between population density and EoE is unknown. Our aim was to assess the relationship between EoE and population density. We conducted a cross-sectional, case-control study of patients with esophageal biopsies in a US national pathology database between January 2009 and June 2012 to assess the relationship between population density and EoE. Using geographic information systems, the population density (individuals per square mile) was determined for each patient zip code. The odds of esophageal eosinophilia and EoE were estimated for each quintile of population density and adjusted for potential confounders. Sensitivity analyses were conducted with varying case definitions and to evaluate the potential for bias from endoscopy volume and patient factors. Of 292,621 unique patients in the source population, 89,754 had normal esophageal biopsies and 14,381 had esophageal eosinophilia with ≥15 eosinophils per high-power field. The odds of having esophageal eosinophilia increased with decreasing population density (P for trend <0.001). Compared with those in the highest quintile of population density, odds of having esophageal eosinophilia were significantly higher among those in the lowest quintile of population density (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.36). A similar dose-response trend was observed across case definitions with increased odds of EoE in the lowest population density quintile (aOR 1.59, 95% CI: 1.45-1.76). Estimates were robust to sensitivity analyses. Population density is strongly and inversely associated with esophageal eosinophilia and EoE. This association is robust to varying case definitions and adjustment factors. Environmental exposures that are more prominent in rural areas may be

  4. Esophageal eosinophilia is increased in rural areas with low population density: Results from a national pathology database

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Elizabeth T.; Hoffman, Kate; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Genta, Robert M.; Dellon, Evan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an increasingly prevalent chronic disease arising from an allergy/immune-mediated process. Generally, the risk of atopic disease differs in rural and urban environments. The relationship between population density and EoE is unknown. Our aim was to assess the relationship between EoE and population density. Methods : We conducted a cross-sectional, case-control study of patients with esophageal biopsies in a U.S. national pathology database between January 2009 and June 2012 to assess the relationship between population density and EoE. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the population density (individuals/mile2) was determined for each patient zip code. The odds of esophageal eosinophilia and EoE were estimated for each quintile of population density and adjusted for potential confounders. Sensitivity analyses were conducted with varying case definitions and to evaluate the potential for bias from endoscopy volume and patient factors. Results Of 292,621 unique patients in the source population, 89,754 had normal esophageal biopsies and 14,381 had esophageal eosinophilia with ≥15 eosinophils per high-power field (eos/hpf). The odds of esophageal eosinophilia increased with decreasing population density (p for trend < 0.001). Compared to those in the highest quintile of population density, odds of esophageal eosinophilia were significantly higher amongst those in the lowest quintile of population density (aOR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.36). A similar dose-response trend was observed across case definitions with odds of EoE increased in the lowest population density quintile (aOR 1.59, 95% CI: 1.45-1.76). Estimates were robust to sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Population density is strongly and inversely associated with esophageal eosinophilia and EoE. This association is robust to varying case definitions and adjustment factors. Environmental exposures more prominent in rural areas may be relevant to the

  5. EZ lidar dust transit phenomena observations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, S.; Sauvage, L.; Loaec, S.

    2009-09-01

    Duststorms and sandstorms regularly devastate Northeast Asia and cause considerable damage to transportation system and public health; further, these events are conceived to be one of the very important indices for estimating the global warming and desertification. Previously, yellow sand events were considered natural phenomena that originate in deserts and arid areas. However, the greater scale and frequency of these events in recent years are considered to be the result of human activities such as overgrazing and over-cultivation. Japan, Korea, Cina and Mongolia are directly concerned to prevent and control these storms and have been able to some extent to provide forecasts and early warnings. In this framework, to improve the accuracy of forecasting , a compact and rugged eye safe lidar, the EZ LIDATM, developed together by Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et l'Environnement (LSCE) (CEA-CNRS) and LEOSPHERE, France) to study and investigate structural and optical properties of clouds and aerosols, thanks to the strong know-how of CEA and CNRS in the field of air quality measurements and cloud observation and analysis, was deployed in Seoul, Korea in order to detect and study yellow sand events, thanks to its depolarization channel and scan capabilities. The preliminary results, showed in this paper, of this measurement campaign put in evidence that EZ Lidar, for its capabilities of operating unattended day and night under each atmospheric condition, is mature to be deployed in a global network to study long-range transport, crucial in the forecasting model.

  6. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-07-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

  7. Identifying airborne fungi in Seoul, Korea using metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung-Yoon; Fong, Jonathan J; Park, Myung Soo; Chang, Limseok; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-06-01

    Fungal spores are widespread and common in the atmosphere. In this study, we use a metagenomic approach to study the fungal diversity in six total air samples collected from April to May 2012 in Seoul, Korea. This springtime period is important in Korea because of the peak in fungal spore concentration and Asian dust storms, although the year of this study (2012) was unique in that were no major Asian dust events. Clustering sequences for operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identification recovered 1,266 unique OTUs in the combined dataset, with between 223᾿96 OTUs present in individual samples. OTUs from three fungal phyla were identified. For Ascomycota, Davidiella (anamorph: Cladosporium) was the most common genus in all samples, often accounting for more than 50% of all sequences in a sample. Other common Ascomycota genera identified were Alternaria, Didymella, Khuskia, Geosmitha, Penicillium, and Aspergillus. While several Basidiomycota genera were observed, Chytridiomycota OTUs were only present in one sample. Consistency was observed within sampling days, but there was a large shift in species composition from Ascomycota dominant to Basidiomycota dominant in the middle of the sampling period. This marked change may have been caused by meteorological events. A potential set of 40 allergy-inducing genera were identified, accounting for a large proportion of the diversity present (22.5᾿7.2%). Our study identifies high fungal diversity and potentially high levels of fungal allergens in springtime air of Korea, and provides a good baseline for future comparisons with Asian dust storms.

  8. Development and assessment of road weather information in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sanghoo; Lee, Jonghak; Kim, Mingyu; Choi, Youngjean

    2016-04-01

    Road-based transport is essential for populations operating in large urban environments. Driving conditions are impacted by the intensity of rainfall. However, rainfall is not directly measured on roads. In this study, we evaluated road weather prediction accuracy using representative rainfall days in Seoul, South Korea, during 2013.Data were collected by 190 weather stations, of which 33 were located within 20 meters of a road and were used as model validation sites, while the remaining 157 were used as model fitting sites. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK) based on variograms were considered for interpolation. We used the bias, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and correlation coefficient (CC) as the prediction performance criteria. The prediction performance of OK was higher than that of IDW. As expected, prediction performance increased when the number of rainfall observations increased. We also simulated road conditions using the accumulated historical rainfall data. Generating road information for the entire urban road network is very expensive; therefore, 177,599 road positions were reproduced from 22,184 road link units. Finally, safe driving speeds were calculated from simulated rainfall, stopping distance, and visibility distance.We hope that the results of this study will provide a basis for the safety information given to road users.

  9. The Relationship between Obesity and Urban Environment in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungah; Shon, Changwoo; Yi, Seonju

    2017-08-09

    Obesity is a global pandemic that brings about a myriad of health consequences. In the past, policies for combating obesity mainly focused on improving individual health and behavior, but nowadays some policies have changed and now concentrate on improving the built environment believing this can improve health through positive changes to health-related behaviors. We examined whether both individual and environmental factors were associated with body mass index in Seoul, the capital city of South Korea. Data from the 2011 and 2013 Community Health Surveys were used (n = 20,147 men and 25,300 women). We staged multilevel logistic regression models to estimate the effect of individual and environmental factors on obesity. Among individual covariates, high-risk drinking, the time spent watching TV and surfing the Internet, high salt intake, stress, and the negative recognition of health were significantly associated with obesity. When controlling individual covariates, the number of sports facilities, number of fried chicken stores, and food insecurity level were statistically associated with probability of obesity. Therefore, this study emphasizes that it is important not only to improve the health behavior of the individual, but also to improve the urban environment in order to reduce the obesity rates of city dwellers.

  10. Comprehensive monitoring of drinking well water quality in Seoul metropolitan city, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Susaya, Janice P; Park, Chan Goo; Uhm, Jung-Hoon; Hur, Jin

    2013-08-01

    In this research, the quality of drinking well waters from 14 districts around Seoul metropolitan city, Korea was assessed by measuring a number of parameters with established guideline (e.g., arsenic, fluoride, nitrate nitrogen, benzene, 1,2-dichloroethene, dichloromethane, copper, and lead) and without such criteria (e.g., hardness, chloride ion, sulfate ion, ammonia nitrogen, aluminum, iron, manganese, and zinc). Physical parameters such as evaporation residue (or total dissolved solids) and turbidity were also measured. The importance of each parameter in well waters was examined in terms of the magnitude and exceedance frequency of guideline values established by international (and national) health agencies. The results of this study indicate that among the eight parameters with well-established guidelines (e.g., WHO), arsenic and lead (guideline value of 0.01 mg L(-1) for both) recorded the highest exceedance frequency of 18 and 16 well samples ranging in 0.06-136 and 2-9 mg L(-1), respectively. As such, a number of water quality parameters measured from many well waters in this urban area were in critical levels which require immediate attention for treatment and continuous monitoring.

  11. Outbreak of botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C) in wild waterfowl: Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Kim, Ha-Young; Bae, You-Chan; Jean, Young Hwa; Yoon, Soon-Seek; Bak, Eun-Jung; Hwang, Eui Kyung; Joo, Yi-Seok

    2010-07-01

    Over a 6-day period beginning on 15 October 2008, 93 dead or sick wild waterfowl, including Mallards, Spotbills, and teal species, were found along the shore of a branch stream of the Hangang River, which flows through Seoul, Korea, and were submitted to the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (NVRQS) for diagnosis. Clinically, the affected birds showed flaccid paralysis of the legs and wings and paralysis of the neck. Grossly, no bird showed any lesions, but all had almost empty stomachs. Histopathologic findings included mild lymphocytic hepatitis and mild lymphocytic interstitial nephritis. Clostridium botulinum type C toxin was identified in sera collected from the birds using a mouse bioassay for botulinum toxins; however, no bacteria were isolated from any of the affected birds. In addition, a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus was isolated from two Spotbills, and pesticides such as diazinon and phorate, were detected in seven Mallards. The cause of this outbreak is not clear, but an increase in organic materials from sewage due to drought, increased temperatures, and an increased number of aquatic carcasses resulting from pesticide contamination may have increased the replication of C. botulinum, contributing to the release of botulinum toxins into the waterfowl food chain.

  12. Guidelines for HER2 testing in breast cancer: a national consensus of the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP) and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM).

    PubMed

    Albanell, Joan; Andreu, Xavier; Calasanz, María José; Concha, Angel; Corominas, José María; García-Caballero, Tomás; López, José Antonio; López-Ríos, Fernando; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago; Vera-Sempere, Francisco J; Colomer, Ramón; Martín, Miguel; Alba, Emilio; González-Martín, Antonio; Llombart, Antonio; Lluch, Ana; Palacios, José

    2009-06-01

    Identifying breast cancers with HER2 overexpression or amplification is critical as these usually imply the use of HER2-targeted therapies. DNA (amplification) and protein (overexpression) HER2 abnormalities usually occur simultaneously and both in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry may be accurate methods for the evaluation of these abnormalities. However, recent studies, including those conducted by the Association for Quality Assurance of the Spanish Society of Pathology, as well as the experience of a number of HER2 testing National Reference Centres have suggested the existence of serious reproducibility issues with both techniques. To address this issue, a joint committee from the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP) and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) was established to review the HER2 testing guidelines. Consensus recommendations are based not only on the panellists' experience, but also on previous consensus guidelines from several countries, including the USA, the UK and Canada. These guidelines include the minimal requirements that pathology departments should fulfil in order to guarantee proper HER2 testing in breast cancer. Pathology laboratories not fulfilling these standards should make an effort to meet them and, until then, are highly encouraged to submit to reference laboratories breast cancer samples for which HER2 determination has clinical implications for the patients.

  13. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... ASCP Selects ArborMetrix to Drive Patient-Centric National Pathology Quality Registry ePolicy News August 2017 July 2017 ... Measure Copyright © 2017 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  14. Clinico-pathological Analysis of the Lungs from Patients with Lung Transplantation in a Single Institute in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Lee, Hyun Joo; Kim, Young Tae; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the numbers of lung transplantation (LT) has been increased in Korea. However, post-LT outcome has not been successful in all patients, which may be partially affected by the primary lung disease. Therefore comprehensive understanding in original pathological diagnosis of patients with LT would be needed for achieving better clinical outcome. To address this issue, we performed clinico-pathological analysis of the explanted lungs from 29 patients who underwent LT over a 9-yr period in Seoul National University Hospital. Among them, 26 patients received single (1/26) or double (25/26) LT, while heart-lung transplantation was performed in 3 patients. The final clinico-pathological diagnoses were idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) (n = 6), acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP)/diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (n = 4), AIP/non-specific interstitial pneumonia with DAD (n = 1), collagen vascular disease-related interstitial lung disease (CVD-ILD)/DAD (n = 3), CVD-ILD/UIP (n = 1), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (n = 1), bronchiectasis (n = 4), pulmonary arterial hypertension (n = 2), tuberculosis (n = 1), bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) (n = 1), and lung cancer (n = 1). Moreover, 4 patients who had chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation due to hematologic malignancy showed unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia with extensive fibrosis in the lungs. Our study demonstrates that pathology of the explanted lungs from Korean patients with LT is different from that of other countries except for interstitial lung disease and bronchiectasis, which may be helpful for optimization of selecting LT candidates for Korean patients.

  15. Spatial regression analysis of traffic crashes in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Kyoung-Ah; Kim, Joon-Ki; Lee, Young-ihn; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F

    2016-06-01

    Traffic crashes can be spatially correlated events and the analysis of the distribution of traffic crash frequency requires evaluation of parameters that reflect spatial properties and correlation. Typically this spatial aspect of crash data is not used in everyday practice by planning agencies and this contributes to a gap between research and practice. A database of traffic crashes in Seoul, Korea, in 2010 was developed at the traffic analysis zone (TAZ) level with a number of GIS developed spatial variables. Practical spatial models using available software were estimated. The spatial error model was determined to be better than the spatial lag model and an ordinary least squares baseline regression. A geographically weighted regression model provided useful insights about localization of effects. The results found that an increased length of roads with speed limit below 30 km/h and a higher ratio of residents below age of 15 were correlated with lower traffic crash frequency, while a higher ratio of residents who moved to the TAZ, more vehicle-kilometers traveled, and a greater number of access points with speed limit difference between side roads and mainline above 30 km/h all increased the number of traffic crashes. This suggests, for example, that better control or design for merging lower speed roads with higher speed roads is important. A key result is that the length of bus-only center lanes had the largest effect on increasing traffic crashes. This is important as bus-only center lanes with bus stop islands have been increasingly used to improve transit times. Hence the potential negative safety impacts of such systems need to be studied further and mitigated through improved design of pedestrian access to center bus stop islands.

  16. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geon Woo; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Youngeun; Hong, Seung-Han; Kim, Soohwaun; Kim, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jong Tae; Shin, Dong Chun; Lim, Youngwook

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the official census count, the floating population in 25 regions was calculated. The reduced level of deaths among the floating population in 14 regions having the roadside monitoring station was calculated as assuming a 20% reduction of mobile emission based on the policy. The hourly floating population size was calculated by applying the hourly population ratio to the regional population size as specified in the official census count. The number of people moving from 5 a.m. to next day 1 a.m. could not be precisely calculated when the population size was applied, but no issue was observed that would trigger a sizable shift in the rate of population change. The three patterns of increase, decrease, and no change of population in work hours were analyzed. When the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter was reduced by 20%, the number of excess deaths varied according to the difference of the floating population. The effective establishment of directions to manage the pollutants in cities should be carried out by considering the floating population. Although the number of people using the metro system is only an estimate, this disadvantage was supplemented by calculating inflow and outflow ratio of metro users per time in the total floating population in each region. Especially, 54% of metro usage in public transport causes high reliability in application.

  17. The study to estimate the floating population in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jong Tae

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the official census count, the floating population in 25 regions was calculated. The reduced level of deaths among the floating population in 14 regions having the roadside monitoring station was calculated as assuming a 20% reduction of mobile emission based on the policy. The hourly floating population size was calculated by applying the hourly population ratio to the regional population size as specified in the official census count. The number of people moving from 5 a.m. to next day 1 a.m. could not be precisely calculated when the population size was applied, but no issue was observed that would trigger a sizable shift in the rate of population change. The three patterns of increase, decrease, and no change of population in work hours were analyzed. When the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter was reduced by 20%, the number of excess deaths varied according to the difference of the floating population. The effective establishment of directions to manage the pollutants in cities should be carried out by considering the floating population. Although the number of people using the metro system is only an estimate, this disadvantage was supplemented by calculating inflow and outflow ratio of metro users per time in the total floating population in each region. Especially, 54% of metro usage in public transport causes high reliability in application. PMID:28602069

  18. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  19. Prevalence of Lumbar Disc Herniation in Adolescent Males in Seoul, Korea: Prevalence of Adolescent LDH in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Keun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Lee, Myoung Seok; Park, Hyung-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2011-01-01

    Objective The authors surveyed the prevalence and the clinical character of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in Korean male adolescents, and the usefulness of current conscription criteria. Methods The data of 39,673 nineteen-year-old males that underwent a conscription examination at the Seoul Regional Korean Military Manpower Administration (MMA) from October 2010 to May 2011 were investigated. For those diagnosed as having lumbar disc herniation, prevalences, subject characteristics, herniation severities, levels of herniation, and modified Korean Oswestry low back pain disability scores by MMA physical grade were evaluated. The analysis was performed using medical certificates, medical records, medical images, and electromyographic and radiologic findings. Results The prevalence of adolescent LDH was 0.60%(237 of the 39,673 study subjects), and the prevalence of serious adolescent LDH with thecal sac compression or significant discogenic spinal stenosis was 0.28%(110 of the 39,673 study subjects). Of the 237 adolescent LDH cases, 105 (44.3%) were of single level LDH and 132 (55.7%) were of multiple level LDH, and the L4-5 level was the most severely and frequently affected. Oswestry back pain disability scores increased with herniation severity (p<0.01), and were well correlated with MMA grade. Conclusions In this large cohort of 19-year-old Korean males, the prevalence of adolescent LDH was 0.60% and the prevalence of serious adolescent LDH, which requires management, was relatively high at 0.28%. MMA physical grade was confirmed to be a useful measure of the disability caused by LDH. PMID:26064143

  20. Computational Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  1. Properties of 21 Urban Agricultural Soils in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    The number of urban agriculture practitioners has been increasing rapidly in Korea like many other urbanized countries recently. The Korean government enacted a law for promoting urban agriculture in 2011. However, urban soil environment can be potential sources of many toxic contaminants including heavy metals making people concern about the safety of the agricultural products from the urban agriculture. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and plant by overuse of compost from animal waste was one of the raised concerns. This study was carried out to find out properties and total and phytoavailable (1.0 M NH4NO3 extractable) contents of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in 21 urban agricultural soils in Seoul. On the average, the investigated urban soils showed pH1:5 6.89, EC1:5 0.14 dS m-1, organic mater 2.22%, available P2O5 139 mg kg-1, cation exchange capacity (CEC) 11.36 cmolc kg-1 and total nitrogen 0.15%. The average exchangeable-Ca, -Mg, -K and -Na of the 21 samples were 6.71, 1.44, 1.06 and 0.30 cmol+ kg-1, respectively. Total heavy metal concentrations (Cd 0.97-3.17 mg kg-1, average 1.89 mg kg-1; Pb 8.10-46.27 mg kg-1, average 19.96 mg kg-1; Cu 8.97-133.40 mg kg-1, average 38.37 mg kg-1; and Zn 38.97-180.06 mg kg-1, average 97.73 mg kg-1) in urban agricultural soils were lower than those of the warning standard in the area 1 according to the Soil Environmental Conservation Act of Korea. Phytoavailable-Cu, -Pb, and -Zn concentrations of the samples showed 0.02-0.28, N.D-0.09 and 0.01-0.43 mg kg-1, respectively. Phytoavailable-Cd was not detected. The average phytoavailable-Cu concentration from this study was similar to that from the previous phytoavailable-Cu of the highly contaminated soils from nearby abandoned mines, which might be resulted from overuse of compost from animal waste. Results showed a necessity of long-term monitoring of soils for sustainable urban agriculture in Korea.

  2. Gender difference in the affricate productions of young Seoul Korean speakers.

    PubMed

    Kong, Eun Jong; Kang, Soyoung; Seo, Misun

    2014-10-01

    This study explored gender-related differences in affricates' place of articulation of young Seoul Korean speakers. Word-initial and medial affricates before /a/ and /i/ collected from 42 adult Seoul speakers were compared with alveolar and palatalized fricatives in the same vowel conditions by examining spectral peak frequencies of the frication part of the consonants. Results showed evidence of gender differences in the acoustic realization of word-medial affricates, which implies a more anterior articulation in females' productions before /a/. Possibilities for sound change in affricates led by females or the use of anterior affricates as a socially indexed gender marker are discussed.

  3. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992: The JANUS Program Survival and Pathology Data

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, D.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.; Williamson, F.S.; Fox, C.

    1995-02-01

    A research reactor for exclusive use in experimental radiobiology was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1960`s. It was located in a special addition to Building 202, which housed the Division of Biological and Medical Research. Its location assured easy access for all users to the animal facilities, and it was also near the existing gamma-irradiation facilities. The water-cooled, heterogeneous 200-kW(th) reactor, named JANUS, became the focal point for a range of radiobiological studies gathered under the rubic of {open_quotes}the JANUS program{close_quotes}. The program ran from about 1969 to 1992 and included research at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to organism. More than a dozen moderate- to large-scale studies with the B6CF{sub 1} mouse were carried out; these focused on the late effects of whole-body exposure to gamma rays or fission neutrons, in matching exposure regimes. In broad terms, these studies collected data on survival and on the pathology observed at death. A deliberate effort was made to establish the cause of death. This archieve describes these late-effects studies and their general findings. The database includes exposure parameters, time of death, and the gross pathology and histopathology in codified form. A series of appendices describes all pathology procedures and codes, treatment or irradiation codes, and the manner in which the data can be accessed in the ORACLE database management system. A series of tables also presents summaries of the individual experiments in terms of radiation quality, sample sizes at entry, mean survival times by sex, and number of gross pathology and histopathology records.

  4. National Security And Institutional Pathologies: A Path Dependent Analysis Of U.S. Interventions In Iran, Guatemala, Cuba, And Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    national fear stemming from salient political environments plagued with excessive communist and terrorist threat perceptions and rhetoric...previously institutionalized procedures by seizing upon opportunity structures created during periods of national fear stemming from salient political...for the development and execution of U.S. policies during the Cold War.2 In this thesis, I argue that the perception of successful U.S

  5. Assessment of Flood Vulnerability to Climate Change Using Fuzzy Operators in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study is to apply the IPCC(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) concept of vulnerability to climate change and verify the use of a combination of vulnerability index and fuzzy operators to flood vulnerability analysis and mapping in Seoul using GIS. In order to achieve this goal, this study identified indicators influencing floods based on literature review. We include indicators of exposure to climate(daily max rainfall, days of 80㎜ over), sensitivity(slope, geological, average DEM, Impermeability layer, topography and drainage), and adaptive capacity(retarding basin and green-infra). Also, this research used fuzzy operator model for aggregating indicators, and utilized frequency ratio to decide fuzzy membership values. Results show that number of days of precipitation above 80㎜, the distance from river and impervious surface have comparatively strong influence on flood damage. Furthermore, when precipitation is over 269㎜, areas with scare flood mitigation capacities, industrial land use, elevation of 16˜20m, within 50m distance from rivers are quite vulnerable to floods. Yeongdeungpo-gu, Yongsan-gu, Mapo-gu include comparatively large vulnerable areas. The relative weight of each factor was then converted into a fuzzy membership value and integrated as a flood vulnerability index using fuzzy operators (fuzzy AND, fuzzy OR, fuzzy algebraic sum, and fuzzy algebraic product). Comparing the results of the highest for the fuzzy AND operator, fuzzy gamma operator (γ = 0.2) is higher with improved computational. This study improved previous flood vulnerability assessment methodology by adopting fuzzy operator model. Also, vulnerability map provides meaningful information for decision makers regarding priority areas for implementing flood mitigation policies. Acknowledgements: The authors appreciate the support that this study has received from "Development of Time Series Disaster Mapping Technologies through Natural Disaster Factor Spatial

  6. Comparison of Aerosol Volume Size Distributions between Surface and Ground-based Remote Sensing Measurements Downwind of Seoul, Korea during MAPS-Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, P.; Choi, Y.; Ghim, Y. S.

    2016-12-01

    Both sunphotometer (Cimel, CE-318) and skyradiometer (Prede, POM-02) were operated in May, 2015 as a part of the Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul (MAPS-Seoul) campaign. These instruments were collocated at the Hankuk University of Foreign Studies (Hankuk_UFS) site of AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and the Yongin (YGN) site of SKYradiometer NETwork (SKYNET). The aerosol volume size distribution at the surface was measured using a wide range aerosol spectrometer (WRAS) system consisting of a scanning mobility particle sizer (Grimm, Model 5.416; 45 bins, 0.01-1.09 μm) and an optical particle counter (Grimm, Model 1.109; 31 bins, 0.27-34 μm). The measurement site (37.34oN, 127.27oE, 167 m above sea level) is located about 35 km southeast of downtown Seoul. To investigate the discrepancies in volume concentrations, effective diameters and fine mode volume fractions, we compared the volume size distributions from sunphotometer, skyradiometer, and WRAS system when the measurement time coincided within 5 minutes considering that the measurement intervals were different between instruments.

  7. General characteristics of causes of urban flood damage and flood forecasting/warning system in Seoul, Korea Young-Il Moon1, 2, Jong-Suk Kim1, 2 1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, South Korea 2 Urban Flood Research Inst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-Suk

    2015-04-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and climate change, the frequency of concentrated heavy rainfall has increased, causing urban floods that result in casualties and property damage. As a consequence of natural disasters that occur annually, the cost of damage in Korea is estimated to be over two billion US dollars per year. As interest in natural disasters increase, demands for a safe national territory and efficient emergency plans are on the rise. In addition to this, as a part of the measures to cope with the increase of inland flood damage, it is necessary to build a systematic city flood prevention system that uses technology to quantify flood risk as well as flood forecast based on both rivers and inland water bodies. Despite the investment and efforts to prevent landside flood damage, research and studies of landside-river combined hydro-system is at its initial stage in Korea. Therefore, the purpose of this research introduces the causes of flood damage in Seoul and shows a flood forecasting and warning system in urban streams of Seoul. This urban flood forecasting and warning system conducts prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and performs prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded area and also supports synthetic decision-making for prevention through real-time monitoring. Although we cannot prevent damage from typhoons or localized heavy rain, we can minimize that damage with accurate and timely forecast and a prevention system. To this end, we developed a flood forecasting and warning system, so in case of an emergency there is enough time for evacuation and disaster control. Keywords: urban flooding, flood risk, inland-river system, Korea Acknowledgments This research was supported by a grant (13AWMP-B066744-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program (AWMP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  8. Musculoskeletal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Peat, Frances J; Kawcak, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    The current understanding of pathology as it relates to common diseases of the equine musculoskeletal system is reviewed. Conditions are organized under the fundamental categories of developmental, exercise-induced, infectious, and miscellaneous pathology. The overview of developmental pathology incorporates the new classification system of juvenile osteochondral conditions. Discussion of exercise-induced pathology emphasizes increased understanding of the contribution of cumulative microdamage caused by repetitive cyclic loading. Miscellaneous musculoskeletal pathology focuses on laminitis, which current knowledge indicates should be regarded as a clinical syndrome with a variety of possible distinct mechanisms of structural failure that are outlined in this overview. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 76 FR 51350 - Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission (AESTM) to Seoul, Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... medium-sized companies while combining aspects of a trade mission, such as one on one pre-scheduled... releases to general and trade media, direct mail, broadcast fax, notices by industry trade associations and... International Trade Administration Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission (AESTM) to Seoul, Korea AGENCY...

  10. An Incidence Survey of Battered Children in Two Elementary Schools of Seoul.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwang-iel; Ko, Bokja

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 1,142 elementary school students in Seoul (Korea) found that 8 percent were seriously battered, 58 percent were mildly battered, and 34 percent were unbattered in a 1-year period. Child battering was more serious in families in lower social strata, with poor living conditions, in broken families, and where parents were unskilled or…

  11. Modeling of urban trees' effects on reducing human exposure to UV radiation in Seoul, Korea

    Treesearch

    Hang Ryeol Na; Gordon M. Heisler; David J. Nowak; Richard H. Grant

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model isconstructed for quantifying urban trees’ effects on mitigating the intensity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the ground within different landuse types across a city. The model is based upon local field data, meteorological data and equations designed to predict the reduced UV fraction due to trees at the ground level. Trees in Seoul, Korea (2010...

  12. Using a choice experiment to measure the environmental costs of air pollution impacts in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun; Lee, Joo-Suk

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution, a by-product of economic growth, has been incurring extensive environmental costs in Seoul, Korea. Unfortunately, air pollution impacts are not treated as a commercial item, and thus it is difficult to measure the environmental costs arising from air pollution. There is an imminent need to find a way to measure air pollution impacts so that appropriate actions can be taken to control air pollution. Therefore, this study attempts to apply a choice experiment to quantifying the environmental costs of four air pollution impacts (mortality, morbidity, soiling damage, and poor visibility), using a specific case study of Seoul. We consider the trade-offs between price and attributes of air pollution impacts for selecting a preferred alternative and derive the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) estimate for each attribute. According to the results, the households' monthly WTP for a 10% reduction in the concentrations of major pollutants in Seoul was found to be approximately 5494 Korean won (USD 4.6) and the total annual WTP for the entire population of Seoul was about 203.4 billion Korean won (USD 169.5 million). This study is expected to provide policy-makers with useful information for evaluating and planning environmental policies relating specifically to air pollution.

  13. Review of Suicide Prevention Programs: Massachusetts, United States, in Comparison with Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Park, Jong-Ik; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Roh, Sung-won; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a tragedy that has massive impact on society. In order to prevent suicide, active government intervention is necessary. The suicide rate in Seoul is rapidly increasing and is more than five times higher than that in the state of Massachusetts (MA) during the last decade, especially in the elderly. The suicide prevention program of MA is one of the most effective suicide prevention programs in the United States. The program views suicide as a preventable public health problem, and emphasizes treatment of depression and de-stigmatization of mental health illnesses to prevent suicide. Also, through active collaboration with mental health professionals, they try to identify at-risk populations and help them to get medical interventions. The program also actively collaborates with the regional coalition program and the Samaritans in taking care of the elderly, and supports the elderly in feeling worthwhile after retirement by helping them to work for communities as volunteers. For its part, the Seoul suicide prevention program puts more emphasis on "life respect culture" and "emotional support to high risk individuals by regular visiting". The annual budget of the Seoul suicide prevention program is one-quarter and that for mental health is about one-twentieth that of MA. Considering the high suicide rate and lower mental health service usage in Seoul, it is crucial to raise awareness of depression and decrease the stigma on mental illnesses. Furthermore, educational efforts with long-term investment in research on suicide are necessary. PMID:26207119

  14. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) at the urban core site of Seoul during 2015 MAPS / KORUS - AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    A few measurements of atmospheric PAN were made in Seoul for the last decade. One study showed the average and maximum PAN concentration in summer of 2004 and 2005 with 0.8 ppb and 10.4 ppb and another study specified 0.64 ppb and 5.03 ppb, respectively in 2011. In this study, the measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) have been conducted at an urban site situated in KIST campus (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 127° 2'E, 37° 36'N) from May 18 to June 12, 2015. PAN was measured every 2 minutes by a fast chromatography with luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. Concentration of PAN ranged from 0.15ppbv to 4.37ppbv, with the average of 0.57 ppbv. PAN revealed its peak between 2 and 4 pm matching with the photochemical activities and precursor emission. When comparing with historic data of PAN in urban Seoul during the past decade, it has decreased about 50%. The rather rapid decrease of summertime PAN level for last ten years in Seoul will be discussed further with the behaviors of its precursor species.

  15. Assessment of a Megacity Air Quality Management Policy using the GAINS-Korea : Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Ahn, Y. H.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Amann, M.; Wagner, F.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution in and near megacities are very severe because of their massive pollutant emissions and high population density. Korea has ambitiously set its 2nd phase capitol air quality improvement program called Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP), targeting the year 2024. The air quality improvement targets for the year 2024 are 30 ug/m3 and 20 ug/m3 for PM10 and pm2.5, respectively and planned expenditure are almost 4 billion US dollar. Emissions of PM10, PM2.5 are required to be decreased up to 35%, 45%, respectively, from their future baseline level. Various special measures, such as cap-and-trade, LNB, EURO standards program, will be implemented to control emissions over Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi-do area. Smart approach of reducing air pollution and GHGs are, however, required to maximize improvement of metropolitan air quality and climate change. IIASA's Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions aNd Synergies(GAINS) modeling framework is an widely used tool to design and manage smart emission control strategies that can achieve air quality/climate improvements with least costs. We have developed the national version of GAINS for Korea (GAINS-Korea) to set up those strategies for national and regional scale. In this study, we have implemented SAQMP in the GAINS-Korea Model and assess its effects of emissions reduction and air quality improvements. Various analysis results using the framework will be presented at site.

  16. Light Pollution Surveys around the Seoul Capital Area: Results from 2009 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinhee; An, Sung-Ho; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Roh, Eunji; Chiang, Howoo; Kim, Jinhyub; Kim, Seongjoong; Park, Songyoun

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a series of light pollution surveys in the periods of 2009/2010 and 2014/2015 at ~130 sites within the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We quantitatively measured the night sky brightness in the unit of mag/arcsec2 with the ‘SQM (Sky Quality Meter)-L’ by considering the following conditions: 1) fully dark sky after astronomical twilight, 2) good weather with the cloud amount less than 10%, and 3) ensure no contaminations from nearby street lights to the measured value. We find that the night sky is getting darker from the center of Seoul to the outskirts of Gyeonggi-do by a factor of ~40. In both surveys, for example, the brightest site is Namsan Elementary School (Jung-gu, Seoul: 16.3 and 16.5 mag/arcsec2 in 2009/2010 and 2014/2015, respectively), located nearly at the middle of Seoul. Also, the darkest site is Goseong-ri (Gapyeong-gun, Gyeonggi-do: 20.1 and 20.6 mag/arcsec2 in 2009/2010 and 2014/2015, respectively), situated ~50 km northeast of the brightest site. In addition, the night sky brightness in 2014/2015 is on average darker by ~0.4 mag/arcsec2 compared to the brightness in 2009/2010, which indicates the reduced light pollution in the Seoul Capital Area. In this contribution, we will present the maps of the night sky brightness in the capital region of Korea from both surveys, and discuss the possible reasons for the changes in night sky brightness within 5 years.

  17. Source apportionment of the particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea: impact of long range transport to a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y. P.

    2007-07-01

    Northeast Asia including China, Korea, and Japan is one of the world's largest fossil fuel consumption regions. Seoul, Korea, is a megacity in Northeast Asia. Its emissions of air pollutants can affect the region, and in turn it is also affected by regional emissions. To understand the extent of these influences, major sources of ambient particulate PAHs in Seoul were identified and quantified based on measurements made between August 2002 and December 2003. The chemical mass balance (CMB) model was applied. Seven major emission sources were identified based on the emission data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, residential coal use, coke ovens, coal power plants, biomass burning, and natural gas (NG) combustion. The major sources of particulate PAHs in Seoul during the whole measurement period were gasoline and diesel vehicles, together accounted for 31% of the measured particulate PAHs levels. However, the source contributions showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven) were observed in fall and winter, accounting for 63% and 82% of the total concentration of PAHs, respectively. Since these sources were not strong in and around Seoul, they are likely to be related to transport from outside of Seoul, from China and/or North Korea. This implies that the air quality in a mega-city such as Seoul can be influenced by the long range transport of air pollutants such as PAHs.

  18. Source apportionment of the particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea: impact of long range transport to a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    Northeast Asia including China, Korea, and Japan is one of the world's largest fossil fuel consumption regions. Seoul is a megacity in Northeast Asia and its emissions of air pollutants can affect the region and is also affected by the regional emissions. To understand the degree of this relationship, major sources of ambient particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea were identified and quantified based on the measurement data between August 2002 and December 2003. The chemical mass balance (CMB) model was applied. Seven major emission sources were identified based on the emission data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, coal residential, coke oven, coal power plant, biomass burning, natural gas (NG) combustion. The major source of particulate PAHs at Seoul on the whole measurement period was gasoline and diesel vehicles, accounted for 31% of the measured particulate PAHs levels. However, the source contributions showed distinct seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven) were shown in fall and winter accounted for 63% and 82% of the total PAHs concentration, respectively. Since these sources were not strong in and around Seoul, these might be related to transport from outside of Seoul, from China and/or North Korea. It implies that the air quality in the large urban city such as Seoul can be influenced by the long range transport of air pollutants such as PAHs.

  19. Pansteatitis of unknown etiology associated with large-scale Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) mortality in Kruger National Park, South Africa: pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Govender, Danny; Bengis, Roy G; Buss, Peter E; Hofmeyr, Markus; Myburgh, Jan G; Steyl, Johan C A; Pienaar, Daniel J; Kotze, Antoinette

    2013-12-01

    Annual mortality events in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Olifants River Gorge in Kruger National Park, South Africa, were experienced between 2008 and 2012, during which at least 216 crocodiles died. Live crocodiles were lethargic. Necropsy examination of 56 affected crocodiles showed dark yellow-brown firm nodules in both somatic fat and the abdominal fat body. In all of the 11 crocodiles submitted for histology, degenerative, necrotic, and inflammatory changes supported a diagnosis of steatitis in both fat types. Crocodiles are apex predators in this anthropogenically changed aquatic ecosystem that is used by humans upstream and downstream from the park for domestic, agricultural, fishing, and recreational purposes. This pathologic review of pansteatitis in crocodiles in the Olifants River system was part of a broad multidisciplinary research program. To date, no definitive causative agent has been identified. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that this event may have been a one-time event with long-standing repercussions on the health of the crocodiles. Pathologic findings are rarely documented in wild crocodilians. This study also reports on other conditions, including the presence of coccidian oocysts, capillarid and filaroid nematodes, digenetic trematodes, and pentastomes.

  20. Children at risk: A comparison of child pedestrian traffic collisions in Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, Carola; Lee, Jae Seung; Zegras, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examine and compare pedestrian-vehicle collisions and injury outcomes involving school-age children between 5 and 18 years of age in the capital cities of Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea. We conduct descriptive analysis of the child pedestrian-vehicle collision (P-VC) data (904 collisions for Santiago and 3,505 for Seoul) reported by the police between 2010 and 2011. We also statistically analyze factors associated with child P-VCs, by both incident severity and age group, using 3 regression models: negative binomial, probit, and spatial lag models. Descriptive statistics suggest that child pedestrians in Seoul have a higher risk of being involved in traffic crashes than their counterparts in Santiago. However, in Seoul a greater proportion of children are unharmed as a result of these incidents, whereas more child pedestrians are killed in Santiago. Younger children in Seoul suffer more injuries from P-VCs than in Santiago. The majority of P-VCs in both cities tend to occur in the afternoon and evening, at intersections in Santiago and at midblock locations in Seoul. Our model results suggest that the resident population of children is positively associated with P-VCs in both cities, and school concentrations apparently increase P-VC risk among older children in Santiago. Bus stops are associated with higher P-VCs in Seoul, and subway stations relate to higher P-VCs among older children in Santiago. Zone-level land use mix was negatively related to child P-VCs in Seoul but not in Santiago. Arterial roads are associated with fewer P-VCs, especially for younger children in both cities. A share of collector roads is associated with increased P-VCs in Seoul but fewer P-VCs in Santiago. Hilliness is related to fewer P-VCs in both cities. Differences in these model results for Santiago and Seoul warrant additional analysis, as do the differences in results across model type (negative binomial versus spatial lag models). To reduce child P-VCs, this study

  1. An analysis of wilderness water in Kings Canyon, Sequoia, and Yosemite national parks for coliform and pathologic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Derlet, Robert W; Carlson, James R

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of coliform and potentially pathogenic bacteria in remote backcountry alpine lakes and streams of national parks in the Sierra Nevada mountains. Water was sampled at 55 predetermined lakes and streams that would stratify the risk, based on sites used by backpackers, sites used by pack animals, and uncontaminated wild areas. Sites were distributed among Kings Canyon (15), Sequoia (17), and Yosemite (23). Water was collected using Millipore bacterial samplers, which provided specific counts of coliform and other bacteria in each water sample and also served as a transport media from the wilderness to the laboratory. On return to the laboratory, bacteria were harvested from the samplers and subjected to specific identification and qualitative analysis using standard microbiology techniques for the analysis of water. Coliform bacteria were detected in 22 of the 55 sites. All of these sites were below areas used by backpackers or pack animals. Thirty-three sites were free of coliforms. These sites included both those used lightly by backpackers and those with no human or domestic animal use. All samples contained expected amounts of normal aquatic bacteria including Pseudomonas, Rahnella aquatilis, Serratia spp, and nonpathogenic species of Yersinia. Most sampling sites in these national parks are free of coliform or pathogenic organisms. Low levels of coliform bacteria are found in some bodies of water where the watershed has been affected by human or pack animal travel.

  2. Evaluation of CMAQ and CAMx Ensemble Air Quality Forecasts during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.; Kim, S.; Bae, C.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of Air quality forecasts during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign was evaluated. An forecast system has been operated to support the campaign's daily aircraft route decisions for airborne measurements to observe long-range transporting plume. We utilized two real-time ensemble systems based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)-Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) modeling framework and WRF-SMOKE- Community Multi_scale Air Quality (CMAQ) framework over northeastern Asia to simulate PM10 concentrations. Global Forecast System (GFS) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) was used to provide meteorological inputs for the forecasts. For an additional set of retrospective simulations, ERA Interim Reanalysis from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) was also utilized to access forecast uncertainties from the meteorological data used. Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and National Institute of Environment Research (NIER) Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) emission inventories are used for foreign and domestic emissions, respectively. In the study, we evaluate the CMAQ and CAMx model performance during the campaign by comparing the results to the airborne and surface measurements. Contributions of foreign and domestic emissions are estimated using a brute force method. Analyses on model performance and emissions will be utilized to improve air quality forecasts for the upcoming KORUS-AQ field campaign planned in 2016.

  3. The rise of governmentality in the Italian National Health System: physiology or pathology of a decentralized and (ongoing) federalist system?

    PubMed

    Lega, Federico; Sargiacomo, Massimo; Ianni, Luca

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we aim to discuss the implications and lessons that can be learnt from the ongoing process of federalism affecting the Italian National Health System (INHS). Many countries are currently taking decisions concerning the decentralization or re-centralization of their health-care systems, with several key issues that are illustrated in the recent history of the INHS. The decentralization process of INHS has produced mixed results, as some regions took advantage of it to strengthen their systems, whereas others were not capable of developing an effective steering role. We argue that the mutual reinforcement of the decentralization and recentralization processes is not paradoxical, but is actually an effective way for the State to maintain control over the equity and efficiency of its health-care system while decentralizing at a regional level. In this perspective, we provide evidence backing up some of the assumptions made in previous works as well as new food-for thought - specifically on how governmentality and federalism should meet - to reshape the debate on decentralization in health care.

  4. Benign nodal lesions mimicking metastases from pediatric renal neoplasms: a report of the National Wilms' Tumor Study Pathology Center.

    PubMed

    Weeks, D A; Beckwith, J B; Mierau, G W

    1990-12-01

    Regional lymph node status is a key factor in the staging of pediatric renal tumors on the National Wilms' Tumor Study (NWTS). A review of cases entered on the NWTS has uncovered a number of cases where benign lymph node findings were mistaken for metastases. Most frequently, this was due to the presence of complexes of epithelial cells and Tamm-Horsfall protein within nodal sinuses. The epithelial cells were derived from damaged nephrons, usually resulting from obstruction by tumor. Another epithelial pseudometastic lesion, intranodal squamous epithelial cells, was found to originate from metaplastic calyceal urothelium. Benign mesothelial or coelomic inclusions similar to those previously described in pelvic and periaortic lymph nodes of adult females were found in nodes of four patients, including two boys, who are, to our knowledge, the first to be described with this finding. Other sources of confusion included protrusion of lymphoid follicles or germinal centers into nodal sinuses, thick endothelial cells of postcapillary venules mimicking epithelial tubules, nodal megakaryocytes resembling anaplastic nuclear changes, and histiocytic granulomas. Immunocytochemical methods were useful in evaluating some of these phenomena. Recognition of these pseudometastatic lesions is essential in order to avoid unnecessary and potentially hazardous therapeutic intensification.

  5. [Pathology- a new revival].

    PubMed

    Barshack, Iris

    2013-06-01

    The field of pathology has undergone considerable change in recent years. The editor and editorial board of this journal are to be commended for their decision to devote a special issue to the field of pathology. Pathology deals with the characterization, investigation, and diagnosis of disease and disease processes and as such, has Long been considered one of the foundations of medicine. It is a rich and multi-faceted field which has retained its breadth of scope in the face of ever-increasing specialization and sub-specialization in medicine. In addition to its classic roles in autopsy, case description, and the diagnosis of pathoLogic processes, new and innovative spheres of activity are becoming integral to the field, especially in the realm of molecular pathology. Pathology is a Leading player in the new age of "personalized cancer therapy", where pathologists are responsible not only for diagnosing disease in the tissue, but also for conducting additional tests which may predict its response to specific drug therapies. In this context, moLecular pathology has become essential to the field both in the provision of cLinical service and research. To fully implement this trend, we are witness to the rise of tissue collection and tissue banking initiatives for both diagnostic and research purposes. A national tissue banking project in Israel has recently received considerable attention.

  6. Radon exposure assessment for underground workers: a case of Seoul Subway Police officers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Myeong Han; Chang, Byung-Uck; Kim, Yongjae; Cho, Kun-Woo

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study is the systematic and individual assessment of the annual effective dose due to inhaled radon for the Seoul Subway Police officers, Korea. The annual average radon concentrations were found to be in the range of 18.9-114 Bq·m(-3) in their workplaces. The total annual effective doses which may likely to be received on duty were assessed to be in the range of 0.41-1.64 mSv·y(-1). These were well below the recommended action level 10 mSv·y(-1) by ICRP. However, the effective doses were higher than subway station staff in Seoul, Korea.

  7. Modification of the gravity model and application to the metropolitan Seoul subway system.

    PubMed

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Park, Jong Soo; Choi, M Y

    2012-08-01

    The Metropolitan Seoul Subway system is examined through the use of the gravity model. Exponents describing the power-law dependence on the time distance between stations are obtained, which reveals a universality for subway lines of the same topology. In the short (time) distance regime the number of passengers between stations does not grow with the decrease in the distance, thus deviating from the power-law behavior. It is found that such reduction in passengers is well described by the Hill function. Further, temporal fluctuations in the passenger flow data, fitted to the gravity model modified by the Hill function, are analyzed to reveal the Yule-type nature inherent in the structure of Seoul.

  8. [Seoul hantavirus infection-associated hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in France: A case report].

    PubMed

    Bour, A; Reynes, J-M; Plaisancie, X; Dufour, J-F

    2016-07-01

    Rodents are hantavirus hosts. In Europe, hantaviruses are responsible for human infections resulting in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Thousands of Puumala virus infections are reported annually in Europe, whereas human Seoul virus infections are rarely detected. We report the case of a 38-year-old patient who presented initially with flu-like symptoms and transitory blurred vision. He developed thrombocytopenia, acute renal failure, and elevated aminotransferases levels during the disease course, but the outcome was favorable with a full recovery. Afterwards, the hantavirus serology results were indicative of Seoul virus infection. This report serves to remind physicians to consider diagnosing hantavirus infection when observing the association of fever, acute renal failure and thrombocytopenia. Transitory blurred vision is a specific element to indicate this diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in feral cats from Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jusun; Kang, Jun-Gu; Oh, Sung-Suck; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Cho, Yun-Kyung; Cho, Young-Sun; Lee, Hang; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2017-01-01

    This study tested serum samples of feral cats from a highly urbanized habitat, Seoul, Korea to determine the infection to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). From 126 samples tested, SFTSV was detected by RT-PCR in 22 (17.5%) cats from various sites of Seoul. Sequences identified from this study were grouped with clusters from China and Japan. Our result provides data that SFTSV may have been circulating in settings that were suspected to have relatively low risk, such as highly urbanized habitats. Thus it warrants further study to investigate the ecology of SFTSV in urban-dwelling animals including ticks, human and other potential host species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  11. Signatures of the Sudden Stratospheric Warming events of January-February 2008 in Seoul, S. Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wachter, Evelyn; Hocke, Klemens; Flury, Thomas; Scheiben, Dominik; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Ka, Soohyun; Oh, Jung Jin

    2011-11-01

    The period January-February 2008 was characterized by four Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) in the Northern Hemisphere, of which the last warming, at the end of February 2008, was a major warming. A significant decrease in mesospheric water vapour (H 2O) of more than 2 ppmv (˜40%) was observed by the ground-based microwave (GBMW) radiometer in Seoul, S. Korea [37.3°N, 126.3°E] during the major SSW. A comparison with ground-based mesospheric H 2O observations from the mid-latitude station in Bern [46.9°N, 7°E] revealed an anticorrelation in the mesospheric H 2O data during the major SSW. In addition, prior to the major warming, strong periodic fluctuations were recorded in the Aura MLS vertical temperature distribution between 15 and 0.05 hPa at Seoul. The mesospheric temperature oscillation was found to have a period of ˜10-14 days with a persistency of 3-4 cycles. The observed anticorrelation in mesospheric H 2O between the stations in Seoul and Bern is associated with an increased meridional flow. Trajectory calculations give evidence that H 2O-rich subtropical air had moved to Bern during the major SSW while H 2O-poor polar air was transported to Seoul. The results shown in this study are a possible indication of a strong coupling between the dynamic regimes of the low- and the high-latitude regions during SSWs.

  12. Air Shower Events of High-Energy Cosmic Rays Measured at Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Wooram; Shin, Jae-Ik; Kim, Hongki; Lee, Seulgi; Lim, Sunin; Nam, Sinwoo; Yang, Jongmann; Cheon, Byunggu; Bang, Hyungchan; Kwon, Youngjoon

    2011-09-01

    The COsmic ray Research and Education Array (COREA) collaboration has installed an array of six detector stations at two high schools in and near Seoul, Korea for measurement of air-shower events from high-energy cosmic rays. Three stations are installed at each site, where each station consists of four plastic scintillation detectors covering an area of 2m2. In this presentation, we report the currenst status of the COREA project, describing the experimental equipment and measurement of coincident events.

  13. Characteristics of MSW and heat energy recovery between residential and commercial areas in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sora; Yoo, Kee-Young; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyzes the amount and characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) according to the inhabitant density of population and the business concentration in 25 districts in Seoul. Further, the heat energy recovery and avoided CO(2) emissions of four incineration plants located in residential and commercial areas in Seoul are examined. The amount of residential waste per capita tended to increase as the density of inhabitants decreased. The amount of commercial waste per capita tended to increase as the business concentration increased. The examination of the heat energy recovery characteristics indicated that the four incineration plants produced heat energy that depended on residential or commercial areas based on population and business. The most important result regarding avoided CO(2) emissions was that commercial areas with many office-type businesses had the most effective CO(2) emission savings by combusting 1 kg of waste. Assuming the full-scale operation of the four incineration plants, the amount of saved CO(2) emissions per year was 444 Gg CO(2) and 57,006 households in Seoul can be provided with heat energy equivalent to 542,711 Nm(3) of LNG.

