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Sample records for pathway controls cytoprotection

  1. Radioadaptive Cytoprotective Pathways in the Mouse Retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, Susana B.; Wotring, V.; Theriot, C.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to cosmic radiation implies a risk of tissue degeneration. Radiation retinopathy is a complication of radiotherapy and exhibits common features with other retinopathies and neuropathies. Exposure to a low radiation dose elicits protective cellular events (radioadaptive response), reducing the stress of a subsequent higher dose. To assess the risk of radiation-induced retinal changes and the extent to which a small priming dose reduces this risk, we used a mouse model exposed to a source of Cs-137-gamma radiation. Gene expression profiling of retinas from non-irradiated control C57BL/6J mice (C) were compared to retinas from mice treated with a low 50 mGy dose (LD), a high 6 Gy dose (HD), and a combined treatment of 50 mGy (priming) and 6 Gy (challenge) doses (LHD). Whole retina RNA was isolated and expression analysis for selected genes performed by RTqPCR. Relevant target genes associated with cell death/survival, oxidative stress, cellular stress response and inflammation pathways, were analyzed. Cellular stress response genes were upregulated at 4 hr after the challenge dose in LHD retinas (Sirt1: 1.5 fold, Hsf1: 1.7 fold, Hspa1a: 2.5 fold; Hif1a: 1.8 fold, Bag1: 1.7). A similar trend was observed in LD animals. Most antioxidant enzymes (Hmox1, Sod2, Prdx1, Cygb, Cat1) and inflammatory mediators (NF B, Ptgs2 and Tgfb1) were upregulated in LHD and LD retinas. Expression of the pro-survival gene Bcl2 was upregulated in LD (6-fold) and LHD (4-fold) retinas. In conclusion, cytoprotective gene networks activation in the retina suggests a radioadaptive response to a priming irradiation dose, with mitigation of the deleterious effects of a subsequent high dose exposure. The enhancement of these cytoprotective mechanisms has potential value as a countermeasure to ocular alterations caused by radiation alone or in combination with other factors in spaceflight environments.

  2. Characterization of the cancer chemopreventive NRF2-dependent gene battery in human keratinocytes: demonstration that the KEAP1-NRF2 pathway, and not the BACH1-NRF2 pathway, controls cytoprotection against electrophiles as well as redox-cycling compounds.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, A Kenneth; McMahon, Michael; Plummer, Simon M; Higgins, Larry G; Penning, Trevor M; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Hayes, John D

    2009-09-01

    To better understand the role of transcription factor NF-E2-related factor (NRF) 2 in the human and its contribution to cancer chemoprevention, we have knocked down its negative regulators, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) and broad-complex, tramtrack and bric à brac and cap'n'collar homology 1 (BACH1), in HaCaT keratinocytes. Whole-genome microarray revealed that knockdown of KEAP1 resulted in 23 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) being up-regulated > or = 2.0-fold. mRNA for aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1B10, AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 were induced to the greatest extent, showing increases of between 12- and 16-fold, whereas mRNA for glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic and modifier subunits, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 and haem oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) were induced between 2.0- and 4.8-fold. Knockdown of BACH1 increased HMOX1 135-fold but induced the other genes examined to a maximum of only 2.7-fold. Activation of NRF2, by KEAP1 knockdown, caused a 75% increase in the amount of glutathione in HaCaT cells and a 1.4- to 1.6-fold increase in their resistance to the electrophiles acrolein, chlorambucil and cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH), as well as the redox-cycling agent menadione. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis during KEAP1 knockdown, by treatment with buthionine sulfoximine, abrogated resistance to acrolein, chlorambucil and CuOOH, but not to menadione. In contrast, knockdown of BACH1 did not increase glutathione levels or resistance to xenobiotics. Knockdown of NRF2 in HaCaT cells decreased glutathione to approximately 80% of normal homeostatic levels and similarly reduced their tolerance of electrophiles. Thus, the KEAP1-NRF2 pathway determines resistance to electrophiles and redox-cycling compounds in human keratinocytes through glutathione-dependent and glutathione-independent mechanisms. This study also shows that AKR1B10, AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 proteins have potential utility as biomarkers for NRF2 activation in the human.

  3. Heme oxygenase-1: a provenance for cytoprotective pathways in the kidney and other tissues.

    PubMed

    Nath, K A

    2006-08-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme, converting heme to biliverdin, during which iron is released and carbon monoxide (CO) is emitted; biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. At least two isozymes possess HO activity: HO-1 represents the isozyme induced by diverse stressors, including ischemia, nephrotoxins, cytokines, endotoxin, oxidants, and vasoactive substances; HO-2 is the constitutive, glucocorticoid-inducible isozyme. HO-1 is upregulated in the kidney in assorted conditions and diseases. Interest in HO is driven by the capacity of this system to protect the kidney against injury, a capacity likely reflecting, at least in part, the cytoprotective properties of its products: in relatively low concentrations, CO exerts vasorelaxant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects while bile pigments are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory metabolites. This article reviews the HO system and the extent to which it influences the function of the healthy kidney; it summarizes conditions and stimuli that elicit HO-1 in the kidney; and it explores the significance of renal expression of HO-1 as induced by ischemia, nephrotoxins, nephritides, transplantation, angiotensin II, and experimental diabetes. This review also points out the tissue specificity of the HO system, and the capacity of HO-1 to induce renal injury in certain settings. Studies of HO in other tissues are discussed insofar as they aid in elucidating the physiologic and pathophysiologic significance of the HO system in the kidney.

  4. Quinone Methide Bioactivation Pathway: Contribution to Toxicity and/or Cytoprotection?

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Judy L.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of quinone methides (QMs) from either direct 2-electron oxidation of 2- or 4-alkylphenols, isomerization of o-quinones, or elimination of a good leaving group could explain the cytotoxic/cytoprotective effects of several drugs, natural products, as well as endogenous compounds. For example, the antiretroviral drug nevirapine and the antidiabetic agent troglitazone both induce idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity through mechanisms involving quinone methide formation. The anesthetic phencyclidine induces psychological side effects potentially through quinone methide mediated covalent modification of crucial macromolecules in the brain. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) such as tamoxifen, toremifene, and raloxifene are metabolized to quinone methides which could potentially contribute to endometrial carcinogenic properties and/or induce detoxification enzymes and enhance the chemopreventive effects of these SERMs. Endogenous estrogens and/or estrogens present in estrogen replacement formulations are also metabolized to catechols and further oxidized to o-quinones which can isomerize to quinone methides. Both estrogen quinoids could cause DNA damage which could enhance hormone dependent cancer risk. Natural products such as the food and flavor agent eugenol can be directly oxidized to a quinone methide which may explain the toxic effects of this natural compound. Oral toxicities associated with chewing areca quid could be the result of exposure to hydroxychavicol through initial oxidation to an o-quinone which isomerizes to a p-quinone methide. Similar o-quinone to p-quinone methide isomerization reactions have been reported for the ubiquitous flavonoid quercetin which needs to be taken into consideration when evaluating risk-benefit assessments of these natural products. The resulting reaction of these quinone methides with proteins, DNA, and/or resulting modulation of gene expression may explain the toxic and/or beneficial effects of the parent

  5. Pathways for ischemic cytoprotection: Role of sirtuins in caloric restriction, resveratrol, and ischemic preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Kahlilia C; Lin, Hung Wen; Thompson, John W; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR), resveratrol, and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) have been shown to promote protection against ischemic injury in the heart and brain, as well as in other tissues. The activity of sirtuins, which are enzymes that modulate diverse biologic processes, seems to be vital in the ability of these therapeutic modalities to prevent against cellular dysfunction and death. The protective mechanisms of the yeast Sir2 and the mammalian homolog sirtuin 1 have been extensively studied, but the involvement of other sirtuins in ischemic protection is not yet clear. We examine the roles of mammalian sirtuins in modulating protective pathways against oxidative stress, energy depletion, excitotoxicity, inflammation, DNA damage, and apoptosis. Although many of these sirtuins have not been directly implicated in ischemic protection, they may have unique roles in enhancing function and preventing against stress-mediated cellular damage and death. This review will include in-depth analyses of the roles of CR, resveratrol, and IPC in activating sirtuins and in mediating protection against ischemic damage in the heart and brain. PMID:21224864

  6. A novel shogaol analog suppresses cancer cell invasion and inflammation, and displays cytoprotective effects through modulation of NF-κB and Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Fei-Fei; Ling, Hui; Ang, Xiaohui; Reddy, Shridhivya A.; Lee, Stephanie S-H.; Yang, Hong; Tan, Sock-Hoon; Hayes, John D.; Chui, Wai-Keung; Chew, Eng-Hui

    2013-11-01

    Natural compounds containing vanilloid and Michael acceptor moieties appear to possess anti-cancer and chemopreventive properties. The ginger constituent shogaol represents one such compound. In this study, the anti-cancer potential of a synthetic novel shogaol analog 3-phenyl-3-shogaol (3-Ph-3-SG) was assessed by evaluating its effects on signaling pathways. At non-toxic concentrations, 3-Ph-3-SG suppressed cancer cell invasion in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells through inhibition of PMA-activated MMP-9 expression. At similar concentrations, 3-Ph-3-SG reduced expression of the inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostanglandin-E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) in RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. Inhibition of cancer cell invasion and inflammation by 3-Ph-3-SG were mediated through suppression of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. The 3-Ph-3-SG also demonstrated cytoprotective effects by inducing the antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven genes NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Cytoprotection by 3-Ph-3-SG was achieved at least partly through modification of cysteine residues in the E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), which resulted in accumulation of transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The activities of 3-Ph-3-SG were comparable to those of 6-shogaol, the most abundant naturally-occurring shogaol, and stronger than those of 4-hydroxyl-null deshydroxy-3-phenyl-3-shogaol, which attested the importance of the 4-hydroxy substituent in the vanilloid moiety for bioactivity. In summary, 3-Ph-3-SG is shown to possess activities that modulate stress-associated pathways relevant to multiple steps in carcinogenesis. Therefore, it warrants further investigation of this compound as a promising candidate for use in chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive strategies. - Highlights:

  7. Cytoprotective effect of kaempferol against palmitic acid-induced pancreatic β-cell death through modulation of autophagy via AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Ritu; Gupta, Sumeet; Roy, Partha

    2017-02-22

    Lipotoxicity of pancreatic β-cells is the pathological manifestation of obesity-linked type II diabetes. We intended to determine the cytoprotective effect of kaempferol on pancreatic β-cells undergoing apoptosis in palmitic acid (PA)-stressed condition. The data showed that kaempferol treatment increased cell viability and anti-apoptotic activity in PA-stressed RIN-5F cells and murine pancreatic islets. Furthermore, kaempferol's ability to instigate autophagy was illustrated by MDC-LysoTracker red staining and TEM analysis which corroborated well with the observed increase in LC3 puncta and LC3-II protein expressions along with the concomitant decline in p62 expression. Apart from this, the data showed that kaempferol up/down-regulates AMPK/mTOR phosphorylation respectively. Subsequently, upon inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation by AMPK inhibitors, kaempferol mediated autophagy was abolished which further led to the decline in β-cell survival. Such observations collectively lead to the conclusion that, kaempferol exerts its cytoprotective role against lipotoxicity by activation of autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway.

  8. The Marburg virus VP24 protein interacts with Keap1 to activate the cytoprotective antioxidant response pathway.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Megan R; Johnson, Britney; Mire, Chad E; Xu, Wei; Shabman, Reed S; Speller, Lauren N; Leung, Daisy W; Geisbert, Thomas W; Amarasinghe, Gaya K; Basler, Christopher F

    2014-03-27

    Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) is a ubiquitin E3 ligase specificity factor that targets transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) for ubiquitination and degradation. Disrupting Keap1-Nrf2 interaction stabilizes Nrf2, resulting in Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs), and transcription of cytoprotective genes. Marburg virus (MARV) is a zoonotic pathogen that likely uses bats as reservoir hosts. We demonstrate that MARV protein VP24 (mVP24) binds the Kelch domain of either human or bat Keap1. This binding is of high affinity and 1:1 stoichiometry and activates Nrf2. Modeling based on the Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) VP24 (eVP24) structure identified in mVP24 an acidic loop (K-loop) critical for Keap1 interaction. Transfer of the K-loop to eVP24, which otherwise does not bind Keap1, confers Keap1 binding and Nrf2 activation, and infection by MARV, but not EBOV, activates ARE gene expression. Therefore, MARV targets Keap1 to activate Nrf2-induced cytoprotective responses during infection.

  9. Pirarubicin induces an autophagic cytoprotective response through suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in human bladder cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kuiqing; Chen, Xu; Liu, Cheng; Gu, Peng; Li, Zhuohang; Wu, Shaoxu; Xu, Kewei; Lin, Tianxin; Huang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Pirarubicin is widely used in intravesical chemotherapy for bladder cancer, but its efficacy is limited due to drug resistance; the mechanism has not been well studied. Emerging evidence shows that autophagy can be a novel target for cancer therapy. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy in pirarubicin-treated bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells EJ and J82 were treated with pirarubicin, siRNA, 3-methyladenine or hydroxychloroquine. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were tested by cell survival assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Autophagy was evaluated by immunoblotting before and after the treatments. The phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin, serine/threonine kinase p70 S6 kinase, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 were also investigated by immunoblotting. We found that pirarubicin could induce autophagy in bladder cancer cells. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine, hydroxychloroquine or knockdown of autophagy related gene 3 significantly increased apoptosis in pirarubicin-treated bladder cancer cells. Pirarubicin-induced autophagy was mediated via the mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling pathway. In conclusion, autophagy induced by pirarubicin plays a cytoprotective role in bladder cancer cells, suggesting that inhibition of autophagy may improve efficacy over traditional pirarubicin chemotherapy in bladder cancer patients. - Highlights: • Pirarubicin induced autophagy in bladder cancer cells. • Inhibition of autophagy enhanced pirarubicin-induced apoptosis. • Pirarubicin induced autophagy through inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway.

  10. Cellular Metabolic and Autophagic Pathways: Traffic Control by Redox Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Matthew; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that the key metabolic pathways of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are intimately related to redox biology through control of cell signaling. Under physiological conditions glucose metabolism is linked to control of the NADH/NAD redox couple, as well as providing the major reductant, NADPH, for thiol-dependent antioxidant defenses. Retrograde signaling from the mitochondrion to the nucleus or cytosol controls cell growth and differentiation. Under pathological conditions mitochondria are targets for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and are critical in controlling apoptotic cell death. At the interface of these metabolic pathways, the autophagy-lysosomal pathway functions to maintain mitochondrial quality, and generally serves an important cytoprotective function. In this review we will discuss the autophagic response to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are generated from perturbations of cellular glucose metabolism and bioenergetic function. PMID:23702245

  11. Cellular metabolic and autophagic pathways: traffic control by redox signaling.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Matthew; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-10-01

    It has been established that the key metabolic pathways of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are intimately related to redox biology through control of cell signaling. Under physiological conditions glucose metabolism is linked to control of the NADH/NAD redox couple, as well as providing the major reductant, NADPH, for thiol-dependent antioxidant defenses. Retrograde signaling from the mitochondrion to the nucleus or cytosol controls cell growth and differentiation. Under pathological conditions mitochondria are targets for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and are critical in controlling apoptotic cell death. At the interface of these metabolic pathways, the autophagy-lysosomal pathway functions to maintain mitochondrial quality and generally serves an important cytoprotective function. In this review we will discuss the autophagic response to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are generated from perturbations of cellular glucose metabolism and bioenergetic function.

  12. SKF-96365 activates cytoprotective autophagy to delay apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through inhibition of the calcium/CaMKIIγ/AKT-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Jing, Zhao; Sui, Xinbing; Yao, Junlin; Xie, Jiansheng; Jiang, Liming; Zhou, Yubin; Pan, Hongming; Han, Weidong

    2016-03-28

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) inhibitors are emerging as an attractive new generation of anti-cancer drugs. Here, we report that SKF-96365, an SOCE inhibitor, exhibits potent anti-neoplastic activity by inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. In the meantime, SKF-96365 also induces cytoprotective autophagy to delay apoptosis by preventing the release of cytochrome c (cyt c) from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm. Mechanistically, SKF-96365 treatment inhibited the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIγ (CaMKIIγ)/AKT signaling cascade in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of CaMKIIγ or AKT abolished the effects of SKF-96365 on cancer cells, suggesting a critical role of the CaMKIIγ/AKT signaling pathway in SFK-96365-induced biological effects. Moreover, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an FDA-approved drug used to inhibit autophagy, could significantly augment the anti-cancer effect of SFK-96365 in a mouse xenograft model. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that calcium/CaMKIIγ/AKT signaling can regulate apoptosis and autophagy simultaneously in cancer cells, and the combination of the SOCE inhibitor SKF-96365 with autophagy inhibitors represents a promising strategy for treating patients with colorectal cancer.

  13. [Role of membrane lipids in myocardial cytoprotection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grynberg, A.

    2000-01-01

    The cardiomyocyte capacity to regulate ATP production to face any change in energy demand is a major determinant of cardiac function. This process is based on a balanced fatty acid (FA) metabolism, because FA is the main fuel of the heart, although the most expensive one in oxygen. The pathway is, however, weakly controlled by the cardiac myocyte which can well regulate FA mitochondrial entry but not cell FA uptake. For this reason, several pathological situations often result from either harmful accumulation of FA and derivatives or excess FA-oxidation. Control of the FA/glucose balance by decreased energy production from FA would thus offer an alternative strategy in the treatment of ischaemia, providing the cardiomyocytes weak ability in handling the non-metabolised FA is controlled. The initiation and the regulation of cardiac contraction both result from membrane activity; the other major role of lipids in the heart is their contribution to membrane homeostasis through phospholipid synthesis pathways and phospholipases. The anti-anginal activity of Trimetazidine, reported as a cytoprotective effect without a haemo-dynamic component; is associated with reduced use of FA for energy. However, accumulation of FA and derivatives has never been observed. Trimetazidine is reported to increase significantly the synthesis of phospholipids without influencing the other lipid classes, thus increasing the incorporation of FA in membrane structures. This cytoprotection appears to be based on the redirection of the use of FA to phospholipid synthesis, which would decrease their availability for energy production. This class of compounds, with the same properties as Trimetazidine, offers a metabolic approach to the treatment of ischaemia.

  14. Tissue-level cytoprotection.

    PubMed

    Hightower, L E; Brown; Renfro, J L; Perdrizet, G A; Rewinski, M; Guidon, P T; Mistry, T; House, S D

    2000-11-01

    In vitro and ex vivo tissue models provide a useful level of biological organization for cytoprotection studies positioned between cultured cells and intact animals. We have used 2 such models, primary tissue cultures of winter flounder renal secretory epithelium and ex vivo preparations of rat intestinal tissues, the latter to access the microcirculation of exposed mesentery tissues. Herein we discuss studies indicating that differentiated functions are altered in thermotolerant or cytoprotected tissues. These functions include transepithelial transport in renal epithelium and attachment and transmigration of leukocytes across vascular endothelium in response to mediators of inflammation. Evidence pointing to inflammation as a major venue for the heat shock response in vertebrates continues to mount. One such venue is wound healing. Heat shock proteins are induced early in wound responses, and some are released into the extracellular wound fluid where they appear to function as proinflammatory cytokines. However, within responding cells in the wound, heat shock proteins contribute to the acquisition of a state of cytoprotection that protects cells from the hostile environment of the wound, an environment created to destroy pathogens and essentially sterilize the wound. We propose that the cytoprotected state is an anti-inflammatory state that contributes to limiting the inflammatory response; that is, it serves as a brake on inflammation.

  15. Tissue-level cytoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Hightower, L.E.; Brown, M.A.; Renfro, J.L.; Perdrizet, G.A.; Rewinski, M.; Guidon, P.T.; Mistry, T.; House, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    In vitro and ex vivo tissue models provide a useful level of biological organization for cytoprotection studies positioned between cultured cells and intact animals. We have used 2 such models, primary tissue cultures of winter flounder renal secretory epithelium and ex vivo preparations of rat intestinal tissues, the latter to access the microcirculation of exposed mesentery tissues. Herein we discuss studies indicating that differentiated functions are altered in thermotolerant or cytoprotected tissues. These functions include transepithelial transport in renal epithelium and attachment and transmigration of leukocytes across vascular endothelium in response to mediators of inflammation. Evidence pointing to inflammation as a major venue for the heat shock response in vertebrates continues to mount. One such venue is wound healing. Heat shock proteins are induced early in wound responses, and some are released into the extracellular wound fluid where they appear to function as proinflammatory cytokines. However, within responding cells in the wound, heat shock proteins contribute to the acquisition of a state of cytoprotection that protects cells from the hostile environment of the wound, an environment created to destroy pathogens and essentially sterilize the wound. We propose that the cytoprotected state is an anti-inflammatory state that contributes to limiting the inflammatory response; that is, it serves as a brake on inflammation. PMID:11189445

  16. PDT: loss of autophagic cytoprotection after lysosomal photodamage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David; Price, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy is known to evoke both autophagy and apoptosis. Apoptosis is an irreversible death pathway while autophagy can serve a cytoprotective function. In this study, we examined two photosensitizing agents that target lysosomes, although they differ in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during irradiation. With both agents, the 'shoulder' on the PDT dose-response curve was substantially attenuated, consistent with loss of a cytoprotective pathway. In contrast, this 'shoulder' is commonly observed when PDT targets mitochondria or the ER. We propose that lysosomal targets may offer the possibility of promoting PDT efficacy by eliminating a potentially protective pathway.

  17. Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of partridgeberry polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Khushwant S; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2015-02-01

    Partridgeberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) is a polyphenol-rich berry of the Ericaceous family, grown in Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada. The aims of this study were to identify extraction solvents for the maximum recovery of polyphenols, to establish fractionation technique for isolation of major sub-classes of polyphenols, and to evaluate antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of the partridgeberry polyphenol preparations. The acidified 70% acetone was identified as the ideal solvent for the maximum recovery of polyphenols from partridgeberry. Further, aqueous two-phase extraction, column chromatography and UPLC-MS/MS were employed to produce three partridgeberry polyphenol fractions, rich in either, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols or flavonols. All the three PPF were potent antioxidants and displayed cytoprotective activity through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway, scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and inhibition of cellular death. The current study suggests that partridgeberry has numerous potential health implications in both prevention and amelioration of various diseases involving oxidative stress.

  18. CD47 Receptor Globally Regulates Metabolic Pathways That Control Resistance to Ionizing Radiation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas W; Soto-Pantoja, David R; Schwartz, Anthony L; Sipes, John M; DeGraff, William G; Ridnour, Lisa A; Wink, David A; Roberts, David D

    2015-10-09

    Modulating tissue responses to stress is an important therapeutic objective. Oxidative and genotoxic stresses caused by ionizing radiation are detrimental to healthy tissues but beneficial for treatment of cancer. CD47 is a signaling receptor for thrombospondin-1 and an attractive therapeutic target because blocking CD47 signaling protects normal tissues while sensitizing tumors to ionizing radiation. Here we utilized a metabolomic approach to define molecular mechanisms underlying this radioprotective activity. CD47-deficient cells and cd47-null mice exhibited global advantages in preserving metabolite levels after irradiation. Metabolic pathways required for controlling oxidative stress and mediating DNA repair were enhanced. Some cellular energetics pathways differed basally in CD47-deficient cells, and the global declines in the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites characteristic of normal cell and tissue responses to irradiation were prevented in the absence of CD47. Thus, CD47 mediates signaling from the extracellular matrix that coordinately regulates basal metabolism and cytoprotective responses to radiation injury.

  19. Antacids: new perspectives in cytoprotection.

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, A; Hollander, D; Gergely, H

    1990-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that aluminum-containing antacids are able to protect the gastric mucosa against various ulcerogenic and necrotizing agents including 0.6 M HCl, 0.2 M NaOH, and absolute alcohol. Since gastric mucosal necrosis produced by alcohol is independent of luminal acid and cannot be reduced by H2-receptor antagonists, the protective action of antacids is accomplished by mechanism(s) other than acid-neutralizing ability. In addition, since acidified antacids can protect the gastric mucosa even better than an antacid with intact neutralizing capacity, it is clear that such action is independent of acid-neutralizing ability and therefore has all the features of cytoprotection. Whereas the cytoprotective action of antacids in experimental conditions is well established, the mechanisms of antacid-induced mucosal protection are not known. The clinical relevance of antacid-induced protection also requires further elucidation. Antacids have advantages over the H2 blockers in protecting the gastric mucosa against alcohol-induced necrosis and in preventing stress-induced ulcers in critically ill patients. Although more work is needed to clarify the mechanisms of cytoprotective action of antacids, the recent experimental findings gave a new life to and new potential clinical applications for antacids.

  20. Notch-Nrf2 Axis: Regulation of Nrf2 Gene Expression and Cytoprotection by Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Skoko, John J.; Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V.; Kimura, Shoko; Slocum, Stephen L.; Noda, Kentaro; Palliyaguru, Dushani L.; Fujimuro, Masahiro; Boley, Patricia A.; Tanaka, Yugo; Shigemura, Norihisa; Biswal, Shyam; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kensler, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway enables regulation and control of development, differentiation, and homeostasis through cell-cell communication. Our investigation shows that Notch signaling directly activates the Nrf2 stress adaptive response pathway through recruitment of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) transcriptosome to a conserved Rbpjκ site in the promoter of Nrf2. Stimulation of Notch signaling through Notch ligand expression in cells and by overexpression of the NICD in RosaNICD/−::AlbCre mice in vivo induces expression of Nrf2 and its target genes. Continuous and transient NICD expression in the liver produces a Notch-dependent cytoprotective response through direct transcriptional activation of Nrf2 signaling to rescue mice from acute acetaminophen toxicity. This response can be reversed upon genetic disruption of Nrf2. Morphological studies showed that the characteristic phenotype of high-density intrahepatic bile ducts and enlarged liver in RosaNICD/−::AlbCre mice could be at least partially reversed after Nrf2 disruption. Furthermore, the liver and bile duct phenotypes could be recapitulated with constitutive activation of Nrf2 signaling in Keap1F/F::AlbCre mice. It appears that Notch-to-Nrf2 signaling is another important determinant in liver development and function and promotes cell-cell cytoprotective signaling responses. PMID:24298019

  1. Genetic dissection of cardiac growth control pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLellan, W. R.; Schneider, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac muscle cells exhibit two related but distinct modes of growth that are highly regulated during development and disease. Cardiac myocytes rapidly proliferate during fetal life but exit the cell cycle irreversibly soon after birth, following which the predominant form of growth shifts from hyperplastic to hypertrophic. Much research has focused on identifying the candidate mitogens, hypertrophic agonists, and signaling pathways that mediate these processes in isolated cells. What drives the proliferative growth of embryonic myocardium in vivo and the mechanisms by which adult cardiac myocytes hypertrophy in vivo are less clear. Efforts to answer these questions have benefited from rapid progress made in techniques to manipulate the murine genome. Complementary technologies for gain- and loss-of-function now permit a mutational analysis of these growth control pathways in vivo in the intact heart. These studies have confirmed the importance of suspected pathways, have implicated unexpected pathways as well, and have led to new paradigms for the control of cardiac growth.

  2. New model of cytoprotection/adaptive cytoprotection in rats: endogenous small irritants, antiulcer agents and indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Seiwerth, S; Desković, S; Grabarević, Z; Marović, A; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Konjevoda, P; Jadrijević, S; Sosa, T; Perović, D; Aralica, G; Turković, B

    1999-01-01

    Adaptive cytoprotection in the stomach was originally defined by applying the exogenous irritants only. The contribution of endogenous irritants as inductors of initial lesions was not specially evaluated. No attempt was made to either focus antiulcer agent activity on adaptive cytoprotection, or split their 'cytoprotection' into complex adaptive cytoprotective activity and simple cytoprotective effects. Agents had so far not been applied simultaneously with the second challenge with ethanol (or irritant), when differences between cytoprotection and adaptive cytoprotection appear. Gastrojejunal anastomosis for 24 h in rats was introduced as new model for analyzing cytoprotection/adaptive cytoprotection. The contribution of the up-normal level of endogenous irritants and the endogenous small irritant-induced minor lesions during the adaptive cytoprotection were studied. The effect of late challenge with 96% ethanol in the presence of an up-normal level of endogenous irritants and endogenous small irritant-induced minor lesions was compared with results of classic studies of ethanol-induced gastric lesions in normal rats (1 ml/rat i.g.). Antiulcer agents or a prostaglandins-synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin, given once only in classic studies, were given at several points during injury induction: (i) surgery, (ii) mild ethanol, (iii) strong ethanol, (iv) strong ethanol applied after a suitable period following either mild ethanol or surgery). Their effects were compared in rats treated as follows: exogenous irritant studies (96% or 20% ethanol), exogenous/exogenous irritant studies (20% ethanol 1 h before 96% ethanol), endogenous irritant studies (gastrojejunal anastomosis for 24 h), and endogenous/exogenous irritant studies (gastrojejunal anastomosis for 24 h before 96% ethanol). Characteristic of the various irritants differed: the (preceding) small irritants (exogenous (i.e., mild ethanol in healthy intact rats) (exogenous irritant studies) vs. endogenous (e

  3. An evolutionarily conserved pathway controls proteasome homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Adrien; Bertolotti, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The proteasome is essential for the selective degradation of most cellular proteins but how cells maintain adequate amounts of proteasome is unclear. Here we found an evolutionarily conserved signalling pathway controlling proteasome homeostasis. Central to this pathway is TORC1 whose inhibition induced all known yeast 19S regulatory particle assembly-chaperones (RACs) as well as proteasome subunits. Downstream of TORC1 inhibition, the yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mpk1, ensured that the supply of RACs and proteasome subunits increased under challenging conditions to maintain proteasomal degradation and cell viability. This adaptive pathway was evolutionarily conserved, with mTOR and Erk5 controlling the levels of the four mammalian RACs and proteasome abundance. Thus, the central growth and stress controllers, TORC1 and Mpk1/Erk5, endow cells with a rapid and vital adaptive response to adjust proteasome abundance to the rising needs. Enhancing this pathway may be a useful therapeutic approach for diseases resulting from impaired proteasomal degradation. PMID:27462806

  4. An evolutionarily conserved pathway controls proteasome homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Adrien; Bertolotti, Anne

    2016-08-11

    The proteasome is essential for the selective degradation of most cellular proteins, but how cells maintain adequate amounts of proteasome is unclear. Here we show that there is an evolutionarily conserved signalling pathway controlling proteasome homeostasis. Central to this pathway is TORC1, the inhibition of which induced all known yeast 19S regulatory particle assembly-chaperones (RACs), as well as proteasome subunits. Downstream of TORC1 inhibition, the yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mpk1, acts to increase the supply of RACs and proteasome subunits under challenging conditions in order to maintain proteasomal degradation and cell viability. This adaptive pathway was evolutionarily conserved, with mTOR and ERK5 controlling the levels of the four mammalian RACs and proteasome abundance. Thus, the central growth and stress controllers, TORC1 and Mpk1/ERK5, endow cells with a rapid and vital adaptive response to adjust proteasome abundance in response to the rising needs of cells. Enhancing this pathway may be a useful therapeutic approach for diseases resulting from impaired proteasomal degradation.

  5. Synthesis of a series of caffeic acid phenethyl amide (CAPA) fluorinated derivatives: comparison of cytoprotective effects to caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE).

    PubMed

    Yang, John; Marriner, Gwendolyn A; Wang, Xinyu; Bowman, Phillip D; Kerwin, Sean M; Stavchansky, Salomon

    2010-07-15

    A series of catechol ring-fluorinated derivatives of caffeic acid phenethyl amide (CAPA) were synthesized and screened for cytoprotective activity against H2O2 induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). CAPA and three fluorinated analogs were found to be significantly cytoprotective when compared to control, with no significant difference in cytoprotection between caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and CAPA.

  6. Signaling pathways controlling skeletal muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Egerman, Marc A; Glass, David J

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle maintenance involve interplay between multiple signaling pathways. Under normal physiological conditions, a network of interconnected signals serves to control and coordinate hypertrophic and atrophic messages, culminating in a delicate balance between muscle protein synthesis and proteolysis. Loss of skeletal muscle mass, termed "atrophy", is a diagnostic feature of cachexia seen in settings of cancer, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, kidney disease, and burns. Cachexia increases the likelihood of death from these already serious diseases. Recent studies have further defined the pathways leading to gain and loss of skeletal muscle as well as the signaling events that induce differentiation and post-injury regeneration, which are also essential for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. In this review, we summarize and discuss the relevant recent literature demonstrating these previously undiscovered mediators governing anabolism and catabolism of skeletal muscle.

  7. Signalling Pathways Controlling Cellular Actin Organization.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Anika; Stradal, Theresia E B; Rottner, Klemens

    2017-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is essential for morphogenesis and virtually all types of cell shape changes. Reorganization is per definition driven by continuous disassembly and re-assembly of actin filaments, controlled by major, ubiquitously operating machines. These are specifically employed by the cell to tune its activities in accordance with respective environmental conditions or to satisfy specific needs.Here we sketch some fundamental signalling pathways established to contribute to the reorganization of specific actin structures at the plasma membrane. Rho-family GTPases are at the core of these pathways, and dissection of their precise contributions to actin reorganization in different cell types and tissues will thus continue to improve our understanding of these important signalling nodes. Furthermore, we will draw your attention to the emerging theme of actin reorganization on intracellular membranes, its functional relation to Rho-GTPase signalling, and its relevance for the exciting phenomenon autophagy.

  8. Signaling pathways controlling skeletal muscle mass

    PubMed Central

    Egerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle maintenance involve interplay between multiple signaling pathways. Under normal physiological conditions, a network of interconnected signals serves to control and coordinate hypertrophic and atrophic messages, culminating in a delicate balance between muscle protein synthesis and proteolysis. Loss of skeletal muscle mass, termed “atrophy”, is a diagnostic feature of cachexia seen in settings of cancer, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, kidney disease, and burns. Cachexia increases the likelihood of death from these already serious diseases. Recent studies have further defined the pathways leading to gain and loss of skeletal muscle as well as the signaling events that induce differentiation and post-injury regeneration, which are also essential for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. In this review, we summarize and discuss the relevant recent literature demonstrating these previously undiscovered mediators governing anabolism and catabolism of skeletal muscle. PMID:24237131

  9. Molecular Pathways Controlling Autophagy in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    New, Maria; Van Acker, Tim; Long, Jaclyn S.; Sakamaki, Jun-ichi; Ryan, Kevin M.; Tooze, Sharon A.

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the few cancer types where the 5-year survival rate shows no improvement. Despite conflicting evidence, the majority of data points to an essential role for autophagy in PDAC growth and survival, in particular constitutively activated autophagy, can provide crucial fuel to PDAC tumor cells in their nutrient-deprived environment. Autophagy, which is required for cell homeostasis, can both suppress and promote tumorigenesis and tumor survival in a context-dependent manner. Protein by protein, the mystery of how PDAC abuses the cell’s homeostasis system for its malignant growth has recently begun to be unraveled. In this review, we focus on how autophagy is responsible for growth and development of PDAC tumors and where autophagy and the mechanisms controlling it fit into PDAC metabolism. Understanding the range of pathways controlling autophagy and their interplay in PDAC could open the way for new therapeutic avenues. PMID:28316954

  10. Molecular Pathways Controlling Autophagy in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    New, Maria; Van Acker, Tim; Long, Jaclyn S; Sakamaki, Jun-Ichi; Ryan, Kevin M; Tooze, Sharon A

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the few cancer types where the 5-year survival rate shows no improvement. Despite conflicting evidence, the majority of data points to an essential role for autophagy in PDAC growth and survival, in particular constitutively activated autophagy, can provide crucial fuel to PDAC tumor cells in their nutrient-deprived environment. Autophagy, which is required for cell homeostasis, can both suppress and promote tumorigenesis and tumor survival in a context-dependent manner. Protein by protein, the mystery of how PDAC abuses the cell's homeostasis system for its malignant growth has recently begun to be unraveled. In this review, we focus on how autophagy is responsible for growth and development of PDAC tumors and where autophagy and the mechanisms controlling it fit into PDAC metabolism. Understanding the range of pathways controlling autophagy and their interplay in PDAC could open the way for new therapeutic avenues.

  11. The Role of Mcl-1 in S. aureus-Induced Cytoprotection of Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Koziel, Joanna; Kmiecik, Katarzyna; Chmiest, Daniela; Maresz, Katarzyna; Mizgalska, Danuta; Maciag-Gudowska, Agnieszka; Mydel, Piotr; Potempa, Jan

    2013-01-01

    As a facultative intracellular pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus invades macrophages and then promotes the cytoprotection of infected cells thus stabilizing safe niche for silent persistence. This process occurs through the upregulation of crucial antiapoptotic genes, in particular, myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1). Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism and signal transduction pathways leading to increased MCL-1 expression in infected macrophages. Live S. aureus not only stimulated de novo synthesis of Mcl-1, but also prolonged the stability of this antiapoptotic protein. Consistent with this, we proved a crucial role of Mcl-1 in S. aureus-induced cytoprotection, since silencing of MCL1 by siRNA profoundly reversed the cytoprotection of infected cells leading to apoptosis. Increased MCL1 expression in infected cells was associated with enhanced NFκB activation and subsequent IL-6 secretion, since the inhibition of both NFκB and IL-6 signalling pathways abrogated Mcl-1 induction and cytoprotection. Finally, we confirmed our observation in vivo in murine model of septic arthritis showing the association between the severity of arthritis and Mcl-1 expression. Therefore, we propose that S. aureus is hijacking the Mcl-1-dependent inhibition of apoptosis to prevent the elimination of infected host cells, thus allowing the intracellular persistence of the pathogen, its dissemination by infected macrophages, and the progression of staphylococci diseases. PMID:23431241

  12. Induction of cytoprotective autophagy in PC-12 cells by cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiwen; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Zhang, Kangbao; Jiang, Chenyang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Gu, Jianhong; Liu, Zongping

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Cadmium can promote early upregulation of autophagy in PC-12 cells. •Autophagy precedes apoptosis in cadmium-treated PC-12 cells. •Cadmium-induced autophagy is cytoprotective in PC-12 cells. •Class III PI3K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathway plays a positive role in cadmium-triggered autophagy. -- Abstract: Laboratory data have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce neuronal apoptosis. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in neurons. In this study, cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in PC-12 cells. As cells were exposed to Cd, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, specific punctate distribution of endogenous LC3-II increased, and numerous autophagosomes appeared, which suggest that Cd induced a high level of autophagy. In the late stages of autophagy, an increase in the apoptosis ratio was observed. Likewise, pre-treatment with chloroquine (an autophagic inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagic inducer) resulted in an increased and decreased percentage of apoptosis in contrast to other Cd-treated groups, respectively. The results indicate that autophagy delayed apoptosis in Cd-treated PC-12 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with chloroquine reduced autophagy and cell activity. However, rapamycin had an opposite effect on autophagy and cell activity. Moreover, class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways served a function in Cd-induced autophagy. The findings suggest that Cd can induce cytoprotective autophagy by activating class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways. In sum, this study strongly suggests that autophagy may serve a positive function in the reduction of Cd-induced cytotoxicity.

  13. Revised Robert's cytoprotection and adaptive cytoprotection and stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157. Possible significance and implications for novel mediator.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela

    2010-01-01

    The significance of cytoprotection and adaptive cytoprotection and the peptides importance remained to be not completely determined. BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, proven in clinical trials to be both safe in inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736) and wound healing, and stable in human gastric juice, with no toxicity being reported. It has a prominent effect on alcohol- lesions (i.e., induced acutely and chronically) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-lesions (while interestingly BPC 157 may both prevent and reverse adjuvant arthritis). To review the importance of BPC 157, this review focused on Robert's cytoprotection concept described in rat stomach, reviewing our evidence that may resolve whether the cytoprotection and adaptive cytoprotection is an uniform phenomenon or not; whether the phenomenon or phenomena are endogenous or not, depending on nature of the irritants (mild or strong); whether this may contribute to stomach mucosa defense either when threaten by various ulcerogens or afforded by various antiulcer agents; whether these phenomena are uniform in whole gastrointestinal tract or not; whether they are interrelated or not. Finally, the importance of the cytoprotection phenomena and cytoprotection activity for skin wound healing, and wound healing in general was challenged. Thereby, this review focused on BPC 157 role in cytoprotection and adaptative cytoprotection suggesting that it may be the essential endogenous mediator able to mediate both cytoprotective and adaptive cytoprotective response in stomach and the whole gastrointestinal tract with significant importance in wound healing as well.

  14. Cytoprotective agents in experimental small bowel volvulus.

    PubMed

    Goldman, C D; Rudloff, M A; Ternberg, J L

    1987-03-01

    An accepted experimental model for midgut volvulus was used to produce small bowel strangulation obstruction of 48 hours duration in Sprague-Dawley rats. A 93% perioperative mortality rate resulted after release of the volvulus. Treatment with three cytoprotective agents at the time of volvulus release resulted in the following mortality rates: superoxide dismutase, 89%; ibuprofen, 50%; prostaglandin E1 (PGE1, 11%. The predominant cause of death in all treatment groups was bowel infarction, with a smaller number succumbing to either sepsis or circulatory collapse. Concomitant administration of ephedrine or indomethacin to suppress prostaglandin E1's splanchnic vasodilatory activity did not cause any increase in mortality. A trial of aspirin, to simulate PGE's antiplatelet actions, showed no reduction in mortality when compared with detorsion alone. Prostaglandin E1 and, to a lesser extent, ibuprofen, appear to have cytoprotective effects during reperfusion of bowel compromised by volvulus, independent of their influence on the mesenteric vasculature and thrombogenesis.

  15. A thermosensory pathway that controls body temperature.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Morrison, Shaun F

    2008-01-01

    Defending body temperature against environmental thermal challenges is one of the most fundamental homeostatic functions that are governed by the nervous system. Here we describe a somatosensory pathway that essentially constitutes the afferent arm of the thermoregulatory reflex that is triggered by cutaneous sensation of environmental temperature changes. Using in vivo electrophysiological and anatomical approaches in the rat, we found that lateral parabrachial neurons are pivotal in this pathway by glutamatergically transmitting cutaneous thermosensory signals received from spinal somatosensory neurons directly to the thermoregulatory command center, the preoptic area. This feedforward pathway mediates not only sympathetic and shivering thermogenic responses but also metabolic and cardiac responses to skin cooling challenges. Notably, this 'thermoregulatory afferent' pathway exists in parallel with the spinothalamocortical somatosensory pathway that mediates temperature perception. These findings make an important contribution to our understanding of both the somatosensory system and thermal homeostasis -- two mechanisms that are fundamental to the nervous system and to our survival.

  16. Pathway Controlled Penetration (PcP)

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Zubelewicz, Aleksander

    2012-08-29

    The technical approach employs advanced computational simulation tools to demonstrate how current assets can destroy RWK-RFI-12-0001's HDBT, a tunnel complex with two portals built into the base of a granite mountain. The granite over layer is assumed to be 60 meters thick over both portals and 80 meters over the facility's mission space. Key S&T is the completed development of a highly innovative viscoplastic fracture material model, 3D parallel gas-fracture capabilities into FDEM, and a stochastic handling of the material properties. Phase I - Develop and validate code simulation tools: (1) develop, incorporate and validate AZ-Frac material model for granite; and (2) Develop and incorporate gas-driven-fracture modeling into LANL's FDEM MUNROU code; (3) Develop and incorporate stochastic features into FDEM modeling. Phase II - Conduct PcP analysis on above HDBT: (1) Acquire HDBT design data, develop simulation model; and (2) Evaluate and select most promising defeat alternative. Phase III - Deliver code, train Service target analysts, and conduct simulations against real world HDBTs. PcP uses advanced computer simulations to enhance HDBT functional defeat efforts. Newly developed material models that account for fractural energy coupled with the finite discrete element methodology (FDEM) will provide targeting packages that will create penetration avenues for current or future lethality options. This novel computational approach requires full 3D geologic and structure characterization as well as significant high performance computing capabilities. The goal is to distinctively alter the targeting paradigm by leveraging critical DoD assets along with insitu geologic strata. In other words, assets will utilize underground rock structure to their benefit by creating rubbilization zones that will allow pathway controlled penetration.

  17. Clinical Trials For Cytoprotection In Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Labiche, Lise A.; Grotta, James C.

    2004-01-01

    Summary: To date, many cytoprotective drugs have reached the stage of pivotal phase 3 efficacy trials in acute stroke patients. (Table 1) Unfortunately, throughout the neuroprotective literature, the phrase “failure to demonstrate efficacy” prevails as a common thread among the many neutral or negative trials, despite the largely encouraging results encountered in preclinical studies. The reasons for this discrepancy are multiple, and have been discussed by Dr. Zivin in his review. Many of the recent trials have addressed deficiencies of the previous ones with more rigorous trial design, including more specific patient selection criteria (ensure homogeneity of stroke location and severity), stratified randomization algorithms (time-to-treat), narrowed therapeutic time-window and pharmacokinetic monitoring. Current trials have also incorporated biologic surrogate markers of toxicity and outcome such as drug levels and neuroimaging. Lastly, multi-modal therapies and coupled cytoprotection/reperfusion strategies are being investigated to optimize tissue salvage. This review will focus on individual therapeutic strategies and we will emphasize what we have learned from these trials both in terms of trial design and the biologic effect (or lack thereof) of these agents. PMID:15717007

  18. Hsp27 binding to the 3'UTR of bim mRNA prevents neuronal death during oxidative stress-induced injury: a novel cytoprotective mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dávila, David; Jiménez-Mateos, Eva M; Mooney, Claire M; Velasco, Guillermo; Henshall, David C; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2014-11-01

    Neurons face a changeable microenvironment and therefore need mechanisms that allow rapid switch on/off of their cytoprotective and apoptosis-inducing signaling pathways. Cellular mechanisms that control apoptosis activation include the regulation of pro/antiapoptotic mRNAs through their 3'-untranslated region (UTR). This region holds binding elements for RNA-binding proteins, which can control mRNA translation. Here we demonstrate that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) prevents oxidative stress-induced cell death in cerebellar granule neurons by specific regulation of the mRNA for the proapoptotic BH3-only protein, Bim. Hsp27 depletion induced by oxidative stress using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) correlated with bim gene activation and subsequent neuronal death, whereas enhanced Hsp27 expression prevented these. This effect could not be explained by proteasomal degradation of Bim or bim promoter inhibition; however, it was associated with a specific increase in the levels of bim mRNA and with its binding to Hsp27. Finally, we determined that enhanced Hsp27 expression in neurons exposed to H2O2 or glutamate prevented the translation of a reporter plasmid where bim-3'UTR mRNA sequence was cloned downstream of a luciferase gene. These results suggest that repression of bim mRNA translation through binding to the 3'UTR constitutes a novel cytoprotective mechanism of Hsp27 during stress in neurons.

  19. Erythrocytosis: the HIF pathway in control.

    PubMed

    Franke, Kristin; Gassmann, Max; Wielockx, Ben

    2013-08-15

    Organisms living under aerobic conditions need oxygen for the metabolic conversion of nutrition into energy. With the appearance of increasingly complex animals, a specialized transport system (erythrocytes) arose during evolution to provide oxygen to virtually every single cell in the body. Moreover, in case of low environmental partial pressure of oxygen, the number of erythrocytes automatically increases to preserve sustained oxygen delivery. This process relies predominantly on the cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) and its transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), whereas the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) ubiquitin ligase as well as the oxygen-sensitive prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) represent essential regulators of this oxygen-sensing system. Deregulation of particular members of this pathway (eg, PHD2, HIF2α, VHL) lead to disorders in blood homeostasis as a result of insufficient (anemia) or excessive (erythrocytosis) red blood cell production.

  20. Constituents from the stem barks of Canarium bengalense with cytoprotective activity against hydrogen peroxide-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoang Thi; Ha, Do Thi; Minh, Chau Thi Anh; Kim, Tae Hoon; Van Kiem, Phan; Thuan, Nguyen Duy; Na, Minkyun

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the stem barks of Canarium bengalense (Burseraceace) resulted in the isolation of a new flavone glycoside (5) together with six known compounds (1-4, 6, and 7). The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated as 3'-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone-5-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside by means of 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) and MS analyses. To evaluate the in vitro cytoprotective effect, the isolates (1-7) were tested against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced damage in primary cultured hepatocytes. The viability of hepatocytes was increased by treatment with each compound, except compound 1. Compounds 3, 4, and 7 exerted cytoprotective effects comparable to curcumin, the positive control. Our results suggest that the cytoprotective constituents of C. bengalense may contribute to its traditional use in the treatment of tumor and liver damage.

  1. Testing the gonadal regression-cytoprotection hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Crawford, B A; Spaliviero, J A; Simpson, J M; Handelsman, D J

    1998-11-15

    Germinal damage is an almost universal accompaniment of cancer treatment as the result of bystander damage to the testis from cytotoxic drugs and/or irradiation. Cancer treatment for the most common cancers of the reproductive age group in men has improved such that most are now treated with curative intent, and many others are treated with likelihood of prolonged survival, so that the preservation of fertility is an important component of posttreatment quality of life. This has led to the consideration of developing adjuvant treatments that may reduce the gonadal toxicity of cancer therapy. One dominant hypothesis has been based on the supposition that the immature testis was resistant to cytotoxin damage. Hence, if hormonal treatment were able to cause spermatogenic regression to an immature state via an effective withdrawal of gonadotrophin secretion, the testis might be maintained temporarily in a protected state during cytotoxin exposure. However, clinical studies have been disappointing but have also been unable to test the hypothesis definitively thus far, due to the inability to completely suppress gonadotrophin secretion. Similarly, experimental models have also given conflicting results and, at best, a modest cytoprotection. To definitively test this hypothesis experimentally, we used the fact that the functionally hpg mouse has complete gonadotrophin deficiency but can undergo the induction of full spermatogenesis by testosterone. Thus, if complete gonadotrophin deficiency were an advantage during cytotoxin exposure, then the hpg mouse should exhibit some degree of germinal protection against cytotoxin-induced damage. We therefore administered three different cytotoxins (200 mg/kg procarbazine, 9 mg/kg doxorubicin, 8 Gy of X irradiation) to produce a range of severity in testicular damage and mechanism of action to either phenotypically normal or hpg mice. Testis weight and homogenization-resistant spermatid numbers were measured to evaluate the

  2. Preparation and performance evaluation of plain proliposomal systems for cytoprotection.

    PubMed

    Katare, O P; Vyas, S P; Dixit, V K

    1991-01-01

    Plain liposomal systems composed of soyabean lecithin, cholesterol and stearylamine were formulated using various approaches. The prepared products were characterized and evaluated for their cytoprotective performance against the necrotizing NSAID's (i.e. aspirin and phenylbutazone). Liposomes derived from proliposomes (effervescent granules based) demonstrated the best cytoprotective activity and physical and stability characteristics. This system was shown to be superior. An increased availability of regular and small sized liposome born phospholipids to the damaged mucosal systems accounted for its better and enhanced performance.