  14. Carbon Stocks in the Seoul Forest Park: Quantification of Soil and Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, J.; Ryu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    It is generally agreed that mitigation of CO2 emissions is a big issue in our societies. The rapid growth in global population and urbanization have changed urban ecosystem. The urban became the center of the greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO2. It is true that the changes in land cover affect the soil and vegetation in urban ecosystem; specifically the amount of carbon stocks is changed. Such an anthropogenic disturbance, in the face of climate change, has led to interest in quantifying and understanding carbon stocks. However many studies focus on natural forest and pasture ecosystems, furthermore the organic carbon stocks in urban park have been less quantified. In this study, we measure the soil and vegetation carbon stocks in the Seoul Forest Park. The study site is located in Seoul, Republic of Korea; its total area is 116ha. This study has two purposes. First, we measure soil and vegetation carbon stock in the urban park. Second, we compare soil carbon stocks between modified and conserved area in the Seoul Forest Park. This study can lead re-evaluation of urban green space.

  15. Sex differences in immune responses and viral shedding following Seoul virus infection in Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Klein, S L; Bird, B H; Glass, G E

    2001-07-01

    In the field, male rodents are more frequently infected with hantaviruses than females. This study examined whether patterns of immune responses against hantavirus differed between the sexes. Male and female Long Evans rats (Rattus norvegicus) were inoculated with Seoul virus, and antibody and cytokine responses, as well as virus shedding were assessed. Males were more likely to shed virus in saliva, to shed virus through multiple routes (saliva, urine, and feces), and to have viral RNA in the spleen than females. Anti-Seoul virus IgG responses were higher in males than females. In both sexes, splenic IFNgamma and IL-4 production increased following infection. After infection, males had higher Th1 immune responses (i.e., IgG2a, IFNgamma, and IL-2) than females; in contrast, Th2 immune responses (i.e., IgG1, IL-4, and IL-10) were similar between the sexes. These data suggest that immune responses to Seoul virus differ between the sexes.

  16. Estimation of Populations Exposed to Road Traffic Noise in Districts of Seoul Metropolitan Area of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaewon; Gu, Jinhoi; Park, Hyunggyu; Yun, Heekyung; Kim, Samsoo; Lee, Wooseok; Han, Jinseok; Cha, Jun-Seok

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to model road traffic noise levels and estimate the human exposure at the 25 districts in the metropolitan Seoul, Republic of Korea. The SoundPLAN® Version 7.1 software package was used to model noise levels and simulated road traffic noise maps were created. The people exposed to daytime/nighttime road traffic noise were also estimated. The proportions of the population exposed to road traffic noise in major cities in the EU were also estimated and compared. Eight (8) districts show the exceeded rate (percentage of the exposed population exceeding the daytime standard) of 20% or more, and eleven (11) districts show 10%-20% and six (6) districts show less than 10%, which indicates considerable variation among districts. Two districts (Nowon-gu and Yangcheon-gu) show the highest exposure rate during the daytime (35.2%). For nighttime noise levels, fourteen (14) districts show the exceeded rate (percentage of exposed population exceeding the nighttime standard) over 30%. The average percentages of the exposed population exceeding the daytime/nighttime standards in Seoul and the EU were 16.6%/34.8% and 13.0%/16.1%, respectively. The results show that road traffic noise reduction measures should urgently be taken for the nighttime traffic noise in Seoul. When the grid noise map and the 3-D façade noise map were compared, the 3-D façade noise map was more accurate in estimating exposed population in citywide noise mapping. PMID:24603496

  17. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cats in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Kim, Neung-Hee; Chae, Hee-Sun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Nam, Ho-Woo; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Sun-Heung; Lee, Jung-Hark

    2011-02-01

    The present study assessed the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cat populations in Seoul using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 456 feral cats from 17 wards in Seoul was surveyed. The overall prevalence of T. gondii infection was 15.8% (69/456) by ELISA and 17.5% (80/456) by PCR; by gender, 17% (44/259) by ELISA and 16.2% (42/259) by PCR in males and 14.3% (28/196) by ELISA and 19.4% (38/196) by PCR in females. On a baseline of the Han River, prevalence was 15.1% (29/192) by ELISA and 15.6% (30/192) by PCR in the upper region and 16.4% (43/264) by ELISA and 18.9% (50/264) by PCR in the lower area. This suggested that toxoplasmosis is widespread throughout Seoul's feral cat population and it is critical that the city institute policies for the control of the feral cat population to reduce the risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to animals, including humans.

  18. Determination of upwind and downwind areas of Seoul, Korea using trajectory analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, H. S.; Ghim, Y. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Chang, Y. S.

    2010-09-01

    To identify the domains that have the greatest impacts on air quality at the surface, both the upwind and downwind areas of Seoul were determined by season using refined wind fields. Four consecutive days were selected as the study period typical of each season. The mesoscale meteorology of the study period was reproduced by using the MM5 prognostic meteorological model (PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model) with horizontally nested grids. The gridded meteorological field, which was used on the study area of 242 km x 226 km with grid spacing of 2 km, was generated by using the CALMET diagnostic meteorological model. Upwind and downwind areas of Seoul were determined by calculating 24-hour backward and forward air parcel trajectories, respectively, with u, v, and w velocity vectors. The results showed that the upwind and downwind areas were extended far to the northwest and the southeast as a result of high wind speeds in the spring and winter, while they were restricted on the fringe of Seoul in the summer and fall.

  19. OH Reactivity Observations during the MAPS-Seoul Campaign: Contrasts between Urban and Suburban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, D.; Jeong, D.; Blake, D. R.; Wang, M. D.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.; Ahn, J.; Cho, G.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    Direct total OH reactivity was observed in the urban and suburban environments of Seoul, South Korea using a comparative reactivity method (CRM) during the MAPS-Seoul field campaign. In addition, CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, VOCs, aerosol, physical, and chemical parameters were also deployed. By comparing the observed total OH reactivity results with calculated OH reactivity from the trace gas observational datasets, we will evaluate our current status in constraining reactive gases in the urban and suburban environments in the East Asian megacity. Observed urban OH reactivity will be presented in the context of the ability to constrain anthropogenic reactive trace gas emissions. It will then be compared to the observed suburban results from Taehwa Research Forest (located ~ 50 km from the Seoul City Center). Our understanding of reactive trace gases in an environment of high BVOC emissions in a mildly aged anthropogenic influences will be evaluated. Using an observational constrained box model with detailed VOC oxidation schemes (e.g. MCM), we will discuss: 1) what is the amount of missing OH reactivity 2) what are the potential sources of the missing OH reactivity, and 3) what are the implications on regional air quality?

  20. Evaluation of an international faculty development program for developing countries in Asia: the Seoul Intensive Course for Medical Educators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hwan; Yoon, Hyun Bae; Sung, Minsun; Yoo, Dong-Mi; Hwang, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Seunghee; Shin, Jwa-Seop

    2015-12-18

    The issue of collaboration in medical education is becoming prominent. Some faculty development programs have suggested an approach for promoting collaboration on a global level. However, non-English-speaking developing countries in Asia, especially in Southeast Asia, do not take advantage of them due to their unique context, such as language and culture. To address these issues, Seoul National University College of Medicine initiated a 6-week international faculty development program called the "Seoul Intensive Course for Medical Educators" for 16 fellows from five Asian countries (Cambodia, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar, and Vietnam). The aim of this study is to report the evaluation results of the outcome of the program and discuss better ways of collaborating with developing countries. Three levels of collaboration-intraorganizational, intranational, and international-were central initiatives of the program. Prior to setting up the program details, we first established four design principles, following which the contents, materials, and facilitators were determined to maintain consistency with the design principles. The evaluation of the program was done with Kirkpatrick's four-level model. Most of the evaluation data for level 1 were collected by two questionnaires, the post-module survey and the post-program survey. Portfolios and progress reports were mainly used to collect outcome data for levels 2 and 3, respectively. The reaction was generally positive throughout the program and there was a significant correlation between satisfaction and relevance to one's job or needs. Despite the fellows' propensity for overestimating themselves, both the evaluators and fellows reported that there was significant improvement in learning. Opinions on the impact or urgency of the topics were slightly different from country to country; however, the answers regarding feasibility were fairly similar. Moreover, we could observe from the post-program progress reports that the

  1. Modeling Study on Air Quality Improvement due to Mobile Source Emission control Plan in Seoul Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Sunwoo, Y.; Hwang, I.; Song, S.; Sin, J.; Kim, D.

    2015-12-01

    A very high population and corresponding high number of vehicles in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) are aggravating the air quality of this region. The Korean government continues to make concerted efforts to improve air quality. One of the major policies that the Ministry of Environment of Korea enforced is "The Special Act for Improvement of Air Quality in SMA" and "The 1st Air Quality Management Plan of SMA". Mobile Source emission controls are an important part of the policy. Thus, it is timely to evaluate the air quality improvement due to the controls. Therefore, we performed a quantitative analysis of the difference in air quality using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and December, 2011 was set as the target period to capture the impact of the above control plans. We considered four fuel-type vehicle emission scenarios and compared the air quality improvement differences between them. The scenarios are as follows: no-control, gasoline vehicle control only, diesel vehicle control only, and control of both; utilizing the revised mobile source emissions from the Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS), which is the national emission inventory reflecting current policy.In order to improve the accuracy of the modeling data, we developed new temporal allocation coefficients based on traffic volume observation data and spatially reallocated the mobile source emissions using vehicle flow survey data. Furthermore, we calculated the PM10 and PM2.5 emissions of gasoline vehicles which is omitted in CAPSS.The results of the air quality modeling shows that vehicle control plans for both gasoline and diesel lead to a decrease of 0.65ppb~8.75ppb and 0.02㎍/㎥~7.09㎍/㎥ in NO2 and PM10 monthly average concentrations, respectively. The large percentage decreases mainly appear near the center of the metropolis. However, the largest NO2 decrease percentages are found in the northeast region of Gyeonggi-do, which is the province that surrounds the

  2. Risk factors for perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Young Hwa; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-09-01

    To identify the factors associated with perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, we analyzed the results from a series of city-wide cross-sectional surveys of HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to unmet medical needs. Among the 775 subjects included in the study, 15.4% had perceived unmet medical needs. Significant factors included age group (35-49 years; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.06), lower monthly income (aOR, 3.75 for the <$900/mo group and 2.44 for the $900-$1800/mo group; 95% CI, 1.68-8.35 and 1.18-5.04, respectively), beneficiaries of the National Medical Aid Program (aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01-3.17), recent CD4 cell counts <500/µL (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.33). Taken together, these data reveal strong associations of middle age and low socioeconomic status with perceived unmet medical needs among HIV-infected adults.

  3. Postoperative Radiotherapy for Pathologic N2 Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Review of the National Cancer Data Base

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Cliff G.; Patel, Aalok P.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; DeWees, Todd; Waqar, Saiama N.; Morgensztern, Daniel; Baggstrom, Maria Q.; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Bell, Jennifer M.; Guthrie, Tracey J.; Colditz, Graham A.; Crabtree, Traves D.; Kreisel, Daniel; Krupnick, Alexander S.; Patterson, G. Alexander; Meyers, Bryan F.; Puri, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the impact of modern postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) on overall survival (OS) for patients with N2 non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated nationally with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods Patients with pathologic N2 NSCLC who underwent complete resection and adjuvant chemotherapy from 2006 to 2010 were identified from the National Cancer Data Base and stratified by use of PORT (≥ 45 Gy). A total of 4,483 patients were identified (PORT, n = 1,850; no PORT, n = 2,633). The impact of patient and treatment variables on OS was explored using Cox regression. Results Median follow-up time was 22 months. On univariable analysis, improved OS correlated with younger age, treatment at an academic facility, female sex, urban population, higher income, lower Charlson comorbidity score, smaller tumor size, multiagent chemotherapy, resection with at least a lobectomy, and PORT. On multivariable analysis, improved OS remained independently predicted by younger age, female sex, urban population, lower Charlson score, smaller tumor size, multiagent chemotherapy, resection with at least a lobectomy, and PORT (hazard ratio, 0.886; 95% CI, 0.798 to 0.988). Use of PORT was associated with an increase in median and 5-year OS compared with no PORT (median OS, 45.2 v 40.7 months, respectively; 5-year OS, 39.3% [95% CI, 35.4% to 43.5%] v 34.8% [95% CI, 31.6% to 38.3%], respectively; P = .014). Conclusion For patients with N2 NSCLC after complete resection and adjuvant chemotherapy, modern PORT seems to confer an additional OS advantage beyond that achieved with adjuvant chemotherapy alone. PMID:25667283

  4. Eco-epidemiological and pathological features of wildlife mortality events related to cyanobacterial bio-intoxication in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bengis, Roy; Govender, Danny; Lane, Emily; Myburgh, Jan; Oberholster, Paul; Buss, Peter; Prozesky, Leon; Keet, Dewald

    2016-10-31

    Over the past decade, several clustered, multispecies, wildlife mortality events occurred in the vicinity of two man-made earthen dams in the southern and south central regions of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. On field investigation, heavy cyanobacterial blooms were visible in these impoundments and analysis of water samples showed the dominance of Microcystis spp. (probably Microcystis aeruginosa). Macroscopic lesions seen at necropsy and histopathological lesions were compatible with a diagnosis of cyanobacterial intoxication. Laboratory toxicity tests and assays also confirmed the presence of significant levels of microcystins in water from the two dams. These outbreaks occurred during the dry autumn and early winter seasons when water levels in these dams were dropping, and a common feature was that all the affected dams were supporting a large number of hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibius). It is hypothesised that hippopotamus' urine and faeces, together with agitation of the sediments, significantly contributed to internal loading of phosphates and nitrogen - leading to eutrophication of the water in these impoundments and subsequent cyanobacterial blooms. A major cause for concern was that a number of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were amongst the victims of these bio-intoxication events. This publication discusses the eco-epidemiology and pathology of these clustered mortalities, as well as the management options considered and eventually used to address the problem.

  5. Inguinoscrotal pathology

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Luis; Leonard, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Infants, children, and adolescents with inguinoscrotal pathology comprise a significant proportion of emergency department and outpatient visits. Visits to the emergency department primarily comprise individuals presenting with scrotal pain due to testicular torsion or torsion of the testicular appendages. At such time, immediate urological consultation is sought. Outpatient visits comprise those individuals with undescended testes, hydroceles, and varicoceles. Rare, but important problems, such as pediatric testicular tumours, may also present in the office setting. Many of these outpatient visits are to primary care physicians, who should have an appreciation of the timing and need for referral. The purpose of this review is to familiarize the general urologist and primary care physician with these varied pathologies and give insight into their assessment and management. Some of these same conditions are seen in adult patients, but there are some significant differences in their management in the pediatric group. In addition, the utility of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, are discussed within each pathological entity. It is hoped that this overview will assist our general urology and primary care colleagues in patient management for diverse inguinoscrotal pathologies. PMID:28265317

  6. Increase in primary surgical treatment of T1 and T2 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and rates of adverse pathologic features: National Cancer Data Base.

    PubMed

    Cracchiolo, Jennifer R; Baxi, Shrujal S; Morris, Luc G; Ganly, Ian; Patel, Snehal G; Cohen, Marc A; Roman, Benjamin R

    2016-05-15

    There has been increasing interest in the primary surgical treatment of patients with early T classification (T1-T2) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), with the stated goal of de-escalating or avoiding adjuvant treatment. Herein, the authors sought to determine the degree to which this interest has translated into changes in practice patterns, and the rates of adverse postoperative pathologic features. Patients with T1 to T2 OPSCC in the National Cancer Data Base who were treated from 2004 through 2013 were categorized as receiving primary surgical or primary radiation-based treatment. Trends in treatment selection and factors related to the selection of primary surgery were examined. The rates of adverse pathologic features including positive surgical margins, extracapsular spread (ECS), and advanced T and N classifications after surgery were analyzed. Of 8768 patients with T1 to T2 OPSCC, 68% underwent primary surgical treatment, increasing from 56% in 2004 to 82% in 2013 (P<.0001). The highest versus lowest volume hospitals treated 78% versus 59% of patients with primary surgery (odds ratio, 2.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-3.22 [P<.0001]). Higher lymph node classification was found to be predictive of lower rates of primary surgery, but the majority of patients with clinical N2/N3 disease underwent primary surgery. Among patients treated with surgery, positive surgical margins were present in 24% and ECS in 25% of patients. The rate of positive surgical margins decreased over time (P<.0001) and was observed less often at high-volume centers (P<.0001). Among candidates for single-modality therapy (those with clinical T1-T2/N0-N1 disease), 33% had positive surgical margins and/or ECS and 47% had at least 1 adverse feature (T3-T4 disease, N2-N3 disease, positive surgical margins, and/or ECS). Primary surgical treatment among patients with early T classification OPSCC has become more widespread. Cancer 2016;122:1523-32. © 2016 American Cancer

  7. Temporal trends in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival outcomes between two metropolitan communities: Seoul-Osaka resuscitation study.

    PubMed

    Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Lee, Eui Jung; Kajino, Kentaro; Song, Kyoung Jun; Nishiyama, Chika; Kong, So Yeon; Sakai, Tomohiko; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Iwami, Taku

    2015-06-09

    The objective of this study was to compare the temporal trends in survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) between two large metropolitan communities in Asia and evaluate the factors affecting survival after OHCA. A population-based prospective observational study. The Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance (CAVAS) project in Seoul and the Utstein Osaka Project in Osaka. A total of 36,292 resuscitation-attempted OHCAs with cardiac aetiology from 2006 to 2011 in Seoul and Osaka (11,082 in Seoul and 25,210 in Osaka). The primary outcome was neurologically favourable survival. Trend analysis and multivariable Poisson regression models were conducted to evaluate the temporal trends in survival of two communities. During the study period, the overall neurologically favourable survival was 2.6% in Seoul and 4.6% in Osaka (p<0.01). In both communities, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rates increased significantly from 2006 to 2011 (from 0.1% to 13.1% in Seoul and from 33.3% to 41.7% in Osaka). OHCAs that occurred in public places increased in Seoul (12.5% to 20.1%, p for trend <0.01) and decreased in Osaka (13.5% to 10.5%, p for trend <0.01). The proportion of OHCAs defibrillated by emergency medical service (EMS) providers was only 0.4% in 2006 but increased to 17.5% in 2011 in Seoul, whereas the proportion in Osaka decreased from 17.7% to 13.7% (both p for trend <0.01). Age-adjusted and gender-adjusted rates of neurologically favourable survival increased significantly in Seoul from 1.4% in 2006 to 4.3% in 2011 (adjusted rate ratio per year, 1.17; p for trend <0.01), whereas no significant improvement was observed in Osaka (3.6% in 2006 and 5.1% in 2011; adjusted rate ratio per year, 1.03; p for trend=0.08). Survivals after OHCA were increased in Seoul while remained constant in Osaka, which may have been affected by the differences and improvements of patient, community, and EMS system factors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  8. The environment modifies the relationship between social networks and secondhand smoke exposure among Korean nonsmokers in Seoul and California.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W; Unger, Jennifer B; Vollinger, Robert E; Latkin, Carl; Juon, Hee-Soon; Park, Hae-Ryun; Paik, Hee-Young; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2015-03-01

    This study compared risks of secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) among Korean nonsmokers in Seoul, South Korea and California, United States. Social networks were hypothesized to contain more smokers in Seoul than in California, and smokers were hypothesized to produce more secondhand smoke in Seoul than California, as Seoul's policies and norms are less restrictive. Telephone interviews were conducted with Korean adults in Seoul (N = 500) and California (N = 2830). In all, 69% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 64-74) of Koreans and 31% (95% CI = 29-33) of Korean Americans reported any SHSe. A total of 44% (95% CI = 40-47) of Korean family members smoked versus 29% (95% CI = 28-30) of Korean American family members (t = 7.84, P < .01). A 25% to 75% increase in the proportion of family members that smoked corresponded with a 13% (95% CI = 5-21) higher probability of any SHSe among Koreans compared with 6% (95% CI = 2-10) among Korean Americans. Network interventions in combination with policies and/or health campaigns may help reduce SHSe globally.

  9. About contaminant element composition of roadside dust samples from Budapest and Seoul, including Pt and Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, M.; Chon, H. T.; Marton, L.

    2012-04-01

    Roadside dust was sampled in Seoul megacity /Korea as well as in Budapest and some other places in Hungary, digested with reverse aqua regia in presence of bromine, and analyzed for 29 chemical elements with ICP-OES and ICP-MS methods. In addition to rather traditionally investigated elements, like Pb-Cd-Cr-Ni-As-Sb, newly emerging Pt and Pd from abrasion of automotive catalysts were included in the study. For the analysis of Pd, separation by precipitation with dithizone had to be applied. Principal component analysis was used as a tool to estimate the contribution of various sources. Geogenic element contents were used to estimate geogenic backgrounds und inputs from soils erosion. Seoul is an East Asian densely populated megacity, not far from the seaside, and surrounded by granite rocks. To the contrary, Budapest is a European continental city surrounded mainly by plains formed in the tertiary. Background concentrations were estimated from median concentrations in soils over alluvial deposits from the East of Austria, as well as from Poland. Background concentrations for Seoul were estimated from Shiheung farmland soil, a town close to the megacity. As a result, traffic related contaminations were highly effected by traffic related activities, like stop and go. Pt and Pb levels in roadside dusts from Budapest citiy were in the range of 2-133 μg/kg (av. 62,9 μg/kg), and 88 - 2838 mg/kg (av. 662 mg/kg) respectively. The highest Pt and Pb levels in roadside dust were found at major roads with high traffic volumes. Due to the geo-accumulation index, in all roadside soils sampled in Hungary, Cu-Pb-Zn were enriched, and Cd-Mo and occasionally Ba from Budapest in addition, but As-Co-Cr-Hg-Ni-Tl-V were not. In roadside dusts from Seoul, heavy contaminations of As-Cd-Cu-Mo-Pb-Zn were found, but no significant increase of Co-Cr-Ni-V. The pollution index, which refers to the permissible levels of As-Cd-Cu-Hg-Pb-Sb-Tl-V, indicates heavy pollution for roadside dusts from

  10. Sex differences in the recognition of and innate antiviral responses to Seoul virus in Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Michele F; Bajic, Vladimir B; Klein, Sabra L

    2008-05-01

    Among rodents that carry hantaviruses, more males are infected than females. Male rats also have elevated copies of Seoul virus RNA and reduced transcription of immune-related genes in the lungs than females. To further characterize sex differences in antiviral defenses and whether these differences are mediated by gonadal hormones, we examined viral RNA in the lungs, virus shedding in saliva, and antiviral defenses among male and female rats that were intact, gonadectomized neonatally, or gonadectomized in adulthood. Following inoculation with Seoul virus, high amounts viral RNA persisted longer in lungs from intact males than intact females. Removal of the gonads in males reduced the amount of viral RNA to levels comparable with intact females at 40 days post-inoculation (p.i.). Intact males shed more virus in saliva than intact females 15 days p.i.; removal of the gonads during either the neonatal period or in adulthood increased virus shedding in females and decreased virus shedding in males. Induction of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs; Tlr7 and Rig-I), expression of antiviral genes (Myd88, Visa, Jun, Irf7, Ifnbeta, Ifnar1, Jak2, Stat3, and Mx2), and production of Mx protein was elevated in the lungs of intact females compared with intact males. Gonadectomy had more robust effects on the induction of PRRs than on downstream IFNbeta or Mx2 expression. Putative androgen and estrogen response elements are present in the promoters of several of these antiviral genes, suggesting the propensity for sex steroids to directly affect dimorphic antiviral responses against Seoul virus infection.

  11. [Distribution of airborne fungi, particulate matter and carbon dioxide in Seoul metropolitan subway stations].

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Park, Jae Beom; Kim, Chi Nyon; Lee, Kyung Jong

    2006-07-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the level of airborne fungi and environmental factors in Seoul metropolitan subway stations and to provide fundamental data to protect the health of subway workers and passengers. The field survey was performed from November in 2004 to February in 2005. A total 22 subway stations located at Seoul subway lines 1-4 were randomly selected. The measurement points were subway workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and the passengers' activity areas (station precincts, inside train and platform). Air sampling for collecting airborne fungi was carried out using a one-stage cascade impactor. The PM and CO2 were measured using an electronic direct recorder and detecting tube, respectively. In the activity areas of the subway workers and passengers, the mean concentrations of airborne fungi were relatively higher in the workers' bedroom and station precinct whereas the concentration of particulate matter, PM10 and PM2.5, were relatively higher in the platform, inside the train and driver's seat than in the other activity areas. There was no significant difference in the concentration of airborne fungi between the underground and ground activity areas of the subway. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentration in the platform located at underground was significantly higher than that of the ground (p<0.05). The levels of airborne fungi in the Seoul subway line 1-4 were not serious enough to cause respiratory disease in subway workers and passengers. This indicates that there is little correlation between airborne fungi and particulate matter.

  12. Chemical composition of major VOC emission sources in the Seoul atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Na, Kwangsam; Kim, Yong Pyo; Moon, Il; Moon, Kil-Choo

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes a chemical analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for five emission sources in Seoul. The source categories included motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline evaporation, paint solvents, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). These sources were selected because they have been known to emit significant quantities of VOCs in the Seoul area (more than 5% of the total emission inventory). Chemical compositions of the five emission sources are presented for a group of 45 C2-C9 VOCs. Motor vehicle exhaust profiles were developed by conducting an urban tunnel study. These emissions profiles were distinguished from the other emission profiles by a high weight percentage of butanes over seasons and propane in the wintertime. It was found that this is due to the wide use of butane-fueled vehicles. To obtain gasoline vapor profiles, gasoline samples from five major brands for each season were selected. The brands were blended on the basis of the marketshare of these brands in Seoul area. Raoult's law was used to calculate gasoline evaporative compositions based on the liquid gasoline compositions. The measured and estimated gasoline vapor compositions were found to be in good agreement. Vehicle and gasoline evaporation profiles were made over seasons because of the seasonal change in their compositions. Paint solvent emissions profiles were produced based on a product-use survey and sales figures. These profiles are a composite of four major oil-based paints and thinning solvent. The source profile of natural gas was made on a methane-free basis. It was found that Ethane and propane were the most abundant compounds accounting for 95% of the natural gas composition. LPG was largely composed of propane and ethane and the remaining components were minor contributors.

  13. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea. PMID:27134497

  14. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, SeoYeon; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Chi, Byung Hoon; Kim, Jin Wook; Chang, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea.

  15. Emergence of Criticality in the Transportation Passenger Flow: Scaling and Renormalization in the Seoul Bus System

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Choi, MooYoung; Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare) bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized) “block stop” and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow. PMID:24599221

  16. Evaluating the PM damage cost due to urban air pollution and vehicle emissions in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Jin; Lim, Young Wook; Yang, Ji Yeon; Kim, Chang Soo; Shin, Young Chul; Shin, Dong Chun

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated the prospective damage costs of PM(2.5) inhalation. We performed a health risk assessment based on an exposure-response function to estimate the annual population risk in the Seoul metropolitan city, Korea. Also, we estimated a willingness-to-pay (WTP) amount for reducing the mortality rate in order to evaluate a statistical life value. We combined the annual population risk and the value-of-statistical-life to calculate the damage cost estimate. In the health risk assessment, we applied the PM(2.5) relative risk to evaluate the annual population risk. We targeted an exposure population of 5,401,369 persons who were over the age of 30. Using a Monte-Carlo simulation for uncertainty analysis, we estimated that the population risk of PM(2.5) inhalation during a year in Seoul is 2181 premature deaths for acute exposure and 18,510 premature deaths for chronic exposure. The monthly average WTP for 5/1000 mortality reduction over ten years is $20.20 USD (95% C.I: $16.60-24.50) and the implied value-of-statistical-life (VSL) is $485,000 USD (95% C.I: $398,000-588,000). The damage cost estimate due to risk from PM(2.5) inhalation in Seoul is about $1057 million USD per year for acute exposure, and $8972 million USD per year for chronic exposure. It is important to note that this cost estimate does not reflect all health damage cost estimates in this urban area. This recommendation is a model for evaluating a mortality risk reduction and as such we must re-evaluate an integrated application of morbidity risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    PubMed

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Choi, Moo Young; Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare) bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized) "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  18. Teaching Religious Studies to Undergraduate Non-Majors at Seoul National University, South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…

  19. Trend analysis of prosthodontic treatment modality between 2005 and 2008 in Seoul National University Dental Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongbo; Lee, Jai-Bong; Liu, Hongchen; Han, Jung-Suk; Yang, Jae-Ho; Koak, Jai-Young

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this article is to analyze the preference for treatment modality of dentists. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data of 20,038 patients was involved. Data analysis were done by distribution according to the various kinds of prosthesis, including complete denture, removable partial denture, fixed partial denture, implant-supported dental prosthesis as well as distribution according to the professional titles of the dentists finishing the treatment, including resident and professors. RESULTS The number of cases of dental prosthesis increased year by year. 61.06% of the patients accepted fixed partial denture restoration. The number of patients who accepted implant supported restoration is also increasing year by year. The number of complete denture, implant-supported dental prosthesis finished by professors was larger than that done by residents, while it was contrary for removable partial denture, fixed partial denture, and the difference was statistically significant (P<.05). CONCLUSION Professors and residents have some difference in the categorization of prosthesis finished. Fixed partial denture and implant-supported dental prosthesis are preferred. PMID:21165180

  20. Hospital information systems: experience at the fully digitized Seoul National University Bundang Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Hwang, Hee

    2016-01-01

    The different levels of health information technology (IT) adoption and its integration into hospital workflow can affect the maximization of the benefits of using of health IT. We aimed at sharing our experiences and the journey to the successful adoption of health IT over 13 years at a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. The integrated system of comprehensive applications for direct care, support care, and smart care has been implemented with the latest IT and a rich user information platform, achieving the fully digitized hospital. The users experience design methodology, barcode and radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, smartphone and mobile technologies, and data analytics were integrated into hospital workflow. Applications for user-centered electronic medical record (EMR) and clinical decision support (CDS), closed loop medication administration (CLMA), mobile EMR and dashboard system for care coordination, clinical data warehouse (CDW) system, and patient engagement solutions were designed and developed to improve quality of care, work efficiency, and patient safety. We believe that comprehensive electronic health record systems and patient-centered smart hospital applications will go a long way in ensuring seamless patient care and experience. PMID:27651940

  1. Hospital information systems: experience at the fully digitized Seoul National University Bundang Hospital.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Hwang, Hee; Jheon, Sanghoon

    2016-08-01

    The different levels of health information technology (IT) adoption and its integration into hospital workflow can affect the maximization of the benefits of using of health IT. We aimed at sharing our experiences and the journey to the successful adoption of health IT over 13 years at a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. The integrated system of comprehensive applications for direct care, support care, and smart care has been implemented with the latest IT and a rich user information platform, achieving the fully digitized hospital. The users experience design methodology, barcode and radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, smartphone and mobile technologies, and data analytics were integrated into hospital workflow. Applications for user-centered electronic medical record (EMR) and clinical decision support (CDS), closed loop medication administration (CLMA), mobile EMR and dashboard system for care coordination, clinical data warehouse (CDW) system, and patient engagement solutions were designed and developed to improve quality of care, work efficiency, and patient safety. We believe that comprehensive electronic health record systems and patient-centered smart hospital applications will go a long way in ensuring seamless patient care and experience.

  2. Teaching Religious Studies to Undergraduate Non-Majors at Seoul National University, South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…

  3. Applications in brain proteomics: 8(th) HUPO Brain Proteome Project Workshop 7 October 2007, Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Hamacher, Michael; Stephan, Christian; Hardt, Tanja; Eisenacher, Martin; Henkel, Andreas; Wiltfang, Jens; Jimenez, Connie R; Park, Young Mok; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E

    2008-05-01

    What are the current approaches in brain proteomics? Can we combine different, but complementary study designs to obtain better results concerning brain diseases? What are the neuro-hotspots, especially in Korea? These were some of the questions the participants of the 8(th) HUPO Brain Proteome Project Workshop tried to answer prior to the 6(th) HUPO World Congress in Seoul, Korea. Around 100 scientists came together during the afternoon of 7 October, 2007, to discuss and to catch up on the latest results and strategies concerning Huntington's disease, glioblastoma and standardization.

  4. 'Paramedical' Healing in Hospitals: The Expansion of Spiritual Care in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Park, Irene Yung

    2016-03-01

    Emotional and spiritual healing stand at the center of the activity of Catholic pastoral caregivers attending to the sick in non-Catholic hospitals in Seoul. In this paper I explore how these agents understand their practice as part of a holistic human healing, positioning their work side by side with medical healing. I also examine how their role is both confirmed and challenged against the backdrop of the growing commercialization of the health care industry under the neoliberal paradigm. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Characterization of Anthropogenic Magnetic Particles in Asian Dust Using Magnetic Measurements and Electron Microscope Observations in Seoul, Korea: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Doh, S.; Park, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Magnetic measurements and electron microscopic observations have been performed for Asian dust samples in Seoul, Korea, and desert-sand and loess samples in source regions in China to identify pollution of Asian dust by anthropogenic particulates during transportation. Asian dust samples in Seoul have been collected during four Asian dust events occurred in March 19 and 23, April 9, 2002, and April 12, 2003. Desert-sand samples from Khorchin, Lanzhou and Tengel regions, and loess samples from Chifeng region were also collected for comparison during March 2-9, 2003. χLF, ARM and SIRM values (magnetic concentration parameters) of Asian dust in Seoul showed 2~288, 2~61 and 2 ~251 times, respectively, higher than those of desert-sand and loess in source regions. This result indicates that Asian dust originated from source regions in China experienced significant influx of magnetic particles during transportation to Seoul, Korea. These magnetic particles added in Asian dust can be recognized as ferrimagnetic minerals (e.g., magnetite and maghemite) based on IRM acquisition patterns and S-ratio values. During the electron microscopic observations for magnetic particles in Asian dust, iron-oxide spherules accompanied by carbon were frequently observed, implying that magnetic contaminants in Asian dust might be originated from fossil fuel combustions. Air- mass backward trajectories during four Asian dust events showed that the air-mass, transporting Asian dust, was originated from the central China and passed through the industrialized eastern China and western Korea on its way to Seoul. Therefore, it can be interpreted that Asian dust in Seoul was highly polluted by anthropogenic magnetic particles originated from industrialized regions in China and Korea. The present study reveals the pollution of Asian dust by anthropogenic particulates during transportation, and suggests that magnetic measurements associated with electron microscopic observations can be used as an

  6. A Multilevel Analysis of the Compositional and Contextual Association of Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being in Seoul, South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Sehee; Kim, Heaseung; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between social capital and subjective well-being (life satisfaction) by using multilevel analysis considering both individual and area-level social capital while adjusting for various control variables at multiple-levels in Seoul, South Korea. The data was from the 2010 (Wave 2) Seoul Welfare…

  7. Discovering the knowledge creation process of an expert group in women-friendly policy: The policy case of Seoul City.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Sam; Nam, SungHee; Kim, Yuna

    2016-01-01

    This research explores how expert knowledge is created in the process of women-friendly policy making, based on actor network theory (ANT). To address this purpose, this study uses the "Women's Happiness in the City of Seoul" policy initiated by the local government of Seoul as one example of policy development. Research findings demonstrate that knowledge creation in expert groups followed the four stages suggested by ANT. In addition, this study found that various types of knowledge emerged from individual experts. This research elucidates the process of knowledge creation and its meanings for women-friendly policy.

  8. The Seoul Metropolitan Lifestyle Intervention Program and Metabolic Syndrome Risk: A Retrospective Database Study

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Jina; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Ryu, Hosihn; Park, Mi-Suk; Lee, Hyang Sook; Park, Yoo Mi; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Since 2011, the Seoul Metabolic Syndrome Management (SMESY) program has been employed as a community-wide, lifestyle modification intervention in Seoul, Korea. We aimed to determine if the SMESY intervention would be significantly associated with improvements in metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. This retrospective database study included data from 25,449 participants aged 30–64 years between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2013. In the SMESY program, 3 risk-stratified groups by the number of MetS factors were followed for 12 months with different intensity and timeframe of intervention. Among the high-(n = 7116) and moderate-risk groups (n = 14,762), all MetS factors (except triglycerides among the moderate-risk group) as well as MetS z-scores significantly improved over 12 months (all p < 0.05). Among the low-risk group (n = 3571), all factors aggravated significantly over 12 months (all p < 0.05). We observed temporal associations between the implementation of the SMESY program and improvements in MetS risk factors. However, such improvements differed by risk-stratified group, being most robust for the high-risk group, modest for the moderate-risk group, and aggravated for the low-risk group. Thus, more intensive interventions targeting different risk-stratified groups are needed, given a better understanding of the increase in risk factors observed in the low-risk group. PMID:27384576

  9. An analysis of the characteristics of aerosol light scattering coefficients at Seoul and Baengnyeongdo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Eun, S.; Seo, W.; Park, J.; Ahn, J.; Moon, K.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere can scatter and absorb solar radiation and their spatial/temporal distributions are highly inhomogeneous due to short lifetimes (about a few weeks or less). Through scattering and absorption of solar radiation, aerosols directly affect visibility and climate through the modification of the Earth's energy budget (Charlson et al., 1992; Yan, 2007; Wang, 2012). This study investigates long-term trends and characteristics of aerosol light scattering coefficient at Seoul and Baengnyeongdo, 100 km upstream of Seoul, in Korea. Aerosol scattering coefficients were measured continuously with nephelometers. The analysis period is limited to one year of 2011. For the relationship analysis of extinction coefficients (σext) to visibility and aerosol optical depth, σsp observed at 3 p.m. have been used with help of aerosol absorption coefficients (σap) in order to remove its dependence upon relative humidity (RH), and also those of rainy period have been excluded. As expected, σext estimated are inversely proportional to visibility observation by eye. Aerosol extinction coefficients have been vertically integrated with an assumption of nearly well-mixed within an e-folding height to determine aerosol optical depth (τa), and compared with those retrieved from sunphotometer. The results show a reasonable agreement in spite of an inherent difference of each definition. We expect these findings would help to eventually understand aerosol radiative forcing and its effect on the regional climate change around Korea.

  10. Meteorological effects on the evolution of high ozone episodes in the greater Seoul area.

    PubMed

    Ghim, Y S; Oh, H S; Chang, Y S

    2001-02-01

    Three high O3 episodes--7 days in 1992 (July 3-July 9), 9 days in 1994 (July 21-July 29), and another 3 days in 1994 (August 22-August 24)--were selected on the basis of morning (7:00 a.m.-10:00 a.m.) average wind direction and speed and daily maximum O3 concentrations in the greater Seoul, Korea, of 1990-1997. To better understand their characteristics and life cycles, surface data from the Seoul Weather Station (SWS) and surface and 850-hPa wind field data covering northeast Asia around the Korean Peninsula were used for the analysis. In the July 1992 episode, westerly winds were most frequent as a result of the influence of a high-pressure system west of the Korean Peninsula behind a trough. In contrast, in the July 1994 episode, easterly winds were most frequent as a result of the effect of a typhoon moving north from the south of Japan. Despite different prevailing wind directions, the peak O3 concentrations for each episode occurred when a sea/land breeze developed in association with weak synoptic forcing. The August 1994 episode, which was selected as being representative of calm conditions, was another typical example in which a well-developed

  11. Informal Control by Family and Risk Markers for Alcohol Abuse/Dependence in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Wu, Shali; Yang, Hyerin; Lee, Hotaek; Kim, Junpyo; Chan, Ko Ling

    2016-05-08

    Although previous research documents a reliable relationship between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and alcoholism, relatively little research has examined new theoretical constructs in IPV research that may increase risk for or help buffer women from alcohol abuse/dependence. The purpose of the present study was to examine informal social control of IPV by family members as a protective factor against and coercive control as a risk factor for alcohol abuse/dependence in a small population sample of married women in Seoul, South Korea. We hypothesized that (a) informal social control by family members would be negatively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence and (b) husband's coercive control would be positively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence. We measured alcohol abuse/dependence (CAGE scale), IPV and coercive control by husbands, and informal social control of IPV (ISC_IPV) by extended family members in a three-stage random cluster sample of 462 married women in Seoul, South Korea. Both random effects regression and zero-inflated Poisson regression models found that ISC_IPV by extended family members was associated with a significantly lower CAGE scores, and coercive control was associated with significantly higher CAGE scores. Interventions to boost ISC_IPV by extended family members may mitigate some of the risk of alcohol abuse/dependence by victims.

  12. Changes in the association between summer temperature and mortality in Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jongsik; Kim, Ho

    2013-07-01

    The health impact of climate change depends on various conditions at any given time and place, as well as on the person. Temporal variations in the relationship between high temperature and mortality need to be explored in depth to explain how changes in the level of exposure and public health interventions modify the temperature-mortality relationship. We examined changes in the relationship between human mortality and temperature in Seoul, which has the highest population in South Korea, considering the change in population structure from 1993-2009. Poisson regression models were used to estimate short-term temperature-related mortality impacts. Temperature-related risks were divided into two "time periods" of approximately equal length (1993 and 1995-2000, and 2001-2009), and were also examined according to early summer and late summer. Temperature-related mortality in summer over the past 17 years has declined. These decreasing patterns were stronger for cardiovascular disease-related mortality than for all non-accidental deaths. The novel finding is that declines in temperature-related mortality were particularly noteworthy in late summer. Our results indicate that temperature-related mortality is decreasing in Seoul, particularly during late summer and, to a lesser extent, during early summer. This information would be useful for detailed public health preparedness for hot weather.

  13. Concentrations and identification of culturable airborne fungi in underground stations of the Seoul metro.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Jang, Soojin; Park, Wha Me; Park, Jae Bum

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the culturable airborne fungi (CAF) concentrations in the underground subway stations of Seoul, Korea at two time points. This study measured the CAF concentrations in enclosed environments at 16 underground stations of the Seoul Metro in 2006 and 2013 and investigated the effects of various environmental factors, including the presence of platform screen doors, temperature, relative humidity, and number of passengers. CAF concentrations at the stations in 2006 were significantly higher than that at the same stations in 2013 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between CAF concentration and relative humidity (r = 0.311, p < 0.05). Geotrichum and Penicillium were the predominant genera. The CAF concentrations in stations with an operating supply air were significantly higher than that in stations with no supply air (p < 0.001). Therefore, it is recommended that special attention be given to stations with clean supplied air to improve the indoor air quality of these subway stations.

  14. Assessment of airborne environmental bacteria and related factors in 25 underground railway stations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Yoon, Chung Sik; Ryu, Kyong Nam; Paik, Samuel Y.; Cho, Jun Ho

    2010-05-01

    This study assessed bacterial concentrations in indoor air at 25 underground railway stations in Seoul, Korea, and investigated various related factors including the presence of platform screen doors (PSD), depth of the station, year of construction, temperature, relative humidity, and number of passengers. A total of 72 aerosol samples were collected from all the stations. Concentrations of total airborne bacteria (TAB) ranged from not detected (ND) to 4997 CFU m -3, with an overall geometric mean (GM) of 191 CFU m -3. Airborne bacteria were detected at 23 stations (92%) and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were detected at two stations (8%). TAB concentrations of four stations (16%) exceeded 800 CFU m -3, the Korea indoor bio-aerosol guideline. The results of the study showed that TAB concentrations at the stations without PSD showed higher TAB concentrations than those with PSD, though not at statistically significant levels. TAB concentrations of deeper stations revealed significantly higher levels than those of shallower stations. Based on this study, it is recommended that mitigation measures be applied to improve the indoor air quality (IAQ) of underground railway stations in Seoul, with focused attention on deeper stations.

  15. Projections of Future Summer Weather in Seoul and Their Impacts on Urban Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. O.; Kim, J. H.; Yun, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    Climate departure from the past variability was projected to start in 2042 for Seoul. In order to understand the implication of climate departure in Seoul for urban agriculture, we evaluated the daily temperature for the June-September period from 2041 to 2070, which were projected by the RCP8.5 climate scenario. These data were analyzed with respect to climate extremes and their effects on growth of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), one of the major crops in urban farming. The mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures in 2041-2070 approached to the 90th percentile in the past 30 years (1951- 1980). However, the frequency of extreme events such as heat waves and tropical nights appeared to exceed the past variability. While the departure of mean temperature might begin in or after 2040, the climate departure in the sense of extreme weather events seems already in progress. When the climate scenario data were applied to the growth and development of hot pepper, the departures of both planting date and harvest date are expected to follow those of temperature. However, the maximum duration for hot pepper cultivation, which is the number of days between the first planting and the last harvest, seems to have already deviated from the past variability.

  16. Deprivation and suicide mortality across 424 neighborhoods in Seoul, South Korea: a Bayesian spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae-Ho; Noh, Maengseok; Han, Junhee; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-12-01

    A neighborhood-level analysis of mortality from suicide would be informative in developing targeted approaches to reducing suicide. This study aims to examine the association of community characteristics with suicide in the 424 neighborhoods of Seoul, South Korea. Neighborhood-level mortality and population data (2005-2011) were obtained to calculate age-standardized suicide rates. Eight community characteristics and their associated deprivation index were employed as determinants of suicide rates. The Bayesian hierarchical model with mixed effects for neighborhoods was used to fit age-standardized suicide rates and other covariates with consideration of spatial correlations. Suicide rates for 424 neighborhoods were between 7.32 and 71.09 per 100,000. Ninety-nine percent of 424 neighborhoods recorded greater suicide rates than the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development member countries' average. A stepwise relationship between area deprivation and suicide was found. Neighborhood-level indicators for lack of social support (residents living alone and the divorced or separated) and socioeconomic disadvantages (low educational attainment) were positively associated with suicide mortality after controlling for other covariates. Finding from this study could be used to identify priority areas and to develop community-based programs for preventing suicide in Seoul, South Korea.

  17. Statistical analysis of Seoul air quality to assess the efficacy of emission abatement strategies since 1987.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Scott D; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann E; Brown, Richard J C; Griffiths, Alan D; Crawford, Jagoda

    2017-02-15

    The combined influences of recent mitigation measures on urban air quality have been assessed using hourly observations of the criteria air pollutants (NO, NO2, O3, CO, and SO2) made from the Yongsan district of Seoul, Korea, over 26years (1987 to 2013). A number of data selection criteria are proposed in order to minimize variability associated with temporal changes (at diurnal, weekly, and seasonal timescales) in source strengths, their spatial distribution, and the atmospheric volume into which they mix. The temporal constraints required to better characterize relationships between observed air quality and changes in source strengths in Seoul were identified as: (i) a 5-hour diurnal sampling window (1300-1700h), (b) weekday measurements (Monday to Friday only), and (c) summer measurements (when pollutant fetch is mostly Korea-specific, and mean wind speeds are the lowest). Using these selection criteria, we were able to closely relate long-term trends identified in criteria pollutants to a number of published changes to traffic-related source strengths brought about by mitigation measures adopted over the last 10-15years.

  18. Wet precipitation of major ions, polonium-210, and organic carbon in a metropolitan city, Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, G.; Kim, G.

    2011-12-01

    An extensive survey of chemical constituents in precipitation including dissolved organic carbon, dissolved nitrogen, major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides was conducted in a representative urban environment of Seoul over one-year period from 2009 to 2010. The sources for these chemical species were apportioned by applying principal component analysis (PCA) in association with commonly acknowledged key tracers, such as Na, K, Ca, and V. The fossil fuel combustion (especially coal) was shown to be the dominant source for most constituents being investigated, with biomass burning being recognized as another significant source. With the aid of air mass backward trajectory analyses, we concluded that the primary fraction of the chemical species in our precipitation samples originated locally in Korea, albeit the frequent long-range transport from the eastern and northeastern China might contribute substantially. Overall, our study suggests the significant role of human activities in altering the atmospheric environment of Seoul and presumably most urban areas around the world, highlighting its profound environmental implications, such as health risks posed by excessive polonium-210, enhanced rainwater acidity from organic acids, and radiative forcing by organic aerosols.

  19. Evaluation of stage acoustics in Seoul Arts Center Concert Hall by measuring stage support.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Barron, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Stage acoustics is an important characteristic for concert halls, both for the acoustic quality on stage and for the audience. However, relatively little research has been conducted into the question. This study was based on the investigation of an actual concert hall stage, that of the Seoul Arts Center Concert Hall in Korea. The stage acoustics was evaluated in the actual hall, and with two models: a 1:25 scale model and a computer model. The study was based on the stage support parameter ST1 proposed by Gade as a measure of support for individual performers [Acustica 65, 193-203 (1989)]. The variation of support was measured on the empty stage of the actual hall and in the two models. The effect of musicians on stage, the effect of moving the orchestra, the effect of ceiling height and of stage-wall profile were also investigated. Conclusions are drawn both relating to the Seoul Concert Hall stage and stages in general.

  20. Influence of integrated molecular pathology test results on real-world management decisions for patients with pancreatic cysts: analysis of data from a national registry cohort.

    PubMed

    Loren, David; Kowalski, Thomas; Siddiqui, Ali; Jackson, Sara; Toney, Nicole; Malhotra, Nidhi; Haddad, Nadim

    2016-01-20

    Integrated molecular pathology (IMP) approaches based on DNA mutational profiling accurately determine pancreatic cyst malignancy risk in patients lacking definitive diagnoses following endoscopic ultrasound imaging with fine-needle aspiration of fluid for cytology. In such cases, IMP 'low-risk' and 'high-risk' diagnoses reliably predict benign and malignant disease, respectively, and provide improved risk stratification for malignancy than a model of the 2012 International Consensus Guideline (ICG) recommendations. Our objective was to determine if initial adjunctive IMP testing influenced future real-world pancreatic cyst management decisions for intervention or surveillance relative to ICG recommendations, and if this benefitted patient outcomes. Analysis of data from the previously described National Pancreatic Cyst Registry. Associations between real-world decisions (intervention vs. surveillance), ICG model recommendations (surgery vs. surveillance) and IMP diagnoses (high-risk vs. low-risk) were evaluated using 2 × 2 tables. Kaplan Meier and hazard ratio analyses were used to assess time to malignancy. Odds ratios (OR) for surgery decision were determined using logistic regression. Of 491 patients, 206 received clinical intervention at follow-up (183 surgery, 4 chemotherapy, 19 presumed by malignant cytology). Overall, 13 % (66/491) of patients had a malignant outcome and 87 % (425/491) had a benign outcome at 2.9 years' follow-up. When ICG and IMP were concordant for surveillance/surgery recommendations, 83 % and 88 % actually underwent surveillance or surgery, respectively. However, when discordant, IMP diagnoses were predictive of real-world decisions, with 88 % of patients having an intervention when ICG recommended surveillance but IMP indicated high risk, and 55 % undergoing surveillance when ICG recommended surgery but IMP indicated low risk. These IMP-associated management decisions benefitted patient outcomes in these subgroups, as 57 % had

  1. Report on the '92 Seoul International Conference on the Role of the University Education in the Asia/Pacific Age (Seoul, Republic of Korea, April 8-10, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.

    This report, by the U.S. representative to the conference, presents observations on and basic results of the 1992 Seoul International Conference on the Role of the University in the Asia/Pacific Age, as well as the conference agenda and program, the minutes of the meeting, and other related documents. The conference convened 51 representatives…

  2. Pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG.

  3. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMAs), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

    2014-07-01

    Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and particulate matter (PM) simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Pennsylvania State Meso-scale Model (MM5)/the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN)/the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)/the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from a performance check of CTM predictions, we consecutively assessed the effects of PFT area deviations on the MEGAN BVOC and CTM O3 predictions, and we further considered the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT data sets considered were (1) the Korean PFT, developed with Korea-specific vegetation database; (2) the CDP PFT, adopted from the community data portal (CDP) of US National Center for Atmospheric Research in the United States (NCAR); (3) MODIS PFT, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Although the CMAQ performance check reveals that all of the three different PFT data sets are applicable choices for regulatory modeling practice, noticeable primary data (i.e., PFT and Leaf Area Index (LAI)) was observed to be missing in many geographic locations. Based on the assessed effect of such missing data on CMAQ O3 predictions, we found that this missing data can cause spatially increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, it must be resolved in the near future to obtain more accurate biogenic emission and chemistry transport modeling results. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf

  4. Letter from Seoul: Correspondence from the International Arts Education Symposium and the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprill, Arnold; Schroeder-Yu, Gigi

    2006-01-01

    Arts educator Gigi Schroeder-Yu and Arnold Aprill arrived in Seoul, Korea to participate in the International Arts Education Symposium and in the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference that are part of the wind up for the pitch of the UNESCO World Conference on Arts Education to be held in Lisbon in March 2006. In this article, they reflect on their…

  5. Letter from Seoul: Correspondence from the International Arts Education Symposium and the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprill, Arnold; Schroeder-Yu, Gigi

    2006-01-01

    Arts educator Gigi Schroeder-Yu and Arnold Aprill arrived in Seoul, Korea to participate in the International Arts Education Symposium and in the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference that are part of the wind up for the pitch of the UNESCO World Conference on Arts Education to be held in Lisbon in March 2006. In this article, they reflect on their…

  6. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associations between Particulate Chemical Constituents and Mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Kweon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked fine particles [≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] and health. Most studies focused on the total mass of the particles, although the chemical composition of the particles varies substantially. Which chemical components of fine particles that are the most harmful is not well understood, and research on the chemical composition of PM2.5 and the components that are the most harmful is particularly limited in Asia. Objectives: We characterized PM2.5 chemical composition and estimated the effects of cause-specific mortality of PM2.5 mass and constituents in Seoul, Korea. We compared the chemical composition of particles to those of the eastern and western United States. Methods: We examined temporal variability of PM2.5 mass and its composition using hourly data. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model, adjusting for time, day of week, temperature, and relative humidity to investigate the association between risk of mortality and PM2.5 mass and its constituents in Seoul, Korea, for August 2008 through October 2009. Results: PM2.5 and chemical components exhibited temporal patterns by time of day and season. The chemical characteristics of Seoul’s PM2.5 were more similar to PM2.5 found in the western United States than in the eastern United States. Seoul’s PM2.5 had lower sulfate (SO4) contributions and higher nitrate (NO3) contributions than that of the eastern United States, although overall PM2.5 levels in Seoul were higher than in the United States. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in magnesium (Mg) (0.05 μg/m3) was associated with a 1.4% increase (95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 2.6%) in total mortality on the following day. Several components that were among the largest contributors to PM2.5 total mass—NO3, SO4, and ammonium (NH4)—were moderately associated with same-day cardiovascular mortality at the p < 0.10 level. Other components with smaller mass contributions [Mg and

  7. Sudden high concentration of TSP affected by atmospheric boundary layer in Seoul metropolitan area during duststorm period.

    PubMed

    Choi, H; Zhang, Y H; Kim, K H

    2008-07-01

    Hourly concentrations of TSP, PM(10), PM(2.5) near the surface at Seoul city were examined from March 20 to March 25, 2001 (duststorm event) in order to investigate the effect of a duststorm generated in China on the local aerosol concentration in Korea, The ratios of fine to coarse particles such as TSP to PM(10), TSP to PM(2.5) and PM(10)-PM(2.5) to PM(2.5) showed that a great amount of dust transported from the origin of the duststorm was remarkable with a maximum ratio of 9.77 between TSP and PM(2.5). Back trajectories every 6 h showed the movement of dust particles in the lower atmosphere near 500 m to 1500 m (atmospheric boundary layer), which implied transport from Baotou in inner Mongolia of northern China to the direction of Seoul city in Korea and then the back trajectories passed near the southern border of Mongolia and Baotou through Zengzhou in the midlevels (3000 m) and low levels (500 m) of China, finally reaching Seoul city. So, the TSP concentration at Seoul city was partially influenced by the duststorm, under the prevailing westerly wind and the transported aerosols could influence high concentrations of pollutants of TSP, PM(10) and PM(2.5) in Seoul. The sudden high concentrations of TSP and PM(10) were found for a few hours, especially at 1500 to 1800 LST, March 22. At 1200 LST, before the passage of a cold front through the Korean peninsula, the convective boundary layer (CBL) near Seoul was not shallow, but at 1500 LST, under the frontal passage, the CBL was remarkably thinner (less than 300 m), due to the compression of the boundary layer by the intrusion of cold air. This resulted in the increase of the TSP concentration, even though the mixed layer above maintained almost the same depth. At 1800 LST shortly after the frontal passage, that is, near sunset, the nocturnal cooling of the ground caused air parcels to cool, thereby enhancing the shallower nocturnal surface inversion layer and producing the maximum concentration of TSP of 1388

  8. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  9. The application of the biosphere reserve concept to urban areas: the case of green rooftops for habitat network in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwi-Gon

    2004-06-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first shows how the principles of the ecosystem approach can be applied to green rooftops, and the second attempts to illustrate it through a case study. In particular, it suggests new approaches and techniques for creation of green rooftops in a perspective of urban habitat network and urban biosphere reserve. To endow urban rooftops with the roles and functions of urban habitat network and urban biosphere reserve, it is necessary to apply "an ecosystem approach to urban management." In this article, an ecosystem approach to urban management is illustrated with Seoul as an example. The Habitat Network in Seoul will be reviewed with a focus on the model suggested by MAB Urban Group. Then, the roles and functions of Myeongdong UNESCO Green Rooftop and its possible contribution to building the Seoul Urban Biosphere Network will be described. The UNESCO Green Rooftop is 628 m(2) and was created on the 12th floor rooftop of UNESCO Building in Myeongdong 2-ga, Jung-ku, Seoul. In the green rooftop, which was created with goals of securing green areas and biotopes in downtown, creating an urban econetwork, securing a base for urban ecosystem study and environment education, and disseminating an idea of coexistence between nature and humankind, wetland, meadow, scrub and woodland, wall revegetation, and a vegetable field are created. Also, rainwater recycling facilities and a solar energy water circulation system were set up. Rest facilities including observation and education facilities were built. Based on the Seoul example, as well as urban biosphere reserve models suggested by the MAB Urban Group, we suggest several principles to be applied for a green rooftops to qualify as a category of urban biosphere reserves.

  10. Characterization of atmospheric particles in Seoul, Korea using SEM-EDX.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunha; Park, Inji; Lee, Young Jae; Lee, Meehye

    2012-07-01

    Atmospheric particles in Seoul, Korea were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Particles were identified and characterized by their morphology and elemental compositions. The morphology of particles was closely coupled with elemental compositions, which provided information on sources and transport processes of aerosols. There were various types of combustion-derived particles identified such as fly ashes, soot, organic matters, tar balls, chars, and sulfur-containing particles. These anthropogenic particles mainly have spherical shape with nano- to micro-meter size. Char was, however, distinguished by irregular shape with varying size up to several micrometers. The sulfur-containing aggregates show a wide range of size, shape, and elemental composition. In addition, bioaerosol and mineral dust were the most abundant particles from natural sources.

  11. Exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in Seoul metropolitan subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Hyeon Tae

    2011-01-01

    The exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi were assessed in the workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and passengers' activity areas (station precinct, inside the passenger carriage, and platform) of the Seoul metropolitan subway. Among investigated areas, the levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in the workers' bedroom and station precincts were relatively high. No significant difference was found in the concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi between the underground and above ground activity areas of the subway. The genera identified in all subway activity areas with a 5% or greater detection rate were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Corynebacterium for airborne bacteria and Penicillium, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Aspergillus for airborne fungi. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus comprised over 50% of the total airborne bacteria and Penicillium and Cladosporium comprised over 60% of the total airborne fungi, thus these four genera are the predominant genera in the subway station.

  12. Current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-12-01

    Recently the need to manage food allergies in schools has been growing. This study aimed to examine the current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in cooperation with the School Dietician Association during April 2009. Among the participating 154 schools, a total of 109 (71%) were determining students' food allergy status through parental surveys based on self-reported food allergies. A total of 72 (47%) had experienced student visits to a school health room due to food allergies within one year before the survey. Over 80 percent of the schools relied on self-care only without any school-wide measures for food allergies in place. Among the 890 menu items most frequently served in school lunch programs, a total of 664 (75%) were found to contain more than one food allergen. It is highly suggested that preventive plans and treatment measures should be established to manage food allergies in schools.

  13. The rate of Salmonella spp. infection in zoo animals at Seoul Grand Park, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Y. H.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, J. G.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, T. J.; Park, J. H.; Chung, B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease that affects both people and animals. The incidence of reptile-associated salmonellosis has increased in Western countries due to the increasing popularity of reptiles as pets. In Korea, where reptiles are not popular as pets, many zoos offer programs in which people have contact with animals, including reptiles. So, we determined the rate of Salmonella spp. infection in animals by taking anal swabs from 294 animals at Seoul Grand Park. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 14 of 46 reptiles (30.4%), 1 of 15 birds (6.7%) and 2 of 233 mammals (0.9%). These findings indicate that vigilance is required for determining the presence of zoonotic pathogen infections in zoo animals and contamination of animal facilities to prevent human infection with zoonotic diseases from zoo facilities and animal exhibitions. In addition, prevention of human infection requires proper education about personal hygiene. PMID:18487939

  14. Application of short-term water demand prediction model to Seoul.

    PubMed

    Joo, C N; Koo, J Y; Yu, M J

    2002-01-01

    To predict daily water demand for Seoul, Korea, the artificial neural network (ANN) was used. For the cross correlation, the factors affecting water demand such as maximum temperature, humidity, and wind speed as natural factors, holidays as a social factor and daily demand 1 day before were used. From the results of learning using various hidden layers and units in order to establish the structure of optimal ANN, the case of 3 hidden layers and numbers of unit with the same number of input factors showed the best result and, therefore, it was applied to seasonal water demand prediction. The performance of ANN was compared with a multiple regression method. We discuss the representation ability of the model building process and the applicability of the ANN approach for the daily water demand prediction. ANN provided reasonable results for time series prediction.

  15. Discovery of Parasite Eggs in Archeological Residence during the 15th Century in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Pyo Yeon; Park, Jung-Min; Hwang, Myeong-Ki; Park, Seo Hye; Park, Yun-Kyu; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Tong-Soo; Lee, Hyeong-Woo

    2017-01-01

    During civil engineering construction near Sejong-ro, Jongro-ku, Seoul, cultural sites were found that are thought to have been built in the 15th century. This area was home to many different people as well as the leaders of the Yi dynasty. To gain further insight into the life styles of the inhabitants of the old capital, soil samples were collected from various areas such as toilets, water foundations, and drainage ways. Parasite eggs were examined by microscopy after 5 g soil samples were rehydrated in 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. A total of 662 parasite eggs from 7 species were found. Species with the highest number of eggs found were Ascaris lumbricoides (n=483), followed by Trichuris trichiura (138), Trichuris vulpis (21), Fasciola hepatica (8), Clonorchis sinensis (6), Paragonimus westermani (4), and Metagonimus yokogawai (2). These findings indirectly indicate the food habits of the people in Yi dynasty. PMID:28719964

  16. Discovery of Parasite Eggs in Archeological Residence during the 15th Century in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Pyo Yeon; Park, Jung-Min; Hwang, Myeong-Ki; Park, Seo Hye; Park, Yun-Kyu; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Tong-Soo; Lee, Hyeong-Woo

    2017-06-01

    During civil engineering construction near Sejong-ro, Jongro-ku, Seoul, cultural sites were found that are thought to have been built in the 15th century. This area was home to many different people as well as the leaders of the Yi dynasty. To gain further insight into the life styles of the inhabitants of the old capital, soil samples were collected from various areas such as toilets, water foundations, and drainage ways. Parasite eggs were examined by microscopy after 5 g soil samples were rehydrated in 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. A total of 662 parasite eggs from 7 species were found. Species with the highest number of eggs found were Ascaris lumbricoides (n=483), followed by Trichuris trichiura (138), Trichuris vulpis (21), Fasciola hepatica (8), Clonorchis sinensis (6), Paragonimus westermani (4), and Metagonimus yokogawai (2). These findings indirectly indicate the food habits of the people in Yi dynasty.

  17. First evidence of Seoul hantavirus in the wild rat population in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Lõhmus, Mare; Sundström, Karin; Strand, Tanja M; Verkerk, Monique; Reusken, Chantal; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; van de Goot, Frank; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-01-01

    We report the first detection of Seoul hantavirus (SEOV)-specific antibodies in the wild brown rat population in the Netherlands. SEOV-reactive antibodies were found in three rats out of 16 in a repeated series of tests including immunofluorescence assay, immunoblot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Focus reduction neutralization test confirmed the presence of SEOV-specific antibodies, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the presence of hantaviral RNA. This discovery follows the recent findings of SEOV infections in wild and pet brown rats and humans in England, Wales, France, Belgium, and Sweden, indicating an even higher importance of this hantavirus for public health in large areas of Europe.

  18. Meteorological effects on the evolution of high ozone episodes in the greater Seoul area.

    SciTech Connect

    Ghim, Y. S.; Oh, H. S.; Chang, Y.-S.; Environmental Assessment; Korea Inst. of Science and Tech.

    2001-02-01

    Three high O{sub 3} episodes - 7 days in 1992 (July 3-July 9), 9 days in 1994 (July 21-July 29), and another 3 days in 1994 (August 22-August 24) - were selected on the basis of morning (7:00 a.m.-10:00 a.m.) average wind direction and speed and daily maximum O{sub 3} concentrations in the greater Seoul, Korea, of 1990-1997. To better understand their characteristics and life cycles, surface data from the Seoul Weather Station (SWS) and surface and 850-hPa wind field data covering northeast Asia around the Korean Peninsula were used for the analysis. In the July 1992 episode, westerly winds were most frequent as a result of the influence of a high-pressure system west of the Korean Peninsula behind a trough. In contrast, in the July 1994 episode, easterly winds were most frequent as a result of the effect of a typhoon moving north from the south of Japan. Despite different prevailing wind directions, the peak O{sub 3} concentrations for each episode occurred when a sea/land breeze developed in association with weak synoptic forcing. The August 1994 episode, which was selected as being representative of calm conditions, was another typical example in which a well-developed sea/land breeze helped cause the peak O{sub 3} concentration to rise to a record high of 322 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). All three high O3 episodes ended as a result of precipitation, and subsequent rises in O3 concentrations were also suppressed by a series of precipitation events afterwards. In particular, two heavy rainfalls were the main reason why the August 1994 episode, which had the highest and second-highest O{sub 3} concentrations, lasted only a few days.

  19. Radiocarbon-Based Source apportionment of Elemental Carbon Aerosols at Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerian Ghahferrokhi, Farid; Ahn, Jinho; Czimczik, Claudia I.; Holden, Sandra; Park, JinSoo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, 10 samples of PM2.5 (aerosol particle with diameter less than 2.5 μm) were collected in the Northeast of Seoul (37.60o N, 127.05o E), South Korea, over 2-4 day periods in May and June of 2015 with a high volume air sampler. The samples were analyzed for their bulk carbon (TC) and nitrogen (N) elemental and stable isotope composition with EA-IRMS. Elemental carbon (EC) was quantified with the Swiss_4S protocol using a Sunset OC/EC analyzer. Both, TC and EC were analyzed for their radiocarbon (14C) content via accelerator mass spectrometry. The mass and isotopic composition of organic carbon (OC) was quantified by (isotope) mass balance. TC loads were 6.6 +/- 1.5 ug C m-3 air (ave. +/- sd; range 4.7-9.7), with a ∆14C ranging from 240 to -446 per mill and a δ13C of -25.4+/-0.3 per mill. EC was a minor fraction of TC (7.2+/-1.9% or 0.5+/-0.2 ug C m-3 air). EC was strongly depleted in 14C (∆14C = -915 to -819 per mill), with fossil sources accounting for 88+/-3% of EC (6.3+/-1.7% of TC). OC was enriched in 14C above natural levels (∆14C = -401 to 309 per mill), and thus could not be partitioned into fossil and modern sources. Local wind directions showed that air masses originated from the South, demonstrating that regional sources may be the crucial contributor to PM pollution in Seoul during that sampling period (early summer).

  20. Repeating microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake with magnitude 3.0 occurred in the Seoul Metropolitan Capital Area (SNCA), Korea, on 9 February 2010. The earthquake attracted much attention and raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million and is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2011 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including 2 previously reported events and 9 newly identified ones. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative event (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using first motions. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. The orientation of P-axis is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of earthquakes in this study is far from any complete, although we have adopted a well-established method to detect earthquakes. Considering the low seismicity, extensive efforts to monitor the micro-seismicity are definitely required to obtain comprehensive picture of the seismicity pattern in

  1. Gender modifies the relationship between social networks and smoking among adults in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ayers, John W; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hughes, Suzanne C; Park, Hae-Ryun; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, Yoon Ju; Irvin, Veronica; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the interaction of gender with social network mechanisms and smoking behaviors in Seoul, South Korea, where smoking is common among men but not women. During 2002, telephone surveys were completed with 500 adults drawn from a probability sample in Seoul. Respondents described their smoking status, smoking rate (number of cigarettes smoked per day) and social networks by assessing who discouraged or encouraged smoking (smoking support) or smoked (smoking models). Multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Women encountered significantly less smoking support than men, 88% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 85-91) versus 70% (95% CI 66-73) net discouragement of smoking in their network. A difference in smoking support from 25 to 75% net discouragement was associated with a 27% (95% CI 9-49) lower probability of smoking among women, significantly stronger (z = 3.18, p < 0.01) than among men who had a 19% (95% CI 8-27) lower probability of smoking. A similar difference in smoking support was associated with male smokers smoking 6.38 (95% CI 0.86-12.30) fewer cigarettes per day, or 2,329 (95% CI 314-4,490) fewer cigarettes per year. The later association could not be observed among women due to the small proportion of female smokers. Smoking models were not significantly associated with any smoking behaviors across genders. Social network mechanisms were differentially associated with the high smoking prevalence among men and low prevalence among women and should be targeted by interventions tailored to these differences.

  2. Analysis on the flood vulnerability in the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area, Korea using spatial database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mung-Jin

    2015-04-01

    In the future, temperature rises and precipitation increases are expected from climate change due to global warming. Concentrated heavy rain, typhoons, flooding, and other weather phenomena bring hydrologic variations. In this study, the flood susceptibility of the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area was analyzed and validated using a GIS based on a frequency ratio model and a logistic regression model with training and validation datasets of the flooded area. The flooded area in 2010 was used to train the model, and the flooded area in 2011 was used to validate the model. Using data is that topographic, geological, and soil data from the study areas were collected, processed, and digitized for use in a GIS. Maps relevant to the specific capacity were assembled in a spatial database. Then, flood susceptibility maps were created. Finally, the flood susceptibility maps were validated using the flooded area in 2011, which was not used for training. To represent the flood susceptible areas, this study used the probability-frequency ratio. The frequency ratio is the probability of occurrence of a certain attribute. Logistic regression allows for investigation of multivariate regression relations between one dependent and several independent variables. Logistic regression has a limit in that the calculation process cannot be traced because it repeats calculations to find the optimized regression equation for determining the possibility that the dependent variable will occur. In case of Seoul, The frequency ratio and logistic regression model results showed 79.61% and 79.05% accuracy. And the case of Busan, logistic regression model results showed 82.30%. This information and the maps generated from it could be applied to flood prevention and management. In addition, the susceptibility map provides meaningful information for decision-makers regarding priority areas for implementing flood mitigation policies.

  3. Origin and Migration of the Pollutants in Precipitation and Surface Water in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I.; Lim, C.; Yu, J.

    2002-12-01

    Variations in abundance of stable isotopes of sulfur, hydrogen, and oxygen are studied on snow and rainwater samples from Seoul area. Their suitability as a tool for characterizing the seasonality and source of regions near Korea, which contribute to the pollution in Seoul Area was investigated. Also stable isotopic and chemical evidence has been used to trace the sources of sulfate in precipitation at study area and to distinguish sulfate between natural and anthropogenic origins. The contribution of different sources to a specific receptor site depends on emission patterns and meteorological conditions. Measured isotope ratios reflect the actual superposition of the distinct source types based on the assumption that no major isotope fractionation occurs during the transportation process between source region and sampling site. The sulfur isotopic composition of sulfate (δ34S) in precipitation decreased during spring and summer. The δ34S values ranged from +4.4 to +6.5› (mean +5.9›) in winter and from +3.7 to 4.8› (mean +4.3›) in summer. Furthermore, the isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in the snow and rainwater samples were used to support the meteorological information. The δ34S value of the sulfate in precipitation shows characteristic patterns of seasonal variation in the present research. Seasonal variations of the δ34S values and their relation to chemical composition of the atmospheric pollutants are discussed taking into account the δ34S values of sulfur originating from sea salt, oil and coal combustion, and biogenic activity. Also, the δ34S values of sulfate in the atmospheric pollutants show a remarkable seasonal variation depending on the wind directions. The relationship between wind direction and seasonal variation can be explained by contribution of sulfur from coal combustion in northern China and southern China.

  4. Gender modifies the relationship between social networks and smoking among adults in Seoul, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Park, Hae-Ryun; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, Yoon Ju; Irvin, Veronica; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the interaction of gender with social network mechanisms and smoking behaviors in Seoul, South Korea, where smoking is common among men but not women. Methods During 2002, telephone surveys were completed with 500 adults drawn from a probability sample in Seoul. Respondents described their smoking status, smoking rate (number of cigarettes smoked per day) and social networks by assessing who discouraged or encouraged smoking (smoking support) or smoked (smoking models). Multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Results Women encountered significantly less smoking support than men, 88% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 85–91) versus 70% (95% CI 66–73) net discouragement of smoking in their network. A difference in smoking support from 25 to 75% net discouragement was associated with a 27% (95% CI 9–49) lower probability of smoking among women, significantly stronger (z = 3.18, p < 0.01) than among men who had a 19% (95% CI 8–27) lower probability of smoking. A similar difference in smoking support was associated with male smokers smoking 6.38 (95% CI 0.86–12.30) fewer cigarettes per day, or 2,329 (95% CI 314–4,490) fewer cigarettes per year. The later association could not be observed among women due to the small proportion of female smokers. Smoking models were not significantly associated with any smoking behaviors across genders. Conclusions Social network mechanisms were differentially associated with the high smoking prevalence among men and low prevalence among women and should be targeted by interventions tailored to these differences. PMID:20217178

  5. Guidelines for biomarker testing in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: a national consensus of the Spanish Society of Pathology and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology.

    PubMed

    García-Carbonero, R; Vilardell, F; Jiménez-Fonseca, P; González-Campora, R; González, E; Cuatrecasas, M; Capdevila, J; Aranda, I; Barriuso, J; Matías-Guiu, X

    2014-03-01

    The annual incidence of neuroendocrine tumours in the Caucasian population ranges from 2.5 to 5 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours is a family of neoplasms widely variable in terms of anatomical location, hormone composition, clinical syndromes they cause and in their biological behaviour. This high complexity and clinical heterogeneity, together with the known difficulty of predicting their behaviour from their pathological features, are reflected in the many classifications that have been developed over the years in this field. This article reviews the main tissue and clinical biomarkers and makes recommendations for their use in medical practice. This document represents a consensus reached jointly by the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) and the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP).

  6. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology and Oral Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for dental school pathology courses describe the interrelationships of general, systemic, and oral pathology; primary educational goals; prerequisites; a core curriculum outline and behavioral objectives for each type of pathology. Notes on sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards are included. (MSE)

  7. A multilevel analysis of social capital and self-reported health: evidence from Seoul, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aims to resolve two limitations of previous studies. First, as only a few studies examining social capital have been conducted in non-western countries, it is inconclusive that the concept, which has been developed in Western societies, applies similarly to an Asian context. Second, this study considers social capital at the individual-level, area-level and cross-levels of interaction and examines its associations with health while simultaneously controlling for various confounders at both the individual-level and area-level, whereas previous studies only considered one of the two levels. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine the associations between social capital and health by using multilevel analysis after controlling for various confounders both at the individual and area-levels (i.e., concentrated disadvantage) in non-western countries. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey from December 2010 to April 2011 in Seoul, South Korea. The target population included respondents aged 25 years and older who have resided in the same administrative area since 2008. The final sample for this study consisted of 4,730 respondents within all 25 of Seoul's administrative areas. Results In our final model, individual-level social capital, including network sources (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.11-1.37) and organizational participation (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 2.11-3.08) was positively associated with good/very good health. Interestingly, the individual × area organizational participation cross-level interaction was negatively associated with good/very good health (OR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.32-0.50), indicating that in areas with higher organizational participation, individuals with high organizational participation were less likely to report good/very good health when compared to low organizational participation individuals. Conclusion Our study provides evidence that individual-level social capital is associated with self-reported health, even

  8. Submicron aerosol distributions and CCN concentration at Gosan and Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Lee, S.; Yum, S. S.; Hudson, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Counter fell in the range of 400 - 8000 cm-3. The CCN/CN ratios were below 1 for the whole period and were low when Dg were low and high when the Dg were high showing that the CCN measurements were consistent with other aerosol measurements. Additional measurement will be made in Seoul, the capital of Korea, with 10 million inhabitants, in September and October 2006. Further analysis and comparison including Seoul measurements will be presented at the conference.

  9. Genetic analyses of Acanthamoeba isolates from contact lens storage cases of students in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hak-Sun; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Hyo-Kyung; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2001-01-01

    We conducted both the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA RFLP analyses for a genetic characterization of Acanthamoeba isolates from contact lens storage cases of students in Seoul, Korea. Twenty-three strains of Acanthamoeba from the American Type Culture Collection and twelve clinical isolates from Korean patients were used as reference strains. Thirty-nine isolates from contact lens storage cases were classified into seven types (KA/LS1, KA/LS2, KA/LS4, KA/LS5, KA/LS7, KA/LS18, KA/LS31). Four types (KA/LS1, KA/LS2, KA/LS5, KA/LS18) including 33 isolates were regarded as A. castellanii complex by riboprints. KA/LS1 type was the most predominant (51.3%) in the present survey area, followed by KA/LS2 (20.9%), and KA/LS5 (7.7%) types. Amoebae of KA/LS1 type had the same mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns as KA/E2 and KA/E12 strains, clinical isolates from Korean keratitis patients. Amoebae of KA/LS2 type had the identical mtDNA RFLP patterns with A. castellanii Ma strain, a corneal isolate from an American patient as amoebae of KA/LS5 type, with KA/E3 and KA/E8 strains from other Korean keratitis patients. Amoebae of KA/LS18 type had identical patterns with JAC/E1, an ocular isolate from a Japanese patient. Three types, which remain unidentified at species level, were not corresponded with any clinical isolate in their mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns. Out of 39 isolates analyzed in this study, mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns of 33 isolates (84.6%) were identical to already known clinical isolates, and therefore, they may be regarded as potentially keratopathogenic. These results suggest that contact lens wearers in Seoul should pay more attention to hygienic maintenance of contact lens storage cases for the prevention of Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:11441503

  10. Genetic analyses of Acanthamoeba isolates from contact lens storage cases of students in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yu, H S; Choi, K H; Kim, H K; Kong, H H; Chung, D I

    2001-06-01

    We conducted both the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA RFLP analyses for a genetic characterization of Acanthamoeba isolates from contact lens storage cases of students in Seoul, Korea. Twenty-three strains of Acanthamoeba from the American Type Culture Collection and twelve clinical isolates from Korean patients were used as reference strains. Thirty-nine isolates from contact lens storage cases were classified into seven types (KA/LS1, KA/LS2, KA/LS4, KA/LS5, KA/LS7, KA/LS18, KA/LS31). Four types (KA/LS1, KA/LS2, KA/LS5, KA/LS18) including 33 isolates were regarded as A. castellanii complex by riboprints. KA/LS1 type was the most predominant (51.3%) in the present survey area, followed by KA/LS2 (20.9%), and KA/LS5 (7.7%) types. Amoebae of KA/LS1 type had the same mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns as KA/E2 and KA/E12 strains, clinical isolates from Korean keratitis patients. Amoebae of KA/LS2 type had the identical mtDNA RFLP patterns with A. castellanii Ma strain, a corneal isolate from an American patient as amoebae of KA/LS5 type, with KA/E3 and KA/E8 strains from other Korean keratitis patients. Amoebae of KA/LS18 type had identical patterns with JAC/E1, an ocular isolate from a Japanese patient. Three types, which remain unidentified at species level, were not corresponded with any clinical isolate in their mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns. Out of 39 isolates analyzed in this study, mtDNA RFLP and riboprint patterns of 33 isolates (84.6%) were identical to already known clinical isolates, and therefore, they may be regarded as potentially keratopathogenic. These results suggest that contact lens wearers in Seoul should pay more attention to hygienic maintenance of contact lens storage cases for the prevention of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

  11. Atmospheric versus lithogenic contribution to the composition of first- and second-order stream waters in Seoul and its vicinity.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Choi, Byoung-Young

    2004-03-01

    The spatial variations in the chemistry of first- and second-order stream waters (N = 65) were investigated in the easterly bound of Seoul in order to assess the effects of urban air pollution on surface water chemistry. The sulfate (SO4(2-)) was high (range 3.9-17.8 mg l(-1), mean 11.8 mg l(-1)) within 30 km away from the center of Seoul, compared to the levels (range 1.1-7.7 mg l(-1), mean 4.3 mg l(-1)) observed in remote areas (30-70 km away). Both graphical examination and statistical evaluation (variogram) of sulfate concentration data consistently showed the decrease of sulfate concentration with increasing distance. The results of mass balance modeling also indicate that the concentrations of SO4(2-), Cl- and Na+ may be affected mainly by dry/wet deposition. However, the spatial variations of major cations such as Ca2+ and Na+ are well explained by the reaction of rainwater with diverse rocks in the watercourse. The water type was found to change from Ca(-Na)-SO4) type to Ca(-a)-HCO3 type with the increasing distance. It is thus inferred that the pollutants like SO2 emitted from strong man-made source areas of Seoul are transported to the considerable distance (at least 30 km away) by westerlies and that such mechanism may lead to the changes of the anion composition in surface water. In the remote area (> 30 km away from Seoul), the stream water chemistry appears to be influenced more effectively by the weathering of rock-forming minerals.

  12. High-resolution urban observation network for user-specific meteorological information service in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Moon-Soo; Park, Sung-Hwa; Chae, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Min-Hyeok; Song, Yunyoung; Kang, Minsoo; Roh, Joon-Woo

    2017-04-01

    To improve our knowledge of urban meteorology, including those processes applicable to high-resolution meteorological models in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the Weather Information Service Engine (WISE) Urban Meteorological Observation System (UMS-Seoul) has been designed and installed. The UMS-Seoul incorporates 14 surface energy balance (EB) systems, 7 surface-based three-dimensional (3-D) meteorological observation systems and applied meteorological (AP) observation systems, and the existing surface-based meteorological observation network. The EB system consists of a radiation balance system, sonic anemometers, infrared CO2/H2O gas analyzers, and many sensors measuring the wind speed and direction, temperature and humidity, precipitation, and air pressure. The EB-produced radiation, meteorological, and turbulence data will be used to quantify the surface EB according to land use and to improve the boundary-layer and surface processes in meteorological models. The 3-D system, composed of a wind lidar, microwave radiometer, aerosol lidar, or ceilometer, produces the cloud height, vertical profiles of backscatter by aerosols, wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, and liquid water content. It will be used for high-resolution reanalysis data based on observations and for the improvement of the boundary-layer, radiation, and microphysics processes in meteorological models. The AP system includes road weather information, mosquito activity, water quality, and agrometeorological observation instruments. The standardized metadata for networks and stations are documented and renewed periodically to provide a detailed observation environment. The UMS-Seoul data are designed to support real-time acquisition and display and automatically quality check within 10 min from observation. After the quality check, data can be distributed to relevant potential users such as researchers and policy makers. Finally, two case studies demonstrate that the observed data

  13. Optimization of Seoul-Fluor-based lipid droplet bioprobes and their application in microalgae for bio-fuel study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngjun; Na, Sangcheol; Lee, Sanghee; Jeon, Noo Li; Park, Seung Bum

    2013-05-01

    We synthesized a series of Seoul-Fluor-based lipid droplet bioprobes with a linear range of lipophilicity and identified SF44 and SF58 as SF-based LD bioprobes in microalgae for biofuel research as well as in mammalian cells. Unlike Nile Red, SF-based bioprobes can stain algal LDs with excellent efficiency under the non-invasive and non-cytotoxic conditions.

  14. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    PubMed

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be

  15. Social status does not predict responses to Seoul virus infection or reproductive success among male Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Ella R; Hannah, Michele F; Norris, Douglas E; Glass, Gregory E; Klein, Sabra L

    2006-03-01

    Trade-offs exist among life history strategies that are used to increase survival and reproduction; such that, males that engage in more competitive behaviors may be more susceptible to infection. Hantaviruses are transmitted horizontally between rodents through the passage of virus in saliva during wounding and male rodents are more likely to be infected with hantaviruses than females. To determine whether a trade-off exists between dominance and susceptibility to Seoul virus infection, male Long Evans rats were group housed (3/cage) with a female rat and aggressive and subordinate behaviors were monitored during a 10 day group housing condition. After behavioral testing, males were individually housed, inoculated with Seoul virus, and blood, saliva, and fecal samples were collected. Dominant males initiated more aggressive encounters than subordinate males. Dominant and subordinate males, however, had similar steroid hormone concentrations, anti-Seoul virus IgG responses, and weight gain over the course of infection. A similar proportion of dominant and subordinate males shed virus in saliva and feces during infection. Using microsatellite DNA markers paternity was assigned to pups derived during the group housing period. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, dominant and subordinate males sired a similar percentage of pups. Taken together, host social status may not predict reproductive success or susceptibility to hantaviruses in rodent reservoir populations.

  16. Long-term trend of the mass and chemical species' concentrations in PM2.5 at Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Kim, Y. P.; Lim, H. J.; Shin, H. J.; Moon, K. J.; Hong, Y. D.; Park, S.

    2015-12-01

    Particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has detrimental effects on human health as well as the environmental effects such as climate change. Thus, understanding trends of the mass concentration and chemical compounds of PM2.5 is needed to establish appropriate policy. The objectives of this study are (1) collecting data and understanding temporal trend of chemical components in PM2.5 at Seoul, and (2) verifying the possible reasons of the trends. The literature data of the mass concentrations of chemical composition of PM2.5, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, OC (Organic Carbon), and EC (Element Carbon) from 1985 to 2014 at Seoul were collected and their trends were analyzed. The annual concentrations of particulate matters both PM10 and PM2.5 at Seoul have been continuously decreased. The concentrations of ionic component in PM2.5 showed different trends, sulfate decreased during the 1990s but no trend was observed after 2000s while nitrate and ammonium increased during the 2000s. The trend of OC showed no distinctive trend while the EC concentrations decreased.

  17. An overview of 2016 WISE Urban Summer Observation Campaign (WUSOC 2016) in the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae-Won; Kim, Sang-Woo; Shim, Jae-Kwan; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan

    2017-04-01

    The Weather Information Service Engine (WISE), launched project of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), aims to operate the urban meteorological observation network from 2012 to 2019 and to test and operate the application weather service (e.g., flash flood, road weather, city ecology, city microclimate, dispersion of hazardous substance etc.) in 2019 through the development of Advanced Storm-scale Analysis Prediction System(ASAPS) for the production of storm-scale hazard weather monitoring and prediction system. The WISE institute has completed construction of 31 urban meteorological observation cities in Seoul metropolitan area and has built a real-time test operation and verification system by improving the ASAPS that produces 1 km and 6 hour forecast information based on the 5 km forecast information of KMA. Field measurements of 2016 WISE Urban Summer Observation Campaign (WUSOC 2016) was conducted in the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea from August 22 to October 14, 2016. Involving over 70 researchers from more than 12 environmental and atmospheric science research groups in South Korea, WUSOC2016 focused on special observations, severe rain storm observations using mobile observation car and radiosonde, wind profile observations using Wind Doppler Lidar and radiosonde, etc., around the Seoul metropolitan area. WUSOC2016 purpose at data quality control, accuracy verification, usability check, and quality improvement of ASAPS at observation stations constructed in WISE. In addition, we intend to contribute to the activation of urban fusion weather research and risk weather research through joint observation and data sharing.

  18. Impact of outdoor air pollution on the incidence of tuberculosis in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung-sik; Kang, Sungchan; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Sung Koo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Although indoor air pollution is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), the possible link between outdoor air pollution and TB development has not been examined fully. We assessed the impact of outdoor air pollution on TB development in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea. Methods The mean concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 levels in Seoul, between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2006, were determined. Furthermore, their association with the risk of developing TB after adjusting for socioeconomic status, between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, was investigated. Results Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, a total of 41,185 TB cases were reported in Seoul. Concentrations of PM10, O3, CO, and NO2 were not associated with TB incidence in males or females. However, the interquartile increase in SO2 concentration was associated with a 7% increment in TB incidence (relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.03 to 1.12) in males but not in females (RR, 1.02; 95% CrI, 0.98 to 1.07). Conclusions Long-term exposure to ambient SO2 increased the risk of TB in males. PMID:24648801

  19. Validation of aerosol and cloud layer structures from the space-borne lidar CALIOP using a ground-based lidar in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; Berthier, S.; Raut, J.-C.; Chazette, P.; Dulac, F.; Yoon, S.-C.

    2008-07-01

    We present initial validation results of the space-borne lidar CALIOP onboard CALIPSO satellite using coincidental observations from a ground-based lidar in Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul, Korea (37.46° N, 126.95° E). We analyze six selected cases between September 2006 and February 2007, including 3 daytime and 3 night-time observations and covering different types of clear and cloudy atmospheric conditions. Apparent scattering ratios calculated from the two lidar measurements of total attenuated backscatter at 532 nm show similar aerosol and cloud layer structures both under cloud-free conditions and in cases of multiple aerosol layers underlying semi-transparent cirrus clouds. Agreement on top and base heights of cloud and aerosol layers is generally within 0.10 km, particularly during night-time. This result confirms that the CALIPSO science team algorithms for the discrimination of cloud and aerosol as well as for the detection of layer top and base altitude provide reliable information in such atmospheric conditions. This accuracy of the planetary boundary layer top height under cirrus cloud appears, however, limited during daytime. Under thick cloud conditions, however, information on the cloud top (bottom) height only is reliable from CALIOP (ground-based lidar) due to strong signal attenuations. However, simultaneous space-borne CALIOP and ground-based SNU lidar (SNU-L) measurements complement each other and can be combined to provide full information on the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds. An aerosol backscatter-to-extinction ratio (BER) estimated from lidar and sunphotometer synergy at the SNU site during the CALIOP overpass is assessed to be 0.023±0.004 sr-1 (i.e. a lidar ratio of 43.2±6.2 sr) from CALIOP and 0.027±0.006 sr-1 (37.4±7.2 sr) from SNU-L. For aerosols within the planetary boundary layer under cloud-free conditions, the aerosol extinction profiles from both lidars are in agreement within about 0.02 km-1. Under semi

  20. Introduction of the Mobile Platform for the Meteorological Observations in Seoul Metropolitan City of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, K. T.; Lee, S.; Kang, M.; Lee, G.

    2016-12-01

    Traffic accidents due to adverse weather such as fog, heavy rainfall, flooding and road surface freezing have been increasing in Korea. To reduce damages caused by the severe weather on the road, a forecast service of combined real-time road-wise weather and the traffic situation is required. Conventional stationary meteorological observations in sparse location system are limited to observe the detailed road environment. For this reason, a mobile meteorological observation platform has been coupled in Weather Information Service Engine (WISE) which is the prototype of urban-scale high resolution weather prediction system in Seoul metropolitan area of Korea in early August 2016. The instruments onboard are designed to measure 15 meteorological parameters; pressure, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, up/down net radiation, up/down longwave radiation, up/down shortwave radiation, road surface condition, friction coefficient, water depth, wind direction and speed. The observations from mobile platform show a distinctive advantage of data collection in need for road conditions and inputs for the numerical forecast model. In this study, we introduce and examine the feasibility of mobile observations in urban weather prediction and applications.

  1. Responses of Two Invasive Plants Under Various Microclimate Conditions in the Seoul Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, Eun Ju

    2012-06-01

    The possible consequences of global warming on plant communities and ecosystems have wide-ranging ramifications. We examined how environmental change affects plant growth as a function of the variations in the microclimate along an urban-suburban climate gradient for two allergy-inducing, invasive plants, Humulus japonicus and Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior. The environmental factors and plant growth responses were measured at two urban sites (Gangbuk and Seongbuk) and two suburban sites (Goyang and Incheon) around Seoul, South Korea. The mean temperatures and CO2 concentrations differed significantly between the urban (14.8 °C and 439 ppm CO2) and suburban (13.0 °C and 427 ppm CO2) sites. The soil moisture and nitrogen contents of the suburban sites were higher than those at the urban sites, especially for the Goyang site. The two invasive plants showed significantly higher biomasses and nitrogen contents at the two urban sites. We conducted experiments in a greenhouse to confirm the responses of the plants to increased temperatures, and we found consistently higher growth rates under conditions of higher temperatures. Because we controlled the other factors, the better performance of the two invasive plants appears to be primarily attributable to their responses to temperature. Our study demonstrates that even small temperature changes in the environment can confer significant competitive advantages to invasive species. As habitats become urbanized and warmer, these invasive plants should be able to displace native species, which will adversely affect people living in these areas.

  2. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in children in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong

    2015-03-01

    The present study reports past-year prevalence of and comorbidities associated with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) disorders in 1645 children aged 6 to 12 years in Seoul, Korea. The diagnosis was based on the parental version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Our participants completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). The estimated prevalence of any full-syndrome and subthreshold DSM-IV disorders were 16.2% and 28.1%, respectively. The most prevalent disorders were specific phobia (9.6%), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 5.9%), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD; 4.9%). The estimated prevalence of depressive disorder was 0.1% according to the DISC-IV and1.9% according to the CDI. ADHD, ODD, and anxiety disorders were highly comorbid. Our study highlights the importance of obtaining children's self-report data in addition to the parents' interview, particularly for depression, and the importance of early detection of subthreshold conditions and considering comorbid diagnoses. © 2013 APJPH.

  3. Assessment of radiation exposure from cesium-137 contaminated roads for epidemiological studies in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Keun; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik; Yim, Sang-Hyuk; Yoo, Sang-Chul; Lee, Jieon; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Burm, Eunae; Ha, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the radiation exposure for epidemiologic investigation in residents exposed to radiation from roads that were accidentally found to be contaminated with radioactive cesium-137 (137Cs) in Seoul. Methods Using information regarding the frequency and duration of passing via the 137Cs contaminated roads or residing/working near the roads from the questionnaires that were obtained from 8875 residents and the measured radiation doses reported by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, we calculated the total cumulative dose of radiation exposure for each person. Results Sixty-three percent of the residents who responded to the questionnaire were considered as ever-exposed and 1% of them had a total cumulative dose of more than 10 mSv. The mean (minimum, maximum) duration of radiation exposure was 4.75 years (0.08, 11.98) and the geometric mean (minimum, maximum) of the total cumulative dose was 0.049 mSv (<0.001, 35.35) in the exposed. Conclusions An individual exposure assessment was performed for an epidemiological study to estimate the health risk among residents living in the vicinity of 137Cs contaminated roads. The average exposure dose in the exposed people was less than 5% of the current guideline. PMID:26184047

  4. [Public perceptions of the risk of Asian dust storms in Seoul and its metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Im, Hyoung-June; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Ha, Mina; Lee, Sang Gyu; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ha, Eun Hee; Cho, Soo-Hun

    2006-05-01

    In spite of the recent increased concern for Asian dust storms, there are few studies concerning how dangerous the general public recognizes these dust storms to be. This study examined the public's perceptions of the risk of the Asian dust storms and also the source of the information concerning the risk. A telephone interview survey using a standardized questionnaire was done for the adults living in Seoul and its metropolitan area from May 15th, 2003 to May 16th, 2003. The contents of the questionnaire were the sociodemographic characteristics, the perceptions of risk to the Asian dust storms, and the coping strategy of the study participants. The study participants get their information on Asian dust storms mainly from TV newscasts and they have a good knowledge of them. They regard it as one of the most dangerous health risks, along with dioxin. They think that it is associated with allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis and bronchial asthma, etc. Of the 500 study participants, 201(40.2%) persons suffered bodily discomforts during the Asian dust storm period. Although there are uncertainties about the health risks of Asian dust storms, the public thinks these dust storms are very dangerous to health in many ways. This negative perception will not disappear easily. To fill the gap of the public's perceptions of the risk and the objective evidence of its health effects, more studies about its health effects and the methods to reduce exposure are required.

  5. Epidemiological characteristics of the first water-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Shinje; Kwak, Wooseok; Lee, Sangwon; Kim, Won; Oh, Jaeyeon; Youn, Seung-Ki

    2013-07-01

    The first case of human cryptosporidiosis was reported in Korea in 1995; however, an outbreak of Cryptosporidium has not been reported in Korea until now. This paper describes the first outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Korea. On May 24, 2012, a local public health center filed a report on 126 residents with gastrointestinal symptoms in an old apartment complex in Seoul. Epidemiological investigations were implemented on 125 of the 126 patients. The patients were reported continuously over a period of 22 days. Diarrhea was the most common clinical symptom, and lasted for 5 days on average. The tap water was the only common exposure of the patients. During the environmental investigation it was discovered that the water and septic tanks were situated closely and that the waste water pipes were corroded where they passed over the water pipes. Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 3 of the 7 stool specimens by PCR-RFLP. A number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were also detected in the water specimens from the water tank. In conclusion, Cryptosporidium parvum was the key causal pathogen of this outbreak. It is presumed that the tap water was contaminated by a sewage leak from the aged pipelines.

  6. Land-use regression panel models of NO2 concentrations in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngkook; Guldmann, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-01

    Transportation and land-use activities are major air pollution contributors. Since their shares of emissions vary across space and time, so do air pollution concentrations. Despite these variations, panel data have rarely been used in land-use regression (LUR) modeling of air pollution. In addition, the complex interactions between traffic flows, land uses, and meteorological variables, have not been satisfactorily investigated in LUR models. The purpose of this research is to develop and estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) panel models based on the LUR framework with data for Seoul, Korea, accounting for the impacts of these variables, and their interactions with spatial and temporal dummy variables. The panel data vary over several scales: daily (24 h), seasonally (4), and spatially (34 intra-urban measurement locations). To enhance model explanatory power, wind direction and distance decay effects are accounted for. The results show that vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT) and solar radiation have statistically strong positive and negative impacts on NO2 concentrations across the four seasonal models. In addition, there are significant interactions with the dummy variables, pointing to VKT and solar radiation effects on NO2 concentrations that vary with time and intra-urban location. The results also show that residential, commercial, and industrial land uses, and wind speed, temperature, and humidity, all impact NO2 concentrations. The R2 vary between 0.95 and 0.98.

  7. First molecular detection and genetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter cats in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Park, Sang-Joon; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-12-01

    Here, we report the molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter cats in Korea and the relationships between A. phagocytophilum gene sequences and the pathogenicity, region, and host specificity of this bacterium. Two (0.9%) out of 222 shelter cats from Seoul, Korea, yielded positive results for the A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes. Phylogenetic analysis divided groEL gene sequences into two groups (alanine and serine), based on their nucleotide and amino acid sequences. A. phagocytophilum msp2 gene sequences were grouped per the region of isolation (Europe vs. USA, including Korea). Some nucleotide and amino acid sequences of groEL and msp2 showed distinctive patterns according to the region of isolation, which helped in distinguishing A. phagocytophilum gene sequences detected in Korea from those detected in the USA and Europe. Although the limited number of clinical anaplasmosis cases caused by A. phagocytophilum belonging to the alanine group prevents any firm conclusions, the results of the present study tend to refute the previous view that the pathogenicity of A. phagocytophilum is associated with the serine group. Moreover, our results suggest that genetic analyses of groEL and msp2 can be used to obtain a regional fingerprint of A. phagocytophilum.

  8. First molecular detection and genetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter cats in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Park, Sang-Joon; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-10-29

    Here, we report the molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter cats in Korea and the relationships between A. phagocytophilum gene sequences and the pathogenicity, region, and host specificity of this bacterium. Two (0.9%) out of 222 shelter cats from Seoul, Korea, yielded positive results for the A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes. Phylogenetic analysis divided groEL gene sequences into two groups (alanine and serine), based on their nucleotide and amino acid sequences. A. phagocytophilum msp2 gene sequences were grouped per the region of isolation (Europe vs. USA, including Korea). Some nucleotide and amino acid sequences of groEL and msp2 showed distinctive patterns according to the region of isolation, which helped in distinguishing A. phagocytophilum gene sequences detected in Korea from those detected in the USA and Europe. Although the limited number of clinical anaplasmosis cases caused by A. phagocytophilum belonging to the alanine group prevents any firm conclusions, the results of the present study tend to refute the previous view that the pathogenicity of A. phagocytophilum is associated with the serine group. Moreover, our results suggest that genetic analyses of groEL and msp2 can be used to obtain a regional fingerprint of A. phagocytophilum.

  9. Simulating urban-scale air pollutants and their predicting capabilities over the Seoul metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Soo; Lee, Suk-Jo; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Yoo, Chul; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2004-06-01

    Urban-scale air pollutants for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter > or = 10 microm, and ozone (O3) were simulated over the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea, during the period of July 2-11, 2002, and their predicting capabilities were discussed. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) and the highly disaggregated anthropogenic and the biogenic gridded emissions (1 km x 1 km) recently prepared by the Korean Ministry of Environment were applied. Wind fields with observational nudging in the prognostic meteorological model TAPM are optionally adopted to comparatively examine the meteorological impact on the prediction capabilities of urban-scale air pollutants. The result shows that the simulated concentrations of secondary air pollutant largely agree with observed levels with an index of agreement (IOA) of >0.6, whereas IOAs of approximately 0.4 are found for most primary pollutants in the major cities, reflecting the quality of emission data in the urban area. The observationally nudged wind fields with higher IOAs have little effect on the prediction for both primary and secondary air pollutants, implying that the detailed wind field does not consistently improve the urban air pollution model performance if emissions are not well specified. However, the robust highest concentrations are better described toward observations by imposing observational nudging, suggesting the importance of wind fields for the predictions of extreme concentrations such as robust highest concentrations, maximum levels, and >90th percentiles of concentrations for both primary and secondary urban-scale air pollutants.

  10. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater in Seoul, South Korea: effects of land-use and pollutant recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byoung-Young; Yun, Seong-Taek; Yu, Soon-Young; Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Park, Seong-Sook; Chae, Gi-Tak; Mayer, Bernhard

    2005-10-01

    The ionic and isotopic compositions (δD, δ18O, and 3H) of urban groundwaters have been monitored in Seoul to examine the water quality in relation to land-use. High tritium contents (6.1-12.0 TU) and the absence of spatial/seasonal change of O-H isotope data indicate that groundwaters are well mixed within aquifers with recently recharged waters of high contamination susceptibility. Statistical analyses show a spatial variation of major ions in relation to land-use type. The major ion concentrations tend to increase with anthropogenic contamination, due to the local pollutants recharge. The TDS concentration appears to be a useful contamination indicator, as it generally increases by the order of forested green zone (average 151 mg/l), agricultural area, residential area, traffic area, and industrialized area (average 585 mg/l). With the increased anthropogenic contamination, the groundwater chemistry changes from a Ca-HCO3 type toward a Ca-Cl(+NO3) type. The source and behavior of major ions are discussed and the hydrochemical backgrounds are proposed as the basis of a groundwater management plan.

  11. Phosphorus release rates from sediments and pollutant characteristics in Han River, Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lee-Hyung; Choi, Euiso; Gil, Kyung-Ik; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2004-04-05

    The Han River is 469.7-km long and drains a 26219-km(2) watershed. The sediments in the river are highly polluted due to inputs from upstream tributaries as well as partially treated municipal wastewaters that are discharged to the river. The water quality and strategy for control are important because the river is the primary drinking water supply for the City of Seoul, as well as being a major source for irrigation and industrial water. The Jamsil submerged dam partitions the river to isolate an upstream area for drinking water, but also captures sediments. Samples from four sites were studied to determine sediment pollutant concentrations and phosphorus release rates. Phosphorus tends to desorb from sediments when the concentration of overlying water is less than 1.4 mg/l. Water column P concentrations range from 0.04 to 0.1 mg/l, which suggests that sediments will act as a P source. In a series of batch experiments, P was released at approximately 15-20 mg/m(2)week in the winter (1-5 degrees C) and as much as 90 mg/m(2)week in the summer (20-24 degrees C), and is also a function of pH and dissolved oxygen concentration. The sediment total phosphorus concentration, which averages 833 mg/kg, is evenly distributed among non-apatite-P (33%), apatite-P (32%) and residual-P (34%). An equilibrium model is proposed to describe release rate.