  3. Gastric cytoprotection and honey intake in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Alagwu, E A; Nneli, R O; Egwurugwu, J N; Osim, E E

    2011-11-23

    Beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly on wound healings, gastrointestinal disorders and as antibacterial agent. However, there is paucity of report on its cytoprotective effect on the gastric mucosa despite its common usage worldwide including Nigeria. This study was therefore carried out to evaluate the effect of this widely consumed substance on gastric mucosa using animal model and also to explore possible mechanism of its action on the gastric mucosa .Twenty male adult albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing between 210-220g were used in the experiment. They were randomly assigned into two groups, the control group and the honey-fed (test) group, each containing ten rats. The Control group was fed on normal rat feed and water while the test group was fed on normal rat feed with honey added to its drinking water (1ml of honey for every initial 10ml of water for each rat daily) for twenty two weeks. After twenty two weeks the rats were weighed after being starved overnight. They were anaesthetized with urethane (0.6ml/100g body weight). Gastric ulceration was induced using 1.5ml acid-alcohol prepared from equivolume of 0.1NHCl and 70% methanol introduced into the stomach via a portex cannula tied and left in place following an incision made on the antral-pyloric junction of the stomach. The acid-alcohol was allowed to stay for 1hr. After 1hr, laparatomy was performed and the stomach isolated, cut open along the greater curvature, rinsed with normal saline and fastened in place with pins on a dissecting board for ulcer examination and scores. The result obtained showed mean ulcer scores of 14.5+/-0.70 for the control group and 1.6+/-0.11 for the test group. The result showed that honey significantly reduced ulcer scores as well as caused scanty haemorrhage in the test group compared with increased ulcer scores and multiple haemorrhage in the control group. It is therefore concluded that honey intake offered cytoprotection on the gastric

  4. Targeting Transmission Pathways for Emerging Zoonotic Disease Surveillance and Control

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Elizabeth H.; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Olival, Kevin J.; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Johnson, Christine K.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Karesh, William

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We used literature searches and a database of all reported emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) to analyze the most important transmission pathways (e.g., vector-borne, aerosol droplet transmitted) for emerging zoonoses. Our results suggest that at the broad scale, the likelihood of transmission occurring through any one pathway is approximately equal. However, the major transmission pathways for zoonoses differ widely according to the specific underlying drivers of EID events (e.g., land-use change, agricultural intensification). These results can be used to develop better targeting of surveillance for, and more effective control of newly emerged zoonoses in regions under different underlying pressures that drive disease emergence. PMID:26186515

  5. Control and regulation of pathways via negative feedback

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The biochemical networks found in living organisms include a huge variety of control mechanisms at multiple levels of organization. While the mechanistic and molecular details of many of these control mechanisms are understood, their exact role in driving cellular behaviour is not. For example, yeast glycolysis has been studied for almost 80 years but it is only recently that we have come to understand the systemic role of the multitude of feedback and feed-forward controls that exist in this pathway. In this article, control theory is discussed as an approach to dissect the control logic of complex pathways. One of the key issues is distinguishing between the terms control and regulation and how these concepts are applied to regulated enzymes such as phosphofructokinase. In doing so, one of the paradoxes in metabolic regulation can be resolved where enzymes such as phosphofructokinase have little control but, nevertheless, possess significant regulatory influence. PMID:28202588

  6. Searching for pathways involving dressed states in optimal control theory.

    PubMed

    von den Hoff, Philipp; Kowalewski, Markus; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2011-01-01

    Selective population of dressed states has been proposed as an alternative control pathway in molecular reaction dynamics [Wollenhaupt et al., J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem., 2006, 180, 248]. In this article we investigate if, and under which conditions, this strong field pathway is included in the search space of optimal control theory. For our calculations we used the proposed example of the potassium dimer, in which the different target states can be reached via dressed states by resonant transition. Especially, we investigate whether the optimization algorithm is able to find the route involving the dressed states although the target state lies out of resonance in the bare state picture.

  7. A controlled vocabulary for pathway entities and events.

    PubMed

    Jupe, Steve; Jassal, Bijay; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming

    2014-01-01

    Entities involved in pathways and the events they participate in require descriptive and unambiguous names that are often not available in the literature or elsewhere. Reactome is a manually curated open-source resource of human pathways. It is accessible via a website, available as downloads in standard reusable formats and via Representational State Transfer (REST)-ful and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) application programming interfaces (APIs). We have devised a controlled vocabulary (CV) that creates concise, unambiguous and unique names for reactions (pathway events) and all the molecular entities they involve. The CV could be reapplied in any situation where names are used for pathway entities and events. Adoption of this CV would significantly improve naming consistency and readability, with consequent benefits for searching and data mining within and between databases. Database URL: http://www.reactome.org.

  8. A controlled vocabulary for pathway entities and events

    PubMed Central

    Jupe, Steve; Jassal, Bijay; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming

    2014-01-01

    Entities involved in pathways and the events they participate in require descriptive and unambiguous names that are often not available in the literature or elsewhere. Reactome is a manually curated open-source resource of human pathways. It is accessible via a website, available as downloads in standard reusable formats and via Representational State Transfer (REST)-ful and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) application programming interfaces (APIs). We have devised a controlled vocabulary (CV) that creates concise, unambiguous and unique names for reactions (pathway events) and all the molecular entities they involve. The CV could be reapplied in any situation where names are used for pathway entities and events. Adoption of this CV would significantly improve naming consistency and readability, with consequent benefits for searching and data mining within and between databases. Database URL: http://www.reactome.org PMID:24951798

  9. Neurotropic arboviruses induce interferon regulatory factor 3-mediated neuronal responses that are cytoprotective, interferon independent, and inhibited by Western equine encephalitis virus capsid.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Daniel C; Lazear, Helen M; Farmer, Jocelyn R; Diamond, Michael S; Miller, David J

    2013-02-01

    Cell-intrinsic innate immune responses mediated by the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) are often vital for early pathogen control, and effective responses in neurons may be crucial to prevent the irreversible loss of these critical central nervous system cells after infection with neurotropic pathogens. To investigate this hypothesis, we used targeted molecular and genetic approaches with cultured neurons to study cell-intrinsic host defense pathways primarily using the neurotropic alphavirus western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV). We found that WEEV activated IRF-3-mediated neuronal innate immune pathways in a replication-dependent manner, and abrogation of IRF-3 function enhanced virus-mediated injury by WEEV and the unrelated flavivirus St. Louis encephalitis virus. Furthermore, IRF-3-dependent neuronal protection from virus-mediated cytopathology occurred independently of autocrine or paracrine type I interferon activity. Despite being partially controlled by IRF-3-dependent signals, WEEV also disrupted antiviral responses by inhibiting pattern recognition receptor pathways. This antagonist activity was mapped to the WEEV capsid gene, which disrupted signal transduction downstream of IRF-3 activation and was independent of capsid-mediated inhibition of host macromolecular synthesis. Overall, these results indicate that innate immune pathways have important cytoprotective activity in neurons and contribute to limiting injury associated with infection by neurotropic arboviruses.

  10. Celastrols as inducers of the heat shock response and cytoprotection.

    PubMed

    Westerheide, Sandy D; Bosman, Joshua D; Mbadugha, Bessie N A; Kawahara, Tiara L A; Matsumoto, Gen; Kim, Soojin; Gu, Wenxin; Devlin, John P; Silverman, Richard B; Morimoto, Richard I

    2004-12-31

    Alterations in protein folding and the regulation of conformational states have become increasingly important to the functionality of key molecules in signaling, cell growth, and cell death. Molecular chaperones, because of their properties in protein quality control, afford conformational flexibility to proteins and serve to integrate stress-signaling events that influence aging and a range of diseases including cancer, cystic fibrosis, amyloidoses, and neurodegenerative diseases. We describe here characteristics of celastrol, a quinone methide triterpene and an active component from Chinese herbal medicine identified in a screen of bioactive small molecules that activates the human heat shock response. From a structure/function examination, the celastrol structure is remarkably specific and activates heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) with kinetics similar to those of heat stress, as determined by the induction of HSF1 DNA binding, hyperphosphorylation of HSF1, and expression of chaperone genes. Celastrol can activate heat shock gene transcription synergistically with other stresses and exhibits cytoprotection against subsequent exposures to other forms of lethal cell stress. These results suggest that celastrols exhibit promise as a new class of pharmacologically active regulators of the heat shock response.

  11. Synthesis of a Series of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Amide (CAPA) Fluorinated Derivatives: Comparison of Cytoprotective Effects to Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    cDivision of Medicinal Chemistry and Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology , The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA a r t i c l e i n f o...centrated in honeybee propolis, has been found to be biologically active in a variety of pathways including cytoprotection against oxidative stress. CAPE

  12. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries. PMID:26686655

  13. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  14. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; ...

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through themore » systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.« less

  15. Inhibition of caspase-9 aggravates acute liver injury through suppression of cytoprotective autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Lin, Bin; Pan, Jing Fei; Liong, Emily C.; Xu, Ai Min; Youdim, Moussa; Fung, Man Lung; So, Kwok Fai; Tipoe, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver disease is characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress and necrosis, which can greatly influence the long term clinical outcome and lead to liver failure or cancer. Here, we initially demonstrated the beneficial role of caspase-9-dependent autophagy in acute liver injury. Treatment with caspase-9 inhibitor z-LEHD-FMK in HepG2 cells, AML12 cells and C57BL/b6N mice exacerbated CCl4-induced acute hepatocellular damage, and also down-regulated autophagy markers expression levels, indicating that caspase-9 inhibition may aggravate acute liver damage by suppressing cytoprotective autophagy. CCl4 was used as an acute liver injury inducer which caused oxidative stress and apoptosis through up-regulation of HIF-1α, as well as triggered hepatic inflammation and necroptosis via TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Caspase-9 Thr125 site was firstly phosphorylated by ERK1/2 which subsequently activated the cytoprotective autophagy process to attenuate acute CCl4 injury. Caspase-9 inhibition further aggravated hepatic necroptosis through NF-κB expression, leading to increased pro-inflammatory mediators levels, suggesting a protective role of caspase-9-dependent autophagy in the inflammatory process as well as its possibility being a new therapeutic target for the treatment of acute liver injury. PMID:27580936

  16. Inhibition of caspase-9 aggravates acute liver injury through suppression of cytoprotective autophagy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Lin, Bin; Pan, Jing Fei; Liong, Emily C; Xu, Ai Min; Youdim, Moussa; Fung, Man Lung; So, Kwok Fai; Tipoe, George L

    2016-09-01

    Acute liver disease is characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress and necrosis, which can greatly influence the long term clinical outcome and lead to liver failure or cancer. Here, we initially demonstrated the beneficial role of caspase-9-dependent autophagy in acute liver injury. Treatment with caspase-9 inhibitor z-LEHD-FMK in HepG2 cells, AML12 cells and C57BL/b6N mice exacerbated CCl4-induced acute hepatocellular damage, and also down-regulated autophagy markers expression levels, indicating that caspase-9 inhibition may aggravate acute liver damage by suppressing cytoprotective autophagy. CCl4 was used as an acute liver injury inducer which caused oxidative stress and apoptosis through up-regulation of HIF-1α, as well as triggered hepatic inflammation and necroptosis via TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Caspase-9 Thr125 site was firstly phosphorylated by ERK1/2 which subsequently activated the cytoprotective autophagy process to attenuate acute CCl4 injury. Caspase-9 inhibition further aggravated hepatic necroptosis through NF-κB expression, leading to increased pro-inflammatory mediators levels, suggesting a protective role of caspase-9-dependent autophagy in the inflammatory process as well as its possibility being a new therapeutic target for the treatment of acute liver injury.

  17. Control the kinetics and pathway of insulin fibril formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhongli; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Y. Elaine

    2012-02-01

    Protein fibrils have been proposed as possible toxic agents for many amyloid related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, however the reaction pathway toward the amyloid fibrillation remain inadequately understood. In this work, we examine the conformational transition of human insulin as the model amyloid protein by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging. By controlling the pH cycling, insulin monomer and oligomers are indentified at given pH variation condition. Furthermore, low frequency ac-electric fields are employed to control the insulin aggregation from its monomers in a microchannel. It is observed that lag time to induce insulin fibrillation can be significantly shortened, in compassion to the commonly used cooling and seeding methods, and exhibits a strong dependence on applied ac-field strength. Additionally, the structure of insulin aggregates under ac-electric fields is observed to be drastically different from that under the temperature control.

  18. The NRF2 transcriptional target, OSGIN1, contributes to monomethyl fumarate-mediated cytoprotection in human astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Melanie S.; Matos, Maria F.; Richter, Karl E.; Li, Bing; Scannevin, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is indicated for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis and may exert therapeutic effects via activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) pathway. Following oral DMF administration, central nervous system (CNS) tissue is predominantly exposed to monomethyl fumarate (MMF), the bioactive metabolite of DMF, which can stabilize NRF2 and induce antioxidant gene expression; however, the detailed NRF2-dependent mechanisms modulated by MMF that lead to cytoprotection are unknown. Our data identify a mechanism for MMF-mediated cytoprotection in human astrocytes that functions in an OSGIN1-dependent manner, specifically via upregulation of the OSGIN1-61 kDa isoform. NRF2-dependent OSGIN1 expression induced P53 nuclear translocation following MMF administration, leading to cell-cycle inhibition and cell protection against oxidative challenge. This study provides mechanistic insight into MMF-mediated cytoprotection via NRF2, OSGIN1, and P53 in human CNS-derived cells and contributes to our understanding of how DMF may act clinically to ameliorate pathological processes in neurodegenerative disease. PMID:28181536

  19. Preface: cardiac control pathways: signaling and transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Sideman, Samuel

    2008-03-01

    Signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular functions and coordinates cellular activity. Transfer of ions and signaling molecules and their interactions with appropriate receptors, transmembrane transport, and the consequent intracellular interactions and functional cellular response represent a complex system of interwoven phenomena of transport, signaling, conformational changes, chemical activation, and/or genetic expression. The well-being of the cell thus depends on a harmonic orchestration of all these events and the existence of control mechanisms that assure the normal behavior of the various parameters involved and their orderly expression. The ability of cells to sustain life by perceiving and responding correctly to their microenvironment is the basis for development, tissue repair, and immunity, as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Natural deviations, or human-induced interference in the signaling pathways and/or inter- and intracellular transport and information transfer, are responsible for the generation, modulation, and control of diseases. The present overview aims to highlight some major topics of the highly complex cellular information transfer processes and their control mechanisms. Our goal is to contribute to the understanding of the normal and pathophysiological phenomena associated with cardiac functions so that more efficient therapeutic modalities can be developed. Our objective in this volume is to identify and enhance the study of some basic passive and active physical and chemical transport phenomena, physiological signaling pathways, and their biological consequences.

  20. Nanoparticle hardness controls the internalization pathway for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Zhang, Xianren; Cao, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP)-based drug delivery systems offer fundamental advantages over current therapeutic agents that commonly display a longer circulation time, lower toxicity, specific targeted release, and greater bioavailability. For successful NP-based drug delivery it is essential that the drug-carrying nanocarriers can be internalized by the target cells and transported to specific sites, and the inefficient internalization of nanocarriers is often one of the major sources for drug resistance. In this work, we use the dissipative particle dynamics simulation to investigate the effect of NP hardness on their internalization efficiency. Three simplified models of NP platforms for drug delivery, including polymeric NP, liposome and solid NP, are designed here to represent increasing nanocarrier hardness. Simulation results indicate that NP hardness controls the internalization pathway for drug delivery. Rigid NPs can enter the cell by a pathway of endocytosis, whereas for soft NPs the endocytosis process can be inhibited or frustrated due to wrapping-induced shape deformation and non-uniform ligand distribution. Instead, soft NPs tend to find one of three penetration pathways to enter the cell membrane via rearranging their hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. Finally, we show that the interaction between nanocarriers and drug molecules is also essential for effective drug delivery.

  1. Nanoparticle hardness controls the internalization pathway for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Zhang, Xianren; Cao, Dapeng

    2015-02-14

    Nanoparticle (NP)-based drug delivery systems offer fundamental advantages over current therapeutic agents that commonly display a longer circulation time, lower toxicity, specific targeted release, and greater bioavailability. For successful NP-based drug delivery it is essential that the drug-carrying nanocarriers can be internalized by the target cells and transported to specific sites, and the inefficient internalization of nanocarriers is often one of the major sources for drug resistance. In this work, we use the dissipative particle dynamics simulation to investigate the effect of NP hardness on their internalization efficiency. Three simplified models of NP platforms for drug delivery, including polymeric NP, liposome and solid NP, are designed here to represent increasing nanocarrier hardness. Simulation results indicate that NP hardness controls the internalization pathway for drug delivery. Rigid NPs can enter the cell by a pathway of endocytosis, whereas for soft NPs the endocytosis process can be inhibited or frustrated due to wrapping-induced shape deformation and non-uniform ligand distribution. Instead, soft NPs tend to find one of three penetration pathways to enter the cell membrane via rearranging their hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. Finally, we show that the interaction between nanocarriers and drug molecules is also essential for effective drug delivery.

  2. Optogenetic control of the Dab1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Cooper, Jonathan A.

    2017-01-01

    The Reelin-Dab1 signaling pathway regulates development of the mammalian brain, including neuron migrations in various brain regions, as well as learning and memory in adults. Extracellular Reelin binds to cell surface receptors and activates phosphorylation of the intracellular Dab1 protein. Dab1 is required for most effects of Reelin, but Dab1-independent pathways may contribute. Here we developed a single-component, photoactivatable Dab1 (opto-Dab1) by using the blue light-sensitive dimerization/oligomerization property of A. thaliana Cryptochrome 2 (Cry2). Opto-Dab1 can activate downstream signals rapidly, locally, and reversibly upon blue light illumination. The high spatiotemporal resolution of the opto-Dab1 probe also allows us to control membrane protrusion, retraction and ruffling by local illumination in both COS7 cells and in primary neurons. This shows that Dab1 activation is sufficient to orient cell movement in the absence of other signals. Opto-Dab1 may be useful to study the biological functions of the Reelin-Dab1 signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:28272509

  3. Viral Evasion and Manipulation of Host RNA Quality Control Pathways

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Viruses have evolved diverse strategies to maximize the functional and coding capacities of their genetic material. Individual viral RNAs are often used as substrates for both replication and translation and can contain multiple, sometimes overlapping open reading frames. Further, viral RNAs engage in a wide variety of interactions with both host and viral proteins to modify the activities of important cellular factors and direct their own trafficking, packaging, localization, stability, and translation. However, adaptations increasing the information density of small viral genomes can have unintended consequences. In particular, viral RNAs have developed features that mark them as potential targets of host RNA quality control pathways. This minireview focuses on ways in which viral RNAs run afoul of the cellular mRNA quality control and decay machinery, as well as on strategies developed by viruses to circumvent or exploit cellular mRNA surveillance. PMID:27226372

  4. Viral Evasion and Manipulation of Host RNA Quality Control Pathways.

    PubMed

    Hogg, J Robert

    2016-08-15

    Viruses have evolved diverse strategies to maximize the functional and coding capacities of their genetic material. Individual viral RNAs are often used as substrates for both replication and translation and can contain multiple, sometimes overlapping open reading frames. Further, viral RNAs engage in a wide variety of interactions with both host and viral proteins to modify the activities of important cellular factors and direct their own trafficking, packaging, localization, stability, and translation. However, adaptations increasing the information density of small viral genomes can have unintended consequences. In particular, viral RNAs have developed features that mark them as potential targets of host RNA quality control pathways. This minireview focuses on ways in which viral RNAs run afoul of the cellular mRNA quality control and decay machinery, as well as on strategies developed by viruses to circumvent or exploit cellular mRNA surveillance.

  5. Sulglycotide displays cytoprotective activity in rat gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Niada, R; Mantovani, M; Prino, G; Omini, C; Berti, F

    1983-01-01

    Sulglycotide, a well known antisecretory and antiulcer compound, has been further investigated for its ability to protect rat gastric mucosa against extensive necrosis induced by absolute ethanol, NaOH (0.2N) and NaCl (30%). Sulglycotide, which has been compared with cimetidine, displays a dose-dependent cytoprotective activity against the above necrotizing agents. The results obtained indicate that Sulglycotide requires a normal prostaglandin biosynthetic process in order to manifest its antiulcer activity. In fact gastric mucosa from animals treated with Sulglycotide releases in vitro a greater amount of PGl2-like activity; and furthermore no protection was observed against gastric lesions induced by indomethacin. As far as the mode of action of Sulglycotide is concerned it is tempting to speculate that the compound may interfere with prostaglandin degradation or it may trigger an adaptive cytoprotection which is important in maintaining the cellular integrity of rat gastric mucosa.

  6. Cytochrome P450 2A5 and bilirubin: Mechanisms of gene regulation and cytoprotection

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sangsoo Daniel; Antenos, Monica; Squires, E. James; Kirby, Gordon M.

    2013-07-15

    Bilirubin (BR) has recently been identified as the first endogenous substrate for cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) and it has been suggested that CYP2A5 plays a major role in BR clearance as an alternative mechanism to BR conjugation by uridine-diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 1A1. This study investigated the mechanisms of Cyp2a5 gene regulation by BR and the cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 in BR hepatotoxicity. BR induced CYP2A5 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner in primary mouse hepatocytes. BR treatment also caused nuclear translocation of Nuclear factor-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in hepatocytes. In reporter assays, BR treatment of primary hepatocytes transfected with a Cyp2a5 promoter-luciferase reporter construct resulted in a 2-fold induction of Cyp2a5 reporter activity. Furthermore, cotransfection of the hepatocytes with a Nrf2 expression vector without BR treatment resulted in an increase in Cyp2a5 reporter activity of approximately 2-fold and BR treatment of Nrf2 cotransfectants further increased reporter activity by 4-fold. In addition, site-directed mutation of the ARE in the reporter construct completely abolished both the BR- and Nrf2-mediated increases in reporter activity. The cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 against BR-mediated apoptosis was also examined in Hepa 1–6 cells that lack endogenous CYP2A5. Transient overexpression of CYP2A5 partially blocked BR-induced caspase-3 cleavage in Hepa 1–6 cells. Furthermore, in vitro degradation of BR was increased by microsomes from Hepa 1–6 cells overexpressing CYP2A5 compared to control cells transfected with an empty vector. Collectively, these results suggest that Nrf2-mediated CYP2A5 transactivation in response to BR may provide an additional mechanism for adaptive cytoprotection against BR hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • The mechanism of Cyp2a5 gene regulation by BR was investigated. • The cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 in BR hepatotoxicity was determined. • BR

  7. Thrombomodulin exerts cytoprotective effect on low-dose UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, Masahiro; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Kawabata, Hisashi; Ito, Takashi; Mera, Kentaro; Biswas, Kamal Krishna; Tancharoen, Salunya; Higashi, Yuko; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2008-12-12

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial cell surface anticoagulant glycoprotein that performs antimetastatic, angiogenic, adhesive, and anti-inflammatory functions in various tissues. It is also expressed in epidermal keratinocytes. We found that a physiological dose (10 mJ/cm{sup 2}) of mid-wavelength ultraviolet irradiation (UVB) significantly induced TM expression via the p38mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/cyclic AMP response element (CRE) signaling pathway in the epidermal keratinocyte cell line HaCaT; this shows that TM regulates the survival of HaCaT cells. SB203580, a p38MAPK inhibitor, significantly decreased TM expression and the viability of cells exposed to UVB. Furthermore, overexpression of TM markedly increased cell viability, and it was abrogated by TM small interfering RNA (siRNA), suggesting that TM may play an important role in exerting cytoprotective effect on epidermal keratinocytes against low-dose UVB.

  8. Cytoprotective effects of fisetin against hypoxia-induced cell death in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yi; Ho, Yi-Ru; Wu, Ming-Jiuan; Huang, Shun-Ping; Chen, Po-Kong; Tai, Mi-Hsueh; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), a flavonol compound of flavonoids, exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytoprotective effect of fisetin and the underlying molecular mechanism against hypoxia-induced cell death in PC12 cells. The results of this study showed that fisetin significantly restored the cell viability of PC12 cells under both cobalt chloride (CoCl₂)- and low oxygen-induced hypoxic conditions. Treatment with fisetin successfully reduced the CoCl₂-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which was accompanied by an increase in the cell viability of PC12 cells. Furthermore, we found that treatment of PC12 cells with fisetin markedly upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), its nuclear accumulation and the hypoxia-response element (HRE)-driven transcriptional activation. The fisetin-mediated cytoprotection during CoCl₂ exposure was significantly attenuated through the administration of HIF-1α siRNA. Moreover, we demonstrated that MAPK/ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), p38 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 K) inhibitors significantly blocked the increase in cell survival that was induced by fisetin treatment under hypoxic conditions. Consistently, increased phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and Akt proteins was observed in PC12 cells treated with fisetin. However, the fisetin-induced HRE-driven transcription was not affected by inhibition of these kinase signaling pathways. Current results reveal for the first time that fisetin promotes cell survival and protects against hypoxia-induced cell death through ROS scavenging and the activation of HIF1α-, MAPK/ERK-, p38 MAPK- and PI3 K/Akt-dependent signaling pathways in PC12 cells.

  9. Neurophysiological Pathways to Obesity: Below Awareness and Beyond Individual Control

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    A global obesity epidemic is occurring simultaneously with ongoing increases in the availability and salience of food in the environment. Obesity is increasing across all socioeconomic groups and educational levels and occurs even among individuals with the highest levels of education and expertise in nutrition and related fields. Given these circumstances, it is plausible that excessive food consumption occurs in ways that defy personal insight or are below individual awareness. The current food environment stimulates automatic reflexive responses that enhance the desire to eat and increase caloric intake, making it exceedingly difficult for individuals to resist, especially because they may not be aware of these influences. This article identifies 10 neurophysiological pathways that can lead people to make food choices subconsciously or, in some cases, automatically. These pathways include reflexive and uncontrollable neurohormonal responses to food images, cues, and smells; mirror neurons that cause people to imitate the eating behavior of others without awareness; and limited cognitive capacity to make informed decisions about food. Given that people have limited ability to shape the food environment individually and no ability to control automatic responses to food-related cues that are unconsciously perceived, it is incumbent upon society as a whole to regulate the food environment, including the number and types of food-related cues, portion sizes, food availability, and food advertising. PMID:18586908

  10. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, bromocriptine, and atropine effect in cysteamine lesions in totally gastrectromized rats: a model for cytoprotective studies.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Mikus, D; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagić, V; Turković, B; Rotkvić, I; Mise, S; Zoricić, I; Perić, J; Konjevoda, P; Perović, D; Jurina, L; Hanzevacki, M; Separović, J; Gjurasin, M; Jadrijević, S; Jelovac, N; Miklić, P; Buljat, G; Marović, A

    1997-05-01

    A superior effectiveness in various lesion assays was noted for the novel pentadecapeptide BPC 157, originated from human gastric juice protein (BPC) and claimed to be a cytoprotective agent. From this viewpoint, as a previously untreated experimental improvement to create an acid-free environmental for cytoprotection studies, total gastrectomy was done 24 hr before the ulcerogenic procedure. In the absence of stomach and gastric acid, the damaging effects of cysteamine (400 mg/kg subcutaneously, death 24 hr thereafter), to date thought to be an acid-related duodenal ulcerogen, and the BPC 157 cytoprotective effect (10 microg or 10 ng/kg intraperitoneally) were further challenged. BPC 157 was compared with reference agents [cimetidine (50), ranitidine (10), omeprazole (10), bromocriptine (10) and atropine (10) (mg/kg intraperitoneally, 1 hr before cysteamine] known to be also cytoprotective. In naive rats, with intact stomach, all of them showed a strong beneficial effect. Interestingly, in gastrectomized animals, the application of BPC 157 or the reference agents before cysteamine significantly prevented the otherwise severe duodenal lesion development noted in the control gastrectomized cysteamine rats. In groups without cysteamine, no lesions were noted (laparotomy, gastrectomy only, 24 or 48 hr postsurgical period), nor was lesion potentiation seen in cysteamine-treated laparotomized animals. In summary, these findings--equal damaging effect of cysteamine and equal protection of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and reference agents in gastrectomized and rats with intact stomach--seem to be particularly relevant for a cytoprotective viewpoint. Without a stomach, the cysteamine damaging effect was convincingly defined as an essential gastric acid-independent injury (analogous to ethanol gastric lesions). Likewise, a high "cytoprotective capacity," apparently acid independent, common for all tested agents (novel pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, omeprazole

  11. Metabolic control of signalling pathways and metabolic auto-regulation.

    PubMed

    Lorendeau, Doriane; Christen, Stefan; Rinaldi, Gianmarco; Fendt, Sarah-Maria

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic alterations have emerged as an important hallmark in the development of various diseases. Thus, understanding the complex interplay of metabolism with other cellular processes such as cell signalling is critical to rationally control and modulate cellular physiology. Here, we review in the context of mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP-activated protein kinase and p53, the orchestrated interplay between metabolism and cellular signalling as well as transcriptional regulation. Moreover, we discuss recent discoveries in auto-regulation of metabolism (i.e. how metabolic parameters such as metabolite levels activate or inhibit enzymes and thus metabolic pathways). Finally, we review functional consequences of post-translational modification on metabolic enzyme abundance and/or activities.

  12. A Central Neural Pathway Controlling Odor Tracking in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Gemma; Levy, Peter; Chan, K.L. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis is important for the survival of most animals. How the brain translates sensory input into motor output beyond higher olfactory processing centers is largely unknown. We describe a group of excitatory neurons, termed Odd neurons, which are important for Drosophila larval chemotaxis. Odd neurons receive synaptic input from projection neurons in the calyx of the mushroom body and project axons to the central brain. Functional imaging shows that some of the Odd neurons respond to odor. Larvae in which Odd neurons are silenced are less efficient at odor tracking than controls and sample the odor space more frequently. Larvae in which the excitability of Odd neurons is increased are better at odor intensity discrimination and odor tracking. Thus, the Odd neurons represent a distinct pathway that regulates the sensitivity of the olfactory system to odor concentrations, demonstrating that efficient chemotaxis depends on processing of odor strength downstream of higher olfactory centers. PMID:25653345

  13. Fault-controlled hydrocarbon pathways in the Monterey Formation, California

    SciTech Connect

    Dholkakia, S.K.; Aydin, A.; Pollard, D.D.; Zoback, M.D.

    1998-08-01

    Field studies of low-permeability siliceous shale units of the Monterey Formation in the southern San Joaquin Valley and coastal California show evidence for fault control on hydrocarbon transport important for both migration and production. Shearing along preexisting discontinuities, such as bedding planes and joints, locally increases permeability in the sheared zone and surrounding fractured rock. As the rock is subjected to shear, it begins to systematically fragment and subsequently to brecciate, thereby creating interconnected voids for hydrocarbon transport. A outcrop-based conceptual model for the development of hydrocarbon pathways in the Monterey Formation is applied to the subsurface using formation microscanner (FMS) data and core. Bed-parallel breccia zones are identified in the Antelope Shale at Buena Vista Hills oil field.

  14. A central neural pathway controlling odor tracking in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Slater, Gemma; Levy, Peter; Chan, K L Andrew; Larsen, Camilla

    2015-02-04

    Chemotaxis is important for the survival of most animals. How the brain translates sensory input into motor output beyond higher olfactory processing centers is largely unknown. We describe a group of excitatory neurons, termed Odd neurons, which are important for Drosophila larval chemotaxis. Odd neurons receive synaptic input from projection neurons in the calyx of the mushroom body and project axons to the central brain. Functional imaging shows that some of the Odd neurons respond to odor. Larvae in which Odd neurons are silenced are less efficient at odor tracking than controls and sample the odor space more frequently. Larvae in which the excitability of Odd neurons is increased are better at odor intensity discrimination and odor tracking. Thus, the Odd neurons represent a distinct pathway that regulates the sensitivity of the olfactory system to odor concentrations, demonstrating that efficient chemotaxis depends on processing of odor strength downstream of higher olfactory centers.

  15. Metabolite Valves: Dynamic Control of Metabolic Flux for Pathway Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Kristala

    2015-03-01

    Microbial strains have been successfully engineered to produce a wide variety of chemical compounds, several of which have been commercialized. As new products are targeted for biological synthesis, yield is frequently considered a primary driver towards determining feasibility. Theoretical yields can be calculated, establishing an upper limit on the potential conversion of starting substrates to target compounds. Such yields typically ignore loss of substrate to byproducts, with the assumption that competing reactions can be eliminated, usually by deleting the genes encoding the corresponding enzymes. However, when an enzyme encodes an essential gene, especially one involved in primary metabolism, deletion is not a viable option. Reducing gene expression in a static fashion is possible, but this solution ignores the metabolic demand needed for synthesis of the enzymes required for the desired pathway. We have developed Metabolite valves to address this challenge. The valves are designed to allow high flux through the essential enzyme during an initial period where growth is favored. Following an external perturbation, enzyme activity is then reduced, enabling a higher precursor pool to be diverted towards the pathway of interest. We have designed valves with control at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels. In both cases, key enzymes in glucose metabolism are regulated, and two different compounds are targeted for heterologous production. We have measured increased concentrations of intracellular metabolites once the valve is closed, and have demonstrated that these increased pools lead to increased product yields. These metabolite valves should prove broadly useful for dynamic control of metabolic flux, resulting in improvements in product yields.

  16. Cereblon is recruited to aggresome and shows cytoprotective effect against ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Naoya; Wakabayashi, Satoru; Matsumoto, Kodai; Yamada, Haruka; Asahi, Toru

    2015-09-04

    Cereblon (CRBN) is encoded by a candidate gene for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic intellectual disability (ID). The nonsense mutation, R419X, causes deletion of 24 amino acids at the C-terminus of CRBN, leading to mild ID. Although abnormal CRBN function may be associated with ID disease onset, its cellular mechanism is still unclear. Here, we examine the role of CRBN in aggresome formation and cytoprotection. In the presence of a proteasome inhibitor, exogenous CRBN formed perinuclear inclusions and co-localized with aggresome markers. Endogenous CRBN also formed perinuclear inclusions under the same condition. Treatment with a microtubule destabilizer or an inhibitor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of CRBN blocked formation of CRBN inclusions. Biochemical analysis showed CRBN containing inclusions were high-molecular weight, ubiquitin-positive. CRBN overexpression in cultured cells suppressed cell death induced by proteasome inhibitor. Furthermore, knockdown of endogenous CRBN in cultured cells increased cell death induced by proteasome inhibitor, compared with control cells. Our results show CRBN is recruited to aggresome and has functional roles in cytoprotection against ubiquitin-proteasome system impaired condition.

  17. Novel cytoprotective mechanism of anti-parkinsonian drug deprenyl: PI3K and Nrf2-derived induction of antioxidative proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaso, Kazuhiro . E-mail: kazuhiro@grape.med.tottori-u.ac.jp; Nakamura, Chiharu; Sato, Hiromi; Imamura, Keiko; Takeshima, Takao; Nakashima, Kenji

    2006-01-20

    Neuroprotection has received considerable attention as a strategy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Deprenyl (Selegiline) is a promising candidate for neuroprotection; however, its cytoprotective mechanism has not been fully clarified. Here, we report a novel cytoprotective mechanism of deprenyl involving PI3K and Nrf2-mediated induction of oxidative stress-related proteins. Deprenyl increased the expression of HO-1, PrxI, TrxI, TrxRxI, {gamma}GCS, and p62/A170 in SH-SY5Y cells. Deprenyl also induced the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and increased the binding activity of Nrf2 to the enhancer region of human genomic HO-1. The Nrf2-mediated induction of antioxidative molecules was controlled by PI3K. Indeed, furthermore, neurotrophin receptor TrkB was identified as an upstream signal for PI3K-Nrf2 activation by deprenyl. These results suggest that the cytoprotective effect of deprenyl is, in part, dependent on Nrf2-mediated induction of antioxidative proteins, suggesting that activation of the PI3K-Nrf2 system may be a useful therapeutic strategy for PD.

  18. Cyclic Dinucleotide-Controlled Regulatory Pathways in Streptomyces Species

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The cyclic dinucleotides cyclic 3′,5′-diguanylate (c-di-GMP) and cyclic 3′,5′-diadenylate (c-di-AMP) have emerged as key components of bacterial signal transduction networks. These closely related second messengers follow the classical general principles of nucleotide signaling by integrating diverse signals into regulatory pathways that control cellular responses to changing environments. They impact distinct cellular processes, with c-di-GMP having an established role in promoting bacterial adhesion and inhibiting motility and c-di-AMP being involved in cell wall metabolism, potassium homeostasis, and DNA repair. The involvement of c-dinucleotides in the physiology of the filamentous, nonmotile streptomycetes remained obscure until recent discoveries showed that c-di-GMP controls the activity of the developmental master regulator BldD and that c-di-AMP determines the level of the resuscitation-promoting factor A(RpfA) cell wall-remodelling enzyme. Here, I summarize our current knowledge of c-dinucleotide signaling in Streptomyces species and highlight the important roles of c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP in the biology of these antibiotic-producing, multicellular bacteria. PMID:26216850

  19. Cytoprotection of Human Endothelial Cells Against Oxidative Stress by 1-[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im): Application of Systems Biology to Understand the Mechanism of Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-03

    and exogenous oxidants, electrophiles , and toxicants. Activation of this pathway was reported to facilitate the induction of HMOX1 (Heiss et al., 2009...cytoprotective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and fluorinated derivatives: effects on heme oxygenase-1 induction and antioxidant

  20. Mechanism of phytoestrogen puerarin-mediated cytoprotection following oxidative injury: Estrogen receptor-dependent up-regulation of PI3K/Akt and HO-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2008-12-15

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenolic non-steroidal plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. The phytoestrogen puerarin, the main isoflavone glycoside found in the root of Pueraria lobata, has been used for various medicinal purposes in traditional Chinese medicines for thousands of years. Recent studies have indicated that the estrogen receptor (ER), through interaction with p85, regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, revealing a physiologic, non-nuclear function of ER that may be relevant in cytoprotection. In this study, we demonstrate that the phytoestrogen puerarin inhibits tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury via an ER-dependent G{beta}1/PI3K/Akt and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. Pretreatment of Hepa1c1c7 and HepG2 cells with puerarin significantly reduced t-BHP-induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent cell death. Also, puerarin up-regulated HO-1 expression and this expression conferred cytoprotection against oxidative injury induced by t-BHP. Moreover, puerarin induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which is upstream of puerarin-induced HO-1 expression, and PI3K activation, a pathway that is involved in induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression and cytoprotection. Puerarin-induced up-regulation of HO-1 and cytoprotection against t-BHP were abolished by silencing Nrf2 expression with specific siRNA. Also, puerarin-mediated increases in PI3K activation and HO-1 induction were reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780 and pertussis toxin. Taken together, these results suggest that puerarin augments cellular antioxidant defense capacity through ER-dependent HO-1 induction via the G{beta}1/PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress.

  1. Implication of Mitochondrial Cytoprotection in Human Islet Isolation and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Mendoza-Elias, Joshua E.; Qi, Meirigeng; Harvat, Tricia A.; Ahn, Sang Joon; Lee, Dongyoung; Gutierrez, Diana; Jeon, Hyojin; Paushter, Daniel; Oberholzer, José

    2012-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus; however, success rates in achieving both short- and long-term insulin independence are not consistent, due in part to inconsistent islet quality and quantity caused by the complex nature and multistep process of islet isolation and transplantation. Since the introduction of the Edmonton Protocol in 2000, more attention has been placed on preserving mitochondrial function as increasing evidences suggest that impaired mitochondrial integrity can adversely affect clinical outcomes. Some recent studies have demonstrated that it is possible to achieve islet cytoprotection by maintaining mitochondrial function and subsequently to improve islet transplantation outcomes. However, the benefits of mitoprotection in many cases are controversial and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This article summarizes the recent progress associated with mitochondrial cytoprotection in each step of the islet isolation and transplantation process, as well as islet potency and viability assays based on the measurement of mitochondrial integrity. In addition, we briefly discuss immunosuppression side effects on islet graft function and how transplant site selection affects islet engraftment and clinical outcomes. PMID:22611495

  2. Novel Insights Into Hydrogen Sulfide–Mediated Cytoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, John W.; Coetzee, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless, water soluble, flammable gas that has the characteristic smell of rotten eggs. Like other members of the gasotransmitter family (nitric oxide and carbon monoxide), H2S has traditionally been considered to be a highly toxic gas and environmental hazard. However, much like for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, the initial negative perception of H2S has evolved with the discovery that H2S is produced enzymatically in mammals under normal conditions. As a result of this discovery, there has been a great deal of work to elucidate the physiological role of H2S. H2S is now recognized to be cytoprotective in various models of cellular injury. Specifically, it has been demonstrated that the acute administration of H2S, either prior to ischemia or at reperfusion, significantly ameliorates in vitro or in vivo myocardial and hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. These studies have also demonstrated a cardioprotective role for endogenous H2S. This review article summarizes the current body of evidence demonstrating the cytoprotective effects of H2S with an emphasis on the cardioprotective effects. This review also provides a detailed description of the current signaling mechanisms shown to be responsible for these cardioprotective actions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 1203–1217. PMID:19769484

  3. A cytoprotective and degradable metal-polyphenol nanoshell for single-cell encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Hun; Kim, Kyunghwan; Lee, Juno; Choi, Ji Yu; Hong, Daewha; Yang, Sung Ho; Caruso, Frank; Lee, Younghoon; Choi, Insung S

    2014-11-10

    Single-cell encapsulation promises the cytoprotection of the encased cells against lethal stressors, reminiscent of the sporulation process in nature. However, the development of a cytocompatible method for chemically mimicking the germination process (i.e., shell degradation on-demand) has been elusive, despite the shell degradation being pivotal for the practical use of functional cells as well as for single cell-based biology. We report that an artificial shell, composed of tannic acid (TA) and Fe(III) , on individual Saccharomyces cerevisiae controllably degrades on-demand, while protecting the yeast from multiple external aggressors, including UV-C irradiation, lytic enzymes, and silver nanoparticles. Cell division is suppressed by the TA-Fe(III) shell, but restored fully upon shell degradation. The formation of a TA-Fe(III) shell would provide a versatile tool for achieving the chemical version of "sporulation and germination".

  4. 3D co-cultures of keratinocytes and melanocytes and cytoprotective effects on keratinocytes against reactive oxygen species by insect virus-derived protein microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, Junji; Yamaoka, Ayako; Murata, Ken-Ichi; Kotani, Eiji; Hirano, Tomoko; Nakajima, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Goichi; Mori, Hajime

    2014-09-01

    Stable protein microcrystals called polyhedra are produced by certain insect viruses. Cytokines, such as fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), can be immobilized within polyhedra. Here, we investigated three-dimensional (3D) co-cultures of keratinocytes and melanocytes on collagen gel containing FGF-2 and FGF-7 polyhedra. Melanocytes were observed to reside at the base of the 3D cell culture and melanin was also typically observed in the lower layer. The 3D cell culture model with FGF-2 and FGF-7 polyhedra was a useful in vitro model of the epidermis due to effective melanogenesis, proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. FGF-7 polyhedra showed a potent cytoprotective effect when keratinocytes were treated with menadione, which is a generator of reactive oxygen species. The cytoprotective effect was activated by the inositol triphosphate kinase-Akt pathway leading to upregulation of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin 6.

  5. Prohibitin confers cytoprotection against ISO-induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cells via attenuation of oxidative stress and modulation of Akt/Gsk-3β signaling.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kumar, Dinesh; Bhadra, Utpal; Devi, Tangutur Anjana; Bhadra, Manika Pal

    2017-01-01

    Numerous hypertrophic stimuli, including β-adrenergic agonists such as isoproterenol (ISO), result in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alteration in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) leading to oxidative stress. This process is well associated with phosphorylation of thymoma viral proto-oncogene Akt (Ser473) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (Gsk-3β) (Ser9), with resultant inactivation of Gsk-3β. In the present study, we found that the protective defensive role of prohibitin (PHB) against ISO-induced hypertrophic response in rat H9c2 cells is via attenuation of oxidative stress-dependent signaling pathways. The intracellular levels of mitochondrial membrane potential along with cellular ROS levels and mitochondrial superoxide generation were determined. In order to understand the regulation of Akt/Gsk-3β signaling pathway, we carried out immmunoblotting for key proteins of the pathway such as PTEN, PI3K, phosphorylated, and unphosphorylated forms of Akt, Gsk-3β, and immunofluorescence experiments of p-Gsk-3β. Enforced expression of PHB in ISO-treated H9c2 cells suppressed cellular ROS production with mitochondrial superoxide generation and enhanced the mitochondrial membrane potential resulting in suppression of oxidative stress which likely offered potent cellular protection, led to the availability of more healthy cells, and also, significant constitutive activation of Gsk-3β via inactivation of Akt was observed. Knockdown of PHB expression using PHB siRNA in control H9c2 cells reversed these effects. Overall, our results demonstrate that PHB confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in ISO-induced hypertrophy and this process is associated with modulation of Akt/Gsk-3β signaling mechanisms as evident from our PHB overexpression and knockdown experiments.

  6. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M. R.; Haves, P.; McDonald, S. C.; Torcellini, P.; Hansen, D.; Holmberg, D. R.; Roth, K. W.

    2005-04-01

    This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies.

  7. Cytoprotection of human endothelial cells against oxidative stress by 1-[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im): application of systems biology to understand the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyu; Bynum, James A; Stavchansky, Solomon; Bowman, Phillip D

    2014-07-05

    Cellular damage from oxidative stress, in particular following ischemic injury, occurs during heart attack, stroke, or traumatic injury, and is potentially reducible with appropriate drug treatment. We previously reported that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a plant-derived polyphenolic compound, protected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) from menadione-induced oxidative stress and that this cytoprotective effect was correlated with the capacity to induce heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) and its protein product, a phase II cytoprotective enzyme. To further improve this cytoprotective effect, we studied a synthetic triterpenoid, 1-[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im), which is known as a potent phase II enzyme inducer with antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities, and compared it to CAPE. CDDO-Im at 200nM provided more protection to HUVEC against oxidative stress than 20μM CAPE. We explored the mechanism of CDDO-Im cytoprotection with gene expression profiling and pathway analysis and compared to that of CAPE. In addition to potent up-regulation of HMOX1, heat shock proteins (HSP) were also found to be highly induced by CDDO-Im in HUVEC. Pathway analysis results showed that transcription factor Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response was among the top canonical pathways commonly activated by both CDDO-Im and CAPE. Compared to CAPE, CDDO-Im up-regulated more HSP and some of them to a much higher extent. In addition, CDDO-Im treatment affected Nrf2 pathway more significantly. These findings may provide an explanation why CDDO-Im is a more potent cytoprotectant than CAPE against oxidative stress in HUVEC.

  8. New cell-signaling pathways for controlling cytomegalovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Roy, S; Arav-Boger, R

    2014-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is increasingly recognized as an accomplished modulator of cell-signaling pathways, both directly via interaction between viral and cellular proteins, and indirectly by activating metabolic/energy states of infected cells. Viral genes, as well as captured cellular genes, enable CMV to modify these pathways upon binding to cellular receptors, up until generation of virus progeny. Deregulation of cell-signaling pathways appears to be a well-developed tightly balanced virus strategy to achieve the desired consequences in each infected cell type. Importantly and perhaps surprisingly, identification of new signaling pathways in cancer cells positioned CMV as a sophisticated user and abuser of many such pathways, creating opportunities to develop novel therapeutic strategies for inhibiting CMV replication (in addition to standard of care CMV DNA polymerase inhibitors). Advances in genomics and proteomics allow the identification of CMV products interacting with the cellular machinery. Ultimately, clinical implementation of candidate drugs capable of disrupting the delicate balance between CMV and cell-signaling will depend on the specificity and selectivity index of newly identified targets.

  9. Autocrine expression of hepatocyte growth factor and its cytoprotective effect on hepatocyte poisoning

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Zhou, Jun; Dou, Ke-Feng; Chen, Yong; Yan, Qing-Guo; Li, Hai-Min

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To construct pEGFP-hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) expression vector, the to detect its expression in transfected human hepatocytes, and to investigate the influence of autocrine HGF expression on the proliferative potential and cytoprotective effects in human hepatocytes. METHODS: Human HGF cDNA was ligated to the pEGFP vector. Recombinant plasmid was transfected into human hepatocyte line QZG with liposome. Expression of HGF protein was observed by fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Hepatic cells were collected 24, 48, and 72 h after transfection to detect the number of [3H]-TdR uptake in DNA. DNA synthesis was observed by using PCNA stain immunohistochemistry. Acute liver cell damage was induced by carbon tetrachloride. Cytoprotective effect was observed by examining the survival rate of hepatocytes and leakage of intracellular alanine transaminase (ALT) and potassium ions. RESULTS: HGF identification of pEGFP-HGF by enzyme digestion showed that HGF fragment was cloned into BamH I and Sal I sites of pEGFP-N3. Expression of GFP in transfected hepatocytes was observed with fluorescence microscopy. The [3H]-TdR uptake became 7 times as many as in the control group 96 h after transfection. After HGF transfection, the survival rate of hepatocytes poisoned by CCl4 significantly increased (83% vs 61%, P < 0.05), and the leakage of intracellular alanine transaminase and potassium ions decreased (586 nkat/L vs 1089 nkat/L, P < 0.01; and 5.59 mmol/L vs 6.02 mmol/L, P < 0.01 respectively). Culture of transfected hepatic cells promoted the proliferation of other non-transfected cells. CONCLUSION: Transfected HGF is expressed in hepatic cells and has the activity of promoting cell division and protecting hepatic cells against poisoning. PMID:15334679

  10. Induction of cyto-protective autophagy by paramontroseite VO2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Miao, Yanyan; Zhang, Yunjiao; Liu, Liang; Lin, Jun; Yang, James Y.; Xie, Yi; Wen, Longping

    2013-04-01

    A variety of inorganic nanomaterials have been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular degradation process critical for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. The overwhelming majority of autophagic responses elicited by nanomaterials were detrimental to cell fate and contributed to increased cell death. A widely held view is that the inorganic nanoparticles, when encapsulated and trapped by autophagosomes, may compromise the normal autophagic process due to the inability of the cells to degrade these materials and thus they manifest a detrimental effect on the well-being of a cell. Here we show that, contrary to this notion, nano-sized paramontroseite VO2 nanocrystals (P-VO2) induced cyto-protective, rather than death-promoting, autophagy in cultured HeLa cells. P-VO2 also caused up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cellular protein with a demonstrated role in protecting cells against death under stress situations. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine significantly inhibited HO-1 up-regulation and increased the rate of cell death in cells treated with P-VO2, while the HO-1 inhibitor protoporphyrin IX zinc (II) (ZnPP) enhanced the occurrence of cell death in the P-VO2-treated cells while having no effect on the autophagic response induced by P-VO2. On the other hand, Y2O3 nanocrystals, a control nanomaterial, induced death-promoting autophagy without affecting the level of expression of HO-1, and the pro-death effect of the autophagy induced by Y2O3. Our results represent the first report on a novel nanomaterial-induced cyto-protective autophagy, probably through up-regulation of HO-1, and may point to new possibilities for exploiting nanomaterial-induced autophagy for therapeutic applications.