  12. Improvement of Advanced Storm-scale Analysis and Prediction System (ASAPS) on Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeong-Gyun; Jee, Joon-Bum

    2017-04-01

    Dangerous weather such as severe rain, heavy snow, drought and heat wave caused by climate change make more damage in the urban area that dense populated and industry areas. Urban areas, unlike the rural area, have big population and transportation, dense the buildings and fuel consumption. Anthropogenic factors such as road energy balance, the flow of air in the urban is unique meteorological phenomena. However several researches are in process about prediction of urban meteorology. ASAPS (Advanced Storm-scale Analysis and Prediction System) predicts a severe weather with very short range (prediction with 6 hour) and high resolution (every hour with time and 1 km with space) on Seoul metropolitan area based on KLAPS (Korea Local Analysis and Prediction System) from KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration). This system configured three parts that make a background field (SUF5), analysis field (SU01) with observation and forecast field with high resolution (SUF1). In this study, we improve a high-resolution ASAPS model and perform a sensitivity test for the rainfall case. The improvement of ASAPS include model domain configuration, high resolution topographic data and data assimilation with WISE observation data.

  13. Urban Flood Management with Integrated Inland-River System in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Y. I.; Kim, J. S.; Yuk, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming and climate change have caused significant damage and loss of life worldwide. The pattern of natural disasters has gradually diversified and their frequency is increasing. The impact of climate change on flood risk in urban rivers is of particular interest because these areas are typically densely populated. The occurrence of urban river flooding due to climate change not only causes significant loss of life and property but also causes health and social problems. It is therefore necessary to develop a scientific urban flood management system to cope with and reduce the impacts of climate change, including flood damage. In this study, we are going to introduce Integrated Inland-River Flood Analysis System in Seoul to conduct predictions on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and perform prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded areas. In addition, this urban flood management system can be used as a tool for decision making of systematic disaster prevention through real-time monitoring.

  14. Epidemiological Characteristics of the First Water-Borne Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Shinje; Kwak, Wooseok; Lee, Sangwon; Kim, Won; Oh, Jaeyeon

    2013-01-01

    The first case of human cryptosporidiosis was reported in Korea in 1995; however, an outbreak of Cryptosporidium has not been reported in Korea until now. This paper describes the first outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Korea. On May 24, 2012, a local public health center filed a report on 126 residents with gastrointestinal symptoms in an old apartment complex in Seoul. Epidemiological investigations were implemented on 125 of the 126 patients. The patients were reported continuously over a period of 22 days. Diarrhea was the most common clinical symptom, and lasted for 5 days on average. The tap water was the only common exposure of the patients. During the environmental investigation it was discovered that the water and septic tanks were situated closely and that the waste water pipes were corroded where they passed over the water pipes. Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 3 of the 7 stool specimens by PCR-RFLP. A number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were also detected in the water specimens from the water tank. In conclusion, Cryptosporidium parvum was the key causal pathogen of this outbreak. It is presumed that the tap water was contaminated by a sewage leak from the aged pipelines. PMID:23853479

  15. Effect of diurnal temperature range on cardiovascular markers in the elderly in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Bae, Sanghyuk; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2013-07-01

    While diurnal temperature range (DTR) has been found to be a risk factor for mortality, evaluation of the underlying mechanisms involved in this association are lacking. To explain the association between DTR and health effects, we investigated how cardiovascular markers responded to DTR. Data was obtained from 560 participants who regularly attended a community elderly welfare center located in Seoul, Korea. Data collection was conducted a total of five times over a 3-year period beginning in August, 2008. We examined systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Mixed-effects models and generalized additive mixed models were used to assess the relationship of DTR with BP, HR, and HRV. BP was not associated significantly with rapid temperature changes during the day. While HR was associated linearly with increments of DTR, the relationship between DTR and HRV showed nonlinear associations, or the presence of a cutoff around median DTR. At the cutoff level of DTR determined by an inflection point in the graph, standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and root mean square successive difference (RMSSD) were peaked, whereas the low frequency:high frequency (LF:HF) ratio was elevated with decreasing DTR below the cutoff level. The study demonstrated that HR increases with increasing temperature range during the day, and that HRV is reduced at small or large DTR, which suggests minimal cardiovascular stress around the median level of temperature range during the day.

  16. The formation of high-O3 episodes derived from atmospheric conditions in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, H.; Woochul, C.; Lee, M.; Lee, G.; Lee, S. D.; Blake, D. R.; Jang, J.

    2016-12-01

    To understand the characteristics of high O3 episodes in urban, O3, CO, and NOx, photochemical indicator species including PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate), and H2O2(hydrogen peroxide) were determined by GC-luminol system, and HPLC-postcolumn enzyme fluorescence system, respectively from May 18 to June 12 2015. VOCs were sampled with a canister twice a day (09:30 and 15:00) and analyzed by GC-FID. The observation site was installed in Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) in Seoul. The west side of KIST site was surrounded by freeways and the forest was located at the east side. High ozone concentrations were encountered from the end of May to the early of June and the maximum concentration was 155 ppbv on Jun 10. Although the level of NOx was much reduced in June, O3 concentration was slightly higher in June. PAN was well correlation with O3 and was raised up to 4.4 ppbv in June. H2O2 was low concentrations and not clear in June with under high O3 concentrations. The calculated OH reactivity of VOCS suggests that isoprene played a major role in the enhancement of O3 and PAN in the late afternoon,. As a results, PAN showed the second peak in accordance with the highest O3 concentration in the late afternoon. These results reflected that photochemical reaction in urban was distinguished with change of chemical regime.

  17. Assessment of Urban Vegetation using Remote Sensing Data: a Case Study in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, J.; Yeom, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Vegetation in the city has various positive effects on the entire urban ecosystem: it reduces CO2 and air temperature, improves air quality, helps to maintain the water balance of natural ground, decreases surface overflow during floods, and provides food source as well as living space for diverse wildlife. Urban green areas also have a social and educational role, e.g. for recreational activity, positive experience in a natural environment, and perception of seasonal changes. In addition, citizens can find a balance between urban green and built up spaces. However, the very high intensity of land use in urban areas changes the local urban ecosystem to a large degree and leads to enormous stress for the urban vegetation. In this study, we aim to develop a method for assessing effects of urban vegetation on ecosystem function using remote sensing technology. We use multispectral RapidEye satellite and LiDAR data for the classification of urban vegetation types in metropolitan area Seoul and test different kinds of vegetation indices focusing on the red edge of RapidEye data to assess the stress degree of the vegetation.

  18. Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air at Four Residential Locations in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ho, Duy Xuan; Park, Chan Goo; Ma, Chang-Jin; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Lee, Sung Chun; Jeong, Ho Jin; Lee, Soon Hee

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the environmental behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban areas, their concentrations were measured at four urban monitoring sites (namely, N, S, E, and W) in Seoul, Korea (February to December 2009). A total of 27 compounds were quantified that consist of four chemical groups: aromatic (AR), halogenated aromatic, halogenated paraffin, and halogenated olefin. Results were evaluated by focusing on these four functional groups just mentioned and their summation term as total VOC (TVOC) along with several individual species (mainly AR species, that is, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene). The highest concentration of chemical groups was found from AR (71.1±42.1 ppbC), while that for individual species confirmed the dominance of toluene (7.48±3.88 ppb). The analysis of spatial distribution indicated that high TVOC levels were recorded at sites N and W, while it was not so significant such as S and E in terms of TVOC budget. Seasonal variation of these VOCs was characterized by the peak values in December to reflect the combined effects of pronounced source activities and meteorological conditions. Analysis of spatial variations in VOC levels between the four urban sites indicated that their distributions are tightly affected by local source processes in each area. PMID:22969269

  19. Assessment of radiation exposure from cesium-137 contaminated roads for epidemiological studies in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Keun; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik; Yim, Sang-Hyuk; Yoo, Sang-Chul; Lee, Jieon; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Burm, Eunae; Ha, Mina

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the radiation exposure for epidemiologic investigation in residents exposed to radiation from roads that were accidentally found to be contaminated with radioactive cesium-137 ((137)Cs) in Seoul. Using information regarding the frequency and duration of passing via the (137)Cs contaminated roads or residing/working near the roads from the questionnaires that were obtained from 8875 residents and the measured radiation doses reported by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, we calculated the total cumulative dose of radiation exposure for each person. Sixty-three percent of the residents who responded to the questionnaire were considered as ever-exposed and 1% of them had a total cumulative dose of more than 10 mSv. The mean (minimum, maximum) duration of radiation exposure was 4.75 years (0.08, 11.98) and the geometric mean (minimum, maximum) of the total cumulative dose was 0.049 mSv (<0.001, 35.35) in the exposed. An individual exposure assessment was performed for an epidemiological study to estimate the health risk among residents living in the vicinity of (137)Cs contaminated roads. The average exposure dose in the exposed people was less than 5% of the current guideline.

  20. Diurnal variation of on-road air pollution in an urban street canyon in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Woo, Sung; Lee, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Sunwoo, Young; Ma, Young-Il; Han, Dokyoung; Song, Sanghoo

    2014-05-01

    Motor vehicles are a major source of CO, NOx and particulate matters. Especially, in the surroundings of high-raised buildings, so-called an urban street canyon, air pollution levels increase due to limited dispersion of vehicle emissions. In this study, a mobile laboratory was used to measure diurnal variation of on-road concentrations of air pollutants such as NOx, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon and particle number in the urban street canyon on the Teheran road with eight lanes in Seoul, Korea from 5th to 8th November 2013. Each traveling distance was about 3.3km. Traveling vehicle at the middle of the Teheran road was recorded by video camera, and then the car counting by vehicle types. On road measurements conducted for 3~6 hours per day. Hourly average of air pollutant concentration in morning rush hour more than two times higher than those at the daybreak. We will analyze the correlation between air pollution levels and traffic volume by vehicle types. We will discuss about spatial characteristics of on-road air pollution levels in the urban street canyon.

  1. Changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area Urban Heat Environment with Residential Redevelopment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Je-Woo; Hong, Jinkyu

    2016-04-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the geographical extent of cities has increased around the world. In particular, following three decades of rapid regional economic growth, many Asian megacities have emerged and continue to expand. Short-term urban redevelopment is, therefore, inevitable. However, in this region the microclimatic impacts of urban redevelopment have not been extensively investigated using long-term in-situ observations. In this study, changes in surface sensible heat exchange, heat storage, and anthropogenic heat emissions due to urban residential redevelopment were quantified and analyzed based on a three-year micrometeorological record from the Seoul metropolitan area. The results show that following urban redevelopment of compact high-rise residential buildings, 1) the daily minimum air temperature near the ground surface increased by ˜0.6 K; 2) the ratio between surface sensible heat and net radiation increased by ˜ 9% (summer) to 31% (winter), anthropogenic heat emissions increased by 12 Wm-2 (spring) to 26 Wm-2 (summer), and daily maximum heat storage ranged by 35 Wm-2 (spring) to 55 Wm-2 (summer), and; 3) there was a transition of local circulation with changes in the surface properties of heat sources and roughness.

  2. Daily variation of organic aerosol concentration and composition in Seoul, Korea during KORUS pre-campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, H. J.; Lee, J.; Choi, A. Y.; Park, S. M.; Park, J. S.; Song, I. H.; Hong, Y. D.

    2015-12-01

    Daily variation of Organic Aerosol (OA) as well as organic tracer compounds have been observed in aerosol samples collected during KORUS-AQ (Korea-US Air Quality Study) pre-campaign (From May 18 to June 12) in Seoul, Korea. NR-PM1 bounded OA was measured by HR-TOF-AMS (Aerodyne) and the temporal variation, composition of OA by family group characterization, and oxidation state of OA was studied. And to distinguish the source characteristics (such as HOA, COA, NOA, SV-OOA, LV-OOA, etc…) of the organic, AMS-PMF model will be used.For the observation of organic tracer compounds, solvent extractable fractions were analyzed by GC-MS. More than 80 organic compounds were detected in the aerosol samples and grouped by source characterized classes, including vehicular emission tracers, biomass burning tracers, coal emission tracers, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers. The main objective of this study is evaluation of the validity of OA fractionation based on the AMS measurement. So, we will compare daily variation of OA composition measured by AMS with daily variation of organic tracer compounds. Further, we will specify source characteristics estimated using AMS-PMF model by comparing the results of source apportionment of OA using PMF of organic tracer compounds.

  3. Impact of future urban growth on regional climate changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsu; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-11-15

    The influence of changes in future urban growth (e.g., land use changes) on the future climate variability in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), Korea was evaluated using the WRF model and an urban growth model (SLEUTH). The land use changes in the study area were simulated using the SLEUTH model under three different urban growth scenarios: (1) current development trends scenario (SC 1), (2) managed development scenario (SC 2) and (3) ecological development scenario (SC 3). The maximum difference in the ratio of urban growth between SC 1 and SC 3 (SC 1 - SC 3) for 50years (2000-2050) was approximately 6.72%, leading to the largest differences (0.01°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively) in the mean air temperature at 2m (T2) and wind speed at 10m (WS10). From WRF-SLEUTH modeling, the effects of future urban growth (or future land use changes) in the SMA are expected to result in increases in the spatial mean T2 and WS10 of up to 1.15°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively, possibly due to thermal circulation caused by the thermal differences between urban and rural regions.

  4. Responses of two invasive plants under various microclimate conditions in the Seoul metropolitan region.

    PubMed

    Song, Uhram; Mun, Saeromi; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, Eun Ju

    2012-06-01

    The possible consequences of global warming on plant communities and ecosystems have wide-ranging ramifications. We examined how environmental change affects plant growth as a function of the variations in the microclimate along an urban-suburban climate gradient for two allergy-inducing, invasive plants, Humulus japonicus and Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior. The environmental factors and plant growth responses were measured at two urban sites (Gangbuk and Seongbuk) and two suburban sites (Goyang and Incheon) around Seoul, South Korea. The mean temperatures and CO(2) concentrations differed significantly between the urban (14.8 °C and 439 ppm CO(2)) and suburban (13.0 °C and 427 ppm CO(2)) sites. The soil moisture and nitrogen contents of the suburban sites were higher than those at the urban sites, especially for the Goyang site. The two invasive plants showed significantly higher biomasses and nitrogen contents at the two urban sites. We conducted experiments in a greenhouse to confirm the responses of the plants to increased temperatures, and we found consistently higher growth rates under conditions of higher temperatures. Because we controlled the other factors, the better performance of the two invasive plants appears to be primarily attributable to their responses to temperature. Our study demonstrates that even small temperature changes in the environment can confer significant competitive advantages to invasive species. As habitats become urbanized and warmer, these invasive plants should be able to displace native species, which will adversely affect people living in these areas.

  5. Inferring the Chemical Composition of Columnar Aerosols from AERONET Data Downwind of Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Ghim, Y. S.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are complex mixtures of numerous chemical species which reflect the diversity of process mechanisms and emission sources. Many efforts have been devoted to obtain quantitative aerosol chemical information using the data from ground-based optical measurement network, e.g., AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork). The data include complex refractive indices which depend on aerosol chemical composition. To infer the aerosol chemical composition, it is necessary to assume a mixing rule to explain the existence of chemical species within aerosols. In this study, we assumed the Maxwell-Garnett mixing rule for selected aerosol components including black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), mineral dust (MD) embedded in the homogeneous host. The volume average mixing rule was assumed for the host consisting of water and ammonium sulfate. A CIMEL sunphotometer was operated at Hankuk_UFS (Hankuk University of Foreign Studies; 37.34° N, 127.27° E, 167 m above sea level) located about 35 km southeast of Seoul. We also measured inorganic ions using the Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler at intervals of 25 minutes during intensive measurement periods and BC using the Multiangle Absorption Photometer at intervals of 10 minutes throughout the study period. Filter sampling was also conducted on a daily basis for measuring the concentrations of major components. Concentrations of chemical components of columnar aerosols estimated from AERONET data were compared with those measured at the surface.

  6. Speciation and source identification of organic compounds in PM₁₀ over Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Na Rae; Lee, Se Pyo; Lee, Ji Yi; Jung, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2016-02-01

    Seventy three individual organic compounds in the atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to a nominal 10 μm (PM10) over Seoul were identified and quantified from April 2010 to April 2011 using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These organic compounds were classified into five groups, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-carboxylic acids, di-carboxylic acids (DCAs), and sugars based on their chemical structures and properties. The organic compounds showed higher seasonal average concentrations from fall to winter than from spring to summer due to source strength, except some organic compounds among mono-carboxylic acids, DCAs, sugars such as undecanoic acid, methylmalonic acid, and fructose. Through qualitative data analysis using seasonal concentration variations and relevant diagnostic parameters, it was found that (1) anthropogenic sources such as combustion of fossil fuel and biomass burning attributed more to the formation of the organic aerosols than biogenic sources, and (2) the ambient level of n-alkanes, PAHs, and some compounds of DCAs and sugars was elevated in winter due to the increased primary emissions and larger transport from outside of the organic compounds in winter.

  7. Discovery, understanding, and bioapplication of organic fluorophore: a case study with an indolizine-based novel fluorophore, Seoul-Fluor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Lee, Youngjun; Lee, Sanghee; Park, Seung Bum

    2015-03-17

    Owing to its high sensitivity and great applicability, the fluorescence phenomenon has been considered as an inevitable research tool in the modern scientific fields of chemistry, biology, materials science, biomedical science, and their interfaces. Many strategies have been pursued to understand and manipulate the photophysical properties of fluorescent materials, but the scientific community has been focused on the repeated application of existing organic fluorophores or the identification of unique fluorescence properties in a trial-and-error basis without systematic studies. Moreover, recent studies are emphasizing the necessity of deeper understanding about the structure-photophysical property relationship of organic fluorophores for the development of better fluorescent probes. Herein, we provide an overview of a novel fluorescent molecular framework, Seoul-Fluor, which can be rationally engineered to furnish a wide variety of fluorophores in terms of the photophysical properties. Seoul-Fluor is built on an indolizine-based fluorescent platform with three different positions to introduce various substituents: R(1) and R(2) substituents for electronic perturbation; R(3) substituent as a functional handle for bioconjugation. Over the past decade, we have demonstrated that the Seoul-Fluor system has (i) tunable and predictable emission wavelength covering a full visible-color range; (ii) controllable quantum yield via photoinduced electron transfer phenomenon; and (iii) environment-sensitive fluorogenic properties that can be modified through intramolecular charge transfer processes. We convincingly demonstrated the prediction of photophysical properties, that is, emission wavelength and quantum yield, through the construction of a systematic set of analogues and the subsequent analysis of their photophysical properties without the highly sophisticated theoretical support. Guided by quantifiable parameters such as the Hammett substituent constants or energy

  8. Analysis of aerosol optical properties over Korea during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul campaign using AERONET and GOCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; KIM, M.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate aerosol characteristics over East Asia, many campaigns using in-situ measurements, ground and satellite based remote sensing, and air quality modeling have been conducted as ACE-Asia in 2001, ABC-EAREX in 2005, and DRAGON-NE Asia in 2012, and planned KORUS-AQ in 2016. Planned KORUS-AQ 2016 campaigns provides excellent opportunity to monitor and analyze air quality including aerosol and trace gases from diverse platform including ground-based, airborne, shipborne and satellite platform. Prior to the upcoming KORUS-AQ campaign, the Megacity Air Pollution Studies (MAPS)-Seoul campaign was held from May 18 to June14, 2015. During the campaign, total 8 AERONET sunphotometers are deployed over Korea. GOCI Yonsei aerosol retrieval (YAER) algorithm was developed, improved and evaluated through the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. GOCI YAER AOD at 550 nm with spatial resolution of 6 km showed good agreement with AERONET AOD (R > 0.88) during the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. In this study, aerosol optical properties from AERONET and GOCI are analyzed together during the MAPS-Seoul campaign. Mean AERONET AOD at 550 nm over a megacity site, Seoul and a coastal site Gosan shows the lowest values in 2015 as 0.338 and 0.214, respectively, compared with values during the same period from 2011 to 2014 (0.557-0.645 at Seoul, and 0.447-0.618 at Gosan). GOCI YAER algorithm uses the minimum reflectivity technique from the composited Rayleigh-corrected reflectance during a month thus low AOD increase a possibility to find clear pixels to obtain accurate surface reflectance. To improve surface reflectance quality, multi-year GOCI data are also analyzed. Furthermore higher spatial resolution retrieval in 3 km is tested to detect small-scale aerosol features and point sources in megacities. DRAGON-NE Asia in 2012, MAPS-Seoul in 2015, and planned KORUS-AQ in 2016 field campaigns contribute to the continuous assessment of GOCI YAER algorithm performance for the improvements.

  9. SPEECH PATHOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS--THEORY AND PRACTICE, REPORT OF THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE COLLEGE OF SPEECH THERAPISTS (GLASGOW, JULY 25-29, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    TWENTY ARTICLES AND ABSTRACTS ON THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF DIAGNOSIS ARE INCLUDED IN THIS REPORT OF THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE COLLEGE OF SPEECH THERAPISTS IN GLASGOW IN 1966. FOUR PAPERS ON STAMMERING CONSIDER TONGUE THRUSTING, THE NEUROSES INVOLVED, PROGNOSIS, AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS IN DISORDERS OF FLUENCY. OTHER ARTICLES DISCUSS AREAS…

  10. Medical careers in pathology, 1977.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, D N

    1979-01-01

    A survey has been made, mainly covering the second half of 1977, of career grade posts and senior training posts in pathology in the United Kingdom. The survey included all disciplines of pathology and all types of employment--National Health Service, medical school, and many others. The survey also examined the number of applicants for advertised posts and the number of posts left vacant. There were variations between disciplines and between regions; microbiology and Northern Ireland had most failures in filling posts. Overall about 3% of career grade posts, and 15% of training grade posts, were left unfilled. PMID:429573

  11. Guidelines for biomarker testing in metastatic melanoma: a National Consensus of the Spanish Society of Pathology and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Martín-Algarra, S; Fernández-Figueras, M T; López-Martín, J A; Santos-Briz, A; Arance, A; Lozano, M D; Berrocal, A; Ríos-Martín, J J; Espinosa, E; Rodríguez-Peralto, J L

    2014-04-01

    This consensus statement, conceived as a joint initiative of the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP) and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM), makes diagnostic and treatment recommendations for the management of patients with advanced or metastatic melanoma based on the current scientific evidence on biomarker use. This document thus provides an opportunity to improve healthcare efficiency and resource use, which will benefit these patients. Based on the data available so far, this expert group recommends routinely testing patients with metastatic melanoma for BRAF mutation status, as the result affects the subsequent therapeutic management of these patients. The analysis of genetic alterations in KIT may be reasonable in patients with primary tumours in acral or mucosal sites or on chronically sun-exposed skin, in an advanced condition, but not in patients with other types of melanomas. This panel believes that testing for other genetic alterations, such as NRAS mutation status in patients not carrying BRAF mutations, GNAQ/GNA11 mutational analysis or genetic alterations in PTEN, is not currently indicated as routine clinical practice, because the results do not influence treatment planning in these patients at the present time. Other important issues addressed in this document are the organisational requirements and quality controls needed for proper testing of these biomarkers, and the legal implications to be borne in mind.

  12. Guidelines for biomarker testing in colorectal carcinoma (CRC): a national consensus of the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP) and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM).

    PubMed

    García-Alfonso, Pilar; Salazar, Ramón; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Musulén, Eva; García-Carbonero, Rocío; Payá, Artemio; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago; Navarro, Samuel

    2012-10-01

    This consensus statement, conceived as a joint initiative of the Spanish Society of Pathology and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology, makes diagnostic and treatment recommendations for the management of patients with hereditary, localised and advanced CRC based on the current scientific evidence on biomarker use. This consensus statement thus provides an opportunity to improve healthcare efficiency and resource use, which will benefit these patients. Based on the currently available data on this subject, this expert group recommends testing for microsatellite instability (MSI) in patients with localised CRC, as this is a strong predictive factor for deciding on adjuvant treatment. However, although the ColoPrint(®) and Oncotype Dx(®) gene expression signatures have been shown to have prognostic value, no consensus yet exists concerning their use in clinical practice. For advanced CRC, it is essential to test for KRAS mutation status before administering an anti-EGFR treatment, such as cetuximab or panitumumab. However, testing for other biomarkers, such as BRAF, EGFR, PI3K and PTEN mutations, should not be done routinely, because this does not influence treatment planning at the present time. Other important issues addressed include organisational requirements and the quality controls needed for proper testing of these biomarkers as well as the legal implications to be borne in mind when testing some biomarkers.

  13. Forensic Pathology Education in Pathology Residency

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Wayne K.; Domen, Ronald E.

    2017-01-01

    Forensic pathology is a fundamental part of anatomic pathology training during pathology residency. However, the lack of information on forensic teaching suggests the highly variable nature of forensic education. A survey of pathology residency program directors was performed to determine key aspects of their respective forensic rotations and curriculum. A total of 38.3% of programs from across the country responded, and the survey results show 5.6% don’t require a forensic pathology rotation. In those that do, most forensic pathology rotations are 4 weeks long, are done at a medical examiner’s office, and require set prerequisites. A total of 21.1% of responding programs have residents who are not receiving documented evaluations for this rotation. While 39.6% of programs have a defined forensics curriculum, as many as 15% do not. Furthermore, nearly 43% of programs place no limit on counting forensic autopsies when applying for pathology board examinations. Our survey confirmed the inconsistent nature of forensic pathology training in resident education. Additionally, our curriculum was reorganized to create a more robust educational experience. A pre- and post-forensic lecture quiz and Resident In-Service Examination scores were analyzed to determine our curriculum’s impact and effectiveness. Analysis of our pre- and post-lecture quiz showed an improved overall average as well as an increase in Resident In-Service Examination scores, indicating improved general forensic pathology knowledge. Using this knowledge, along with changes in our curriculum, we generated a number of recommendations for improving forensic pathology education in pathology residency. PMID:28913415

  14. Effects of land-use type on urban groundwater quality, Seoul metropolitan city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Yun, S.; Chae, G.; So, C.; Kweon, S.; Lee, P.

    2001-12-01

    The progressive degradation of urban groundwater becomes an important environmental problem encountered in South Korea. This study aims to examine the relationships between land-use type and groundwater quality in Seoul metropolitan city, based on the results of hydrogeochemical monitoring. For this purpose, land-use type was divided into five categories (green zone, housing, agricultural, traffic, and industrialized). The mean concentrations of TDS (total dissolved solids) effectively reflect the degree of anthropogenic contamination and increase in the following order: green zone (152.5 mg/l), then agricultural (380.7 mg/l) and housing (384.2 mg/l), then traffic (457.0 mg/l), and finally industrialized area (554.5 mg/l). Among major dissolved solutes, the concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, HCO3, and Cl increase with increasing TDS. In case of Na and Ca, de-icing salts and sewage are considered as major contamination sources. The corrosion of cements may also increase Ca. Nitrate concentration is characteristically very high in housing and agricultural areas, reflecting the severe contamination from domestic sewage and fertilizer. Sulfate and magnesium are enriched in industrialized area, possibly due to their derivation from industrial facilities. Chlorine ion is considered to be derived from de-chlorination of hydrocarbons as well as de-icing salts. Bicarbonate also increases with increasing TDS, for which cement dissolution and oxidation of organics are considered as source materials. However, enhanced water-rock(or construction materials) interaction also may increase the bicarbonate, because acidic wastewater in urban area is very corrosive. Trace metals and organic compounds generally does not show any distinct pattern of regional variation. However, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn, TCE, and PCE tend to increase locally in industrialized area, whereas high concentrations of Br, Ni, and Cu are found in traffic area. The groundwaters with very high concentrations of Fe, Zn, and

  15. Migration of Norway rats resulted in the worldwide distribution of Seoul hantavirus today.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Wang, Wen; Zou, Yang; Hao, Zong-Yu; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Dong, Xue; Qu, Yong-Gang; Li, Ming-Hui; Tian, Hai-Feng; Wen, Jian-Fan; Plyusnin, Alexander; Xu, Jianguo; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Despite the worldwide distribution, most of the known Seoul viruses (SEOV) are closely related to each other. In this study, the M and the S segment sequences of SEOV were recovered from 130 lung tissue samples (mostly of Norway rats) and from six patient serum samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Genetic analysis revealed that all sequences belong to SEOV and represent 136 novel strains. Phylogenetic analysis of all available M and S segment sequences of SEOV, including 136 novel Chinese strains, revealed four distinct groups. All non-Chinese SEOV strains and most of the Chinese variants fell into the phylogroup A, while the Chinese strains originating from mountainous areas clustered into three other distinct groups (B, C, and D). We estimated that phylogroup A viruses may have arisen only within the last several centuries. All non-Chinese variants appeared to be directly originated from China. Thus, phylogroup A viruses distributed worldwide may share a recent ancestor, whereas SEOV seems to be as diversified genetically as other hantaviruses. In addition, all available mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of Norway rats, including our 44 newly recovered mtDNA sequences, were divided into two phylogenetic groups. The first group, which is associated with the group A SEOV variants, included most of rats from China and also all non-Chinese rats, while the second group consisted of a few rats originating only from mountain areas in China. We hypothesize that an ancestor of phylogroup A SEOV variants was first exported from China to Europe and then spread through the New World following the migration of Norway rats.

  16. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater, Seoul, Korea: the impact of subway tunnels on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Yu, Soon-Young; Jo, Ho-Young; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Yun-Jong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2008-10-23

    Hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data for subway tunnel seepage waters in Seoul (Republic of Korea) were examined to understand the effect of underground tunnels on the degradation of urban groundwater. A very large quantity of groundwater (up to 63 million m3 year(-1)) is discharged into subway tunnels with a total length of 287 km, resulting in a significant drop of the local groundwater table and the abandonment of groundwater wells. For the tunnel seepage water samples (n = 72) collected from 43 subway stations, at least one parameter among pathogenic microbes (total coliform, heterotrophic bacteria), dissolved Mn and Fe, NH4+, NO3(-), turbidity, and color exceeded the Korean Drinking Water Standards. Locally, tunnel seepage water was enriched in dissolved Mn (avg. 0.70 mg L(-1), max. 5.58 mg L(-1)), in addition to dissolved Fe, NH4+, and pathogenic microbes, likely due to significant inflow of sewage water from broken or leaking sewer pipes. Geochemical modeling of redox reactions was conducted to simulate the characteristic hydrochemistry of subway tunnel seepage. The results show that variations in the reducing conditions occur in urban groundwater, dependent upon the amount of organic matter-rich municipal sewage contaminating the aquifer. The organic matter facilitates the reduction and dissolution of Mn- and Fe-bearing solids in aquifers and/or tunnel construction materials, resulting in the successive increase of dissolved Mn and Fe. The present study clearly demonstrates that locally significant deterioration of urban groundwater is caused by a series of interlinked hydrogeologic and hydrochemical changes induced by underground tunnels.

  17. Instant noodle consumption is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Huh, In Sil; Kim, Hyesook; Jo, Hee Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Jong Seung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwon, Oran

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Increased consumption of instant noodles has recently been reported to be positively associated with obesity and cardiometabolic syndrome in South Korea, which has the highest per capita instant noodle consumption worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the association between instant noodle consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study subjects consisted of 3,397 college students (1,782 male; 1,615 female) aged 18-29 years who participated in a health checkup. Information on instant noodle consumption was obtained from the participants' answers to a question about their average frequency of instant noodle intake over the 1 year period prior to the survey. RESULTS Statistical analysis using a general linear model that adjusted for age, body mass index, gender, family income, health-related behaviors, and other dietary factors important for cardiometabolic risk, showed a positive association between the frequency of instant noodle consumption and plasma triglyceride levels, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels in all subjects. Compared to the group with the lowest frequency of instant noodle intake (≤ 1/month), the odds ratio for hypertriglyceridemia in the group with an intake of ≥ 3/week was 2.639 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.393–5.000] for all subjects, while it was 2.149 (95% CI, 1.045–4.419) and 5.992 (95% CI, 1.859–21.824) for male and female students, respectively. In female students, diastolic blood pressure was also higher among more frequent consumers of instant noodles. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that frequent consumption of instant noodles may be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk factors among apparently healthy college students aged 18–29 years. PMID:28584580

  18. Instant noodle consumption is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Huh, In Sil; Kim, Hyesook; Jo, Hee Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Jong Seung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwon, Oran; Oh, Bumjo; Chang, Namsoo

    2017-06-01

    Increased consumption of instant noodles has recently been reported to be positively associated with obesity and cardiometabolic syndrome in South Korea, which has the highest per capita instant noodle consumption worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the association between instant noodle consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul. The study subjects consisted of 3,397 college students (1,782 male; 1,615 female) aged 18-29 years who participated in a health checkup. Information on instant noodle consumption was obtained from the participants' answers to a question about their average frequency of instant noodle intake over the 1 year period prior to the survey. Statistical analysis using a general linear model that adjusted for age, body mass index, gender, family income, health-related behaviors, and other dietary factors important for cardiometabolic risk, showed a positive association between the frequency of instant noodle consumption and plasma triglyceride levels, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels in all subjects. Compared to the group with the lowest frequency of instant noodle intake (≤ 1/month), the odds ratio for hypertriglyceridemia in the group with an intake of ≥ 3/week was 2.639 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.393-5.000] for all subjects, while it was 2.149 (95% CI, 1.045-4.419) and 5.992 (95% CI, 1.859-21.824) for male and female students, respectively. In female students, diastolic blood pressure was also higher among more frequent consumers of instant noodles. Our results suggest that frequent consumption of instant noodles may be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk factors among apparently healthy college students aged 18-29 years.

  19. Effect of changes in season and temperature on mortality associated with air pollution in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Ae Kyung; Hong, Yun Chul; Kim, Ho

    2011-04-01

    Global warming has increased concern about the synergistic or interactive effects of temperature and air pollution on human health. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of changes in season and temperature on mortality associated with air pollution in Seoul, Korea, from June 1999 to December 2007. We used Poisson regression models with natural cubic splines. The effect of modifications was explored with two models: a time-varying coefficient model and a temperature-stratified model. In the summer season with high temperatures, we observed a considerable increase in the association between mortality and air pollution. The elevated risk was pronounced particularly in the effect of SO₂, and the increase of RR on non-accidental mortality was 0.83% (95% CI 0.42 to 1.25) at high temperatures (≥ 26.2°C) whereas the overall estimate was 0.21% (95% CI 0.07 to 0.36) per 0.5 ppb increment of SO₂. Those aged 65 y and over generally showed a higher risk of mortality. At extremely high temperature, the age group 85 y and older was especially vulnerable to air pollution. In a two-pollutant model, the significant effect of SO₂ at high temperatures (≥ 26.2°C) was not confounded by adjusting for other pollutants and the effect of CO at temperatures of 19.1-26.2°C remained largely unchanged by adjusting for other pollutants. The dominant adverse effect of SO₂ at high temperatures might be explained by an increase in concentration of sulfates by enhanced photochemical reaction, whereas at milder temperatures without vigorous photochemical activity the effect of CO may predominate in increasing mortality. Season and temperature strongly modified the adverse effect of air pollution, which implicates that an increase in the number of hot summer days by global warming may alter the health effects of air pollution.

  20. Estimation of inhaled airborne particle number concentration by subway users in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minhae; Park, Sechan; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Kwon, Soon-Bark

    2017-08-25

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) causes several diseases in the human body. The smaller particles, which have relatively large surface areas, are actually more harmful to the human body since they can penetrate deeper parts of the lungs or become secondary pollutants by bonding with other atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides. The purpose of this study is to present the number of PM inhaled by subway users as a possible reference material for any analysis of the hazards to the human body arising from the inhalation of such PM. Two transfer stations in Seoul, Korea, which have the greatest number of users, were selected for this study. For 0.3-0.422 μm PM, particle number concentration (PNC) was highest outdoors but decreased as the tester moved deeper underground. On the other hand, the PNC between 1 and 10 μm increased as the tester moved deeper underground and showed a high number concentration inside the subway train as well. An analysis of the particles to which subway users are actually exposed to (inhaled particle number), using particle concentration at each measurement location, the average inhalation rate of an adult, and the average stay time at each location, all showed that particles sized 0.01-0.422 μm are mostly inhaled from the outdoor air whereas particles sized 1-10 μm are inhaled as the passengers move deeper underground. Based on these findings, we expect that the inhaled particle number of subway users can be used as reference data for an evaluation of the hazards to health caused by PM inhalation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporal and Spatial Variations in Fine and Coarse Particles in Seoul, Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Ghim, Young Sung; Chang, Young-Soo; Jung, Kweon

    2015-06-01

    Concentrations of fine (PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM10 -2.5), whose diameters are less 2.5 µm, and between 2.5 and 10 µm, respectively, at ambient air monitoring stations in Seoul between 2002 and 2008 were analyzed. Effects of Asian dust are mainly manifested as concentration spikes of PM10 - 2.5 but were considerable on PM2.5 levels in 2002 when Asian dust storms were the strongest. Excluding the effects of Asian dust, annual average PM2.5 showed a downward trend. Despite a similarity in year - to - year variations, PM10- 2.5, mostly affected by fugitive dust emissions, and CO and NO2, primarily affected by motor vehicle emissions, did not show a decrease. PM2.5 along with CO and NO2 had the highest values during the morning rush hour. PM10 - 2.5 peak lagged about one hour behind that of PM2.5 because of fugitive dust emissions despite an increasing mixing height. On high PM2.5 days, PM2. 5 peaks occurred two hours later than usual as the effects of secondary formation became more important. A test for the spatial variabilities shows that PM10 - 2.5, which is known to be greatly influenced by local effects, is lower in its correlation coeffic ient and higher in its coefficient of divergence (COD, which serves as an indicator for spatial variability) than PM2.5, albeit that the difference between the two is small. The average COD of PM2.5 among monitoring stations was about 0.2 but was lowered t o 0.13 when considering high PM2.5 days only, which signifies that spatial uniformity increases significantly.

  2. First molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sukyee; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the status of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was assessed in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea, with PCR and phylogenetic analyses. Nested PCR on 1058 collected blood samples revealed only one A. phagocytophilum positive sample (female, age <1year, mixed breed, collected from the north of the Han River). The genetic variability of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated by genotyping, using the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 gene sequences of the positive sample. BLASTn analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes had 99.6%, 99.9%, and 100% identity with the following sequences deposited in GenBank: a cat 16S rRNA sequence from Korea (KR021166), a rat groEL sequence from Korea (KT220194), and a water deer msp2 sequence from Korea (HM752099), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses classified the groEL gene into two distinct groups (serine and alanine), whereas the msp2 gene showed a general classification into two groups (USA and Europe) that were further subgrouped according to region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the molecular diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reared in Korea. In addition, the high genetic identity of the 16S rRNA and groEL sequences between humans and dogs from the same region suggests a possible epidemiological relation. Given the conditions of climate change, tick ecology, and recent incidence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Korea, the findings of this study underscore the need to establish appropriate control programs for tick-borne diseases in Korea.

  3. Heat-attributable deaths between 1992 and 2009 in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Clara T; Lim, Youn-Hee; Woodward, Alistair; Kim, Ho

    2015-01-01

    Climate change may significantly affect human health. The possible effects of high ambient temperature must be better understood, particularly in terms of certain diseases' sensitivity to heat (as reflected in relative risks [RR]) and the consequent disease burden (number or fraction of cases attributable to high temperatures), in order to manage the threat. This study investigated the number of deaths attributable to abnormally high ambient temperatures in Seoul, South Korea, for a wide range of diseases. The relationship between mortality and daily maximum temperature using a generalized linear model was analyzed. The threshold temperature was defined as the 90th percentile of maximum daily temperatures. Deaths were classified according to ICD-10 codes, and for each disease, the RR and attributable fractions were determined. Using these fractions, the total number of deaths attributable to daily maximum temperatures above the threshold value, from 1992 to 2009, was calculated. Data analyses were conducted in 2012-2013. Heat-attributable deaths accounted for 3,177 of the 271,633 deaths from all causes. Neurological (RR 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.11) and mental and behavioral disorders (RR 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07) had relatively high increases in the RR of mortality. The most heat-sensitive diseases (those with the highest RRs) were not the diseases that caused the largest number of deaths attributable to high temperatures. This study estimated RRs and deaths attributable to high ambient temperature for a wide variety of diseases. Prevention-related policies must account for both particular vulnerabilities (heat-sensitive diseases with high RRs) and the major causes of the heat mortality burden (common conditions less sensitive to high temperatures).

  4. Chemical compositions of subway particles in Seoul, Korea determined by a quantitative single particle analysis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sunni; Hwang, HeeJin; Park, YooMyung; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2008-12-15

    A novel single particle analytical technique, low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis, was applied to characterize seasonal subway samples collected at a subway station in Seoul, Korea. For all 8 samples collected twice in each season, 4 major types of subway particles, based on their chemical compositions, are significantly encountered: Fe-containing; soil-derived; carbonaceous; and secondary nitrate and/or sulfate particles. Fe-containing particles are generated indoors from wear processes at rail-wheel-brake interfaces while the others may be introduced mostly from the outdoor urban atmosphere. Fe-containing particles are the most frequently encountered with relative abundances in the range of 61-79%. In this study, it is shown that Fe-containing subway particles almost always exist either as partially or fully oxidized forms in underground subway microenvironments. Their relative abundances of Fe-containing particles increase as particle sizes decrease. Relative abundances of Fe-containing particles are higher in morning samples than in afternoon samples because of heavier train traffic in the morning. In the summertime samples, Fe-containing particles are the most abundantly encountered, whereas soil-derived and nitrate/sulfate particles are the least encountered, indicating the air-exchange between indoor and outdoor environments is limited in the summer, owing to the air-conditioning in the subway system. In our work, it was observed that the relative abundances of the particles of outdoor origin vary somewhat among seasonal samples to a lesser degree, reflecting that indoor emission sources predominate.

  5. Installation of platform screen doors and their impact on indoor air quality: Seoul subway trains.

    PubMed

    Son, Youn-Suk; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Lee, Hyung Joo; Ryu, In-Cheol; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2014-09-01

    In this study, variations of particulate matter (PM) concentrations in subway trains following installation of platform screen doors (PSDs) in the Seoul subway system were investigated. PM samples were collected in the trains on subway lines 1-8 before and after installation of PSDs. It was found that the mean PM10 concentration in the trains after PSDs installation increased significantly by 29.9% compared to that before installation. In particular, the increase of PM10 in line 6 was the highest at 103%. When the relationship between PM10 and PM2.5 was compared, coefficients of determination (r2) before and after PSDs installations were 0.696 and 0.169, respectively. This suggests that air mixing between the platform and the tunnel after PSDs installation was extremely restricted. In addition, the indoor/outdoor PM10 ratio following PSDs installation increased from 1.32 to 2.97 relative to the period with no installed PSDs. Furthermore, this study revealed that PM levels in subway trains increased significantly after all underground PSDs were put in use. Several potential factors were examined that could result in this PM increase, such as train ventilation systems, operational conditions, passenger volume, subway depth, and the length of underground segments. Implications: PM10 concentrations inside the subway trains increased after PSDs installation. This indicates that air quality in trains was very seriously impacted by PSDs. PM10 levels were also influenced by the tunnel depth and length of the underground segments. To prevent the adverse effect on human health by PM10 emitted from the tunnel, an applicable ventilation system to reduce PM10 is required inside trains and tunnels.

  6. Migration of Norway Rats Resulted in the Worldwide Distribution of Seoul Hantavirus Today

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Wang, Wen; Zou, Yang; Hao, Zong-Yu; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Dong, Xue; Qu, Yong-Gang; Li, Ming-Hui; Tian, Hai-Feng; Wen, Jian-Fan; Plyusnin, Alexander; Xu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Despite the worldwide distribution, most of the known Seoul viruses (SEOV) are closely related to each other. In this study, the M and the S segment sequences of SEOV were recovered from 130 lung tissue samples (mostly of Norway rats) and from six patient serum samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Genetic analysis revealed that all sequences belong to SEOV and represent 136 novel strains. Phylogenetic analysis of all available M and S segment sequences of SEOV, including 136 novel Chinese strains, revealed four distinct groups. All non-Chinese SEOV strains and most of the Chinese variants fell into the phylogroup A, while the Chinese strains originating from mountainous areas clustered into three other distinct groups (B, C, and D). We estimated that phylogroup A viruses may have arisen only within the last several centuries. All non-Chinese variants appeared to be directly originated from China. Thus, phylogroup A viruses distributed worldwide may share a recent ancestor, whereas SEOV seems to be as diversified genetically as other hantaviruses. In addition, all available mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of Norway rats, including our 44 newly recovered mtDNA sequences, were divided into two phylogenetic groups. The first group, which is associated with the group A SEOV variants, included most of rats from China and also all non-Chinese rats, while the second group consisted of a few rats originating only from mountain areas in China. We hypothesize that an ancestor of phylogroup A SEOV variants was first exported from China to Europe and then spread through the New World following the migration of Norway rats. PMID:22090114

  7. Association between district-level perceived safety and self-rated health: a multilevel study in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Choi, Jaesung; Park, Kisoo; Chung, Yeonseung; Park, Sangjo; Heo, Jongho

    2014-07-29

    Several studies have reported the relationship between residents' perceived neighbourhood safety and their health outcomes. However, those studies suffered from unreliability of neighbourhood safety measure and potential residual confounding related to crime rates. In this study, using multilevel analysis to account for the hierarchical structure of the data, we examined associations between district-level perceived safety and self-rated health after adjusting for potential confounders including the district-level crime rate. Cross-sectional study. We used the first wave of Seoul Welfare Panel Study, which has 7761 individuals from 3665 households in 25 administrative districts in Seoul, South Korea. District-level perceived safety was obtained by aggregating responses from the residents that are representative samples for each administrative district in Seoul. To examine an association between district-level safety and residents' self-rated health, we used mixed effect logistic regression. Our results showed that higher district-level perceived safety, an aggregated measure of district residents' responses towards neighbourhood safety, was significantly associated with poor self-rated health after controlling for sex, age, education level, job status, marital status and household income (OR=0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.97). Furthermore, this association was still robust when we additionally adjusted for the district-level crime rate (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.95). Our study highlights the importance of improving neighbourhood perceived safety to enhance residents' health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Updates of pathologic myopia.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Lai, Chi-Chun; Cheung, Chiu Ming Gemmy

    2016-05-01

    Complications from pathologic myopia are a major cause of visual impairment and blindness, especially in east Asia. The eyes with pathologic myopia may develop loss of the best-corrected vision due to various pathologies in the macula, peripheral retina and the optic nerve. Despite its importance, the definition of pathologic myopia has been inconsistent. The refractive error or axial length alone often does not adequately reflect the 'pathologic myopia'. Posterior staphyloma, which is a hallmark lesion of pathologic myopia, can occur also in non-highly myopic eyes. Recently a revised classification system for myopic maculopathy has been proposed to standardize the definition among epidemiological studies. In this META-PM (meta analyses of pathologic myopia) study classification, pathologic myopia was defined as the eyes having chorioretinal atrophy equal to or more severe than diffuse atrophy. In addition, the advent of new imaging technologies such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) has enabled the detailed observation of various pathologies specific to pathologic myopia. New therapeutic approaches including intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents and the advance of vitreoretinal surgeries have greatly improved the prognosis of patients with pathologic myopia. The purpose of this review article is to provide an update on topics related to the field of pathologic myopia, and to outline the remaining issues which need to be solved in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aerosol scattering properties measured by an integrating nephelometer in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, S.; Kim, J. H.; Cha, J.; Yum, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.

    2008-12-01

    The aerosol optical properties are known to have a significant impact on regional and global radiation budget and therefore climate change, and are a crucial factor to determine atmospheric visibility. As an effort to understand the influence of anthropogenic pollution aerosols, we analyzed the scattering coefficient (σsp) measured by an integrating nephelometer (TSI, model 3563) for the one year period of Feb. 2007 to Feb. 2008 in the highly populated city of Seoul, Korea and compared with total aerosol (CN) concentration and cloud condensations nuclei (CCN) concentration measured at the same location. Daily, weekly and seasonal statistics are calculated. Additionally, three Asian dust events that occurred during the measurement period were investigated in more detail. To reduce the humidity effect, only the cases when the instrument RH was less than 40% were selected for analysis. The daily mean σsp measured at 550 nm varied from 3.4±0.5 to 986.8±318.0 Mm-1. Seasonally σsp was the highest and the Ångström exponent calculated with the σsp for the three wavelengths (450, 550 and 700 nm) was the lowest in spring. Specifically, the Ångström exponent was significantly low during the Asian dust events. The mean diurnal variation of σsp showed different trends in weekdays and weekends; a primary and a secondary peak of σsp occurred at about 9 a.m. and 7 p.m., respectively, in weekdays, while only a single peak of σsp occurred at about 11 a.m. in weekends, 2 hours later than the time of the primary peak in weekdays. Despite different measurement principles, σsp tends to show similar time variation trend to the CN concentration but even more so to CCN concentrations. This may demonstrate that the aerosols that can act as CCN can also contribute to scattering. These aerosols can doubly contribute to the cooling effects directly by scattering the sunlight and indirectly by acting as CCN and making the cloud bright. Ammonium sulfate will be an excellent

  10. [Once again: theoretical pathology].

    PubMed

    Bleyl, U

    2010-07-01

    Theoretical pathology refers to the attempt to reintroduce methodical approaches from the humanities, philosophical logic and "gestalt philosophy" into medical research and pathology. Diseases, in particular disease entities and more complex polypathogenetic mechanisms of disease, have a "gestalt quality" due to the significance of their pathophysiologic coherence: they have a "gestalt". The Research group Theoretical Pathology at the Academy of Science in Heidelberg are credited with having revitalized the philosophical notion of "gestalt" for morphological and pathological diagnostics. Gestalt means interrelated schemes of pathophysiological significance in the mind of the diagnostician. In pathology, additive and associative diagnostic are simply not possible without considering the notion of synthetic entities in Kant's logic.

  11. Assessment for Single layer urban canopy model in WRF by the WISE observation data in Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hankyung; Min, Jae-sik; Jee, Joon-Bum; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Park, Jeong-Gyun

    2017-04-01

    The atmospheric flow and other meteorological elements within urban is quite influenced artificial factors such as buildings or asphalt pavement, and so on. In order to understand these urban effects, the Urban Canopy Model (UCM) in Weather Research Forecast (WRF) is employed to investigate complex physical characteristics in the urban area. The performance of single layer UCM in WRF is assessed by observation data of flux towers operated by the WISE during the year of 2016 in Seoul metropolitan area. WISE has installed flux towers in Seoul metropolitan area and generate observation data. In addition, the radiosonde data was generated to vertical observation by floating during 2016 WISE urban summer observation campaign. The comparison between numerical model results and observation of flux tower show that applying UCM is possible to simulate the change for latent heat flux similarly with observations on urban area. Also, the simulated temperature near the surface by UCM is good agreement with radiosonde observations. UCM employed in WRF shows realistic results in terms of temperature and surface heat flux, indicating thermodynamic treatment of UCM can enhance the skills of high resolution forecast model in urban area.

  12. Filling the gap between disaster preparedness and response networks of urban emergency management: Following the 2013 Seoul Floods.

    PubMed

    Song, Minsun; Jung, Kyujin

    2015-01-01

    To examine the gap between disaster preparedness and response networks following the 2013 Seoul Floods in which the rapid transmission of disaster information and resources was impeded by severe changes of interorganizational collaboration networks. This research uses the 2013 Seoul Emergency Management Survey data that were collected before and after the floods, and total 94 organizations involving in coping with the floods were analyzed in bootstrap independent-sample t-test and social network analysis through UCINET 6 and STATA 12. The findings show that despite the primary network form that is more hierarchical, horizontal collaboration has been relatively invigorated in actual response. Also, interorganizational collaboration networks for response operations seem to be more flexible grounded on improvisation to coping with unexpected victims and damages. Local organizations under urban emergency management are recommended to tightly build a strong commitment for joint response operations through full-size exercises at the metropolitan level before a catastrophic event. Also, interorganizational emergency management networks need to be restructured by reflecting the actual response networks to reduce collaboration risk during a disaster. This research presents a critical insight into inverse thinking of the view designing urban emergency management networks and provides original evidences for filling the gap between previously coordinated networks for disaster preparedness and practical response operations after a disaster.

  13. Wavelength dependence of Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo observed by skyradiometer in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Eck, Thomas F.; Lee, Yun Gon; Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Mijin; Jung, Ukkyo; Yoon, Jongmin; Mok, Jungbin; Cho, Hi-Ku

    2016-11-01

    Absorption and scattering characteristics of various aerosol events are investigated using 2-years of measurements from a skyradiometer at Yonsei University in Seoul, Korea. Both transported dust and anthropogenic aerosols are observed at distinct geo-location of Seoul, a megacity located a few thousand kilometers away from dust source regions in China. We focus on the wavelength dependence of Ångström exponent (AE) and single scattering albedo (SSA), showing the characteristics of regional aerosols. The correlation between spectral SSAs and AEs calculated using different wavelength pairs generally indicates relatively weak absorption of fine-mode aerosols (urban pollution and/or biomass burning) and strong absorption of coarse-mode aerosols (desert dust) at this location. AE ratio (AER), a ratio of AEs calculated using wavelength pair between shorter (340-675 nm) and longer wavelength pair (675-1020 nm) correlates differently with SSA according to the dominant size of local aerosols. Correlations between SSA and AER show strong absorption of aerosols for AER < 1.0 and weak absorption for AER > 2.0. Based on the seasonal pattern of wavelength dependence of AER and SSA, this correlation difference looks to reveal the separated characteristics of transported dust and anthropogenic particles from urban pollution respectively. The seasonal characteristics of AER and SSAs also show that the skyradiometer measurement with multiple wavelengths may be able to detect the water soluble brown carbon, one of the important secondary organic aerosols in the summertime atmospheric composition.

  14. Low consumption of fruits and dairy foods is associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults from outpatient clinics in and near Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Song, SuJin; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Soyoung; Shin, Sangah; Song, YoonJu; Baik, Hyun Wook; Joung, Hyojee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and food consumption by the presence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS Study subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from four outpatient clinics in and near the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea between 2006 and 2012. A total of 668 subjects (413 men and 255 women) aged ≥ 30 y were included in the final data analyses. For each subject, daily nutrient intake and food consumption were calculated using three days of dietary intake data obtained from a combination of 24-hour recalls and dietary records. To evaluate food consumption, mean number of servings consumed per day and percentages of recommended number of servings for six food groups were calculated. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The general linear model was performed to examine differences in nutrient intake and food consumption by sex and the presence of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for potential confounding variables. RESULTS Nutrient intake did not differ by the presence of metabolic syndrome in both men and women. Men with metabolic syndrome had lower consumption and percentage of the recommendation for fruits compared with those without metabolic syndrome (1.6 vs. 1.1 servings/day, P-value = 0.001; 63.5 vs. 49.5%, P-value = 0.013). Women with metabolic syndrome showed lower consumption and percentage of the recommendation for dairy foods than those without metabolic syndrome (0.8 vs. 0.5 servings/day, P-value = 0.001; 78.6 vs. 48.9%, P-value = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Low intakes of fruits and dairy foods might be associated with the risk of having metabolic syndrome among Korean adults. Dietary advice on increasing consumption of these foods is needed to prevent and attenuate the risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26425287

  15. Regional contributions to particulate matter concentration in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea: seasonal variation and sensitivity to meteorology and emissions inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Eunhye; Bae, Changhan; Cho, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Soontae

    2017-09-01

    The impact of regional emissions (e.g., domestic and international) on surface particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), South Korea, and its sensitivities to meteorology and emissions inventories are quantitatively estimated for 2014 using regional air quality modeling systems. Located on the downwind side of strong sources of anthropogenic emissions, South Korea bears the full impact of the regional transport of pollutants and their precursors. However, the impact of foreign emissions sources has not yet been fully documented. We utilized two regional air quality simulation systems: (1) a Weather Research and Forecasting and Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system and (2) a United Kingdom Met Office Unified Model and CMAQ system. The following combinations of emissions inventories are used: the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B, the Inter-comparison Study for Asia 2010, and the National Institute of Environment Research Clean Air Policy Support System. Partial contributions of domestic and foreign emissions are estimated using a brute force approach, adjusting South Korean emissions to 50 %. Results show that foreign emissions contributed ˜ 60 % of SMA surface PM concentration in 2014. Estimated contributions display clear seasonal variation, with foreign emissions having a higher impact during the cold season (fall to spring), reaching ˜ 70 % in March, and making lower contributions in the summer, ˜ 45 % in September. We also found that simulated surface PM concentration is sensitive to meteorology, but estimated contributions are mostly consistent. Regional contributions are also found to be sensitive to the choice of emissions inventories.

  16. Analysis of Aerosol Distribution over North East Asia Using a Geostationary Satellite Measurement during Filed Campaigns of DRAGON-Asia 2012 and MAPS-Seoul 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Choi, M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J.; Ahn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Considering diverse source and high concentration of aerosol, numerous manners have been applied to detect aerosol properties in North East Asia (NEA). Above all, a geostationary orbit satellite, COMS has monitored atmosphere and ocean conditions over the NEA using two payloads of Meteorological Imager (MI) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) since 2010. By using the MI measurements, an AOD retrieval algorithm was developed (Kim et al., 2014). Additionally, a number of ground-based network such as Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Sky Radiometer Network (SKYNET), and Mie-scattering Light Detector and Ranging (LIDAR) Network have been in operation to capture aerosol variability. And, occasionally, field campaigns were conducted. In 2012 (March to May), the DRAGON-Asia campaign was performed by AERONET science team and NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), and 40 sun/sky-radiometer was deployed. Subsequently, MAPS-Seoul campaign for detecting air quality was performed with 8 AERONET sites and 6 Pandora instruments in Korea. Those ground-based measurements provide validation dataset for satellite retrieval algorithm, as well as detect detail of aerosol characteristics at each local point. Thus, in this study, the AODs obtained from the aforementioned campaigns were applied to assess and improve the accuracy of MI AOD. For the DRAGON-Asia 2012, the comparison between MI AOD and AERONET AOD shows correlation coefficient of 0.85, regression slope of 1.00 and RMSE of 0.18. Furthermore, AOPs obtained from those field campaign results and the MI AOD were analyzed to understand temporal and spatial variance of aerosol in NEA during spring.

  17. Current Status of Pathologic Examinations in Korea, 2011–2015, Based on the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Sun-ju

    2017-01-01

    Background Pathologic examinations play an important role in medical services. Until recently, the overall status of pathologic examinations in Korea has not been identified. I conducted a nationwide survey of pathologic examination status using the insurance reimbursements (IRs) dataset from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). The aims of this study were to estimate current pathologic examination status in Korea and to provide information for future resource arrangement in the pathology area. Methods I asked HIRA to provide data on IR requests, including pathologic examinations from 2011 to 2015. Pathologic examination status was investigated according to the following categories: annual statistics, requesting department, type of medical institution, administrative district, and location at which pathologic examinations were performed. Results Histologic mapping, immunohistochemistry, and cervicovaginal examinations have increased in the last 5 years. Internal medicine, general surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, and urology were the most common medical departments requesting pathologic examinations. The majority of pathologic examinations were frequently performed in tertiary hospitals. About 60.3% of pathologic examinations were requested in medical institutions located in Seoul, Gyeonggi-do, and Busan. More than half of the biopsies and aspiration cytologic examinations were performed using outside services. The mean period between IR requests and 99 percentile IR request completion inspections was 6.2 months. Conclusions This survey was based on the HIRA dataset, which is one of the largest medical datasets in Korea. The trends of some pathologic examinations were reflected in the policies and needs for detailed diagnosis. The numbers and proportions of pathologic examinations were correlated with the population and medical institutions of the area, as well as patient preference. These data will be helpful for future resource arrangement in

  18. Handheld computing in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  19. Digital imaging in pathology.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung; Pantanowitz, Liron; Parwani, Anil Vasdev

    2012-12-01

    Advances in computing speed and power have made a pure digital work flow for pathology. New technologies such as whole slide imaging (WSI), multispectral image analysis, and algorithmic image searching seem poised to fundamentally change the way in which pathology is practiced. This article provides the practicing pathologist with a primer on digital imaging. Building on this primer, the current state of the art concerning digital imaging in pathology is described. Emphasis is placed on WSI and its ramifications, showing how it is useful in both anatomic (histology, cytopathology) and clinical (hematopathology) pathology. Future trends are also extrapolated.

  20. Pathology in Greece.

    PubMed

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  1. Chemical composition and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Seoul, Korea during 2012-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Junghwa; Kim, Sang-Woo; Mann Kim, Bong; Kim, Jin Young

    2017-04-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at a centrally located urban site of KIST (Korea Institute of Science and Technology) in Seoul, Korea, every day from October 2012 to September 2013. Sources were identified using Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model and two multivariate models. The averaged PM2.5 mass concentration was 41.5 ± 27.7 μg m-3, and seasonally averaged PM2.5 concentration was high in the following order: Winter (57.2 ± 32.7 μg m-3), spring (48.5 ± 27.6 μg m-3), fall (28.6 ± 10.5 μg m-3), and summer (22.7 ± 12.9 μg m-3). Secondary inorganic species and organic matter were the major chemical component occupying about 73.7% - 87.9% of PM2.5 mass concentration in all seasons. The maximum value of sulfate was 11.2 μg m-3in winter, however, the fraction of sulfate concentration was highest in summer (31.4%) due to the active photochemical reactivity. The maximum nitrate concentration was measured as 13.4 μg m-3in winter because the cooler temperature is the favorable condition for the formation of particulate nitrate. The highest concentrations of elemental carbon and soil were observed in fall and spring, which were caused by the frequent occurrence of biomass burning and Asian dust events, respectively. 7 sources were attributable to PM2.5 mass concentration in Seoul. The main sources were secondary sulfate (24.2%), secondary nitrate (27.3%), biomass burning (14.9%), and vehicle (8.9%). The contributions from other carbon source (5.5%), geological source (5.5%), and marine aerosol (0.8%) were relatively less than those of main sources. Compared to the results from the previous study, contributions of secondary nitrate and vehicle were overestimated and underestimated, respectively, due to the limitation of source profiles used in this study. On the other hand, PM2.5 concentration in Seoul was highly affected by long-range transported pollution from northern China in January 2013. The contribution of other carbon source, which was the residual

  2. Opportunities in Speech Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Parley W.

    The importance of speech is discussed and speech pathology is described. Types of communication disorders considered are articulation disorders, aphasia, facial deformity, hearing loss, stuttering, delayed speech, voice disorders, and cerebral palsy; examples of five disorders are given. Speech pathology is investigated from these aspects: the…

  3. Radiographic pathology for technologists

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, J.D.; Kowalczyk, N.

    1988-01-01

    This book explains the fundamentals of disease mechanisms and relates this to the practice of radiologic science. Each chapter begins with a discussion of normal anatomy and physiology, then covers pathology and demonstrates how the pathology appears on film. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound are also discussed. Clinical case studies are included.

  4. Pathology annual. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fechner, R.E.; Rosen, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies.

  5. Spatial variation of contaminant elements of roadside dust samples from Budapest (Hungary) and Seoul (Republic of Korea), including Pt, Pd and Ir.

    PubMed

    Sager, Manfred; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Marton, Laszlo

    2015-02-01

    Roadside dusts were studied to explain the spatial variation and present levels of contaminant elements including Pt, Pd and Ir in urban environment and around Budapest (Hungary) and Seoul (Republic of Korea). The samples were collected from six sites of high traffic volumes in Seoul metropolitan city and from two control sites within the suburbs of Seoul, for comparison. Similarly, road dust samples were obtained two times from traffic focal points in Budapest, from the large bridges across the River Danube, from Margitsziget (an island in the Danube in the northern part of Budapest, used for recreation) as well as from main roads (no highways) outside Budapest. The samples were analysed for contaminant elements by ICP-AES and for Pt, Pd and Ir by ICP-MS. The highest Pt, Pd and Ir levels in road dusts were found from major roads with high traffic volume, but correlations with other contaminant elements were low, however. This reflects automobile catalytic converter to be an important source. To interpret the obtained multi-element results in short, pollution index, contamination index and geo-accumulation index were calculated. Finally, the obtained data were compared with total concentrations encountered in dust samples from Madrid, Oslo, Tokyo and Muscat (Oman). Dust samples from Seoul reached top level concentrations for Cd-Zn-As-Co-Cr-Cu-Mo-Ni-Sn. Just Pb was rather low because unleaded gasoline was introduced as compulsory in 1993. Concentrations in Budapest dust samples were lower than from Seoul, except for Pb and Mg. Compared with Madrid as another continental site, Budapest was higher in Co-V-Zn. Dust from Oslo, which is not so large, contained more Mn-Na-Sr than dust from other towns, but less other metals.

  6. Updates in ophthalmic pathology.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Pia R; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2017-05-01

    Ophthalmic pathology has a long history and rich heritage in the field of ophthalmology. This review article highlights updates in ophthalmic pathology that have developed significantly through the years because of the efforts of committed individuals and the confluence of technology such as molecular biology and digital pathology. This is an exciting period in the history of ocular pathology, with cutting-edge techniques paving the way for new developments in diagnostics, therapeutics, and research. Collaborations between ocular oncologists and pathologists allow for improved and comprehensive patient care. Ophthalmic pathology continues to be a relevant specialty that is important in the understanding and clinical management of ocular disease, education of eye care providers, and overall advancement of the field.

  7. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents’ weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents’ weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. PMID:25863424

  8. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stable isotope analysis of Joseon people skeletons from the cemeteries of Old Seoul City, the capital of Joseon Dynasty.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeong-A; Oh, Chang Seok; Hong, Jong Ha; Min, So Ri; Oh, Seugn Whan; Kim, Yi-Suk; Park, Jun Bum; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-12-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis reveals the diets of different human populations in history. In this study, we performed stable isotope analysis on human skeletons from Joseon-period cemeteries discovered around Old Seoul City (Hansung). Our data clearly showed that Joseon individuals consumed more C3-based than C4-based foods as the main staples, and that the proteins they ate were mainly of terrestrial, but not of marine origin. Stable isotope values exhibited unique patterns in each of our sample subgroups. Whereas the δ(13)C values did not show any statistical differences among the subgroups, significantly higher values of δ(15)N were found in males than in females, which might reflect dietary differences between the sexes. For a fuller understanding of the dietary patterns of pre-industrial (pre-20th century) Koreans, additional studies on Joseon samples from Korean archaeological sites will be necessary.

  10. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from cooling towers, public baths, hospitals, and fountains in Seoul, Korea, from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changkyu; Jeon, Sujin; Jung, Jihun; Oh, Younghee; Kim, Yeonsun; Lee, Jaein; Choi, Sungmin; Chae, Youngzoo; Lee, Young-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Legionnaire's disease is associated with a high mortality rate. The authors collected 3,495 water samples in Seoul, Korea, between 2010 and 2012 from public facilities (cooling towers, public baths, hospitals, and decorative fountains), which are considered the major habitats of Legionella pneumophila. In all, 527 (15.1%) isolates of L. pneumophila were obtained by microbial culture and polymerase chain reaction. Serological diagnosis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis were performed for the samples. The authors categorized the samples into four groups (A-D) on the basis of PFGE results. The analysis revealed that cooling towers containing the most samples with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 constituted the highest proportion of isolate. Samples from public facilities and serogroups could be distinctively classified by PFGE patterns. Thus, it is expected that source-specific features revealed through PFGE and serological analyses could serve as the basis for effectively coping with future outbreaks of L. pneumophila.

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Seoul frog Rana chosenica (Amphibia, Ranidae): comparison of R. chosenica and R. plancyi.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2011-06-01

    Here, we have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Seoul frog Rana chosenica (Amphibia, Ranidae), which is known as a Korean endemic species. It is listed as a vulnerable species by IUCN Red List and also an endangered species in South Korea. The complete mitochondrial genome of R. chosenica consists of 18,357 bp. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with those of other Rana frogs. We compared the mitochondrial genome of R. chosenica with that of the Peking frog Rana plancyi that has been known closely related to R. chosenica. Nucleotide sequence similarity between the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 95.7%, and the relatively low similarity seems to indicate that the two species are distinctly separated on the species level. The information of mitochondrial genome comparison of the two species was discussed in detail.

  12. Non-validation of Lanchester's original equations in the Inchon-Seoul campaign of the Korean War

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1988-03-01

    Daily attrition in the Inchon-Seoul campaign of the Korean War is analyzed using statistical mewthodology. This method yields a numerical measure of the goodness of fit and a measure of the statistical significance of the fit as opposed to the visual measure used previously. It also provides information as to reasons for poor fit. Neither Lanchester's Square Law Equations, nor his Linear Law Equation, provide statistically significant explanations of the course of the attrition in this battle. Their failure together with the modifications of the data which improve the fit imiply that other factors besides numerical strengths must be considered. While the data is insufficient to provide reliable determinants for these factors, the extent to which the fit can be improved supports the heuristic attrition equations used in most modern models. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. A survey of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water supplies during a 10-year period (2000-2009) in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mok Young; Cho, Eun Joo; Lee, Jin Hyo; Han, Sun Hee; Park, Yong Sang

    2010-09-01

    This study has been conducted to estimate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water supplies in the Metropolitan area of Seoul, South Korea, for 10 years from 2000 to 2009. Water samples were collected quarterly at 6 intakes in the Han River and its largest stream and 6 conventional Water Treatment Plants (WTPs) serving drinking water for 10 million people of Seoul. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 22.5% of intake water samples and arithmetic mean was 0.65 oocysts/10 L (range 0-22 oocysts/10 L). Although the annual mean of oocyst number was as low as 0.04-1.90 oocysts/10 L, 3 peaks in 2004 and 2007 were observed and the pollution level was a little higher in winter. The lowest density was observed at Paldang intake and the pollution level increased at Kuui and Jayang intakes. At the end of the largest stream, oocysts were found in 70% of collected samples (mean 5.71 oocysts/10 L) and it seemed that its joining the Han River resulted in the increase at Kuui intake and downstream. Oocyst removal by physical process exceeded 2.0-2.3 log and then all finished water samples collected at 6 WTPs were negative for Cryptosporidium in each 100 L sample for 10 years. These results suggested that domestic wastewater from the urban region could be a source of Cryptosporidium pollution and separating sewage systems adjacent to the intakes could be meaningful for some intakes having weakness related to parasitological water quality.

  14. Occurrence of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in the Han River (Seoul, South Korea).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeomin; Ryu, Jaena; Oh, Jeill; Choi, Byeong-Gyu; Snyder, Shane A

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of 31 selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Korean surface waters was investigated. The area was selected since there is a lack of information in the Seoul area on the suspected contamination of rivers by micropollutants, although over 99% of drinking water is produced from surface waters in this area that has a population of approximately 15 million inhabitants. Samples were collected from upstream/downstream and effluent-dominated creeks along the Han River, Seoul (South Korea) and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Most target compounds were detected in both the Han River samples (63%) and the effluent-dominated creek samples (79%). Iopromide, atenolol, TCPP, TECP, musk ketone, naproxen, DEET, carbamazepine, caffeine, and benzophenone were frequently detected in both river and creek samples, although the mean concentrations in effluent-dominated creek samples (102 ng/L-3745 ng/L) were significantly higher than those in river samples (56 ng/L-1013 ng/L). However, the steroid hormones 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, progesterone, and testosterone, were not detected (<1 ng/L) in both the river and creek samples. Numerous target compounds (15) were found to be positively correlated (over 0.8) to the conventional water quality parameters (chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon, and ultraviolet absorbance). Results of this study provide increasing evidence that certain EDCs and PPCPs commonly occur in the Han River as the result of wastewater outfalls.

  15. Determination of micropollutants in combined sewer overflows and their removal in a wastewater treatment plant (Seoul, South Korea).

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jaena; Oh, Jeill; Snyder, Shane A; Yoon, Yeomin

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the occurrence of 29 selected micropollutants such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface waters and wastewaters in Seoul (South Korea) during both dry and wet weather conditions. The study area was selected based on the lack of available information regarding the suspected contamination of rivers/creeks by EDCs and PPCPs in the Seoul region and the presence of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which serves approximately 4.1 million inhabitants and has a design capacity of 1,297 × 10(3) m(3)/day. Many target compounds (83 %) were detected in samples collected from wastewater treatment influent/effluent, creek water, and combined sewer overflow (CSO). The total EDC/PPCP concentrations were as follows: WWTP influent (69,903 ng/L) > WWTP effluent (50,175 ng/L) >3 creek samples (16,035-44,446 ng/L) during dry weather, and WWTP influent (53,795 ng/L) > WWTP bypass (38,653 ng/L) >5 creek samples (15,260-29,113 ng/L) >2 CSO samples (11,109-11,498 ng/L) during wet weather. EDCs and PPCPs were found to be present at high daily loads (65.1 and 69.8 kg/day during dry and wet weather, respectively) in the WWTP effluent. Compound removal by the WWTP varied significantly by compound: caffeine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and propylparaben (>90 %), and acesulfame, DEET, iohexol, iopromide, and iopamidol (<5 %). These findings and literature information support the hypothesis that the efficiency of removal of EDCs and PPCPs is strongly dependent on both removal mechanism (e.g., biodegradation, adsorption to sludge, and oxidation by chlorine) and compound physicochemical properties (e.g., pK a and hydrophobicity).

  16. Prediction of PM10 grades in Seoul, Korea using a neural network model based on synoptic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, S. K.; Oh, H. R.; Ho, C. H.; Kim, J.; Song, C. K.; Chang, L. S.; Lee, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    As of November 2014, the Korean Ministry of Environment (KME) started forecasting the level of ambient particulate matter with diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) as four grades: low (PM10 ≤ 30 μg m-3), moderate (30 < PM10 ≤ 80 μg m-3), high (80 < PM10 ≤ 150 μg m-3), and very high (PM10 > 150 μg m-3). Due to short history of forecast, overall performance of the operational forecasting system and its hit rate for the four PM10 grades are difficult to evaluate. In attempt to provide a statistical reference for the current air quality forecasting system, we hindcasted the four PM10 grades for the cold seasons (October-March) of 2001-2014 in Seoul, Korea using a neural network model based on the synoptic patterns of meteorological fields such as geopotential height, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind. In the form of cosine similarity, the distinctive synoptic patterns for each PM10 grades are well quantified as predictors to train the neural network model. Using these fields as predictors and considering the PM10 concentration in Seoul from the day before prediction as an additional predictor, an overall hit rate of 69% was achieved; the hit rates for the low, moderate, high, and very high PM10 grades were 33%, 83%, 45%, and 33%, respectively. This study reveals that the synoptic patterns of meteorological fields are useful predictors for the identification of favorable conditions for each PM10 grade, and the associated transboundary transport and local accumulation of PM10 from the industrialized regions of China. Consequently, the assessments of predictability obtained from the neural network model in this study are reliable to use as a statistical reference for the current air quality forecasting system.

  17. Spatial Approach of Climate Risk Assessment and Uncertainty: A Case Study of Heat Wave Risk in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, S.; Lee, D. K.; Jeong, W.

    2016-12-01

    As climate change continuously reaches new climaxes, it is aggravating many climate extremes. Urban heat island effect (UHI) is one of them. It occurs in cities with sealed surfaces and building canyons, which make changes in storage, radiative and turbulent heat flux that make cities warmer than surrounding areas. However, applying adequate policies at the right place can attenuate the impacts of UHI. Therefore, heat wave risk assessment is important in the sense that it helps decision makers set priority in targets of application. Seoul is highly urbanized capital of South Korea. It is suffering from increasing heat wave days and tropical nights every year. More than 10 million residents are exposed to heat extremes and measures should be taken. Therefore, heat wave risk assessment of Seoul should be done in advance. While, risk assessment contains uncertainty; from variables to assessment procedure. However, there is no standardized assessment methodology. A fuzzy logic, introduced by Zadeh in 1965, is applied in quantifying these uncertainties. We fuzzified indices for assessing heat wave risk with threshold values. And indices were aggregated step by step with fuzzy operators, which make up "vulnerability" and "climate exposure". Vulnerability and climate exposure are further combined with fuzzy operator to derive complete heat wave risk assessment map. As a result, we expressed spatial distribution of UHI risk. Districts lying in the central area of the city showed higher risk than in marginal areas. In addition, hierarchic structured approach of assessing risk in this study makes it easy to track key variables of risk, therefore, giving decision makers insights to help their application of adaptation policies.

  18. A ten-year survey of Giardia cysts in drinking water supplies of Seoul, the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mok-Young; Cho, Eun-Joo; Lee, Jin-Hyo; Han, Sun-Hee; Park, Yong-Sang

    2011-03-01

    To understand the distribution of Giardia cysts in drinking water supplies in Seoul, Korea, we collected water samples quarterly at 6 intakes in the Han River, its largest stream and 6 conventional water treatment plants (WTPs) serving drinking water, from 2000 to 2009. Giardia cysts in each of 10 L water were confirmed in 35.0% of intake water samples and the arithmetic mean was 1.65 cysts/10 L (range 0-35 cysts/10 L). The lowest cyst density was observed at Paldang and Kangbuk intakes, and the pollution level was higher at 4 intakes downstream. It seemed that these 4 intakes were under influence of Wangsuk stream at the end of which cysts were found in all samples with the mean of 140 cysts/10 L. The annual mean number of cysts was 0.21-4.21 cysts/10 L, and the cyst level at the second half of the 10 years was about 1/5 of that at first half on average. The cysts were more frequently found in winter, and their mean density was 3.74 cysts/10 L in winter and 0.80-1.08 cysts/10 L in other seasons. All finished water samples collected at 6 WTPs were negative for Giardia in each of 100 L sample for 10 years and cyst removal by physical process was average 2.9-log. It was concluded that conventional water treatment at 6 WTPs of Seoul appears to remove the cysts effectively under the present level of their source water. Domestic wastewater from the urban region could be an important source of Giardia pollution in the river.

  19. Characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning activity over Seoul, South Korea in relation to an urban effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, S. K.; Liou, Y.-A.; Ha, K.-J.

    2007-11-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash data collected by the lightning detection network installed at the Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA) have been used to study the urban effect on lightning activity over and around Seoul, the largest metropolitan city of South Korea, for the period of 1989-1999. Negative and positive flash density and the percentage of positive flashes have been calculated. Calculation reveals that an enhancement of approximately 60% and 42% are observed, respectively, for negative and positive flash density over and downwind of the city. The percentage decrease of positive flashes occurs over and downwind of Seoul and the amount of decrease is nearly 20% compared to upwind values. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by Steiger et al. (2002) and Westcott (1995). CG lightning activities have also been considered in relation to annual averages of PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations. Interesting results are found, indicating that the higher concentration of SO2 contributes to the enhancement of CG lightning flashes. On the other hand, the contribution from PM10 concentration has not appeared in this study to be as significant as SO2 in the enhancement of CG lightning flashes. Correlation coefficients of 0.33 and 0.64 are found between the change in CG lightning flashes and the PM10 and SO2, respectively, for upwind to downwind areas, suggesting a significant influence of the increased concentration of SO2 on the enhancement of CG flashes.

  20. Long term measurements of condensation nuclei and cloud condensation nuclei in the megacity of Seoul during 2004-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Kim, J.; Shim, S.; Yum, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    The effects of atmospheric aerosols on climate are among the most uncertain. The reason for this very low scientific understanding is mainly due to insufficient measurement of aerosols despite the local and time varying nature of aerosols. Particularly, Asian regions of fast industrialization have been recognized as an enormous source of anthropogenic aerosols. As an effort to monitor the physical properties of these anthropogenic aerosols, we measured total aerosol (i.e., condensation nuclei, CN) number concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration and aerosol size distribution (10.9 nm < particle diameter < 478.3 nm) in the mega city of Seoul, South Korea over the period from June 2004 to May 2010. Measurements were interrupted due to malfunctioning, repair and deployment for field measurements in other places but otherwise the measurements were continuously made in Seoul. The average CN number concentration was 18517 ± 8880 cm-3 while CCN number concentration at 0.6 % supersaturation was 5227 ± 3142 cm-3. The average of the ratio of CCN/CN number concentration was approximately 0.30 ± 0.15. The diurnal variation of CN number concentration showed minima at around 4 a.m. and the highest peak at around 8 ~ 10 a.m. throughout the period regardless of season. The average CN and CCN number concentrations were higher in winter than in summer. The correlation between CN number concentration and traffic amount was high (r2=0.84). Overall there were 891 days of aerosol size distribution measurement and in 83 of these days nucleation events were observed, roughly during 10 % of the measurement days. They appeared to be associated with cloudiness and precipitation. Further analysis will be shown at the conference.

  1. 9-Aryl-1,2-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-b]indolizin-3-one (Seoul-Fluor) as a smart platform for colorful ratiometric fluorescent pH sensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Lee, Sanghee; Park, Seung Bum

    2011-07-21

    In this communication, we report that 9-aryl-1,2-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-b]indolizin-3-one (Seoul-Fluor) can serve as a potential platform for colorful ratiometric fluorescent pH sensors by simple incorporation of pH responsive elements on Seoul-Fluor. Seoul-Fluor-based fluorescent pH sensors allow the emission- and pH-tuning ability upon protonation by varying their pK(a) values and electronic characteristics of substituents by a rational design.

  2. Determining customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Zarbo, Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Measurement of physicians' and patients' satisfaction with laboratory services has become a standard practice in the United States, prompted by national accreditation requirements. Unlike other surveys of hospital-, outpatient care-, or physician-related activities, no ongoing, comprehensive customer satisfaction survey of anatomic pathology services is available for subscription that would allow continual benchmarking against peer laboratories. Pathologists, therefore, must often design their own local assessment tools to determine physician satisfaction in anatomic pathology. To describe satisfaction survey design that would elicit specific information from physician customers about key elements of anatomic pathology services. The author shares his experience in biannually assessing customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology with survey tools designed at the Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich. Benchmarks for physician satisfaction, opportunities for improvement, and characteristics that correlated with a high level of physician satisfaction were identified nationally from a standardized survey tool used by 94 laboratories in the 2001 College of American Pathologists Q-Probes quality improvement program. In general, physicians are most satisfied with professional diagnostic services and least satisfied with pathology services related to poor communication. A well-designed and conducted customer satisfaction survey is an opportunity for pathologists to periodically educate physician customers about services offered, manage unrealistic expectations, and understand the evolving needs of the physician customer. Armed with current information from physician customers, the pathologist is better able to strategically plan for resources that facilitate performance improvements in anatomic pathology laboratory services that align with evolving clinical needs in health care delivery.

  3. [Pathological gambling: literature revue].

    PubMed

    Filteau, M J; Baruch, P; Vincent, P

    1992-03-01

    This paper summarizes the current literature on pathological gambling. Interest in gambling has been present in every society but treated as an object of sociopolitical or literary interest. It is only from the beginning of this century that psychiatry began to look at pathological gambling, first with Freud and his writing on Dostoïevsky then with other theories like the learning theory, studies on substance dependence, the links with affective syndromes and the psychobiological studies. These studies are presented and discussed. Finally, the authors offer some guidelines for an approach to a pathological gambler.

  4. Glomerular Disease: Looking beyond Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Roger C.; Alpers, Charles E.; Holzman, Lawrence B.; He, John C.; Salant, David J.; Chugh, Sumant S.; Natarajan, Rama; Trachtman, Howard; Brasile, Lauren; Star, Robert A.; Rys-Sikora, Krystyna E.; Moxey-Mims, Marva M.

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases–supported Kidney Research National Dialogue asked the scientific community to formulate and prioritize research objectives aimed at improved understanding of kidney function and disease progression. Over the past 2 years, 1600 participants posted almost 300 ideas covering all areas of kidney disease. An overriding theme that evolved through these discussions is the need to move beyond pathology to take advantage of basic science and clinical research opportunities to improve diagnostic classification and therapeutic options for people with primary glomerular disease. High-priority research areas included focus on therapeutic targets in glomerular endothelium and podocytes, regenerating podocytes through developmental pathways, use of longitudinal phenotypically defined disease cohorts to improve classification schemes, identifying biomarkers, disease-specific therapeutics, autoantibody triggers, and changing the clinical research culture to promote participation in clinical trials. Together, these objectives provide a path forward for improving clinical outcomes of glomerular disease. PMID:24700796

  5. Retroviruses and human pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, R.C.; Stehelin, D.; Varnier, O.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains four sections, each consisting of several papers. The section headings are: Retroviruses and the Murine Model System;Retroviruses and the Vertebrate Model System;Retroviruses and Human Pathology;and Retroviruses and Oncogenes.

  6. The pathology of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Gal, Anthony A; Koss, Michael N

    2002-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease characterized by a nonnecrotizing granulomatous inflammatory process that can progress through various stages of activity. The distinctive histology of sarcoidosis is often associated with various morphologic findings in the lung and other organs. The rare variants, necrotizing sarcoidal granulomas and nodular sarcoidosis, share some of the histologic features of typical sarcoidosis, but may have different clinical and pathologic manifestations. The clinician and pathologist should be aware of the diverse pathologic appearances of sarcoidosis.

  7. Renal pathology in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Peernel

    2006-01-01

    The class of Reptilia varies widely. Both the gross morphology and microscopic anatomy of the kidneys are specific for each species. In each species of reptile, the physiology of the renal system has adapted to the specific conditions of life, including, among other factors, the type of food, environmental temperature, and the availability of water. The pathology of the kidneys in reptiles has been poorly studied, but in recent years a number of investigators have specifically studied reptilian renal pathology.

  8. Digital pathology for education.

    PubMed

    Huisman, André

    2012-01-01

    The use of digital slides for educational purposes (both for medical students and during pathology traineeships) will eventually accelerate the acceptance of digital pathology in general. This chapter describes the advantages of using digital slides especially for education. Also the requirements for using digital slides for this purpose are evaluated, including software requirements, the slide scanner and the IT infrastructure needed to provide a robust infrastructure to end users.

  9. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  10. Assessing the effect of long-range pollutant transportation on air quality in Seoul using the conditional potential source contribution function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ukkyo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Lee, Yun Gon

    2017-02-01

    It is important to estimate the effects of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants for efficient and effective strategies to control air quality. In this study, the contributions of trans-boundary transport to the mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul, Korea from 2001 to 2014 were estimated based on the conditional potential source contribution function (CPSCF) method. Eastern China was found to be the major source of trans-boundary pollution in Seoul, but moderate sources were also located in northeastern China. The contribution of long-range transport from Japan was negligible. The spatial distributions of the potential source contribution function (PSCF) values of each pollutant showed reasonable consistency with their emission inventory and satellite products. The PSCF values of SO2 and PM10 from eastern China were higher than those of NO2 and CO. The mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul for the period from 2001 to 2014 were 5.34, 37.0, and 619.1 ppb, and 57.4 4 μg/m3, respectively. The contributions of long-range transport to the mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul were 0.74, 3.4, and 39.0 ppb, and 12.1 μg/m3, respectively, which are 14%, 9%, 6%, and 21% of the mean concentrations, respectively. The annual mean concentrations of SO2 and NO2 followed statistically significant increasing linear trends (0.5 and 1.6 ppb per decade, respectively), whereas the trends in the annual mean concentrations of CO and PM10 were statistically insignificant. The trends in the ratio of the increased concentrations associated with long-range transport to the annual mean concentrations of the pollutants were statistically insignificant. However, the results indicate that the trans-boundary transport of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 from eastern China consistently affected air quality in Seoul over the study period (2001-2014). Regionally, the effects of the long-range transport of pollutants from Beijing and Harbin

  11. Elevated production of NH4NO3 from the photochemical processing of vehicle exhaust: Implications for air quality in the Seoul Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, Michael F.; Kim, Jounghwa; Park, Gyutae; Lee, Taehyoung; Park, Taehyun; Babar, Zaeem Bin; Sung, Kijae; Kim, Pilho; Kang, Seokwon; Kim, Jeong Soo; Choi, Yongjoo; Son, Jihawn; Lim, Ho-Jin; Farmer, Delphine K.

    2017-05-01

    A vehicle fleet representative of passenger vehicles driven in the Seoul Metropolitan Region was investigated for primary emissions and secondary chemistry. Exhaust was photochemically oxidized in a flow reactor to determine the ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) aerosol formation potential from vehicles of gasoline, diesel and liquid petroleum gasoline (LPG) fuel types. Secondary formation of aerosol NH4NO3, was larger than primary emissions for all vehicle fuel types except diesel, for which negligible secondary NH4NO3 production was observed. Although diesel vehicles emitted more primary nitrogen oxides than other vehicle types, ammonia emitted from gasoline and liquid petroleum gasoline fuels types limited the secondary production of NH4NO3. The results suggest that gasoline and liquid petroleum gasoline vehicles with three-way catalysts could be an important source of ammonia for NH4NO3 aerosol formation in ammonia-limited environments, including the Seoul Metropolitan Region.

  12. Isolation of an H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strain from Wild Birds in Seoul, a Highly Urbanized Area in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2017-07-01

    Asian-lineage H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused recurrent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. In January 2014, H5N8 HPAIV caused outbreaks in South Korea and subsequently spread to East Asia, Europe, and North America. We report the isolation of an H5N8 HPAIV strain from wild birds in Seoul, the most-developed city in South Korea. We analyzed the complete genome sequence of this isolate and estimated its origin using a phylogenetic analysis. The Seoul H5N8 isolate clustered phylogenetically with strains isolated from migratory wild birds but was distinct from Korean poultry isolates. This H5N8 virus was likely introduced into the urbanized city by migratory wild birds. Therefore, wild bird habitats in urbanized areas should be carefully monitored for HPAIV.

  13. Eponyms in forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Nečas, Pavel; Hejna, Petr

    2012-12-01

    The phenomenon of eponymous terms in forensic pathology is described in this paper. The authors analyzed representative textbooks (monographs) dealing with forensic pathology in both English and German and identified several eponymous terms. The paper aims to present to the reader the most important eponymous terms in forensic pathology. Included in the paper are the following terms: Beckwith's Sign, Casper's Rule, Krönlein's Shot, Lichtenberg's Figures, Nysten's Law, Paltauf's Spots, Puppe's Rule, Sehrt's Sign, Simon's Sign, Sveshnikov's Sign, Tardieu's Spots, Wischnewski Spots, Wydler's Sign. The spread of eponymous terms throughout various languages is mentioned. The linguistic basis of such terms as well as their advantages and disadvantages in specialist fields, and indeed in even wider circles, is discussed. The authors state that the main function of these terms is to facilitate the open flow of unambiguous information among scholars. Eponymous terms in forensic pathology are characteristic for the German speaking countries and for all countries influenced by the German school of forensic pathology. Their usage in the Anglo-Saxon world is much less widespread, meaning they do not occur very often in English monographs and textbooks.

  14. Real time measurements of submicrometer aerosols in Seoul, Korea: Sources, characteristics, and processing of organic aerosols during winter time.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of non-refractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was conducted in Seoul, the capital of Korea, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The measurements were performed during winter when persistent air quality problems associated with elevated PM concentrations were observed. The average NR-PM1 concentration was 27.5 µg m-3 and the average mass was dominated by organics (44%), followed by nitrate (24%) and sulfate (10%). Five distinct sources of organic aerosol (OA) were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the AMS data: vehicle emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA factor (HOA), cooking represented by a cooking OA factor (COA), wood combustion represented by a biomass burning OA factor (BBOA), and secondary aerosol formation in the atmosphere that is represented by a semi-volatile oxygenated OA factor (SVOOA) and a low volatile oxygenated OA factor (LVOOA). These factors, on average, contributed 16, 20, 23, 15 and 26% to the total OA mass, respectively, with primary organic aerosol (POA = HOA + COA + BBOA) accounting for 59% of the OA mass. On average, both primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation are important factors affecting air quality in Seoul during winter, contributing approximately equal. However, differences in the fraction of PM source and properties were observed between high and low loading PM period. For example, during stagnant period with low wind speed (WS) (0.99 ± 0.7 m/s) and high RH (71%), high PM loadings (43.6 ± 12.4 µg m-3) with enhanced fractions of nitrate (27%) and SVOOA (8%) were observed, indicating a strong influence from locally generated secondary aerosol. On the other hand, when low PM loadings (12.6 ± 7.1 µg m-3), which were commonly associated with high WS (1.8 ± 1.1 m/s) and low RH (50 %), were observed, the fraction of regional sources, such as sulfate (12%) and LVOOA (21

  15. Seasonal variations in the light-absorbing properties of water-soluble and insoluble organic aerosols in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwajin; Kim, Jin Young; Jin, Hyoun Cher; Lee, Ji Yi; Lee, Se Pyo

    2016-03-01

    The spectral properties of light-absorbing organic aerosol extractions were investigated using 24-h average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements from October 2012 to September 2013 in Seoul, Korea. The light-absorption spectra of water and methanol extracts exhibited strong evidence of brown carbon with Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE; fitted between 300 and 700 nm) ranges of 5.84-9.17 and 4.08-5.75, with averages of 7.23 ± 1.58 and 5.05 ± 0.67, respectively. The light absorption of both extracts at 365 nm (Abs365), which is typically used as a proxy for brown carbon (BrC), displayed strong seasonal variations and was well correlated with both water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC; r = 0.81) and organic carbon (OC; r = 0.85), indicating that both primary and secondary organics were sources of BrC in this region. Normalizing the Abs365 of water and methanol extracts to the mass of WSOC and OC yielded average solution mass absorption efficiency (MAE365) of 0.28-1.18 and 0.44-1.45 m2 g-1 C, respectively. MAE365 in Korea were in the same range or slightly lower than those in China, however, despite the same ranges, the seasonal variations were different, suggesting that the sources of light absorbers could be different. Combining the AAE, Abs365, and MAE365 of both extracts and a detailed chemical speciation of filter extracts identified the compounds responsible for the temporal variations of BrC in Korea. During summer, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), photochemically generated from anthropogenic emissions, was the major source; however, during winter, long range transported organics or transported BrC seem to be a source of BrC in Korea, a downwind site of China, where severe smog and BrC were observed during this season. Biomass burning was also an important source; however, unlike in previous studies, where it was identified as a major source during winter, here, it contributed during the whole year. Although many of its properties, sources, and potential

  16. Temporal and Spatial Variations in PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 in the Seoul Metropolitan Area between 2002 and 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghim, Y.; Jung, K.; Kang, M.

    2010-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM; PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations at ambient air monitoring stations located in Seoul between 2002 and 2008 were analyzed. In Korea, PM10 is regulated as a criteria pollutant and thus is monitored as a part of the urban ambient air pollution monitoring network. PM2.5 is currently not a criteria pollutant but will be soon designated as a criteria pollutant. The hourly-average PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected using the beta-ray absorption method. In this study, data from 14 stations with consistent measurements during the study period were used. As in other major cities, primary factors determining the PM concentrations in Seoul are vehicle emissions (including emissions from other combustion sources) and secondary formation. However, in Seoul, fugitive dust comprising crustal elements accounts for a large proportion of total PM, especially coarse particles (PM10-2.5). During the past several years, the Korean Government as well as the City Government has strived to lessen the PM pollution in Seoul and its satellite cities. Temporal and spatial variations in fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM10-2.5) were analyzed to discern behaviors according to the particle size of fugitive dust. Variations in annual averages were examined to assess the effects of policy on PM levels. The influence of fugitive dust was found to be high in the springtime due to low relative humidity and high wind speed, even excluding the Asian dust events. In contrast, PM levels are affected primarily by combustion-related emissions in winter and active secondary formation in later spring and fall. Typical seasonal characteristics and diurnal variations were also explored based on data for high PM2.5 days only. Spatial variability of PM and PM10-2.5 were examined on both all and high PM2.5 days and compared with those of other pollutants.

  17. Pathology of radiation myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Burns, R. J.; Jones, A. N.; Robertson, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    After nothing the rarity of papers describing the pathology of delayed radiation necrosis of the spinal cord, the clinical and pathological findings from four cases are presented. The main pathological features are asymmetric demyelination of the lateral columns and to a lesser degree the posterior and anterior columns of white matter, with coagulative necrosis at the level of irradiation which affected the grey matter to a lesser degree. There is ascending and descending secondary tract degeneration, and poor glial response in the lesions themselves. Vascular changes, mainly hyalilne thickening of arteriolar walls, are present, but not in degree sufficient to explain the primary lesion. The discussion of the pathogenesis of the myelopathy weighs the merits of a primary vascular lesion against those of a primary effect of the radiation on neural tissue. The latter is favoured. Images PMID:4647860

  18. [Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].

    PubMed

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-02-01

    Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO2 in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the Δ14C in ginkgo leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Hong, W.; Park, G.; Sung, K. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. E.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Woo, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  20. Exploring Household-level Risk Factors for Self-reported Prevalence of Allergic Diseases Among Low-income Households in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, SungChul; Paul, Christopher; Yoo, Young; Choung, Ji Tae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Indoor risk factors for allergic diseases in low-income households in Korea have been characterized only partially. We evaluated the prevalences of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis in Seoul, Korea, to identify key housing and behavioral risk factors of low-income households. Methods Statistical analysis of the prevalence of these diseases and various risk factors was conducted using data from a 2010 Ministry of Environment household survey. Logistic regression models were generated using data from 511 low-income household apartments in districts of Seoul. Results In general, housing factors such as renovation history (P<0.1) and crowding status (P<0.01) were associated with allergic rhinitis, whereas behavioral factors such as frequency of indoor ventilation (P<0.05) and cleaning (P<0.1) were inversely correlated with atopic dermatitis. Indoor smoking was a major trigger of asthma and atopic dermatitis in low-income households (P<0.05). The presence of mold and water leakage in houses were the most important risk factors for all three diseases (P<0.05). Conclusions Various risk factors play a role in triggering allergic diseases among low-income households in Seoul, and health or environmental programs mitigating allergic diseases should be tailored to address appropriate housing or behavioral factors in target populations. PMID:25228999

  1. A study on the characteristics of silt loading on paved roads in the Seoul metropolitan area using a mobile monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Han, Sehyun; Jung, Yong-Won

    2012-07-01

    This study is considered the first attempt to apply a mobile monitoring system to estimating silt loading on paved roads in a megacity such as the Seoul metropolitan area. Using a mobile monitoring system developed in 2005, we estimated silt loadings on representative paved roads in the Seoul metropolitan area, including the city of Incheon, over a period of 3 yr. The temporal and spatial characteristics of silt loading were investigated for the carefully selected roads that may reflect the characteristics of the cities of Seoul and Incheon. In this study, changes in the average silt loading values were investigated in terms of land use, the temporal resolution of data acquisition (i.e., seasonal, daily, three-hour scale), the road width or number of lanes, and rainfall, which may affect the characteristics of the average silt loading significantly. It was found that the advantages of using the mobile monitoring system are its ability to obtain a large quantity of silt loading data in a short period of time and over a wide area and its ability to create a silt loading map showing the relative magnitude of silt loading in relation to a specific location, which makes it possible to easily locate hot spots.

  2. Image management in pathology.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, D S; Doolittle, M

    1996-04-01

    Much of the diagnostic work in pathology, especially surgical pathology and cytology, involves the interpretation of images. Recent advances in digital imaging technologies and telecommunications will allow pathologists to use image-based information in ways that are not possible using conventional glass slides alone. We are entering an age in which image-based information can be more easily and widely shared, both locally and globally. In this article, some of the digital technologies that can allow pathologists to make more effective use of diagnostic images will be discussed.

  3. Reinforcement pathology and obesity.

    PubMed

    Carr, Katelyn A; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence and addiction. In this review we discuss the application of reinforcement pathology to obesity, and implications of this approach for obesity treatment.

  4. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice.

  5. Effect of Individual and District-level Socioeconomic Disparities on Cognitive Decline in Community-dwelling Elderly in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geon Ha; Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Hyesook; Lee, Dong Young; Jo, Inho; Choi, Seong Hye; Choi, Kyoung Gyu; Jeong, Jee Hyang

    2017-09-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of individual and district-level socioeconomic status (SES) on the development of cognitive impairment among the elderly. A 3-year retrospective observational analysis (2010-2013) was conducted which included 136,217 community-dwelling healthy elderly who participated in the Seoul Dementia Management Project. Cognitive impairment was defined as 1.5 standard deviations below the norms on the Mini-mental status examination. In the individual lower SES group, the cumulative incidence rate (CIR) of cognitive impairment was 8.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.64-8.70), whereas the CIR in the individual higher SES group was 4.1% (95% CI, 4.08-4.10). The CIR for lower district-level SES was 4.7% (95% CI, 4.52-4.86), while that in the higher district-level SES was 4.3% (95% CI, 4.06-4.44). There were no additive or synergistic effects between individual and district-level SES. From this study, the individual SES contributed 1.9 times greater to the development of cognitive impairment than the district-level SES, which suggests that individual SES disparities could be considered as one of the important factors in public health related to cognitive impairment in the elderly. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  6. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  7. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air. PMID:26405807

  8. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air.

  9. Seasonal variation in airborne endotoxin levels in indoor environments with different micro-environmental factors in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Dong Jin; Park, Wha Me; Park, Dong Uk; Ahn, Jae Kyoung; Yoon, Chung Sik

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the variation over a year in airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environment of five university laboratories in Seoul, South Korea, and examined the micro-environmental factors that influenced endotoxin levels. These included temperature, relative humidity, CO2, CO, illumination, and wind velocity. A total of 174 air samples were collected and analyzed using the kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Endotoxin levels ranged from <0.001 to 8.90EU/m(3), with an overall geometric mean of 0.240EU/m(3). Endotoxin levels showed significantly negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.529, p<0.001), CO2 (r=-0.213, p<0.001) and illumination (r=-0.538, p<0.001). Endotoxin levels tended to be higher in winter. Endotoxin levels in laboratories with rabbits were significantly higher than those of laboratories with mice. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the environmental factors affecting endotoxin levels were temperature (coefficient=-0.388, p<0.001) and illumination (coefficient=-0.370, p<0.001). Strategies aimed at reducing airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environments may be most effective if they focus on illumination.

  10. Effects of an urban park and residential area on the atmospheric CO2 concentration and flux in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Moon-Soo; Joo, Seung Jin; Lee, Chang Seok

    2013-03-01

    The CO2 concentrations and fluxes over an urban forest site (Namsan) and an urban residential region (Boramae) in Seoul, Korea, during the non-growing season (2-4 March 2011), the growing season (10-12 June 2011), and the late-growing season (22-24 September 2011) were analyzed. The CO2 concentrations of two sites showed nearly the same diurnal variation, with a maximum value occurring during the night and a minimum value occurring during daytime, as well as the same seasonal variation, with a maximum value during the non-growing season (early spring) and a minimum value during the growing season (summer). The CO2 flux over the urban forest did not show any typical diurnal variation during the non-growing season, but did show diurnal variation with a small positive value during the night and a large negative value during daytime in the growing and late-growing seasons due to photosynthesis in the urban forest. The CO2 flux over the urban residential region showed a positive daily mean value for all periods, with large values during the non-growing season and small values during the growing season, and it also showed diurnal variation with two maxima at 0600-1000 LST and 1800-2400 LST, and two minima at 0300-0600 LST and 1100-1500 LST, and was strongly correlated with the use of liquefied natural gas for cooking and heating by surrounding houses.

  11. Spatial distribution of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in Seoul Metropolitan Subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Roh, Young Man; Lee, Cheol Min; Kim, Chi Nyon

    2008-06-15

    The aims of this study are to examine the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in areas within the Seoul Metropolitan Subway network and to provide fundamental data in order to protect respiratory health of subway workers and passengers from air pollutants. A total of 22 subway stations located on lines 1-4 were selected based on subway official's guidance. At these stations both subway worker areas (station offices, rest areas, ticket offices and driver compartments) and passengers areas (station precincts, subway carriages and platforms) were the sites used for measuring the levels of PM. The mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were relatively higher on platforms, inside subway carriages and in driver compartments than in the other areas monitored. The levels of PM10 and PM2.5 for station precincts and platforms exceeded the 24-h acceptable threshold limits of 150 microg/m3 for PM10 and 35 microg/m3 for PM2.5, which are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, levels measured in station and ticket offices fell below the respective threshold. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on platforms located underground were significantly higher than those at ground level (p<0.05).