  11. Mitochondrial fission - a drug target for cytoprotection or cytodestruction?

    PubMed

    Rosdah, Ayeshah A; K Holien, Jessica; Delbridge, Lea M D; Dusting, Gregory J; Lim, Shiang Y

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are morphologically dynamic organelles constantly undergoing processes of fission and fusion that maintain integrity and bioenergetics of the organelle: these processes are vital for cell survival. Disruption in the balance of mitochondrial fusion and fission is thought to play a role in several pathological conditions including ischemic heart disease. Proteins involved in regulating the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission are therefore potential targets for pharmacological therapies. Mdivi-1 is a small molecule inhibitor of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. Inhibiting mitochondrial fission with Mdivi-1 has proven cytoprotective benefits in several cell types involved in a wide array of cardiovascular injury models. On the other hand, Mdivi-1 can also exert antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects, particularly in hyperproliferative cells. In this review, we discuss these divergent effects of Mdivi-1 on cell survival, as well as the potential and limitations of Mdivi-1 as a therapeutic agent.

  12. Targeted heat shock protein 72 for pulmonary cytoprotection.

    PubMed

    Parseghian, Missag H; Hobson, Stephen T; Richieri, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) is perhaps the most important member of the HSP70 family of proteins, given that it is induced in a wide variety of tissues and cells to combat stress, particularly oxidative stress. Here, we review independent observations of the critical role this protein plays as a pulmonary cytoprotectant and discuss the merits of developing HSP72 as a therapeutic for rapid delivery to cells and tissues after a traumatic event. We also discuss the fusion of HSP72 to a cell-penetrating single-chain Fv antibody fragment derived from mAb 3E10, referred to as Fv-HSP70. This fusion construct has been validated in vivo in a cerebral infarction model and is currently in testing as a clinical therapeutic to treat ischemic events and as a fieldable medical countermeasure to treat inhalation of toxicants caused by terrorist actions or industrial accidents.

  13. Molecular evolution of multiple-level control of heme biosynthesis pathway in animal kingdom.

    PubMed

    Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Chu, Ying; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Hu, Chin-Hwa; Pai, Tun-Wen; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Lin, Han-Jia; Cases, Ildeofonso; Rojas, Ana; Sanchez, Mayka; You, Zong-Ye; Hsu, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of enzymes in a metabolic pathway can occur not only through changes in amino acid sequences but also through variations in transcriptional activation, mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. The heme biosynthesis pathway, a linear pathway comprised of eight consecutive enzymes in animals, provides researchers with ample information for multiple types of evolutionary analyses performed with respect to the position of each enzyme in the pathway. Through bioinformatics analysis, we found that the protein-coding sequences of all enzymes in this pathway are under strong purifying selection, from cnidarians to mammals. However, loose evolutionary constraints are observed for enzymes in which self-catalysis occurs. Through comparative genomics, we found that in animals, the first intron of the enzyme-encoding genes has been co-opted for transcriptional activation of the genes in this pathway. Organisms sense the cellular content of iron, and through iron-responsive elements in the 5' untranslated regions of mRNAs and the intron-exon boundary regions of pathway genes, translational inhibition and exon choice in enzymes may be enabled, respectively. Pathway product (heme)-mediated negative feedback control can affect the transport of pathway enzymes into the mitochondria as well as the ubiquitin-mediated stability of enzymes. Remarkably, the positions of these controls on pathway activity are not ubiquitous but are biased towards the enzymes in the upstream portion of the pathway. We revealed that multiple-level controls on the activity of the heme biosynthesis pathway depend on the linear depth of the enzymes in the pathway, indicating a new strategy for discovering the molecular constraints that shape the evolution of a metabolic pathway.

  14. Formation and Biological Targets of Quinones: Cytotoxic versus Cytoprotective Effects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Quinones represent a class of toxicological intermediates, which can create a variety of hazardous effects in vivo including, acute cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. In contrast, quinones can induce cytoprotection through the induction of detoxification enzymes, anti-inflammatory activities, and modification of redox status. The mechanisms by which quinones cause these effects can be quite complex. The various biological targets of quinones depend on their rate and site of formation and their reactivity. Quinones are formed through a variety of mechanisms from simple oxidation of catechols/hydroquinones catalyzed by a variety of oxidative enzymes and metal ions to more complex mechanisms involving initial P450-catalyzed hydroxylation reactions followed by two-electron oxidation. Quinones are Michael acceptors, and modification of cellular processes could occur through alkylation of crucial cellular proteins and/or DNA. Alternatively, quinones are highly redox active molecules which can redox cycle with their semiquinone radical anions leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and ultimately the hydroxyl radical. Production of ROS can alter redox balance within cells through the formation of oxidized cellular macromolecules including lipids, proteins, and DNA. This perspective explores the varied biological targets of quinones including GSH, NADPH, protein sulfhydryls [heat shock proteins, P450s, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), glutathione S-transferase (GST), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, (NQO1), kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), IκB kinase (IKK), and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)], and DNA. The evidence strongly suggests that the numerous mechanisms of quinone modulations (i.e., alkylation versus oxidative stress) can be correlated with the known pathology/cytoprotection of the parent compound(s) that is best described by an inverse U-shaped dose–response curve. PMID:27617882

  15. Chemical sporulation and germination: cytoprotective nanocoating of individual mammalian cells with a degradable tannic acid-FeIII complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juno; Cho, Hyeoncheol; Choi, Jinsu; Kim, Doyeon; Hong, Daewha; Park, Ji Hun; Yang, Sung Ho; Choi, Insung S

    2015-12-07

    Individual mammalian cells were coated with cytoprotective and degradable films by cytocompatible processes maintaining the cell viability. Three types of mammalian cells (HeLa, NIH 3T3, and Jurkat cells) were coated with a metal-organic complex of tannic acid (TA) and ferric ion, and the TA-Fe(III) nanocoat effectively protected the coated mammalian cells against UV-C irradiation and a toxic compound. More importantly, the cell proliferation was controlled by programmed formation and degradation of the TA-Fe(III) nanocoat, mimicking the sporulation and germination processes found in nature.

  16. Long-lasting cytoprotection after pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine, sucralfate or cholestyramine application in reflux oesophagitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Jadrijevic, S; Seiwerth, S; Sosa, T; Deskovic, S; Perovic, D; Aralica, G; Grabarevic, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagic, V; Turkovic, B; Ziger, T; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Zoricic, I; Sebecic, B; Patrlj, L; Kocman, B; Sarlija, M; Mikus, D; Separovic, J; Hanzevacki, M; Gjurasin, M; Miklic, P

    1999-12-01

    Recently, the effectiveness of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and other anti-ulcer agents, called 'direct cytoprotection', was evidenced in totally gastrectomized rats duodenum challenged with cysteamine 24 h after surgery, and sacrificed 24 h after ulcerogen application. The further focus was on the possibility that this effect could be seen over a more prolonged period (1, 2, 4 weeks), and in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e. oesophagus). After the removal of the stomach, the oesophagus and jejunum were joined by a termino-lateral anastomosis. The animals were euthanized 7, 14 or 28 d after surgery, when oesophagitis was blindly assessed both macroscopically (percentage of ulcerations areas) and microscopically (percentage of areas of ulcers, regeneration and hyperplasia; number of inflammatory cells - polymorphonuclear and mononuclear). Starting 24 h after surgery, the medication was continuously given in the drinking water, in a volume of 12.5 mL/rat daily, until euthanasia at the end of the observation period, i.e. 7, 14, 28 d following surgery. Based on previous experiments, the doses of agents were daily calculated per kg b.w. as follows: BPC 157 125 mg or 125 ng, cholestyramine 2.5 mg, ranitidine 125 mg, sucralfate 725 mg, whereas controls received 72.5 mL x kg(-1) water. In support of these initial findings, and considering gastrectomized acid-free rats as an ideal model for long-term cytoprotective studies as well, pentadecapeptide BPC 157 markedly attenuated termino-lateral oesophagojejunal anastomosis-reflux oesophagitis also over a quite prolonged period. This efficacy was only partly shared by other anti-ulcer agents. After 1-week-old oesophagitis (microscopical assessment), but not after 2 or 4 weeks, less damaged mucosa was noted in rats drinking ranitidine or sucralfate compared to controls. Similar effectiveness was noted for cholestyramine. The obtained results were supported also by inflammatory cell assessment. Compared with control

  17. Cytoprotective nanoparticles by conjugation of a polyhis tagged annexin V to a nanoparticle drug.

    PubMed

    Chen, Howard H; Yuan, Hushan; Cho, Hoonsung; Sosnovik, David E; Josephson, Lee

    2015-02-14

    We synthesized a cytoprotective magnetic nanoparticle by reacting a maleimide functionalized Feraheme (FH) with a disulfide linked dimer of a polyhis tagged annexin V. Following reductive cleavage of disulfide, the resulting annexin-nanoparticle (diameter = 28.0 ± 2.0 nm by laser light scattering, 7.6 annexin's/nanoparticle) was cytoprotective to cells subjected to plasma membrane disrupting chemotherapeutic or mechanical stresses, and significantly more protective than the starting annexin V. Annexin-nanoparticles provide an approach to the design of nanomaterials which antagonize the plasma membrane permeability characteristic of necrosis and which may have applications as cytoprotective agents.

  18. Signaling Pathways That Control mRNA Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Roopa; Denmon, Andria P.

    2013-01-01

    Cells regulate their genomes mainly at the level of transcription and at the level of mRNA decay. While regulation at the level of transcription is clearly important, the regulation of mRNA turnover by signaling networks is essential for a rapid response to external stimuli. Signaling pathways result in posttranslational modification of RNA binding proteins by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, methylation, acetylation etc. These modifications are important for rapid remodeling of dynamic ribonucleoprotein complexes and triggering mRNA decay. Understanding how these posttranslational modifications alter gene expression is therefore a fundamental question in biology. In this review we highlight recent findings on how signaling pathways and cell cycle checkpoints involving phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and arginine methylation affect mRNA turnover. PMID:23602935

  19. Trophic Status Controls Mercury Methylation Pathways in Northern Peats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, M. E.; Zhang, L.; Barkay, T.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Schaefer, J.; Hu, H.; Sidelinger, W.; Liu, X.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) can be produced by a variety of microbes including syntrophs, methanogens, acetogens, and fermenters, besides sulfate (SO42-, SRB) and iron- reducing bacteria. Many freshwater wetlands are deficient in electron acceptors that support the traditional respiratory pathways of methylation, yet they accumulate high levels of MeHg. To investigate methylation in these wetlands and to connect these pathways with vegetation and microbial communities, incubation experiments were conducted using peats from 26 sites in Alaska. The sites were clustered using multiple factor analysis based on pH, temp, CH4 and volatile fatty acids production rates, and surface vegetation composition. Three clusters were generated and corresponded to three trophic levels that were manifested by three pH levels (3.5, 4.5, and 5). Hg methylation activity in laboratory incubations was determined using the short-lived radioisotope 197Hg. In the low pH, Sphagnum-dominated cluster, methylation rates were less than 1% day-1 and likely conducted by primary fermenters. Conversely, the high pH trophic cluster dominated by Carex aquatilis and active syntrophy exhibited Hg methylation rates as high as 12% day-1. In intermediate sites, rich in Sphagnum magellanicum with less Carex, a gradient in syntrophy and Hg methylation paths was observed. Amendments with process-stimulators and inhibitors revealed no evidence of SO42- reduction, but suggested that SRB, metabolizing either syntrophically with methanogens and/or by fermentation, likely methylated Hg. While on going metatranscriptomics studies are required to verify the role of syntrophs, fermenters, and methanogens as methylators, these results revealed that Hg methylation pathways change greatly along trophic gradients with a dominance of respiratory pathways in mineral-rich sites, syntrophy dominance in intermediate sites, and fermentation dominance in nutrient-poor sites.

  20. Cytoprotective role of autophagy during paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon Jun; Lee, Seung Gee; Kim, Yoon-Jae; Park, Ji-Eun; Lee, Kyu Yeol; Yoo, Young Hyun; Kim, Jong-Min

    2013-06-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone cancer in children and adolescents. Although paclitaxel (PCX) has been considered one of the most important cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, the current protocols for OS treatment do not incorporate this agent. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the induction of cell death in OS cells after exposure to PCX, to identify the cell death mechanism(s) activated by PCX and to investigate whether autophagy is associated with PCX-induced apoptosis. The results of the present study confirmed that exposure to low PCX concentrations can induce apoptotic cell death in Saos-2 cells; furthermore, caspase-3 activation, PARP degradation and XIAP downregulation were observed in combination with PCX-induced apoptosis. The potential involvement of mitochondrial events (intrinsic apoptotic pathway) in PCX-induced apoptosis in OS cells was verified by the alteration (depolarization) of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), a specific inhibitor of autophagy, significantly increased PCX-induced apoptotic cell death in Saos-2 cells. The augmentation of PCX-induced apoptosis by 3-MA was accompanied by increase in the cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, caspase-3 activity and XIAP downregulation, which suggests that inhibiting autophagy further stimulates the PCX-induced mitochondrion-related (intrinsic) apoptotic pathway by provoking caspase-3 activation. Thus, autophagy observed during PCX-induced apoptosis in Saos-2 OS cells represents the role of cytoprotection in cellular homeostatic processes. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed that PCX exposure effectively induces OS cell death by apoptosis associated with the mitochondrial-mediated caspase-dependent pathway. PCX can increase autophagic activity and suppressing autophagy enhances PCX-induced apoptosis in OS cells. Therefore, it is suggested that combination treatment involving low

  1. Modulation of transglutaminase 2 activity in H9c2 cells by PKC and PKA signalling: a role for transglutaminase 2 in cytoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Almami, Ibtesam; Dickenson, John M; Hargreaves, Alan J; Bonner, Philip L R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) has been shown to mediate cell survival in many cell types. In this study, we investigated whether the role of TG2 in cytoprotection was mediated by the activation of PKA and PKC in cardiomyocyte-like H9c2 cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH H9c2 cells were extracted following stimulation with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and forskolin. Transglutaminase activity was determined using an amine incorporating and a protein crosslinking assay. The presence of TG isoforms (TG1, 2, 3) was determined using Western blot analysis. The role of TG2 in PMA- and forskolin-induced cytoprotection was investigated by monitoring H2O2-induced oxidative stress in H9c2 cells. KEY RESULTS Western blotting showed TG2 >> TG1 protein expression but no detectable TG3. The amine incorporating activity of TG2 in H9c2 cells increased in a time and concentration-dependent manner following stimulation with PMA and forskolin. PMA and forskolin-induced TG2 activity was blocked by PKC (Ro 31-8220) and PKA (KT 5720 and Rp-8-Cl-cAMPS) inhibitors respectively. The PMA- and forskolin-induced increases in TG2 activity were attenuated by the TG2 inhibitors Z-DON and R283. Immunocytochemistry revealed TG2-mediated biotin-X-cadaverine incorporation into proteins and proteomic analysis identified known (β-tubulin) and novel (α-actinin) protein substrates for TG2. Pretreatment with PMA and forskolin reversed H2O2-induced decrease in MTT reduction and release of LDH. TG2 inhibitors R283 and Z-DON blocked PMA- and forskolin-induced cytoprotection. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS TG2 activity was stimulated via PKA- and PKC-dependent signalling pathways in H9c2 cells These results suggest a role for TG2 in cytoprotection induced by these kinases. PMID:24821315

  2. Sensitive cells: enabling tools for static and dynamic control of microbial metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Cress, Brady F; Trantas, Emmanouil A; Ververidis, Filippos; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos Ag

    2015-12-01

    Natural metabolic pathways are dynamically regulated at the transcriptional, translational, and protein levels. Despite this, traditional pathway engineering has relied on static control strategies to engender changes in metabolism, most likely due to ease of implementation and perceived predictability of design outcome. Increasingly in recent years, however, metabolic engineers have drawn inspiration from natural systems and have begun to harness dynamically controlled regulatory machinery to improve design of engineered microorganisms for production of specialty and commodity chemicals. Here, we review recent enabling technologies for engineering static control over pathway expression levels, and we discuss state-of-the-art dynamic control strategies that have yielded improved outcomes in the field of microbial metabolic engineering. Furthermore, we emphasize design of a novel class of genetically encoded controllers that will facilitate automatic, transient tuning of synthetic and endogenous pathways.

  3. Cytoprotective effects of phenolic acids on methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis in Neuro-2A cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shang-Ming; Chuang, Hong-Chih; Wu, Chi-Hao; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2008-08-01

    In the process of glycation, methylglyoxal is a reactive dicarbonyl compound physiologically generated as an intermediate of glycolysis, and is found in high levels in blood or tissue of diabetic models. Biological glycation has been commonly implicated in the development of diabetic microvascular complications of neuropathy. Increasing evidence suggests that neuronal cell cycle regulatory failure followed by apoptosis is an important mechanism in the development of diabetic neuropathy complication. Naturally occurring antioxidants, especially phenolic acids have been recommended as the major bioactive compounds to prevent chronic diseases and promote health benefits. The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibitory abilities of phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, syringic acid and vanillic acid) on methylglyoxal-induced mouse Neuro-2A neuroblastoma (Neuro-2A) cell apoptosis in the progression of diabetic neuropathy. The data indicated that methylglyoxal induced mouse Neuro-2A neuroblastoma (Neuro-2A) cell apoptosis via alternation of mitochondria membrane potential and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathways (JNK and p38) participated in the methylglyoxal-induced Neuro-2A cell apoptosis process. Treatment of Neuro-2A cells with phenolic acids markedly suppresses cell apoptosis induced by methylglyoxal, suggesting that phenolic acids possess cytoprotective ability in the prevention of diabetic neuropathy complication.

  4. Asparaginase induces apoptosis and cytoprotective autophagy in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Ping; Ye, Li; Fan, Jiajun; Li, Yubin; Zeng, Xian; Wang, Ziyu; Wang, Shaofei; Zhang, Guoping; Yang, Ping; Cao, Zhonglian; Ju, Dianwen

    2015-02-28

    The antitumor enzyme asparaginase, which targets essential amino acid L-asparagine and catalyzes it to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, has been used for years in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), subtypes of myeloid leukemia and T-cell lymphomas, whereas the anti-chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) effect of asparaginase and its underlying mechanism has not been completely elucidated. We have shown here that asparaginase induced significant growth inhibition and apoptosis in K562 and KU812 cells. Apart from induction of apoptosis, we reported for the first time that asparaginase induced autophagic response in K562 and KU812 cells as evidenced by the formation of autophagosome, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-positive autophagy-like vacuoles, and the upregulation of LC3-II. Further study suggested that the Akt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and Erk (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) signaling pathway were involved in asparaginase-induced autophagy in K562 cells. Moreover, blocking autophagy using pharmacological inhibitors LY294002, chloroquine (CQ) and quinacrine (QN) enhanced asparaginase-induced cell death and apoptosis, indicating the cytoprotective role of autophagy in asparaginase-treated K562 and KU812 cells. Together, these findings provide a rationale that combination of asparaginase anticancer activity and autophagic inhibition might be a promising new therapeutic strategy for CML.

  5. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors activate autophagy as a cytoprotective response in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Weidong; Pan, Hongming; Chen, Yan; Sun, Jie; Wang, Yanshan; Li, Jing; Ge, Weiting; Feng, Lifeng; Lin, Xiaoying; Wang, Xiaojia; Wang, Xian; Jin, Hongchuan

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib have been widely used in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Unfortunately, the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs is limited because of natural and acquired resistance. As a novel cytoprotective mechanism for tumor cell to survive under unfavorable conditions, autophagy has been proposed to play a role in drug resistance of tumor cells. Whether autophagy can be activated by gefitinib or erlotinib and thereby impair the sensitivity of targeted therapy to lung cancer cells remains unknown. Here, we first report that gefitinib or erlotinib can induce a high level of autophagy, which was accompanied by the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Moreover, cytotoxicity induced by gefitinib or erlotinib was greatly enhanced after autophagy inhibition by the pharmacological inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) and siRNAs targeting ATG5 and ATG7, the most important components for the formation of autophagosome. Interestingly, EGFR-TKIs can still induce cell autophagy even after EGFR expression was reduced by EGFR specific siRNAs. In conclusion, we found that autophagy can be activated by EGFR-TKIs in lung cancer cells and inhibition of autophagy augmented the growth inhibitory effect of EGFR-TKIs. Autophagy inhibition thus represents a promising approach to improve the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

  6. Cytoprotective effect of imatinib mesylate in non-BCR-ABL-expressing cells along with autophagosome formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtomo, Tadashi; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Naito, Munekazu; Moriya, Shota; Kuroda, Masahiko; Itoh, Masahiro; Tomoda, Akio

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with imatinib mesylate (IM) results in an increased viable cell number of non-BCR-ABL-expressing cell lines by inhibiting spontaneous apoptosis. Electron microscopy revealed an increase of autophagosomes in response to IM. IM attenuated the cytotoxic effect of cytosine arabinoside, as well as inhibiting cell death with serum-deprived culture. Cytoprotection with autophagosome formation by IM was observed in various leukemia and cancer cell lines as well as normal murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Complete inhibition of autophagy by knockdown of atg5 in the Tet-off atg5{sup -/-} MEF system attenuated the cytoprotective effect of IM, indicating that the effect is partially dependent on autophagy. However, cytoprotection by IM was not mediated through suppression of ROS production via mitophagy, ER stress via ribophagy, or proapoptotic function of ABL kinase. Although the target tyrosine kinase(s) of IM remains unclear, our data provide novel therapeutic possibilities of using IM for cytoprotection.

  7. Control of the innate immune response by the mevalonate pathway

    PubMed Central

    Akula, Murali K.; Shi, Man; Jiang, Zhaozhao; Foster, Celia E.; Miao, David; Li, Annie S.; Zhang, Xiaoman; Gavin, Ruth M.; Forde, Sorcha D.; Germain, Gail; Carpenter, Susan; Rosadini, Charles V.; Gritsman, Kira; Chae, Jae Jin; Hampton, Randolph; Silverman, Neal; Gravallese, Ellen M.; Kagan, Jonathan C.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Kastner, Daniel L.; Golenbock, Douglas T.; Bergo, Martin O.; Wang, Donghai

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of mevalonate kinase (MVK) causes systemic inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms linking the mevalonate pathway to inflammation remain obscure. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), a non-sterol intermediate of the mevalonate pathway, is the substrate for protein geranylgeranylation, protein post-translational modification catalyzed by protein geranylgeranyl transferase I (GGTase I). Pyrin is an innate immune sensor that forms an active inflammasome in response to bacterial toxins. Mutations in MEFV (encoding human PYRIN) cause autoinflammatory Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) syndrome. Here, we show that protein geranylgeranylation enables Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase PI(3)K) activation by promoting the interaction between the small GTPase Kras and the PI(3)K catalytic subunit p110δ. Macrophages deficient for GGTase I or p110δ exhibited constitutive interleukin-1β release that was MEFV-dependent, but NLRP3-, AIM2- and NLRC4- inflammasome independent. In the absence of protein geranylgeranylation, compromised PI(3)K activity allows for an unchecked TLR-induced inflammatory responses and constitutive activation of the Pyrin inflammasome. PMID:27270400

  8. Construction of a controllable β-carotene biosynthetic pathway by decentralized assembly strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenping; Liu, Min; Lv, Xiaomei; Lu, Wenqiang; Gu, Jiali; Yu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important platform organism for the synthesis of a great number of natural products. However, the assembly of controllable and genetically stable heterogeneous biosynthetic pathways in S. cerevisiae still remains a significant challenge. Here, we present a strategy for reconstructing controllable multi-gene pathways by employing the GAL regulatory system. A set of marker recyclable integrative plasmids (pMRI) was designed for decentralized assembly of pathways. As proof-of-principle, a controllable β-carotene biosynthesis pathway (∼16 kb) was reconstructed and optimized by repeatedly using GAL10-GAL1 bidirectional promoters with high efficiency (80-100%). By controling the switch time of the pathway, production of 11 mg/g DCW of total carotenoids (72.57 mg/L) and 7.41 mg/g DCW of β-carotene was achieved in shake-flask culture. In addition, the engineered yeast strain exhibited high genetic stability after 20 generations of subculture. The results demonstrated a controllable and genetically stable biosynthetic pathway capable of increasing the yield of target products. Furthermore, the strategy presented in this study could be extended to construct other pathways in S. cerevisisae.

  9. Metabolic Control Analysis: A Tool for Designing Strategies to Manipulate Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Olín-Sandoval, Viridiana

    2008-01-01

    The traditional experimental approaches used for changing the flux or the concentration of a particular metabolite of a metabolic pathway have been mostly based on the inhibition or over-expression of the presumed rate-limiting step. However, the attempts to manipulate a metabolic pathway by following such approach have proved to be unsuccessful. Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA) establishes how to determine, quantitatively, the degree of control that a given enzyme exerts on flux and on the concentration of metabolites, thus substituting the intuitive, qualitative concept of rate limiting step. Moreover, MCA helps to understand (i) the underlying mechanisms by which a given enzyme exerts high or low control and (ii) why the control of the pathway is shared by several pathway enzymes and transporters. By applying MCA it is possible to identify the steps that should be modified to achieve a successful alteration of flux or metabolite concentration in pathways of biotechnological (e.g., large scale metabolite production) or clinical relevance (e.g., drug therapy). The different MCA experimental approaches developed for the determination of the flux-control distribution in several pathways are described. Full understanding of the pathway properties when is working under a variety of conditions can help to attain a successful manipulation of flux and metabolite concentration. PMID:18629230

  10. Modular control of multiple pathways using engineered orthogonal T7 polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Temme, Karsten; Hill, Rena; Segall-Shapiro, Thomas H.; Moser, Felix; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic genetic sensors and circuits enable programmable control over the timing and conditions of gene expression. They are being increasingly incorporated into the control of complex, multigene pathways and cellular functions. Here, we propose a design strategy to genetically separate the sensing/circuitry functions from the pathway to be controlled. This separation is achieved by having the output of the circuit drive the expression of a polymerase, which then activates the pathway from polymerase-specific promoters. The sensors, circuits and polymerase are encoded together on a ‘controller’ plasmid. Variants of T7 RNA polymerase that reduce toxicity were constructed and used as scaffolds for the construction of four orthogonal polymerases identified via part mining that bind to unique promoter sequences. This set is highly orthogonal and induces cognate promoters by 8- to 75-fold more than off-target promoters. These orthogonal polymerases enable four independent channels linking the outputs of circuits to the control of different cellular functions. As a demonstration, we constructed a controller plasmid that integrates two inducible systems, implements an AND logic operation and toggles between metabolic pathways that change Escherichia coli green (deoxychromoviridans) and red (lycopene). The advantages of this organization are that (i) the regulation of the pathway can be changed simply by introducing a different controller plasmid, (ii) transcription is orthogonal to host machinery and (iii) the pathway genes are not transcribed in the absence of a controller and are thus more easily carried without invoking evolutionary pressure. PMID:22743271

  11. Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity, furan compounds and cytoprotective/cytotoxic effects upon Caco-2 cells of commercial Colombian coffee.

    PubMed

    Bedoya-Ramírez, Daniel; Cilla, Antonio; Contreras-Calderón, José; Alegría-Torán, Amparo

    2017-03-15

    Antioxidant capacity (AC), total phenolics (TPs), furan compounds (HMF and furfural F) and cytoprotective/cytotoxic effects upon Caco-2 cells (MTT, cell cycle and reactive oxygen species (ROS)) were evaluated in Colombian coffee (2 ground and 4 soluble samples). The AC (ABTS and FRAP), TPs and HMF ranged between 124-722, 95-802μmoles Trolox/g, 21-100mg gallic acid/g and 69-2900mg/kg, respectively. Pretreatment of cells for 24h with lyophilized coffee infusions at the highest dose without cytotoxic effects (500μg/mL) significantly prevented the decrease in cell viability compared to control stress with H2O2 (5mM/2h), recovering viability to values between 34% and 45% and restoring the control values without stress induction in the G1 phase of cell cycle. After exposure to stress, four extracts decreased ROS values significantly to 22.5-24.9%. The coffee samples exerted a cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, with improvement in cell viability and a reduction of intracellular ROS.

  12. Chemical sporulation and germination: cytoprotective nanocoating of individual mammalian cells with a degradable tannic acid-FeIII complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juno; Cho, Hyeoncheol; Choi, Jinsu; Kim, Doyeon; Hong, Daewha; Park, Ji Hun; Yang, Sung Ho; Choi, Insung S.

    2015-11-01

    Individual mammalian cells were coated with cytoprotective and degradable films by cytocompatible processes maintaining the cell viability. Three types of mammalian cells (HeLa, NIH 3T3, and Jurkat cells) were coated with a metal-organic complex of tannic acid (TA) and ferric ion, and the TA-FeIII nanocoat effectively protected the coated mammalian cells against UV-C irradiation and a toxic compound. More importantly, the cell proliferation was controlled by programmed formation and degradation of the TA-FeIII nanocoat, mimicking the sporulation and germination processes found in nature.Individual mammalian cells were coated with cytoprotective and degradable films by cytocompatible processes maintaining the cell viability. Three types of mammalian cells (HeLa, NIH 3T3, and Jurkat cells) were coated with a metal-organic complex of tannic acid (TA) and ferric ion, and the TA-FeIII nanocoat effectively protected the coated mammalian cells against UV-C irradiation and a toxic compound. More importantly, the cell proliferation was controlled by programmed formation and degradation of the TA-FeIII nanocoat, mimicking the sporulation and germination processes found in nature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, LSCM images, and SEM and TEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05573c

  13. Applications of genetically-encoded biosensors for the construction and control of biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Michener, Joshua K; Thodey, Kate; Liang, Joe C; Smolke, Christina D

    2012-05-01

    Cells are filled with biosensors, molecular systems that measure the state of the cell and respond by regulating host processes. In much the same way that an engineer would monitor a chemical reactor, the cell uses these sensors to monitor changing intracellular environments and produce consistent behavior despite the variable environment. While natural systems derive a clear benefit from pathway regulation, past research efforts in engineering cellular metabolism have focused on introducing new pathways and removing existing pathway regulation. Synthetic biology is a rapidly growing field that focuses on the development of new tools that support the design, construction, and optimization of biological systems. Recent advances have been made in the design of genetically-encoded biosensors and the application of this class of molecular tools for optimizing and regulating heterologous pathways. Biosensors to cellular metabolites can be taken directly from natural systems, engineered from natural sensors, or constructed entirely in vitro. When linked to reporters, such as antibiotic resistance markers, these metabolite sensors can be used to report on pathway productivity, allowing high-throughput screening for pathway optimization. Future directions will focus on the application of biosensors to introduce feedback control into metabolic pathways, providing dynamic control strategies to increase the efficient use of cellular resources and pathway reliability.

  14. Critical Roles of the Direct GABAergic Pallido-cortical Pathway in Controlling Absence Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Ma, Tao; Wu, Shengdun; Ma, Jingling; Cui, Yan; Xia, Yang; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG), serving as an intermediate bridge between the cerebral cortex and thalamus, are believed to play crucial roles in controlling absence seizure activities generated by the pathological corticothalamic system. Inspired by recent experiments, here we systematically investigate the contribution of a novel identified GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway, projecting from the globus pallidus externa (GPe) in the BG to the cerebral cortex, to the control of absence seizures. By computational modelling, we find that both increasing the activation of GPe neurons and enhancing the coupling strength of the inhibitory pallido-cortical pathway can suppress the bilaterally synchronous 2–4 Hz spike and wave discharges (SWDs) during absence seizures. Appropriate tuning of several GPe-related pathways may also trigger the SWD suppression, through modulating the activation level of GPe neurons. Furthermore, we show that the previously discovered bidirectional control of absence seizures due to the competition between other two BG output pathways also exists in our established model. Importantly, such bidirectional control is shaped by the coupling strength of this direct GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway. Our work suggests that the novel identified pallido-cortical pathway has a functional role in controlling absence seizures and the presented results might provide testable hypotheses for future experimental studies. PMID:26496656

  15. Renin secretion and total body sodium: pathways of integrative control.

    PubMed

    Bie, Peter; Damkjaer, Mads

    2010-02-01

    1. Herein, we review mechanisms of sodium balance operating at constant mean arterial blood pressure (MABP); that is, under conditions where MABP does not provide the primary signal to the kidney. 2. Relative constancy of body fluids requires accurate regulation of total body sodium (TBS). Normally, plenty of sodium is ingested and balance is achieved by control of renal excretion driven by multiple central nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal tubular mechanisms. Subtle changes in sodium balance are associated with parallel changes in extracellular volume (due to fast and precise osmoregulation), but not necessarily in MABP. Therefore, signals other than MABP seem to be the primary link between TBS and kidney function. 3. Renal functions involved in sodium homeostasis include: (i) the rate of glomerular filtration (GFR) determined by renal haemodynamics, including tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF); (ii) proximal tubular reabsorption involving glomerulotubular balance (GTB) and neurohumoral control; (iii) macula densa mechanisms influencing TGF and renin secretion; and (iv) distal tubular reabsorption dominated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). 4. The present review focuses on the interactive, homeostatic operation of TBS, MABP, GTB, TGF and the RAAS. Regulation of sodium balance involves neurohumoral control of tubular sodium reabsorption, including proximal reabsorption. Central nervous system-mediated regulation of the latter modulates renin secretion. Homeostatically, the RAAS-TGF interaction seems analogous to a spring-shock absorber set-up: non-adaptive RAAS functions determine the new steady state position, whereas TGF controls the rate of change. Recruitment of renin-secreting cells during sustained stimulation may be essential for chronic adaptation, although details of this afferent arteriolar cell plasticity are unclear at present.

  16. Spatial Control of Biochemical Modification Cascades and Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Alam-Nazki, Aiman; Krishnan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Information transmission in cells occurs through complex networks of proteins and genes and is relayed through cascades of biochemical modifications, which are typically studied through ordinary differential equations. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that spatial factors can strongly influence chemical information transmission in cells. In this article, we systematically disentangle the effects of space in signaling cascades. This is done by examining the effects of localization/compartmentalization and diffusion of enzymes and substrates in multiple variants of chemical modification cascades. This includes situations where the modified form of species at one stage 1) acts as an enzyme for the next stage; 2) acts as a substrate for the next stage; and 3) is involved in phosphotransfer. Our analysis reveals the multiple effects of space in signal transduction cascades. Although in some cases space plays a modulatory effect (itself of interest), in other cases, spatial regulation and control can profoundly affect the nature of information processing as a result of the subtle interplay between the patterns of localization of species, diffusion, and the nature of the modification cascades. Our results provide a platform for disentangling the role of space and spatial control in multiple cellular contexts and a basis for engineering spatial control in signaling cascades through localization/compartmentalization. PMID:26083931

  17. Control of Basal Ganglia Output by Direct and Indirect Pathway Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Freeze, Benjamin S.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Hammack, Nora; Berke, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    The direct and indirect efferent pathways from striatum ultimately reconverge to influence basal ganglia output nuclei, which in turn regulate behavior via thalamocortical and brainstem motor circuits. However, the distinct contributions of these two efferent pathways in shaping basal ganglia output are not well understood. We investigated these processes using selective optogenetic control of the direct and indirect pathways, in combination with single-unit recording in the basal ganglia output nucleus substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice. Optogenetic activation of striatal direct and indirect pathway projection neurons produced diverse cellular responses in SNr neurons, with stimulation of each pathway eliciting both excitations and inhibitions. Despite this response heterogeneity, the effectiveness of direct pathway stimulation in producing movement initiation correlated selectively with the subpopulation of inhibited SNr neurons. In contrast, effective indirect pathway-mediated motor suppression was most strongly influenced by excited SNr neurons. Our results support the theory that key basal ganglia output neurons serve as an inhibitory gate over motor output that can be opened or closed by striatal direct and indirect pathways, respectively. PMID:24259575

  18. Influenza A virus targets a cGAS-independent STING pathway that controls enveloped RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Christian K.; Rahbek, Stine H.; Gad, Hans Henrik; Bak, Rasmus O.; Jakobsen, Martin R.; Jiang, Zhaozaho; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jensen, Simon K.; Sun, Chenglong; Thomsen, Martin K.; Laustsen, Anders; Nielsen, Camilla G.; Severinsen, Kasper; Xiong, Yingluo; Burdette, Dara L.; Hornung, Veit; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Duch, Mogens; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Bahrami, Shervin; Mikkelsen, Jakob Giehm; Hartmann, Rune; Paludan, Søren R.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is known be involved in control of DNA viruses but has an unexplored role in control of RNA viruses. During infection with DNA viruses STING is activated downstream of cGAMP synthase (cGAS) to induce type I interferon. Here we identify a STING-dependent, cGAS-independent pathway important for full interferon production and antiviral control of enveloped RNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV). Further, IAV interacts with STING through its conserved hemagglutinin fusion peptide (FP). Interestingly, FP antagonizes interferon production induced by membrane fusion or IAV but not by cGAMP or DNA. Similar to the enveloped RNA viruses, membrane fusion stimulates interferon production in a STING-dependent but cGAS-independent manner. Abolishment of this pathway led to reduced interferon production and impaired control of enveloped RNA viruses. Thus, enveloped RNA viruses stimulate a cGAS-independent STING pathway, which is targeted by IAV. PMID:26893169

  19. A closed-loop control scheme for steering steady states of glycolysis and glycogenolysis pathway.

    PubMed

    Panja, Surajit; Patra, Sourav; Mukherjee, Anirban; Basu, Madhumita; Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Dutta, Pranab K

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical networks normally operate in the neighborhood of one of its multiple steady states. It may reach from one steady state to other within a finite time span. In this paper, a closed-loop control scheme is proposed to steer states of the glycolysis and glycogenolysis (GG) pathway from one of its steady states to other. The GG pathway is modeled in the synergism and saturation system formalism, known as S-system. This S-system model is linearized into the controllable Brunovsky canonical form using a feedback linearization technique. For closed-loop control, the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) and the linear-quadratic gaussian (LQG) regulator are invoked to design a controller for tracking prespecified steady states. In the feedback linearization technique, a global diffeomorphism function is proposed that facilitates in achieving the regulation requirement. The robustness of the regulated GG pathway is studied considering input perturbation and with measurement noise.

  20. Influenza A virus targets a cGAS-independent STING pathway that controls enveloped RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Holm, Christian K; Rahbek, Stine H; Gad, Hans Henrik; Bak, Rasmus O; Jakobsen, Martin R; Jiang, Zhaozaho; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jensen, Simon K; Sun, Chenglong; Thomsen, Martin K; Laustsen, Anders; Nielsen, Camilla G; Severinsen, Kasper; Xiong, Yingluo; Burdette, Dara L; Hornung, Veit; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Duch, Mogens; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Bahrami, Shervin; Mikkelsen, Jakob Giehm; Hartmann, Rune; Paludan, Søren R

    2016-02-19

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is known be involved in control of DNA viruses but has an unexplored role in control of RNA viruses. During infection with DNA viruses STING is activated downstream of cGAMP synthase (cGAS) to induce type I interferon. Here we identify a STING-dependent, cGAS-independent pathway important for full interferon production and antiviral control of enveloped RNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV). Further, IAV interacts with STING through its conserved hemagglutinin fusion peptide (FP). Interestingly, FP antagonizes interferon production induced by membrane fusion or IAV but not by cGAMP or DNA. Similar to the enveloped RNA viruses, membrane fusion stimulates interferon production in a STING-dependent but cGAS-independent manner. Abolishment of this pathway led to reduced interferon production and impaired control of enveloped RNA viruses. Thus, enveloped RNA viruses stimulate a cGAS-independent STING pathway, which is targeted by IAV.

  1. (Controls of the plant endomembrane-secretory pathway)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    These studies are focused on elucidating the molecular structure of plant cell membranes with special reference to cell surface glycoproteins. The studies reported herein include use of monoclonal antibodies to characterize cell surface epitopes, construction of cDNA libraries of cell surface proteins, isolation of plant cell mutants by flow cytometry, detection of beta-glucouronidase marker enzyme systems in plants, expression go VSVG (the major envelope glycoprotein of Vesicular Stomatis Virus) in plant cells, and control of gene expression of cell membrane glycoproteins.(DT)

  2. [Controls of the plant endomembrane-secretory pathway]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    These studies are focused on elucidating the molecular structure of plant cell membranes with special reference to cell surface glycoproteins. The studies reported herein include use of monoclonal antibodies to characterize cell surface epitopes, construction of cDNA libraries of cell surface proteins, isolation of plant cell mutants by flow cytometry, detection of beta-glucouronidase marker enzyme systems in plants, expression go VSVG (the major envelope glycoprotein of Vesicular Stomatis Virus) in plant cells, and control of gene expression of cell membrane glycoproteins.(DT)

  3. Structure and Assembly Pathway of the Ribosome Quality Control Complex

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Sichen; Brown, Alan; Santhanam, Balaji; Hegde, Ramanujan S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary During ribosome-associated quality control, stalled ribosomes are split into subunits and the 60S-housed nascent polypeptides are poly-ubiquitinated by Listerin. How this low-abundance ubiquitin ligase targets rare stall-generated 60S among numerous empty 60S is unknown. Here, we show that Listerin specificity for nascent chain-60S complexes depends on nuclear export mediator factor (NEMF). The 3.6 Å cryo-EM structure of a nascent chain-containing 60S-Listerin-NEMF complex revealed that NEMF makes multiple simultaneous contacts with 60S and peptidyl-tRNA to sense nascent chain occupancy. Structural and mutational analyses showed that ribosome-bound NEMF recruits and stabilizes Listerin’s N-terminal domain, while Listerin’s C-terminal RWD domain directly contacts the ribosome to position the adjacent ligase domain near the nascent polypeptide exit tunnel. Thus, highly specific nascent chain targeting by Listerin is imparted by the avidity gained from a multivalent network of context-specific individually weak interactions, highlighting a new principle of client recognition during protein quality control. PMID:25578875

  4. [Various mechanisms of cytoprotective effect of omeprazole and low intensity laser radiation on the gastroduodenal mucosa in the treatment of patients with duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Akhmadkhodzhaev, A M

    2002-01-01

    Clinical studies were made in 130 patients with duodenal ulcer in the phase of exacerbation of the disease. There were 98 men and 32 women who ranged from 17 to 50 years old. Results of examination of 7 essentially healthy subjects were regarded as control. The patients were divided into three groups. Group I patients (n = 48) received a conventional therapy; in group II patients, the adopted therapy was supplemented by omeprazol, 20 mg twice daily, group III patients (n = 43) were (in addition to the above therapeutic regimen) exposed to a session of endoscopic low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) for 5 min (overall 6 to 8 LILI procedures). It has been ascertained that omeprazol exerts a cytoprotective effect on the mucozal barrier of the gastroduodenal zone brought about by increase in the synthesis of glucoproteins in the mucous membrane, improvement of the water-and-elastic properties, and enhancement of resistance of the mucosal barrier to the action of the aggressive factors. Administration of endoscopic LILI treatments in DU patients has also been found out to have a cytoprotective effect but superior to omeprazol. A protective action of LILI is believed to be caused by stimulation of synthesis of the most important components of glycoproteins. A cytoprotective effect of omeprazol and endoscopic LILI is ccompanied by a significant shortening of time for the clinical symptoms to get dispelled, the ulcer cicatrization frequency increased.

  5. Global regulatory pathways and cross-talk control pseudomonas aeruginosa environmental lifestyle and virulence phenotype.

    PubMed

    Coggan, Kimberly A; Wolfgang, Matthew C

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a metabolically versatile environmental bacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen that relies on numerous signaling pathways to sense, respond, and adapt to fluctuating environmental cues. Although the environmental signals sensed by these pathways are poorly understood, they are largely responsible for determining whether P. aeruginosa adopts a planktonic or sessile lifestyle. These environmental lifestyle extremes parallel the acute and chronic infection phenotypes observed in human disease. In this review, we focus on four major pathways (cAMP/Vfr and c-di-GMP signaling, quorum sensing, and the Gac/Rsm pathway) responsible for sensing and integrating external stimuli into coherent regulatory control at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational level. A common theme among these pathways is the inverse control of factors involved in promoting motility and acute infection and those associated with biofilm formation and chronic infection. In many instances these regulatory pathways influence one another, forming a complex network allowing P. aeruginosa to assimilate numerous external signals into an integrated regulatory circuit that controls a lifestyle continuum.

  6. Control of metabolic flux through the quinate pathway in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, K A; Lamb, H K; Hawkins, A R

    1996-01-01

    The quinic acid ulitization (qut) pathway in Aspergillus nidulans is a dispensable carbon utilization pathway that catabolizes quinate to protocatechuate via dehydroquinate and dehydroshikimate(DHS). At the usual in vitro growth pH of 6.5, quinate enters the mycelium by means of a specific permease and is converted into PCA by the sequential action of the enzymes quinate dehydrogenase, 3-dehydroquinase and DHS dehydratase. The extent of control on metabolic flux exerted by the permease and the three pathway enzymes was investigated by applying the techniques of Metabolic Control Analysis. The flux control coefficients for each of the three quinate pathway enzymes were determined empirically, and the flux control coefficient of the quinate permease was inferred by use of the summation theorem. There measurements implied that, under the standard growth conditions used, the values for the flux control coefficients of the components of the quinate pathway were: quinate permease, 0.43; quinate dehydrogenase, 0.36; dehydroquinase, 0.18; DHS dehydratase, <0,03. Attempts to partially decouple quinate permease from the control over flux by measuring flux at pH 3.5 (when a significant percentage of the soluble quinate is protonated and able to enter the mycelium without the aid of a permease) led to an increase of approx. 50% in the flux control coefficient for dehydroquinase. Taken together with the fact that A. nidulans has a very efficient pH homeostasis mechanism, these experiments are consistent with the view that quinate permease exerts a high degree of control over pathway flux under the standard laboratory growth conditions at pH 6.5. The enzymes quinate dehydrogenase and 3-dehydroquinase have previously been overproduced in Escherichia coli, and protocols for their purification published. The remaining qut pathway enzyme DHS dehydratase was overproduced in E. coli and a purification protocol established. The purified DHS dehydratase was shown to have a K(m) of 530

  7. Upstream Pathways Controlling Mitochondrial Function in Major Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Alencar Kolinski; Pan, Alexander Yongshuai; da Silva, Tatiane Morgana; Duong, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is commonly observed in bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) and may be a central feature of psychosis. These illnesses are complex and heterogeneous, which is reflected by the complexity of the processes regulating mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are typically associated with energy production; however, dysfunction of mitochondria affects not only energy production but also vital cellular processes, including the formation of reactive oxygen species, cell cycle and survival, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and neurotransmission. In this review, we characterize the upstream components controlling mitochondrial function, including 1) mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, 2) mitochondrial dynamics, and 3) intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Characterizing and understanding the upstream factors that regulate mitochondrial function is essential to understand progression of these illnesses and develop biomarkers and therapeutics. PMID:27310240

  8. Midazolam provides cytoprotective effect during corticosterone-induced damages in rat astrocytes by stimulating steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Zhi; Miao, Yu-Liang; An, Li-Na; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Pan, Ning-Ling; Ma, Ya-Qun; Chen, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Nan; Zhang, Hong; Li, Yun-Feng; Mi, Wei-Dong

    2013-06-28

    Midazolam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug that has powerful anxiolytic, amnestic, hypnotic, and sedative properties. The cytoprotective effect of midazolam on brain astrocytes is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effect of midazolam on astrocytes exposed to corticosterone, a stress-produced glucocorticoid. We found that midazolam stimulated pregnenolone and progesterone secretion in astrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Midazolam protected astrocytes from corticosterone-induced damages in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we demonstrated that progesterone reduced corticosterone-induced damages. Finally, we applied trilostane, an inhibitor of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, to inhibit pregnenolone metabolism and found that pretreatment with trilostane significantly inhibited the cytoprotective effect of midazolam on corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity in rat astrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that midazolam has cytoprotective effect on astrocytes. This is, at least partially, derived from midazolam-induced steroidogenesis including progesterone and downstream products in astrocytes. Our data provide new insights into the cytoprotective effect of midazolam.

  9. Palmitoylation at Cys595 is essential for PECAM-1 localisation into membrane microdomains and for efficient PECAM-1-mediated cytoprotection.

    PubMed

    Sardjono, Caroline T; Harbour, Stacey N; Yip, Jana C; Paddock, Cathy; Tridandapani, Susheela; Newman, Peter J; Jackson, Denise E

    2006-12-01

    The Ig-ITIM superfamily member, PECAM-1 acts as a negative regulator of ITAM-signalling pathways in platelets involving GPVI/FcR gamma chain and Fc?RIIa. This negative feedback loop involves regulation of collagen and GPVI-dependent aggregation events, platelet-thrombus-growth on immobilised collagen under flow and Fc?RIIa-mediated platelet responses. In this study, we show that PECAM-1 is selectively palmitoylated involving a thioester linkage with an unpaired cysteine residue at amino acid position 595 in its cytoplasmic domain. As palmitoylation is known to target proteins to membrane microdomains, we investigated the microdomain localisation for PECAM-1 in platelets and nucleated cells. In unstimulated platelets, approximately 20% of PECAM-1 is localised to Triton-insoluble microdomain fractions and it does not increase with platelet activation by collagen, collagen-related peptide, thrombin- or human-aggregated IgG. PECAM-1 is in close physical proximity with GPVI in platelet microdomains. Removal of platelet cytoskeleton prior to sucrose-density-gradient separation showed that PECAM-1 was associated with both the Triton-soluble and membrane skeleton in microdomain-associated fractions. Disruption of microdomains by membrane-cholesterol depletion resulted in loss of PECAM-1 localisation to membrane microdomains. Mutational analysis of juxtamembrane cysteine residue to alanine (C595A) of human PECAM-1 resulted in loss of palmitoylation and a sixfold decrease in association with membrane microdomains. Functionally, the palmitoylated cysteine 595 residue is required, in part, for efficient PECAM-1-mediated cytoprotection. These results show that cysteine 595 is required for constitutive association of PECAM-1 with membrane microdomains and PECAM-1-mediated cytoprotection, where it may act as a crucial regulator of signaling and apoptosis events.

  10. Deprivation of asparagine triggers cytoprotective autophagy in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yunxiang; Li, Li; Tao, Qilei; Zhang, Xuyao; Luan, Jingyun; Zhao, Shuwei; Liu, Huanhai; Ju, Dianwen

    2017-03-28

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), one of the most common malignancies in the head and neck, has poor prognosis and high mortality. The need of novel and effective treatment for LSCC is urgent. Asparaginase, an enzyme-depriving asparagine, has been employed for the treatment of various cancers. In this study, we reported for the first time that asparaginase could induce remarkable cytotoxicity and caspase-dependent apoptosis in human LSCC Tu212 and Tu686 cells. Meanwhile, autophagy was triggered by asparaginase in LSCC cells, which was confirmed by accumulation of autophagosomes and the conversion of light chain 3-I (LC3-I) to LC3-II. Importantly, inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine (CQ) significantly enhanced asparaginase-induced cytotoxicity, indicating that autophagy has a cytoprotective role in asparaginase-treated LSCC cells. Meanwhile, we found that mitochondrial-originated reactive oxygen species (ROS) participated in asparaginase-induced autophagy and cytotoxicity. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a common antioxidant, was employed to scavenge ROS, and our results demonstrated that NAC could significantly block asparaginase-induced autophagy and attenuate asparaginase-induced cytotoxicity, indicating that intracellular ROS played a crucial role in asparagine deprivation therapy. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed that asparaginase-induced autophagy was mediated by inactivation of Akt/mTOR and activation of the Erk signaling pathway in Tu212 and Tu686 cells. Therefore, these results indicated the protective role of autophagy in asparaginase-treated LSCC cells and provided a new attractive therapeutic strategy for LSCC by asparaginase alone or in combination with autophagic inhibitors.

  11. [From endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus: a secretory pathway controlled by signal molecules].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiasheng; Luo, Jianhong; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2013-07-01

    Protein transport from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi apparatus has long been known to be a central process for protein quality control and sorting. Recent studies have revealed that a large number of signal molecules are involved in regulation of membrane trafficking through ER, ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and Golgi apparatus. These molecules can significantly change the transport rate of proteins by regulating vesicle budding and fusion. Protein transport from ER to Golgi apparatus is not only controlled by signal pathways triggered from outside the cell, it is also regulated by feedback signals from the transport pathway.

  12. Synthesis, antioxidant and cytoprotective evaluation of potential antiatherogenic phenolic hydrazones. A structure-activity relationship insight.

    PubMed

    Vanucci-Bacqué, Corinne; Carayon, Chantal; Bernis, Corinne; Camare, Caroline; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Bedos-Belval, Florence; Baltas, Michel

    2014-08-01

    A novel series of hydrazones derived from substituted benzaldehydes have been synthesized as potential antiatherogenic agents. Several methods were used for exploring their antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, such as their scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, the inhibition of superoxide anion (O₂(·-)) generation and the measurement of cell-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation (monitored by the formation of TBARS). The cytoprotective efficacy was also evaluated by measuring the cell viability (monitored by the MTT assay) in the presence of cytotoxic oxidized LDL. In this report, we discuss the relationship between the chemical structure of phenolic hydrazones and their antioxidant and cytoprotective activities, for subsequent application as antiatherogenic agents. This SAR study confirms that the phenolic frame is not the only prerequisite for antioxidant activity and N-methylbenzothiazole hydrazone moiety magnifies the dual required properties in two most interesting derivatives.

  13. Cytoprotective effect of seaweeds with high antioxidant activity from the Peniche coast (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Pinteus, Susete; Silva, Joana; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Fino, Nádia; Rodrigues, Ana Inês; Mendes, Susana; Pedrosa, Rui

    2017-03-01

    Screening of antioxidant potential of dichloromethane and methanolic extracts of twenty-seven seaweeds from the Peniche coast was performed by: total phenolic contents (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Seaweeds revealing the highest antioxidant activity were screened for cytoprotective potential in MCF-7 cells, including the mitochondrial membrane potential analysis and the caspase-9 activity. High correlation was found between TPC of seaweed extracts and their scavenging capacity on DPPH and peroxyl radicals. The highest antioxidant activity was displayed by the methanolic fraction of brown seaweeds belonging to Fucales, however Ulva compressa presented the highest cytoprotective effect by blunting the apoptosis process. These results suggest that high antioxidant activity may not be directly related with high cytoprotective potential. Thus, seaweeds reveal to be a promising source of compounds with potential against oxidative stress.

  14. Cellular Metabolomics Revealed the Cytoprotection of Amentoflavone, a Natural Compound, in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Injury of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Weifeng; Li, Hui; Liu, Qinan; Gao, Ye; Dai, Jin; Bao, Beihua; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2016-01-01

    Amentoflavone is one of the important bioactive flavonoids in the ethylacetate extract of “Cebaiye”, which is a blood cooling and hematostatic herb in traditional Chinese medicine. The previous work in our group has demonstrated that the ethylacetate extract of Cebaiye has a notable antagonistic effect on the injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The present investigation was designed to assess the effects and possible mechanism of cytoprotection of amentoflavone via metabolomics. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS) coupled with multivariate data analysis was used to characterize the variations in the metabolites of HUVECs in response to exposure to LPS and amentoflavone treatment. Seven putative metabolites (glycine, argininosuccinic acid, putrescine, ornithine, spermidine, 5-oxoproline and dihydrouracil) were discovered in cells incubated with LPS and/or amentoflavone. Functional pathway analysis uncovered that the changes of these metabolites related to various significant metabolic pathways (glutathione metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, β-alanine metabolism and glycine, serine and threonine metabolism), which may explain the potential cytoprotection function of amentoflavone. These findings also demonstrate that cellular metabolomics through UPLC/QTOF-MS is a powerful tool for detecting variations in a range of intracellular compounds upon toxin and/or drug exposure. PMID:27618027

  15. The Hippo pathway is controlled by Angiotensin II signaling and its reactivation induces apoptosis in podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wennmann, D O; Vollenbröker, B; Eckart, A K; Bonse, J; Erdmann, F; Wolters, D A; Schenk, L K; Schulze, U; Kremerskothen, J; Weide, T; Pavenstädt, H

    2014-01-01

    The Hippo pathway fulfills a crucial function in controlling the balance between proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in cells. Recent studies showed that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) serve as upstream regulators of Hippo signaling, that either activate or inactivate the Hippo pathway via the large tumor suppressor kinase (LATS) and its substrate, the co-transcription factor Yes-associated protein (YAP). In this study, we focused on the Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), which belongs to the GPCR family and has an essential role in the control of blood pressure and water homeostasis. We found that Angiotensin II (Ang II) inactivates the pathway by decreasing the activity of LATS kinase; therefore, leading to an enhanced nuclear shuttling of unphosphorylated YAP in HEK293T cells. This shuttling of YAP is actin-dependent as disruption of the actin cytoskeleton inhibited dephosphorylation of LATS and YAP. Interestingly, in contrast to HEK293T cells, podocytes, which are a crucial component of the glomerular filtration barrier, display a predominant nuclear YAP localization in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, stimulation with Ang II did not alter Hippo pathway activity in podocytes, which show a deactivated pathway. Reactivation of the LATS kinase activity in podocytes resulted in an increased cytoplasmic YAP localization accompanied by a strong induction of apoptosis. Thus, our work indicates that the control of LATS activation and subsequent YAP localization is important for podocyte homeostasis and survival. PMID:25393475

  16. The molecular choreography of protein synthesis: translational control, regulation, and pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Choi, Junhong; O'Leary, Seán E; Prabhakar, Arjun; Petrov, Alexey; Grosely, Rosslyn; Puglisi, Elisabetta Viani; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    Translation of proteins by the ribosome regulates gene expression, with recent results underscoring the importance of translational control. Misregulation of translation underlies many diseases, including cancer and many genetic diseases. Decades of biochemical and structural studies have delineated many of the mechanistic details in prokaryotic translation, and sketched the outlines of eukaryotic translation. However, translation may not proceed linearly through a single mechanistic pathway, but likely involves multiple pathways and branchpoints. The stochastic nature of biological processes would allow different pathways to occur during translation that are biased by the interaction of the ribosome with other translation factors, with many of the steps kinetically controlled. These multiple pathways and branchpoints are potential regulatory nexus, allowing gene expression to be tuned at the translational level. As research focus shifts toward eukaryotic translation, certain themes will be echoed from studies on prokaryotic translation. This review provides a general overview of the dynamic data related to prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation, in particular recent findings with single-molecule methods, complemented by biochemical, kinetic, and structural findings. We will underscore the importance of viewing the process through the viewpoints of regulation, translational control, and heterogeneous pathways.

  17. Dysferlin Mediates the Cytoprotective Effects of TRAF2 Following Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Huei‐Ping; Evans, Sarah; Gao, Feng; Chambers, Kari; Topkara, Veli K.; Sivasubramanian, Natarajan; Barger, Philip M.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background We have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor‐associated factor 2 (TRAF2), a scaffolding protein common to TNF receptors 1 and 2, confers cytoprotection in the heart. However, the mechanisms for the cytoprotective effects of TRAF2 are not known. Methods/Results Mice with cardiac‐restricted overexpression of low levels of TRAF2 (MHC‐TRAF2LC) and a dominant negative TRAF2 (MHC‐TRAF2DN) were subjected to ischemia (30‐minute) reperfusion (60‐minute) injury (I/R), using a Langendorff apparatus. MHC‐TRAF2LC mice were protected against I/R injury as shown by a significant ≈27% greater left ventricular (LV) developed pressure after I/R, whereas mice with impaired TRAF2 signaling had a significantly ≈38% lower LV developed pressure, a ≈41% greater creatine kinase (CK) release, and ≈52% greater Evans blue dye uptake after I/R, compared to LM. Transcriptional profiling of MHC‐TRAF2LC and MHC‐TRAF2DN mice identified a calcium‐triggered exocytotic membrane repair protein, dysferlin, as a potential cytoprotective gene responsible for the cytoprotective effects of TRAF2. Mice lacking dysferlin had a significant ≈39% lower LV developed pressure, a ≈20% greater CK release, and ≈29% greater Evans blue dye uptake after I/R, compared to wild‐type mice, thus phenocopying the response to tissue injury in the MHC‐TRAF2DN mice. Moreover, breeding MHC‐TRAF2LC onto a dysferlin‐null background significantly attenuated the cytoprotective effects of TRAF2 after I/R injury. Conclusion The study shows that dysferlin, a calcium‐triggered exocytotic membrane repair protein, is required for the cytoprotective effects of TRAF2‐mediated signaling after I/R injury. PMID:24572254

  18. Adaptive Control Model Reveals Systematic Feedback and Key Molecules in Metabolic Pathway Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Richard A.; Merrill, Alfred H.; Wang, May D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Robust behavior in metabolic pathways resembles stabilized performance in systems under autonomous control. This suggests we can apply control theory to study existing regulation in these cellular networks. Here, we use model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) to investigate the dynamics of de novo sphingolipid synthesis regulation in a combined theoretical and experimental case study. The effects of serine palmitoyltransferase over-expression on this pathway are studied in vitro using human embryonic kidney cells. We report two key results from comparing numerical simulations with observed data. First, MRAC simulations of pathway dynamics are comparable to simulations from a standard model using mass action kinetics. The root-sum-square (RSS) between data and simulations in both cases differ by less than 5%. Second, MRAC simulations suggest systematic pathway regulation in terms of adaptive feedback from individual molecules. In response to increased metabolite levels available for de novo sphingolipid synthesis, feedback from molecules along the main artery of the pathway is regulated more frequently and with greater amplitude than from other molecules along the branches. These biological insights are consistent with current knowledge while being new that they may guide future research in sphingolipid biology. In summary, we report a novel approach to study regulation in cellular networks by applying control theory in the context of robust metabolic pathways. We do this to uncover potential insight into the dynamics of regulation and the reverse engineering of cellular networks for systems biology. This new modeling approach and the implementation routines designed for this case study may be extended to other systems. Supplementary Material is available at www.liebertonline.com/cmb. PMID:21314456

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway required for immune homeostasis is neurally controlled by arrestin-1.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varsha; Aballay, Alejandro

    2012-09-28

    In response to pathogen infection, the host innate immune system activates microbial killing pathways and cellular stress pathways that need to be balanced because insufficient or excessive immune responses have deleterious consequences. Recent studies demonstrate that two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans control immune homeostasis. To investigate further how GPCR signaling controls immune homeostasis at the organismal level, we studied arrestin-1 (ARR-1), which is the only GPCR adaptor protein in C. elegans. The results indicate that ARR-1 is required for GPCR signaling in ASH, ASI, AQR, PQR, and URX neurons, which control the unfolded protein response and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway required for innate immunity. ARR-1 activity also controlled immunity through ADF chemosensory and AFD thermosensory neurons that regulate longevity. Furthermore, we found that although ARR-1 played a key role in the control of immunity by AFD thermosensory neurons, it did not control longevity through these cells. However, ARR-1 partially controlled longevity through ADF neurons.

  20. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Haves, Philip; McDonald, Sean C.; Torcellini, Paul; Hansen, David G.; Holmberg, David; Roth, Kurt

    2005-04-13

    Significant energy savings can be achieved in commercial building operation, along with increased comfort and control for occupants, through the implementation of advanced technologies. This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies. This paper is actually a synthesis of five other white papers: the first describes the market assessment including estimates of market potential and energy savings for sensors and control strategies currently on the market as well as a discussion of market barriers to these technologies. The other four cover technology pathways: (1) current applications and strategies for new applications, (2) sensors and controls, (3) networking, security, and protocols and standards, and (4) automated diagnostics, performance monitoring, commissioning, optimal control and tools. Each technology pathway chapter gives an overview of the technology or application. This is followed by a discussion of needs and the current status of the technology. Finally, a series of research topics is proposed.

  1. Structure-Activity Relationships in the Cytoprotective Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) and Fluorinated Derivatives: Effects on Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction and Antioxidant Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-09

    fluorinated derivatives: Effects on heme oxygenase-1 induction and antioxidant activities Xinyu Wang a,b, Salomon Stavchansky a, Sean M. Kerwin c, Phillip D...February 2010 Available online 9 March 2010 Keywords: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester Fluorinated derivative Cytoprotection Oxidative stress Human...acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) as a cytoprotective agent, six catechol ring fluorinated CAPE derivatives were evaluated for their cytoprotective

  2. Role of mitochondria in paricalcitol-mediated cytoprotection during obstructive nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    García, Isabel Mercedes; Altamirano, Liliana; Mazzei, Luciana; Fornés, Miguel; Molina, Marisa Nile; Ferder, León

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D slows the progression of chronic kidney disease. Furthermore, activators of vitamin D receptors (VDR) have suppressant effects on the renin-angiotensin system, as well as anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic actions. This study aimed to evaluate the cytoprotective effects of paricalcitol, a VDR activator, at the mitochondrial level using an obstructive nephropathy model [unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)]. Rats subjected to UUO and controls were treated daily with vehicle or paricalcitol. The control group underwent a sham surgery. The treatment was done for 15 days (30 ng/kg). The following were determined: biochemical parameters; fibrosis; apoptosis; mitochondrial morphology; VDR, AT1 receptor, and NADPH oxidase 4 expression; and NADPH oxidase activity (in total and in mitochondrial fractions from the renal cortex). VDR activation prevented fibrosis (20 ± 5 vs. 60 ± 10%) and the number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells (10 ± 3 vs. 25 ± 4) in UUO. Biochemical, histological, and molecular studies suggest mitochondrial injury. Electron microscopy revealed in UUO electronically luminous material in the nucleus. Some mitochondria were increased in size and contained dilated crests and larger than normal spaces in their interiors. These changes were not present with paricalcitol treatment. Additionally, high AT1-receptor mRNA and NADPH activity was reverted in mitochondrial fractions from obstructed paricalcitol-treated animals (0.58 ± 0.06 vs. 0.95 ± 0.05 relative densitometry units and 9,000 ± 800 vs. 15,000 ± 1,000 relative fluorescence units·μg protein−1·min−1, respectively). These changes were consistent with an improvement in VDR expression (0.75 ± 0.05 vs. 0.35 ± 0.04 relative densitometry units). These results suggest that paricalcitol confers a protective effect and reveal, as well, a possible AT1 receptor-dependent protective effect that occurs at the mitochondrial level. PMID:22492946

  3. Suicide by people in a community justice pathway: population-based nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    King, Carlene; Senior, Jane; Webb, Roger T.; Millar, Tim; Piper, Mary; Pearsall, Alison; Humber, Naomi; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The elevated risk of suicide in prison and after release is a well-recognised and serious problem. Despite this, evidence concerning community-based offenders' suicide risk is sparse. We conducted a population-based nested case–control study of all people in a community justice pathway in England and Wales. Our data show 13% of general population suicides were in community justice pathways before death. Suicide risks were highest among individuals receiving police cautions, and those having recent, or impending prosecution for sexual offences. Findings have implications for the training and practice of clinicians identifying and assessing suicidality, and offering support to those at elevated risk. PMID:26159602

  4. Control of absence seizures induced by the pathways connected to SRN in corticothalamic system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing; Guo, Daqing; Wang, Qingyun

    2015-06-01

    The cerebral cortex, thalamus and basal ganglia together form an important network in the brain, which is closely related to several nerve diseases, such as parkinson disease, epilepsy seizure and so on. Absence seizure can be characterized by 2-4 Hz oscillatory activity, and it can be induced by abnormal interactions between the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Many experimental results have also shown that basal ganglia are a key neural structure, which closely links the corticothalamic system in the brain. Presently, we use a corticothalamic-basal ganglia model to study which pathways in corticothalamic system can induce absence seizures and how these oscillatory activities can be controlled by projections from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) to the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) or the specific relay nuclei (SRN) of the thalamus. By tuning the projection strength of the pathway "Excitatory pyramidal cortex-SRN", "SRN-Excitatory pyramidal cortex" and "SRN-TRN" respectively, different firing states including absence seizures can appear. This indicates that absence seizures can be induced by tuning the connection strength of the considered pathway. In addition, typical absence epilepsy seizure state "spike-and-slow wave discharges" can be controlled by adjusting the activation level of the SNr as the pathways SNr-SRN and SNr-TRN open independently or together. Our results emphasize the importance of basal ganglia in controlling absence seizures in the corticothalamic system, and can provide a potential idea for the clinical treatment.

  5. Improving fatty acids production by engineering dynamic pathway regulation and metabolic control

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Li, Lingyun; Zhang, Fuming; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Koffas, Mattheos

    2014-01-01

    Global energy demand and environmental concerns have stimulated increasing efforts to produce carbon-neutral fuels directly from renewable resources. Microbially derived aliphatic hydrocarbons, the petroleum-replica fuels, have emerged as promising alternatives to meet this goal. However, engineering metabolic pathways with high productivity and yield requires dynamic redistribution of cellular resources and optimal control of pathway expression. Here we report a genetically encoded metabolic switch that enables dynamic regulation of fatty acids (FA) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. The engineered strains were able to dynamically compensate the critical enzymes involved in the supply and consumption of malonyl-CoA and efficiently redirect carbon flux toward FA biosynthesis. Implementation of this metabolic control resulted in an oscillatory malonyl-CoA pattern and a balanced metabolism between cell growth and product formation, yielding 15.7- and 2.1-fold improvement in FA titer compared with the wild-type strain and the strain carrying the uncontrolled metabolic pathway. This study provides a new paradigm in metabolic engineering to control and optimize metabolic pathways facilitating the high-yield production of other malonyl-CoA–derived compounds. PMID:25049420

  6. The Secret Life of NAD+: An Old Metabolite Controlling New Metabolic Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Cantó, Carles; Wanders, Ronald J.; Auwerx, Johan

    2010-01-01

    A century after the identification of a coenzymatic activity for NAD+, NAD+ metabolism has come into the spotlight again due to the potential therapeutic relevance of a set of enzymes whose activity is tightly regulated by the balance between the oxidized and reduced forms of this metabolite. In fact, the actions of NAD+ have been extended from being an oxidoreductase cofactor for single enzymatic activities to acting as substrate for a wide range of proteins. These include NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, and transcription factors that affect a large array of cellular functions. Through these effects, NAD+ provides a direct link between the cellular redox status and the control of signaling and transcriptional events. Of particular interest within the metabolic/endocrine arena are the recent results, which indicate that the regulation of these NAD+-dependent pathways may have a major contribution to oxidative metabolism and life span extension. In this review, we will provide an integrated view on: 1) the pathways that control NAD+ production and cycling, as well as its cellular compartmentalization; 2) the signaling and transcriptional pathways controlled by NAD+; and 3) novel data that show how modulation of NAD+-producing and -consuming pathways have a major physiological impact and hold promise for the prevention and treatment of metabolic disease. PMID:20007326

  7. TFAP2C controls hormone response in breast cancer cells through multiple pathways of estrogen signaling.

    PubMed

    Woodfield, George W; Horan, Annamarie D; Chen, Yizhen; Weigel, Ronald J

    2007-09-15

    Breast cancers expressing estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) are associated with a favorable biology and are more likely to respond to hormonal therapy. In addition to ERalpha, other pathways of estrogen response have been identified including ERbeta and GPR30, a membrane receptor for estrogen, and the key mechanisms regulating expression of ERs and hormone response remain controversial. Herein, we show that TFAP2C is the key regulator of hormone responsiveness in breast carcinoma cells through the control of multiple pathways of estrogen signaling. TFAP2C regulates the expression of ERalpha directly by binding to the ERalpha promoter and indirectly via regulation of FoxM1. In so doing, TFAP2C controls the expression of ERalpha target genes, including pS2, MYB, and RERG. Furthermore, TFAP2C controlled the expression of GPR30. In distinct contrast, TFAP2A, a related factor expressed in breast cancer, was not involved in estrogen-mediated pathways but regulated expression of genes controlling cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including p21(CIP1) and IGFBP-3. Knockdown of TFAP2C abrogated the mitogenic response to estrogen exposure and decreased hormone-responsive tumor growth of breast cancer xenografts. We conclude that TFAP2C is a central control gene of hormone response and is a novel therapeutic target in the design of new drug treatments for breast cancer.

  8. Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of infusions from leaves and inflorescences of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Annamaria; Bombelli, Raffaella; Luini, Alessandra; Speranza, Giovanna; Cosentino, Marco; Lecchini, Sergio; Cocucci, Maurizio

    2009-04-01

    Plants are the main source of molecules with antioxidant and radical scavenging properties that aid the natural defence systems of cells and may be involved in the preservation of human health, particularly preventing all the physiopathological conditions where oxidative damage is a hallmark. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. is a medicinal plant of the Achillea millefolium aggregate (yarrow) traditionally used, particularly in mountain areas, as an infusion or alcohol extract for its digestive, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity and cytoprotective activity against oxidative stress of infusions obtained from the leaves and inflorescences of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb., assessed by chemical (free radical scavenging activity by DPPH and Folin Ciocalteu assay) and biological assays (in vitro model of cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in PC12 cells line). Infusions of leaves had the highest antioxidant properties and cytoprotective activity. The antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with the total phenolic content but not with the cytoprotective profile. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. has good antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, suggesting further investigations on its chemical composition and potential health value, particularly for traditionally prepared infusions of leaves.

  9. A GO-Se nanocomposite as an antioxidant nanozyme for cytoprotection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanyan; Liu, Chaoqun; Pu, Fang; Liu, Zhen; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2017-03-09

    GO-Se nanocomposites are fabricated with excellent glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like properties to protect cells against oxidative stress. Compared with SeNPs, the GO-Se nanozymes exhibit higher GPx-mimic catalytic efficiency. Cell experiments further confirm their excellent cytoprotection capacity.

  10. Chemical Characterization and Cytoprotective Effect of the Hydroethanol Extract from Annona coriacea Mart. (Araticum)

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, José G. A. S.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Boris, Ticiana C. C.; Cristo, Janyketchuly S.; Pereira, Nara L. F.; Figueiredo, Fernando G.; Cunha, Francisco A. B.; Aquino, Pedro E. A.; Nascimento, Polyana A. C.; Mesquita, Francisco J. C.; Moreira, Paulo H. F.; Coutinho, Sáskia T. B.; Souza, Ivon T.; Teixeira, Gabriela C.; Ferreira, Najla M. N.; Farina, Eleonora O.; Torres, Cícero M. G.; Holanda, Vanderlan N.; Pereira, Vandbergue S.; Guedes, Maria I. F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Annona coriacea Mart. (araticum) is a widely distributed tree in the cerrado. Its value is attributed principally to the consumption of its fruit which possesses a large nutritive potential. The objective was to identify the chemical profile and evaluate the antimicrobial and cytoprotective activity of the hydroethanol extract of A. coriacea Mart. (HEAC) leaves against the toxicity of mercury chloride. Materials and Methods: The characterization of components was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution method in broth with strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For evaluation of the modulatory and cytoprotective activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin and amikacin) and mercury chloride (HgCl2), the substances were associated with the HEAC at subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/8). Results and Discussion: The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids such as Luteolin (1.84%) and Quercetin (1.19%) in elevated concentrations. The HEAC presented an MIC ≥512 μg/mL and significant antagonistic action in aminoglycosides modulation, and it also showed cytoprotective activity to S. aureus (significance P < 0.0001) and E. coli (significance P < 0.05) bacteria against the mercury chloride heavy metal with significance, this action being attributed to the chelating properties of the flavonoids found in the chemical identification. Conclusions: The results acquired in this study show that the HEAC presents cytoprotective activity over the tested strains in vitro and can also present antagonistic effect when associated with aminoglycosides, reinforcing the necessity of taking caution when combining natural and pharmaceutical products. SUMMARY The hydroalcoholic extract of A. coriacea Mart. presents in vitro cytoprotective activity against the toxic effect of Hg. Abbreviations Used: HPLC-DAD: High

  11. Dynamics and Design Principles of a Basic Regulatory Architecture Controlling Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Emmitt R; DeRisi, Joe; Li, Hao

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic features of a genetic network's response to environmental fluctuations represent essential functional specifications and thus may constrain the possible choices of network architecture and kinetic parameters. To explore the connection between dynamics and network design, we have analyzed a general regulatory architecture that is commonly found in many metabolic pathways. Such architecture is characterized by a dual control mechanism, with end product feedback inhibition and transcriptional regulation mediated by an intermediate metabolite. As a case study, we measured with high temporal resolution the induction profiles of the enzymes in the leucine biosynthetic pathway in response to leucine depletion, using an automated system for monitoring protein expression levels in single cells. All the genes in the pathway are known to be coregulated by the same transcription factors, but we observed drastically different dynamic responses for enzymes upstream and immediately downstream of the key control point—the intermediate metabolite α-isopropylmalate (αIPM), which couples metabolic activity to transcriptional regulation. Analysis based on genetic perturbations suggests that the observed dynamics are due to differential regulation by the leucine branch-specific transcription factor Leu3, and that the downstream enzymes are strictly controlled and highly expressed only when αIPM is available. These observations allow us to build a simplified mathematical model that accounts for the observed dynamics and can correctly predict the pathway's response to new perturbations. Our model also suggests that transient dynamics and steady state can be separately tuned and that the high induction levels of the downstream enzymes are necessary for fast leucine recovery. It is likely that principles emerging from this work can reveal how gene regulation has evolved to optimize performance in other metabolic pathways with similar architecture. PMID:18563967

  12. Genetic control of the alternative pathway of complement in humans and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Laura A; Edwards, Albert O; Ryu, Euijung; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Baratz, Keith H; Brown, William L; Charbel Issa, Peter; Scholl, Hendrik P; Pollok-Kopp, Beatrix; Schmid-Kubista, Katharina E; Bailey, Kent R; Oppermann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Activation of the alternative pathway of complement is implicated in common neurodegenerative diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We explored the impact of common variation in genes encoding proteins of the alternative pathway on complement activation in human blood and in AMD. Genetic variation across the genes encoding complement factor H (CFH), factor B (CFB) and component 3 (C3) was determined. The influence of common haplotypes defining transcriptional and translational units on complement activation in blood was determined in a quantitative genomic association study. Individual haplotypes in CFH and CFB were associated with distinct and novel effects on plasma levels of precursors, regulators and activation products of the alternative pathway of complement in human blood. Further, genetic variation in CFH thought to influence cell surface regulation of complement did not alter plasma complement levels in human blood. Plasma markers of chronic activation (split-products Ba and C3d) and an activating enzyme (factor D) were elevated in AMD subjects. Most of the elevation in AMD was accounted for by the genetic variation controlling complement activation in human blood. Activation of the alternative pathway of complement in blood is under genetic control and increases with age. The genetic variation associated with increased activation of complement in human blood also increased the risk of AMD. Our data are consistent with a disease model in which genetic variation in the complement system increases the risk of AMD by a combination of systemic complement activation and abnormal regulation of complement activation in local tissues.

  13. Selective cytoprotective effect of histamine on doxorubicin-induced hepatic and cardiac toxicity in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, DJMartinel; Nicoud, MB; Sterle, HA; Carabajal, E; Tesan, F; Perazzo, JC; Cremaschi, GA; Rivera, ES; Medina, VA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential protective effect of histamine on Doxorubicin (Dox)-induced hepatic and cardiac toxicity in different rodent species and in a triple-negative breast tumor-bearing mice model. Male Sprague Dawley rats and Balb/c mice were divided into four groups: control (received saline), histamine (5 mg/kg for rats and 1 mg/kg for mice, daily subcutaneous injection starting 24 h before treatment with Dox), Dox (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally injected three times a week for 2 weeks) and Dox+histamine (received both treatments). Tissue toxicity was evaluated by histopathological studies and oxidative stress and biochemical parameters. The combined effect of histamine and Dox was also investigated in vitro and in vivo in human MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer model. Heart and liver of Dox-treated animals displayed severe histological damage, loss of tissue weight, increased TBARS levels and DNA damage along with an augment in serum creatine kinase-myocardial band. Pretreatment with histamine prevented Dox-induced tissue events producing a significant preservation of the integrity of both rat and mouse myocardium and liver, through the reduction of Dox-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Histamine treatment preserved anti-tumor activity of Dox, exhibiting differential cytotoxicity and increasing the Dox-induced inhibition of breast tumor growth. Findings provide preclinical evidence indicating that histamine could be a promising candidate as a selective cytoprotective agent for the treatment of Dox-induced cardiac and hepatic toxicity, and encourage the translation to clinical practice. PMID:27551485

  14. Myogenic differentiation induces taurine transporter in association with taurine-mediated cytoprotection in skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Uozumi, Yoriko; Ito, Takashi; Hoshino, Yuki; Mohri, Tomomi; Maeda, Makiko; Takahashi, Kyoko; Fujio, Yasushi; Azuma, Junichi

    2006-03-15

    Skeletal muscle homoeostasis is maintained by a variety of cytoprotective mechanisms. Since ablation of the TauT (taurine transporter) gene results in susceptibility to exercise-induced muscle weakness in vivo, it has been suggested that TauT is essential for skeletal muscle function. However, the regulatory mechanisms of TauT expression remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that TauT was up-regulated during myogenesis in C2C12 cells. Treatment with bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor), which inhibited muscle differentiation, abrogated myogenic induction of TauT. The promoter activities of TauT were up-regulated during muscle differentiation in C2C12 cells. Database analyses identified an MEF2 (myocyte enhancer binding factor 2) consensus sequence at -844 in the rat TauT gene. Truncation of the promoter region containing the MEF2 site significantly reduced the promoter activity, demonstrating the functional importance of the MEF2 site. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays confirmed that MEF2 bound to the MEF2 consensus sequence and that DNA-protein complex levels were increased during differentiation. Promoter analyses using mutated promoter-reporter plasmids demonstrated that this site was functional. Importantly, transfection with a MyoD expression vector markedly enhanced TauT promoter activity in the (non-myogenic) 10T1/2 cells. Moreover, co-transfection with an MEF2 expression vector augmented MyoD-induced TauT promoter activity, suggesting that MEF2 is required for full activation of TauT expression. Finally, we examined the effects of taurine on myotube atrophy to clarify the biological significance of the up-regulation of TauT, and demonstrated that taurine attenuated muscle atrophy induced by dexamethasone. TauT expression is regulated under the control of the myogenic programme, and we propose that this is the mechanism for taurine-mediated resistance to muscle atrophy.

  15. Cytoprotective effect of lacritin on human corneal epithelial cells exposed to benzalkonium chloride in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mary M.; Baryla, Julia; Liu, Hong; Laurie, Gordon W.; McKown, Robert L.; Ashki, Negin; Bhayana, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly found preservative in eye drops, and has been shown to cause ocular surface inflammation and toxicity. Lacritin is a human tear glycoprotein secreted from the lacrimal glands that has been found to be cytoprotective. This study was designed to determine if the presence of lacritin confers protection to a cultured human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell line, CRL-11515, and primary HCE cells after exposure to the ocular preservative agent BAK. Materials and Methods Recombinant human lacritin was cloned into intein fusion vectors, expressed in E. coli, and purified on chitin beads and DEAE Sepharose. Metabolic curves were established using the MTT assay after exposure of subconfluent CRL-11515 cells to BAK or lacritin. Western blot analysis of lipidated LC3 (LC3-II) provided a measure of autophagy in CRL-11515 cells exposed to lacritin and/or BAK. Results BAK reduced CRL-11515 cellular metabolic activity in a time and dose dependent manner. BAK-induced cellular stress was evident by elevated autophagy that increased with rising concentrations of BAK compared to control (P < 0.05). Lacritin increased HCE cell proliferation at an optimal dose of 1 nM. Preconditioning HCE cells with 1 nM lacritin for 24 hours prior to BAK exposure significantly dampened levels of LC3-II (P < 0.05) and promoted a significant increase in cellular metabolic activity (P < 0.01) compared to BAK alone. Conclusions These results suggest lacritin protects cultured HCE cells stressed with BAK. Lacritin may have the potential to be used as a topical adjunctive therapy in eyes chronically exposed to BAK. PMID:24401093

  16. Quinone formation as a chemoprevention strategy for hybrid drugs: balancing cytotoxicity and cytoprotection.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Tareisha; Chandrasena, R Esala P; Wang, Zhiqiang; Sinha, Vaishali; Wang, Zhican; Thatcher, Gregory R J

    2007-12-01

    Cellular defense mechanisms that respond to damage from oxidative and electrophilic stress, such as from quinones, represent a target for chemopreventive agents. Drugs bioactivated to quinones have the potential to activate antioxidant/electrophile responsive element (ARE) transcription of genes for cytoprotective phase 2 enzymes such as NAD(P)H-dependent quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) but can also cause cellular damage. Two isomeric families of compounds were prepared, including the NO-NSAIDs (NO-donating nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) NCX 4040 and NCX 4016; one family was postulated to release a quinone methide on esterase bioactivation. The study of reactivity and GSH conjugation in model and cell systems confirmed the postulate. The quinone-forming family, including NCX 4040 and conisogenic bromides and mesylate, was rapidly bioactivated to a quinone, which gave activation of ARE and consequent induction of NQO1 in liver cells. Although the control family, including NCX 4016 and conisogenic bromides and mesylates, cannot form a quinone, ARE activation and NQO1 induction were observed, compatible with slower SN2 reactions with thiol sensor proteins, and consequent ARE-luciferase and NQO1 induction. Using a Chemoprevention Index estimate, the quinone-forming compounds suffered because of high cytoxicity and were more compatible with cancer therapy than chemoprevention. In the Comet assay, NCX 4040 was highly genotoxic relative to NCX 4016. There was no evidence that NO contributes to the observed biological activity and no evidence that NCX 4040 is an NO donor, instead, rapidly releasing NO3- and quinone. These results indicate a strategy for studying the quinone biological activity and reinforce the therapeutic attributes of NO-ASA through structural elements other than NO and ASA.

  17. Metabolic Pathway Signatures Associated with Urinary Metabolite Biomarkers Differentiate Bladder Cancer Patients from Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok Joong; Yan, Chunri; Jeong, Pildu; Kim, Ye Hwan; Lee, Il-Seok; Kang, Ho-Won; Park, Sunghyouk; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our previous high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry study identified bladder cancer (BCA)-specific urine metabolites, including carnitine, acylcarnitines, and melatonin. The objective of the current study was to determine which metabolic pathways are perturbed in BCA, based on our previously identified urinary metabolome. Materials and Methods A total of 135 primary BCA samples and 26 control tissue samples from healthy volunteers were analyzed. The association between specific urinary metabolites and their related encoding genes was analyzed. Results Significant alterations in the carnitine-acylcarnitine and tryptophan metabolic pathways were detected in urine specimens from BCA patients compared to those of healthy controls. The expression of eight genes involved in the carnitine-acylcarnitine metabolic pathway (CPT1A, CPT1B, CPT1C, CPT2, SLC25A20, and CRAT) or tryptophan metabolism (TPH1 and IDO1) was assessed by RT-PCR in our BCA cohort (n=135). CPT1B, CPT1C, SLC25A20, CRAT, TPH1, and IOD1 were significantly downregulated in tumor tissues compared to normal bladder tissues (p<0.05 all) of patients with non-muscle invasive BCA, whereas CPT1B, CPT1C, CRAT, and TPH1 were downregulated in those with muscle invasive BCA (p<0.05), with no changes in IDO1 expression. Conclusion Alterations in the expression of genes associated with the carnitine-acylcarnitine and tryptophan metabolic pathways, which were the most perturbed pathways in BCA, were determined. PMID:27189278

  18. Gradual implementation of the meiotic recombination program via checkpoint pathways controlled by global DSB levels.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neeraj; Brown, M Scott; Bishop, Douglas K; Börner, G Valentin

    2015-03-05

    During meiosis, Spo11-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) are processed into crossovers, ensuring segregation of homologous chromosomes (homologs). Meiotic DSB processing entails 5' end resection and preferred strand exchange with the homolog rather than the sister chromatid (homolog bias). In many organisms, DSBs appear gradually along the genome. Here we report unexpected effects of global DSB levels on local recombination events. Early-occurring, low-abundance "scout" DSBs lack homolog bias. Their resection and interhomolog processing are controlled by the conserved checkpoint proteins Tel1(ATM) kinase and Pch2(TRIP13) ATPase. Processing pathways controlled by Mec1(ATR) kinase take over these functions only above a distinct DSB threshold, resulting in progressive strengthening of the homolog bias. We conclude that Tel1(ATM)/Pch2 and Mec1(ATR) DNA damage response pathways are sequentially activated during wild-type meiosis because of their distinct sensitivities to global DSB levels. Moreover, relative DSB order controls the DSB repair pathway choice and, ultimately, recombination outcome.

  19. A conserved quality-control pathway that mediates degradation of unassembled ribosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Min-Kyung; Porras-Yakushi, Tanya R; Reitsma, Justin M; Huber, Ferdinand M; Sweredoski, Michael J; Hoelz, André; Hess, Sonja; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Overproduced yeast ribosomal protein (RP) Rpl26 fails to assemble into ribosomes and is degraded in the nucleus/nucleolus by a ubiquitin-proteasome system quality control pathway comprising the E2 enzymes Ubc4/Ubc5 and the ubiquitin ligase Tom1. tom1 cells show reduced ubiquitination of multiple RPs, exceptional accumulation of detergent-insoluble proteins including multiple RPs, and hypersensitivity to imbalances in production of RPs and rRNA, indicative of a profound perturbation to proteostasis. Tom1 directly ubiquitinates unassembled RPs primarily via residues that are concealed in mature ribosomes. Together, these data point to an important role for Tom1 in normal physiology and prompt us to refer to this pathway as ERISQ, for excess ribosomal protein quality control. A similar pathway, mediated by the Tom1 homolog Huwe1, restricts accumulation of overexpressed hRpl26 in human cells. We propose that ERISQ is a key element of the quality control machinery that sustains protein homeostasis and cellular fitness in eukaryotes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19105.001 PMID:27552055

  20. Observing and Controlling the Folding Pathway of DNA Origami at the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Wah, Jonathan Lee Tin; David, Christophe; Rudiuk, Sergii; Baigl, Damien; Estevez-Torres, André

    2016-02-23

    DNA origami is a powerful method to fold DNA into rationally designed nanostructures that holds great promise for bionanotechnology. However, the folding mechanism has yet to be fully resolved, principally due to a lack of data with single molecule resolution. To address this issue, we have investigated in detail, using atomic force microscopy, the morphological evolution of hundreds of individual rectangular origamis in solution as a function of temperature. Significant structural changes were observed between 65 and 55 °C both for folding and melting, and six structural intermediates were identified. Under standard conditions, folding was initiated at the edges of the rectangle and progressed toward the center. Melting occurred through the reverse pathway until the structures were significantly disrupted but ended through a different pathway involving out-of-equilibrium chainlike structures. Increasing the relative concentration of center to edge staples dramatically modified the folding pathway to a mechanism progressing from the center toward the edges. These results indicate that the folding pathway is determined by thermodynamics and suggest a way of controlling it.

  1. Roles of Hippo signaling pathway in size control of organ regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Tamura, Koji

    2015-05-01

    Animals have an intrinsic regeneration ability for injured tissues and organs. Species that have high regeneration ability such as newts can regenerate an organ with exactly the same size and shape as those of the original one. It has been unclear how a regenerating organ grows and ceases growth at an appropriate size. Organ size control in regeneration is seen in various organs of various species that have high regeneration ability. In animal species that do not have sufficient regeneration ability, a wound heals (the injury is closed, but lost parts are not regenerated), but an organ cannot be restored to its original size. On the other hand, perturbation of regeneration sometimes results in oversized or extra structures. In this sense, organ size control plays essential roles in proper regeneration. In this article, we introduce the concept of size control in organ regeneration regulated by the Hippo signaling pathway. We focused on the transcriptional regulator Yap, which shuttles between the nuclei and cytoplasm to exert a regulatory function in a context-dependent manner. The Yap-mediated Hippo pathway is thought to sense cell density, extracellular matrix (ECM) contact and cell position and to regulate gene expression for control of organ size. This mechanism can reasonably explain size control of organ regeneration.

  2. Cytoprotection against Hypoxic and/or MPP+ Injury: Effect of δ–Opioid Receptor Activation on Caspase 3

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuan; Zhi, Feng; Shao, Naiyuan; Wang, Rong; Yang, Yilin; Xia, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The pathological changes of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are, at least partially, associated with the dysregulation of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and caspase 3. Since hypoxic and neurotoxic insults are underlying causes of PD, and since δ-opioid receptor (DOR) is neuroprotective against hypoxic/ischemic insults, we sought to determine whether DOR activation could protect the cells from damage induced by hypoxia and/or MPP+ by regulating PINK1 and caspase 3 expressions. We exposed PC12 cells to either severe hypoxia (0.5%–1% O2) for 24–48 h or to MPP+ at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 mM) and then detected the levels of PINK1 and cleaved caspase 3. Both hypoxia and MPP+ reduced cell viability, progressively suppressed the expression of PINK1 and increased the cleaved caspase 3. DOR activation using UFP-512, effectively protected the cells from hypoxia and/or MPP+ induced injury, reversed the reduction in PINK1 protein and significantly attenuated the increase in the cleaved caspase 3. On the other hand, the application of DOR antagonist, naltrindole, greatly decreased cell viability and increased cleaved caspase 3. These findings suggest that DOR is cytoprotective against both hypoxia and MPP+ through the regulation of PINK1 and caspase 3 pathways. PMID:27517901

  3. The cytoprotective effect of Rumex Aquaticus Herba extract against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in AGS cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Jeong; Um, Seung In; Han, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Byeonghee; Han, Sang Beom; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hak Rim; Kim, Inkyeom; Whang, Wan Kyun; Lee, Eunhwa; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2016-12-01

    The Rumex Aquaticus Herba extract containing quercetin-3-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (ECQ) has been reported to exhibit various pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. This plant has been traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea, disinfestation, edema and jaundice, and as an antipyretic drug. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of ECQ to protect against oxidative damage and to determine its signaling mechanism in AGS cells. The protein expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) were measured by Western blots. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Glutathione peroxidase levels were measured using kits. The protein expressions of HO-1 and its upstream mediator, Nrf2, increased after ECQ treatment. The HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPP, repressed the protective effect of ECQ on H2O2-induced cell damage. We found that LY294002, a specific PI3 K/Akt inhibitor, suppressed ECQ-induced HO-1 expression. ECQ significantly attenuated H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and ROS generation. Also, ECQ enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase. These results suggest that ECQ exerts a cytoprotective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress by upregulation of Nrf2/HO-1 via the PI3 K/Akt pathway.

  4. IL-10 restricts dendritic cell (DC) growth at the monocyte-to-monocyte-derived DC interface by disrupting anti-apoptotic and cytoprotective autophagic molecular machinery.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carla; Espaillat, Mel Pilar; Santiago-Schwarz, Frances

    2015-12-01

    An evolving premise is that cytoprotective autophagy responses are essential to monocyte-macrophage differentiation. Whether autophagy functions similarly during the monocyte-to-dendritic cell (DC) transition is unclear. IL-10, which induces apoptosis in maturing human DCs, has been shown to inhibit starvation-induced autophagy in murine macrophage cell lines. Based on the strict requirement that Bcl-2-mediated anti-apoptotic processes are implemented during the monocyte-to-DC transition, we hypothesized that cytoprotective autophagy responses also operate at the monocyte-DC interface and that IL-10 inhibits both anti-apoptotic and cytoprotective autophagy responses at this critical juncture. In support of our premise, we show that levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and autophagy-associated LC3 and Beclin-1 proteins are coincidentally upregulated during the monocyte-to-DC transition. Autophagy was substantiated by increased autophagosome visualization after bafilomycin treatment. Moreover, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA restricted DC differentiation by prompting apoptosis. IL-10 implemented apoptosis that was coincidentally associated with reduced levels of Bcl-2 and widespread disruption of the autophagic flux. During peak apoptosis, IL-10 produced the death of newly committed DCs. However, cells surviving the IL-10 apoptotic schedule were highly phagocytic macrophage-like cells displaying reduced capacity to stimulate allogeneic naïve T cells in a mixed leukocyte reaction, increased levels of LC3, and mature autophagosomes. Thus, IL-10's negative control of DC-driven adaptive immunity at the monocyte-DC interface includes disruption of coordinately regulated molecular networks involved in pro-survival autophagy and anti-apoptotic responses.

  5. Parallel pathways from motor and somatosensory cortex for controlling whisker movements in mice.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Varun; Karmakar, Kajari; Rijli, Filippo M; Petersen, Carl C H

    2015-02-01

    Mice can gather tactile sensory information by actively moving their whiskers to palpate objects in their immediate surroundings. Whisker sensory perception therefore requires integration of sensory and motor information, which occurs prominently in the neocortex. The signalling pathways from the neocortex for controlling whisker movements are currently poorly understood in mice. Here, we delineate two pathways, one originating from primary whisker somatosensory cortex (wS1) and the other from whisker motor cortex (wM1), that control qualitatively distinct movements of contralateral whiskers. Optogenetic stimulation of wS1 drove retraction of contralateral whiskers while stimulation of wM1 drove rhythmic whisker protraction. To map brainstem pathways connecting these cortical areas to whisker motor neurons, we used a combination of anterograde tracing using adenoassociated virus injected into neocortex and retrograde tracing using monosynaptic rabies virus injected into whisker muscles. Our data are consistent with wS1 driving whisker retraction by exciting glutamatergic premotor neurons in the rostral spinal trigeminal interpolaris nucleus, which in turn activate the motor neurons innervating the extrinsic retractor muscle nasolabialis. The rhythmic whisker protraction evoked by wM1 stimulation might be driven by excitation of excitatory and inhibitory premotor neurons in the brainstem reticular formation innervating both intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Our data therefore begin to unravel the neuronal circuits linking the neocortex to whisker motor neurons.

  6. A proposed model for the flowering signaling pathway of sugarcane under photoperiodic control.

    PubMed

    Coelho, C P; Costa Netto, A P; Colasanti, J; Chalfun-Júnior, A

    2013-04-25

    Molecular analysis of floral induction in Arabidopsis has identified several flowering time genes related to 4 response networks defined by the autonomous, gibberellin, photoperiod, and vernalization pathways. Although grass flowering processes include ancestral functions shared by both mono- and dicots, they have developed their own mechanisms to transmit floral induction signals. Despite its high production capacity and its important role in biofuel production, almost no information is available about the flowering process in sugarcane. We searched the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tags database to look for elements of the flowering signaling pathway under photoperiodic control. Sequences showing significant similarity to flowering time genes of other species were clustered, annotated, and analyzed for conserved domains. Multiple alignments comparing the sequences found in the sugarcane database and those from other species were performed and their phylogenetic relationship assessed using the MEGA 4.0 software. Electronic Northerns were run with Cluster and TreeView programs, allowing us to identify putative members of the photoperiod-controlled flowering pathway of sugarcane.

  7. [Binding of epirubicin to human plasma protein and erythrocytes: interaction with the cytoprotective amifostine].

    PubMed

    Pernkopf, I; Tesch, G; Dempe, K; Kletzl, H; Schüller, J; Czejka, M

    1996-11-01

    The in vitro binding rate of epirubicin (EPR) to different plasma proteins, control serum, red blood cells and whole blood was investigated without and with the cytoprotective agent amifostine. The binding rate of EPR to plasma proteins fractions and red blood cells dependend on the concentration of the matrix components. EPR was bound more than 90% to human serum alpha-globulin (alpha-HSG), to human serum albumine (HSA) and human serum beta-globuline (beta-HSG) at 80 to 90%, in the case of human serum gamma-globulin (gamma-HSG) the binding rate amounted 75%. The binding rate of EPR to RBCs in whole blood samples reached 38%. Within the observed concentration range of proteins (1-40 micrograms/ml, depending on the protein concentration) AMI caused a reduction of the protein-bound amount of EPR in the range from 2 to 19% of HSA, 4 to 20 in the case of beta-HSG, 2 to 32% in the case of alpha-HSG and 17 to 21% for gamma-HSG. In the whole blood samples the binding of EPR to proteins dropped from 45 to 32% and RBC-partitioning from 38 to 32%. Two compounds with free thiol groups, cystein and glutathione, were compared with AMI in regard to lowering the binding rate of EPR to HSA: the effect was exactly in the same order of magnitude: -17% for AMI, -21.0% for cystein and -20.8% for glutahion (p < 0.002). For a negative control, cystin and phenylalanin were tested, too: both compounds showed no influence on the protein binding of EPR: 63.8% binding rate in the control group, 65.2% in the presence of cystin and 64.6% in the presence of phenylalanin (statistically not significant). The present results indicate, that binding of EPR to serum proteins is reduced in the presence of AMI by interaction of the thiol-group with the protein and that the thiophosphoric ester bond in the test solution must cleave rapidly.

  8. Optical switching of electric charge transfer pathways in porphyrin: a light-controlled nanoscale current router.

    PubMed

    Thanopulos, Ioannis; Paspalakis, Emmanuel; Yannopapas, Vassilios

    2008-11-05

    We introduce a novel molecular junction based on a thiol-functionalized porphyrin derivative with two almost energetically degenerate equilibrium configurations. We show that each equilibrium structure defines a pathway of maximal electric charge transfer through the molecular junction and that these two conduction pathways are spatially orthogonal. We further demonstrate computationally how to switch between the two equilibrium structures of the compound by coherent light. The optical switching mechanism is presented in the relevant configuration subspace of the compound, and the corresponding potential and electric dipole surfaces are obtained by ab initio methods. The laser-induced isomerization takes place in two steps in tandem, while each step is induced by a two-photon process. The effect of metallic electrodes on the electromagnetic irradiation driving the optical switching is also investigated. Our study demonstrates the potential for using thiol-functionalized porphyrin derivatives for the development of a light-controlled nanoscale current router.