  12. Food Availability in School Stores in Seoul, South Korea After Implementation of Food- and Nutrient-Based Policies.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seul Ki; Frongillo, Edward A; Blake, Christine E; Thrasher, James F

    2017-07-01

    To improve school store food environments, the South Korean government implemented 2 policies restricting unhealthy food sales in school stores. A food-based policy enacted in 2007 restricts specific food sales (soft drinks); and a nutrient-based policy enacted in 2009 restricts energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food sales. The purpose of the study was to assess how the 2 policies have changed the school store food environment. Foods sold in school stores in Seoul, South Korea were observed before (2006, 15 stores) and after (2013, 12 stores) implementation of the school store policies. Food availability in school stores in 2006 and 2013 was compared and EDNP food availability in 2013 was examined. When controlling the total number of foods sold in school stores and school characteristics, the mean number of soft drinks sold in a school store in 2013 (0.3 items) was significantly lower than in 2006 (1.9 items, p = .032). Soft drinks were still available in 50% of school stores observed in 2013, with all school stores selling EDNP foods in 2013. South Korean policies have had a modest influence on availability of unhealthy school store foods. Alternative strategies to improve school store food environments are needed. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  13. Seoul virus suppresses NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses of antigen presenting cells from Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Au, Rebecca Y.; Jedlicka, Anne E.; Li, Wei; Pekosz, Andrew; Klein, Sabra L.

    2010-01-01

    Hantavirus infection reduces antiviral defenses, increases regulatory responses, and causes persistent infection in rodent hosts. To address whether hantaviruses alter the maturation and functional activity of antigen presenting cells (APCs), rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and macrophages (BMDMs) were generated and infected with Seoul virus (SEOV) or stimulated with TLR ligands. SEOV infected both DCs and macrophages, but copies of viral RNA, viral antigen, and infectious virus titers were higher in macrophages. The expression of MHCII and CD80, production of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α, and expression of Ifnβ were attenuated in SEOV-infected APCs. Stimulation of APCs with poly I:C prior to SEOV infection increased the expression of activation markers and production of inflammatory cytokines and suppressed SEOV replication. Infection of APCs with SEOV suppressed LPS-induced activation and innate immune responses. Hantaviruses reduce the innate immune response potential of APCs derived from a natural host, which may influence persistence of these zoonotic viruses in the environment. PMID:20170933

  14. Transition of water demand and treatment plant overcapacity: a case study of the Seoul Metropolitan City, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangeun; Park, Heekyung

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the overcapacity problem of water treatment plants in Korea, and mainly discusses status, causes, and engineering options. To this end, we first statistically analyze the recent trend of demand, revealing that the demands of small- and mid-size systems are still increasing while that of large-size systems is now decreasing. Since the existing approach to plan capacity implicitly assumes that demand will increase at a regular rate, we estimate excess capacities and system utilizations of large-size systems. From these results it is found that the large-size systems are suffering from serious overcapacity, thus necessitating that engineers make very difficult decisions given that systems are still expanding the capacities of plants due to a lack of awareness of the current demand trend. For other systems where there is a better understanding of the transition of demand, planners have ceased to expand plants or have closed down relatively old plants in efforts to reduce O&M costs. To address this problem, quick recognition of the transition of demand is being highlighted by the concepts of integrated resources management and cybernetics. Therefore, we examined how quickly the new trend of the Seoul case could be precisely recognized and appropriately addressed. Using the Bayesian parameter estimation method, we found that a new trend can be recognized six years after the transition of demand.

  15. Observation of Periodic and Transient Cosmic Ray Flux Variations by the Daejeon Neutron Monitor and the Seoul muon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Suyeon; Kang, Jeongsoo

    2013-09-01

    Recently, two instruments of cosmic ray are operating in South Korea. One is Seoul muon detector after October 1999 and the other is Daejeon neutron monitor (Kang et al. 2012) after October 2011. The former consists of four small plastic scintillators and the latter is the standard 18 NM 64 type. In this report, we introduce the characteristics of both instruments. We also analyze the flux variations of cosmic ray such as diurnal variation and Forbush decrease. As the result, the muon flux shows the typical seasonal and diurnal variations. The neutron flux also shows the diurnal variation. The phase which shows the maximum flux in the diurnal variation is around 13-14 local time. We found a Forbush decrease on 7 March 2012 by both instruments. It is also identified by Nagoya multi-direction muon telescope and Oulu neutron monitor. The observation of cosmic ray at Jangbogo station as well as in Korean peninsula can support the important information on space weather in local area. It can also enhance the status of Korea in the international community of cosmic ray experiments.

  16. An analysis on the concentration characteristics of PM2.5 in Seoul, Korea from 2005 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Miyeon

    2014-11-01

    PM2.5 is a big issue as it is considerably more harmful than other sizes of particulate matter. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends 25 μg m-3 as the daily average concentration, and 10 μg m-3 per day as an annual average. To keep up with global trends, it is first necessary to understand the current status and characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations in Korea. Using the PM2.5 data measured by Seoul Metropolitan City from November 2005 to March 2012, the author analyzed its statistical characteristics and correlations with other air pollutants. For the time period from 2005 to 2012, the annual average concentration of PM2.5 was 27 μg m-3, three times the WHO standard. Also, the daily average PM2.5 concentration of 215 days per year also exceeded the WHO standard. However, the number days exceeding the Korean daily average standard of 50 μg m-3 to be enacted in 2014 was only three. PM2.5 concentration had a high correlation (r = 0.84) with PM10, and also showed high correlations with gaseous pollutants, such as SO2, NO2, and CO, but not O3. This study suggests that the Korean government should strengthen their standard to match the criteria used by WHO.

  17. Nasal colonization by four potential respiratory bacteria in healthy children attending kindergarten or elementary school in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Songmee; Yu, Jae-Yon; Lee, Kwangjun; Lee, Sunhwa; Park, Bohyun; Kang, Yeonho

    2012-05-01

    A longitudinal analysis was carried out of the colonization by four potential respiratory pathogens - Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus - in 165 healthy children (aged 3-7 years) attending three kindergartens and 417 healthy children (aged 7-10 years) attending an elementary school in Seoul, Korea, by four consecutive examinations over 1 year. The prevalence of nasal carriers of one or more of four bacteria was found to be higher in younger children (≤7 years) (mean 68.6%) than that in older children (mean 46.8%). The mean rates of nasal carriage of Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and Staph. aureus were 16.8, 18.9, 20.2 and 18.2%, respectively. Colonization by Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis was higher in pre-school children (28.6, 32.4 and 35.0%, respectively) than in school children (12.2, 13.6 and 14.3%, respectively). Carriage trends differed with age, with Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis colonization decreasing with age but Staph. aureus colonization increasing. Positive associations of co-occurrence between Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were evident, with a significant negative association evident between Staph. aureus and the other three bacteria. A better understanding of the colonization and interaction of potential respiratory pathogens may be important for predicting changes in bacterial ecology and for designing control strategies that target bacterial colonization in upper respiratory tract infections.

  18. Analysis of foodborne disease outbreaks for improvement of food safety programs in Seoul, Republic of Korea, from 2002 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jib Ho; Lee, Joon-Hak; Kim, Moo Sang; Park, Seog Gee

    2009-03-01

    Foodborne disease (FBD) is a common food safety problem in Seoul, Republic of Korea. To identify target areas for improvement of the food safety programs, FBD outbreaks from 2002 to 2006 were analyzed with regard to facility, monthly occurrences, and causative agents. A total of 147 FBD outbreaks were reported, with an average of 29.4 FBD outbreaks per year and 49 cases per outbreak. Restaurants and school lunches were two main facilities associated with 76.2% of the outbreaks. A majority of FBD cases (73.1%) were from school lunches. The highest number of outbreaks and cases occurred in June, followed by March. Among the seven identified causative agents, norovirus was the most significant in the number of outbreaks and cases. Among the outbreaks and cases with causative agents identified, norovirus and Staphylococcus aureus were responsible for 61.7% of outbreaks and 81.5% of cases. The analysis indicates that the efficiency of current food safety programs could be enhanced if critical control points in school lunch programs are identified and incorporated in the training and inspection. Identifying risk factors for contamination of norovirus and Staphylococcus aureus would also be beneficial.

  19. Added dietary vegetables and fruits improved coat quality of capybara in Seoul Zoo, Republic of Korea: A case study.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyungeun; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2017-01-01

    Adequate levels of dietary vitamin C are necessary for capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrocharis) because they cannot synthesize the vitamin endogenously. Beginning in 2013, hair and weight loss, as well as general dermatitis, were observed in all individual capybaras (n = 4) in a mixed exhibit at Seoul Zoo. Seven additional vegetables, leafy greens, and fruits that increased dietary vitamin C concentration from ∼300-400 to >600 mg/kg dry matter were added to the diet since January 2015. Within 6 months, capybaras' skin and coats improved considerably, with hair becoming thicker and glossier. Animals visually appeared healthier and gained weight. In conclusion, hair loss, dermatitis, and weight loss in capybara can be improved by feeding enough fresh green leaves, vegetables, and fruits. Although vitamin C is considered a major factor for alleviation of poor body condition observed, increased status of other nutrients (i.e., vitamin B6 ) provided by the diet change may also have contributed to the improvements seen in the capybara. Zoo Biol. 36:50-55, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Influence of trans-boundary air pollution from China on multi-day high PM10 episodes in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, H. R.; Ho, C. H.; Kim, J.; Chen, D.; Lee, S.; Choi, Y. S.; Chang, L. S.; Song, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality problems have become a serious global issue as it causes over 3 million deaths per year all over the world. With generations of massive air pollutants in China, the effects of trans-boundary transports of air pollutants on human health have become a serious international concern in East Asia. However, only a limited number of studies are available for providing scientific evidences for quantifying the sources and transports of air pollutants over major countries in East Asia. Here, it is shown that particulate matters originated from China played major role in the occurrence of multi-day (≥ 4 days) severe air pollution episodes in Seoul, Korea, in which the concentration of particulate matter of diameters ≤ 10 μm exceeds 100 μg m-3. Observations show that these multi-day severe air quality episodes occur when a strong high-pressure system resides over the eastern China - Korea region. Such a weather condition confines air pollutants within the atmospheric boundary layer and spread them by slow westerlies within the boundary layer from China into the neighboring countries. Understanding such dynamical processes is a key for advancing the predictability of trans-boundary air pollutants and their health impacts in East Asia as well as developing international measures to improve air quality for the region.

  1. The Study on Flood Reduction and Securing Instreamflow by applying Decentralized Rainwater Retention Facilities for Chunggyechun in Seoul of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Jun, S. M.; Park, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    Recently abnormal climate phenomena and urbanization recently causes the changes of the hydrological environment. To restore the hydrological cycle in urban area some fundamental solutions such as decentralized rainwater management system and Low Impact Development (LID) techniques may be choosed. In this study, SWMM 5 was used to analyze the effects of decentralized stormwater retention for preventing the urban flood and securing the instreamflow. The Chunggyechun stream watershed(21.29㎢) which is located in Seoul city(Korea) and fully developed as urban area was selected as the study watershed, and the runoff characteristics of urban stream with various methods of LID techniques (Permeable pavement, small rainwater storage tank, large rainwater storage tank) were analyzed. By the simulation results, the permeability of pavement materials and detention storage at the surface soil layer make high effect to the flood discharge, and the initial rainfall retention at the rainwater storage tank effected to reduce the flood peak. The peak discharge was decreased as 22% for the design precipitation. Moreover the instreamflow was increased as 55% by using adequate LID techniques These kind of data could be used as the basis data for designing urban flood prevention facilities, urban regeneration planning in the view of the integrated watershed management.

  2. Flexible operation of the Cap-and-Trade System for the air pollutants in the Seoul Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Yeo, M J; Kim, Y P

    2012-08-30

    To improve the air quality in the Seoul Metropolitan area (SMA), the Korean government has implemented special measures in the 1990s. As part of these measures, the Cap-and-Trade System (CATS) was introduced and executed in July 1, 2007 for the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SOx) to provide added flexibility for large sources to meet the required emission reductions. However, the trade via the SMA CATS for the air pollutants has not been active because of the limited buyers and sellers within the system as well as limited tradable species. For more flexible operation of the SMA CATS, following strategies have been suggested and their merits are discussed; (1) to link the SMA CATS with the Korea Voluntary Emission Reduction (KVER) program which is a program to manage greenhouse gases (GHGs), and (2) to extend the system, such as extension of the tradable species, participants, and introducing a project-based certification mechanism for pollutants reduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A retrospective analysis of 19,157 burns patients: 18-year experience from Hallym Burn Center in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Min-Seok; Han, Kyung-Woo; Han, Sook-Hee; Jung, Jin-A; Lee, Jong-Wook; Jang, Young-Chul; Burd, Andrew; Oh, Suk-Joon

    2005-06-01

    This is a retrospective, epidemiological study of 19,157 acute burn patients admitted to the Hallym Burn Centre, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea, during the period 1986-2003. The study was conducted to identify characteristics of burn patients that could lead to development of preventive programs to reduce both the frequency and mortality of burn injury. The majority of patients admitted had relatively minor burns, which were treated conservatively. Males predominated in all age groups with a summer peak seasonal variation. Typical burn in the children <5 years of age was a scald injury, occurring at home, affecting upper limbs and resulting in a relatively short hospital stay. Electrical burns due to steel chopsticks and steam burns due to electric rice cookers were also found in this age group. Adult burns, affecting upper and lower limbs, were caused by flames, hot liquids or electricity. Burns were sustained at the workplace and outdoors. Flame accidents in males were the leading cause of death with overall mortality of 8.2%. 13.9% of admissions needed intensive care and average length of hospital stay was 32.6 days. The annual number of patients undergoing burn related surgery has continuously increased reflecting a more aggressive surgical management. Our ongoing efforts are to promote prevention program and look for changes in the incidence of burn injury based on these epidemiologic features. Further study for implications of changes in management protocols and policies on treatment outcomes would improve the provision of appropriate care for the patients.

  4. Perceived urban neighborhood environment for physical activity of older adults in Seoul, Korea: A multimethod qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Dong Ha

    2016-12-24

    This study assessed the attributes of a perceived urban neighborhood environment for the physical activity (PA) of older adults by applying a qualitative multimethod approach to collect both descriptive and spatial information. Conducted in a northern community of Seoul, Korea, from April 2014 to November 2015, data collection methods included 90 walking tours by researchers, 46 face-to-face, semi-structured interviews combined with qualitative mapping with senior residents aged 65+, 19 guided tours with the interviewees, and 3 focus groups with 12 community service providers. Thematic analysis and pattern finding were performed on the data. Walking was the main type of PA of the older adults. Nine attributes of perceived neighborhood environment for PA were identified under three themes: daily living (everyday life activities, mobility, social opportunities, diverse destinations); the multidimensionality of accessibility (physical, economic, psychosocial), and attractiveness and pleasantness (maintenance, aesthetics). The subcategories of the attributes included proximity, access to public transportation, walkability, cost-worthiness, low or no cost, familiarity, sense of welcoming, sociocultural appropriateness, fair access, order and upkeep, safety, openness, cleanliness, and interestingness. Strategies to generate more movement and activities in the everyday routine of the elderly should be a core task for health promotion and neighborhood design. A strategic application of multiple qualitative methods can create an opportunity to build contextual understanding and to generate ideas in interactions with the community.

  5. Changes in NOx and O3 concentrations over a decade at a central urban area of Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Jin Yong; Brown, Richard J. C.; Jung, Myung-Chae

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore trends of NOx (NO + NO2) pollution over ten years (2004-2013) at an urban monitoring station at Yongsan in Seoul, Korea. The mean concentrations (in nmol/mol) of NO, NO2, and O3 measured over the entire study period were 25.3 ± 7.30, 36.9 ± 1.76, and 17.5 ± 1.31, respectively. The decadal trend of these pollutants exhibited statistically significant, but contrasting, results with downward NO and NOx trends and upward O3 trends throughout the study period. Correlation studies and principal component analysis (PCA) explained association of NO and NO2 with traffic related pollutants (CO, PM, and SO) at a statistically significant level while O3 exhibited patterns correlated with meteorological parameters. The overall results of this study indicate that the decadal trend of NO and NO2 was highly dependent on automotive related pollution, while O3 concentration was influenced by both the availability of NO and meteorological conditions.

  6. Significance of serum antibody test for toxocariasis in healthy healthcare examinees with eosinophilia in Seoul and Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Seok; Jin, Yan; Choi, Min-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Young Ha; Yoon, Cheong Ha; Hwang, Eui-Hyuk; Kang, Hun; Ahn, Sang-Yong; Kim, Gi Jin; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2014-12-01

    There have been numerous reports on the relationship between eosinophilia and toxocariasis. The present study investigated seropositive rates of toxocariasis among healthy people with or without eosinophilia in urban and rural areas, and assessed risk factors for positive antibody test. A total of 610 healthy people, who visited health check-up (Medicheck®, Korea Association of Health Promotion), 310 from Seoul and 300 from Gyeongsangnam-do, were subjected for this study. Their serum samples were tested by ELISA with the crude antigen of Toxocara canis larvae. Cross-reactions with other tissue invading helminth antigens were also investigated. Total antibody positive rate of toxocariasis was 8.7% of the 610 subjects. When the subjects were grouped into 3 by their eosinophil counts, the antibody positive rates significantly differed by the groups; 5.9% (18/306) in the group<350/µL, 10.0% (11/110) in the group 350-500/µL, and 12.4% (24/194) in the group>500/µL (P=0.028). A total of 22 serum samples cross-reacted with other tissue-invading helminth antigens. A questionnaire analysis recognized drinking alcohol and smoking as significant risk factors of toxocariasis. In conclusion, toxocariasis antibody positive rate is correlated with eosinophil counts. It is recommended that healthy subjects with eosinophilia by routine health examination and risk factors undergo Toxocara serology by multiantigen ELISA to investigate etiology.

  7. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  8. Pathology of hereditary nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, V. V.

    1968-01-01

    This report describes the renal pathology in three siblings with hereditary nephritis. All three cases showed combined features of chronic glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, and interstitial nephritis. Foam cells were seen in only one case. These findings support the contention of Krickstein, Gloor, and Balogh (1966) that the renal changes in hereditary nephritis are those of a mixed nephritis. Images PMID:5717545

  9. Next-Generation Pathology.

    PubMed

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.

  10. Applied pathology for radiographers

    SciTech Connect

    Laudicina, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a basic text for the student of radiologic sciences. It includes most of the pathology recommended by the ASRT Curriculum Guide. Radiographic technique and positioning are examined when relevant to obtaining quality radiographs of specific disease conditions. Brief overviews of these conditions include background etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Many illustrations are included to enhance understanding.

  11. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  12. Pathology of Extranodal Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Heckendorn, Emily; Auerbach, Aaron

    2016-07-01

    An overview of the pathology of extranodal lymphoma is presented. The emphasis of this presentation is on the classification system of extranodal lymphomas, including both B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, based on their morphology, phenotype, and molecular alterations.

  13. Teaching residents genomic pathology: a novel approach for new technology.

    PubMed

    Haspel, Richard L

    2013-03-01

    Genomics-based diagnostics have become part of patient care. As pathologists have the expertise in clinical laboratory testing as well as access to patient samples, all genomic medicine is genomic pathology. This article will review the evidence that there is a critical need for pathology resident training in genomics. Several individual program curricula are described as well as the progress of the Training Residents in Genomics Working Group. This group has made significant advances toward developing, implementing, and evaluating a national curriculum in genomics for pathology residents. The novel approach of the Training Residents in Genomics Working Group can be used as a model for training pathology professionals in any new technology.

  14. Defining error in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Sirota, Ronald L

    2006-05-01

    Although much has been said and written about medical error and about error in pathology since the publication of the Institute of Medicine's report on medical error in 1999, precise definitions of what constitutes error in anatomic pathology do not exist for the specialty. Without better definitions, it is impossible to accurately judge errors in pathology. The lack of standardized definitions has implications for patient care and for the legal judgment of malpractice. To review the goals of anatomic pathology, to discuss the problems inherent in applying these goals to the judgment of error in pathology, to offer definitions of major and minor errors in pathology, and to discuss error in anatomic pathology in relation to the classic laboratory test cycle. Existing literature. Definitions for major and minor error in anatomic pathology are proffered, and anatomic pathology error is characterized in the classic test cycle.

  15. Anatomic pathology databases and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Raab, Stephen S; Grzybicki, Dana M; Zarbo, Richard J; Meier, Frederick A; Geyer, Stanley J; Jensen, Chris

    2005-10-01

    The utility of anatomic pathology discrepancies has not been rigorously studied. To outline how databases may be used to study anatomic pathology patient safety. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality funded the creation of a national anatomic pathology errors database to establish benchmarks for error frequency. The database is used to track more frequent errors and errors that result in more serious harm, in order to design quality improvement interventions intended to reduce these types of errors. In the first year of funding, 4 institutions (University of Pittsburgh, Henry Ford Hospital, University of Iowa, and Western Pennsylvania Hospital) reported cytologic-histologic correlation error data after standardizing correlation methods. Root cause analysis was performed to determine sources of error, and error reduction plans were implemented. Four institutions self-reported anatomic pathology error data. Frequency of cytologic-histologic correlation error, case type, cause of error (sampling or interpretation), and effect of error on patient outcome (ie, no harm, near miss, and harm). The institutional gynecologic cytologic-histologic correlation error frequency ranged from 0.17% to 0.63%, using the denominator of all Papanicolaou tests. Based on the nongynecologic cytologic-histologic correlation data, the specimen sites with the highest discrepancy frequency (by project site) were lung (ranging from 16.5% to 62.3% of all errors) and urinary bladder (ranging from 4.4% to 25.0%). Most errors detected by the gynecologic cytologic-histologic correlation process were no-harm events (ranging from 10.7% to 43.2% by project site). Root cause analysis identified sources of error on both the clinical and pathology sides of the process, and error intervention programs are currently being implemented to improve patient safety. A multi-institutional anatomic pathology error database may be used to benchmark practices and target specific high-frequency errors or

  16. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    PubMed Central

    Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823

  17. [Molecular diagnostics in pathology].

    PubMed

    Stenzinger, A; Penzel, R; Endris, V; Weichert, W

    2013-05-01

    Tissue-based molecular diagnostics is a fast growing diagnostic field, which already complements morphologic classifications in many cases. Pathology based molecular diagnosis is performed almost exclusively on paraffin embedded material and always in conjunction with histopathology. Besides the classic field of tissue based detection of pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, molecular diagnostics of tumor tissue is one of the current hot topics in oncology. In this context the detection of predictive molecular biomarkers, such as specific mutations, allows patient stratification for individually tailored treatment strategies and thereby is one of the key components of individualized patient care in oncology. The rapidly growing number of clinically relevant predictive biomarkers together with impressive technical advances, specifically the development of massive parallel sequencing, will modify the care of patients with malignant diseases. Pathology, therefore, has returned in the very center of interdisciplinary patient care.

  18. The pathology of paraphrenia.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Manuel F

    2010-06-01

    The term paraphrenia refers to a condition characterized by a strong delusional component with preservation of thought and personality. Most affected patients are women. Although a late age at onset (> 60 years) has been proposed in the literature, evidence for this assertion remains debatable. Deterioration of cognitive functions occurs very slowly but may lead to mild dementia over a period of years. Pathological studies indicate the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), primarily within the entorhinal cortex. Compared with the severity of neuritic changes, amyloid deposition remains scant. Pyramidal cells affected by NFTs appear to be preserved. Both the clinical history and neuropathology of paraphrenia are similar to those aspects described for NFT-predominant senile dementia. Risk factors, including organic lesions, may precipitate an earlier onset of symptomatology in patients exhibiting this pathology. Many of the symptoms in paraphrenia can be explained by involvement of the entorhinal cortex.

  19. [Czech eponyms in pathology].

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    The 24th European Congress of Pathology taking place in Prague is an opportunity to remind our society of the Czech names appearing as eponyms in pathological terminology: Karel Rokitanský - R. protuberance in dermoid cyst; R. thrombogenic theory of atherosclerosis; Mayer - R. - Küster - Hauser - Winckel syndrome (congenital malformation of the vagina and uterus); Václav Treitz - T. duodenal ligament; T. retroperitoneal hernia; T. uremic colitis; Vilém Dušan Lambl - L. excrescences of heart valves; Lamblia (Giardia) intestinalis, and also the foundation of urological cytology; Stanislav Provázek - Prowazek - Halberstädter bodies (trachoma), Rickettsia Prowazeki (typhus fever); Josef Vaněk - V. tumor (gastric inflammatory fibroid polyp), and also discovery of the etiology of pneumocystic pneumonia; Otto Jírovec - Pneumocystis Jiroveci; Blahoslav Bednář - B. tumor (pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans).

  20. Envy's pathology: Historical contexts.

    PubMed

    Minou, Lina

    2017-01-01

    This article is concerned with the physicality of envy primarily in early -modern, but also in eighteenth-century health contexts. The discussion brings together descriptions of the effects of envy on the body of the envier, mainly from works of physiology and health preservation, but also from literary and spiritual writings. These depictions of envy are studied beyond their symbolism and with a view to establish whether they are meaningful according to the medical theories of the time in which they occur. The discussion begins by acknowledging the status of envy as a 'disease' and looks to the specific ways in which the discourse of envy conveys this sense. I find that in the early modern discourse envy is always pathological, that is, it is experienced as disease and signifies disease in general and several diseases in particular. Moreover, envy is uniquely placed to convey pathology on account of its being connected to inherently pathogenic elements of the humoural theory. Specifically, envy is physiologically connected to melancholy, and the way it is presented comes close to attributes assigned to black bile. In addition, envy realizes pathology, the occurrence of disease in the body, by impairing the vital process of digestion and thus depriving the person from proper nourishment and sustenance. The analysis further considers how this impairment of the body fits with the physiological manifestation of envy as 'corrosion' and 'consumption'. Finding commonalities with other maladies mediated by these physiological signs the article concludes by considering the function of pathology in the conception of early modern envy.

  1. Envy's pathology: Historical contexts

    PubMed Central

    Minou, Lina

    2017-01-01

    This article is concerned with the physicality of envy primarily in early –modern, but also in eighteenth-century health contexts. The discussion brings together descriptions of the effects of envy on the body of the envier, mainly from works of physiology and health preservation, but also from literary and spiritual writings. These depictions of envy are studied beyond their symbolism and with a view to establish whether they are meaningful according to the medical theories of the time in which they occur. The discussion begins by acknowledging the status of envy as a ‘disease’ and looks to the specific ways in which the discourse of envy conveys this sense. I find that in the early modern discourse envy is always pathological, that is, it is experienced as disease and signifies disease in general and several diseases in particular. Moreover, envy is uniquely placed to convey pathology on account of its being connected to inherently pathogenic elements of the humoural theory. Specifically, envy is physiologically connected to melancholy, and the way it is presented comes close to attributes assigned to black bile. In addition, envy realizes pathology, the occurrence of disease in the body, by impairing the vital process of digestion and thus depriving the person from proper nourishment and sustenance. The analysis further considers how this impairment of the body fits with the physiological manifestation of envy as ‘corrosion’ and ‘consumption’. Finding commonalities with other maladies mediated by these physiological signs the article concludes by considering the function of pathology in the conception of early modern envy. PMID:28748219

  2. Nicotine and pathological angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jieun; Cooke, John P

    2012-11-27

    This paper describes the role of endothelial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in diseases where pathological angiogenesis plays a role. An extensive review of the literature was performed, focusing on studies that investigated the effect of nicotine upon angiogenesis. Nicotine induces pathological angiogenesis at clinically relevant concentrations (i.e. at tissue and plasma concentrations similar to those of a light to moderate smoker). Nicotine promotes endothelial cell migration, proliferation, survival, tube formation and nitric oxide (NO) production in vitro, mimicking the effect of other angiogenic growth factors. These in vitro findings indicate that there may be an angiogenic component to the pathophysiology of major tobacco related diseases such as carcinoma, atherosclerosis, and age-related macular degeneration. Indeed, nicotine stimulates pathological angiogenesis in pre-clinical models of these disorders. Subsequently, it has been demonstrated that nicotine stimulates nAChRs on the endothelium to induce angiogenic processes, that these nAChRs are largely of the α7 homomeric type, and that there are synergistic interactions between the nAChRs and angiogenic growth factor receptors at the phosphoproteomic and genomic levels. These findings are of potential clinical relevance, and provide mechanistic insights into tobacco-related disease. Furthermore, these findings may lead to novel therapies for diseases characterized by insufficient or inappropriate angiogenesis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Pathology and emerging infections--quo vadimus?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, D. A.; Bryan, R. T.; Hughes, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    There have been dramatic changes in the occurrence of infectious diseases throughout the world in the previous two decades. The emergence of new microbial agents, and the reemergence of infections previously believed to be controlled, threatens the health of all populations. The emergence of these infectious diseases has occurred during a period of breakdown in the capabilities of the public health surveillance systems, prevention programs, and disease control efforts. Expertise in pathology is critical to provide a strong national control program for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Despite the many significant achievements made by pathologists in improving understanding of the pathogenesis and diagnosis of infectious diseases, the field of pathology remains largely oriented toward neoplastic diseases, and has not yet identified infectious disease diagnosis as an important component of anatomic pathology training and research, even in the face of the current threats posed by microbial agents. In addition, there is currently a dearth of infectious disease pathologists in the United States and elsewhere in the world, and the use of the autopsy, a prime pathological tool for diagnosis of emerging infections, is on the wane. The most serious problem is that no formal training program for infectious disease pathology currently exists in the United States or elsewhere in the world. As a consequence of this lack of training opportunities, there is a severe deficiency of young, well-educated pathologists with infectious disease expertise. This article explores the historical linkages between the disciplines of infectious diseases and pathology, and suggests that infectious disease pathology as a subspecialty be strengthened and training programs be initiated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7495275

  4. Analysis of Regional Climate Changes adjusted Future Urban Growth Scenarios and possibility of the future air quality prediction in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Jeong, J.

    2012-12-01

    Land-use changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere, but future urban growth has not been considered widely to predict the future regional climate change because it is hard to predict the future land-use changes. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on Cellular Automata (CA) technique to predict the future land-use (especially, urban growth) changes. Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the research area in this study, is the most explosively developed region in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. SLEUTH was calibrated to know the pattern and process of the urban growth and expansion in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from WAter Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) historical trends of urban growth (SC1), (2) future urban policy and plan (SC2), (3) ecological protection and growth (SC3). We used the FNL data of NCEP/NCAR for one month, Oct. in 2005 to evaluate the performance of the WRF on the long-term climate simulation and compared results of WRF with the ASOS/AWS (Automated Surface Observing Systems and Automated Weather System) observation data of the Korea Meteorology Administration. Based on the accuracy of the model, we performed various numerical experiments by the urban growth scenarios using the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany on Oct. for 5 years (2046-2050), respectively. The difference of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA consequently caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase in the urban area. PBL height with a maximum of about 200m also appeared locally in newly

  5. Defense Acquisition Policy and Defense Industrial Base Reinforcement Strategy - Enhancing the International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-23

    Korea Defense Industry Association (KDIA). (2007). Annual management review of Korean Defense Industry. Seoul: Author. Lee, D.O. (2000...COMPETITIVENESS OF THE KOREAN NATIONAL DEFENSE INDUSTRY Published: 23 April 2008 by Dr. Dae Ok Lee 5th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium of the...International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  6. [Effects of a family education program for families of pathological gamblers].

    PubMed

    Hong, Jungah; Yang, Soo

    2013-08-01

    This study was done to examine the intervention effects on the family of a family education program for pathological gamblers based on Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT). A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. The participants were 44 families of pathological gamblers from G center in Gyung-gi Province and 5 Gam-Anon groups in Seoul City and Gyung-gi Province. The experimental group (n=22) attended the 6 weekly 2 hour-long CRAFT family education program. The control group (n=22) attended the 12-step program of Gam-Anon. Data were collected from November, 2011 to May, 2012. Compared with the control group, the experimental group showed significant decrease in depression (p=.001) and state anger (p=.039). There were no significant differences between groups in the level of interpersonal communication, trait anger, the mode of anger expression and self-esteem. Findings from this study suggest that the CRAFT family education program is effective in decreasing depression and state anger in families of pathological gamblers.

  7. Chemical speciation of size-segregated floor dusts and airborne magnetic particles collected at underground subway stations in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hae-Jin; Kim, BoWha; Malek, Md Abdul; Koo, Yong Sung; Jung, Jong Hoon; Son, Youn-Suk; Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2012-04-30

    Previous studies have reported the major chemical species of underground subway particles to be Fe-containing species that are generated from wear and friction processes at rail-wheel-brake and catenaries-pantographs interfaces. To examine chemical composition of Fe-containing particles in more details, floor dusts were collected at five sampling locations of an underground subway station. Size-segregated floor dusts were separated into magnetic and non-magnetic fractions using a permanent magnet. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX), iron metal, which is relatively harmless, was found to be the dominating chemical species in the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions with minor fractions of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, S, and C. From SEM analysis, the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions collected on railroad ties appeared to be smaller than 10 μm, indicating that their characteristics should somewhat reflect the characteristics of airborne particles in the tunnel and the platform. As most floor dusts are magnetic, PM levels at underground subway stations can be controlled by removing magnetic indoor particles using magnets. In addition, airborne subway particles, most of which were smaller than 10 μm, were collected using permanent magnets at two underground subway stations, namely Jegi and Yangjae stations, in Seoul, Korea. XRD and SEM/EDX analyses showed that most of the magnetic aerosol particles collected at Jegi station was iron metal, whereas those at Yangjae station contained a small amount of Fe mixed with Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and C. The difference in composition of the Fe-containing particles between the two subway stations was attributed to the different ballast tracks used.

  8. Survey on awareness and perceptions of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in dental hygienists in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Mah, Y-J; Kang, G-Y; Kim, S-J

    2015-08-01

    We investigated awareness in dental hygienists of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in patients with osteoporosis and cancer and assessed the situation in systemic history investigations to broaden the scope of the dental hygienists' BRONJ awareness as a basis for contributing to preventing this disease. The study was carried out through a survey; 217 dental hygienists responded to the survey. They worked at 12 university and general hospitals, 10 dental hospitals and 35 dental clinics, for a total of 57 institutions in Seoul. The survey consisted of 37 questions: general characteristics (J Oral Maxillofac Surg 65: 2007; 369), systemic history investigations (Ruggiero et al. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 62: 2004; 527) and awareness of BRONJ (Park et al. J Korean Dent Assoc 49: 2011; 389). Among them, 79.7% were aware of BRONJ. Recognition was highest among those from 25 to 35 years old (P < 0.05). In terms of work experience, those with 5-10 years experience showed the highest awareness (P < 0.05). In terms of institutions type, dental clinics showed lower awareness than general and dental hospitals (P < 0.05). It was found that 55.3% of the dental hygienists had been educated about BRONJ. Those aged 25-35 years were the most educated. In terms of institutions, dental clinic staff were the least educated. The degree of understanding about BRONJ was analysed with the average score of 6.14 points. According to these results, dental hygienists working in university hospitals and general hospitals had more opportunity to receive training than those working in dental clinics. Thus, it is considered that the development of professional training programs about BRONJ for all dental hygienists is necessary.

  9. Is "Safety-in-numbers" theory applies to the pattern of pedestrian accidents in Seoul, South Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Yoon, H.

    2016-12-01

    Every year, about 1.25 million people die of vehicle-related accidents, among which half are pedestrians with higher vulnerability: pedestrian, cyclists and motorcyclist (World Health Organization, 2016). This urges city governments in the world to strive for pedestrian safety and to apply diverse theories to transportation planning and design. The common belief is that the number of pedestrian accidents is directly and positively associated with the volume of pedestrian, however, another hypothesis, called "safety-in-numbers" effect, tells an opposite story in that accident rates declines with increase of the volume of pedestrian. In this study, we examine first, whether the safety-in-numbers theory applies to the pattern of pedestrian accidents in Seoul, and second, further investigate environmental factors that are associated with the pedestrian safety. On the first count, we use geospatial statistical analyses of the multi-year pedestrian accident data collected by Korea Road Traffic Authority (KoRoad) and the pedestrian volume data collected by SK Telecom (SKT). With Kernel Density Estimation and Bivariate Local Moran's I, we identify spatial clustering of pedestrian accidents in the city, and examine whether those locations match with concentrations of pedestrian volume. On the second count, we use statistical analysis, tobit, poisson and negative binomial regression to investigate relationships between pedestrian volume and number of pedestrian accident for the two types of geographic areas by the results of the aforementioned analysis; Area 1- locations of high volume of pedestrian with high number of accident, Area 2- locations of high volume of pedestrian with low number of accident. For environmental factors potentially explaining pedestrian accidents, we include land use composition, number of traffic lanes, crosswalk presence, pedestrian signal, traffic island and sidewalk width in our analysis. This research will be valuable in city governments

  10. Single-particle characterization of indoor aerosol particles collected at an underground shopping area in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Maskey, Shila; Kang, TaeHee; Jung, Hae-Jin; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-02-01

    In this study, single-particle characterization of aerosol particles collected at an underground shopping area was performed for the first time. A quantitative single-particle analytical technique, low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis, was used to characterize a total of 7900 individual particles for eight sets of aerosol samples collected at an underground shopping area in Seoul, Korea. Based on secondary electron images and X-ray spectral data of individual particles, fourteen particle types were identified, in which primary soil-derived particles were the most abundant, followed by carbonaceous, Fe-containing, secondary soil-derived, and secondary sea-salt particles. Carbonaceous particles exist in three types: organic carbon, carbon-rich, and CNO-rich. A significant number of textile particles with chemical composition C, N, and O were encountered in some of the aerosol samples, which were from the textile shops and/or from clothes of passersby. Primary soil-derived particles showed seasonal variation, with peak values in spring samples, reflecting higher air exchange between indoor and outdoor environments in the spring. Secondary soil-derived, secondary sea-salt, and ammonium sulfate particles were frequently encountered in winter samples. Fe-containing particles, contributed from a nearby subway station, were in the range of about 19% relative abundances for all samples. In underground shopping areas, particulate matters can be a considerable health hazard to the workers, shoppers, passersby, and shop-keepers as they spend their considerable time in this closed microenvironment. However, no study on the characteristics of indoor aerosols in an underground shopping area has been reported to our knowledge. This work provides detailed information on characteristics of underground shopping area aerosols on a single particle level. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Comparison of dietary food and nutrient intakes by supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyesook; Jang, Won; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Moon, Gui-Im; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Tae-Seok; Chang, Namsoo

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed to compare the dietary food and nutrient intakes according to supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul. The subjects were composed of 201 pregnant and 104 lactating women, and their dietary food intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. General information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as health-related behaviors, including the use of dietary supplements, were collected. About 88% and 60% of the pregnant and lactating women took dietary supplements, respectively. The proportion of dietary supplements used was higher in pregnant women with a higher level of education. After adjusting for potential confounders, among the pregnant women, supplement users were found to consume 45% more vegetables, and those among the lactating women were found to consume 96% more beans and 58% more vegetables. The intakes of dietary fiber and β-carotene among supplement users were higher than those of non-users, by 23% and 39%, respectively. Among pregnant women, the proportion of women with an intake of vitamin C (from diet alone) below the estimated average requirements (EAR) was lower among supplement users [users (44%) vs. non-users (68%)], and the proportion of lactating women with intakes of iron (from diet alone) below the EAR was lower among supplement users [usesr (17%) vs. non-users (38%)]. These results suggest that among pregnant and lactating women, those who do not use dietary supplements tend to have a lower intake of healthy foods, such as beans and vegetables, as well as a lower intake of dietary fiber and β-carotene, which are abundant in these foods, and non-users are more likely than users to have inadequate intake of micro-nutrient such as vitamin C and iron.

  12. Accuracy of Korean-Mini-Mental Status Examination Based on Seoul Neuro-Psychological Screening Battery II Results

    PubMed Central

    Kang, In-Woong; Beom, In-Gyu; Cho, Ji-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background The Korean-Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) is a dementia-screening test that can be easily applied in both community and clinical settings. However, in 20% to 30% of cases, the K-MMSE produces a false negative response. This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate the accuracy of K-MMSE as a screening test for dementia, which can be achieved through comparison of K-MMSE and Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB)-II results. Methods The study included 713 subjects (male 534, female 179; mean age, 69.3±6.9 years). All subjects were assessed using K-MMSE and SNSB-II tests, the results of which were divided into normal and abnormal in 15 percentile standards. Results The sensitivity of the K-MMSE was 48.7%, with a specificity of 89.9%. The incidence of false positive and negative results totaled 10.1% and 51.2%, respectively. In addition, the positive predictive value of the K-MMSE was 87.1%, while the negative predictive value was 55.6%. The false-negative group showed cognitive impairments in regions of memory and executive function. Subsequently, in the false-positive group, subjects demonstrated reduced performance in memory recall, time orientation, attention, and calculation of K-MMSE items. Conclusion The results obtained in the study suggest that cognitive function might still be impaired even if an individual obtained a normal score on the K-MMSE. If the K-MMSE is combined with tests of memory or executive function, the accuracy of dementia diagnosis could be greatly improved. PMID:27274389

  13. Cavity enhanced spectroscopy for measurement of nitrogen oxides in the Anthropocene: results from the Seoul tower during MAPS 2015.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven S; An, Hyunjin; Lee, Meehye; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Lee, Sang-Deok; Fibiger, Dorothy L; McDuffie, Erin E; Dubé, William P; Wagner, Nicholas L; Min, Kyung-Eun

    2017-08-24

    Cavity enhanced spectroscopy, CES, is a high sensitivity direct absorption method that has seen increasing utility in the last decade, a period also marked by increasing requirements for understanding human impacts on atmospheric composition. This paper describes the current NOAA six channel cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS, the most common form of CES) for measurement of nitrogen oxides and O3. It further describes the results from measurements from a tower 300 m above the urban area of Seoul in late spring of 2015. The campaign demonstrates the performance of the CRDS instrument and provides new data on both photochemistry and nighttime chemistry in a major Asian megacity. The instrument provided accurate, high time resolution data for N2O5, NO, NO2, NOy and O3, but suffered from large wall loss in the sampling of NO3, illustrating the requirement for calibration of the NO3 inlet transmission. Both the photochemistry and nighttime chemistry of nitrogen oxides and O3 were rapid in this megacity. Sustained average rates of O3 buildup of 10 ppbv h(-1) during recurring morning and early afternoon sea breezes led to a 50 ppbv average daily O3 rise. Nitrate radical production rates, P(NO3), averaged 3-4 ppbv h(-1) in late afternoon and early evening, much greater than contemporary data from Los Angeles, a comparable U. S. megacity. These P(NO3) were much smaller than historical data from Los Angeles, however. Nighttime data at 300 m above ground showed considerable variability in high time resolution nitrogen oxide and O3, likely resulting from sampling within gradients in the nighttime boundary layer structure. Apparent nighttime biogenic VOC oxidation rates of several ppbv h(-1) were also likely influenced by vertical gradients. Finally, daytime N2O5 mixing ratios of 3-35 pptv were associated with rapid daytime P(NO3) and agreed well with a photochemical steady state calculation.

  14. Pathology subspecialty fellowship application reform 2007 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Crawford, James M; Hoffman, Robert D; Black-Schaffer, W Stephen

    2011-06-01

    The specialty of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine has entered into a phase when the 4-year sequence of Anatomic Pathology and/or Clinical Pathology Residency Training is almost universally followed by 1 or more years of Subspecialty Fellowship Training. Such training may occur in one of the American Board of Pathology-recognized subspecialties or any number of "subspecialty fellowships" that, although not leading to subspecialty board certification, may nevertheless fall under the oversight of the local institutional Graduate Medical Education Committee and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Review Committee for Pathology. Unlike the application process for first-year Pathology Residency, which is run through the National Resident Matching Program, applications for Subspecialty Pathology Fellowships are not coordinated by any consistent schedule. Competition for Subspecialty Pathology Fellowships has consistently resulted in undesirable drift of the fellowship application process to dates that are unacceptably early for many fellowship applicants. Responding to widespread dissatisfaction voiced by national pathology resident organizations, in 2007, the Association of Pathology Chairs began evaluation and potential intervention in the fellowship application process. Three years of intermittently intense discussion, surveys, and market analysis, have led the Council of the Association of Pathology Chairs to recommend implementation of a Pathology Subspecialty Fellowship Matching program starting in the 2011 to 2012 recruiting year, for those Applicants matriculating in fellowship programs July 2013. We report on the data that informed this decision and discuss the pros and cons that are so keenly felt by the stakeholders in this as-yet-incomplete reform process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Does community capacity influence self-rated health? Multilevel contextual effects in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Viswanath, K

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between community-level contextual effects and self-rated health (SRH) based on the perspective of community capacity rather than social capital. Community capacity for mobilization is broad cooperation for networking among indigenous social agents and grassroots organizations that may serve as potential resources. The idea of community capacity is rooted in the philosophy that a community not only faces problems but also possesses the necessary resources to solve its problems. We used nationally representative data from South Korea, 2010, drawing on 14,228 residents in 404 communities. Community capacity was measured at two levels: an individual-level indicator of community satisfaction, and community-level indicators of participation rate in community organizations, number of community-based organizations (CBOs), and number of volunteer work camps (VWCs). The outcome variable was SRH, which was categorized into two groups: the low-SRH and high-SRH groups. Confounders included gender, age, and income at the individual level, and aggregate length of residency, financial independence ratio, and aggregate income at the community level. We estimated the effects of community capacity on SRH using hierarchical generalized linear models. The likelihood of belonging to the group having low-SRH is significantly high among those respondents living in places with lower community capacity at the community level, that report lower community satisfaction, and that have lower income at the individual level. After controlling for socio-economic confounders, the odds ratios were attenuated but remained significant in the final model, which included the gender-specific model. This study revealed that SRH is related to the level of community capacity for mobilization. It is probably because CBOs and VWCs not only provide necessary information and complementary services but also play an active role in identifying and resolving health problems

  16. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Types of pathological gamblers].

    PubMed

    Balázs, Hedvig; Kun, Bernadette; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with the end of the total and later on the partial state ban on gambling in Hungary, an increasingly intensive revival of gambling can be observed together with a widening scope of offers. Parallel to the growing popularity of controlled, social and recreational forms of gambling, the spread of excessive, problematic and pathological gambling requiring therapeutic intervention is also present. Both from the perspective of research and clinical practice the following questions are raised. Whether there exist subtypes of problematic or pathological gamblers with specific personality characteristics and therefore needs for specific types of treatment, and if it is worth differentiating between gamblers according to their preferences towards specific types of gambling. One stream of research with the objective of finding subtypes of gambling examines pathological gamblers in general, independent of their gambling preferences. These authors describe subgroups with typical psychological characteristics and they present various possible functions of gambling. On the other hand, data is available supporting that persons with unlike dominant preferences towards different types of gambling can be characterized by dissimilar demographic and psychological indices as well. Authors in these studies present typologies created according to various different aspects in details. Based on studies aiming to create a typology of gambling addicted patients and discover their motives, we can assume that the escape gambler and the impulsive gambler types can most unequivocally be differentiated. Besides these, studies suggest the existence of two other types of gamblers; normal and ones seeking the experience of dissociation. On the personality characteristics of gamblers playing specific types of games, however, there is little data available yet.

  18. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Pike, John G.; Leonard, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. SOURCES OF INFORMATION This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for literature on phimosis and circumcision referrals and on our experience at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Urology Clinic. MeSH headings used in our MEDLINE search included “phimosis,” “referral and consultation,” and “circumcision.” Most of the available articles about phimosis and foreskin referrals were retrospective reviews and cohort studies (levels II and III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. Great anxiety exists among patients and parentsregarding non-retractile foreskins. Most phimosis referrals seen in pediatric urology clinics are normal physiologically phimotic foreskins. Referrals of patients with physiologic phimosis to urology clinics can create anxiety about the need for surgery among patients and parents, while unnecessarily expanding the waiting list for specialty assessment. Uncircumcised penises require no special care. With normal washing, using soap and water, and gentle retraction during urination and bathing, most foreskins will become retractile over time. CONCLUSION Physiologic phimosis is often seen by family physicians. These patients and their parents require reassurance of normalcy and reinforcement of proper preputial hygiene. Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management. PMID:17872680

  19. Thumb ultrasound: Technique and pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jatinder P; Kumar, Shwetam; Kathiria, Atman V; Harjai, Rachit; Jawed, Akram; Gupta, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is ideally suited for the assessment of complex anatomy and pathologies of the thumb. Focused and dynamic thumb ultrasound can provide a rapid real-time diagnosis and can be used for guided treatment in certain clinical situations. We present a simplified approach to scanning technique for thumb-related pathologies and illustrate a spectrum of common and uncommon pathologies encountered. PMID:27857468

  20. Formaldehyde in pathology departments.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R P

    1983-01-01

    Toxic effects of formaldehyde in humans are discussed in relation to occupational exposure and tolerance to this agent. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of formaldehyde have been reported in animals and this has led to concern about a possible role in human cancer. The current state of affairs is reviewed in the light of a lack of direct evidence linking formaldehyde with cancer in man and in relation to recommended exposure levels. It is important to employ effective means of containment and practical methods for reducing exposure to formaldehyde in pathology departments and post-mortem rooms are described. Images PMID:6223948

  1. Eye pathologies in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Mansoor, Nyaish; Mansoor, Tihami; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, newborn assessment incorporates a screening eye examination for any structural abnormalities, observation of neonate's visual behaviour and direct ophthalmoscopy examination looking for red reflex. Early identification and immediate management of eye related pathologies should commence soon after birth as early diagnosis and prompt intervention may have significant impact on the prognosis for many potentially blinding but treatable disorders such as congenital cataracts and retinoblastoma. If left undetected and untreated, such problems may potentially lead to irreversible damage to the vision which persists into adulthood resulting in lack of self-confidence together with difficulties in educational attainment and job opportunities. PMID:28003988

  2. Marketing the pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  3. [Benchmarking in pathological anatomy].

    PubMed

    Dalla, Palma P; Chisté, K; Guarrera, M G; Gardini, G; Gelli, M C; Coccolini, M; Egarter Vigl, E; Girardi, F; Vineis, C; Casassa, F; Gangemi, P; Quaceci, A

    2003-06-01

    Data from five different Institution of Pathological Anatomy Hospital Services are presented in order to show one (the benchmark) of the multiple existing ways to approach the budget problem and the macroeconomic management of our Services. The aim of this work is not to show the "best" way to work in terms of cost-efficacy but only a methods to compare our results with others. Nevertheless from this study is possible also to make some considerations about medical and technical workload in different services with different habits.

  4. On the temporal and spatial variability of air pollutants characteristic and origin using ground-based and satellite observations over Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; El-Askary, H. M.; Sabbah, I. S.; Prasad, A. K.; Kwak, H.; Lee, W.; Kafatos, M.

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the spatial and temporal characteristics of five major air pollutants collected from 44 air quality stations over Seoul and its surroundings namely, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), particular matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) between 2000 and 2009. The corresponding satellite datasets namely, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent and Fine Mode Fraction (FMF), collected from MODIS have been analyzed as well. Moreover, AERONET data were used for verifying MODIS retrievals and the two datasets matched highly with correlation coefficient 0.82. To better understand spatial characteristic of pollutants, the seasonal effect has been inferred from meteorological parameters including wind speed, temperature, precipitation and visibility over Seoul and other five locations, in Seoul, representing the varying pollutants' characteristics. We have found a significant impact of the pollutants on the seasonality behavior of meteorological parameters that vary by location. Excess pollution is strongly linked to temperature and precipitation variability especially, during summer and fall. The five pollutants under study show varying temporal behavior with different annual and monthly mean concentration patterns. The monthly means of NO2, CO, SO2 and PM10 show similar low concentrations during the summer season. In addition, during this season the satellite datasets indicate that most of pollution derived from anthropogenic sources owed to the high exponent values associated with the high AOD. Satellite data analysis and spatial maps shed the light on the pollutants origin either being of natural or anthropogenic source. It is noticed that the anthropogenic pollution is dominant from July to September even though the maps showed lower concentration than the other months.