  9. Physical Property Control on the Cellular Uptake Pathway and Spatial Distribution of Nanoparticles in Cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sungsook; Seo, Eunseok; Kim, Ki Hean; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-06-01

    Nanoparticles have been developed in broad biomedical research in terms of effective cellular interactions to treat and visualize diseased cells. Considering the charge and polar functional groups of proteins that are embedded in cellular membranes, charged nanoparticles have been strategically developed to enhance electrostatic cellular interactions. In this study, we show that cellular uptake efficiency, pathway, and spatial distribution of gold nanoparticles in a cell are significantly modulated based on the surface condition of gold nanoparticles and human cancer cells that were tuned by controlling the pH of the medium and by introducing an electron beam. Cellular uptake efficiency is increased when electrostatic attraction is induced between the cells and the gold nanoparticles. Cell surface modification changes the cellular uptake pathways of the gold nanoparticles and concentrates the gold nanoparticles at the membrane region. Surface modification of the gold nanoparticles also contributes to deep penetration and homogeneous spatial distributions in a cell.

  10. Transcriptional regulators in the Hippo signaling pathway control organ growth in Xenopus tadpole tail regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Ochi, Haruki; Ogino, Hajime; Kawasumi, Aiko; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Koji; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2014-12-01

    The size and shape of tissues are tightly controlled by synchronized processes among cells and tissues to produce an integrated organ. The Hippo signaling pathway controls both cell proliferation and apoptosis by dual signal-transduction states regulated through a repressive kinase cascade. Yap1 and Tead, transcriptional regulators that act downstream of the Hippo signaling kinase cascade, have essential roles in regulating cell proliferation. In amphibian limb or tail regeneration, the local tissue outgrowth terminates when the correct size is reached, suggesting that organ size is strictly controlled during epimorphic organ-level regeneration. We recently demonstrated that Yap1 is required for the regeneration of Xenopus tadpole limb buds (Hayashi et al., 2014, Dev. Biol. 388, 57-67), but the molecular link between the Hippo pathway and organ size control in vertebrate epimorphic regeneration is not fully understood. To examine the requirement of Hippo pathway transcriptional regulators in epimorphic regeneration, including organ size control, we inhibited these regulators during Xenopus tadpole tail regeneration by overexpressing a dominant-negative form of Yap (dnYap) or Tead4 (dnTead4) under a heat-shock promoter in transgenic animal lines. Each inhibition resulted in regeneration defects accompanied by reduced cell mitosis and increased apoptosis. Single-cell gene manipulation experiments indicated that Tead4 cell-autonomously regulates the survival of neural progenitor cells in the regenerating tail. In amphibians, amputation at the proximal level of the tail (deep amputation) results in faster regeneration than that at the distal level (shallow amputation), to restore the original-sized tail with similar timing. However, dnTead4 overexpression abolished the position-dependent differential growth rate of tail regeneration. These results suggest that the transcriptional regulators in the Hippo pathway, Tead4 and Yap1, are required for general vertebrate

  11. Cytoprotective alginate/polydopamine core/shell microcapsules in microbial encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Jin; Park, Taegyun; Moon, Hee Chul; Park, So-Young; Hong, Daewha; Ko, Eun Hyea; Kim, Ji Yup; Hong, Jong Wook; Han, Sang Woo; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Choi, Insung S

    2014-12-22

    Chemical encapsulation of microbes in threedimensional polymeric microcapsules promises various applications, such as cell therapy and biosensors, and provides a basic platform for studying microbial communications. However, the cytoprotection of microbes in the microcapsules against external aggressors has been a major challenge in the field of microbial microencapsulation, because ionotropic hydrogels widely used for microencapsulation swell uncontrollably, and are physicochemically labile. Herein, we developed a simple polydopamine coating for obtaining cytoprotective capability of the alginate capsule that encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The resulting alginate/ polydopamine core/shell capsule was mechanically tough, prevented gel swelling and cell leakage, and increased resistance against enzymatic attack and UV-C irradiation. We believe that this multifunctional core/shell structure will provide a practical tool for manipulating microorganisms inside the microcapsules.

  12. Role of mucosal prostaglandins and DNA synthesis in gastric cytoprotection by luminal epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, S J; Brzozowski, T; Piastucki, I; Dembinski, A; Radecki, T; Dembinska-Kiec, A; Zmuda, A; Gregory, H

    1981-01-01

    This study compares the effect of epidermal growth factor and prostaglandins (PGE2 or PGI2), applied topically to gastric mucosa, on gastric secretion and formation of ASA-induced gastric ulcerations in rats. Epidermal growth factor given topically in non-antisecretory doses prevented dose-dependently the formation of ASA-induced ulcers without affecting prostaglandin generation but with a significant rise in DNA synthesis in the oxyntic mucosa. The anti-ulcer effect of topical prostaglandins was also accompanied by an increase in DNA synthesis. This study indicates that topical epidermal growth factor, like PGE2 or PGI2, is cytoprotective and that this cytoprotection is not mediated by the inhibition of gastric secretion or prostaglandin formation but related to the increase in DNA synthesis in oxyntic mucosa. PMID:7030877

  13. Antiradical and cytoprotective activities of several C-geranyl-substituted flavanones from Paulownia tomentosa fruit.

    PubMed

    Zima, Ales; Hosek, Jan; Treml, Jakub; Muselík, Jan; Suchý, Pavel; Prazanová, Gabriela; Lopes, Ana; Zemlicka, Milan

    2010-08-31

    Antiradical and cytoprotective activities of several flavanones isolated from Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. (Scrophulariaceae) have been evaluated using different in vitro and in vivo methods. The capacity of flavanones to scavenge radicals was measured in vitro by means of DPPH and ABTS assays, the inhibition of hydroxyl radicals produced in Fenton reactions, FRAP, scavenging superoxide radicals using enzymatic and nonenzymatic assays and the inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced nitration of tyrosine. The in vivo testing involved measuring the cytoprotective effect of chosen flavanones against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice. The activity of tested compounds was expressed either as a Trolox® equivalent or was compared with rutin or morine as known antioxidant compounds. The highest activity in most tests was observed for diplacone and 3´-O-methyl-5´-hydroxydiplacone, and the structure vs. the antioxidant activity relationship of geranyl or prenyl-substituted flavonoids with different substitutions at the B and C ring was discussed.

  14. Gastric cytoprotection of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene, beta-caryophyllene.

    PubMed

    Tambe, Y; Tsujiuchi, H; Honda, G; Ikeshiro, Y; Tanaka, S

    1996-10-01

    The gastric cytoprotective effect of beta-caryophyllene, an anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene, was investigated in rats. The oral administration of beta-caryophyllene to rats significantly inhibited gastric mucosal injuries induced by necrotizing agents such as absolute ethanol and 0.6 N HCl, although it failed to prevent water immersion stress- and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. In addition, this compound hardly affected the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin. Thus, beta-caryophyllene elicited anti-inflammatory effects without any indication of gastric mucosal damage typical of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Furthermore, this compound manifested cytoprotective effects, rendering the two-dimensional efficacious beta-caryophyllene to be a clinically safe and potentially useful agent.

  15. Approaches to gastrointestinal cytoprotection: from isolated cells, via animal experiments to healthy human subjects and patients with different gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Mózsik, Gyula; Szabó, Imre L; Czimmer, József

    2011-01-01

    Our clinical observations proved that the the duodenal ulcer in patients healed without any inhibition of gastric acid secretion (1965), and the healing rates of atropine vs cimetidine vs Carbenoxolone were equal and superior to that of placebo in randomized, prospective and multiclinical study of DU patients (1978). The phenomenon of gastric cytoprotection was defined by André Robert in rats (1979). The essential point of this phenomenon is that the prostaglandins prevent the chemical-induced gastric mucosal damage without affecting gastric acid secretion, this being originally suggested as a reaction specific to prostaglandins. Since then gastrointestinal cytoprotection has been shown with various agents (anticholinergic agents, H(2)RA, growth factors, body protecting compound, BPC) and retinoids in animals; the latter differing from the actions of vitamin A. In examining the various components of gastrointestinal cytoprotection , different studies have performed in isolated cells, stable cell lines, animal experiments, healthy human subjects, in patients chronic gastric and duodenal ulcers, and with different gastrointestinal disorders. Our attention has focused on the effects of cytoprotective agents on cellular viability, mitochondrial and DNA damage, oxygen free radicals, natural antioxidant systems, mucosal biochemistry, vascular events, gastrointestinal mucosal protection as well as in their prevention of different human diseases. This paper gives an overview on the different approaches for the exploring gastrointestinal cytoprotection (at the level of isolated cells, animal experiments, healthy human beings and patients with different gastrointestinal disorders). It has been indicated that the gastric cytoprotection exists in animals, human healthy subjects, patients with different gastrointestinal disorders. The our human observation in patients with duodenal ulcer healed without any changes of gastric acid secretion, there were no significant

  16. Gastric cytoprotective activity of 2-cyclopenten-1-one and related compounds.

    PubMed

    María, A O; Wendel, G H; Guardia, T; Guzmán, J A; Pestchanker, M J; Guerreiro, E; Giordano, O S

    1995-12-01

    The cytoprotective activity of the isolated functional groups of several sesquiterpene lactones is reported. Among them the highest activity is shown by alpha-methylen-gamma-butyrolactone and 2-cyclopenten-1-one. The activity shown by those Michael acceptors with a beta carbon hindered by an alkyl substituent was always lower or almost null. A three-way mechanism of action is proposed: a) reduced glutathione synthesis, b) prostaglandin synthesis and c) mucosal glycoprotein synthesis.

  17. Differential cytoprotection by glycine against oxidant damage to proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Sogabe, K; Roeser, N F; Venkatachalam, M A; Weinberg, J M

    1996-09-01

    Tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) injured freshly isolated proximal tubules in an Fe-dependent fashion that was ameliorated by a lipophilic antioxidant, diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD), but was only minimally affected by glycine. Menadione-induced injury was Fe-independent and was unaffected by DPPD, but was strongly blocked by glycine. Fe was highly toxic when intracellular loading was facilitated by concomitant treatment with hydroxyquinoline (HQ). This toxicity was blocked by DPPD or chelating the Fe, but not by glycine. All of the lesions were characterized by severe depletion of glutathione and other soluble thiols. Menadione induced large increases in protein associated with the Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton and decreases in protein thiol content, consistent with extensive cross linking, but did not increase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). tBHP and HQ + Fe had either no effect or only moderate, delayed effects on cytoskeletal proteins, but induced substantial increases of TBARS. Glycine did not the alter changes in cytoskeletal proteins, thiols, or TBARS produced by any of the agents. Protection against tBHP toxicity by deferoxamine and DPPD was accompanied by substantial suppression of TBARS accumulation. Superimposition of hypoxia during tBHP exposure reduced TBARS accumulation and restored cytoprotective activity to glycine. Thus, in contrast to its consistently strong cytoprotection against a number of other insults, glycine is only variably cytoprotective against oxidant lesions in freshly isolated proximal tubules. Extensive oxidative crosslinking of proteins is compatible with maintenance of glycine cytoprotection against lethal membrane damage. Fe-induced injury to proximal tubules associated with lipid peroxidation as manifested by TBARS formation is a relatively glycine-insensitive insult.

  18. Radioprotective and cytoprotective activity of Tinospora cordifolia stem enriched extract containing cordifolioside-A

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Arti; Bigoniya, Papiya; Singh, Chandra Shekhar; Patel, Narayan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective and cytoprotective potential of cordifolioside-A, a primary active constituent of n-butanol fraction of Tinospora Cordifolia (NBTC) against 4 Gy-γ radiation in mice and cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC stem ethanolic extract was confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis. Radioprotective activity was evaluated at 80 and 120 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of NBTC administered 15 days prior to whole body radiation exposure by observing survival rate, change in body weight, hematology, spleen colony forming unit (CFU), and micronucleus (MN) expression. Cytoprotective activity of NBTC was evaluated at 5, 10, and 15 mg/ml concentrations on Allium cepa root meristem growth against cyclophosphamide. Results: HPTLC analysis of standard cordifolioside A, and NBTC confirmed the presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC with the retention factor value of 0.86. Administration of NBTC (120 mg/kg, i.p.) produced significant protection against radiation in terms of increased survival rate, body weight retention, hematological parameters, spleen CFU assay (P < 0.01), and decreased MN expression (P < 0.01). Cytoprotectivity was observed maximally at 10 mg/ml NBTC concentration with significant increase in root growth (P < 0.01), non-toxic mitotic index (MI) (65.9%) and lesser chromosomal aberrations (15.4%). NBTC at 10 mg/ml concentration showed very few C-anaphase compared to aberrations like fragmentation, C-anaphase, multipolarity and sticky chromosome in cyclophosphamide alone. Conclusion: The results suggest that enriched NBTC containing cordifolioside-A has a potential in vivo radioprotective effect as well as in vitro cytoprotective activity. PMID:23833365

  19. The cytoprotective role of taurine in exercise-induced muscle injury.

    PubMed

    Dawson, R; Biasetti, M; Messina, S; Dominy, J

    2002-06-01

    Intense exercise is thought to increase oxidative stress and damage muscle tissue. Taurine is present in high concentration in skeletal muscle and may play a role in cellular defenses against free radical-mediated damage. The aim of this study was to determine if manipulating muscle levels of taurine would alter markers of free radical damage after exercise-induced injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were supplemented via the drinking water with either 3% (w/v) taurine (n = 10) or the competitive taurine transport inhibitor, beta-alanine (n = 10), for one month. Controls (n = 20) drank tap water containing 0.02% taurine and all rats were placed on a taurine free diet. All the rats except one group of sedentary controls (n = 10) were subjected to 90 minutes of downhill treadmill running. Markers of cellular injury and free radical damage were determined along with tissue amino acid content. The 3% taurine treatment raised plasma levels about 2-fold and 3% beta-alanine reduced plasma taurine levels about 50%. Taurine supplementation (TS) significantly increased plasma glutamate levels in exercised rats. Exercise reduced plasma methionine levels and taurine prevented its decline. Taurine supplementation increased muscle taurine content significantly in all muscles except the soleus. beta-alanine decreased muscle taurine content about 50% in all the muscles examined. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) was significantly increased by exercise in the extensor digitorium longus (EDL) and gastrocnemius (GAST) muscles. Both taurine and beta-alanine completely blocked the increase in TBARs in the EDL, but had no effect in the GAST. Muscle content of the cytosolic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was significantly decreased by exercise in the GAST muscle and this effect was attenuated by both taurine and beta-alanine. Muscle myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was significantly elevated in the gastrocnemius muscle, but diet had no effect. MPO activity was significantly increased by

  20. Design of pathway-level bioprocess monitoring and control strategies supported by metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Isidro, Inês A; Ferreira, Ana R; Clemente, João J; Cunha, António E; Dias, João M L; Oliveira, Rui

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we explore the basic tools for the design of bioprocess monitoring, optimization, and control algorithms that incorporate a priori knowledge of metabolic networks. The main advantage is that this ultimately enables the targeting of intracellular control variables such as metabolic reactions or metabolic pathways directly linked with productivity and product quality. We analyze in particular design methods that target elementary modes of metabolic networks. The topics covered include the analysis of the structure of metabolic networks, computation and reduction of elementary modes, measurement methods for the envirome, envirome-guided metabolic reconstruction, and macroscopic dynamic modeling and control. These topics are illustrated with applications to a cultivation process of a recombinant Pichia pastoris X33 strain expressing a single-chain antibody fragment (scFv).

  1. Antioxidant, cytoprotective and antibacterial effects of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Nitin K; Kumar, M S Yogendra; Gupta, Asheesh

    2010-12-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant, cytoprotective and antibacterial effects of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Sea buckthorn) (SBT) leaves by using various in vitro systems and analysis of marker compounds by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The chemical composition of the leaf extracts was quantified by colorimetric reaction in terms of total phenol and flavonoids contents. Further, some of its bioactive phenolic constituents, such as quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were also quantified in both SBT leaf extracts by RP-HPLC. The SBT leaf extracts exhibited potent antioxidant activity determined by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Further, both extracts were observed to have cytoprotective activity against hydrogen peroxide and hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase induced damage to BHK-21 cell line. The SBT leaf extracts showed growth inhibiting effect against Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. These observations suggest that aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Sea buckthorn leaves have marked antioxidant, cytoprotective and antibacterial activities.

  2. Oncostatic-Cytoprotective Effect of Melatonin and Other Bioactive Molecules: A Common Target in Mitochondrial Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Pacini, Nicola; Borziani, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    For several years, oncostatic and antiproliferative properties, as well as thoses of cell death induction through 5-methoxy-N-acetiltryptamine or melatonin treatment, have been known. Paradoxically, its remarkable scavenger, cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic characteristics in neurodegeneration models, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease are known too. Analogous results have been confirmed by a large literature to be associated to the use of many other bioactive molecules such as resveratrol, tocopherol derivatives or vitamin E and others. It is interesting to note that the two opposite situations, namely the neoplastic pathology and the neurodegeneration, are characterized by deep alterations of the metabolome, of mitochondrial function and of oxygen consumption, so that the oncostatic and cytoprotective action can find a potential rationalization because of the different metabolic and mitochondrial situations, and in the effect that these molecules exercise on the mitochondrial function. In this review we discuss historical and general aspects of melatonin, relations between cancers and the metabolome and between neurodegeneration and the metabolome, and the possible effects of melatonin and of other bioactive molecules on metabolic and mitochondrial dynamics. Finally, we suggest a common general mechanism as responsible for the oncostatic/cytoprotective effect of melatonin and of other molecules examined. PMID:26959015

  3. Spin Trapping and Cytoprotective Properties of Fluorinated Amphiphilic Carrier Conjugates of Cyclic versus Linear Nitrones

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Grégory; Prosak, Robert A.; Han, Yongbin; Ortial, Stéphanie; Rockenbauer, Antal; Pucci, Bernard; Villamena, Frederick A.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrone spin traps have been employed as pharmacological agent against neurodegenerative diseases and ischemia-reperfusion induced injury. The structure-activity relationship was explored for the two types of nitrones, i.e., cyclic (DMPO) and linear (PBN), which are conjugated to a fluorinated amphiphilic carrier (FAC) for their cytoprotective properties against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 3-morpholinosynonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) induced cell death on bovine aortic endothelial cells. The compound FAMPO was synthesized and characterized, and its physical-chemical and spin trapping properties were explored. Cytotoxicity and cytoprotective properties of various nitrones either conjugated and non-conjugated to FAC (i.e., AMPO, FAMPO, PBN and FAPBN) were assessed using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction assay. Results show that of all the nitrones tested, FAPBN is the most protective against H2O2, but FAMPO and to a lesser extent its unconjugated form, AMPO, are more protective against SIN-1 induced cytotoxicity. However, none of the nitrones used protect the cells from HNE-induced cell death. The difference in the cytoprotective properties observed between the cyclic and linear nitrones may arise from the differences in their intrinsic antioxidant properties and localization in the cell. PMID:19678661

  4. Cytoprotective effects of fucoidan, an algae-derived polysaccharide on 5-fluorouracil-treated dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Bo-Eun; Ko, Eun-Ju; Joo, Hong-Gu

    2012-05-01

    Although chemotherapeutic anticancer agents are effective, they also attack normal immune cells due to a lack of selectivity. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a representative anticancer agent that induces immunosuppression in cancer patients as a side effect. Fucoidan is an algae-derived sulfated polysaccharide that has recently been recognized as a hematopoietic mobilizer and immunomodulator. In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effect of fucoidan on dendritic cells (DCs) against 5-FU-induced cellular damage. Several kinds of assays including flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the cytoprotective efficacy of fucoidan. In addition, fucoidan increased the expression of immune-related surface markers on and the alloproliferative capacity of DCs exposed to 5-FU. For investigating action mechanism, the expression levels of apoptosis-related molecules were measured. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that fucoidan, a marine-derived polysaccharide, has cytoprotective effects on DCs, the most potent antigen-presenting cell type, against 5-FU-induced cellular damage. These results provide valuable information to use fucoidan as an immunostimulatory agent for the chemotherapy of cancer patients.

  5. The ribosome quality control pathway can access nascent polypeptides stalled at the Sec61 translocon.

    PubMed

    von der Malsburg, Karina; Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S

    2015-06-15

    Cytosolic ribosomes that stall during translation are split into subunits, and nascent polypeptides trapped in the 60S subunit are ubiquitinated by the ribosome quality control (RQC) pathway. Whether the RQC pathway can also target stalls during cotranslational translocation into the ER is not known. Here we report that listerin and NEMF, core RQC components, are bound to translocon-engaged 60S subunits on native ER membranes. RQC recruitment to the ER in cultured cells is stimulated by translation stalling. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that translocon-targeted nascent polypeptides that subsequently stall are polyubiquitinated in 60S complexes. Ubiquitination at the translocon requires cytosolic exposure of the polypeptide at the ribosome-Sec61 junction. This exposure can result from either failed insertion into the Sec61 channel or partial backsliding of translocating nascent chains. Only Sec61-engaged nascent chains early in their biogenesis were relatively refractory to ubiquitination. Modeling based on recent 60S-RQC and 80S-Sec61 structures suggests that the E3 ligase listerin accesses nascent polypeptides via a gap in the ribosome-translocon junction near the Sec61 lateral gate. Thus the RQC pathway can target stalled translocation intermediates for degradation from the Sec61 channel.

  6. The ribosome quality control pathway can access nascent polypeptides stalled at the Sec61 translocon

    PubMed Central

    von der Malsburg, Karina; Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S.

    2015-01-01

    Cytosolic ribosomes that stall during translation are split into subunits, and nascent polypeptides trapped in the 60S subunit are ubiquitinated by the ribosome quality control (RQC) pathway. Whether the RQC pathway can also target stalls during cotranslational translocation into the ER is not known. Here we report that listerin and NEMF, core RQC components, are bound to translocon-engaged 60S subunits on native ER membranes. RQC recruitment to the ER in cultured cells is stimulated by translation stalling. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that translocon-targeted nascent polypeptides that subsequently stall are polyubiquitinated in 60S complexes. Ubiquitination at the translocon requires cytosolic exposure of the polypeptide at the ribosome–Sec61 junction. This exposure can result from either failed insertion into the Sec61 channel or partial backsliding of translocating nascent chains. Only Sec61-engaged nascent chains early in their biogenesis were relatively refractory to ubiquitination. Modeling based on recent 60S–RQC and 80S–Sec61 structures suggests that the E3 ligase listerin accesses nascent polypeptides via a gap in the ribosome–translocon junction near the Sec61 lateral gate. Thus the RQC pathway can target stalled translocation intermediates for degradation from the Sec61 channel. PMID:25877867

  7. The Fanconi anemia protein FANCM is controlled by FANCD2 and the ATR/ATM pathways.

    PubMed

    Sobeck, Alexandra; Stone, Stacie; Landais, Igor; de Graaf, Bendert; Hoatlin, Maureen E

    2009-09-18

    Genomic stability requires a functional Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway composed of an upstream "core complex" (FA proteins A/B/C/E/F/G/L/M) that mediates monoubiquitination of the downstream targets FANCD2 and FANCI. Unique among FA core complex members, FANCM has processing activities toward replication-associated DNA structures, suggesting a vital role for FANCM during replication. Using Xenopus egg extracts, we analyzed the functions of FANCM in replication and the DNA damage response. xFANCM binds chromatin in a replication-dependent manner and is phosphorylated in response to DNA damage structures. Chromatin binding and DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of xFANCM are mediated in part by the downstream FA pathway protein FANCD2. Moreover, phosphorylation and chromatin recruitment of FANCM is regulated by two mayor players in the DNA damage response: the cell cycle checkpoint kinases ATR and ATM. Our results indicate that functions of FANCM are controlled by FA- and non-FA pathways in the DNA damage response.

  8. Conserved genetic pathways controlling the development of the diffuse endocrine system in vertebrates and Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hartenstein, Volker; Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina L

    2010-05-01

    The midgut epithelium is formed by absorptive enterocytes, secretory cells and endocrine cells. Each of these lineages is derived from the pluripotent progenitors that constitute the embryonic endoderm; the mature midgut retains pools of self-renewing stem cells that continue to produce all lineages. Recent findings in vertebrates and Drosophila shed light on the genetic mechanism that specifies the fate of the different lineages. A pivotal role is played by the Notch signaling pathway that, in a manner that appears to be very similar to the way in which Notch signaling selects neural progenitors within the neurectoderm, distinguishes the fate of secretory/endocrine cells and enterocytes. Proneural genes encoding bHLH transcription factors are expressed and required in prospective endocrine cells; activation of the Notch pathways restricts the number of these cells and promotes enterocyte development. In this review we compare the development of the intestinal endocrine cells in vertebrates and insects and summarize recent findings dealing with genetic pathways controlling this cell type.

  9. Conserved Genetic Pathways Controlling the Development of the Diffuse Endocrine System in Vertebrates and Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hartenstein, Volker; Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    The midgut epithelium is formed by absorptive enterocytes, secretory cells and endocrine cells. Each of these lineages is derived from the pluripotent progenitors that constitute the embryonic endoderm; the mature midgut retains pools of self-renewing stem cells that continue to produce all lineages. Recent findings in vertebrates and Drosophila shed light on the genetic mechanism that specifies the fate of the different lineages. A pivotal role is played by the Notch signaling pathway that, in a manner that appears to be very similar to the way in which Notch signaling selects neural progenitors within the neurectoderm, distinguishes the fate of secretory/endocrine cells and enterocytes. Proneural genes encoding bHLH transcription factors are expressed and required in prospective endocrine cells; activation of the Notch pathways restricts the number of these cells and promotes enterocyte development. In this review we compare the development of the intestinal endocrine cells in vertebrates and insects and summarize recent findings dealing with genetic pathways controlling this cell type. PMID:20005229

  10. Integrated protein quality-control pathways regulate free α-globin in murine β-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Khandros, Eugene; Thom, Christopher S.; D'Souza, Janine

    2012-01-01

    Cells remove unstable polypeptides through protein quality-control (PQC) pathways such as ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and autophagy. In the present study, we investigated how these pathways are used in β-thalassemia, a common hemoglobinopathy in which β-globin gene mutations cause the accumulation and precipitation of cytotoxic α-globin subunits. In β-thalassemic erythrocyte precursors, free α-globin was polyubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome. These cells exhibited enhanced proteasome activity, and transcriptional profiling revealed coordinated induction of most proteasome subunits that was mediated by the stress-response transcription factor Nrf1. In isolated thalassemic cells, short-term proteasome inhibition blocked the degradation of free α-globin. In contrast, prolonged in vivo treatment of β-thalassemic mice with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib did not enhance the accumulation of free α-globin. Rather, systemic proteasome inhibition activated compensatory proteotoxic stress-response mechanisms, including autophagy, which cooperated with ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis to degrade free α-globin in erythroid cells. Our findings show that multiple interregulated PQC responses degrade excess α-globin. Therefore, β-thalassemia fits into the broader framework of protein-aggregation disorders that use PQC pathways as cell-protective mechanisms. PMID:22427201

  11. The pathways of mitophagy for quality control and clearance of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, G; Schwarz, T L

    2013-01-01

    Selective autophagy of mitochondria, known as mitophagy, is an important mitochondrial quality control mechanism that eliminates damaged mitochondria. Mitophagy also mediates removal of mitochondria from developing erythrocytes, and contributes to maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA through the elimination of sperm-derived mitochondria. Recent studies have identified specific regulators of mitophagy that ensure selective sequestration of mitochondria as cargo. In yeast, the mitochondrial outer membrane protein autophagy-related gene 32 (ATG32) recruits the autophagic machinery to mitochondria, while mammalian Nix is required for degradation of erythrocyte mitochondria. The elimination of damaged mitochondria in mammals is mediated by a pathway comprised of PTEN-induced putative protein kinase 1 (PINK1) and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin. PINK1 and Parkin accumulate on damaged mitochondria, promote their segregation from the mitochondrial network, and target these organelles for autophagic degradation in a process that requires Parkin-dependent ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins. Here we will review recent advances in our understanding of the different pathways of mitophagy. In addition, we will discuss the relevance of these pathways in neurons where defects in mitophagy have been implicated in neurodegeneration.

  12. I1 Imidazoline Receptor: Novel Potential Cytoprotective Target of TVP1022, the S-Enantiomer of Rasagiline

    PubMed Central

    Frolov, Luba; Ovcharenko, Elena; Angel, Itzchak; Youdim, Moussa B. H.; Binah, Ofer

    2012-01-01

    TVP1022, the S-enantiomer of rasagiline (Azilect®) (N-propargyl-1R-aminoindan), exerts cyto/cardio-protective effects in a variety of experimental cardiac and neuronal models. Previous studies have demonstrated that the protective activity of TVP1022 and other propargyl derivatives involve the activation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. In the current study, we further investigated the molecular mechanism of action and signaling pathways of TVP1022 which may account for the cyto/cardio-protective efficacy of the drug. Using specific receptor binding and enzyme assays, we demonstrated that the imidazoline 1 and 2 binding sites (I1 & I2) are potential targets for TVP1022 (IC50 = 9.5E-08 M and IC50 = 1.4E-07 M, respectively). Western blotting analysis showed that TVP1022 (1–20 µM) dose-dependently increased the immunoreactivity of phosphorylated p42 and p44 MAPK in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). This effect of TVP1022 was significantly attenuated by efaroxan, a selective I1 imidazoline receptor antagonist. In addition, the cytoprotective effect of TVP1022 demonstrated in NRVM against serum deprivation-induced toxicity was markedly inhibited by efaroxan, thus suggesting the importance of I1imidazoline receptor in mediating the cardioprotective activity of the drug. Our findings suggest that the I1imidazoline receptor represents a novel site of action for the cyto/cardio-protective efficacy of TVP1022. PMID:23166584

  13. Tim-3 pathway controls regulatory and effector T cell balance during hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Moorman, Jonathan P; Wang, Jia M; Zhang, Ying; Ji, Xiao J; Ma, Cheng J; Wu, Xiao Y; Jia, Zhan S; Wang, Ke S; Yao, Zhi Q

    2012-07-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is remarkable at disrupting human immunity to establish chronic infection. Upregulation of inhibitory signaling pathways (such as T cell Ig and mucin domain protein-3 [Tim-3]) and accumulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) play pivotal roles in suppressing antiviral effector T cell (Teff) responses that are essential for viral clearance. Although the Tim-3 pathway has been shown to negatively regulate Teffs, its role in regulating Foxp3(+) Tregs is poorly explored. In this study, we investigated whether and how the Tim-3 pathway alters Foxp3(+) Treg development and function in patients with chronic HCV infection. We found that Tim-3 was upregulated, not only on IL-2-producing CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(-) Teffs, but also on CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs, which accumulate in the peripheral blood of chronically HCV-infected individuals when compared with healthy subjects. Tim-3 expression on Foxp3(+) Tregs positively correlated with expression of the proliferation marker Ki67 on Tregs, but it was inversely associated with proliferation of IL-2-producing Teffs. Moreover, Foxp3(+) Tregs were found to be more resistant to, and Foxp3(-) Teffs more sensitive to, TCR activation-induced cell apoptosis, which was reversible by blocking Tim-3 signaling. Consistent with its role in T cell proliferation and apoptosis, blockade of Tim-3 on CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells promoted expansion of Teffs more substantially than Tregs through improving STAT-5 signaling, thus correcting the imbalance of Foxp3(+) Tregs/Foxp3(-) Teffs that was induced by HCV infection. Taken together, the Tim-3 pathway appears to control Treg and Teff balance through altering cell proliferation and apoptosis during HCV infection.

  14. The prefrontal cortex achieves inhibitory control by facilitating subcortical motor pathway connectivity.

    PubMed

    Rae, Charlotte L; Hughes, Laura E; Anderson, Michael C; Rowe, James B

    2015-01-14

    Communication between the prefrontal cortex and subcortical nuclei underpins the control and inhibition of behavior. However, the interactions in such pathways remain controversial. Using a stop-signal response inhibition task and functional imaging with analysis of effective connectivity, we show that the lateral prefrontal cortex influences the strength of communication between regions in the frontostriatal motor system. We compared 20 generative models that represented alternative interactions between the inferior frontal gyrus, presupplementary motor area (preSMA), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and primary motor cortex during response inhibition. Bayesian model selection revealed that during successful response inhibition, the inferior frontal gyrus modulates an excitatory influence of the preSMA on the STN, thereby amplifying the downstream polysynaptic inhibition from the STN to the motor cortex. Critically, the strength of the interaction between preSMA and STN, and the degree of modulation by the inferior frontal gyrus, predicted individual differences in participants' stopping performance (stop-signal reaction time). We then used diffusion-weighted imaging with tractography to assess white matter structure in the pathways connecting these three regions. The mean diffusivity in tracts between preSMA and the STN, and between the inferior frontal gyrus and STN, also predicted individual differences in stopping efficiency. Finally, we found that white matter structure in the tract between preSMA and STN correlated with effective connectivity of the same pathway, providing important cross-modal validation of the effective connectivity measures. Together, the results demonstrate the network dynamics and modulatory role of the prefrontal cortex that underpin individual differences in inhibitory control.

  15. In vitro Models of Laser Induced Injury: Pathophysiology and Cytoprotection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-29

    produced by scanning the CO2 laser beam controlled by a pair of angular rotating mirrors mounted with axes perpendicular to one another. The computer... Rushmore , T. (2001). Monitoring expression of genes involved in drug metabolism and toxicology using DNA microarrays. Physiol Genomics, 5(4), 161-170

  16. A novel Drosophila Girdin-like protein is involved in Akt pathway control of cell size

    SciTech Connect

    Puseenam, Aekkachai; Yoshioka, Yasuhide; Nagai, Rika; Hashimoto, Reina; Suyari, Osamu; Itoh, Masanobu; Enomoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Masahide; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2009-11-15

    The Akt signaling pathway is well known to regulate cell proliferation and growth. Girdin, a novel substrate of Akt, plays a crucial role in organization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell motility under the control of Akt. We here identified a novel Girdin-like protein in Drosophila (dGirdin), which has two isoforms, dGirdin PA and dGirdin PB. dGirdin shows high homology with human Girdin in the N-terminal and coiled-coil domains, while diverging at the C-terminal domain. On establishment of transgenic fly lines, featuring knockdown or overexpression of dGirdin in vivo, overexpression in the wing disc cells induced ectopic apoptosis, implying a role in directing apoptosis. Knockdown of dGirdin in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc cells resulted in reduction of cell size. Furthermore, this was enhanced by half reduction of the Akt gene dose, suggesting that Akt positively regulates dGirdin. In the wing disc, cells in which dGirdin was knocked down exhibited disruption of actin filaments. From these in vivo analyses, we conclude that dGirdin is required for actin organization and regulation of appropriate cell size under control of the Akt signaling pathway.

  17. Plant cysteine oxidases control the oxygen-dependent branch of the N-end-rule pathway

    PubMed Central

    Weits, Daan A.; Giuntoli, Beatrice; Kosmacz, Monika; Parlanti, Sandro; Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Riegler, Heike; Hoefgen, Rainer; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost T.; Licausi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In plant and animal cells, amino-terminal cysteine oxidation controls selective proteolysis via an oxygen-dependent branch of the N-end rule pathway. It remains unknown how the N-terminal cysteine is specifically oxidized. Here we identify plant cysteine oxidase (PCO) enzymes that oxidize the penultimate cysteine of ERF-VII transcription factors by using oxygen as a co-substrate, thereby controlling the lifetime of these proteins. Consequently, ERF-VII proteins are stabilized under hypoxia and activate the molecular response to low oxygen while the expression of anaerobic genes is repressed in air. Members of the PCO family are themselves targets of ERF-VII transcription factors, generating a feedback loop that adapts the stress response according to the extent of the hypoxic condition. Our results reveal that PCOs act as sensor proteins for oxygen in plants and provide an example of how proactive regulation of the N-end rule pathway balances stress response to optimal growth and development in plants. PMID:24599061

  18. Inositol phosphate pathway controls transcription of telomeric expression sites in trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Cestari, Igor; Stuart, Ken

    2015-05-26

    African trypanosomes evade clearance by host antibodies by periodically changing their variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. They transcribe only one VSG gene at a time from 1 of about 20 telomeric expression sites (ESs). They undergo antigenic variation by switching transcription between telomeric ESs or by recombination of the VSG gene expressed. We show that the inositol phosphate (IP) pathway controls transcription of telomeric ESs and VSG antigenic switching in Trypanosoma brucei. Conditional knockdown of phosphatidylinositol 5-kinase (TbPIP5K) or phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphatase (TbPIP5Pase) or overexpression of phospholipase C (TbPLC) derepresses numerous silent ESs in T. brucei bloodstream forms. The derepression is specific to telomeric ESs, and it coincides with an increase in the number of colocalizing telomeric and RNA polymerase I foci in the nucleus. Monoallelic VSG transcription resumes after reexpression of TbPIP5K; however, most of the resultant cells switched the VSG gene expressed. TbPIP5K, TbPLC, their substrates, and products localize to the plasma membrane, whereas TbPIP5Pase localizes to the nucleus proximal to telomeres. TbPIP5Pase associates with repressor/activator protein 1 (TbRAP1), and their telomeric silencing function is altered by TbPIP5K knockdown. These results show that specific steps in the IP pathway control ES transcription and antigenic switching in T. brucei by epigenetic regulation of telomere silencing.

  19. Bile acid homeostasis controls CAR signaling pathways in mouse testis through FXRalpha.

    PubMed

    Martinot, Emmanuelle; Baptissart, Marine; Véga, Aurélie; Sèdes, Lauriane; Rouaisnel, Betty; Vaz, Fred; Saru, Jean-Paul; de Haze, Angélique; Baron, Silvère; Caira, Françoise; Beaudoin, Claude; Volle, David H

    2017-02-09

    Bile acids (BAs) are molecules with endocrine activities controlling several physiological functions such as immunity, glucose homeostasis, testicular physiology and male fertility. The role of the nuclear BA receptor FXRα in the control of BA homeostasis has been well characterized. The present study shows that testis synthetize BAs. We demonstrate that mice invalidated for the gene encoding FXRα have altered BA homeostasis in both liver and testis. In the absence of FXRα, BA exposure differently alters hepatic and testicular expression of genes involved in BA synthesis. Interestingly, Fxrα-/- males fed a diet supplemented with BAs show alterations of testicular physiology and sperm production. This phenotype was correlated with the altered testicular BA homeostasis and the production of intermediate metabolites of BAs which led to the modulation of CAR signaling pathways within the testis. The role of the CAR signaling pathways within testis was validated using specific CAR agonist (TCPOBOP) and inverse agonist (androstanol) that respectively inhibited or reproduced the phenotype observed in Fxrα-/- males fed BA-diet. These data open interesting perspectives to better define how BA homeostasis contributes to physiological or pathophysiological conditions via the modulation of CAR activity.

  20. Bile acid homeostasis controls CAR signaling pathways in mouse testis through FXRalpha

    PubMed Central

    Martinot, Emmanuelle; Baptissart, Marine; Véga, Aurélie; Sèdes, Lauriane; Rouaisnel, Betty; Vaz, Fred; Saru, Jean-Paul; de Haze, Angélique; Baron, Silvère; Caira, Françoise; Beaudoin, Claude; Volle, David H.

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are molecules with endocrine activities controlling several physiological functions such as immunity, glucose homeostasis, testicular physiology and male fertility. The role of the nuclear BA receptor FXRα in the control of BA homeostasis has been well characterized. The present study shows that testis synthetize BAs. We demonstrate that mice invalidated for the gene encoding FXRα have altered BA homeostasis in both liver and testis. In the absence of FXRα, BA exposure differently alters hepatic and testicular expression of genes involved in BA synthesis. Interestingly, Fxrα-/- males fed a diet supplemented with BAs show alterations of testicular physiology and sperm production. This phenotype was correlated with the altered testicular BA homeostasis and the production of intermediate metabolites of BAs which led to the modulation of CAR signaling pathways within the testis. The role of the CAR signaling pathways within testis was validated using specific CAR agonist (TCPOBOP) and inverse agonist (androstanol) that respectively inhibited or reproduced the phenotype observed in Fxrα-/- males fed BA-diet. These data open interesting perspectives to better define how BA homeostasis contributes to physiological or pathophysiological conditions via the modulation of CAR activity. PMID:28181583

  1. Inositol phosphate pathway controls transcription of telomeric expression sites in trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Igor; Stuart, Ken

    2015-01-01

    African trypanosomes evade clearance by host antibodies by periodically changing their variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. They transcribe only one VSG gene at a time from 1 of about 20 telomeric expression sites (ESs). They undergo antigenic variation by switching transcription between telomeric ESs or by recombination of the VSG gene expressed. We show that the inositol phosphate (IP) pathway controls transcription of telomeric ESs and VSG antigenic switching in Trypanosoma brucei. Conditional knockdown of phosphatidylinositol 5-kinase (TbPIP5K) or phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphatase (TbPIP5Pase) or overexpression of phospholipase C (TbPLC) derepresses numerous silent ESs in T. brucei bloodstream forms. The derepression is specific to telomeric ESs, and it coincides with an increase in the number of colocalizing telomeric and RNA polymerase I foci in the nucleus. Monoallelic VSG transcription resumes after reexpression of TbPIP5K; however, most of the resultant cells switched the VSG gene expressed. TbPIP5K, TbPLC, their substrates, and products localize to the plasma membrane, whereas TbPIP5Pase localizes to the nucleus proximal to telomeres. TbPIP5Pase associates with repressor/activator protein 1 (TbRAP1), and their telomeric silencing function is altered by TbPIP5K knockdown. These results show that specific steps in the IP pathway control ES transcription and antigenic switching in T. brucei by epigenetic regulation of telomere silencing. PMID:25964327

  2. Control of Neuropeptide Expression by Parallel Activity-dependent Pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Rojo Romanos, Teresa; Petersen, Jakob Gramstrup; Pocock, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of neuronal activity within circuits facilitates integrated responses and rapid changes in behavior. We have identified a system in Caenorhabditis elegans where neuropeptide expression is dependent on the ability of the BAG neurons to sense carbon dioxide. In C. elegans, CO2 sensing is predominantly coordinated by the BAG-expressed receptor-type guanylate cyclase GCY-9. GCY-9 binding to CO2 causes accumulation of cyclic GMP and opening of the cGMP-gated TAX-2/TAX-4 cation channels; provoking an integrated downstream cascade that enables C. elegans to avoid high CO2. Here we show that cGMP regulation by GCY-9 and the PDE-1 phosphodiesterase controls BAG expression of a FMRFamide-related neuropeptide FLP-19 reporter (flp-19::GFP). This regulation is specific for CO2-sensing function of the BAG neurons, as loss of oxygen sensing function does not affect flp-19::GFP expression. We also found that expression of flp-19::GFP is controlled in parallel to GCY-9 by the activity-dependent transcription factor CREB (CRH-1) and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (KIN-2) signaling pathway. We therefore show that two parallel pathways regulate neuropeptide gene expression in the BAG sensory neurons: the ability to sense changes in carbon dioxide and CREB transcription factor. Such regulation may be required in particular environmental conditions to enable sophisticated behavioral decisions to be performed. PMID:28139692

  3. Quality Control Pathways for Nucleus-Encoded Eukaryotic tRNA Biosynthesis and Subcellular Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    tRNAs perform an essential role in translating the genetic code. They are long-lived RNAs that are generated via numerous posttranscriptional steps. Eukaryotic cells have evolved numerous layers of quality control mechanisms to ensure that the tRNAs are appropriately structured, processed, and modified. We describe the known tRNA quality control processes that check tRNAs and correct or destroy aberrant tRNAs. These mechanisms employ two types of exonucleases, CCA end addition, tRNA nuclear aminoacylation, and tRNA subcellular traffic. We arrange these processes in order of the steps that occur from generation of precursor tRNAs by RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcription to end maturation and modification in the nucleus to splicing and additional modifications in the cytoplasm. Finally, we discuss the tRNA retrograde pathway, which allows tRNA reimport into the nucleus for degradation or repair. PMID:25848089

  4. The primary cilium coordinates signaling pathways in cell cycle control and migration during development and tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Søren T; Pedersen, Stine F; Satir, Peter; Veland, Iben R; Schneider, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Cell cycle control and migration are critical processes during development and maintenance of tissue functions. Recently, primary cilia were shown to take part in coordination of the signaling pathways that control these cellular processes in human health and disease. In this review, we present an overview of the function of primary cilia and the centrosome in the signaling pathways that regulate cell cycle control and migration with focus on ciliary signaling via platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha). We also consider how the primary cilium and the centrosome interact with the extracellular matrix, coordinate Wnt signaling, and modulate cytoskeletal changes that impinge on both cell cycle control and cell migration.

  5. [Cytoprotection of gastric mucosa induced by tripotassium-dicitrato bismuthate against ethanol stress. Dependent mechanisms of sulfhydryl, dopaminergic and endogenous prostaglandin].

    PubMed

    Laudanno, O M; Bodini, O A; San Miguel, P; Cesolari, J A; Capdopon, E

    1986-01-01

    In groups of white Wistar rats, the cytoprotective effect induced by TDB on the gastric mucosa against the ethanol injury, was studied; where macroscopic protection and histologic cytoprotection in gastric corpus was found, and no in antrum mucosa. The cytoprotective mechanism give by TDB, were studied by the test of Indomethacin, Cl2Hg, Domperidone, Chlorpromazine and Acetazolamide, where each drug was given as pretreatment. Was conclude that TDB give gastric cytoprotection by the mechanism of the nonprotein sulfhydryl, by to be one peripheral agonist of the neuronal dopamine receptors, by increase of endogenous prostaglandin, by little increment of cAMP and no participate the gastric bicarbonate secretion.

  6. A developmentally regulated translational control pathway establishes the meiotic chromosome segregation pattern

    PubMed Central

    Berchowitz, Luke E.; Gajadhar, Aaron S.; van Werven, Folkert J.; De Rosa, Alexandra A.; Samoylova, Mariya L.; Brar, Gloria A.; Xu, Yifeng; Xiao, Che; Futcher, Bruce; Weissman, Jonathan S.; White, Forest M.; Amon, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Production of haploid gametes from diploid progenitor cells is mediated by a specialized cell division, meiosis, where two divisions, meiosis I and II, follow a single S phase. Errors in progression from meiosis I to meiosis II lead to aneuploid and polyploid gametes, but the regulatory mechanisms controlling this transition are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the conserved kinase Ime2 regulates the timing and order of the meiotic divisions by controlling translation. Ime2 coordinates translational activation of a cluster of genes at the meiosis I–meiosis II transition, including the critical determinant of the meiotic chromosome segregation pattern CLB3. We further show that Ime2 mediates translational control through the meiosis-specific RNA-binding protein Rim4. Rim4 inhibits translation of CLB3 during meiosis I by interacting with the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of CLB3. At the onset of meiosis II, Ime2 kinase activity rises and triggers a decrease in Rim4 protein levels, thereby alleviating translational repression. Our results elucidate a novel developmentally regulated translational control pathway that establishes the meiotic chromosome segregation pattern. PMID:24115771

  7. A Receptor-associated Protein/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway Controls Pseudopod Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kortholt, Arjan; Bolourani, Parvin; Rehmann, Holger; Keizer-Gunnink, Ineke; Weeks, Gerald; Wittinghofer, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    GbpD, a Dictyostelium discoideum guanine exchange factor specific for Rap1, has been implicated in adhesion, cell polarity, and chemotaxis. Cells overexpressing GbpD are flat, exhibit strongly increased cell-substrate attachment, and extend many bifurcated and lateral pseudopodia. Phg2, a serine/threonine-specific kinase, mediates Rap1-regulated cell-substrate adhesion, but not cell polarity or chemotaxis. In this study we demonstrate that overexpression of GbpD in pi3k1/2-null cells does not induce the adhesion and cell morphology phenotype. Furthermore we show that Rap1 directly binds to the Ras binding domain of PI3K, and overexpression of GbpD leads to strongly enhanced PIP3 levels. Consistently, upon overexpression of the PIP3-degradating enzyme PTEN in GbpD-overexpressing cells, the strong adhesion and cell morphology phenotype is largely lost. These results indicate that a GbpD/Rap/PI3K pathway helps control pseudopod formation and cell polarity. As in Rap-regulated pseudopod formation in Dictyostelium, mammalian Rap and PI3K are essential for determining neuronal polarity, suggesting that the Rap/PI3K pathway is a conserved module regulating the establishment of cell polarity. PMID:20089846

  8. R-spondin1 Controls Muscle Cell Fusion through Dual Regulation of Antagonistic Wnt Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lacour, Floriane; Vezin, Elsa; Bentzinger, C Florian; Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Giordani, Lorenzo; Ferry, Arnaud; Mitchell, Robert; Patel, Ketan; Rudnicki, Michael A; Chaboissier, Marie-Christine; Chassot, Anne-Amandine; Le Grand, Fabien

    2017-03-07

    Wnt-mediated signals are involved in many important steps in mammalian regeneration. In multiple cell types, the R-spondin (Rspo) family of secreted proteins potently activates the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Here, we identify Rspo1 as a mediator of skeletal muscle tissue repair. First, we show that deletion of Rspo1 results in global alteration of muscle regeneration kinetics following acute injury. We find that muscle progenitor cells lacking Rspo1 show delayed differentiation due to reduced activation of Wnt/β-catenin target genes. Furthermore, muscle cells lacking Rspo1 have a fusion phenotype leading to larger myotubes containing supernumerary nuclei both in vitro and in vivo. The increase in muscle fusion was dependent on downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin and upregulation of non-canonical Wnt7a/Fzd7/Rac1 signaling. We conclude that reciprocal control of antagonistic Wnt signaling pathways by Rspo1 in muscle stem cell progeny is a key step ensuring normal tissue architecture restoration following acute damage.

  9. ITIM-dependent negative signaling pathways for the control of cell-mediated xenogeneic immune responses.

    PubMed

    del Rio, Maria-Luisa; Seebach, Jörg D; Fernández-Renedo, Carlos; Rodriguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Xenotransplantation is an innovative field of research with the potential to provide us with an alternative source of organs to face the severe shortage of human organ donors. For several reasons, pigs have been chosen as the most suitable source of organs and tissues for transplantation in humans. However, porcine xenografts undergo cellular immune responses representing a major barrier to their acceptance and normal functioning. Innate and adaptive xenogeneic immunity is mediated by both the recognition of xenogeneic tissue antigens and the lack of inhibition due to molecular cross-species incompatibilities of regulatory pathways. Therefore, the delivery of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-dependent and related negative signals to control innate (NK cells, macrophages) and adaptive T and B cells might overcome cell-mediated xenogeneic immunity. The proof of this concept has already been achieved in vitro by the transgenic overexpression of human ligands of several inhibitory receptors in porcine cells resulting in their resistance against xenoreactivity. Consequently, several transgenic pigs expressing tissue-specific human ligands of inhibitory coreceptors (HLA-E, CD47) or soluble competitors of costimulation (belatacept) have already been generated. The development of these robust and innovative approaches to modulate human anti-pig cellular immune responses, complementary to conventional immunosuppression, will help to achieve long-term xenograft survival. In this review, we will focus on the current strategies to enhance negative signaling pathways for the regulation of undesirable cell-mediated xenoreactive immune responses.

  10. The STING controlled cytosolic-DNA activated innate immune pathway and microbial disease.

    PubMed

    Konno, Hiroyasu; Barber, Glen N

    2014-12-01

    The innate immune system is critically important for the primary sensing of invading pathogens. Over the past decade, the cellular sensors important for recognizing microbial entry into the host cell have been largely elucidated. These sensors, some of which are evolutionarily conserved, include the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and RIG-I-like helicase family (RLH) pathway that can recognize bacterial and viral non-self nucleic acid. In addition, a cellular sensor referred to as STING (for stimulator of interferon genes) has been shown to be critical for triggering host defense countermeasures, including stimulation of the adaptive immune response, following the detection of cytosolic DNA species. The STING pathway has now been shown to be critical for activating innate immune gene transcription in response to infection by DNA pathogens such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) as well as retroviruses. In addition, it is clear that chronic STING activation can also cause autoinflammatory disease manifested by self-DNA. Here we review recent developments in our understanding of STING function, including importance in the control of microbial disease.

  11. Autophagy as a stress-response and quality-control mechanism: implications for cell injury and human disease.

    PubMed

    Murrow, Lyndsay; Debnath, Jayanta

    2013-01-24

    Autophagy, a vital catabolic process that degrades cytoplasmic components within the lysosome, is an essential cytoprotective response to pathologic stresses that occur during diseases such as cancer, ischemia, and infection. In addition to its role as a stress-response pathway, autophagy plays an essential quality-control function in the cell by promoting basal turnover of long-lived proteins and organelles, as well as by selectively degrading damaged cellular components. This homeostatic function protects against a wide variety of diseases, including neurodegeneration, myopathy, liver disease, and diabetes. This review discusses our current understanding of these two principal functions of autophagy and describes in detail how alterations in autophagy promote human disease.

  12. Cytoprotective Effects of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Extracts of Pistacia vera against Oxidative Versus Carbonyl Stress in Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Jafar; Zareh, Mona; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cytoprotection of various extracts and bioactive compounds found in Pistacia vera againts cytotoxicity, ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane damages in cell toxicity models of diabetes related carbonyl (glyoxal) and oxidative stress (hydroperoxide). Methanol, water and ethyl acetate were used to prepare crude pistachios extracts, which were then used to screen for in-vitro cytoprotection of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes against these toxins. The order of protection by Pistacia vera extracts against both hydroperoxide induced oxidative stress (ROS formation) and glyoxal induced protein carbonylation was: pistachio methanolic extract >pistachio water extract, gallic acid, catechin> α-tochoferol and pistachio ethyl acetate extract. Finally due to higher protection achieved by methanolic extract even compared to sole pretreatment of gallic acid, catechin or α-tochoferol, we suggest that cytoprotection depends on the variety of polar and non-polar compounds found in methanolic extract, it is likely that multiple cytoprotective mechanisms are acting against oxidative and carbonyl induced cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, we are the first to report the cytoprotective activity of Pistacia vera extracts against oxidative and carbonyl stress seen in type 2 diabetes hepatocytes model. PMID:25587316

  13. Comparative cytoprotection of cultured corneal endothelial cells by water-soluble antioxidants against free-radical damage.

    PubMed

    Zeng, L H; Rootman, D S; Fung, K P; Wu, T W

    1995-09-01

    We reported previously that purpurogallin (PPG) markedly protects the cultured rabbit corneal endothelial cells (RCEC) against oxyradical damage generated with hypoxanthine (HX) and xanthine oxidase (XO)(1). In this study, we further compared the cytoprotective activities of PPG versus Trolox (TX, alpha-tocopherol, a water-soluble analogue of vitamin E) and ascorbate (Asc) in confluent cultured RCEC with phase contrast microscopy and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. PPG prolonged survival of the oxyradical damaged cells longer than those without PPG present (18.6 +/- 1.4 min at 1.0 mM and 11.2 +/- 1.0 at 0.25 mM respectively vs. 7.3 +/- 0.8 min in control). At levels equimolar to PPG, TX, and Asc were less effective in delaying cell necrosis caused by HX and XO (p < 0.01). When exposed to superoxide radicals generated by menadione, RCEC necrosed at 29.8 +/- 1.5 min compared to PPG 47.2 +/- 1.0 min at 1.0 mM and 38.9 +/- 1.0 min at 0.25 mM. This was significantly different from TX and Asc at corresponding concentrations (p < 0.01). PPG scavenges not only HX-XO-generated oxyradicals, but also nonenzymatically produced superoxide radicals, more actively than two well known antioxidants--TX and Asc.

  14. Drug target identification in sphingolipid metabolism by computational systems biology tools: metabolic control analysis and metabolic pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Ozbayraktar, F Betül Kavun; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2010-08-01

    Sphingolipids regulate cellular processes that are critically important in cell's fate and function in cancer development and progression. This fact underlies the basics of the novel cancer therapy approach. The pharmacological manipulation of the sphingolipid metabolism in cancer therapeutics necessitates the detailed understanding of the pathway. Two computational systems biology tools are used to identify potential drug target enzymes among sphingolipid pathway that can be further utilized in drug design studies for cancer therapy. The enzymes in sphingolipid pathway were ranked according to their roles in controlling the metabolic network by metabolic control analysis. The physiologically connected reactions, i.e. biologically significant and functional modules of network, were identified by metabolic pathway analysis. The final set of candidate drug target enzymes are selected such that their manipulation leads to ceramide accumulation and long chain base phosphates depletion. The mathematical tools' efficiency for drug target identification performed in this study is validated by clinically available drugs.

  15. Frequency Modulated Translocational Oscillations of Nrf2 Mediate the Antioxidant Response Element Cytoprotective Transcriptional Response

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Mingzhan; Momiji, Hiroshi; Rabbani, Naila; Barker, Guy; Bretschneider, Till; Shmygol, Anatoly; Rand, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Stress responsive signaling coordinated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) provides an adaptive response for protection of cells against toxic insults, oxidative stress and metabolic dysfunction. Nrf2 regulates a battery of protective genes by binding to regulatory antioxidant response elements (AREs). The aim of this study was to examine how Nrf2 signals cell stress status and regulates transcription to maintain homeostasis. Results: In live cell microscopy we observed that Nrf2 undergoes autonomous translocational frequency-modulated oscillations between cytoplasm and nucleus. Oscillations occurred in quiescence and when cells were stimulated at physiological levels of activators, they decrease in period and amplitude and then evoke a cytoprotective transcriptional response. We propose a mechanism whereby oscillations are produced by negative feedback involving successive de-phosphorylation and phosphorylation steps. Nrf2 was inactivated in the nucleus and reactivated on return to the cytoplasm. Increased frequency of Nrf2 on return to the cytoplasm with increased reactivation or refresh-rate under stress conditions activated the transcriptional response mediating cytoprotective effects. The serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PGAM5, member of the Nrf2 interactome, was a key regulatory component. Innovation: We found that Nrf2 is activated in cells without change in total cellular Nrf2 protein concentration. Regulation of ARE-linked protective gene transcription occurs rather through translocational oscillations of Nrf2. We discovered cytoplasmic refresh rate of Nrf2 is important in maintaining and regulating the transcriptional response and links stress challenge to increased cytoplasmic surveillance. We found silencing and inhibition of PGAM5 provides potent activation of Nrf2. Conclusion: Frequency modulated translocational oscillations of Nrf2 mediate the ARE-linked cytoprotective transcriptional response. Antioxid. Redox

  16. Cytoprotective role of taurine in a renal epithelial cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Eppler, Bärbel; Dawson, Ralph

    2002-03-15

    Taurine (TAU) is a sulfur-containing amino acid that has been shown to decrease during aging and is believed to be important for cytoprotection. A decrease in TAU could exacerbate the accumulation of free radical-induced damage that may lead to cell death during the aging process. We have shown previously that TAU directly inhibits dopamine (DA) and (-)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine (L-dopa) oxidation. Experiments were conducted to establish a cytoprotective role for TAU. Porcine renal epithelial cells were treated for 1 hr with iron and catecholamines (L-dopa and DA) to produce cytotoxicity by a free radical and quinone mechanism in the absence and presence of 10 or 20mM TAU. Viability assays, protein, and DNA measurements were performed after a 24hr recovery period. In some experiments, cells were extracted immediately after the insult for DA and TAU content measurements using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Catecholamine-induced cytotoxicity caused a 50% loss in cell viability, and 10 or 20mM TAU provided significant protection from cytotoxicity and maintained the functional integrity of the cells. Photomicrographs showed attenuation in cell loss and swelling in the presence of TAU. Pretreatment with 1mM TAU followed by exposure to iron and L-dopa in the presence of 1mM TAU caused a moderate but non-significant increase in cell survival. These data conclusively show that TAU can play a cytoprotective role in the LLC-PK(1) cell culture model.

  17. Gastric anti-ulcer and cytoprotective effect of selenium in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Parmar, N.S.; Tariq, M.; Ageel, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Selenium, a trace element, in the form of sodium selenite has been studied for its ability to protect the gastric mucosa against the injuries caused by hypothermic restraint stress, aspirin, indomethacin, reserpine, dimaprit, and various other gastric mucosal-damaging (necrotizing) agents in rats. The results demonstrate that oral administration of sodium selenite produces a significant inhibition of the gastric mucosal damage induced by all the procedures used in this study. Selenium, in a nonantisecretory dose, produced a marked cytoprotective effect against all the necrotizing agents. The cytoprotective effect of selenium against the effects of 80% ethanol and 0.6 M HCl was significantly reversed by prior treatment with a dose of indomethacin that inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis. These data indicate that sodium selenite inhibits the formation of these lesions by the mucosal generation of prostaglandins. The concentrations of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) were significantly decreased in the gastric mucosa following the administration of necrotizing agents--80% ethanol and 0.6 M HCl. Treatment with sodium selenite, which significantly reduced the intensity of gastric lesions, did not replenish the reduced levels of gastric mucosal NP-SH, thus ruling out the mediation of its protective effect through sulfhydryls. The antisecretory effect of sodium selenite, which becomes evident only in the high dose of 20 mumol/kg, may be responsible for the inhibition of gastric lesions induced by aspirin, indomethacin, reserpine, and dimaprit. Our findings show that selenium possesses significant anti-ulcer and adaptive cytoprotective effects. However, further detailed studies are required to confirm these effects, to establish its mechanism(s) of action, and to determine its role in the prophylaxis and treatment of peptic ulcer disease.

  18. Alterations in leukocyte transcriptional control pathway activity associated with major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Mellon, S H; Wolkowitz, O M; Schonemann, M D; Epel, E S; Rosser, R; Burke, H B; Mahan, L; Reus, V I; Stamatiou, D; Liew, C-C; Cole, S W

    2016-05-24

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a significantly elevated risk of developing serious medical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, immune impairments, infection, dementia and premature death. Previous work has demonstrated immune dysregulation in subjects with MDD. Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling and promoter-based bioinformatic strategies, we assessed leukocyte transcription factor (TF) activity in leukocytes from 20 unmedicated MDD subjects versus 20 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls, before initiation of antidepressant therapy, and in 17 of the MDD subjects after 8 weeks of sertraline treatment. In leukocytes from unmedicated MDD subjects, bioinformatic analysis of transcription control pathway activity indicated an increased transcriptional activity of cAMP response element-binding/activating TF (CREB/ATF) and increased activity of TFs associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2, NFE2l2 or NRF2). Eight weeks of antidepressant therapy was associated with significant reductions in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores and reduced activity of NRF2, but not in CREB/ATF activity. Several other transcriptional regulation pathways, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB), early growth response proteins 1-4 (EGR1-4) and interferon-responsive TFs, showed either no significant differences as a function of disease or treatment, or activities that were opposite to those previously hypothesized to be involved in the etiology of MDD or effective treatment. Our results suggest that CREB/ATF and NRF2 signaling may contribute to MDD by activating immune cell transcriptome dynamics that ultimately influence central nervous system (CNS) motivational and affective processes via circulating mediators.

  19. Alterations in leukocyte transcriptional control pathway activity associated with major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, S H; Wolkowitz, O M; Schonemann, M D; Epel, E S; Rosser, R; Burke, H B; Mahan, L; Reus, V I; Stamatiou, D; Liew, C -C; Cole, S W

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a significantly elevated risk of developing serious medical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, immune impairments, infection, dementia and premature death. Previous work has demonstrated immune dysregulation in subjects with MDD. Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling and promoter-based bioinformatic strategies, we assessed leukocyte transcription factor (TF) activity in leukocytes from 20 unmedicated MDD subjects versus 20 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls, before initiation of antidepressant therapy, and in 17 of the MDD subjects after 8 weeks of sertraline treatment. In leukocytes from unmedicated MDD subjects, bioinformatic analysis of transcription control pathway activity indicated an increased transcriptional activity of cAMP response element-binding/activating TF (CREB/ATF) and increased activity of TFs associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2, NFE2l2 or NRF2). Eight weeks of antidepressant therapy was associated with significant reductions in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores and reduced activity of NRF2, but not in CREB/ATF activity. Several other transcriptional regulation pathways, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB), early growth response proteins 1–4 (EGR1–4) and interferon-responsive TFs, showed either no significant differences as a function of disease or treatment, or activities that were opposite to those previously hypothesized to be involved in the etiology of MDD or effective treatment. Our results suggest that CREB/ATF and NRF2 signaling may contribute to MDD by activating immune cell transcriptome dynamics that ultimately influence central nervous system (CNS) motivational and affective processes via circulating mediators. PMID:27187237

  20. [Tanakan as a multimodal cytoprotective factor in general medicine (part II)].

    PubMed

    Esin, R G; Naprienko, M V; Mukhametova, E R; Khairullin, I Kh; Esin, O R

    2015-01-01

    The second section of the review provides an update of the data on mechanisms of action of a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba EGb761® (tanakan) and its efficacy in treatment of depression, pain, complications of diabetes, Parkinson disease, tinnitus and dizziness, reproductive dysfunction. Updated data enable to use EGb761® (tanakan) as a highly-effective cytoprotective agent in treatment of cardiovascular, degenerative and metabolic diseases of the nervous system, inner ear disturbances (tinnitus), dysfunction of reproductive system as well as in prevention and treatment of stress-induced disorders.

  1. A Phg2-Adrm1 Pathway Participates in the Nutrient-controlled Developmental Response in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Cherix, Nathalie; Froquet, Romain; Charette, Steve J.; Blanc, Cédric; Letourneur, François

    2006-01-01

    Dictyostelium amoebae grow as single cells but upon starvation they initiate multicellular development. Phg2 was characterized previously as a kinase controlling cellular adhesion and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report that Phg2 also plays a role during the transition between growth and multicellular development, as evidenced by the fact that phg2 mutant cells can initiate development even in the presence of nutrients. Even at low cell density and in rich medium, phg2 mutant cells express discoidin, one of the earliest predevelopmental markers. Complementation studies indicate that, in addition to the kinase domain, the core region of Phg2 is involved in the initiation of development. In this region, a small domain contiguous with a previously described ras-binding domain was found to interact with the Dictyostelium ortholog of the mammalian adhesion-regulating molecule (ADRM1). In addition, adrm1 knockout cells also exhibit abnormal initiation of development. These results suggest that a Phg2-Adrm1 signaling pathway is involved in the control of the transition from growth to differentiation in Dictyostelium. Phg2 thus plays a dual role in the control of cellular adhesion and initiation of development. PMID:16987957

  2. Compartment-specific Control of Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging by Antioxidant Pathway Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swati; Sidor, Agnieszka; O'Rourke, Brian

    2016-05-20

    Oxidative stress arises from an imbalance in the production and scavenging rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is a key factor in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease and aging. The presence of parallel pathways and multiple intracellular compartments, each having its own ROS sources and antioxidant enzymes, complicates the determination of the most important regulatory nodes of the redox network. Here we quantified ROS dynamics within specific intracellular compartments in the cytosol and mitochondria and determined which scavenging enzymes exert the most control over antioxidant fluxes in H9c2 cardiac myoblasts. We used novel targeted viral gene transfer vectors expressing redox-sensitive GFP fused to sensor domains to measure H2O2 or oxidized glutathione. Using genetic manipulation in heart-derived H9c2 cells, we explored the contribution of specific antioxidant enzymes to ROS scavenging and glutathione redox potential within each intracellular compartment. Our findings reveal that antioxidant flux is strongly dependent on mitochondrial substrate catabolism, with availability of NADPH as a major rate-controlling step. Moreover, ROS scavenging by mitochondria significantly contributes to cytoplasmic ROS handling. The findings provide fundamental information about the control of ROS scavenging by the redox network and suggest novel interventions for circumventing oxidative stress in cardiac cells.

  3. Control of chicken CR1 retrotransposons is independent of Dicer-mediated RNA interference pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Hun; Eldi, Preethi; Cho, Soo-Young; Rangasamy, Danny

    2009-01-01

    Background Dicer is an RNase III-ribonuclease that initiates the formation of small interfering RNAs as a defence against genomic parasites such as retrotransposons. Despite intensive characterization in mammalian species, the biological functions of Dicer in controlling retrotransposable elements of the non-mammalian vertebrate are poorly understood. In this report, we examine the role of chicken Dicer in controlling the activity of chicken CR1 retrotransposable elements in a chicken-human hybrid DT40 cell line employing a conditional loss-of-Dicer function. Results Retrotransposition is detrimental to host genome stability and thus eukaryotic cells have developed mechanisms to limit the expansion of retrotransposons by Dicer-mediated RNAi silencing pathways. However, the mechanisms that control the activity and copy numbers of transposable elements in chicken remain unclear. Here, we describe how the loss of Dicer in chicken cells does not reactivate endogenous chicken CR1 retrotransposons with impaired RNAi machinery, suggesting that the control of chicken CR1 is independent of Dicer-induced RNAi silencing. In contrast, upon introduction of a functionally active human L1 retrotransposable element that contains an active 5' UTR promoter, the Dicer-deficient chicken cells show a strong increase in the accumulation of human L1 transcripts and retrotransposition activity, highlighting a major difference between chicken CR1 and other mammalian L1 retrotransposons. Conclusion Our data provide evidence that chicken CR1 retrotransposons, unlike their mammalian L1 counterparts, do not undergo retrotransposition because most CR1 retrotransposons are truncated or mutated at their 5'UTR promoters and thus are not subjected to Dicer-mediated RNAi-silencing control. PMID:19691826

  4. Evaluation of the nutraceutical, antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of ripe pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) hulls.

    PubMed

    Barreca, Davide; Laganà, Giuseppina; Leuzzi, Ugo; Smeriglio, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Bellocco, Ersilia

    2016-04-01

    Every year tons of pistachio hulls are separated and eliminated, as waste products, from pistachio seeds. In this study the hulls of ripe pistachios were extracted with two organic solvents (ethanol and methanol) and characterized for phenolic composition, antioxidant power and cytoprotective activity. RP-HPLC-DAD-FLU separation enabled us to identify 20 derivatives, including and by far the most abundant gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, naringin, eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-7-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside and catechin. Methanol extraction gave the highest yields for all classes of compounds and presented a higher scavenging activity in all the antioxidant assays performed. The same was found for cytoprotective activity on lymphocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. These findings highlight the strong antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of the extract components, and illustrate how a waste product can be used as a source of nutraceuticals to employ in manufacturing industry.

  5. Quantum optimal control pathways of ozone isomerization dynamics subject to competing dissociation: A two-state one-dimensional model

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Ho, Tak-San Rabitz, Herschel

    2014-02-28

    We construct a two-state one-dimensional reaction-path model for ozone open → cyclic isomerization dynamics. The model is based on the intrinsic reaction coordinate connecting the cyclic and open isomers with the O{sub 2} + O asymptote on the ground-state {sup 1}A{sup ′} potential energy surface obtained with the high-level ab initio method. Using this two-state model time-dependent wave packet optimal control simulations are carried out. Two possible pathways are identified along with their respective band-limited optimal control fields; for pathway 1 the wave packet initially associated with the open isomer is first pumped into a shallow well on the excited electronic state potential curve and then driven back to the ground electronic state to form the cyclic isomer, whereas for pathway 2 the corresponding wave packet is excited directly to the primary well of the excited state potential curve. The simulations reveal that the optimal field for pathway 1 produces a final yield of nearly 100% with substantially smaller intensity than that obtained in a previous study [Y. Kurosaki, M. Artamonov, T.-S. Ho, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 044306 (2009)] using a single-state one-dimensional model. Pathway 2, due to its strong coupling to the dissociation channel, is less effective than pathway 1. The simulations also show that nonlinear field effects due to molecular polarizability and hyperpolarizability are small for pathway 1 but could become significant for pathway 2 because much higher field intensity is involved in the latter. The results suggest that a practical control may be feasible with the aid of a few lowly excited electronic states for ozone isomerization.

  6. Quantum optimal control pathways of ozone isomerization dynamics subject to competing dissociation: a two-state one-dimensional model.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel

    2014-02-28

    We construct a two-state one-dimensional reaction-path model for ozone open → cyclic isomerization dynamics. The model is based on the intrinsic reaction coordinate connecting the cyclic and open isomers with the O2 + O asymptote on the ground-state (1)A(') potential energy surface obtained with the high-level ab initio method. Using this two-state model time-dependent wave packet optimal control simulations are carried out. Two possible pathways are identified along with their respective band-limited optimal control fields; for pathway 1 the wave packet initially associated with the open isomer is first pumped into a shallow well on the excited electronic state potential curve and then driven back to the ground electronic state to form the cyclic isomer, whereas for pathway 2 the corresponding wave packet is excited directly to the primary well of the excited state potential curve. The simulations reveal that the optimal field for pathway 1 produces a final yield of nearly 100% with substantially smaller intensity than that obtained in a previous study [Y. Kurosaki, M. Artamonov, T.-S. Ho, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 044306 (2009)] using a single-state one-dimensional model. Pathway 2, due to its strong coupling to the dissociation channel, is less effective than pathway 1. The simulations also show that nonlinear field effects due to molecular polarizability and hyperpolarizability are small for pathway 1 but could become significant for pathway 2 because much higher field intensity is involved in the latter. The results suggest that a practical control may be feasible with the aid of a few lowly excited electronic states for ozone isomerization.

  7. Chemoselective reduction and oxidation of ketones in water through control of the electron transfer pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Min; Yoo, Ho Sung; Hosono, Hideo; Yang, Jung Woon; Kim, Sung Wng

    2015-01-01

    The selective synthesis of different products from the same starting materials in water, which is the most abundant solvent in nature, is a crucial issue as it maximizes the utilization of materials. Realizing such reactions for ketones is of considerable importance because numerous organic functionalities can be obtained via nucleophilic addition reactions. Herein, we report chemoselective reduction and oxidation reactions of 1,2-diketones in water, which initiates anionic electron transfer from the inorganic electride [Ca24Al28O64]4+·4e−, through controlling the pathway of the electrons to substrates. The generation of different radical species for transient intermediates was the key process required to control the reaction selectivity, which was achieved by reacting the anionic electrons with either diketones or O2, leading to the formation of ketyl dianion and superoxide radicals in the reduction and oxidation reactions, respectively. This methodology that utilizes electrides may provide an alternative to the pulse radiolysis of water in synthetic chemistry. PMID:26020413

  8. Final Technical Report: Genetic and Molecular Analysis of a new control pathway in assimilate partitioning.

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, Daniel, R.

    2009-03-10

    Assimilate partitioning refers to the systemic distribution of photoassimilate from sites of primary assimilation (source tissue) to import-dependent tissues and organs (sinks). One of the defining questions in this area is how plants balance source productivity with sink demand. We discovered a sucrose-sensing signal transduction pathway that controls the activity of BvSUT1, a proton-sucrose symporter in sugar beet leaf tissue. Sucrose symporters are responsible for sucrose accumulation in the phloem of many plants and, therefore, they mediate the pivotal step in the long-distance transport of photoassimilate to non-photosynthetic tissues, such as roots and seed. We previously showed that sucrose transport activity is directly proportional to the transcription rate of BvSUT1 and that symporter mRNA and protein have high rates of turnover with half-lives on the order of 2 h. We further demonstrated that symporter transcription is regulated by sucrose levels in the leaf and that sucrose-dependent regulation of BvSUT1 transcription is mediated, at least in part, by a protein phosphorylation relay pathway. The goal of the experiments during this current grant were to use genetic and molecular approaches to identify essential components of this vital regulatory system. The initial objectives were to: (1) to characterize Arabidopsis mutants we've isolated that are resistant to growth inhibition by sucrose analogues that are recognized by the sucrose-sensor, (2) to screen for loss of function mutants in BvSUT1-promoter:luciferase transgenic plants that no longer respond to sucrose accumulation in the leaf using non-destructive visualization of luciferase activity, (3) to use gel mobility-shift assays and nuclease protection experiments to identify cis elements in the symporter promoter and DNA-binding proteins that are involved in sucrose regulation of symporter expression.

  9. Control of thrombopoietin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Rouyez, M C; Boucheron, C; Gisselbrecht, S; Dusanter-Fourt, I; Porteu, F

    1997-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the major regulator of both growth and differentiation of megakaryocytes. We previously showed that both functions can be generated by TPO in the megakaryoblastic cell line UT7, in which murine Mpl was introduced, and are independently controlled by distinct regions of the cytoplasmic domain of Mpl. Particularly, residues 71 to 94 of this domain (deleted in the mutant mpl delta3) were found to be required for megakaryocytic maturation but dispensable for proliferation. We show here that TPO-induced differentiation in UT7 cells is tightly dependent on a strong, long-lasting activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Indeed, (i) in UT7-mpl cells, TPO induced a strong activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) which was persistent until at least 4 days in TPO-containing medium; (ii) a specific MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor inhibited TPO-induced megakaryocytic gene expression; (iii) the Mpl mutant mpl delta3, which displayed no maturation activity, transduced only a weak and transient ERK activation in UT7 cells; and (iv) TPO-induced megakaryocytic differentiation in UT7-mpl delta3 cells was partially restored by expression of a constitutively activated mutant of MEK. The capacity of TPO to trigger a strong and prolonged MAPK signal depended on the cell in which Mpl was introduced. In BAF3-mpl cells, TPO triggered a weak and transient ERK activation, similar to that induced in UT7-mpl delta3 cells. In these cells, no difference in MAPK activation was found between normal Mpl and mpl delta3. Thus, depending on the cellular context, several distinct regions of the cytoplasmic domain of Mpl and signaling pathways may contribute to generate quantitative variations in MAPK activation. PMID:9271377

  10. Cytoprotective Effect of Lygodium venustum Sw. (Lygodiaceae) against Mercurium Chloride Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Fernando G; Lima, Luciene F; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Tintino, Saulo R; Farias, Pablo A M; Matias, Edinardo F F; Costa, José Galberto M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Pereira, Raimundo L S; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a very dangerous metal when humans come into contact with it, whether through the air or skin or by ingestion. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible effects of the ethanol extract and fractions of Lygodium venustum Sw. against mercurium chloride toxicity towards Escherichia coli strain ATCC25922. The polyphenols and flavonoids present in the extract and fractions were quantified in mg equivalent of gallic acid/g sample and mg equivalent of quercetin/g sample, respectively. The in vitro FRAP method demonstrated the antioxidant activity of the samples. The antibacterial activity of the natural products was evaluated by microdilution method and by assays to elucidate the possible cytoprotective action when combining the natural products samples and mercurium chloride, utilizing the extract and fractions at a subinhibitory concentration. The results obtained in this work indicate that the ethanol extract and fractions of L. venustum are an alternative source of natural products with cytoprotective action, where this protection is correlated with antioxidant and chelating activity, due to the presence of total phenols and flavonoids.

  11. Cytoprotective Effect of Lygodium venustum Sw. (Lygodiaceae) against Mercurium Chloride Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Figueredo, Fernando G.; Lima, Luciene F.; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Farias, Pablo A. M.; Matias, Edinardo F. F.; Costa, José Galberto M.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Pereira, Raimundo L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a very dangerous metal when humans come into contact with it, whether through the air or skin or by ingestion. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible effects of the ethanol extract and fractions of Lygodium venustum Sw. against mercurium chloride toxicity towards Escherichia coli strain ATCC25922. The polyphenols and flavonoids present in the extract and fractions were quantified in mg equivalent of gallic acid/g sample and mg equivalent of quercetin/g sample, respectively. The in vitro FRAP method demonstrated the antioxidant activity of the samples. The antibacterial activity of the natural products was evaluated by microdilution method and by assays to elucidate the possible cytoprotective action when combining the natural products samples and mercurium chloride, utilizing the extract and fractions at a subinhibitory concentration. The results obtained in this work indicate that the ethanol extract and fractions of L. venustum are an alternative source of natural products with cytoprotective action, where this protection is correlated with antioxidant and chelating activity, due to the presence of total phenols and flavonoids. PMID:27034899

  12. Do sensory neurons mediate adaptive cytoprotection of gastric mucosa against bile acid injury?

    PubMed

    Mercer, D W; Ritchie, W P; Dempsey, D T

    1992-01-01

    Pretreatment with the mild irritant 1 mmol acidified taurocholate protects the gastric mucosa from the injury induced by the subsequent application of 5 mmol acidified taurocholate, a phenomenon referred to as "adaptive cytoprotection." How this occurs remains an enigma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of sensory neurons and mucus secretion in this phenomenon. Prior to injury with 5 mmol acidified taurocholate (pH 1.2), the stomachs of six groups of rats were subjected to the following protocol. Two groups were topically pretreated with either saline or the mild irritant 1 mmol acidified taurocholate. Two other groups received the topical anesthetic 1% lidocaine prior to pretreatment with either saline or 1 mmol acidified taurocholate. The last two groups got the mucolytic agent 10% N-acetylcysteine (NAC) after pretreatment with either saline or 1 mmol acidified taurocholate. Injury was assessed by measuring net transmucosal ion fluxes, luminal appearance of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and gross and histologic injury. Pretreatment with the mild irritant 1 mmol acidified taurocholate significantly decreased bile acid-induced luminal ion fluxes and DNA accumulation, suggesting mucosal protection (corroborated by gross and histologic injury analysis). This effect was negated by lidocaine but not by NAC. Thus, it appears that sensory neurons, and not increased mucus secretion, play a critical role in adaptive cytoprotection.

  13. Cytoprotective drugs in the prevention of ethanol-induced experimental gastric mucosal damage: a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Gaudio, E; Carpino, F; Petrozza, V; Bianchi, G; Alberico, P; Melis, M; Carlei, F; Lygidakis, N J

    1993-04-01

    Various so-called "cytoprotective" agents (sucralfate, carbenoxolone, 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2, sulglycotide and Maalox TC) have been tested on rats, with the aim of quantifying their capability to prevent ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Rats fasted for 48 hours received 1 ml of 80% ethanol by oral gavage, after prior oral treatment with placebo or one of the above-mentioned drugs u.i.d. for 5 consecutive days. Six hours after ethanol administration, the animals were sacrificed and the stomach was removed and processed for computerized macroscopic assessment of the damaged surface and for structural (light microscopy) and ultrastructural (scanning and transmission electron microscopy) studies. The results obtained demonstrate that ethanol injury caused extensive mucosal necrosis of the glandular region of the stomach, an event that was effectively reduced in rats treated with 16,16-dm-PGE2, carbenoxolone or sulglycotide. These drugs appeared to preserve the mucosa, with morphology comparable to that of normal noninjured rats - in contrast to the other drugs investigated. These data confirm the cytoprotective properties of sulglycotide in particular, which was the most potent agent for preventing the development of ethanol-induced acute lesions of the gastric mucosa.

  14. Pivotal Cytoprotective Mediators and Promising Therapeutic Strategies for Endothelial Progenitor Cell-Based Cardiovascular Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including atherosclerosis, stroke, and myocardial infarction, is a major cause of death worldwide. In aspects of cell therapy against CVD, it is generally accepted that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are potent neovascular modulators in ischemic tissues. In response to ischemic injury signals, EPCs located in a bone marrow niche migrate to injury sites and form new vessels by secreting various vasculogenic factors including VEGF, SDF-1, and FGF, as well as by directly differentiating into endothelial cells. Nonetheless, in ischemic tissues, most of engrafted EPCs do not survive under harsh ischemic conditions and nutrient depletion. Therefore, an understanding of diverse EPC-related cytoprotective mediators underlying EPC homeostasis in ischemic tissues may help to overcome current obstacles for EPC-mediated cell therapy for CVDs. Additionally, to enhance EPC's functional capacity at ischemic sites, multiple strategies for cell survival should be considered, that is, preconditioning of EPCs with function-targeting drugs including natural compounds and hormones, virus mediated genetic modification, combined therapy with other stem/progenitor cells, and conglomeration with biomaterials. In this review, we discuss multiple cytoprotective mediators of EPC-based cardiovascular repair and propose promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of CVDs. PMID:28090210

  15. Antioxidant, antibrowning, and cytoprotective activities of Ligustrum robustum (Rxob.) Blume extract.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Long; Zeng, Wei-Cai

    2013-09-01

    The antioxidant, antibrowning, and cytoprotective activities of Ligustrum robustum (Rxob.) Blume extract (LRE) were investigated and the main antioxidant component was isolated and identified. With its high content of phenols and flavonoids, the LRE showed remarkable antioxidant capacity to scavenge free radicals in vitro and to inhibit oil oxidation in a peanut oil system. Moreover, LRE was observed to inhibit tyrosinase action and browning of fresh-cut apple slices effectively. Furthermore, the cytoprotective activity of LRE was evaluated in a human intestine model using Caco-2 cell lines. According to the activity-guided isolation and identification, by using column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, ursolic acid was characterized as the main antioxidant component of LRE; it showed the strongest free radical-scavenging activity. The results suggested that L. robustum (Rxob.) Blume could be a new resource for preparing functional food and nutraceutical products for use in food and pharmacology industries.

  16. Bioactive Flavonoids, Antioxidant Behaviour, and Cytoprotective Effects of Dried Grapefruit Peels (Citrus paradisi Macf.)

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Vazquez, Lucia; Alañón, María Elena; Rodríguez-Robledo, Virginia; Pérez-Coello, María Soledad; Hermosín-Gutierrez, Isidro; Díaz-Maroto, María Consuelo; Jordán, Joaquín; Galindo, María Francisca; Arroyo-Jiménez, María del Mar

    2016-01-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) is an important cultivar of the Citrus genus which contains a number of nutrients beneficial to human health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in bioactive flavonoids, antioxidant behaviour, and in vitro cytoprotective effect of processed white and pink peels after oven-drying (45°C–60°C) and freeze-drying treatments. Comparison with fresh grapefruit peels was also assessed. Significant increases in DPPH, FRAPS, and ABTS values were observed in dried grapefruit peel samples in comparison with fresh peels, indicating the suitability of the treatments for use as tools to greatly enhance the antioxidant potential of these natural byproducts. A total of thirteen flavonoids were quantified in grapefruit peel extracts by HPLC-MS/MS. It was found that naringin, followed by isonaringin, was the main flavonoid occurring in fresh, oven-dried, and freeze-dried grapefruit peels. In vivo assay revealed that fresh and oven-dried grapefruit peel extracts (45°C) exerted a strong cytoprotective effect on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines at concentrations ranging within 0.1–0.25 mg/mL. Our data suggest that grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) peel has considerable potential as a source of natural bioactive flavonoids with outstanding antioxidant activity which can be used as agents in several therapeutic strategies. PMID:26904169

  17. Assessment of Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Potential of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) Grown in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Papalia, Teresa; Barreca, Davide; Panuccio, Maria Rosaria

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant native of Central and South America, but widely distributed in the wild or semi-cultivated areas in Africa, India, and South East Asia. Although studies are available in literature on the polyphenolic content and bioactivity of Jatropha curcas L., no information is currently available on plants grown in pedoclimatic and soil conditions different from the autochthon regions. The aim of the present work was to characterize the antioxidant system developed by the plant under a new growing condition and to evaluate the polyphenol amount in a methanolic extract of leaves. Along with these analyses we have also tested the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities on lymphocytes. RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of flavonoids revealed a chromatographic profile dominated by the presence of flavone C-glucosydes. Vitexin is the most abundant identified compound followed by vicenin-2, stellarin-2, rhoifolin, and traces of isovitexin and isorhoifolin. Methanolic extract had high scavenging activity in all antioxidant assays tested and cytoprotective activity on lymphocytes exposed to tertz-buthylhydroperoxide. The results highlighted a well-defined mechanism of adaptation of the plant and a significant content of secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties, which are of interest for their potential uses, especially as a rich source of biologically active products. PMID:28335473

  18. Possible cytoprotective mechanism in rats of D-002, an anti-ulcerogenic product isolated from beeswax.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, D; Molina, V; Valdés, S; Arruzazabala, L; Rodeiro, I; Más, R; Magraner, J

    1996-08-01

    D-002 is an anti-ulcerogenic product, isolated from beeswax, which consists of a well-defined mixture of higher primary aliphatic alcohols. It is highly effective against ethanol-induced ulcers. This study was designed to determine if D-002 shows cytoprotective properties on gastric mucosa in ethanol-induced ulcers. The involvement of endogenous prostaglandins in the protective effect of D-002 was also investigated. When a subulcerogenic dose of indomethacin (10 mg kg-1) was injected simultaneously with oral administration of ethanol, oral pre-treatment with D-002 (5-100 mg kg-1) partially inhibited the gastric protection. D-002 (5 and 25 mg kg-1) administered to normal rats significantly increased the soluble mucus content and also prevented its reduction in rats with ethanol-induced ulcers. In addition, D-002 administered at 5 and 25 mg kg-1 prevented the increase of vascular permeability induced by ethanol (60%) and reduced the concentration of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) in gastric mucosa of rats with ethanol-induced ulcers. These results support the hypothesis that the anti-ulcerogenic properties of D-002 could be related to a cytoprotective mechanism.

  19. Tamarix gallica phenolics protect IEC-6 cells against H2O2 induced stress by restricting oxidative injuries and MAPKs signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Bettaib, Jamila; Talarmin, Hélène; Droguet, Mickaël; Magné, Christian; Boulaaba, Mondher; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Ksouri, Riadh

    2017-02-26

    Polyphenolic compounds gained interest in the pharmaceutical research area due to their beneficial properties. Herein, antioxidant and cytoprotective capacities of T. gallica extract on H2O2-challenged rat small intestine epithelial cells were investigated. To set stress conditions, IEC-6 cultures were challenged with numerous H2O2 doses and durations. Then, 40μM H2O2 during 4h were selected to assess the cytoprotective effect of different T. gallica extract concentrations. Oxidative parameters, measured through CAT and SOD activities as well as MDA quantification were assessed. In addition, the expression of possibly involved MAPKs was also valued. Main results reported that T. gallica was rich in polyphenols and exhibited an important antioxidant activity (DPPH Assay, IC50=6μgmL(-1); ABTS(+) test, IC50=50μgmL(-1); Fe-reducing power, EC50=100μgmL(-1)). The exposure of IEC-6 cultures to 40μM H2O2 during 4h caused oxidative stress manifested by (i) over 70% cell mortality, (ii) over-activity of CAT (246%), (iii) excess in MDA content (18.4nmolmg(-1)) and (iiii) a trigger of JNK phosphorylation. Pretreatment with T. gallica extract, especially when used at 0.25μgmL(-1), restored cell viability to 122%, and normal cell morphology in H2O2-chalenged cells. In addition, this extract normalized CAT activity and MDA content (100% and 14.7nmolmg(-1), respectively) to their basal levels as compared to control cells. Furthermore, stopping cell death seems to be due to dephosphorylated JNK MAPK exerted by T. gallica bioactive compounds. In all, T. gallica components provided a cross-talk between regulatory pathways leading to an efficient cytoprotection against harmful oxidative stimulus.

  20. Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency with dual dark mode excitation pathways using MEMS based tri-atomic metamolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Manjappa, Manukumara; Ho, Chong Pei; Singh, Ranjan; Singh, Navab; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-11-01

    We report experimental results of the active switching of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) analogue by controlling the dark mode excitation pathways in a microelectromechanical system based tri-atomic metamolecule, operating in the terahertz spectral region. The tri-atomic metamolecule consists of two bright cut wire resonators (CWRs) on either side of the dark split ring resonators (SRRs). Each of the CWRs can independently excite the dark inductive-capacitive resonance mode of the SRRs through inductive coupling, and this allows for the dual pathways of dark mode excitation. The CWRs are made movable along the out-of-plane direction and electrically isolated to achieve selective reconfiguration. Hence, by controlling the physical position of these CWRs, the excitation pathways can be actively reconfigured. This enables the strong excitation of EIT analogue at 0.65 THz, only when one of the pathways is made accessible. Moreover, the transparency peak is completely modulated when both pathways are made either inaccessible or equally accessible. The proposed approach of realizing independent control of constituent resonators in a multi-resonator coupled system, enables the realization of efficient slow light devices and tunable high-Q resonators in terahertz spectral region.

  1. Control of Ste6 recycling by ubiquitination in the early endocytic pathway in yeast.

    PubMed

    Krsmanovic, Tamara; Pawelec, Agnes; Sydor, Tobias; Kölling, Ralf

    2005-06-01

    We present evidence that ubiquitination controls sorting of the ABC-transporter Ste6 in the early endocytic pathway. The intracellular distribution of Ste6 variants with reduced ubiquitination was examined. In contrast to wild-type Ste6, which was mainly localized to internal structures, these variants accumulated at the cell surface in a polar manner. When endocytic recycling was blocked by Ypt6 inactivation, the ubiquitination deficient variants were trapped inside the cell. This indicates that the polar distribution is maintained dynamically through endocytic recycling and localized exocytosis ("kinetic polarization"). Ste6 does not appear to recycle through late endosomes, because recycling was not blocked in class E vps (vacuolar protein sorting) mutants (Deltavps4, Deltavps27), which are affected in late endosome function and in the retromer mutant Deltavps35. Instead, recycling was partially affected in the sorting nexin mutant Deltasnx4, which serves as an indication that Ste6 recycles through early endosomes. Enhanced recycling of wild-type Ste6 was observed in class D vps mutants (Deltapep12, Deltavps8, and Deltavps21). The identification of putative recycling signals in Ste6 suggests that recycling is a signal-mediated process. Endocytic recycling and localized exocytosis could be important for Ste6 polarization during the mating process.

  2. INSIDE-OUT SIGNALING PATHWAYS FROM NUCLEAR ROS CONTROL PULMONARY INNATE IMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Sanjeev; Brasier, Allan R.

    2016-01-01

    The airway mucosa is responsible for mounting a robust innate immune response (IIR) upon encountering pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The IIR produces protective gene networks that stimulate neighboring epithelia and components of the immune system to trigger adaptive immunity. Little is currently known about how cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling is produced and cooperates in the IIR. We discuss recent discoveries on two nuclear ROS signaling pathways controlling innate immunity. Nuclear ROS oxidize guanine bases to produce mutagenic 8-oxoguanine, a lesion excised by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase1/AP-lyase (OGG1). OGG1 forms a complex with the excised base, inducing its nuclear export. The cytoplasmic OGG1•8-oxoG complex functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, triggering small GTPase signaling and activating phosphorylation of the NFκB/RelA transcription factor to induce immediate early gene expression. In parallel, nuclear ROS are detected by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a PI3 kinase activated by ROS, triggering its nuclear export. ATM forms a scaffold with ribosomal S6 kinases, inducing RelA phosphorylation and resulting in transcription-coupled synthesis of type -I and –III interferons and CC and CXC chemokines. We propose that ATM and OGG1 are endogenous nuclear ROS sensors that transmit nuclear signals that coordinate with outside-in PRR signaling, regulating the IIR. PMID:26756522

  3. A photoactivable multi-inhibitor nanoliposome for tumour control and simultaneous inhibition of treatment escape pathways

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bryan Q.; Sears, R. Bryan; Zheng, Lei Zak; Mai, Zhiming; Watanabe, Reika; Sherwood, Margaret E.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Pogue, Brian W.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Villa, Elizabeth; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale drug delivery vehicles can facilitate multimodal therapies of cancer by promoting tumour-selective drug release. However, few are effective because cancer cells develop ways to resist and evade treatment. Here, we introduce a photoactivatable multi-inhibitor nanoliposome (PMIL) that imparts light-induced cytotoxicity in synchrony with photo-initiated and sustained release of inhibitors that suppress tumour regrowth and treatment escape signalling pathways. The PMIL consists of a nanoliposome doped with a photoactivatable chromophore (benzoporphyrin derivative, BPD) in the lipid bilayer, and a nanoparticle containing cabozantinib (XL184)—a multikinase inhibitor—encapsulated inside. Near infrared tumour irradiation, following intravenous PMIL administration, triggers photodynamic damage of tumour cells and microvessels, and simultaneously initiates release of XL184 inside the tumour. A single PMIL treatment achieves prolonged tumour reduction in two mouse models and suppresses metastatic escape in an orthotopic pancreatic tumour model. The PMIL offers new prospects for cancer therapy by enabling spatiotemporal control of drug release whilst reducing systemic drug exposure and associated toxicities. PMID:26780659

  4. A photoactivable multi-inhibitor nanoliposome for tumour control and simultaneous inhibition of treatment escape pathways.

    PubMed

    Spring, Bryan Q; Bryan Sears, R; Zheng, Lei Zak; Mai, Zhiming; Watanabe, Reika; Sherwood, Margaret E; Schoenfeld, David A; Pogue, Brian W; Pereira, Stephen P; Villa, Elizabeth; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-04-01

    Nanoscale drug delivery vehicles can facilitate multimodal therapies of cancer by promoting tumour-selective drug release. However, few are effective because cancer cells develop ways to resist and evade treatment. Here, we introduce a photoactivable multi-inhibitor nanoliposome (PMIL) that imparts light-induced cytotoxicity in synchrony with a photoinitiated and sustained release of inhibitors that suppress tumour regrowth and treatment escape signalling pathways. The PMIL consists of a nanoliposome doped with a photoactivable chromophore (benzoporphyrin derivative, BPD) in the lipid bilayer, and a nanoparticle containing cabozantinib (XL184)--a multikinase inhibitor--encapsulated inside. Near-infrared tumour irradiation, following intravenous PMIL administration, triggers photodynamic damage of tumour cells and microvessels, and simultaneously initiates release of XL184 inside the tumour. A single PMIL treatment achieves prolonged tumour reduction in two mouse models and suppresses metastatic escape in an orthotopic pancreatic tumour model. The PMIL offers new prospects for cancer therapy by enabling spatiotemporal control of drug release while reducing systemic drug exposure and associated toxicities.

  5. A photoactivable multi-inhibitor nanoliposome for tumour control and simultaneous inhibition of treatment escape pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spring, Bryan Q.; Bryan Sears, R.; Zheng, Lei Zak; Mai, Zhiming; Watanabe, Reika; Sherwood, Margaret E.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Pogue, Brian W.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Villa, Elizabeth; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-04-01

    Nanoscale drug delivery vehicles can facilitate multimodal therapies of cancer by promoting tumour-selective drug release. However, few are effective because cancer cells develop ways to resist and evade treatment. Here, we introduce a photoactivable multi-inhibitor nanoliposome (PMIL) that imparts light-induced cytotoxicity in synchrony with a photoinitiated and sustained release of inhibitors that suppress tumour regrowth and treatment escape signalling pathways. The PMIL consists of a nanoliposome doped with a photoactivable chromophore (benzoporphyrin derivative, BPD) in the lipid bilayer, and a nanoparticle containing cabozantinib (XL184)—a multikinase inhibitor—encapsulated inside. Near-infrared tumour irradiation, following intravenous PMIL administration, triggers photodynamic damage of tumour cells and microvessels, and simultaneously initiates release of XL184 inside the tumour. A single PMIL treatment achieves prolonged tumour reduction in two mouse models and suppresses metastatic escape in an orthotopic pancreatic tumour model. The PMIL offers new prospects for cancer therapy by enabling spatiotemporal control of drug release while reducing systemic drug exposure and associated toxicities.

  6. The Diversity of the Pollen Tube Pathway in Plants: Toward an Increasing Control by the Sporophyte

    PubMed Central

    Lora, Jorge; Hormaza, José I.; Herrero, María

    2016-01-01

    Plants, unlike animals, alternate multicellular diploid, and haploid generations in their life cycle. While this is widespread all along the plant kingdom, the size and autonomy of the diploid sporophyte and the haploid gametophyte generations vary along evolution. Vascular plants show an evolutionary trend toward a reduction of the gametophyte, reflected both in size and lifespan, together with an increasing dependence from the sporophyte. This has resulted in an overlooking of the importance of the gametophytic phase in the evolution of higher plants. This reliance on the sporophyte is most notorious along the pollen tube journey, where the male gametophytes have to travel a long way inside the sporophyte to reach the female gametophyte. Along evolution, there is a change in the scenery of the pollen tube pathway that favors pollen competition and selection. This trend, toward apparently making complicated what could be simple, appears to be related to an increasing control of the sporophyte over the gametophyte with implications for understanding plant evolution. PMID:26904071

  7. A segregated neural pathway for prefrontal top-down control of tactile discrimination.

    PubMed

    Gogulski, Juha; Boldt, Robert; Savolainen, Petri; Guzmán-López, Jessica; Carlson, Synnöve; Pertovaara, Antti

    2015-01-01

    It has proven difficult to separate functional areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), an area implicated in attention, memory, and distraction handling. Here, we assessed in healthy human subjects whether PFC subareas have different roles in top-down regulation of sensory functions by determining how the neural links between the PFC and the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) modulate tactile perceptions. Anatomical connections between the S1 representation area of the cutaneous test site and the PFC were determined using probabilistic tractography. Single-pulse navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation of the middle frontal gyrus-S1 link, but not that of the superior frontal gyrus-S1 link, impaired the ability to discriminate between single and twin tactile pulses. The impairment occurred within a restricted time window and skin area. The spatially and temporally organized top-down control of tactile discrimination through a segregated PFC-S1 pathway suggests functional specialization of PFC subareas in fine-tuned regulation of information processing.