  5. Aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei concentration measurement in Seoul during 2004-2010 and its comparison to those in other places around the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Kim, J.; Yum, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    The prediction of the effects of atmospheric aerosols on climate has been known to be very uncertain. The reason for this low scientific understanding is mainly due to insufficient observational characterization of aerosols despite their local and time varying nature. Particularly, Asian regions have been recognized as an enormous source of anthropogenic aerosols. Therefore aerosol measurement in Asian regions is crucially important. Submicron aerosol number concentration (NCN) and the size distributions(10 nm < particle diameter < 480 nm) were measured in a continuous manner at Yonsei University located near the center of Seoul, South Korea, during 2004-2010. Cloud condensation nuclei number concentration (NCCN) was also measured during 2006-2010 at the same location. Measurements were occasionally interrupted due to repair and during field measurements at several other places around the Korean Peninsula. Otherwise measurement was continuously made in Seoul. The NCN, geometric mean diameter of aerosols (Dg) and NCCN at 0.6% supersaturation are in the range of 18094±7149 cm-3, 49±10 nm, and 5272±3143 cm-3 , respectively, at Yonsei University in Seoul. At Yeongjong Island located to the west of the Korean Peninsula, the NCN, Dg and NCCN at 0.53% supersaturation are in the range of 3011±456 cm-3, 91±6 nm, and 2791±519 cm-3 during 16-21 August 2008. At Daegwallyeong located in the eastern mountain range of the Korea Peninsula, they are in the range of 5069±2314 cm-3, 53±15 nm, and 1401±375 cm-3 during 22-29 August 2008. Additionally several flight measurements and ship measurements around the Korean Peninsula are made. These measurements are made as an effort to know representative values of NCN and NCCN around the Korea Peninsula. Comprehensive analysis will be shown at the conference.

  6. A selective Seoul-Fluor-based bioprobe, SfBP, for vaccinia H1-related phosphatase--a dual-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Myeong Seon; Kim, Eunha; Kang, Hyo Jin; Choi, Eun Joung; Cho, Alvin R; Chung, Sang J; Park, Seung Bum

    2012-07-04

    We report a Seoul-Fluor-based bioprobe, SfBP, for selective monitoring of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). A rational design based on the structures at the active site of dual-specific PTPs can enable SfBP to selectively monitor the activity of these PTPs with a 93-fold change in brightness. Moreover, screening results of SfBP against 30 classical PTPs and 35 dual-specific PTPs show that it is selective toward vaccinia H1-related (VHR) phosphatase, a dual-specific PTP (DUSP-3).

  7. Pathology of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vijgen, Sandrine; Terris, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCC) is a primary carcinoma of the liver with increasing significance and major pathogenic, clinical and therapeutic challenges. Classically, it arises from malignant transformation of cholangiocytes bordering small portal bile duct (BD) to second-order segmental large BDs. It has three major macroscopic growth pattern [mass-forming (MF), periductal infiltrative (PI), and intraductal growth (IG)] and histologically is a desmoplastic stroma-rich adenocarcinoma with cholangiocyte differentiation. Recent data pointed out noteworthy degree of heterogeneity in regards of their epidemiology and risk factors, pathological and molecular features, pathogenesis, clinical behaviors and treatment. Notably, several histological variants are described and can coexist within the same tumor. Several different cells of origin have also been depicted in a fraction of iCCs, amongst which malignant transformation of ductules, of hepatic stem/progenitor cells, of periductal glands or through oncogenic reprogramming of adult hepatocytes. A degree of pathological overlap with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be observed in a portion of iCC. A series of precursor lesions are today characterized and emphasize the existence of a multistep carcinogenesis process. Overall, these new data have brought up in proposal of new histological or molecular classifications, which could soon replace current anatomic-based classification and could have major impact on establishment of prognosis and on development of novel target treatment approaches. PMID:28261592

  8. Exosomes in liver pathology

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Keisaku; Meng, Fanyin; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are small (~100 nm) membrane-bound extracellular vesicles released by various types of cells into biological fluids. They contain proteins, mRNAs and miRNAs as cargo. Different cell types can take up exosomes by endocytosis and the cargo contained within them can be transferred horizontally to these recipient cells. Exosomal proteins and miRNAs can be functional and regulate physiological cell events modifying the microenvironment in target cells, a key event of liver pathology. Exosome-mediated cell-cell communication can alter tumor growth, cell migration, anti-viral infection and hepatocyte regeneration, indicating that exosomes have great potential development as diagnostic or therapeutic tools. Analyses of circulating total or exosomal miRNAs have identified a large number of candidate miRNAs that are regulated in liver diseases, and the diagnostic testing using single or multiple miRNAs shows good sensitivity and specificity. Some candidate miRNAs have been identified to play an important role in various liver disorders. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of extracellular vesicles in liver diseases and their diagnostic and therapeutic potential, mainly focusing on exosomes but also includes microvesicles in liver pathology. PMID:26988731

  9. [(Impending) pathological fracture].

    PubMed

    Sutter, P M; Regazzoni, P

    2002-01-01

    Pathological fractures will be encountered in increasing frequency due to more patients with cancer, surviving a longer period. The skeleton is the third most frequent localization for metastases. Breast cancer is still the most common primary tumor, but bone metastases from lung cancer seem to be diagnosed more and more. Despite of finding metastases most often in the spinal column, fractures are seen mostly at the femoral site. A pathological fracture and, in almost all cases, an impending fracture are absolute indication for operation. An exact definition of an "impending fracture" is still lacking; it is widely accepted, that 50 per cent of bone mass must be destroyed before visualization in X-ray is possible, thus defining an impending fracture. The score system by Mirels estimates the fracture risk by means of four parameters (localization, per cent of destructed bone mass, type of metastasis, pain). Improving quality of life, relieving pain, preferably with a single operation and a short length of stay are the goals of (operative) treatment. For fractures of the proximal femur, prosthetic replacement, for fractures of the subtrochanteric region or the shaft, intramedullary nails are recommended. Postoperative radiation therapy possibly avoids tumor progression. In patient with a good long term prognosis, tumor should be removed locally aggressive.

  10. Nanotechnology: Toxicologic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hubbs, Ann F.; Sargent, Linda M.; Porter, Dale W.; Sager, Tina M.; Chen, Bean T.; Frazer, David G.; Castranova, Vincent; Sriram, Krishnan; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Reynolds, Steven H.; Battelli, Lori A.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Fluharty, Kara L.; Mercer, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves technology, science, and engineering in dimensions less than 100 nm. A virtually infinite number of potential nanoscale products can be produced from many different molecules and their combinations. The exponentially increasing number of nanoscale products will solve critical needs in engineering, science, and medicine. However, the virtually infinite number of potential nanotechnology products is a challenge for toxicologic pathologists. Because of their size, nanoparticulates can have therapeutic and toxic effects distinct from micron-sized particulates of the same composition. In the nanoscale, distinct intercellular and intracellular translocation pathways may provide a different distribution than that obtained by micron-sized particulates. Nanoparticulates interact with subcellular structures including microtubules, actin filaments, centrosomes, and chromatin; interactions that may be facilitated in the nanoscale. Features that distinguish nanoparticulates from fine particulates include increased surface area per unit mass and quantum effects. In addition, some nanotechnology products, including the fullerenes, have a novel and reactive surface. Augmented microscopic procedures including enhanced dark-field imaging, immunofluorescence, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy are useful when evaluating nanoparticulate toxicologic pathology. Thus, the pathology assessment is facilitated by understanding the unique features at the nanoscale and the tools that can assist in evaluating nanotoxicology studies. PMID:23389777

  11. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory.

  12. Pathology of liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Centeno, Barbara A

    2006-01-01

    The liver is the most frequent site of metastatic disease, and metastatic disease to the liver is far more common than primary liver carcinoma in the United States. Pathologic evaluation of biopsy samples is key to establishing a correct diagnosis for patient management. Morphologic and immunoperoxidase studies, which are the standard for pathologic practice, accurately classify most tumors. Subclassification of carcinoma of unknown primary remains problematic. The author reviewed the literature for articles pertaining to liver biopsy, diagnosis of specific tumor types, utility of immunohistochemical markers, and microarray and proteomic analysis. Sampling of liver lesions is best accomplished by combining fine-needle aspiration and needle core biopsy. Many malignancies have distinct morphologic and immunohistochemical patterns and can be correctly subclassified. Adenocarcinoma of unknown primary remains enigmatic since current immunohistochemical markers for this differential diagnosis lack specificity. Microarray analysis and proteomic analysis of tumors can provide distinct gene or protein expression profiles, respectively, for tumor classification. These technologies can be used with fine-needle aspiration and needle core biopsy samples. Most metastatic malignancies in the liver may be correctly diagnosed using standard morphology and immunohistochemical techniques. However, subtyping of some carcinomas and identification of site of unknown primary remains problematic. New technologies may help to further refine our diagnostic capabilities.

  13. The pathology of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Macher, A M

    1988-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This retrovirus causes profound immunoincompetence in its infected hosts, who are thereafter susceptible to develop myriad severe and relapsing protozoal, fungal, bacterial, viral, and arthropodal opportunistic infections, as well as unusual malignancies. The more than 50,000 patients who have developed AIDS in the United States have produced a sudden unexpected deluge of diagnostic dilemmas that are stressing laboratories of pathology everywhere. This paper describes the gross and microscopic pathology of the numerous complications in patients infected by HIV: (a) the prodromal AIDS-related complex with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, (b) lymphoid infiltration of salivary gland and lung, including the complex of lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis-pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia, (c) extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, (d) multifocal mucocutaneous and visceral Kaposi's sarcoma, (e) small cell undifferentiated (oat cell) carcinomas, (f) protozoal infections caused by Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, Acanthamoeba, Cryptosporidium species (sp.), and Isospora belli, (g) the causes of chronic enteritis, (h) mycotic infections caused by Candida sp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Sporothrix schenckii, (i) bacterial infections caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii, Nocardia sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella sp., Treponema pallidum, and others, (j) viral infections caused by cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex and zoster, polyomavirus (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy), hepatitis B, molluscum contagiosum, and papillomavirus, (k) oral hairy leukoplakia, (l) subacute encephalopathy, and (m) Norwegian scabies. PMID:2836878

  14. Influence of fossil-fuel power plant emissions on the surface fine particulate matter in the Seoul Capital Area, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Okgil; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Soontae

    2016-09-01

    The South Korean government plans to reduce region-wide annual PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) concentrations in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA) from 2010 levels of 27 µg/m(3) to 20 µg/m(3) by 2024. At the same time, it is inevitable that emissions from fossil-fuel power plants will continue to increase if electricity generation expands and the generation portfolio remains the same in the future. To estimate incremental PM2.5 contributions due to projected electricity generation growth in South Korea, we utilized an ensemble forecasting member of the Integrated Multidimensional Air Quality System for Korea based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. We performed sensitivity runs with across-the-board emission reductions for all fossil-fuel power plants in South Korea to estimate the contribution of PM2.5 from domestic fossil-fuel power plants. We estimated that fossil-fuel power plants are responsible for 2.4% of the annual PM2.5 national ambient air quality standard in the SCA as of 2010. Based on the electricity generation and the annual contribution of fossil-fuel power plants in 2010, we estimated that annual PM2.5 concentrations may increase by 0.2 µg/m(3) per 100 TWhr due to additional electricity generation. With currently available information on future electricity demands, we estimated that the total future contribution of fossil-fuel power plants would be 0.87 µg/m(3), which is 12.4% of the target reduction amount of the annual PM2.5 concentration by 2024. We also approximated that the number of premature deaths caused by existing fossil-fuel power plants would be 736 in 2024. Since the proximity of power plants to the SCA and the types of fuel used significantly impact this estimation, further studies are warranted on the impact of physical parameters of plants, such as location and stack height, on PM2.5 concentrations in the SCA due to each precursor. Improving air quality by reducing fine particle

  15. Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents

    PubMed Central

    Karcher, Donald S.; Harrison, James H.; Sinard, John H.; Riben, Michael W.; Boyer, Philip J.; Plath, Sue; Thompson, Arlene; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recognition of the importance of informatics to the practice of pathology has surged. Training residents in pathology informatics has been a daunting task for most residency programs in the United States because faculty often lacks experience and training resources. Nevertheless, developing resident competence in informatics is essential for the future of pathology as a specialty. Objective: To develop and deliver a pathology informatics curriculum and instructional framework that guides pathology residency programs in training residents in critical pathology informatics knowledge and skills, and meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Informatics Milestones. Design: The College of American Pathologists, Association of Pathology Chairs, and Association for Pathology Informatics formed a partnership and expert work group to identify critical pathology informatics training outcomes and to create a highly adaptable curriculum and instructional approach, supported by a multiyear change management strategy. Results: Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents (PIER) is a rigorous approach for educating all pathology residents in important pathology informatics knowledge and skills. PIER includes an instructional resource guide and toolkit for incorporating informatics training into residency programs that vary in needs, size, settings, and resources. PIER is available at http://www.apcprods.org/PIER (accessed April 6, 2016). Conclusions: PIER is an important contribution to informatics training in pathology residency programs. PIER introduces pathology trainees to broadly useful informatics concepts and tools that are relevant to practice. PIER provides residency program directors with a means to implement a standardized informatics training curriculum, to adapt the approach to local program needs, and to evaluate resident performance and progress over time. PMID:28725772

  16. Chemical characteristics of size-resolved aerosols from Asian dust and haze episode in Seoul Metropolitan City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Eunha; Han, Jihyun; Lee, Meehye; Lee, Gangwoong; Kim, Jong Chun

    2013-06-01

    We collected aerosol particles in Seoul using a 10 stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) to investigate the size distributions of aerosol mass and water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2 +, Ca2 +, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42 -) for the two high-mass episodes taking place in February and April, 2009. The former was a heavy Asian dust (AD) event and the latter was a haze episode associated with stagnant condition that prevailed over the Yellow Sea region. In AD plume, the mass peak was noticeable at coarse mode between 1.0 and 1.8 μm but SO42 - and NH4+ were enriched in condensation mode between 0.056 and 0.1 μm. There was little chance for the heavy AD plume to pick up SO2 and water vapor, which are in good accordance with its transport paths and the chemical characteristics of aerosols and gaseous species. These results imply that the heterogeneous reaction of SO2 on dust particles would not be substantial in determining sulfate concentrations for this particular type of dust plume, considering the possibility of loss of large soil particles in MOUDI. During the haze episode, both total aerosol mass and water-soluble inorganic ions showed bimodal size distributions with the droplet (0.32-0.56 μm) and coarse (1.0-1.8 μm) mode peaks. In this haze event, acidic gases tend to be dissolved more efficiently in larger particles, shifting the peaks of SO42 - and NO3- to larger droplet particles. For NH4+, however, the mode change was not observed, which was probably due to the depleted source and high solubility of NH3. These results demonstrated that the availability of precursor gases such as SO2, NO2, and NH3, and the water-vapor contents were important factor to determine the formation of droplet-mode particles and their sizes.

  17. Analysis of climate variability under various scenarios for future urban growth in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Jeong, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    It is important to adjust urban growth data closer to reality in the regional climate model because urban changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere. Future urban growth, however, has not been considered widely in the prediction model for future climate change. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on cellular automata (CA) technique to predict the future urban growth. The target area is Seoul Metropolitan area (SMA) where the urban area explosively has expanded the most in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. The SLEUTH model was calibrated to know the pattern of the urban growth in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from Water Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then the future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) current trends scenario (Scenario 1; SC1), (2) regional policy and urban planning scenario (Scenario 2; SC2), (3) ecologically protection scenario (Scenario 3; SC3). As a result, the urban ratios by scenarios were increased 12.87, 11.17 and 6.26 percentages of the total area for 50 years respectively. These predictions of SLEUTH model used as the boundary condition data and the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany used as the initial condition data in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We designed four different numerical experiments in accordance with the four scenarios for the urban growth (SC1, SC2, SC3 and Current condition) and carried out for 5 years (2046-2050). Overall, the increment of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase and the average wind speed to decrease in the

  18. Effects of cloud, aerosol, and ozone on surface spectral Ultraviolet and total irradiance observed in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hana; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Woogyung; Lee, Yun Gon; Cho, Hi Ku

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there have been substantial attempts to model the radiative transfer for climatological and biological purposes. However, the incorporation of clouds, aerosols and ozone into the modeling process is one of the difficult tasks due to their variable transmission in both temporal and space domains. In this study we quantify the atmospheric transmissions by clouds, aerosol optical depth (AOD at 320 nm) and total ozone (Ozone) together with all skies in three solar radiation components of the global solar (GS 305-2800nm), total ultraviolet (TUV 290-363nm) and the erythemal weighted ultraviolet (EUV 290-325nm) irradiances with statistical methods using the data at Seoul. The purpose of this study also is to clarify the different characteristics between cloud, AOD and Ozone in the wavelength-dependent solar radiation components. The ozone, EUV and TUV used in this study (March 2003 - February 2014) have been measured with Dobson Spectrophotometer (Beck #124) and Brewer Spectrophotometer (SCI-TEC#148) at Yonsei University, respectively. GS, Cloud Cover (CC) are available from the Korean Meteorological Agency. The measured total (effect of cloud, aerosol, and ozone) transmissions on annual average showed 74%, 76% and 80% of GS, TUV and EUV irradiance, respectively. For the comparison of the measured values with modeled, we have also constructed a multiple linear regression model for the total transmission. The average ratio of measured to modeled total transmission were 0.94, 0.96 and 0.96 with higher measured than modeled value in the three components, respectively, The individual transmission by clouds under the constant AOD and Ozone atmosphere on average showed 68%, 71% and 76% and further the overcast clouds reduced the transmissions to the 45%, 54% and 59% of the clear sky irradiance in the GS, TUV and EUV, respectively. The annual transmissions by AOD showed on average 67%, 70% and 74% and further the high loadings 2.5-4.0 AOD reduced the

  19. Submicron aerosol size distribution measurements in the city of Seoul, and coastal and marine environments around South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yum, S. S.; Kim, J.; Han, D.; Oh, S.; Nam, J.

    2005-12-01

    Submicron aerosol size distributions and total particle (i.e., condensation nuclei, CN) concentrations were measured continuously from September 2004 at the campus of Yonsei University located at the central part of Seoul. The instruments, TSI SMPS-3936L10 and CPC-3010, were installed at an office in the sixth floor of a building and the sample air was drawn from a window. The height of the building and the relatively low traffic in the campus may qualify these measurements as a background aerosol distribution in a highly urbanized city. The highest monthly average CPC (total particle) concentration was 37000 cm-3 in February 2005. The trend of wintertime increase was also obvious in the SMPS integrated concentrations but these were only 60-70 percent of the CPC concentrations. There was rather clear diurnal trend of near dawn (~4 AM) minima and morning peak (~8 AM) and a secondary peak in the evening (~8 PM) for both CPC and SMPS data. As a part of the Atmospheric Brown Clouds East Asian Regional Experiment (ABC-EAREX2005), measurements were also made on board the research vessel Kisang 2000 during the cruise from March 2 to March 10, 2005 over the South Sea of Korea and over the Korean sector of the Yellow Sea. Ship track was 60 km or more away from the coast. After the ship measurements the instruments were placed at the Gosan ABC Observatory in Jeju Island, for almost four weeks starting from March 11, 2005 to measure coastal aerosol distributions and inter-comparisons with other instruments. The average CPC and SMPS concentrations were 6700 cm-3 and 4400 cm-3, respectively, for the ship measurements, and 6000 cm-3 and 4000 cm-3 for the same two measurements at Gosan. However, when remote marine environments near Jeju Island were segregated from the ship measurements, the CPC and SMPS concentrations were 3600 cm-3 and 2400 cm-3, respectively. CPC and SMPS measurements will also be made over the South China Sea during another ship cruise from Jeju Island to

  20. Vitamin A status of 20- to 59-year-old adults living in Seoul and the metropolitan area, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungah; Kim, Young-Nam

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of retinol and carotenoids were estimated in assessing the vitamin A status of Korean adults living in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were collected from 106 healthy subjects (33 males and 73 females) aged 20-59 years. Fasting blood samples of the subjects were obtained and plasma retinol and carotenoids were analyzed. The daily vitamin A intakes (mean ± SD) were 887.77 ± 401.35 µg retinol equivalents or 531.84 ± 226.42 µg retinol activity equivalents. There were no significant differences in vitamin A intakes among age groups. The retinol intake of subjects was 175.92 ± 129.87 µg/day. The retinol intake of the subjects in their 50's was significantly lower than those in their 20's and 30's (P < 0.05). Provitamin A carotenoid intakes were 3,828.37 ± 2,196.29 µg/day β-carotene, 472.57 ± 316.68 µg/day α-carotene, and 412.83 ± 306.46 µg/day β-cryptoxanthin. Approximately 17% of the subjects consumed vitamin A less than the Korean Estimated Average Requirements for vitamin A. The plasma retinol concentration was 1.22 ± 0.34 µmol/L. There was no significant difference in plasma retinol concentrations among age groups. However, the concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein of subjects in their 50's were significantly higher than those of in their 20's. Only one subject had a plasma retinol concentration < 0.70 µmol/L indicating marginal vitamin A status. Plasma retinol concentration in 30% of the subjects was 0.70- < 1.05 µmol/L, which is interpreted as the concentration possibly responsive to greater intake of vitamin A. In conclusion, dietary intakes and status of vitamin A were generally adequate in Korean adults examined in this study. PMID:22413040

  1. HCHO column density retrieval using Pandora measurements in Seoul, Korea: Temporal characteristics and comparison with OMI measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junsung; Lee, Hanlim; Kim, Jhoon; Herman, Jay; Kim, Daewon

    2017-04-01

    We, for the first time, retrieved the Formaldehyde (HCHO) vertical column density (VCD) using Pandora instruments in Seoul, a megacity in northeast Asia, for the period between 2012 and 2014. We retrieved HCHO slant column density (SCD) using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method. Then HCHO SCD was converted to HCHO VCD using geometric Air Mass Factor (AMF), since Pandora is the direct-sun measurement. The HCHO VCDs were generally highest at 12:00 local time (LT) and were low at the 10:00 (LT) and 14:00 (LT) throughout all seasons. The mean HCHO VCDs at 12:00 LT were 1.57×1016, 2.29×1016, 9.94× 1015, and 8.33×1015 molecules cm-2 in the spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively, whereas those at 10:00 (14:00) LT were 1.22×1016 (8.68×1015), 1.25×1016 (1.54×1016), 1.13×1016 (1.33×1016), and 6.58×1015 (5.11×1015) molecules cm-2 in the spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. In terms of seasonal variations, HCHO VCD was highest in summer due to the photo-oxidation whereas it showed the lowest value in winter during the entire measurement period. The Pandora HCHO VCDs range from 4.10×1015 molecules cm-2 to 2.89×1016 molecules cm-2. In comparison with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements, the HCHO VCDs obtained from the OMI were higher than those were the Pandora HCHO VCDs. We found a correlation coefficient of 0.74, with slop of 0.35 between the Pandora HCHO VCDs and the OMI HCHO VCDs. Furthermore, to investigate HCHO mixing ratio level within Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL), we converted Pandora HCHO VCDs to HCHO mixing ratio in the PBL using an empirical linear model with the inputs of PBL data obtained from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and other meteorological data.

  2. Pathological findings in homocystinuria

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, J. B.; Carson, Nina A. J.; Neill, D. W.

    1964-01-01

    Pathological findings are described in four cases of a new aminoaciduria in which homocystine is excreted in the urine. All the patients were mentally retarded children. Three of them presented diagnostic features of Marfan's syndrome. Necropsy on one case and biopsy findings in the others are described. Fatty change occurs in the liver. The most striking lesions are vascular. Metachromatic medial degeneration of the aorta and of the elastic arteries in the necropsied case are considered in relation to Marfan's syndrome. Other changes, particularly thrombosis which is prevalent in homocystinuria, suggest the possibility of a platelet defect. The findings are discussed in respect of an upset in the metabolism of sulphur-containing amino-acids and with particular reference to Marfan's syndrome. Images PMID:14195630

  3. Pathology of sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, Richard K.; Rebar, A.H.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Haebler, Romona J.; Loughlin, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    In the months following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), 994 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from oil-spill-affected areas died (Doroff et al. 1993). Carcasses collected from these areas and otters that died in rehabilitation centers are included in this number. The actual number that died was probably much greater.Within days of the spill, the Exxon Company (USA) funded an effort to rehabilitate oil-contaminated sea otters (Davis 1990). Initially, clinical veterinarians working on the rehabilitation effort performed partial necropsies on some of the sea otters that died. Soon, veterinary pathologists from the University of Alaska and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provided assistance. Later, rehabilitation centers were constructed and other veterinarians with special training in pathology were hired by Exxon to provide diagnostic support.In late April 1989, veterinary pathologists from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) assumed responsibility for pathologic evaluation of oil-spill-affected sea otters. The USFWS requested assistance from veterinary pathologists of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) in June 1989. Eventually, as part of the Natural Resources Damage Assessment program, AFIP veterinary pathologists were asked to carry out histopathological studies of the tissue specimens collected by all parties and to perform necropsies on carcasses that had been collected and frozen. A veterinary clinical pathologist was requested to assess hematology and clinical chemistry findings in otters that had been held in the rehabilitation centers.In spite of the best efforts of many dedicated people working under extremely difficult conditions, there are significant limitations in the pathological studies. The absence of a detailed necropsy protocol and of full documentation of necropsy findings during the first several weeks after the spill resulted in important data being lost. Often, samples of all major organs were not collected. In some

  4. Peroxisome morphology in pathology.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, D; Castro, I; Fahimi, H D; Schrader, M

    2012-06-01

    Peroxisomes are remarkably dynamic and versatile organelles that are essential for human health and development. They respond to physiological changes in the cellular environment by adapting their morphology, number, enzyme content and metabolic functions accordingly. With the discovery of the first key peroxisomal morphology proteins, the investigation of peroxisomal shape, distribution and dynamics has become an exciting new field in cell biology and biomedical sciences because of its relation to organelle functionality and its impact on developmental and physiological processes. In this review, we summarize recent findings on peroxisome biology, dynamics and the modulation of peroxisome morphology, especially in mammals. Furthermore, we discuss the roles of peroxisome dynamics and morphology in cell pathology and present recent examples for alterations in peroxisome morphology under disease conditions. Besides defects in the peroxisomal morphology machinery, we also address peroxisome biogenesis disorders, alterations of peroxisome number during carcinogenesis and liver cirrhosis, and morphological alterations of peroxisomes during viral infection.

  5. Pathological aspects of cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Esposito*, I.

    2008-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arises from the biliary epithelium and in most cases represents adenocarcinoma. Pathomorphological evaluation is of decisive impact for the prognosis and management of CC. Morphological subtyping (histotype; hilar vs peripheral type), TNM classification, lymphatic spread, and resection margin status are of prognostic relevance. Distinction from hepatic metastases may be aided by immunohistology and clinico-pathological correlation. There is convincing evidence of the development of CC via premalignant lesions, especially biliary intraepithelial neoplasia, although further knowledge about the biology and diagnostic definition of these lesions has to be accumulated. Currently, there are no established molecular markers of prognosis or therapeutic target structures to be evaluated at the tissue level. Future progress is needed and expected in novel differential diagnostic and predictive markers, in uniform definition of resection margin status and further understanding of molecular and morphological changes in the development of CC. PMID:18773061

  6. No pain, no pathology?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Devesh; Govind, Abha

    2012-10-26

    A 22-year-old girl who had a background of reflux nephropathy and urinary tact infection presented during the night with renal angle pain and vomiting. She was treated on the emergency department (ED) pyelonephritis protocol and admitted to the short stay ward. When reviewed the next morning she was aymptomatic and feeling better. It seemed likely that she would be discharged but an ED ultrasound showed right-sided hydronephrosis and some fluid between the liver and the right kidney. CT examination confirmed the suspicion of renal tract obstruction and ruptured calyx. An 8 mm calculus was found to be the cause of the pathology. Urgent urological review was organised and the system formally decompressed with a J-J stent inserted cystoscopically later that day.

  7. Pathology of oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Aoife; Sheahan, Kieran

    2012-05-01

    Endoscopic oesophageal biopsies are common in daily pathology practice. Inflammation and damage of the oesophageal mucosa is known as oesophagitis and is common worldwide. A variety of physical, chemical and infectious agents cause oesophagitis. The oesophagus has a limited range of responses to a wide variety of injuries, and so histopathological features of different diseases often overlap. The pathologist is reliant on the endoscopist for the 'macroscopic description' of the oesophagus. Access to the endoscopic images enhances the pathologist's overall interpretation of the case. Correlating clinical, endoscopic and microscopic findings may be crucial in arriving at the correct diagnosis. In this review, we present clinicopathological descriptions of the major types of oesophagitis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  8. No pain, no pathology?

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Devesh; Govind, Abha

    2012-01-01

    A 22-year-old girl who had a background of reflux nephropathy and urinary tact infection presented during the night with renal angle pain and vomiting. She was treated on the emergency department (ED) pyelonephritis protocol and admitted to the short stay ward. When reviewed the next morning she was aymptomatic and feeling better. It seemed likely that she would be discharged but an ED ultrasound showed right-sided hydronephrosis and some fluid between the liver and the right kidney. CT examination confirmed the suspicion of renal tract obstruction and ruptured calyx. An 8 mm calculus was found to be the cause of the pathology. Urgent urological review was organised and the system formally decompressed with a J–J stent inserted cystoscopically later that day. PMID:23104632

  9. Guidelines for biomarker testing in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. A national consensus of the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) and the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP).

    PubMed

    Garrido, Pilar; de Castro, Javier; Concha, Ángel; Felip, Enriqueta; Isla, Dolores; López-Ríos, Fernando; Paz-Ares, Luis; Ramírez, José; Sanz, Julián; Gómez, José Javier

    2012-05-01

    Patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) carrying epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations can now have specific treatment based on the result of biomarker analysis and patients with rearrangements of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene will probably soon be able to. This will give them better quality of life and progression-free survival than conventional chemotherapy. This consensus statement was conceived as a joint initiative of the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) and the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP), and makes diagnostic and treatment recommendations for advanced NSCLC patients based on the scientific evidence on biomarker use. It therefore provides an opportunity to improve healthcare efficiency and resource use, which will undoubtedly benefit these patients. Although this field is in continuous evolution, at present, with the available data, this panel of experts recommends that all patients with advanced NSCLC of non-squamous cell subtype, or non-smokers regardless of the histological subtype, should be tested for EGFR gene mutations within a maximum of 7 days from the pathological diagnosis. Involved laboratories must participate in external quality control programmes. In contrast, ALK gene rearrangements should only be tested in the context of a clinical trial, although the promising data obtained will certainly justify in the near future its routine testing in patients with no EGFR mutations. Lastly, routine testing for other molecular abnormalities is not considered necessary in the current clinical practice.

  10. In-situ measurements of nighttime radical species (NO3 and N2O5) from Seoul N Tower in Korea during MAPS 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of nitrate radical (NO3) chemistry has been emphasized in the nocturnal atmosphere which influences on the air quality in following day. This chemistry could gather its importance even more in urban setting or in downwind area of large urban emission sources. In support of these issue, efforts in investigating the nighttime chemical mechanisms has been made during MAPS 2015 (Megacity Air Pollution Study 2015) at Seoul in Korea from May 18th to June 12th of 2015. By deploying NOAA's state-of-the-art instrument, ARNOLD (Airborne Ring-down Nitrogen Oxide Laser Detector), high time resolution in-situ measurement of nitrate (NO3), dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) as well as other related trace gases species (e.g. NO, NO2, NOy, and O3) were made on the Seoul N Tower (inlet height: 362m ASL). The in-situ measurements of NO3 radical will provide good observational constraints on night time oxidation processes. The NO3 and N2O5 equilibrium and reactivity will be analyzed by comparison of their lifetimes to those calculated from VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) measurements and kinetic calculations. Implications for nitrogen oxides species will be discussed.

  11. Nontraditional applications in clinical pathology.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Holly L; Register, Thomas C; Tripathi, Niraj K; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Everds, Nancy; Zelmanovic, David; Poitout, Florence; Bounous, Denise I; Wescott, Debra; Ramaiah, Shashi K

    2014-10-01

    Most published reviews of preclinical toxicological clinical pathology focus on the fundamental aspects of hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis in routine toxicology animal species, for example, rats, mice, dogs, and nonhuman primates. The objective of this continuing education course was to present and discuss contemporary examples of nonroutine applications of clinical pathology endpoints used in the drug development setting. Area experts discussed bone turnover markers of laboratory animal species, clinical pathology of pregnant and growing laboratory animals, clinical pathology of nonroutine laboratory animal species, and unique applications of the Siemens Advia(®) hematology analyzer. This article is a summary based on a presentation given at the 31st Annual Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, during the Continuing Education Course titled "Nontraditional Applications of Clinical Pathology in Drug Discovery and Preclinical Toxicology."

  12. Rural pathology under the microscope.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Helen; Dupal, Philip

    2009-08-01

    There is little discussion about the crisis in the pathology and medical science workforce despite the implications it has for the whole health system. The crisis has greater implications for rural and remote locations because of the range of skills and multidisciplinary approach required in these areas. Recognition of the clinical significance and organisational importance of the sector is required as is recognition of the unique characteristics of rural and remote pathology and greater support for rural and remote pathology practitioners.

  13. Recommendations for pathology peer review.

    PubMed

    Morton, Daniel; Sellers, Rani S; Barale-Thomas, Erio; Bolon, Brad; George, Catherine; Hardisty, Jerry F; Irizarry, Armando; McKay, Jennifer S; Odin, Marielle; Teranishi, Munehiro

    2010-12-01

    Pathology peer review verifies and improves the accuracy and quality of pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Pathology peer review is recommended when important risk assessment or business decisions are based on nonclinical studies. For pathology peer review conducted before study completion, the peer-review pathologist reviews sufficient slides and pathology data to assist the study pathologist in refining pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Materials to be reviewed are selected by the peer-review pathologist. Consultations with additional experts or a formal (documented) pathology working group may be used to resolve discrepancies. The study pathologist is solely responsible for the content of the final pathology data and report, makes changes resulting from peer-review discussions, initiates the audit trail for microscopic observations after all changes resulting from peer-review have been made, and signs the final pathologist's report. The peer-review pathologist creates a signed peer-review memo describing the peer-review process and confirming that the study pathologist's report accurately and appropriately reflects the pathology data. The study pathologist also may sign a statement of consensus. It is not necessary to archive working notes created during the peer-review process.

  14. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    PubMed

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness.

  15. Rabies: ocular pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Haltia, M; Tarkkanen, A; Kivelä, T

    1989-01-01

    Ocular pathology in the first European case of human bat-borne rabies is described. The patient was a 30-year-old bat scientist who seven weeks after bat bite developed neurological symptoms and died 23 days later. Rabies virus antigens were detected in brain smears. After extensive virological studies the virus turned out to be a rabies-related virus, closely resembling the Duvenhage virus isolated from bats in South Africa in 1980. By light microscopy focal chronic inflammatory infiltration of the ciliary body and of the choroid was found. PAS-positive exudate was seen in the subretinal and in the outer plexiform layers of the retina, and retinal veins showed endothelial damage and perivascular inflammation. Many of the retinal ganglion cells were destroyed. The presence of rabies-related viral antigen in the retinal ganglion cells was shown by positive cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, though electron microscopy failed to identify definite viral structures in the retina. By immunohistochemistry glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the Müller's cells, which are normally negative for this antigen but express it as a reactive change when the retina is damaged. Synaptophysin, a constituent of presynaptic vesicles of normal retinal neurons, was not detected in the retina. Images PMID:2920157

  16. Macrophage polarization in pathology.

    PubMed

    Sica, Antonio; Erreni, Marco; Allavena, Paola; Porta, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages are cells of the innate immunity constituting the mononuclear phagocyte system and endowed with remarkable different roles essential for defense mechanisms, development of tissues, and homeostasis. They derive from hematopoietic precursors and since the early steps of fetal life populate peripheral tissues, a process continuing throughout adult life. Although present essentially in every organ/tissue, macrophages are more abundant in the gastro-intestinal tract, liver, spleen, upper airways, and brain. They have phagocytic and bactericidal activity and produce inflammatory cytokines that are important to drive adaptive immune responses. Macrophage functions are settled in response to microenvironmental signals, which drive the acquisition of polarized programs, whose extremes are simplified in the M1 and M2 dichotomy. Functional skewing of monocyte/macrophage polarization occurs in physiological conditions (e.g., ontogenesis and pregnancy), as well as in pathology (allergic and chronic inflammation, tissue repair, infection, and cancer) and is now considered a key determinant of disease development and/or regression. Here, we will review evidence supporting a dynamic skewing of macrophage functions in disease, which may provide a basis for macrophage-centered therapeutic strategies.

  17. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  18. Pathology of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Domingo, M; Vidal, E; Marco, A

    2014-10-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic granulomatous caseous-necrotising inflammatory process that mainly affects the lungs and their draining lymph nodes (Ln.). The pathological changes associated with bTB infection reflect the interplay between the host defence mechanisms and the mycobacterial virulence factors and the balance between the immunologic protective responses and the damaging inflammatory processes. Inhalation is the most common infection route and causes lesions of the nasopharynx and lower respiratory tract, including its associated lymph nodes. The initial infection (primary complex) may be followed by chronic (post-primary) tuberculosis or may be generalised. Goat tuberculosis often produces liquefactive necrosis and caverns, similarly to human TB. The assessment of the severity of TB lesions is crucial for vaccine trials. Semi-quantitative gross lesion scoring systems have been developed for cattle, but imaging technology has allowed the development of more standardised, objective, and quantitative methods, such as multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), which provides quantitative measures of lesion volume.

  19. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5-1.0) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42-60% (by weight) of fin...

  20. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5-1.0) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42-60% (by weight) of fin...

  1. Chemical mass balance receptor model applied to ambient C 2-C 9 VOC concentration in Seoul, Korea: Effect of chemical reaction losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Kwangsam; Pyo Kim, Yong

    A chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model was used for estimating the diurnal contributions of VOC emission sources to the ambient C 2-C 9 VOC concentration in Seoul, Korea. For this purpose, the VOC concentrations were measured in the morning, the afternoon, and the evening. The samples were collected using a 2-h integrated SUMMA canister. The source profiles were developed for the CMB calculation in the Seoul area. To investigate the effect of the chemical reaction loss of VOCs on the CMB calculation, the modified model employing a decay factor and the standard model that considers no loss were compared. The modified model estimated that the vehicle exhaust (52%) was the largest leading source of VOCs in the Seoul atmosphere, followed by the use of solvents (26%), gasoline evaporation (15%), the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) (5%), and the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) (2%). Relative source contribution for vehicle exhaust showed a clear diurnal variation with a high in the morning and evening and a low in the afternoon, while the contribution of evaporative emissions (gasoline evaporation and solvent usage) showed a different diurnal pattern from that of the vehicle exhaust, exhibiting a high in the afternoon and evening and a low in the morning. It was found that the difference between the total source contribution (μg m -3) estimated from these two models was not statistically significant. However, when the paired-sample t-test is applied to the individual sources, a significant difference was found for the vehicle exhaust and the solvent use. In addition, the modified model brought forth a better performance with high R2 and low χ2 as compared to those obtained from the standard model in the CMB calculation. The vehicle exhaust and solvent use were estimated to be the largest and the second largest contributors to ambient benzene as well as ozone formation potential (OFP), respectively. Based on above results we believe that incorporating the

  2. Characteristics of aerosol optical properties and total amount of trace gases over Korea during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul campaign using AERONET and Pandora spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Kim, W.; Lee, H.; Kim, J. H.; Chong, H.; Koo, J. H.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Herman, J. R.; Abuhassan, N.; Ahn, J. Y.; Park, J.; Hong, J.; Kim, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    To investigate characteristics of air quality and enhance the performance of the air quality model prediction and satellite retrieval, Korea-US Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) campaign was conducted over Korea in May-June, 2016. As pre-campaign of the KORUS-AQ, Megacity Air Pollution Studies (MAPS)-Seoul campaign was held from May 18 to June 14, 2015. During this campaign, eight AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sunphotometers and six Pandora spectrometers observed the aerosol optical properties and total column density of O3 and NO2 over Korea, respectively. Using these data set, we examine the general spatiotemporal characteristic of aerosol optical properties and some trace gases in South Korea. Mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550nm at Seoul (megacity region) and Gosan (coastal region) are 0.338 and 0.214 respectively during MAPS campaign, which are quite lower values compare to other recent years (2011 to 2014); The range of mean AOD in the same period is 0.557-0.684 at Seoul and 0.447-0.618 at Gosan. The reason of low AOD during MAPS period is not clearly understood yet. In this period, most of AERONET sites show the black carbon dominance except Gosan, showing a dominance of non-absorbing particles. This looks because the Gosan site is affected by the relatively clean maritime air-mass. Pandora O3 measurements have low spatial variability, but NO2 measurements shows larger spatiotemporal variability. Pandora total O3 vertical column density (VCD) shows a good agreement OMI O3 VCD (R > 0.9) probably due to low spatial variability of O3, In the contrast, Pandora total NO2 VCD does not much correlates with OMI NO2 VCDs. In addition to high variability of NO2, the influence of regional aerosol optical properties on the estimation of total NO2 VCD seems another reason to explain the poor relationship between Pandora and OMI NO2 VCD. To investigate the effect of aerosol optical properties on total NO2 VCD, AOD, single scattering albedo and fine mode fraction from

  3. [Pathological gambling and its consequences for public health].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Paula Magalhães Tavares de; Silveira, Dartiu Xavier da; Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo

    2008-06-01

    The article aimed to characterize pathological gambling, showing the main consequences of this disorder. Bibliographic survey on this theme was conducted, covering both national and international literature. Publications whose main findings emphasized related prevalence, social and economic costs, gambling legalization and resulting impact on public health, were selected. High suicide rate, comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, family and work problems, and illicit behavior were consequences reported. The prevalence of this disorder is higher in countries that have legalized gambling and in Brazil there is evidence of growth in the number of pathological gamblers. The development of national research is fundamental to define public policies that are adequate for the Brazilian context.

  4. Pathology of peliosis.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, Michael; Erbersdobler, Andreas

    2005-04-20

    Peliosis is a pathological entity characterized by the gross appearance of multiple cyst-like, blood-filled cavities within parenchymatous organs. Peliosis has been related to several underlying debilitating illnesses such as tuberculosis, hematological malignancies, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and post-transplant immunodeficiency, as well as intravenous drug abuse, chronic alcoholism, and in conjunction with the intake of oral contraceptives or steroids. The classical pathoanatomical concept is based upon the opinion that peliosis exclusively develops in organs belonging to the mononuclear phagocytic system (liver, spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes). However, a paucity of studies indicates that other organs such as lungs, parathyroid glands, and kidneys may be affected too. Concerning the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms of onset and maintenance of peliosis, the morphological data obtained by different investigators suggest that there is more than one path of formal pathogenesis (e.g., congenital malformation of vessels manifesting under altered local intravascular pressure conditions, acquired vascular disorder triggered by toxic noxae, active proliferation of vessels corresponding to the benign end on the spectrum of neoplastic vascular lesions). In the liver, at gross inspection, the peliotic lesions give the cut sections a "swiss cheese" appearance. Microscopically, two different types of peliosis can be distinguished in the liver: (1) "parenchymal peliosis" consisting of irregular cavities that are neither lined by sinusoidal cells nor by fibrous tissue, and (2) "phlebectatic peliosis" characterized by regular, spherical cavities lined by endothelium and/or fibrosis. One of the differential diagnoses that most closely resembles peliosis hepatis is secondary hepatic congestion due to veno-occlusive disease or the Budd-Chiari syndrome. In the spleen, the peliotic lesions may be arranged sporadically, disseminated, or in clusters in an

  5. [Corticotherapy and mucocutaneous pathology].

    PubMed

    Kuffer, R

    1975-01-01

    The tremendous advances in treatment brought about by corticotherapy applied to cutaneo-mucosal pathology should not be allowed to obscure the fact that its action is merely palliative, that it should only be proceeded with after careful diagnosis and that it may trigger undesirable side-effects. General corticotherapy is definitely indicated in certain serious dermatoses (e.g. pemphigus vulgaris) in large doses at the beginning of the course of treatment which often has to be kept up indefinitely; it is in these patients that the most serious accidents occur. It is also indicated in other dermatoses (e.g. lichen planus) in smaller doses and in separate courses, generally triggering incidents and accidents of a less serious nature which to a certain extent seem to be attenuated by taking the drug on alternate days. It is counter-indicated in one particular condition: psoriasis. Corticotherapy by intra- and sub-lesional local injection is most useful in the treatment of certain localised skin lesions (e.g. cheloids) and of the oral mucosa (e.g. erosive lichen planus). Either a few drops are injected or a larger quantity in a suspension of microcrystals. Complications have sometimes been observed in the skin (leukoderma, dermoepidermatrophia and, particularly, amaurosis), but never so far after sub-mucosal injections. Local corticotherapy by external application, very widely used in the form of ointments, creams and lotions for numerous cutaneous conditions may cause various more or less serious local side-effects, the systemic effects with depression of the hypophyso-adrenal axis, only seem to occur to any extent with occlusive dressings. It can also be used in the treatment of some conditions of the oral mucosa (e.g. some forms of lichen planus, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid) by means of either a corticosteroid incorporated into a special excipient which adheres to the mucous membrane or in tablets of 17-betamethasone valerate which gradually break up in the

  6. The Influences of the Wheel Profiles on the Wheel Wear and Vibrational Characteristics of the Passenger Cars Running on the Seoul-Pusan Conventional Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bu-Byoung; Lee, Chan-Woo

    Wheels of the railway vehicle play the important role for driving train through wheel-rail interaction. Especially wheel profile is one of the most important design factors to rule the running stability and safety of train. Accordingly maintenance of wheel like wheel profile control is also very important for securing safety and stability of train operation. This study presents the wheel wear measurement results of Saemaeul running on the conventional line. The train set included three different cars which have different shape of wheel profile including KNR profile currently used in Saemaeul. Train set was operated on Seoul-Pusan line with fixed train set formation for commercial service. Wheel wear measurements were performed periodically. We can find the influence of wheel profile on the wheel wear of the train running on the conventional line through the measurement results.

  7. Digital pathology and anatomic pathology laboratory information system integration to support digital pathology sign-out.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huazhang; Birsa, Joe; Farahani, Navid; Hartman, Douglas J; Piccoli, Anthony; O'Leary, Matthew; McHugh, Jeffrey; Nyman, Mark; Stratman, Curtis; Kvarnstrom, Vanja; Yousem, Samuel; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of digital pathology offers benefits over labor-intensive, time-consuming, and error-prone manual processes. However, because most workflow and laboratory transactions are centered around the anatomical pathology laboratory information system (APLIS), adoption of digital pathology ideally requires integration with the APLIS. A digital pathology system (DPS) integrated with the APLIS was recently implemented at our institution for diagnostic use. We demonstrate how such integration supports digital workflow to sign-out anatomical pathology cases. Workflow begins when pathology cases get accessioned into the APLIS (CoPathPlus). Glass slides from these cases are then digitized (Omnyx VL120 scanner) and automatically uploaded into the DPS (Omnyx(®) Integrated Digital Pathology (IDP) software v.1.3). The APLIS transmits case data to the DPS via a publishing web service. The DPS associates scanned images with the correct case using barcode labels on slides and information received from the APLIS. When pathologists remotely open a case in the DPS, additional information (e.g. gross pathology details, prior cases) gets retrieved from the APLIS through a query web service. Following validation of this integration, pathologists at our institution have signed out more than 1000 surgical pathology cases in a production environment. Integration between the APLIS and DPS enabled pathologists to review digital slides while simultaneously having access to pertinent case metadata. The introduction of a digital workflow eliminated costly manual tasks involving matching of glass slides and avoided delays waiting for glass slides to be delivered. Integrating the DPS and APLIS were instrumental for successfully implementing a digital solution at our institution for pathology sign-out. The integration streamlined our digital sign-out workflow, diminished the potential for human error related to matching slides, and improved the sign-out experience for pathologists.

  8. Digital pathology and anatomic pathology laboratory information system integration to support digital pathology sign-out

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huazhang; Birsa, Joe; Farahani, Navid; Hartman, Douglas J.; Piccoli, Anthony; O’Leary, Matthew; McHugh, Jeffrey; Nyman, Mark; Stratman, Curtis; Kvarnstrom, Vanja; Yousem, Samuel; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adoption of digital pathology offers benefits over labor-intensive, time-consuming, and error-prone manual processes. However, because most workflow and laboratory transactions are centered around the anatomical pathology laboratory information system (APLIS), adoption of digital pathology ideally requires integration with the APLIS. A digital pathology system (DPS) integrated with the APLIS was recently implemented at our institution for diagnostic use. We demonstrate how such integration supports digital workflow to sign-out anatomical pathology cases. Methods: Workflow begins when pathology cases get accessioned into the APLIS (CoPathPlus). Glass slides from these cases are then digitized (Omnyx VL120 scanner) and automatically uploaded into the DPS (Omnyx® Integrated Digital Pathology (IDP) software v.1.3). The APLIS transmits case data to the DPS via a publishing web service. The DPS associates scanned images with the correct case using barcode labels on slides and information received from the APLIS. When pathologists remotely open a case in the DPS, additional information (e.g. gross pathology details, prior cases) gets retrieved from the APLIS through a query web service. Results: Following validation of this integration, pathologists at our institution have signed out more than 1000 surgical pathology cases in a production environment. Integration between the APLIS and DPS enabled pathologists to review digital slides while simultaneously having access to pertinent case metadata. The introduction of a digital workflow eliminated costly manual tasks involving matching of glass slides and avoided delays waiting for glass slides to be delivered. Conclusion: Integrating the DPS and APLIS were instrumental for successfully implementing a digital solution at our institution for pathology sign-out. The integration streamlined our digital sign-out workflow, diminished the potential for human error related to matching slides, and improved the sign

  9. Effect modification of individual- and regional-scale characteristics on heat wave-related mortality rates between 2009 and 2012 in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, E-Jin; Kim, Ho

    2017-10-01

    Many studies have investigated the associations between heat waves, ambient temperature, cold spells, and mortality or morbidity. Some studies have utilized effect modification to reveal the factors that increase an individual's susceptibility to temperature extremes, which can then be used to reshape public policy. In this study, we used a time-stratified case-crossover technique to examine how individual- and regional-scale characteristics modified heat wave-related impacts on mortality rates in Seoul, South Korea, between 2009 and 2012. We defined a heat wave as having at least two consecutive days with a daily mean temperature greater than or equal to the 95th percentile recorded in each of Seoul's twenty-five districts. At the individual scale, citizens classified as belonging to a lower education group had a higher vulnerability to heat wave-related morbidity or mortality [odds ratio (OR) 1.261; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.034-1.538]. At a regional scale, death during heat waves was more likely to occur in districts with a high deprivation index (OR=1.194; 95% CI: 1.028-1.388). And a low proportion of green space around buildings (OR=1.178; 95% CI: 1.016-1.366), a low proportion of rooftop green space (OR=1.207; 95% CI: 1.042-1.399), or those that had fewer hospitals (OR=1.186; 95% CI: 1.019-1.379). Our data show that mortality during heat waves is more likely where these individual and regional-scale vulnerabilities overlap. Our findings support evidence of mortality impacts from heat waves and provide a basis for selection to policy makers choose on the target groups to reduce the public health burden of heat waves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Meckel on developmental pathology.

    PubMed

    Opitz, John M; Schultka, Rüdiger; Göbbel, Luminita

    2006-01-15

    cartilage named after him, and as having interpreted, correctly, the developmental nature of the "Meckel" diverticulum. It is virtually unknown that Meckel also first enuntiated the concept and distinction between primary and secondary malformations/anomalies, introduced the notion of heredity into the causal analysis of congenital anomalies, was the father of syndromology (the Meckel syndrome), had a clear understanding of pleiotropy and heterogeneity, and can unequivocally be regarded as the father of developmental pathology. In hindsight, and inspite of much professional success, Meckel emerges as a tragic figure in the history of biology, his life cut short at 52 without an ability to incorporate cell theory and the embryological insights of his younger contemporaries into his intellectual edifice which might have made it possible for him to finally and clearly see "analogy" (now homology), of which he was the greatest expert in his era, as incontrovertible evidence for descent. In that case, Darwin and Haeckel might have even had the courtesy of a tip-of-the-hat in Meckel's direction. Published 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. [Normal mourning and pathological mourning].