  8. Biopsychosocial pathways linking subjective socioeconomic disadvantage to glycemic control in youths with type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Ellis, Deborah A; Carré, Justin M; Slatcher, Richard B

    2017-04-01

    Older adolescent and young adults (OAYA) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) living in contexts of socio-economic disadvantage (SED) suffer disproportionately from poor glycemic control and related health complications. Although SED may convey a variety of risks, it may exacerbate diabetes-related stress levels, which in turn may account for observed disparities in health outcomes. The primary goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between subjective SED, diabetes-related perceived stress, and diurnal cortisol secretion in urban OAYA with T1D. A secondary goal was to determine if cortisol was related to measures of blood glucose (HbA1c and mean blood glucose). Analyses were conducted among OAYA ages 17-20 years (n=61) affected by T1D, who provided daily saliva samples for four days, measures of glycemic control (i.e., HbA1c and mean blood glucose assessed via Continuous Glucose Monitor), and completed psychosocial questionnaires. We found that subjective SED was associated with a flatter diurnal cortisol rhythm via diabetes-related stress. Flattened cortisol rhythm was, in turn, associated with higher levels of HbA1c, but not with mean blood glucose assessed via Continuous Glucose Monitor. These results represent some of the first empirical evidence on how distal social factors (i.e., subjective SED) and proximal psychological processes (diabetes-related perceived stress) are connected to condition-relevant biological mechanisms (i.e., elevated HbA1c), via broad biological pathways implicated in health (i.e., flatter cortisol slope).

  9. Localized and Controlled Delivery of Nitric Oxide to the Conventional Outflow Pathway via Enzyme Biocatalysis: Toward Therapy for Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Chandrawati, Rona; Chang, Jason Y H; Reina-Torres, Ester; Jumeaux, Coline; Sherwood, Joseph M; Stamer, W Daniel; Zelikin, Alexander N; Overby, Darryl R; Stevens, Molly M

    2017-02-21

    Nitric oxide (NO) is able to lower intraocular pressure (IOP); however, its therapeutic effects on outflow physiology are location- and dose-dependent. An NO delivery platform that directly targets the resistance-generating region of the conventional outflow pathway and locally liberates a controlled dose of NO is reported. An increase in outflow facility (decrease in IOP) is demonstrated in a mouse model.

  10. Cytoprotective effects of amifostine, ascorbic acid and N-acetylcysteine against methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sami; Elbe, Hulya; Eris, Cengiz; Dogan, Zumrut; Toprak, Gulten; Otan, Emrah; Erdemli, Erman; Turkoz, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential role of oxidative stress and the possible therapeutic effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), amifostine (AMF) and ascorbic acid (ASC) in methotrexate (MTX)-induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS: An MTX-induced hepatotoxicity model was established in 44 male Sprague Dawley rats by administration of a single intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg MTX. Eleven of the rats were left untreated (Model group; n = 11), and the remaining rats were treated with a 7-d course of 50 mg/kg per day NAC (MTX + NAC group; n = 11), 50 mg/kg per single dose AMF (MTX + AMF group; n = 11), or 10 mg/kg per day ASC (MTX + ASC group; n = 11). Eleven rats that received no MTX and no treatments served as the negative control group. Structural and functional changes related to MTX- and the various treatments were assessed by histopathological analysis of liver tissues and biochemical assays of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione (GSH) and xanthine oxidase activities and of serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. RESULTS: Exposure to MTX caused structural and functional hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by significantly worse histopathological scores [median (range) injury score: control group: 1 (0-3) vs 7 (6-9), P = 0.001] and significantly higher MDA activity [409 (352-466) nmol/g vs 455.5 (419-516) nmol/g, P < 0.05]. The extent of MTX-induced perturbation of both parameters was reduced by all three cytoprotective agents, but only the reduction in hepatotoxicity scores reached statistical significance [4 (3-6) for NAC, 4.5 (3-5) for AMF and 6 (5-6) for ASC; P = 0.001, P = 0.001 and P < 0.005 vs model group respectively]. Exposure to MTX also caused a significant reduction in the activities of GSH and SOD antioxidants in liver tissues [control group: 3.02 (2.85-3.43) μmol/g and 71.78 (61.88-97.81) U/g vs model group: 2.52 (2.07-3.34) μmol/g and 61.46 (58

  11. Growth control: re-examining Zyxin's role in the hippo pathway.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Kieran F

    2015-03-16

    The Hippo pathway is a conserved regulator of organ growth that computes information from the cellular microenvironment. A new study examines the role of the Hippo pathway protein Zyxin and finds that it antagonises Expanded to modulate F-actin and organ size.

  12. Adaptive Posttranslational Control in Cellular Stress Response Pathways and Its Relationship to Toxicity Testing and Safety Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Pi, Jingbo; Clewell, Rebecca A.; Carmichael, Paul L.; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2015-01-01

    Although transcriptional induction of stress genes constitutes a major cellular defense program against a variety of stressors, posttranslational control directly regulating the activities of preexisting stress proteins provides a faster-acting alternative response. We propose that posttranslational control is a general adaptive mechanism operating in many stress pathways. Here with the aid of computational models, we first show that posttranslational control fulfills two roles: (1) handling small, transient stresses quickly and (2) stabilizing the negative feedback transcriptional network. We then review the posttranslational control pathways for major stress responses—oxidative stress, metal stress, hyperosmotic stress, DNA damage, heat shock, and hypoxia. Posttranslational regulation of stress protein activities occurs by reversible covalent modifications, allosteric or non-allosteric enzymatic regulations, and physically induced protein structural changes. Acting in feedback or feedforward networks, posttranslational control may establish a threshold level of cellular stress. Sub-threshold stresses are handled adequately by posttranslational control without invoking gene transcription. With supra-threshold stress levels, cellular homeostasis cannot be maintained and transcriptional induction of stress genes and other gene programs, eg, those regulating cell metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis, takes place. The loss of homeostasis with consequent changes in cellular function may lead to adverse cellular outcomes. Overall, posttranslational and transcriptional control pathways constitute a stratified cellular defense system, handling stresses coherently across time and intensity. As cell-based assays become a focus for chemical testing anchored on toxicity pathways, examination of proteomic and metabolomic changes as a result of posttranslational control occurring in the absence of transcriptomic alterations deserves more attention. PMID:26408567

  13. [Efficacy of the myocardium cytoprotection in patients with ischemic heart disease during extended operations on abdominal organs].

    PubMed

    Mosienko, B I

    2013-09-01

    The results of studying of the myocardium contractile capacity in patients, suffering the ischemic heart disease, while performing the extended operative interventions are presented. There was noted, that the indices of the myocardium contractile capacity witness its inhibition during traumatic stage of operation and in early postoperative period. There was established an important significance of the myocardium cytoprotection in preoperative preparation of the patients.

  14. Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Piper betle, Areca catechu, Uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Betel quid chewing is a popular habit in Southeast Asia. It is believed that chewing betel quid could reduce stress, strengthen teeth and maintain oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of each of the ingredients of betel quid and compared with betel quid itself (with and without calcium hydroxide). The correlation of their cytoprotective and antioxidant activities with phenolic content was also determined. Methods Five samples (betel leaf, areca nut, gambir, betel quid and betel quid containing calcium hydroxide) were extracted in deionized distilled water for 12 hours at 37°C. Antioxidant activities were evaluated for radical scavenging activity using DPPH assay, ferric reducing activity using FRAP assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity using FTC assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Phenolic composition was analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Cytoprotective activity towards human gingival fibroblast cells was examined using MTT assay. Results Among the ingredients of betel quid, gambir demonstrated the highest antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 = 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/mL, FRAP - 5717.8 ± 537.6 μmol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 1142.5 ± 106.8 μg TAE/mg) and cytoprotective (100.1 ± 4.6%) activities. Betel quid when compared with betel quid containing calcium hydroxide has higher antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 =59.4 ± 4.4 μg/mL, FRAP - 1022.2 ± 235.7 μmol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 140.0 ± 22.3 μg TAE/mg), and cytoprotective (113.5 ± 15.9%) activities. However, all of the five samples showed good lipid peroxidation inhibition compared to vitamin E. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of quinic acid as the major compound of gambir and betel quid. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging (r = 0.972), reducing power (r = 0.981) and cytoprotective

  15. Redox potential as a master variable controlling pathways of metal reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens

    PubMed Central

    Levar, Caleb E; Hoffman, Colleen L; Dunshee, Aubrey J; Toner, Brandy M; Bond, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    Geobacter sulfurreducens uses at least two different pathways to transport electrons out of the inner membrane quinone pool before reducing acceptors beyond the outer membrane. When growing on electrodes poised at oxidizing potentials, the CbcL-dependent pathway operates at or below redox potentials of –0.10 V vs the standard hydrogen electrode, whereas the ImcH-dependent pathway operates only above this value. Here, we provide evidence that G. sulfurreducens also requires different electron transfer proteins for reduction of a wide range of Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-(oxyhydr)oxides, and must transition from a high- to low-potential pathway during reduction of commonly studied soluble and insoluble metal electron acceptors. Freshly precipitated Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides could not be reduced by mutants lacking the high-potential pathway. Aging these minerals by autoclaving did not change their powder X-ray diffraction pattern, but restored reduction by mutants lacking the high-potential pathway. Mutants lacking the low-potential, CbcL-dependent pathway had higher growth yields with both soluble and insoluble Fe(III). Together, these data suggest that the ImcH-dependent pathway exists to harvest additional energy when conditions permit, and CbcL switches on to allow respiration closer to thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. With evidence of multiple pathways within a single organism, the study of extracellular respiration should consider not only the crystal structure or solubility of a mineral electron acceptor, but rather the redox potential, as this variable determines the energetic reward affecting reduction rates, extents, and final microbial growth yields in the environment. PMID:28045456

  16. Redox potential as a master variable controlling pathways of metal reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Levar, Caleb E; Hoffman, Colleen L; Dunshee, Aubrey J; Toner, Brandy M; Bond, Daniel R

    2017-03-01

    Geobacter sulfurreducens uses at least two different pathways to transport electrons out of the inner membrane quinone pool before reducing acceptors beyond the outer membrane. When growing on electrodes poised at oxidizing potentials, the CbcL-dependent pathway operates at or below redox potentials of -0.10 V vs the standard hydrogen electrode, whereas the ImcH-dependent pathway operates only above this value. Here, we provide evidence that G. sulfurreducens also requires different electron transfer proteins for reduction of a wide range of Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-(oxyhydr)oxides, and must transition from a high- to low-potential pathway during reduction of commonly studied soluble and insoluble metal electron acceptors. Freshly precipitated Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides could not be reduced by mutants lacking the high-potential pathway. Aging these minerals by autoclaving did not change their powder X-ray diffraction pattern, but restored reduction by mutants lacking the high-potential pathway. Mutants lacking the low-potential, CbcL-dependent pathway had higher growth yields with both soluble and insoluble Fe(III). Together, these data suggest that the ImcH-dependent pathway exists to harvest additional energy when conditions permit, and CbcL switches on to allow respiration closer to thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. With evidence of multiple pathways within a single organism, the study of extracellular respiration should consider not only the crystal structure or solubility of a mineral electron acceptor, but rather the redox potential, as this variable determines the energetic reward affecting reduction rates, extents, and final microbial growth yields in the environment.

  17. An antioxidant nanozyme that uncovers the cytoprotective potential of vanadia nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernekar, Amit A.; Sinha, Devanjan; Srivastava, Shubhi; Paramasivam, Prasath U.; D'Silva, Patrick; Mugesh, Govindasamy

    2014-11-01

    Nanomaterials with enzyme-like properties has attracted significant interest, although limited information is available on their biological activities in cells. Here we show that V2O5 nanowires (Vn) functionally mimic the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase by using cellular glutathione. Although bulk V2O5 is known to be toxic to the cells, the property is altered when converted into a nanomaterial form. The Vn nanozymes readily internalize into mammalian cells of multiple origin (kidney, neuronal, prostate, cervical) and exhibit robust enzyme-like activity by scavenging the reactive oxygen species when challenged against intrinsic and extrinsic oxidative stress. The Vn nanozymes fully restore the redox balance without perturbing the cellular antioxidant defense, thus providing an important cytoprotection for biomolecules against harmful oxidative damage. Based on our findings, we envision that biocompatible Vn nanowires can provide future therapeutic potential to prevent ageing, cardiac disorders and several neurological conditions, including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease.

  18. Health and Cellular Impacts of Air Pollutants: From Cytoprotection to Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Andreau, Karine; Leroux, Melanie; Bouharrour, Aida

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution as one of the ravages of our modern societies is primarily linked to urban centers, industrial activities, or road traffic. These atmospheric pollutants have been incriminated in deleterious health effects by numerous epidemiological and in vitro studies. Environmental air pollutants are a heterogeneous mixture of particles suspended into a liquid and gaseous phase which trigger the disruption of redox homeostasis—known under the term of cellular oxidative stress—in relation with the establishment of inflammation and cell death via necrosis, apoptosis, or autophagy. Activation or repression of the apoptotic process as an adaptative response to xenobiotics might lead to either acute or chronic toxicity. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the central role of oxidative stress induced by air pollutants and to focus on the subsequent cellular impacts ranging from cytoprotection to cytotoxicity by decreasing or stimulating apoptosis, respectively. PMID:22550588

  19. Solventless extraction methods for immature fruits: Evaluation of their antioxidant and cytoprotective activities.

    PubMed

    Heng, Ming Yuan; Katayama, Shigeru; Mitani, Takakazu; Ong, Eng Shi; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2017-04-15

    In this study, extraction of immature fruits using an environmentally friendly pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) method was compared with the traditional reflux method. Extracts were tested for their polyphenol content using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and for their antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The highest amount of polyphenol was extracted from grape (stem) using PHWE at 100°C, or reflux extraction. This was followed by reflux extraction of grape (fruit). The results were similar for the ORAC assay. All samples extracted using PHWE at 100°C showed cytoprotective activity against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells. This study demonstrated that beneficial compounds can be extracted from immature fruits without the use of organic solvents. The utilization of beneficial compounds present in immature fruits can also contribute to the reduction in agriculture waste generated.

  20. Expression of hsp90 mediates cytoprotective effects in the gastrodermis of planarians.

    PubMed

    Conte, Maria; Isolani, Maria Emilia; Deri, Paolo; Mannini, Linda; Batistoni, Renata

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play a crucial role in the protection of cells. In the present study, we have identified an hsp90-related gene (Djhsp90) encoding a cytosolic form of HSP90 that is primarily expressed in gastrodermis of the planarian Dugesia japonica. Djhsp90 becomes significantly induced after traumatic amputation or other stress stimuli, such as exposure to X-ray or ultraviolet radiations, heat shock, or prolonged starvation. When Djhsp90 is silenced by ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi), planarians dramatically decrease in size, becoming unable to eat, and die in a few weeks. Our results indicate that this gene plays an essential cytoprotective role in the gastrodermis of planarians and suggest that this chaperone can be involved in autophagic processes that are activated by this tissue.

  1. Cellular uptake and organ accumulation of amphipolar metallocorroles with cytoprotective and cytotoxic properties.

    PubMed

    Okun, Zoya; Kuperschmidt, Lana; Youdim, Moussa B H; Gross, Zeev

    2011-05-01

    We report here an investigation that focuses on the organ distribution of metal complexes that are chelated by the amphipolar corrole whose macrocycle is decorated by two sulphonic acid head groups, which are emerging potential therapeutics against cancer (the cytotoxic Ga chelate) and diseases that are characterized by excessive production of ROS and RNS (the cytoprotective Mn and Fe derivatives). We show that the intraperitoneally injected fluorescent gallium(III) derivative accumulates in tissues sections of the kidney, liver, lung, heart, and pancreas. It also reaches the brain blood vessels, but does not cross the blood brain barrier. These findings are of prime importance for future in vivo studies on disease models, as they point toward a large utility of this kind of corrole chelates for treating cancer, neurodegenerative diseases characterized by "leaking BBB", cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.

  2. Vascular relaxation induced by Eucommiae Ulmoides Oliv. and its compounds Oroxylin A and wogonin: implications on their cytoprotection action

    PubMed Central

    Akinyi, Mary; Gao, Xiu Mei; Li, Yu Hong; Wang, Bing Yao; Liu, Er Wei; Chai, Li Juan; JawoBah, Abdulai; Fan, Guan Wei

    2014-01-01

    The vascular relaxation action of Eucommiae Ulmoides Oliv. also known as Duzhong has been seen on arteries of the heart such as the aorta and the coronary artery which are elastic in nature. Duzhong is historically an active ingredient commonly used in hypertensive herbal prescriptions in China. This work investigated the vasodilating effect of Duzhong and its compounds (wogonin 10 μM and oroxylin-A) in the isolated intact rat heart, perfused retrograde according the method of Langendorff and the cytoprotective effect in EA.hy926 cell lines Coronary perfusion pressure was monitored with a pressure transducer connected to a side-arm of the aortic perfusion cannula. Duzhong induced vasorelaxation in a dose dependent manner, on precontracting the vessels with endothelin-1, Duzhong 10 mg/ml, wogonin 10 μM and oroxylin-A 10 μM could significantly lower the perfusion pressure in reference to positive control SNP, Duzhong induced vasodilation was not inhibited by L-NAME (nitric oxide inhibitor), but was significantly inhibited by Tetraethyl ammonium (TEA, a K+ channel blocker and almost abolished by potassium chloride. The underlying mechanism was carried out in EA.hy926 cell lines. When these cells were treated with H2O2, there was higher expression of NOX-4, TNF-α and COX-2 mRNA. However, wogonin treatment attenuated the mRNA of NOX-4, TNF-α and COX-2. Wogonin also upregulated the mRNA expression of CAT, SOD-1 and GSR in oxidative stress induced by H2O2 EA.hy926 cells. Duzhong and compounds can exert an in vitro relaxation effect of the coronary artery and improve the heart function in Langendorff apparatus. This action appears to be endothelium dependent but not NO mediated. Cell culture findings indicated that wogonin can exert vascular and cellular protection by scavenging Reactive Oxygen Species. PMID:25419347

  3. Cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of phenolic compounds from Haberlea rhodopensis Friv. (Gesneriaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Zheleva-Dimitrova, Dimitrina; Nedialkov, Paraskev; Girreser, Ulrich; Mitcheva, Mitka

    2013-01-01

    Background: Haberlea rhodopensis Friv. (Gesneriaceae) is a rare poikilohydric endemic and preglacial relict growing in Balkan Peninsula. Previous investigations demonstrated strong antioxidant, antimicrobial and antimutagenic potential of alcoholic extract from the plant. Objective: The isolation of known caffeoyl phenylethanoid glucoside – myconoside and flavone-C-glycosides hispidulin 8-C-(2-O-syringoyl-β-glucopyranoside), hispidulin 8-C-(6-O-acetyl-2-O-syringoyl-β-glucopyranoside), and hispidulin 8-C-(6-O-acetyl-β-glucopyranoside) from the leaves of H. rhodopensis was carried out. The aim of this study was to investigate cyto-protective and antioxidant effects of isolated compounds. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity of isolated substances was examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radicals; ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in linoleic acid system by ferric thyocianate method. The compounds were investigated for their possible protective and antioxidant effects against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were assayed as an index of LPO. Lactate dehydrogenase leakage, cell viability, and reduced glutathione depletion were used as signs of cytotoxicity. Results: Myconoside demonstrated the highest DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS, FRAP, and antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system as well as the highest and statistically most significant protection and antioxidant activity against the toxic agent. Conclusion: Phenolic compounds isolated from H. rhodopensis demonstrated significant cytoprotective, radical scavenging potential, and inhibit lipid peroxidation, moreover, myconoside was found to be a new powerful natural antioxidant. PMID:24124280

  4. Cytoprotective effect of lithium against spontaneous and induced apoptosis of lymphoid cell line MOLT-4.

    PubMed

    Pietruczuk, K; Jóźwik, A; Ruckemann-Dziurdzińska, K; Bryl, E; Witkowski, J M

    2009-01-01

    Lithium (Li) is still useful in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Cellular mechanisms of Li action are not fully understood and include some cytoprotective properties. Data concerning Li effect on the apoptotic mechanisms in cells other than neurons are fragmentary and contradictory. We have investigated anti-apoptotic activity of Li in a lymphoid derived MOLT-4 cell line. Spontaneous and camptothecin-induced apoptosis was analyzed in cells treated with 0-20 mM Li carbonate. Early apoptosis was identified as significant mitochondrial depolarization (JC-1 staining). Later stages of apoptosis were estimated with annexin V binding and by the proportion of cells containing sub-G1 amounts of DNA (PI staining). We have observed a biphasic effect of Li on the proportion of spontaneously apoptotic cells;namely, low (therapeutic) concentrations of Li had a significant effect stabilizing the mitochondrial membrane polarization, while 10 and 20mM Li increased apoptosis. The latter could be seen both as mitochondrial depolarization as well as an increased proportion of sub-G1 cells, accompanied by reduced proportion of S phase cells. Li at concentrations above 2 mM had a significant, dose-dependent, anti-apoptotic effect on the cells undergoing camptothecin induced apoptosis. In conclusion, demonstrated cytoprotective effect of Li is at least partially related to stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential and to the reduction of DNA damaging effects in proliferating cells; both may form part of the mechanism through which Li is useful in therapy of bipolar disorder, but may have more general consequences.

  5. Cytoprotection of kidney epithelial cells by compounds that target amino acid gated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, M A; Weinberg, J M; Patel, Y; Saikumar, P; Dong, Z

    1996-02-01

    Glycine, strychnine and certain chloride channel blockers were reported to protect cells against lethal cell injury. These effects have been attributed to interactions with membrane proteins related to CNS glycine gated chloride channel receptors. We have investigated the pharmacology of these actions. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells were depleted of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by incubation in glucose free medium containing a mitochondrial uncoupler. Medium Ca2+ was adjusted to 100 nM in the presence of an ionophore such that intracellular Ca2+ did not increase, and Ca(2+)-related injury mechanisms were inhibited. This permitted more sensitive quantitation of protection against cell injury attributable to glycine or other agents whose actions might be related to those of the amino acid. Two classes of compounds showed cytoprotective activity in this system: (1) ligands at chloride channel receptors, such as glycine, strychnine and avermectin B1a; (2) chloride channel blockers, including cyanotriphenylboron and niflumic acid, both of which are known to bind to channel domains of CNS glycine receptors. Morphological and functional studies showed that the compounds preserved plasma membrane integrity, but permitted cell swelling. Substitution of medium chloride by gluconate, or chloride salts by sucrose, did not substantially modify lethal damage or its prevention by glycine or other drugs. The compounds did not modify ATP declines. At least for some compounds, cytoprotection appeared to be specific to structural features on the molecules. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that a plasma membrane protein related to glycine-gated chloride channel receptors plays a significant role in cell injury, but indicate that the mechanisms of injury and protection by compounds active in this system are not related to chloride fluxes.

  6. The control of axillary meristem fate in the maize ramosa pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Long, Jeff A.; Stanfield, Sharon; Yang, Xiang; Jackson, David; Vollbrecht, Erik; Schmidt, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Plant axillary meristems are composed of highly organized, self-renewing stem cells that produce indeterminate branches or terminate in differentiated structures, such as the flowers. These opposite fates, dictated by both genetic and environmental factors, determine interspecific differences in the architecture of plants. The Cys2-His2 zinc-finger transcription factor RAMOSA1 (RA1) regulates the fate of most axillary meristems during the early development of maize inflorescences, the tassel and the ear, and has been implicated in the evolution of grass architecture. Mutations in RA1 or any other known members of the ramosa pathway, RAMOSA2 and RAMOSA3, generate highly branched inflorescences. Here, we report a genetic screen for the enhancement of maize inflorescence branching and the discovery of a new regulator of meristem fate: the RAMOSA1 ENHANCER LOCUS2 (REL2) gene. rel2 mutants dramatically increase the formation of long branches in ears of both ra1 and ra2 mutants. REL2 encodes a transcriptional co-repressor similar to the TOPLESS protein of Arabidopsis, which is known to maintain apical-basal polarity during embryogenesis. REL2 is capable of rescuing the embryonic defects of the Arabidopsis topless-1 mutant, suggesting that REL2 also functions as a transcriptional co-repressor throughout development. We show by genetic and molecular analyses that REL2 physically interacts with RA1, indicating that the REL2/RA1 transcriptional repressor complex antagonizes the formation of indeterminate branches during maize inflorescence development. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of meristem fate and the architecture of plants. PMID:20699296

  7. The control of axillary meristem fate in the maize ramosa pathway.

    PubMed

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Long, Jeff A; Stanfield, Sharon; Yang, Xiang; Jackson, David; Vollbrecht, Erik; Schmidt, Robert J

    2010-09-01

    Plant axillary meristems are composed of highly organized, self-renewing stem cells that produce indeterminate branches or terminate in differentiated structures, such as the flowers. These opposite fates, dictated by both genetic and environmental factors, determine interspecific differences in the architecture of plants. The Cys(2)-His(2) zinc-finger transcription factor RAMOSA1 (RA1) regulates the fate of most axillary meristems during the early development of maize inflorescences, the tassel and the ear, and has been implicated in the evolution of grass architecture. Mutations in RA1 or any other known members of the ramosa pathway, RAMOSA2 and RAMOSA3, generate highly branched inflorescences. Here, we report a genetic screen for the enhancement of maize inflorescence branching and the discovery of a new regulator of meristem fate: the RAMOSA1 ENHANCER LOCUS2 (REL2) gene. rel2 mutants dramatically increase the formation of long branches in ears of both ra1 and ra2 mutants. REL2 encodes a transcriptional co-repressor similar to the TOPLESS protein of Arabidopsis, which is known to maintain apical-basal polarity during embryogenesis. REL2 is capable of rescuing the embryonic defects of the Arabidopsis topless-1 mutant, suggesting that REL2 also functions as a transcriptional co-repressor throughout development. We show by genetic and molecular analyses that REL2 physically interacts with RA1, indicating that the REL2/RA1 transcriptional repressor complex antagonizes the formation of indeterminate branches during maize inflorescence development. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of meristem fate and the architecture of plants.

  8. A proteolytic pathway that controls glucose uptake in fat and muscle

    PubMed Central

    Belman, Jonathan P.; Habtemichael, Estifanos N.; Bogan, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin regulates glucose uptake by controlling the subcellular location of GLUT4 glucose transporters. GLUT4 is sequestered within fat and muscle cells during low-insulin states, and is translocated to the cell surface upon insulin stimulation. The TUG protein is a functional tether that sequesters GLUT4 at the Golgi matrix. To stimulate glucose uptake, insulin triggers TUG endoproteolytic cleavage. Cleavage accounts for a large proportion of the acute effect of insulin to mobilize GLUT4 to the cell surface. During ongoing insulin exposure, endocytosed GLUT4 recycles to the plasma membrane directly from endosomes, and bypasses a TUG-regulated trafficking step. Insulin acts through the TC10α GTPase and its effector protein, PIST, to stimulate TUG cleavage. This action is coordinated with insulin signals through AS160/Tbc1D4 and Tbc1D1 to modulate Rab GTPases, and with other signals to direct overall GLUT4 targeting. Data support the idea that the N-terminal TUG cleavage product, TUGUL, functions as a novel ubiquitin-like protein modifier to facilitate GLUT4 movement to the cell surface. The C-terminal TUG cleavage product is extracted from the Golgi matrix, which vacates an “anchoring” site to permit subsequent cycles of GLUT4 retention and release. Together, GLUT4 vesicle translocation and TUG cleavage may coordinate glucose uptake with physiologic effects of other proteins present in the GLUT4-containing vesicles, and with potential additional effects of the TUG C-terminal product. Understanding this TUG pathway for GLUT4 retention and release will shed light on the regulation of glucose uptake and the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24114239

  9. The alternative complement pathway control protein H binds to immune complexes and serves their detection

    SciTech Connect

    Nydegger, U.E.; Corvetta, A.; Spaeth, P.J.; Spycher, M.

    1983-01-01

    During solubilization of immune complexes C3b becomes fixed to the immunoglobulin part and serves as a receptor for the alternative complement pathway control protein H. The H-C3b immune complex interaction can be made detectable using 4% polyethyleneglycol to separate free from bound /sup 125/I-H. Tetanus toxoid (Te)/anti-Te complexes kept soluble with fresh serum and containing 125 IU of specific antibody bound 18% of /sup 125/I-H; when fresh serum was chelated with 10 mM EDTA, /sup 125/I-H binding was only 5%. On sucrose density gradients, the H-binding material sedimented in the range of 12 to 30 S. In 36 serum samples from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and in 12 serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), /sup 125/I-H binding was significantly elevated to 9.5 +/- 4.7% (mean +/- 1 SD) and 13.3 +/- 5.6%, respectively, while /sup 125/I-H binding by 36 normal human sera was 4 +/- 2%. RA samples (17/36, 47%) and SLE samples (9/12, 75%) had H-binding values increased by more than 2 SD above the normal mean. The serum samples were also assessed for conglutinin- and C1q-binding activities; a significant correlation between H and C1q binding was observed (P less than 0.001); there was no correlation between H and conglutinin binding. Although binding to immune complexes through its interaction with C3b, H clearly detects a population of complexes other than conglutinin, thus expanding the possibilities of further characterizing pathological complexes.

  10. Spatial landmarks regulate a Cdc42-dependent MAPK pathway to control differentiation and the response to positional compromise

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sukanya; Vadaie, Nadia; Prabhakar, Aditi; Li, Boyang; Adhikari, Hema; Pitoniak, Andrew; Chow, Jacky; Chavel, Colin A.; Cullen, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental problem in cell biology is to understand how spatial information is recognized and integrated into morphogenetic responses. Budding yeast undergoes differentiation to filamentous growth, which involves changes in cell polarity through mechanisms that remain obscure. Here we define a regulatory input where spatial landmarks (bud-site–selection proteins) regulate the MAPK pathway that controls filamentous growth (fMAPK pathway). The bud-site GTPase Rsr1p regulated the fMAPK pathway through Cdc24p, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the polarity establishment GTPase Cdc42p. Positional landmarks that direct Rsr1p to bud sites conditionally regulated the fMAPK pathway, corresponding to their roles in regulating bud-site selection. Therefore, cell differentiation is achieved in part by the reorganization of polarity at bud sites. In line with this conclusion, dynamic changes in budding pattern during filamentous growth induced corresponding changes in fMAPK activity. Intrinsic compromise of bud-site selection also impacted fMAPK activity. Therefore, a surveillance mechanism monitors spatial position in response to extrinsic and intrinsic stress and modulates the response through a differentiation MAPK pathway. PMID:27001830

  11. Identification of Alternative Vapor Intrusion Pathways Using Controlled Pressure Testing, Soil Gas Monitoring, and Screening Model Calculations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanming; Holton, Chase; Luo, Hong; Dahlen, Paul; Gorder, Kyle; Dettenmaier, Erik; Johnson, Paul C

    2015-11-17

    Vapor intrusion (VI) pathway assessment and data interpretation have been guided by an historical conceptual model in which vapors originating from contaminated soil or groundwater diffuse upward through soil and are swept into a building by soil gas flow induced by building underpressurization. Recent studies reveal that alternative VI pathways involving neighborhood sewers, land drains, and other major underground piping can also be significant VI contributors, even to buildings beyond the delineated footprint of soil and groundwater contamination. This work illustrates how controlled-pressure-method testing (CPM), soil gas sampling, and screening-level emissions calculations can be used to identify significant alternative VI pathways that might go undetected by conventional sampling under natural conditions at some sites. The combined utility of these tools is shown through data collected at a long-term study house, where a significant alternative VI pathway was discovered and altered so that it could be manipulated to be on or off. Data collected during periods of natural and CPM conditions show that the alternative pathway was significant, but its presence was not identifiable under natural conditions; it was identified under CPM conditions when measured emission rates were 2 orders of magnitude greater than screening-model estimates and subfoundation vertical soil gas profiles changed and were no longer consistent with the conventional VI conceptual model.

  12. Oxidative stress modulates heme synthesis and induces peroxiredoxin-2 as a novel cytoprotective response in β-thalassemic erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    De Franceschi, Lucia; Bertoldi, Mariarita; De Falco, Luigia; Santos Franco, Sara; Ronzoni, Luisa; Turrini, Franco; Colancecco, Alessandra; Camaschella, Clara; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Iolascon, Achille

    2011-01-01

    Background β-thalassemic syndromes are inherited red cell disorders characterized by severe ineffective erythropoiesis and increased levels of reactive oxygen species whose contribution to β-thalassemic anemia is only partially understood. Design and Methods We studied erythroid precursors from normal and β-thalassemic peripheral CD34+ cells in two-phase liquid culture by proteomic, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses. We measured intracellular reactive oxygen species, heme levels and the activity of δ-aminolevulinate-synthase-2. We exposed normal cells and K562 cells with silenced peroxiredoxin-2 to H2O2 and generated a recombinant peroxiredoxin-2 for kinetic measurements in the presence of H2O2 or hemin. Results In β-thalassemia the increased production of reactive oxygen species was associated with down-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 and biliverdin reductase and up-regulation of peroxiredoxin-2. In agreement with these observations in β-thalassemic cells we found decreased heme levels related to significantly reduced activity of the first enzyme of the heme pathway, δ-aminolevulinate synthase-2 without differences in its expression. We demonstrated that the activity of recombinant δ-aminolevulinate synthase-2 is inhibited by both reactive oxygen species and hemin as a protective mechanism in β-thalassemic cells. We then addressed the question of the protective role of peroxiredoxin-2 in erythropoiesis by exposing normal cells to oxidative stress and silencing peroxiredoxin-2 in human erythroleukemia K562 cells. We found that peroxiredoxin-2 expression is up-regulated in response to oxidative stress and required for K562 cells to survive oxidative stress. We then showed that peroxiredoxin-2 binds heme in erythroid precursors with high affinity, suggesting a possible multifunctional cytoprotective role of peroxiredoxin-2 in β-thalassemia. Conclusions In β-thalassemic erythroid cells the reduction of

  13. Acetate fluxes in Escherichia coli are determined by the thermodynamic control of the Pta-AckA pathway

    PubMed Central

    Enjalbert, Brice; Millard, Pierre; Dinclaux, Mickael; Portais, Jean-Charles; Létisse, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli excretes acetate upon growth on fermentable sugars, but the regulation of this production remains elusive. Acetate excretion on excess glucose is thought to be an irreversible process. However, dynamic 13C-metabolic flux analysis revealed a strong bidirectional exchange of acetate between E. coli and its environment. The Pta-AckA pathway was found to be central for both flux directions, while alternative routes (Acs or PoxB) play virtually no role in glucose consumption. Kinetic modelling of the Pta-AckA pathway predicted that its flux is thermodynamically controlled by the extracellular acetate concentration in vivo. Experimental validations confirmed that acetate production can be reduced and even reversed depending solely on its extracellular concentration. Consistently, the Pta-AckA pathway can rapidly switch from acetate production to consumption. Contrary to current knowledge, E. coli is thus able to co-consume glucose and acetate under glucose excess. These metabolic capabilities were confirmed on other glycolytic substrates which support the growth of E. coli in the gut. These findings highlight the dual role of the Pta-AckA pathway in acetate production and consumption during growth on glycolytic substrates, uncover a novel regulatory mechanism that controls its flux in vivo, and significantly expand the metabolic capabilities of E. coli. PMID:28186174

  14. Dexmedetomidine controls systemic cytokine levels through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hui; Hu, Bo; Li, Zhifeng; Li, Jianguo

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that dexmedetomidine exerted anti-inflammatory effect on several animal models with inflammation, but the mechanism is not clear. This study intends to elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of dexmedetomidine through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. To investigate this therapeutic potential of dexmedetomidine, a murine model of endotoxemia was established induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Animals were assigned to one of four protocols. Protocol one: animals were randomly assigned to control group, dexmedetomidine group, and sterile saline group (n=20 each), and these animals were used for survival analysis. The survival rate was assessed up to 120 h after endotoxin injection. Protocol two: animals were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n=16 each): group 1 (group Saline), treated with sterile saline 15 min prior to endotoxin treatment (10 mg kg(-1) over 2 min); group 2 (group Dex), treated with dexmedetomidine 15 min prior to endotoxin treatment; group 3 (group αBGT+Dex), treated with alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR) antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin (αBGT, 1 μg/kg) 15 min prior to dexmedetomidine treatment; group 4 (group saline+Dex), treated with equivalent sterile saline 15 min prior to dexmedetomidine treatment. Protocol three: animals were randomly assigned to one of two groups (n=16 each): vagotomy group (group VNX+Dex), right cervical vagus nerve was exposed and transected; sham-operated group (group SHAM+Dex), the cervical vagus nerve was visualized, but was neither isolated from the surrounding tissues nor transected. Protocol four: animals were treated with dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) and sterile saline to observe the discharge activity of cervical vagus nerves by using BL-420F data acquisition and analysis system (n=16 each). In the survival analysis groups, the survival rate of dexmedetomidine group was significantly higher than that of the endotoxemia group (65 versus 25 %, P<0

  15. Tor1 and CK2 kinases control a switch between alternative ribosome biogenesis pathways in a growth-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Kos-Braun, Isabelle C.; Jung, Ilona; Koš, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a major energy-consuming process in the cell that has to be rapidly down-regulated in response to stress or nutrient depletion. The target of rapamycin 1 (Tor1) pathway regulates synthesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) at the level of transcription initiation. It remains unclear whether ribosome biogenesis is also controlled directly at the posttranscriptional level. We show that Tor1 and casein kinase 2 (CK2) kinases regulate a rapid switch between a productive and a non-productive pre-rRNA processing pathways in yeast. Under stress, the pre-rRNA continues to be synthesized; however, it is processed differently, and no new ribosomes are produced. Strikingly, the control of the switch does not require the Sch9 kinase, indicating that an unrecognized Tor Complex 1 (TORC1) signaling branch involving CK2 kinase directly regulates ribosome biogenesis at the posttranscriptional level. PMID:28282370

  16. Loss of the six3/6 controlling pathways might have resulted in pinhole-eye evolution in Nautilus.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Atsushi; Yoshida, Masa-aki; Moritaki, Takeya; Okuda, Yuki; Sese, Jun; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Sousounis, Konstantinos; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2013-01-01

    Coleoid cephalopods have an elaborate camera eye whereas nautiloids have primitive pinhole eye without lens and cornea. The Nautilus pinhole eye provides a unique example to explore the module of lens formation and its evolutionary mechanism. Here, we conducted an RNA-seq study of developing eyes of Nautilus and pygmy squid. First, we found that evolutionary distances from the common ancestor to Nautilus or squid are almost the same. Although most upstream eye development controlling genes were expressed in both species, six3/6 that are required for lens formation in vertebrates was not expressed in Nautilus. Furthermore, many downstream target genes of six3/6 including crystallin genes and other lens protein related genes were not expressed in Nautilus. As six3/6 and its controlling pathways are widely conserved among molluscs other than Nautilus, the present data suggest that deregulation of the six3/6 pathway led to the pinhole eye evolution in Nautilus.

  17. The Opa1-Dependent Mitochondrial Cristae Remodeling Pathway Controls Atrophic, Apoptotic, and Ischemic Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Varanita, Tatiana; Soriano, Maria Eugenia; Romanello, Vanina; Zaglia, Tania; Quintana-Cabrera, Rubén; Semenzato, Martina; Menabò, Roberta; Costa, Veronica; Civiletto, Gabriele; Pesce, Paola; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Di Lisa, Fabio; Mongillo, Marco; Sandri, Marco; Scorrano, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial morphological and ultrastructural changes occur during apoptosis and autophagy, but whether they are relevant in vivo for tissue response to damage is unclear. Here we investigate the role of the optic atrophy 1 (OPA1)-dependent cristae remodeling pathway in vivo and provide evidence that it regulates the response of multiple tissues to apoptotic, necrotic, and atrophic stimuli. Genetic inhibition of the cristae remodeling pathway in vivo does not affect development, but protects mice from denervation-induced muscular atrophy, ischemic heart and brain damage, as well as hepatocellular apoptosis. Mechanistically, OPA1-dependent mitochondrial cristae stabilization increases mitochondrial respiratory efficiency and blunts mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, and reactive oxygen species production. Our results indicate that the OPA1-dependent cristae remodeling pathway is a fundamental, targetable determinant of tissue damage in vivo. PMID:26039448

  18. Control of YAP/TAZ Activity by Metabolic and Nutrient-Sensing Pathways.

    PubMed

    Santinon, Giulia; Pocaterra, Arianna; Dupont, Sirio

    2016-04-01

    Metabolism is a fundamental cellular function that can be reprogrammed by signaling pathways and oncogenes to meet cellular requirements. An emerging paradigm is that signaling and transcriptional networks can be in turn regulated by metabolism, allowing cells to coordinate their metabolism and behavior in an integrated manner. The activity of the YAP/TAZ transcriptional coactivators, downstream transducers of the Hippo cascade and powerful pro-oncogenic factors, was recently found to be regulated by metabolic pathways, such as aerobic glycolysis and mevalonate synthesis, and by the nutrient-sensing LKB1-AMPK and TSC-mTOR pathways. We discuss here current data linking YAP/TAZ to metabolism and suggest how this coupling might coordinate nutrient availability with genetic programs that sustain tissue growth, neoplastic cell proliferation, and tumor malignancy.

  19. Reciprocal Control of Thyroid Binding and the Pipecolate Pathway in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Hallen, André; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones have long been known to play an essential role in brain growth and development, with cytoplasmic thyroid hormone binding proteins (THBPs) playing a critical role in thyroid hormone bioavailability. A major mammalian THBP is μ-crystallin (CRYM), which was originally characterized by its ability to strongly bind thyroid hormones in an NADPH-dependent fashion. However, in 2011 it was discovered that CRYM is also an enzyme, namely ketimine reductase (KR), which catalyzes the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of -C=N- (imine) double bonds of a number of cyclic ketimine substrates including sulfur-containing cyclic ketimines. The enzyme activity was also shown to be potently inhibited by thyroid hormones, thus suggesting a novel reciprocal relationship between enzyme catalysis and thyroid hormone bioavailability. KR is involved in a number of amino acid metabolic pathways. However, the best documented biological function of KR is its role as a ∆(1)-piperideine-2-carboxylate (P2C) reductase in the pipecolate pathway of lysine metabolism. The pipecolate pathway is the main L-lysine degradation pathway in the adult brain, whereas the saccharopine pathway predominates in extracerebral tissues and in infant brain, suggesting that KR has evolved to perform specific and important roles in neural development and function. The potent regulation of KR activity by thyroid hormones adds further weight to this suggestion. KR is also involved in L-ornithine/L-glutamate/L-proline metabolism as well as sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism. This review describes the pipecolate pathway and recent discoveries related to mammalian KR function, which have important implications in normal and pathological brain functions.

  20. Role of Direct vs. Indirect Pathways from the Motor Cortex to Spinal Motoneurons in the Control of Hand Dexterity

    PubMed Central

    Isa, Tadashi; Kinoshita, Masaharu; Nishimura, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionally, development of the direct connection from the motor cortex to spinal motoneurons [corticomotoneuronal (CM) pathway] parallels the ability of hand dexterity. Damage to the corticofugal fibers in higher primates resulted in deficit of fractionated digit movements. Based on such observations, it was generally believed that the CM pathway plays a critical role in the control of hand dexterity. On the other hand, a number of “phylogenetically older” indirect pathways from the motor cortex to motoneurons still exist in primates. The indirect pathways are mediated by intercalated neurons such as segmental interneurons (sINs), propriospinal neurons (PNs) reticulospinal neurons (RSNs), or rubrospinal neurons (RuSNs). However, their contribution to hand dexterity remains elusive. Lesion of the brainstem pyramid sparing the transmission through the RuSNs and RSNs, resulted in permanent deficit of fractionated digit movements in macaque monkeys. On the other hand, in our recent study, after lesion of the dorsolateral funiculus (DLF) at the C5 segment, which removed the lateral corticospinal tract (l-CST) including the CM pathway and the transmission through sINs and RuSNs but spared the processing through the PNs and RSNs, fractionated digit movements recovered within several weeks. These results suggest that the PNs can be involved in the recovery of fractionated digit movements, but the RSNs and RuSNs have less capacity in this regard. However, on closer inspection, it was found that the activation pattern of hand and arm muscles considerably changed after the C5 lesion, suggesting limitation of PNs for the compensation of hand dexterity. Altogether, it is suggested that PNs, RSNs RuSNs, and the CM pathway (plus sINs) make a different contribution to the hand dexterity and appearance of motor deficit of the hand dexterity caused by damage to the corticofugal fibers and potential of recovery varies depending on the rostrocaudal level of the lesion. PMID

  1. Comparative analysis of the role of small G proteins in cell migration and cell death: Cytoprotective and promigratory effects of RalA

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Hyejin; Zheng, Long Tai; Lee, Shinrye; Lee, Won-Ha; Park, Nammi; Park, Jae-Yong; Heo, Won Do; Lee, Myung-Shik; Suk, Kyoungho

    2011-08-15

    Small G protein superfamily consists of more than 150 members, and is classified into six families: the Ras, Rho, Rab, Arf, Ran, and RGK families. They regulate a wide variety of cell functions such as cell proliferation/differentiation, cytoskeletal reorganization, vesicle trafficking, nucleocytoplasmic transport and microtubule organization. The small G proteins have also been shown to regulate cell death/survival and cell shape. In this study, we compared the role of representative members of the six families of small G proteins in cell migration and cell death/survival, two cellular phenotypes that are associated with inflammation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Our results show that small G proteins of the six families differentially regulate cell death and cell cycle distribution. In particular, our results indicate that Rho family of small G proteins is antiapoptotic. Ras, Rho, and Ran families promoted cell migration. There was no significant correlation between the cell death- and cell migration-regulating activities of the small G proteins. Nevertheless, RalA was not only cytoprotective against multiple chemotherapeutic drugs, but also promigratory inducing stress fiber formation, which was accompanied by the activation of Akt and Erk pathways. Our study provides a framework for further systematic investigation of small G proteins in the perspectives of cell death/survival and motility in inflammation and cancer.

  2. A Set of Activators and Repressors Control Peripheral Glucose Pathways in Pseudomonas putida To Yield a Common Central Intermediate▿

    PubMed Central

    del Castillo, Teresa; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan L.

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 channels glucose to the central Entner-Doudoroff intermediate 6-phosphogluconate through three convergent pathways. The genes for these convergent pathways are clustered in three independent regions on the host chromosome. A number of monocistronic units and operons coexist within each of these clusters, favoring coexpression of catabolic enzymes and transport systems. Expression of the three pathways is mediated by three transcriptional repressors, HexR, GnuR, and PtxS, and by a positive transcriptional regulator, GltR-2. In this study, we generated mutants in each of the regulators and carried out transcriptional assays using microarrays and transcriptional fusions. These studies revealed that HexR controls the genes that encode glucokinase/glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase that yield 6-phosphogluconate; the genes for the Entner-Doudoroff enzymes that yield glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and pyruvate; and gap-1, which encodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. GltR-2 is the transcriptional regulator that controls specific porins for the entry of glucose into the periplasmic space, as well as the gtsABCD operon for glucose transport through the inner membrane. GnuR is the repressor of gluconate transport and gluconokinase responsible for the conversion of gluconate into 6-phosphogluconate. PtxS, however, controls the enzymes for oxidation of gluconate to 2-ketogluconate, its transport and metabolism, and a set of genes unrelated to glucose metabolism. PMID:18245293

  3. AllR Controls the Expression of Streptomyces coelicolor Allantoin Pathway Genes

    PubMed Central

    Navone, Laura; Macagno, Juan Pablo; Licona-Cassani, Cuauhtémoc; Marcellin, Esteban; Nielsen, Lars K.; Gramajo, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces species are native inhabitants of soil, a natural environment where nutrients can be scarce and competition fierce. They have evolved ways to metabolize unusual nutrients, such as purines and its derivatives, which are highly abundant in soil. Catabolism of these uncommon carbon and nitrogen sources needs to be tightly regulated in response to nutrient availability and environmental stimulus. Recently, the allantoin degradation pathway was characterized in Streptomyces coelicolor. However, there are questions that remained unanswered, particularly regarding pathway regulation. Here, using a combination of proteomics and genetic approaches, we identified the negative regulator of the allantoin pathway, AllR. In vitro studies confirmed that AllR binds to the promoter regions of allantoin catabolic genes and determined the AllR DNA binding motif. In addition, effector studies showed that allantoic acid, and glyoxylate, to a lesser extent, inhibit the binding of AllR to the DNA. Inactivation of AllR repressor leads to the constitutive expression of the AllR regulated genes and intriguingly impairs actinorhodin and undecylprodigiosin production. Genetics and proteomics analysis revealed that among all genes from the allantoin pathway that are upregulated in the allR mutant, the hyi gene encoding a hydroxypyruvate isomerase (Hyi) is responsible of the impairment of antibiotic production. PMID:26187964

  4. Fragipan controls on nitrogen loss by surface and subsurface flow pathways in an upland agricultural watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved understanding of nutrient transport by surface and subsurface flow pathways is critical to protecting water quality in agricultural watersheds. We sought to compare nitrogen loss in overland and subsurface flow on two opposing hillslopes (north versus south facing), each with contrasting so...

  5. Metabolomic profiling and genomic analysis of wheat aneuploid lines to identify genes controlling biochemical pathways in mature grain.

    PubMed

    Francki, Michael G; Hayton, Sarah; Gummer, Joel P A; Rawlinson, Catherine; Trengove, Robert D

    2016-02-01

    Metabolomics is becoming an increasingly important tool in plant genomics to decipher the function of genes controlling biochemical pathways responsible for trait variation. Although theoretical models can integrate genes and metabolites for trait variation, biological networks require validation using appropriate experimental genetic systems. In this study, we applied an untargeted metabolite analysis to mature grain of wheat homoeologous group 3 ditelosomic lines, selected compounds that showed significant variation between wheat lines Chinese Spring and at least one ditelosomic line, tracked the genes encoding enzymes of their biochemical pathway using the wheat genome survey sequence and determined the genetic components underlying metabolite variation. A total of 412 analytes were resolved in the wheat grain metabolome, and principal component analysis indicated significant differences in metabolite profiles between Chinese Spring and each ditelosomic lines. The grain metabolome identified 55 compounds positively matched against a mass spectral library where the majority showed significant differences between Chinese Spring and at least one ditelosomic line. Trehalose and branched-chain amino acids were selected for detailed investigation, and it was expected that if genes encoding enzymes directly related to their biochemical pathways were located on homoeologous group 3 chromosomes, then corresponding ditelosomic lines would have a significant reduction in metabolites compared with Chinese Spring. Although a proportion showed a reduction, some lines showed significant increases in metabolites, indicating that genes directly and indirectly involved in biosynthetic pathways likely regulate the metabolome. Therefore, this study demonstrated that wheat aneuploid lines are suitable experimental genetic system to validate metabolomics-genomics networks.