    PubMed

    Souris, M

    1994-01-01

    The mourning's function and the usual phases of this process are described. Complicated and pathological kinds of mournings are analysed, as well as their inducing circumstances. Adequate behaviours about the therapeutic relation are discussed.

  12. Pathology of chronic mountain sickness

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Stella, Javier; Krüger, Hever; Recavarren, Sixto

    1973-01-01

    Arias-Stella, J., Krüger, H., and Recavarren, S. (1973).Thorax, 28, 701-708. Pathology of chronic mountain sickness. Pathological data on chronic mountain sickness are scarce due to the fact that the disease is ameliorated or cured by descent to a low altitude. In this report we describe a case of chronic mountain sickness occurring in a woman of 48 years at Cerro de Pasco (4,300 m above sea level). The necropsy findings are compared with the limited pathological observations reported by others. It is apparent from our findings that in fatal cases the main changes are located within the pulmonary circulation. So far histological studies have been reported only in cases of the secondary form of chronic mountain sickness. The basic pathology of the primary form (Monge's disease) remains to be defined. Images PMID:4787982

  13. [Methods and methodology of pathology].

    PubMed

    Lushnikov, E F

    2016-01-01

    The lecture gives the state-of-the-art of the methodology of human pathology that is an area of the scientific and practice activity of specialists to produce and systematize objective knowledge of pathology and to use the knowledge in clinical medicine. It considers the objects and subjects of an investigation, materials and methods of a pathologist, and the results of his/her work.

  14. Error detection in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Zarbo, Richard J; Meier, Frederick A; Raab, Stephen S

    2005-10-01

    To define the magnitude of error occurring in anatomic pathology, to propose a scheme to classify such errors so their influence on clinical outcomes can be evaluated, and to identify quality assurance procedures able to reduce the frequency of errors. (a) Peer-reviewed literature search via PubMed for studies from single institutions and multi-institutional College of American Pathologists Q-Probes studies of anatomic pathology error detection and prevention practices; (b) structured evaluation of defects in surgical pathology reports uncovered in the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine of the Henry Ford Health System in 2001-2003, using a newly validated error taxonomy scheme; and (c) comparative review of anatomic pathology quality assurance procedures proposed to reduce error. Marked differences in both definitions of error and pathology practice make comparison of error detection and prevention procedures among publications from individual institutions impossible. Q-Probes studies further suggest that observer redundancy reduces diagnostic variation and interpretive error, which ranges from 1.2 to 50 errors per 1000 cases; however, it is unclear which forms of such redundancy are the most efficient in uncovering diagnostic error. The proposed error taxonomy tested has shown a very good interobserver agreement of 91.4% (kappa = 0.8780; 95% confidence limit, 0.8416-0.9144), when applied to amended reports, and suggests a distribution of errors among identification, specimen, interpretation, and reporting variables. Presently, there are no standardized tools for defining error in anatomic pathology, so it cannot be reliably measured nor can its clinical impact be assessed. The authors propose a standardized error classification that would permit measurement of error frequencies, clinical impact of errors, and the effect of error reduction and prevention efforts. In particular, the value of double-reading, case conferences, and consultations (the

  15. ILO/KRIVET National Tripartite Workshop: Workplace Learning in a Globalizing World [Proceedings] (Seoul, South Korea, November 29-30, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korea Research Inst. for Vocational Education and Training, Seoul.

    This document contains the following five papers, all in both English and Korean, from a workshop on on-the-job training held in Korea in 2001: "Issues in Knowledge and Skills Development: Globalization and the Effective Use of New Technologies" (S. Ian Cummings); "The Knowledge Economy and Vocational Training Policy in Korea"…

  16. Communication skills in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Bosman, Fred T

    2016-01-01

    Communication is an essential element of good medical practice also in pathology. In contrast to technical or diagnostic skills, communication skills are not easy to define, teach, or assess. Rules almost do not exist. In this paper, which has a rather personal character and cannot be taken as a set of guidelines, important aspects of communication in pathology are explored. This includes what should be communicated to the pathologist on the pathology request form, communication between pathologists during internal (interpathologist) consultation, communication around frozen section diagnoses, modalities of communication of a final diagnosis, with whom and how critical and unexpected findings should be communicated, (in-)adequate routes of communication for pathology diagnoses, who will (or might) receive pathology reports, and what should be communicated and how in case of an error or a technical problem. An earlier more formal description of what the responsibilities are of a pathologist as communicator and as collaborator in a medical team is added in separate tables. The intention of the paper is to stimulate reflection and discussion rather than to formulate strict rules.

  17. [Pathological buying -- a literature review].

    PubMed

    Müller, Astrid; Reinecker, Hans; Jacobi, Corinna; Reisch, Lucia; de Zwaan, Martina

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes the literature on pathological buying published during the past 15 years. Pathological or compulsive buying is defined as frequent preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy that are experienced as irresistible, intrusive, and/or senseless. The buying behavior causes marked distress, interferes with social functioning, and often results in financial problems. Studies on the phenomenology, diagnosis, classification, comorbidity, epidemiology, and treatment are presented. Pathological buying should be diagnosed as impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (ICD-10 F63.9). Psychiatric comorbidity is frequent, particulary mood, anxiety, substance use, eating, impulse control and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The positive results of pharmacological treatment with antidepressants (usually SSRI) and opioid antagonists could not be confirmed in controlled trials. A disorder specific cognitive-behavioral group treatment manual was published in USA. A controlled study is currently conducted in USA and since 2003 at the Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy at the University Hospital Erlangen.

  18. Shame regulation in personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-05-01

    Drawing on extant work on shame and emotion regulation, this article proposes that three broad forms of maladaptive shame regulation strategies are fundamental in much of personality pathology: Prevention (e.g., dependence, fantasy), used preemptively, lessens potential for shame; Escape (e.g., social withdrawal, misdirection) reduces current or imminent shame; Aggression, used after shame begins, refocuses shame into anger directed at the self (e.g., physical self-harm) or others (e.g., verbal aggression). This article focuses on the contributions of shame regulation to the development and maintenance of personality pathology, highlighting how various maladaptive shame regulation strategies may lead to personality pathology symptoms, associated features, and dimensions. Consideration is also given to the possible shame-related constructs necessitating emotion regulation (e.g., shame aversion and proneness) and the points in the emotion process when regulation can occur.

  19. The molecular pathology of noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Karst, Stephanie M; Zhu, Shu; Goodfellow, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus infection in humans typically results in acute gastroenteritis but may also occur in many animal species. Noroviruses are recognized as one of the most common causes of acute gastroenteritis in the world, being responsible for almost 20% of all cases. Despite their prevalence and impact, our knowledge of the norovirus life cycle and the pathological processes associated with norovirus-induced disease is limited. Whilst infection of the intestine is the norm, extraintestinal spread and associated pathologies have also been described. In addition, long-term chronic infections are now recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised. This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge with respect to norovirus pathology and the underlying mechanisms that have been characterized to date.

  20. The neurobiology of pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Potenza, M N

    2001-07-01

    Despite relatively high prevalence rates and significant morbidity and mortality associated with pathological gambling (PG), our understanding of the neurobiological basis of PG lags in comparison to that for other psychiatric illnesses of comparable magnitude. An improved understanding of the neurobiology of PG would facilitate targeted investigations into more effective treatments. Emerging data suggest shared neurobiological features determine in part pathological gambling and substance use disorders. These findings both challenge current conceptualizations of addictions and provide a substantial basis of knowledge on which to design investigations into the understanding and treatment of pathological gambling. The findings that substance use disorders and the behavioral "addiction" of PG share common causative features raise the question as to what extent other compulsive disorders (eg, compulsive shopping, compulsive sexual behaviors, compulsive computer use) might be biologically related.

  1. Pathology of human diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Malik, R A

    2014-01-01

    Pathologic study of a disease provides insights into the precise mechanisms and targets of damage and may provide insights into new therapies. The main targets in diabetic neuropathy are myelinated and unmyelinated fibers as dysfunction and damage to them explains the symptoms of painful neuropathy and the major end points of foot ulceration and amputation as well as mortality. Demyelination and axonal degeneration are established hallmarks of the pathology of human diabetic neuropathy and were derived from pioneering light and electronmicroscopic studies of sural nerve biopsies in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Additional abnormalities, which are relevant to the pathogenesis of human diabetic neuropathy, include pathology of the microvessels and extracellular space. Intraepidermal and sudomotor nerve quantification in skin biopsies provides a minimally invasive means for the detection of early nerve damage. Studies of muscle biopsies are limited and show significant alterations in the expression of neurotrophins, but limited changes in muscle fiber size and capillary density.

  2. [Treatment prevalence in pathological gambling].

    PubMed

    Queri, S; Erbas, B; Soyka, M

    2007-08-01

    Based on American studies lifetime prevalence of 'Pathological Gambling' (ICD-10, F 63.0) in Germany can be estimated at 0.5 %. That means about 400,000 gamblers requiring treatment. Epidemiological studies showed that only a little proportion is actually seeking treatment. Reliable knowledge about treatment prevalence does not exist for Germany. The study at hand using secondary data was performed to validate the estimation of the 'Deutsche Suchthilfestatistik' regarding inpatient and outpatient treatment prevalence in 'Pathological Gambling' with data from service providers (cost unit). The analysis proves the estimation of the German Addiction Statistics ('Deutsche Suchthilfestatistik') that the inpatient treatment prevalence has considerably risen. In spite of the consideration that treatment of pathological gambling is not limited to specialized hospitals there is still a considerable gap between estimated prevalence and treatment prevalence.

  3. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    PubMed

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD.

  4. Digital pathology in nephrology clinical trials, research, and pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Barisoni, Laura; Hodgin, Jeffrey B

    2017-08-30

    In this review, we will discuss (i) how the recent advancements in digital technology and computational engineering are currently applied to nephropathology in the setting of clinical research, trials, and practice; (ii) the benefits of the new digital environment; (iii) how recognizing its challenges provides opportunities for transformation; and (iv) nephropathology in the upcoming era of kidney precision and predictive medicine. Recent studies highlighted how new standardized protocols facilitate the harmonization of digital pathology database infrastructure and morphologic, morphometric, and computer-aided quantitative analyses. Digital pathology enables robust protocols for clinical trials and research, with the potential to identify previously underused or unrecognized clinically useful parameters. The integration of digital pathology with molecular signatures is leading the way to establishing clinically relevant morpho-omic taxonomies of renal diseases. The introduction of digital pathology in clinical research and trials, and the progressive implementation of the modern software ecosystem, opens opportunities for the development of new predictive diagnostic paradigms and computer-aided algorithms, transforming the practice of renal disease into a modern computational science.

  5. The history of pathology informatics: A global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil V.; Aller, Raymond D.; Banach, Lech; Becich, Michael J.; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Carter, Alexis B.; Friedman, Bruce A.; Rojo, Marcial Garcia; Georgiou, Andrew; Kayser, Gian; Kayser, Klaus; Legg, Michael; Naugler, Christopher; Sawai, Takashi; Weiner, Hal; Winsten, Dennis; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold. PMID:23869286

  6. Sources and atmospheric processing of winter aerosols in Seoul, Korea: insights from real-time measurements using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwajin; Zhang, Qi; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Kim, Jin Young; Bok Lee, Seung

    2017-02-01

    Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of nonrefractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was conducted in Seoul, the capital and largest metropolis of Korea, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The measurements were performed during winter, when elevated particulate matter (PM) pollution events are often observed. This is the first time that detailed real-time aerosol measurement results have been reported from Seoul, Korea, and they reveal valuable insights into the sources and atmospheric processes that contribute to PM pollution in this region. The average concentration of submicron aerosol (PM1 = NR-PM1+ black carbon (BC)) was 27.5 µg m-3, and the total mass was dominated by organics (44 %), followed by nitrate (24 %) and sulfate (10 %). The average atomic ratios of oxygen to carbon (O / C), hydrogen to carbon (H / C), and nitrogen to carbon (N / C) of organic aerosols (OA) were 0.37, 1.79, and 0.018, respectively, which result in an average organic mass-to-carbon (OM / OC) ratio of 1.67. The concentrations (2.6-90.7 µg m-3) and composition of PM1 varied dynamically during the measurement period due to the influences of different meteorological conditions, emission sources, and air mass origins. Five distinct sources of OA were identified via positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the HR-ToF-AMS data: vehicle emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA factor (HOA, O / C = 0.06), cooking activities represented by a cooking OA factor (COA, O / C = 0.14), wood combustion represented by a biomass burning OA factor (BBOA, O / C = 0.34), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) represented by a semivolatile oxygenated OA factor (SV-OOA, O / C = 0.56) and a low-volatility oxygenated OA factor (LV-OOA, O / C = 0.68). On average, primary OA (POA = HOA + COA + BBOA) accounted for 59 % the OA mass, whereas SV-OOA and LV-OOA contributed 15 and 26 %, respectively. Our results indicate that air

  7. Molecular Biomarkers of Knee Pathology.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Vanessa; Strauss, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers has become increasingly important in our fundamental understanding of the molecular basis for disease and subsequently in the advancement of modern medicine. Biomarkers have been identified in a plethora of normal and pathologic conditions and are most often found in blood, tissue, or synovial fluid. Orthopaedic research has more recently focused on biomarkers of cartilage and joint diseases, with an emphasis on understanding the molecular underpinnings of their pathophysiology. This article focuses on the biomarkers identified to date in several select knee pathologies and how further research can contribute to new diagnostic tools and targeted therapeutics.

  8. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  9. [Nitric oxide in dengue pathology].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ortega, M

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional molecule that is involved in citotoxic as well as citoprotective processes, it's synthesis is highly regulated by the cell because an alteration in NO production is associated with a variety of pathologies, such as Septic, Anaphylactic and Hemorrhagic Shock. The clinical feature of dengue virus infection has a spectrum that goes from mild, dengue fever, to a severe disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock. Here, some evidences are discussed that links NO with the pathology of the severe disease cause by dengue virus.

  10. The Role of Alzheimer's and Cerebrovascular Pathology in Mediating the Effects of Age, Race, and Apolipoprotein E Genotype on Dementia Severity in Pathologically-Confirmed Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Brandon E; John, Samantha E; Gurnani, Ashita S; Bussell, Cara A; Saurman, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Dementia severity can be modeled as the construct δ, representing the "cognitive correlates of functional status." We recently validated a model for estimating δ in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set; however, the association of δ with neuropathology remains untested. We used data from 727 decedents evaluated at Alzheimer's Disease (AD) Centers nationwide. Participants spoke English, had no genetic abnormalities, and were pathologically diagnosed with AD as a primary or contributing etiology. Clinical data from participants' last visit prior to death were used to estimate dementia severity (δ). A structural equation model using age, education, race, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype (number of ɛ2 and ɛ4 alleles) as predictors and latent AD pathology and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) pathology as mediators fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.031; CFI = 0.957). AD pathology mediated the effects of age and APOE genotype on dementia severity. An older age at death and more ɛ2 alleles were associated with less AD pathology and, in turn, with less severe dementia. In contrast, more ɛ4 alleles were associated with more pathology and more severe dementia. Although age and race contributed to differences in CVD pathology, CVD pathology was not related to dementia severity in this sample of decedents with pathologically-confirmed AD. Using δ as an estimate of dementia severity fits well within a structural model in which AD pathology directly affects dementia severity and mediates the relationship between age and APOE genotype on dementia severity.

  11. 77 FR 59941 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Terahertz Scanning Systems for Cancer Pathology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... resolution by identifying a skin cancer margin without the need for laboratory work or the possibility of... Systems for Cancer Pathology AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION... systems for cancer pathology. Upon the expiration or termination of the exclusive evaluation option...

  12. Correlation between bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and real-time measurable environmental items: A case study from KORUS-AQ pre-campaign in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Due to global climate change, bioaerosols are more globally mixed with a more random manner. During a long-distance traveling dust event, the number of microbes significantly increases in bioaerosol, and the chance for bioaerosol to contain human pathogenic microorganisms may also increase. Recently, we have found that bioaerosol microbial community characteristics (copy number of total bacterial 16S rRNA genes, and population diversity and composition) are correlated with the quantitative detection of potential human pathogens. However, bioaerosol microbial community characteristics cannot be directly used in real-time monitoring because the DNA-based detection method requires at least couple days or a week to get reliable data. To circumvent this problem, a correlation of microbial community characteristics with real-time measurable environmental items (PM10, PM2.5, temperature, humidity, NOx, O3 etc.), if any, will be useful in frequent assessment of microbial risk from available real-time measured environmental data. In this work, we monitored bioaerosol microbial communities using a high-throughput DNA sequencing method (Mi-seq) during the KORUS-AQ (KoreaUS-Air Quality) pre-campaign (May to June, 2015) in Seoul, and investigated whether any correlation exists between the bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and the real-time measureable environmental items simultaneously attained during the pre-campaign period. At the pre-campaign site (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul), bioaerosol samples were collected using high volume air sampler, and their 16S rRNA gene based bacterial communities were analyzed by Miseq sequencing and bioinformatics. Simultaneously, atmosphere environmental items were monitored at the same site. Using Decision Tree, a non-linear multi-variant correlation was observed between the bioaerosol microbial community characteristics and the real-time measured atmosphere chemistry data, and a rule induction was developed

  13. Time-course monitoring of urban bioaerosol bacterial communities and its use in microbial hazard identification during Asian Dust events in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    The microbial communities transported by Asian dust events have attracted much attention as bioaerosols because the transported airborne microbes may strongly influence the downwind ecosystems and potentially human health in East Asia. Bioaerosol study has received relatively little attention and their characterization and risk assessments remain poorly developed. We used high throughput 16S rRNA gene targeted pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to monitor airborne bacterial communities and assess their potential risk. We monitored microbial communities in bioaerosol in Seoul between 2011 and 2013 using high volume air samplers. Six samples were collected during Asian dust (AD) events and the other 34 samples were urban air collected during non-Asian dust (non-AD) events. According to the qPCR result, the gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes were significantly higher during the AD events (P < 0.05) and their abundances were positively correlated with PM10 concentrations and bacterial diversities. The most abundant bacterial members (genus level) in the AD samples were Bacillus, Neisseria and E.coli/Shigella. To identify pathogenic populations, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and virulence tests were applied using culture methods. 16S rRNA gene sequences of several pathogens were detected and their relative abundances appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM10. About 1% of Bacillus isolates were identified as known pathogenic B. cereus, confirming their presence in Asian dust samples. The qPCR detection of bceT gene, which codes for an enterotoxin in B. cereus group, was significantly increased in the AD dust samples over the non-AD samples. The following MLST assessment and virulence test of cultivated Bacillus isolates showed that B. cereus, B. licheniformis and B. mycoides were identified as pathogenic bacteria, and these pathogenic bacteria were usually more abundant during AD events. To assess the possible associations of

  14. Evaluating the predictability of PM10 grades in Seoul, Korea using a neural network model based on synoptic patterns.

    PubMed

    Hur, Sun-Kyong; Oh, Hye-Ryun; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Jinwon; Song, Chang-Keun; Chang, Lim-Seok; Lee, Jae-Bum

    2016-11-01

    As of November 2014, the Korean Ministry of Environment (KME) has been forecasting the concentration of particulate matter with diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) classified into four grades: low (PM10 ≤ 30 μg m(-3)), moderate (30 < PM10 ≤ 80 μg m(-3)), high (80 < PM10 ≤ 150 μg m(-3)), and very high (PM10 > 150 μg m(-3)). The KME operational center generates PM10 forecasts using statistical and chemistry-transport models, but the overall performance and the hit rate for the four PM10 grades has not previously been evaluated. To provide a statistical reference for the current air quality forecasting system, we have developed a neural network model based on the synoptic patterns of several meteorological fields such as geopotential height, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind. Hindcast of the four PM10 grades in Seoul, Korea was performed for the cold seasons (October-March) of 2001-2014 when the high and very high PM10 grades are frequently observed. Because synoptic patterns of the meteorological fields are distinctive for each PM10 grade, these fields were adopted and quantified as predictors in the form of cosine similarities to train the neural network model. Using these predictors in conjunction with the PM10 concentration in Seoul from the day before prediction as an additional predictor, an overall hit rate of 69% was achieved; the hit rates for the low, moderate, high, and very high PM10 grades were 33%, 83%, 45%, and 33%, respectively. Our findings also suggest that the synoptic patterns of meteorological variables are reliable predictors for the identification of the favorable conditions for each PM10 grade, as well as for the transboundary transport of PM10 from China. This evaluation of PM10 predictability can be reliably used as a statistical reference and further, complement to the current air quality forecasting system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  16. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  17. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  18. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  19. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  20. Mathematical Pathologies as Pathways into Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath; Dickman, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the role of mathematical pathologies as a means of fostering creativity in the classroom is discussed. In particular, it delves into what constitutes a mathematical pathology, examines historical mathematical pathologies as well as pathologies in contemporary classrooms, and indicates how the Lakatosian heuristic can be used to…

  1. Pathological gambling in a psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Aragay, Núria; Roca, Alba; Garcia, Berta; Marqueta, Cristina; Guijarro, Silvina; Delgado, Luís; Garolera, Maite; Alberni, Joan; Vallès, Vicenç

    2012-01-01

    This study determines the prevalence of gambling difficulties in a consecutive sample of psychiatric inpatients and compares it with a nonpsychiatric inpatient sample. In addition, the gambling prevalence among all psychiatric disorders is analyzed. An observational study was conducted in psychiatric patients and sex- and age-matched nonpsychiatric patients. The psychiatric group (n = 100) included all consecutive patients admitted to the psychiatric unit of our hospital. The nonpsychiatric group (n = 100) included psychiatrically healthy inpatients from any other hospital unit. The National Opinion Research Center Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Screen for Gambling Problems was used to screen for gambling behavior. Gambling difficulties were experienced by 3% (2% pathological gambling and 1% problem gambling) of nonpsychiatric inpatients and 9% (8% pathological gambling and 1% problem gambling) of psychiatric inpatients, including 6 with psychotic disorders, 1 with mood disorder, 1 with adjustment disorder, and 1 with eating disorder. There were no statistical differences in gambling prevalence between groups. In terms of comorbidity, patients with psychotic disorder had a higher prevalence of gambling problems than other psychiatric disorders (P = .045). A higher prevalence of gambling disorders was found in psychiatric inpatients than in nonpsychiatric inpatients. It may be advisable for therapists to routinely assess for gambling difficulties as part of the psychiatric evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  3. Surgical pathology of urologic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Javadpour, N.; Barsky, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    This text details recent advances in methods for detecting, diagnosing, and managing genitourinary diseases. Included are chapters on imaging techniques (including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound; tumor markers (such as alphafetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, prostatic specific antigen, and T-antigens); immunocytochemistry; pediatric urologic pathology; and other key topics.

  4. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ippei; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    The heart must continuously pump blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. To maintain the high energy consumption required by this role, the heart is equipped with multiple complex biological systems that allow adaptation to changes of systemic demand. The processes of growth (hypertrophy), angiogenesis, and metabolic plasticity are critically involved in maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Cardiac hypertrophy is classified as physiological when it is associated with normal cardiac function or as pathological when associated with cardiac dysfunction. Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. In contrast, pathological hypertrophy is induced by factors such as prolonged and abnormal hemodynamic stress, due to hypertension, myocardial infarction etc. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with fibrosis, capillary rarefaction, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cellular dysfunction (impairment of signaling, suppression of autophagy, and abnormal cardiomyocyte/non-cardiomyocyte interactions), as well as undesirable epigenetic changes, with these complex responses leading to maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This review describes the key molecules and cellular responses involved in physiological/pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  6. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  7. Proceedings of the Pacific Conference on Operations Research, Held April 23-28, 1979, Seoul, Korea. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    undesirable. As the objective is to provide the decision maker with a rich picture, events may include social, political , technological, economic...STRUCTURAL MODELLING FOR TECHNOLOGY ASESSMENT, vols I and II, Report to the National Science Foundation, Portland State University, February 1978. [7...SUBJECTIVE INFORMATION, Soclo-Economic Planning Sciences , Vol 12, 1978. L11 Wakeland, W., QSIM 2: A LOW BUDGET HEURISTIC APPROACH TO MODELLING AND

  8. The exceedance patterns of air quality criteria: a case study of ozone and nitrogen dioxide in Seoul, Korea between 1990 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Ye-Jin; Kim, Min-Young

    2005-07-01

    In this study, the environmental behavior of two major airborne pollutants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, was investigated with respect to their exceedance patterns of air quality criteria. For this purpose, we used data sets collected from a total of 31 air quality monitoring stations dispersed across the Seoul metropolitan city between 1990 and 2000. In the case of NO(2), the frequency of hourly exceedance data sets exhibited little changes in the early 90s. However, it increased dramatically after 1995, probably in compliance with a rapid increase in the total number of automobiles. Likewise, the daily exceedance of O(3) in the early 90s was not significant, approaching 100 cases (except in 1994). However, its total quantity began to surpass 300 cases since around 1996. Comparison of those exceedance data was also made among spatially divided data groups. In the case of NO(2), the occurrence of exceedance data was dominated by the western part of the city in both magnitude and frequency. On the other hand, that for O(3) was characterized by notably strong occurrences in the eastern counterpart. The overall results of our analysis of the NO(2) and O(3) exceedance data sets indicate an inextricable linkage between the two pollutants in association with geographical and meteorological factors.

  9. A waterborne outbreak and detection of cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water of an older high-rise apartment complex in seoul.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-Joo; Yang, Jin-Young; Lee, Eun-Sook; Kim, Se-Chul; Cha, So-Yang; Kim, Sung-Tek; Lee, Man-Ho; Han, Sun-Hee; Park, Young-Sang

    2013-08-01

    From May to June 2012, a waterborne outbreak of 124 cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred in the plumbing systems of an older high-rise apartment complex in Seoul, Republic of Korea. The residents of this apartment complex had symptoms of watery diarrhea and vomiting. Tap water samples in the apartment complex and its adjacent buildings were collected and tested for 57 parameters under the Korean Drinking Water Standards and for additional 11 microbiological parameters. The microbiological parameters included total colony counts, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus, fecal streptococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts, total culturable viruses, and Norovirus. While the tap water samples of the adjacent buildings complied with the Korean Drinking Water Standards for all parameters, fecal bacteria and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the tap water samples of the outbreak apartment complex. It turned out that the agent of the disease was Cryptosporidium parvum. The drinking water was polluted with sewage from a septic tank in the apartment complex. To remove C. parvum oocysts, we conducted physical processes of cleaning the water storage tanks, flushing the indoor pipes, and replacing old pipes with new ones. Finally we restored the clean drinking water to the apartment complex after identification of no oocysts.

  10. A Waterborne Outbreak and Detection of Cryptosporidium Oocysts in Drinking Water of an Older High-Rise Apartment Complex in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin-Young; Lee, Eun-Sook; Kim, Se-Chul; Cha, So-Yang; Kim, Sung-Tek; Lee, Man-Ho; Han, Sun-Hee; Park, Young-Sang

    2013-01-01

    From May to June 2012, a waterborne outbreak of 124 cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred in the plumbing systems of an older high-rise apartment complex in Seoul, Republic of Korea. The residents of this apartment complex had symptoms of watery diarrhea and vomiting. Tap water samples in the apartment complex and its adjacent buildings were collected and tested for 57 parameters under the Korean Drinking Water Standards and for additional 11 microbiological parameters. The microbiological parameters included total colony counts, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus, fecal streptococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts, total culturable viruses, and Norovirus. While the tap water samples of the adjacent buildings complied with the Korean Drinking Water Standards for all parameters, fecal bacteria and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the tap water samples of the outbreak apartment complex. It turned out that the agent of the disease was Cryptosporidium parvum. The drinking water was polluted with sewage from a septic tank in the apartment complex. To remove C. parvum oocysts, we conducted physical processes of cleaning the water storage tanks, flushing the indoor pipes, and replacing old pipes with new ones. Finally we restored the clean drinking water to the apartment complex after identification of no oocysts. PMID:24039290

  11. A multivariate study for characterizing particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) in Seoul metropolitan subway stations, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Jeong, Wootae; Park, Duckshin; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2015-10-30

    Given that around eight million commuters use the Seoul Metropolitan Subway (SMS) each day, the indoor air quality (IAQ) of its stations has attracted much public attention. We have monitored the concentration of particulate matters (PMx) (i.e., PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) in six major transfer stations per minute for three weeks during the summer, autumn, and winter in 2014 and 2015. The data were analyzed to investigate the relationship between PMx concentration and multivariate environmental factors using statistical methods. The average PM concentration observed was approximately two or three times higher than outdoor PM10 concentration, showing similar temporal patterns at concourses and platforms. This implies that outdoor PM10 is the most significant factor in controlling indoor PM concentration. In addition, the station depth and number of trains passing through stations were found to be additional influences on PMx. Principal component analysis (PCA) and self-organizing map (SOM) were employed, through which we found that the number of trains influences PM concentration in the vicinity of platforms only, and PMx hotspots were determined. This study identifies the external and internal factors affecting PMx characteristics in six SMS stations, which can assist in the development of effective IAQ management plans to improve public health.

  12. Development of a speciated, hourly, and gridded air pollutants emission modeling system--a case study on the precursors of photochemical smog in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, D Y; Kim, J W

    2000-03-01

    A speciated, hourly, and gridded air pollutants emission modeling system (SHEMS) was developed and applied in predicting hourly nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) levels in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). The primary goal of the SHEMS was to produce a systemized emission inventory for air pollutants including ozone precursors for modeling air quality in urban areas. The SHEMS is principally composed of three parts: (1) a pre-processor to process emission factors, activity levels, and spatial and temporal information using a geographical information system; (2) an emission model for each source type; and (3) a post-processor to produce report and input data for air quality models through database modeling. The source categories in SHEMS are point, area, mobile, natural, and other sources such as fugitive emissions. The emission database produced by SHEMS contains 22 inventoried compounds: sulfur dioxide, NO2, carbon monoxide, and 19 speciated volatile organic compounds. To validate SHEMS, the emission data were tested with the Urban Airshed Model to predict NO2 and O3 concentrations in the SMA during selected episode days in 1994. The results turned out to be reliable in describing temporal variation and spatial distribution of those pollutants.

  13. Inter-comparison of nitrogen dioxide column densities retrieved by ground-based MAX-DOAS and Pandora, and space borne OMI measurements over Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, S.; Lee, H.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Herman, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    It is important to understand spatial and temporal characteristics of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) which affects atmospheric chemistry with respect to aerosol and ozone formation. In this present study, we used Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and Pandora to investigate vertical information of NO2. The measurements took place from August to October in 2013 in Seoul, one of the largest megacities in Northeast Asia. Slant column densities (SCDs) of NO2 at each elevation angle (EA) were derived using the MAX-DOAS technique that utilizes scattered sunlight at multiple EAs as a light source. Vertical distributions of tropospheric NO2 were retrieved utilizing measured SCDs and those simulated with Trace gas RAdiative Transfer Monte Carlo Y(I)mplementation (TRACY) with inputs of aerosol optical properties from sunphotometer and Micro Pulse LIDAR (MPL) measurements. On the other hand, Pandora, which uses direct sunlight as a light source, was used to obtain total NO2 column densities for the same measurement period. Tropospheric and total NO2 column densities retrieved using those two ground based instruments were compared with those obtained from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data.

  14. Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery-dementia version (SNSB-D): a useful tool for assessing and monitoring cognitive impairments in dementia patients.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Chin, Juhee; Park, Aram; Lee, Byung Hwa; Suh, Mee Kyung; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L

    2010-07-01

    The Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) is one of the standardized neuropsychological test batteries widely used in Korea. However, it may be a bit too lengthy for patients with decreased attention span; and it does not provide the score of global cognitive function (GCF), which is useful for monitoring patients longitudinally. We sought to validate a dementia version of SNSB (SNSB-D) that was shorter than the original SNSB and contained only scorable tests with a GCF score of 300. We administered SNSB-D to patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=43) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=93), and normal controls (NC) (n=77). MCI and AD groups had GCF scores significantly different from NC group, and GCF scores were able to distinguish patients with Clinical Dementia Rating of 0.5 and 1. Test-retest reliability was high, with a correlation coefficient of 0.918 for AD, 0.999 for MCI, and 0.960 for NC. The GCF score significantly correlated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Through ROC-curve analysis, GCF scores were found to yield more accurate diagnoses than the MMSE. The SNSB-D is a valid, reliable tool for assessing the overall cognitive function, and can be used to monitor cognitive changes in patients with dementia.

  15. Aerosol optical depth and its relation to regional-scale circulations over Korea during MAPS-Seoul (May-June, 2015) and KORUS-AQ campaigns (May-June, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hyunhye; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Ji-Hyoung; Park, Jin-Soo; Ahn, Joon-Young; Lee, Jae-Bum; Lim, Yong-Jae

    2017-04-01

    We investigate aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its relation to regional-scale circulations over Korea during the two recent field campaigns conducted in May-June of 2015 (MAPS-Seoul experiment) and May-June of 2016 (KORUS-AQ campaign), using satellite MODIS and AERONET measurement data. The monthly averaged MODIS AOD at 550 nm was estimated to about 0.35 in May and 0.50 in June during the MAPS-Seoul experiment, which was about 33% and 17% lower than that of 13-year averaged MODIS AOD. MODIS AOD during KORUS-AQ 2016 campaign was similarly about 8˜23% lower than those of 13-year averages, but slightly higher than those in 2015. The monthly averaged MODIS AOD was 0.40 in May and 0.56 in June, 2016. Consistently, ground-based AERONET sky radiometer measurements at Seoul showed AODs of about 0.35 (May) and 0.60 (June) at 500 nm during MAPS-Seoul experiment, which was approximately 32% and 20% lower than the averaged AODs (May - 0.51; June - 0.76) from 4-year measurements (2012, 2013, 2015, and 2016). Also, AOD during KORUS-AQ campaign in 2016 was about 0.43 in May and 0.71 in June, which was about 16% and 6% lower than 4-year mean AOD. This year-to-year variation of AOD in May-June over East Asia, including Korea, was closely linked with synoptic atmospheric circulations. Generally, aerosol optical depth (AOD) is high in May and June due to stagnant synoptic meteorological systems, as previously reported by Kim et al. (Atmospheric Environment, 2007). For example, in 2012, MODIS AOD over the Korean Peninsula was observed to be about 0.71 in May and 0.72 in June. This can be explained by the frequent occurrences of stagnant atmospheric conditions. However, the regional-scale circulations during MAPS-Seoul and KORUS-AQ campaigns were characterized by the fast-moving confluent flows over the Korean peninsula, formed between Siberian high pressure system located in North China and North Pacific high in South China. These results suggest that atmospheric circulations play a

  16. Quality in pathology laboratory practice.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, S

    1995-06-01

    Quality refers not only to analytical quality control, a traditional area of laboratory excellence, but to the entire science of quality management. As measures of quality, structural indicators refer to staffing and physical facilities, process indicators to the institutions operations and, perhaps most importantly, outcome indicators address the ultimate patient care uses that pathology information is put to. Comparison of performance to peer laboratories, external quality control, is a practical, if limited, yardstick of performance. Customer satisfaction and turn-around-time of tests are receiving more recent attention as quality measures. Blood banking, because of its inherently complex cycle from donor phlebotomy to product infusion, requires special considerations with regard to quality management. Reporting of anatomical pathology, where the only gold standard is a consensus of experts, also does not lend itself to classical numerical quality assessment.

  17. Hairy cell leukemia: diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Robert W; Bethel, Kelly J

    2006-10-01

    The pathology of HCL has been reviewed with a focus on the diagnostic hematopathology of this rare, but fascinating, disease. The discrimination of HCL from other B-cell lymphoproliferations, particularly HCL-V and SMZL, has been emphasized. The unique responsiveness of HCL to 2-CdA and other chemotherapeutic agents makes this distinction critical. Fortunately, HCL has consistent cytologic, histologic, cytochemical, and immunologic features that make classification reliable and reproducible. Less straightforward is the differential diagnosis of SMZL and HCL-V, problematic because of the rarity of both disorders, lack of discriminating evidence-based criteria, and perhaps a biologic kinship between these two disorders that share many clinical and pathologic features. Fortunately, this is not a clinically critical distinction.

  18. Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation. PMID:22778743

  19. Noise reduction for vocal pathologies.

    PubMed

    Matassini, L; Manfredi, C

    2002-01-01

    A noise reduction scheme, particularly suited for the correction of vocal pathologies, is proposed. The filter makes use of concepts originated within the theory of dynamical systems and deterministic chaos. In particular, the idea of embedding scalar data in order to reconstruct a phase space is of fundamental importance here. Furthermore, the concept of an attractor as a result of dynamical constraints is exploited. In order to perform noise reduction one needs redundancy and the human voice provides it even within a phoneme, namely the smallest structural unit of speech. Due to several repetitions of a pattern called pitch inside a phoneme, separation between the pure voice signal and the noise is possible, provided the latter is uncorrelated with the former. With a proper parameter tuning, different kinds of noise can be removed. We describe the idea behind the noise reduction algorithm and present applications to vocal pathologies.

  20. Rotator cuff and subacromial pathology.

    PubMed

    Yablon, Corrie M; Jacobson, Jon A

    2015-07-01

    Both MRI and ultrasound (US) demonstrate equivalent accuracy in the evaluation of the rotator cuff. Both modalities have their advantages, disadvantages, and pitfalls. Radiography is an important complementary modality in that it can demonstrate occult sources of shoulder pain. MRI is recommended for the evaluation of shoulder pain in patients < 40 years of age because labral pathology is frequently identified. However, in patients > 40 years, US should be the first-line modality because the incidence of rotator cuff pathology increases with age. US is useful to guide procedures such as subacromial injection and calcific tendinosis lavage. Radiologists should be knowledgeable of both MRI and US of the shoulder to tailor these examinations to the specific needs of their patients. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Interleukin-22: immunobiology and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Hanash, Alan M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T-helper (Th)-17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Knowledge of IL-22 biology has rapidly evolved since its discovery in 2000, and a role for IL-22 has been identified in numerous tissues including the intestines, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, pancreas and skin. IL-22 primarily targets non-hematopoietic epithelial and stromal cells where it can promote proliferation and play a role in tissue regeneration. In addition, IL-22 regulates host defense at barrier surfaces. However, IL-22 has also been linked to several conditions involving inflammatory tissue pathology. In this review, we will assess the current understanding of this cytokine, including its physiologic and pathologic effects on epithelial cell function. PMID:25706098

  2. Pathological fear of cot death.

    PubMed

    Weightman, H; Dalal, B M; Brockington, I F

    1998-01-01

    Cot death (sudden infant death syndrome) is one of the most common causes of death in the first year of life. Four cases with a pathological fear of cot death are presented. All the patients were depressed and in 2 cases the fear of cot death had an obsessional quality. In all cases there were complications during pregnancy (miscarriage, threatened abortion, recurrent vomiting in last trimester). In 1 case, the patient knew 3 mothers who had suffered cot deaths; in another, the infant was gravely ill in the neonatal period. Pathological fear of cot death can be recognised by the presence of two central features - overvigilance and excessive nocturnal checking of the baby's breathing. Therapeutic interventions are discussed.

  3. Legal billing for pathology services.

    PubMed

    Glaser, David M; Bennett, Katherine J

    2007-02-01

    Minnesota physicians recently debated whether primary care physicians can legally and ethically "mark up" or add to the fees charged by a pathologist when submitting bills for pathology services to third-party payers. This article explores the relevant federal and state laws and offers the conclusion that both federal and state law allow for such a mark-up if it reflects reasonable compensation for additional work and risk assumed by the primary care provider group.

  4. Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Research 63, 4196-4203 (2003). 8. Xu, J., Stolk, J.A., Zhang, X., Silva, S.J., Houghton, R.L., Matsumura, M., Vedvick, T.S., Leslie , K.B., Badaro, R...American Journal of Pathology 178, 1824-1834 (2010). 12. Koh, C.M., Iwata, T., Zheng, Q., Bethel , C., Yegnasubramanian, S. & De Marzo, A.M. Myc enforces

  5. [The normal and the pathological].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, B

    1995-12-10

    The main problem of modern health care is to express its goals and its limits. To do this it is necessary to answer the fundamental question: what is normal and what is pathological? The French physician and philosopher Georges Canguilhem has tried to answer this question. He claims that for medicine, the difference between these fundamentals is determined by normativity and not by science. In doing this he wishes to save the autonomy of the individual patient and to delimit medicine from science.

  6. Pathology of glomerular deposition diseases.

    PubMed

    Joh, Kensuke

    2007-09-01

    In routine diagnosis on renal biopsy, one of the confusing fields for pathological diagnoses is the glomerulopathies with fibrillary structure. The primary glomerulopathies with a deposit of ultrastructural fibrillary structure, which are negative for Congo-red stain but positive for immunoglobulins, include fibrillary glomerulonephritis and immunotactoid glomerulopathy. Several paraproteinemias including cryoglobulinemia, monoclonal gammopathy, and light chain deposition disease as well as hematopoietic disorders including plasmacytoma, plasma cell dyscrasia, and B cell lymphoproliferative disorders involve glomerulopathy with an ultrastructural fibrillary structure. A rare glomerulopathy with fibrillary structure that stains negative for Congo-red as well as for immunoglobulins has been also reported. The pathological diagnoses of these glomerulopathies can include either glomerular diseases, or paraproteinemic diseases, or hematopoietic diseases. The terminology is still confusing when glomerular diseases can be combined with paraproteinemic diseases and/or hematopoietic diseases. Therefore, the generic term, 'glomerular deposition disease' (GDD), has been proposed by pathologists with a requirement for clinicians to detect autoantibodies, paraproteins as well as to carry out a bone marrow check. An attempt has been made to rearrange the diseases with related disorders of fibrillary deposits, based on detailed clinical and pathological finding and to elucidate the correlation between GDD, paraproteinemia, and hematopoietic disorder.

  7. Pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tervaert, Thijs W Cohen; Mooyaart, Antien L; Amann, Kerstin; Cohen, Arthur H; Cook, H Terence; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Ferrario, Franco; Fogo, Agnes B; Haas, Mark; de Heer, Emile; Joh, Kensuke; Noël, Laure H; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Seshan, Surya V; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Bruijn, Jan A

    2010-04-01

    Although pathologic classifications exist for several renal diseases, including IgA nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and lupus nephritis, a uniform classification for diabetic nephropathy is lacking. Our aim, commissioned by the Research Committee of the Renal Pathology Society, was to develop a consensus classification combining type1 and type 2 diabetic nephropathies. Such a classification should discriminate lesions by various degrees of severity that would be easy to use internationally in clinical practice. We divide diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions with a separate evaluation for degrees of interstitial and vascular involvement. Biopsies diagnosed as diabetic nephropathy are classified as follows: Class I, glomerular basement membrane thickening: isolated glomerular basement membrane thickening and only mild, nonspecific changes by light microscopy that do not meet the criteria of classes II through IV. Class II, mesangial expansion, mild (IIa) or severe (IIb): glomeruli classified as mild or severe mesangial expansion but without nodular sclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions) or global glomerulosclerosis in more than 50% of glomeruli. Class III, nodular sclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions): at least one glomerulus with nodular increase in mesangial matrix (Kimmelstiel-Wilson) without changes described in class IV. Class IV, advanced diabetic glomerulosclerosis: more than 50% global glomerulosclerosis with other clinical or pathologic evidence that sclerosis is attributable to diabetic nephropathy. A good interobserver reproducibility for the four classes of DN was shown (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84) in a test of this classification.

  8. Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Klaus

    2013-01-10

    Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351.

  9. The pathology student fellowship program at the University of Vermont: 1956-2005.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Bruce R

    2005-11-01

    Student fellowship programs in pathology offer a unique educational experience for selected medical students. In this report, the specialty preferences of former student fellows graduating from the University of Vermont were analyzed. Since 1956, 110 students have participated in this program, of whom 33 chose pathology as a career. These individuals represented 32.6% of all Vermont graduates who entered pathology between 1958 and 2005. In addition, former student fellows were more likely to become academic pathologists and to obtain subspecialty certification. Furthermore, based on comments received from former student fellows, the program had a positive impact on the medical education and career of pathologists and nonpathologists alike. It is concluded that student fellowship programs represent a powerful recruitment tool for pathology generally and for academic pathology in particular. The development of a database to track these programs and their graduates is essential to fully assess the educational impact of pathology student fellowship programs nationally.

  10. Evaluation and treatment of pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    González-Ibáñez, Angels; Rosel, Pilar; Moreno, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article was to describe a model for evaluating and implementing cognitive-behavioral treatment for pathological gambling. The model takes into account the fact that pathological gamblers form a heterogeneous group with varied biopsychosocial characteristics.

  11. Beyond acute appendicitis: imaging and pathologic spectrum of appendiceal pathology.

    PubMed

    Gaetke-Udager, Kara; Maturen, Katherine E; Hammer, Suntrea G

    2014-10-01

    While acute appendicitis is a common and important clinical problem, a variety of other disease processes can affect the appendix. Simple and perforated appendicitis, tip appendicitis, and stump appendicitis share a common clinical presentation including anorexia, right lower quadrant pain, and fever. By imaging, most cases of acute appendicitis exhibit luminal dilation, wall thickening, and periappendiceal inflammatory stranding. In tip appendicitis, these changes are isolated to the distal appendix, often with an obstructing appendicolith. Perforated appendicitis can exhibit mural discontinuity, periappendiceal abscess, and/or extraluminal appendicoliths. After appendectomy, the appendiceal remnant or "stump" can become inflamed, often necessitating repeat surgery. Inflammatory bowel disease can involve the terminal ileum, secondarily involving the appendix, or may primarily involve the appendix. Patient symptoms can be chronic in such cases, and mucosal hyperenhancement is a pronounced imaging feature. In asymptomatic patients without appendiceal inflammation, the appendix can be dilated by intraluminal material such as inspissated succus in cystic fibrosis or mucus from benign appendiceal mucocele. Finally, neoplasms such as typical appendiceal carcinoid tumor and mucinous adenocarcinoma can involve the appendix. Carcinoids are often small and incidentally discovered at pathologic examination, while malignant mucinous adenocarcinoma tends to present with advanced disease including pseudomyxoma peritonei. Cecal cancers can also obstruct the appendiceal lumen and cause acute appendicitis; an astute radiologist can recognize this prospectively and facilitate definitive resection (right hemicolectomy) at the time of surgery. Attention to mural features, cecal configuration, and periappendiceal inflammation is essential to the correct prospective diagnosis of complicated appendicitis and less common appendiceal pathologies.

  12. Radiologic-pathologic correlation of musculoskeletal lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    This atlas correlates the pathologic and radiologic features of a wide variety of lesions of the bone and soft tissue. Multiple imaging techniques are illustrated with an emphasis on plain radiographs. The author stresses the interpretation of radiographic images in terms of underlying pathology rather than as isolated images. Illustrations of plain radiographs and other radiographic imaging techniques are correlated with numerous micro- and macroscopic pathologic illustrations showing typical histologic and gross pathologic features.

  13. Hippocrates' humoral pathology in nowaday's reflections.

    PubMed

    Bujalkova, M; Straka, S; Jureckova, A

    2001-01-01

    Ancient medicine integrated three components: experience (empirical observation), religion/magic and speculations of natural philosophers. The Greek medicine out-achieved medicine of other ancient nations in starting to investigate the true causes of health and diseases and thus laying foundations for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Hippocrates, the most famous physician of the ancient times, made a synthesis of existing philosophical opinions from the point of view of a physician. His 58 writings were preserved in the collection "Corpus Hippocraticum". The most relevant writing in it--"Peri fyseos anthropu" (On the nature of man)--is ascribed to Hippocrates' son-in-law Polybos to whom we are grateful for the ancient humoral-pathological theory. In explaining human organism and its processes the author integrated ancient teachings on 4 basic humors (humoral theory), elements and qualities with observations of manifestations of health and disease. Normal condition (health) was defined as balance between the body fluids (eukrasia) and external environment. If this balance is disturbed, the result is dyskrasia, i.e. disease studied by pathology. According to Hippocrates disease causes can be understood only through empirical study. A man has a power to overcome disease, but to achieve it the right diet is necessary to keep harmony in body fluids of an organism. The role of a physician was just to support the nature. "Prognosis", another writing included in "Corpus Hippocraticum", reflects Hippocrates' understanding of prognosis as a necessary development of diagnosis based on past knowledge (anamnesis) and present observation. Ideas of Hippocrates and his medical school are still valuable and inspiring especially for today's very sophisticated medicine--concept of fighting diseases by natural means: maintaining healthy lifestyle and harmony within the organism, or an effort for perfect understanding of human creature and for humanization of medicine. (Fig. 3

  14. Seasonal effect of PM(10) concentrations on mortality and morbidity in Seoul, Korea: a temperature-matched case-crossover analysis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Okhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Ho

    2010-01-01

    Explorations of interactions between air pollution and seasonal changes have represented one approach in examining the consequences of global warming. However, only a few studies have focused on evaluating the effects of seasonal air pollution using data on both morbidity and mortality in Asia. We examined the associations between PM(10) concentrations and mortality and hospital admissions in Seoul, Korea for the periods 2000-2006 and 2001-2006. We employed a temperature-matched case-crossover design, where reference periods matched case days in regard to temperature (same rounded to degrees celsius ( degrees C)), month, and year. A total of 238,826 deaths were identified, along with 98,570 and 93,553 inpatient admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively. We found that the association with PM(10) and mortality/morbidity increased during the summer. During the study period, 10microg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was associated with the increase in mortality by 0.28% (95% confidence interval: 0.12, 0.44), 0.51% (0.19, 0.83), and 0.59% (-0.08, 1.26) for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory causes. 10microg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was also associated with increase in hospitalization from cardiovascular and respiratory causes by 0.77% (0.53, 1.01) and 1.19% (0.94, 1.44). In the summer, the increase in mortality and hospitalization was 0.57% (0.20, 0.93), 0.64% (-0.10, 1.38), 0.50% (-1.02, 2.05), 1.52% (0.89, 2.16), and 1.55% (0.87, 2.22). This study provides evidence that the effect of PM(10) on mortality and morbidity varies with season and increases during the summer season.

  15. Food deserts in Korea? A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012 data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohyeong; Lee, Chang Kil; Seo, Dong Yeon

    2016-10-01

    The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective. We first evaluated the applicability of food deserts in a Korean setting and identified four Korean-specific unhealthy food consumption indicators, including insufficient food consumption due to financial difficulty, limited consumption of fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption of junk food, and excessive consumption of instant noodles. The KNHANES 2008-2012 data in Seoul were analyzed with stratified sampling weights to understand the trends and basic characteristics of these eating patterns in each category. GIS analyses were then conducted for the data spatially aggregated at the sub-district level in order to create maps identifying areas of concern regarding each of these indicators and their combinations. Despite significant reduction in the rate of food insufficiency due to financial difficulty, the rates of excessive consumption of unhealthy foods (junk food and instant noodles) as well as limited consumption of fruits and vegetables have increased or remained high. These patterns tend to be found among relatively younger and more educated groups, regardless of income status. A GIS-based analysis demonstrated several hotspots as potential "food deserts" tailored to the Korean context based on the observed spatial patterns of undesirable food consumption. These findings could be used as a guide to prioritize areas for targeted intervention programs to facilitate healthy food consumption behaviors and thus improve nutrition and food-related health outcomes.

  16. Infections by Leptospira interrogans, Seoul Virus, and Bartonella spp. Among Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the Urban Slum Environment in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Fleur Helena; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; de Faria, Marcus Tucunduva; Wunder, Elsio A.; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I.; Childs, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Studies evaluating the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in tropical Norway rat populations are rare, and data on co-infection with multiple pathogens are nonexistent. Herein, we describe the prevalence of leptospiral carriage, Seoul virus (SEOV), and Bartonella spp. infection independently, in addition to the rates of co-infection among urban, slum-dwelling Norway rats in Salvador, Brazil, trapped during the rainy season from June to August of 2010. These data were complemented with previously unpublished Leptospira and SEOV prevalence information collected in 1998.