  6. Essential role of the m2R-RGS6-IKACh pathway in controlling intrinsic heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Posokhova, Ekaterina; Ng, David; Opel, Aaisha; Masuho, Ikuo; Tinker, Andrew; Biesecker, Leslie G; Wickman, Kevin; Martemyanov, Kirill A

    2013-01-01

    Normal heart function requires generation of a regular rhythm by sinoatrial pacemaker cells and the alteration of this spontaneous heart rate by the autonomic input to match physiological demand. However, the molecular mechanisms that ensure consistent periodicity of cardiac contractions and fine tuning of this process by autonomic system are not completely understood. Here we examined the contribution of the m2R-I(KACh) intracellular signaling pathway, which mediates the negative chronotropic effect of parasympathetic stimulation, to the regulation of the cardiac pacemaking rhythm. Using isolated heart preparations and single-cell recordings we show that the m2R-I(KACh) signaling pathway controls the excitability and firing pattern of the sinoatrial cardiomyocytes and determines variability of cardiac rhythm in a manner independent from the autonomic input. Ablation of the major regulator of this pathway, Rgs6, in mice results in irregular cardiac rhythmicity and increases susceptibility to atrial fibrillation. We further identify several human subjects with variants in the RGS6 gene and show that the loss of function in RGS6 correlates with increased heart rate variability. These findings identify the essential role of the m2R-I(KACh) signaling pathway in the regulation of cardiac sinus rhythm and implicate RGS6 in arrhythmia pathogenesis.

  7. Can nutrient pathways and biotic interactions control eutrophication in riverine ecosystems? Evidence from a model driven mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Christoph G; Hagemann, Jeske; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2017-05-15

    Ecological theory predicts that the relative importance of benthic to planktonic primary production usually changes along the rivers' continuum from a predomination of benthic algae in lower stream orders to a predomination of planktonic algae at higher orders. Underlying mechanisms driving the interaction between algae in these habitats, its controlling factors and consequences for riverine ecosystems are, however, only partly understood. We present a mechanistic analysis of the governing ecological processes using a simplified, numerical model and examine how abiotic factors and biotic interactions influence benthic and planktonic algae by changing resource competition. We compare the outcome of the model with the results of a factorial mesocosm experiment mimicking the parameter spaces of the model. The results show a remarkable similarity with regard to the temporal development of benthic and pelagic algal biomass and shifting dominance patterns. In particular we analyse the effects of the pathways of nutrient supply (upwelling from the hyporheic zone, direct supply to the surface water, or via both pathways) and grazing in a gradient of river depths. Our results show that detachment of benthic algae, sinking of planktonic algae and the pathway of nutrient supply are key processes determining the respective algal biomass distributions particularly in shallow and intermediate deep systems. Increasing nutrient supply increases algal biomasses, but does not change the general pattern of the interactions. Decreasing light supply decreases the dominance of planktonic algae, but increases dissolved nutrients. At intermediate to high grazing rates algal biomass can be controlled by grazers, but however, at high grazing rates, dissolved nutrients accumulate in the surface water. Our results indicate that nutrient pathways, resource competition and internal control by grazing need to be considered explicitly for the understanding and explanation of eutrophication

  8. A novel strategy to activate cytoprotective genes in the injured brain

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jing; Redell, John B.; Moore, Anthony N.; Dash, Pramod K.

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} A strategy to increase cytoprotective gene expression in injured tissue is outlined. {yields} A peptide containing a DEETGE motif can increase Nrf2 responsive genes in vivo. {yields} Gene expression in injured brains requires a calpain cleavage site. {yields} This peptide decreases BBB compromise when infused pre- or post-brain injury. {yields} Cleavage sites for disease-specific proteases could be used to treat that condition. -- Abstract: The transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates the expression of multiple cytoprotective genes that have been shown to offer protection in response to a number of insults. The present study describes a novel strategy to increase expression of Nrf2-responsive genes in brain injured mice. Under normal conditions, the adapter protein Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) binds to Nrf2 and promotes its proteosomal degradation in the cytoplasm. The amino acid sequence DEETGE, located at amino acid 77-82 of Nrf2, is critical for Nrf2-Keap1 interaction, and synthetic peptides containing this sequence can be used to disrupt the complex in vitro. We observed that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of a peptide containing the DEETGE sequence along with the cell transduction domain of the HIV-TAT protein (TAT-DEETGE) into brain-injured mice did not increase the mRNA levels for Nrf2-driven genes. However, when a calpain cleavage sequence was introduced between the TAT sequence and the DEETGE sequence, the new peptide (TAT-CAL-DEETGE) increased the mRNA levels of these genes. Increased gene expression was not observed when the TAT-CAL-DEETGE peptide was injected into uninjured animals. Furthermore, injection of TAT-CAL-DEETGE peptides before or after brain injury reduced blood-brain barrier compromise, a prominent secondary pathology that negatively influences outcome. The present strategy to increase Nrf2-responsive gene expression can be adapted to treat other insults or

  9. Putative transcriptomic biomarkers in the inflammatory cytokine pathway differentiate major depressive disorder patients from control subjects and bipolar disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Powell, Timothy R; McGuffin, Peter; D'Souza, Ursula M; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Hosang, Georgina M; Martin, Charlotte; Matthews, Keith; Day, Richard K; Farmer, Anne E; Tansey, Katherine E; Schalkwyk, Leonard C

    2014-01-01

    Mood disorders consist of two etiologically related, but distinctly treated illnesses, major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD). These disorders share similarities in their clinical presentation, and thus show high rates of misdiagnosis. Recent research has revealed significant transcriptional differences within the inflammatory cytokine pathway between MDD patients and controls, and between BPD patients and controls, suggesting this pathway may possess important biomarker properties. This exploratory study attempts to identify disorder-specific transcriptional biomarkers within the inflammatory cytokine pathway, which can distinguish between control subjects, MDD patients and BPD patients. This is achieved using RNA extracted from subject blood and applying synthesized complementary DNA to quantitative PCR arrays containing primers for 87 inflammation-related genes. Initially, we use ANOVA to test for transcriptional differences in a 'discovery cohort' (total n = 90) and then we use t-tests to assess the reliability of any identified transcriptional differences in a 'validation cohort' (total n = 35). The two most robust and reliable biomarkers identified across both the discovery and validation cohort were Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) which was consistently transcribed higher amongst MDD patients relative to controls and BPD patients, and C-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6) which was consistently more lowly transcribed amongst MDD patients relative to controls. Results detailed here provide preliminary evidence that transcriptional measures within inflammation-related genes might be useful in aiding clinical diagnostic decision-making processes. Future research should aim to replicate findings detailed in this exploratory study in a larger medication-free sample and examine whether identified biomarkers could be used prospectively to aid clinical diagnosis.

  10. RB/PLK1-dependent induced pathway by SLAMF3 expression inhibits mitosis and control hepatocarcinoma cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bouhlal, Hicham; Singh, Amrathlal Rabbind; Ossart, Christèle; Reignier, Aline; Hocini, Hakim; Fouquet, Gregory; Baghami, Mohammed Al; Eugenio, Mélanie Simoes; Nguyen-Khac, Eric; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Marcq, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Polo-like kinase PLK1 is a cell cycle protein that plays multiple roles in promoting cell cycle progression. Among the many roles, the most prominent role of PLK1 is to regulate the mitotic spindle formation checkpoint at the M-phase. Recently we reported the expression of SLAMF3 in Hepatocytes and show that it is down regulated in tumor cells of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We also show that the forced high expression level of SLAMF3 in HCC cells controls proliferation by inhibiting the MAPK ERK/JNK and the mTOR pathways. In the present study, we provide evidence that the inhibitory effect of SLAMF3 on HCC proliferation occurs through Retinoblastoma (RB) factor and PLK1-dependent pathway. In addition to the inhibition of MAPK ERK/JNK and the mTOR pathways, expression of SLAMF3 in HCC retains RB factor in its hypophosphorylated active form, which in turn inactivates E2F transcription factor, thereby repressing the expression and activation of PLK1. A clear inverse correlation was also observed between SLAMF3 and PLK expression in patients with HCC. In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that the tumor suppressor potential of SLAMF3 occurs through activation of RB that represses PLK1. We propose that the induction of a high expression level of SLAMF3 in cancerous cells could control cellular mitosis and block tumor progression. PMID:26799423

  11. Bidentate ligands on osmium(VI) nitrido complexes control intracellular targeting and cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Johnstone, Timothy C; Bruno, Peter M; Lin, Wei; Hemann, Michael T; Lippard, Stephen J

    2013-09-25

    The cellular response evoked by antiproliferating osmium(VI) nitrido compounds of general formula OsN(N^N)Cl3 (N^N = 2,2'-bipyridine 1, 1,10-phenanthroline 2, 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline 3, or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline 4) can be tuned by subtle ligand modifications. Complex 2 induces DNA damage, resulting in activation of the p53 pathway, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, and caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death. In contrast, 4 evokes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leading to the upregulation of proteins of the unfolded protein response pathway, increase in ER size, and p53-independent apoptotic cell death. To the best of our knowledge, 4 is the first osmium compound to induce ER stress in cancer cells.

  12. Identifying hypothalamic pathways controlling food intake, body weight, and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Elmquist, Joel K; Coppari, Roberto; Balthasar, Nina; Ichinose, Masumi; Lowell, Bradford B

    2005-12-05

    The past decade has greatly increased our understanding and appreciation of the ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to regulate food intake and body weight. This was spearheaded by the discovery of key molecules regulating body weight homeostasis. It is now also apparent that the CNS, especially the hypothalamus, plays a primary role in directly regulating glucose homeostasis, independently of effects on body weight. These discoveries are important given the increasing incidences of obesity and type II diabetes in Western societies. In this article, we will highlight recent data from genetically modified mice. These data and other models have helped to dissect the CNS pathways regulating body weight and glucose homeostasis. Finally, although these studies have been illustrative, they also underscore our relative lack of knowledge and highlight the need for more definitive approaches to unravel the functional significance of these pathways.

  13. Dissection of a type I interferon pathway in controlling bacterial intracellular infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, Juliane; Müller, Holger C; Naujoks, Jan; Tabeling, Christoph; Shin, Sunny; Witzenrath, Martin; Hellwig, Katharina; Kirschning, Carsten J; Taylor, Gregory A; Barchet, Winfried; Bauer, Stefan; Suttorp, Norbert; Roy, Craig R; Opitz, Bastian

    2011-11-01

    Defence mechanisms against intracellular bacterial pathogens are incompletely understood. Our study characterizes a type I IFN-dependent cell-autonomous defence pathway directed against Legionella pneumophila, an intracellular model organism and frequent cause of pneumonia. We show that macrophages infected with L. pneumophila produced IFNβ in a STING- and IRF3- dependent manner. Paracrine type I IFNs stimulated upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes and a cell-autonomous defence pathway acting on replicating and non-replicating Legionella within their specialized vacuole. Our infection experiments in mice lacking receptors for type I and/or II IFNs show that type I IFNs contribute to expression of IFN-stimulated genes and to bacterial clearance as well as resistance in L. pneumophila pneumonia in addition to type II IFN. Overall, our study shows that paracrine type I IFNs mediate defence against L. pneumophila, and demonstrates a protective role of type I IFNs in in vivo infections with intracellular bacteria.

  14. Metabolic control analysis of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway: the influence of the LLD-ACV:bisACV ratio on the flux control.

    PubMed

    Theilgaard, H A; Nielsen, J

    1999-01-01

    An extended kinetic model for the first two steps of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway in Penicillium chrysogenum is set up. It includes the formation and reduction of the dimer bis-delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (bisACV) from the first pathway intermediate LLD-ACV and their parallel inhibition of the enzyme ACV synthetase (ACVS). The kinetic model is based on Michaelis-Menten type kinetics, with non-competitive inhibition of the ACVS by both LLD-ACV and bisACV, and competitive inhibition of the isopenicillin N synthetase (IPNS) by glutathione. The inhibition constant of LLD-ACV, KACV is determined to be 0.54 mm. With the kinetic model metabolic control analysis is performed to identify the distribution of rate-control in the pathway at all ratios of LLD-ACV:bisACV. It is concluded that the flux control totally resides at the IPNS. This is a result of the regulation of the ACVS by both the LLD-ACV and bisACV demanding a higher flux through the IPNS enzyme to alleviate their inhibition. The measurement of an intracellular ratio of LLD-ACV:bisACV to be in the range of 1-2 moles per moles emphasises the importance of a fast conversion of LLD-ACV to IPN, and accumulation of LLD-ACV above the K(m)-value of the IPNS should therefore be avoided.

  15. Noncanonical control of C. elegans germline apoptosis by the insulin/IGF-1 and Ras/MAPK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, A J; Gunda, M; Yu, B; Yen, K; Ito, S; Forster, S; Tissenbaum, H A; Derry, W B

    2013-01-01

    The insulin/IGF-1 pathway controls a number of physiological processes in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, including development, aging and stress response. We previously found that the Akt/PKB ortholog AKT-1 dampens the apoptotic response to genotoxic stress in the germline by negatively regulating the p53-like transcription factor CEP-1. Here, we report unexpected rearrangements to the insulin/IGF-1 pathway, whereby the insulin-like receptor DAF-2 and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase PDK-1 oppose AKT-1 to promote DNA damage-induced apoptosis. While DNA damage does not affect phosphorylation at the PDK-1 site Thr350/Thr308 of AKT-1, it increased phosphorylation at Ser517/Ser473. Although ablation of daf-2 or pdk-1 completely suppressed akt-1-dependent apoptosis, the transcriptional activation of CEP-1 was unaffected, suggesting that daf-2 and pdk-1 act independently or downstream of cep-1 and akt-1. Ablation of the akt-1 paralog akt-2 or the downstream target of the insulin/IGF-1 pathway daf-16 (a FOXO transcription factor) restored sensitivity to damage-induced apoptosis in daf-2 and pdk-1 mutants. In addition, daf-2 and pdk-1 mutants have reduced levels of phospho-MPK-1/ERK in their germ cells, indicating that the insulin/IGF-1 pathway promotes Ras signaling in the germline. Ablation of the Ras effector gla-3, a negative regulator of mpk-1, restored sensitivity to apoptosis in daf-2 mutants, suggesting that gla-3 acts downstream of daf-2. In addition, the hypersensitivity of let-60/Ras gain-of-function mutants to damage-induced apoptosis was suppressed to wild-type levels by ablation of daf-2. Thus, insulin/IGF-1 signaling selectively engages AKT-2/DAF-16 to promote DNA damage-induced germ cell apoptosis downstream of CEP-1 through the Ras pathway. PMID:22935616

  16. Redundancy control in pathway databases (ReCiPa): an application for improving gene-set enrichment analysis in Omics studies and "Big data" biology.

    PubMed

    Vivar, Juan C; Pemu, Priscilla; McPherson, Ruth; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2013-08-01

    Abstract Unparalleled technological advances have fueled an explosive growth in the scope and scale of biological data and have propelled life sciences into the realm of "Big Data" that cannot be managed or analyzed by conventional approaches. Big Data in the life sciences are driven primarily via a diverse collection of 'omics'-based technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, metagenomics, and lipidomics. Gene-set enrichment analysis is a powerful approach for interrogating large 'omics' datasets, leading to the identification of biological mechanisms associated with observed outcomes. While several factors influence the results from such analysis, the impact from the contents of pathway databases is often under-appreciated. Pathway databases often contain variously named pathways that overlap with one another to varying degrees. Ignoring such redundancies during pathway analysis can lead to the designation of several pathways as being significant due to high content-similarity, rather than truly independent biological mechanisms. Statistically, such dependencies also result in correlated p values and overdispersion, leading to biased results. We investigated the level of redundancies in multiple pathway databases and observed large discrepancies in the nature and extent of pathway overlap. This prompted us to develop the application, ReCiPa (Redundancy Control in Pathway Databases), to control redundancies in pathway databases based on user-defined thresholds. Analysis of genomic and genetic datasets, using ReCiPa-generated overlap-controlled versions of KEGG and Reactome pathways, led to a reduction in redundancy among the top-scoring gene-sets and allowed for the inclusion of additional gene-sets representing possibly novel biological mechanisms. Using obesity as an example, bioinformatic analysis further demonstrated that gene-sets identified from overlap-controlled pathway databases show stronger evidence of prior association

  17. Surface sensing and adhesion of Escherichia coli controlled by the Cpx-signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Karen; Silhavy, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion is an important initial step in biofilm formation, which may cause problems in medical, environmental, and industrial settings. In spite of obvious phenotypic differences between attached and planktonic cells, knowledge about the genetic basis for these differences and how adhesion-induced changes are mediated is limited. The Cpx two-component signal transduction pathway responds specifically to stress caused by disturbances in the cell envelope and activates genes encoding periplasmic protein folding and degrading factors. Here, we address the role of the Cpx-signaling pathway in sensing and responding to the physical change occurring during adhesion of Escherichia coli to surfaces. We present evidence that the expression of Cpx-regulated genes is induced during initial adhesion of E. coli to abiotic surfaces. This induction is specifically observed upon attachment of stationary-phase cells to hydrophobic surfaces. Moreover, surface-induced activity of the Cpx response requires NlpE, an outer membrane lipoprotein, which has previously been shown to induce the Cpx system when overproduced. The importance of a functional Cpx response during adhesion is further supported by the fact that a dramatically lower number of cells attach to the surface and dynamic cell–surface interactions as measured by a quartz crystal microbalance technique are altered when the CpxRA pathway is disrupted. The defects in adhesion exhibited by the cpxR and nlpE mutants were strikingly similar to those of wild-type cells in which protein synthesis was inhibited, suggesting that the Cpx pathway plays a key role in the regulation of adhesion-induced gene expression. PMID:11830644

  18. Cytotoxic bile acids, but not cytoprotective species, inhibit the ordering effect of cholesterol in model membranes at physiologically active concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mello-Vieira, João; Sousa, Tânia; Coutinho, Ana; Fedorov, Aleksander; Lucas, Susana D; Moreira, Rui; Castro, Rui E; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Prieto, Manuel; Fernandes, Fábio

    2013-09-01

    Submillimolar concentrations of cytotoxic bile acids (BAs) induce cell death via apoptosis. On the other hand, several cytoprotective BAs were shown to prevent apoptosis in the same concentration range. Still, the mechanisms by which BAs trigger these opposite signaling effects remain unclear. This study was aimed to determine if cytotoxic and cytoprotective BAs, at physiologically active concentrations, are able to modulate the biophysical properties of lipid membranes, potentially translating into changes in the apoptotic threshold of cells. Binding of BAs to membranes was assessed through the variation of fluorescence parameters of suitable derivatized BAs. These derivatives partitioned with higher affinity to liquid disordered than to the cholesterol-enriched liquid ordered domains. Unlabeled BAs were also shown to have a superficial location upon interaction with the lipid membrane. Additionally, the interaction of cytotoxic BAs with membranes resulted in membrane expansion, as concluded from FRET data. Moreover, it was shown that cytotoxic BAs were able to significantly disrupt the ordering of the membrane by cholesterol at physiologically active concentrations of the BA, an effect not associated with cholesterol removal. On the other hand, cytoprotective bile acids had no effect on membrane properties. It was concluded that, given the observed effects on membrane rigidity, the apoptotic activity of cytotoxic BAs could be potentially associated with changes in plasma membrane organization (e.g. modulation of lipid domains) or with an increase in mitochondrial membrane affinity for apoptotic proteins.

  19. Developmental control of sumoylation pathway proteins in mouse male germ cells.

    PubMed

    La Salle, Sophie; Sun, Fengyun; Zhang, Xiang-Dong; Matunis, Michael J; Handel, Mary Ann

    2008-09-01

    Protein sumoylation regulates a variety of nuclear functions and has been postulated to be involved in meiotic chromosome dynamics as well as other processes of spermatogenesis. Here, the expression and distribution of sumoylation pathway genes and proteins were determined in mouse male germ cells, with a particular emphasis on prophase I of meiosis. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that SUMO1, SUMO2/3 and UBE2I (also known as UBC9) were localized to the XY body in pachytene and diplotene spermatocytes, while only SUMO2/3 and UBE2I were detected near centromeres in metaphase I spermatocytes. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to examine the expression of sumoylation pathway genes and proteins in enriched preparations of leptotene/zygotene spermatocytes, prepubertal and adult pachytene spermatocytes, as well as round spermatids. Two general expression profiles emerged from these data. The first profile, where expression was more prominent during meiosis, identified sumoylation pathway participants that could be involved in meiotic chromosome dynamics. The second profile, elevated expression in post-meiotic spermatids, suggested proteins that could be involved in spermiogenesis-related sumoylation events. In addition to revealing differential expression of protein sumoylation mediators, which suggests differential functioning, these data demonstrate the dynamic nature of SUMO metabolism during spermatogenesis.

  20. Partitioning the effects of an ecosystem engineer: kangaroo rats control community structure via multiple pathways.

    PubMed

    Prugh, Laura R; Brashares, Justin S

    2012-05-01

    1. Ecosystem engineers impact communities by altering habitat conditions, but they can also have strong effects through consumptive, competitive and other non-engineering pathways. 2. Engineering effects can lead to fundamentally different community dynamics than non-engineering effects, but the relative strengths of these interactions are seldom quantified. 3. We combined structural equation modelling and exclosure experiments to partition the effects of a keystone engineer, the giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), on plants, invertebrates and vertebrates in a semi-arid California grassland. 4. We separated the effects of burrow creation from kangaroo rat density and found that kangaroo rats increased the diversity and abundance of other species via both engineering and non-engineering pathways. 5. Engineering was the primary factor structuring plant and small mammal communities, whereas non-engineering effects structured invertebrate communities and increased lizard abundance. 6. These results highlight the importance of the non-engineering effects of ecosystem engineers and shed new light on the multiple pathways by which strong-interactors shape communities.

  1. Single-Amino Acid Modifications Reveal Additional Controls on the Proton Pathway of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, Adam J.; Ginovska, Bojana; Thelen, Adam; da Silva, Julio C. S.; Soares, Thereza A.; Raugei, Simone; Dupuis, Michel; Shaw, Wendy J.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2016-06-07

    The proton pathway of [FeFe]-hydrogenase is essential for enzymatic H2 production and oxidation and is composed of four residues and a modeled water molecule. Recently, a computational analysis of this pathway revealed that the solvent-exposed residue of the pathway (Glu282) could form hydrogen bonds to two residues outside of the pathway (Arg286 and Ser320), implicating that these residues could function in regulating proton transfer. Substituting Arg286 with leucine eliminates hydrogen bonding with Glu282 and results in a 2.5-fold enhancement in H2 production activity, suggesting that Arg286 serves an important role in controlling the rate of proton delivery. In contrast, substitution of Ser320 with alanine reduces the rate approximately 5-fold, implying that it either acts as a member of the pathway or influences Glu282 to enable proton transfer. Interestingly, QM/MM and molecular dynamics calculations indicate that Ser320 does not play an electronic or structural role. QM calculations also estimate that including Ser320 in the pathway does not significantly change the barrier to proton movement, providing further support for its role as a member of the proton pathway. While further studies are needed to quantify the role of Ser320, collectively, these data provide evidence that the enzyme scaffold plays a significant role in modulating the activity of the enzyme, demonstrating that the rate of intraprotein proton transfer can be accelerated, particularly in a non-biological context. This work was supported by the DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (DOE BER Office of Science, DE-FC02-07ER64494). In addition, support from the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (WJS, BGP, SR) is gratefully acknowledged. Computational resources were provided at W. R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of

  2. Integration of general amino acid control and target of rapamycin (TOR) regulatory pathways in nitrogen assimilation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Staschke, Kirk A; Dey, Souvik; Zaborske, John M; Palam, Lakshmi Reddy; McClintick, Jeanette N; Pan, Tao; Edenberg, Howard J; Wek, Ronald C

    2010-05-28

    Two important nutrient-sensing and regulatory pathways, the general amino acid control (GAAC) and the target of rapamycin (TOR), participate in the control of yeast growth and metabolism during changes in nutrient availability. Amino acid starvation activates the GAAC through Gcn2p phosphorylation of translation factor eIF2 and preferential translation of GCN4, a transcription activator. TOR senses nitrogen availability and regulates transcription factors such as Gln3p. We used microarray analyses to address the integration of the GAAC and TOR pathways in directing the yeast transcriptome during amino acid starvation and rapamycin treatment. We found that GAAC is a major effector of the TOR pathway, with Gcn4p and Gln3p each inducing a similar number of genes during rapamycin treatment. Although Gcn4p activates a common core of 57 genes, the GAAC directs significant variations in the transcriptome during different stresses. In addition to inducing amino acid biosynthetic genes, Gcn4p in conjunction with Gln3p activates genes required for the assimilation of secondary nitrogen sources such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Gcn2p activation upon shifting to secondary nitrogen sources is suggested to occur by means of a dual mechanism. First, Gcn2p is induced by the release of TOR repression through a mechanism involving Sit4p protein phosphatase. Second, this eIF2 kinase is activated by select uncharged tRNAs, which were shown to accumulate during the shift to the GABA medium. This study highlights the mechanisms by which the GAAC and TOR pathways are integrated to recognize changing nitrogen availability and direct the transcriptome for optimal growth adaptation.

  3. Theranostic Nucleic Acid Binding Nanoprobe Exerts Anti-inflammatory and Cytoprotective Effects in Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Howard H.; Yuan, Hushan; Cho, Hoonsung; Feng, Yan; Ngoy, Soeun; Kumar, Anand T. N.; Liao, Ronglih; Chao, Wei; Josephson, Lee; Sosnovik, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular nucleic acids are proinflammatory molecules that have been implicated in a diverse range of diseases. We report here the development of a multivalent nucleic acid scavenging nanoprobe, where the fluorochrome thiazole orange (TO) is conjugated to a polymeric 40 kDa dextran carrier. Dextran-TO (Dex-TO) has nanomolar affinity for mammalian and bacterial nucleic acids and attenuates the production of inflammatory cytokines from activated macrophages exposed to DNA and RNA. Mice with myocardial ischemia reperfusion that were treated with Dex-TO showed a decrease in myocardial macrophage infiltration at 24 hours (p<0.05) and a decrease in infarct size (18% ± 9%, p<0.01) on day 7. Dex-TO allows sites of injury to be identified with fluorescence imaging, while simultaneously exerting an anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effect. Dex-TO could be of significant diagnostic and therapeutic (theranostic) utility in a broad range of conditions including ischemia, trauma, burns, sepsis and autoimmune disease. PMID:28382156

  4. Heat shock factor 1 inducers from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides as cytoprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joo-Won; Kim, Seo-Young; Yoon, Taesook; Lee, Yoo Jin; Kil, Yun-Seo; Lee, Yun-Sil; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2013-07-01

    The barks of Eucommia ulmoides (Eucommiae Cortex, Eucommiaceae) have been used as a traditional medicine in Korea, Japan, and China to treat hypertension, reinforce the muscles and bones, and recover the damaged liver and kidney functions. Among these traditional uses, to establish the recovery effects on the damaged organs on the basis of phytochemistry, the barks of E. ulmoides have been investigated to afford three known phenolic compounds, coniferaldehyde glucoside (1), bartsioside (2), and feretoside (3), which were found in the family Eucommiaceae for the first time. The compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their inducible activities on the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and heat shock proteins (HSPs) 27 and 70, along with four compounds, geniposide (4), geniposidic acid (5), pinoresinol diglucoside (6), and liriodendrin (7), which were previously reported from E. ulmoides. Compounds 1-7 increased expression of HSF1 by a factor of 1.214, 1.144, 1.153, 1.114, 1.159, 1.041, and 1.167 at 3 μM, respectively. Coniferaldehyde glucoside (1) showed the most effective increase of HSF1 and induced successive expressions of HSP27 and HSP70 in a dose-dependent manner without cellular cytotoxicity, suggesting a possible application as a HSP inducer to act as cytoprotective agent.

  5. G-protein coupled receptor 15 mediates angiogenesis and cytoprotective function of thrombomodulin.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bin; Wang, Xiangmin; Nishioka, Chie; Honda, Goichi; Yokoyama, Akihito; Zeng, Lingyu; Xu, Kailin; Ikezoe, Takayuki

    2017-04-06

    Thrombomodulin (TM) stimulates angiogenesis and protects vascular endothelial cells (ECs) via its fifth epidermal growth factor-like region (TME5); however, the cell surface receptor that mediates the pro-survival signaling activated by TM has remained unknown. We applied pull-down assay followed by MALDI-TOF MS and western blot analysis, and identified G-protein coupled receptor 15 (GPR15) as a binding partner of TME5. TME5 rescued growth inhibition and apoptosis caused by calcineurin inhibitor FK506 in vascular ECs isolated from wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. On the other hand, TME5 failed to protect ECs isolated from GPR15 knockout (GPR15 KO) mice from FK506-caused vascular injury. TME5 induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and increased level of anti-apoptotic proteins in a GPR15 dependent manner. In addition, in vivo Matrigel plug angiogenesis assay found that TME5 stimulated angiogenesis in mice. TME5 promoted endothelial migration in vitro. Furthermore, TME5 increased production of NO in association with activated endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in ECs. All these pro-angiogenesis functions of TME5 were abolished by knockout of GPR15. Our findings suggest that GPR15 plays an important role in mediating cytoprotective function as well as angiogenesis of TM.

  6. Interaction of Cytotoxic and Cytoprotective Bile Acids with Model Membranes: Influence of the Membrane Composition.

    PubMed

    Esteves, M; Ferreira, M J; Kozica, A; Fernandes, A C; Gonçalves da Silva, A; Saramago, B

    2015-08-18

    To understand the role of bile acids (BAs) in cell function, many authors have investigated their effect on biomembrane models which are less complex systems, but there are still many open questions. The present study aims to contribute for the deepening of the knowledge of the interaction between BAs and model membranes, in particular, focusing on the effect of BA mixtures. The cytotoxic deoxycholic acid (DCA), the cytoprotective ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), and the equimolar mixture (DCA + UDCA) were investigated. Monolayers and liposomes were taken as model membranes with two lipid compositions: an equimolar mixture of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), sphingomyelin (SM), and cholesterol (Chol)) traditionally associated with the formation of lipid rafts and an equimolar POPC/SM binary mixture. The obtained results showed that DCA causes the fluidization of monolayers and bilayers, leading to the eventual rupture of POPC/SM liposomes at high concentration. UDCA may provide a stabilization of POPC/SM membranes but has a negligible effect on the Chol-containing liposomes. In the case of equimolar mixture DCA/UDCA, the interactions depend not only on the lipid composition but also on the design of the experiment. The BA mixture has a greater impact on the monolayers than do pure BAs, suggesting a cooperative DCA-UDCA interaction that enhances the penetration of UDCA in both POPC/SM and POPC/SM/Chol monolayers. For the bilayers, the presence of UDCA in the mixture decreases the disturbing effect of DCA.

  7. Characterization of inclusion bodies with cytoprotective properties formed by seipinopathy-linked mutant seipin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke; Yagi, Takuya; Ikawa, Masahito; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2012-02-01

    Gain-of-toxic mutations in the N-glycosylation motif of the seipin/BSCL2 gene (namely, the N88S and S90L mutations) cause autosomal dominant motor neuron diseases, termed 'seipinopathy'. Expressed mutant seipin is improperly folded and accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to an unfolded protein response (UPR). Furthermore, cells expressing mutant seipin contain unique cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IB) that form via a different mechanism from that of ubiquitinated inclusions, or aggresomes. Whether the formation of these IB is pathogenic or protective in neurodegenerative diseases remains unclear. Here, we determined that mutant seipin IB are negative for two well-established ER markers, immunoglobulin-heavy-chain-binding protein and calnexin, indicating a distinct compartmentalization from the main ER, and that mutant seipin IB are formed via a mechanism that is independent of major UPR transducers and ER chaperons. Electron microscopy and coexpression study with variant α1-antitrypsin cDNA showed that seipin IB are compatible with unique cytoplasmic vesicles known as ER-derived protective organelles (ERPO). We also obtained evidence that seipin IB exhibit a cytoprotective property via the attenuation of ER stress. These findings suggest that ERPO, such as seipin IB, are a novel adaptation machinery against the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER.

  8. Cytoprotective activity of deboxamet: a possible interference with prostaglandin and prostacyclin metabolism in rat gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Franzone, J S; Cirillo, R; Cravanzola, C

    1988-01-01

    Deboxamet (5-methoxy-2-methyl-3-indolyl-acetohydroxamic acid) is a new synthetic drug with anti-ulcer and anti-secretory activity. The authors evaluated the ability of deboxamet to protect the rat gastric mucosa against the intensive necroses induced experimentally by absolute ethanol, NaCl (25%), HCl (0.6 N), acetylsalicylic acid plus HCl, and sodium taurocholate plus HCl. Deboxamet, as compared with pirenzepine, sulglycotide and PGE2, displayed a cytoprotective activity against these necrotizing agents. The involvement of deboxamet with prostacyclin metabolism was also investigated. In order to assess the presence of PGI2-like substances, extracts of mucosa from rats treated orally with deboxamet and sulglycotide were assayed i) on isolated rabbit mesenteric artery, ii) for hypotensive effect in anaesthetized rat, and iii) for anti-platelet activity. Deboxamet, like sulglycotide, was able to raise the availability of prostacyclins in the rat gastric mucosa, which is an important action in maintaining its cellular integrity. However, our results cannot determine whether this activity is due to an enhanced biosynthesis or a decreased degradation of prostacyclins.

  9. Heme oxygenase-1 in pregnancy and cancer: similarities in cellular invasion, cytoprotection, angiogenesis, and immunomodulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Ozen, Maide; Wong, Ronald J.; Stevenson, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy can be defined as a “permissible” process, where a semi-allogeneic fetus and placenta are allowed to grow and survive within the mother. Similarly, in tumor growth, antigen-specific malignant cells proliferate and evade into normal tissues of the host. The microenvironments of the placenta and tumors are amazingly comparable, sharing similar mechanisms exploited by fetal or cancer cells with regard to surviving in a hypoxic microenvironment, invading tissues via degradation and vasculogenesis, and escaping host attack through immune privilege. Heme oxygease-1 (HO-1) is a stress-response protein that has antioxidative, anti-apoptotic, pro-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Although a large volume of research has been published in recent years investigating the possible role(s) of HO-1 in pregnancy and in cancer development, the molecular mechanisms that regulate these “yin-yang” processes have still not been fully elucidated. Here, we summarize and compare pregnancy and cancer development, focusing primarily on the function of HO-1 in cellular invasion, cytoprotection, angiogenesis, and immunomodulation. Due to the similarities of both processes, a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of each process may reveal and guide the development of new approaches to prevent not only pregnancy disorders; but also, to study cancer. PMID:25642189

  10. An Organ System Approach to Explore the Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytoprotective Actions of Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Ashim; Bath, Sundeep; Elbarbry, Fawzy

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a phenolic phytochemical, with a stilbene backbone, derived from edible plants such as grape and peanut. It is a bioactive molecule with physiological effects on multiple organ systems. Its effects range from the neuroprotective to the nephroprotective, including cardiovascular, neuronal, and antineoplastic responses as a part of its broad spectrum of action. In this review, we examine the effects of resveratrol on the following organ systems: the central nervous system, including neurological pathology such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease; the cardiovascular system, including disorders such as atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; the kidneys, including primary and secondary nephropathies and nephrolithiasis; multiple forms of cancer; and metabolic syndromes including diabetes. We emphasize commonalities in extracellular matrix protein alterations and intracellular signal transduction system induction following resveratrol treatment. We summarize the known anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective effects of resveratrol across disparate organ systems. Additionally, we analyze the available literature regarding the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol formulations used in these studies. Finally, we critically examine select clinical trials documenting a lack of effect following resveratrol treatment. PMID:26180596

  11. RNA-binding protein HuR mediates cytoprotection through stimulation of XIAP translation.

    PubMed

    Durie, D; Lewis, S M; Liwak, U; Kisilewicz, M; Gorospe, M; Holcik, M

    2011-03-24

    Expression of the intrinsic cellular caspase inhibitor XIAP is regulated primarily at the level of protein synthesis. The 5' untranslated region harbours an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) motif that supports cap-independent translation of XIAP mRNA during conditions of cellular stress. In this study, we show that the RNA-binding protein HuR, which is known to orchestrate an antiapoptotic cellular program, stimulates translation of XIAP mRNA through XIAP IRES. We further show that HuR binds to XIAP IRES in vitro and in vivo, and stimulates recruitment of the XIAP mRNA into polysomes. Importantly, protection from the apoptosis-inducing agent etoposide by overexpression of HuR requires the presence of XIAP, suggesting that HuR-mediated cytoprotection is partially executed through enhanced XIAP translation. Our data suggest that XIAP belongs to the HuR-regulated RNA operon of antiapoptotic genes, which, along with Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and ProTα, contributes to the regulation of cell survival.

  12. An Organ System Approach to Explore the Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytoprotective Actions of Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Ashim; Bath, Sundeep; Elbarbry, Fawzy

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a phenolic phytochemical, with a stilbene backbone, derived from edible plants such as grape and peanut. It is a bioactive molecule with physiological effects on multiple organ systems. Its effects range from the neuroprotective to the nephroprotective, including cardiovascular, neuronal, and antineoplastic responses as a part of its broad spectrum of action. In this review, we examine the effects of resveratrol on the following organ systems: the central nervous system, including neurological pathology such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease; the cardiovascular system, including disorders such as atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; the kidneys, including primary and secondary nephropathies and nephrolithiasis; multiple forms of cancer; and metabolic syndromes including diabetes. We emphasize commonalities in extracellular matrix protein alterations and intracellular signal transduction system induction following resveratrol treatment. We summarize the known anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective effects of resveratrol across disparate organ systems. Additionally, we analyze the available literature regarding the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol formulations used in these studies. Finally, we critically examine select clinical trials documenting a lack of effect following resveratrol treatment.

  13. Cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic role of Terminalia arjuna on oxalate injured renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Amisha; Tandon, Simran; Singla, Surender Kumar; Tandon, Chanderdeep

    2017-02-08

    Urolithiasis is one of the painful multifactorial disorders caused by metabolic abnormalities influencing the composition of body fluids and urine. The bark of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna), very well known in Ayurveda for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, possesses antioxidant and diuretic activity. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiurolithiatic efficacy of aqueous extract of bark of T. arjuna on oxalate-induced injury to renal tubular epithelial cells. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were exposed to 2 mM oxalate for 48 h to evaluate the protective effect of T. arjuna aqueous extract on cell viability, CaOx crystal adherence and apoptotic changes caused by oxalate. The results confirmed that oxalate injured MDCK cells were protected by T. arjuna extract. On treatment with a range concentrations, the cell viability increased in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the extract prevented the interaction of the calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals with the cell surface and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The current data suggests that T. arjuna bark confers a cytoprotective role and based on our results it could be a potential candidate from natural plant sources against urolithiasis.

  14. Gastric and duodenal antiulcer and cytoprotective effects of proglumide in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tariq, M.; Parmar, N.S.; Ageel, A.M.

    1987-05-01

    Proglumide has been studied for its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and to protect the gastroduodenal mucosa against the injuries caused by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, reserpine, cysteamine and the cytodestructing agents: 80% ethanol, 0.6 M HCl, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and 30 mg of acetylsalicylic acid in 0.35 M HCl in rats. The results of this study demonstrate that proglumide has both prophylactic and curative effects on various experimentally induced ulcers. It produced a dose-dependent inhibition of gastric secretion in the pylorus-ligated rats and reduced significantly the intensity of gastric lesions induced by pyloric ligation, hypothermic restraint stress, acetic acid, mucosal damaging agents and that of duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. The intensity of gastric lesions induced by nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and reserpine was also reduced significantly by proglumide. Cimetidine, which was used as a standard antiulcer drug for comparison, also produced a similar protective effect in most of the models used by us. It was found to have a more potent antisecretory effect but failed to protect the rats against the gastric mucosal damage induced by hyperthermic restraint stress and 0.2 M NaOH. Our findings suggest that proglumide exerts these antiulcer effects by its antisecretory, gastric mucosal resistance increasing and cytoprotective activities. Further studies are required to find out its exact mechanism of action and therapeutic usefulness.

  15. Gastric cytoprotection beyond prostaglandins: cellular and molecular mechanisms of gastroprotective and ulcer healing actions of antacids.

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, Andrzej; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    This article updates current views on gastric mucosal defense, injury, protection and ulcer healing with a focus on mucosal protective and ulcer healing actions of antacids. The gastric mucosa is continuously exposed to a variety of noxious factors, both endogenous such as: 0.1N hydrochloric acid, pepsin, bile acids, lysolecithin, H. pylori toxins and exogenous such as NSAIDs, ethanol and others. Gastric mucosal integrity is maintained by pre-epithelial, epithelial and post-epithelial defense mechanisms permitting the mucosa to withstand exposure to the above damaging factors. When mucosal defense is weakened or overwhelmed by injurious factors, injury develops in the form of erosions or ulcers. In the late 1970s Andre Robert and coworkers discovered that microgram amounts of a prostaglandin E2 analog protects the gastric mucosa against a variety of ulcerogenic and necrotizing agents - even such strong inducers of injury as 100% ethanol and boiling water. They proposed a new concept of cytoprotection. Subsequently, other compounds, such as sulfhydryls, sucralfate and epidermal growth factor were shown to exert protective action on gastric mucosa. Additionally, some antacids have been shown to exert a potent mucosal protective action against a variety of injurious factors and accelerate healing of erosions and gastric ulcers. These actions of antacids, especially hydrotalcite - the newest and the most extensively studied antacid - are due to activation of prostaglandin synthesis; binding to and inactivation of pepsin, bile acids and H. pylori toxins; induction of heat shock proteins; and, activation of genes encoding growth factors and their receptors.

  16. Role of calcium in adaptive cytoprotection and cell injury induced by deoxycholate in human gastric cells.

    PubMed

    Kokoska, E R; Smith, G S; Wolff, A B; Deshpande, Y; Rieckenberg, C L; Banan, A; Miller, T A

    1998-08-01

    We have developed an in vitro model of adaptive cytoprotection induced by deoxycholate (DC) in human gastric cells and have shown that pretreatment with a low concentration of DC (mild irritant, 50 microM) significantly attenuates injury induced by a damaging concentration of DC (250 microM). This study was undertaken to assess the effect of the mild irritant on changes in intracellular Ca2+ and to determine if these perturbations account for its protective action. Protection conferred by the mild irritant was lost when any of its effects on intracellular Ca2+ were prevented: internal Ca2+ store release via phospholipase C and inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate sustained Ca2+ influx through store-operated Ca2+ channels or eventual Ca2+ efflux. We also investigated the relationship between Ca2+ accumulation and cellular injury induced by damaging concentrations of DC. In cells exposed to high concentrations of DC, sustained Ca2+ accumulation as a result of extracellular Ca2+ influx, but not transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ content, appeared to precede and induce cellular injury. We propose that the mild irritant disrupts normal Ca2+ homeostasis and that this perturbation elicits a cellular response (involving active Ca2+ efflux) that subsequently provides a protective action by limiting the magnitude of intracellular Ca2+ accumulation.

  17. SSZ-13 Crystallization by Particle Attachment and Deterministic Pathways to Crystal Size Control.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manjesh; Luo, Helen; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Rimer, Jeffrey D

    2015-10-14

    Many synthetic and natural crystalline materials are either known or postulated to grow via nonclassical pathways involving the initial self-assembly of precursors that serve as putative growth units for crystallization. Elucidating the pathway(s) by which precursors attach to crystal surfaces and structurally rearrange (postattachment) to incorporate into the underlying crystalline lattice is an active and expanding area of research comprising many unanswered fundamental questions. Here, we examine the crystallization of SSZ-13, which is an aluminosilicate zeolite that possesses exceptional physicochemical properties for applications in separations and catalysis (e.g., methanol upgrading to chemicals and the environmental remediation of NO(x)). We show that SSZ-13 grows by two concerted mechanisms: nonclassical growth involving the attachment of amorphous aluminosilicate particles to crystal surfaces and classical layer-by-layer growth via the incorporation of molecules to advancing steps on the crystal surface. A facile, commercially viable method of tailoring SSZ-13 crystal size and morphology is introduced wherein growth modifiers are used to mediate precursor aggregation and attachment to crystal surfaces. We demonstrate that small quantities of polymers can be used to tune crystal size over 3 orders of magnitude (0.1-20 μm), alter crystal shape, and introduce mesoporosity. Given the ubiquitous presence of amorphous precursors in a wide variety of microporous crystals, insight of the SSZ-13 growth mechanism may prove to be broadly applicable to other materials. Moreover, the ability to selectively tailor the physical properties of SSZ-13 crystals through molecular design offers new routes to optimize their performance in a wide range of commercial applications.

  18. [Construction and fermentation control of reductive TCA pathway for malic acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Yan, Daojiang; Wang, Caixia; Zhou, Jiemin; Liu, Yilan; Yang, Maohua; Xing, Jianmin

    2013-10-01

    Malic acid is widely used in food, and chemical industries. Through overexpressing pyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase in pdc1-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae, malic acid was successfully produced through the reductive TCA pathway. No malic acid was detected in wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae, however, 45 mmol/L malic acid was produced in engineered strain, and the concentration of byproduct ethanol also reduced by 18%. The production of malic acid enhanced 6% by increasing the concentration of Ca2+. In addition, the final concentration reached 52.5 mmol/L malic acid by addition of biotin. The increasing is almost 16% higher than that of the original strain.

  19. Transport and quality control of MHC class I molecules in the early secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Springer, Sebastian

    2015-06-01

    Folding and peptide binding of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules have been thoroughly researched, but the mechanistic connection between these biochemical events and the progress of class I through the early secretory pathway is much less well understood. This review focuses on the question how the partially assembled forms of class I (which lack high-affinity peptide and/or the light chain beta-2 microglobulin) are retained inside the cell. Such investigations offer researchers exciting chances to understand the connections between class I structure, conformational dynamics, peptide binding kinetics and thermodynamics, intracellular transport, and antigen presentation.

  20. Coherent Control Protocol for Separating Energy-Transfer Pathways in Photosynthetic Complexes by Chiral Multidimensional Signals†

    PubMed Central

    Abramavicius, Darius; Mukamel, Shaul

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive optimizations performed using a genetic algorithm are employed to construct optimal laser pulse configurations that separate spectroscopic features associated with the two main energy-transfer pathways in the third-order nonlinear optical response simulated for the Fenna–Matthews–Olson (FMO) photosynthetic complex from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. Superpositions of chirality-induced tensor components in both collinear and noncollinear pulse configurations are analyzed. The optimal signals obtained by manipulating the ratios of various 2D spectral peaks reveal detailed information about the excitation dynamics. PMID:21495702

  1. The Notch Signaling Pathway Controls the Size of the Ocular Lens by Directly Suppressing p57Kip2 Expression▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Junling; Lin, Min; Zhang, Lingna; York, J. Philippe; Zhang, Pumin

    2007-01-01

    The size of an organ must be tightly controlled so that it fits within an organism. The mammalian lens is a relatively simple organ composed of terminally differentiated, amitotic lens fiber cells capped on the anterior surface by a layer of immature, mitotic epithelial cells. The proliferation of lens epithelial cells fuels the growth of the lens, thus controling the size of the lens. We report that the Notch signaling pathway defines the boundary between proliferation and differentiation in the developing lens. The loss of Notch signaling results in the loss of epithelial cells to differentiation and a much smaller lens. We found that the Notch effector Herp2 is expressed in lens epithelium and directly suppresses p57Kip2 expression, providing a molecular link between Notch signaling and the cell cycle control machinery during lens development. PMID:17709399

  2. Metabolic control analysis of L-lactate synthesis pathway in Rhizopus oryzae As 3.2686.

    PubMed

    Ke, Wei; Chang, Shu; Chen, Xiaoju; Luo, Shuizhong; Jiang, Shaotong; Yang, Peizhou; Wu, Xuefeng; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between the metabolic flux and the activities of the pyruvate branching enzymes of Rhizopus oryzae As 3.2686 during L-lactate fermentation was investigated using the perturbation method of aeration. The control coefficients for five enzymes, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), were calculated. Our results indicated significant correlations between PDH and PC, PDC and LDH, PDC and ADH, LDH and ADH, and PDC and PC. It also appeared that PDH, PC, and LDH strongly controlled the L-lactate flux; PDH and ADH strongly controlled the ethanol flux; while PDH and PC strongly controlled the acetyl coenzyme A flux and the oxaloacetate flux. Further, the flux control coefficient curves indicated that the control of the system gradually transferred from PDC to PC during the steady state. Therefore, PC was the key rate-limiting enzyme that controls the flux distribution.

  3. Distinct sensory pathways in Vibrio cholerae El Tor and classical biotypes modulate cyclic dimeric GMP levels to control biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Brian K; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2009-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS), or cell-cell communication in bacteria, is achieved through the production and subsequent response to the accumulation of extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers (AIs). To identify AI-regulated target genes in Vibrio cholerae El Tor (V. cholerae(El)), the strain responsible for the current cholera pandemic, luciferase expression was assayed in an AI(-) strain carrying a random lux transcriptional reporter library in the presence and absence of exogenously added AIs. Twenty-three genes were identified and shown to require the QS transcription factor, HapR, for their regulation. Several of the QS-dependent target genes, annotated as encoding hypothetical proteins, in fact encode HD-GYP proteins, phosphodiesterases that degrade the intracellular second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), which is important for controlling biofilm formation. Indeed, overexpression of a representative QS-activated HD-GYP protein in V. cholerae(El) reduced the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP, which in turn decreased exopolysaccharide production and biofilm formation. The V. cholerae classical biotype (V. cholerae(Cl)), which caused previous cholera pandemics and is HapR(-), controls c-di-GMP levels and biofilm formation by the VieA signaling pathway. We show that the VieA pathway is dispensable for biofilm formation in V. cholerae(El) but that restoring HapR in V. cholerae(Cl) reestablishes QS-dependent repression of exopolysaccharide production. Thus, different pandemic strains of V. cholerae modulate c-di-GMP levels and control biofilm formation in response to distinct sensory pathways.

  4. Deubiquitylating enzyme USP9x regulates hippo pathway activity by controlling angiomotin protein turnover

    PubMed Central

    Thanh Nguyen, Hung; Andrejeva, Diana; Gupta, Rajat; Choudhary, Chunaram; Hong, Xin; Eichhorn, Pieter J A; Loya, Anand C; Cohen, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo pathway has been identified as a key barrier for tumorigenesis, acting through downregulation of YAP/TAZ activity. Elevated YAP/TAZ activity has been documented in many human cancers. Ubiquitylation has been shown to play a key role in regulating YAP/TAZ activity through downregulation of a number of Hippo pathway components. Several ubiquitin ligase complexes have been implicated in this process, however, little is known about the deubiquitylating enzymes that counteract these activities to regulate YAP/TAZ. Here we identify the deubiquitylating enzyme USP9x as a regulator of YAP/TAZ activity. We demonstrate that USPx regulates ubiquitin-mediated turnover of the YAP inhibitor, Angiomotin. USP9x acts to deubiquitylate Angiomotin at lysine 496, resulting in stabilization of Angiomotin and lower YAP/TAZ activity. USP9x mRNA levels were reduced in several cancers. Clinically, USP9x mRNA levels were reduced in several cancers with low USPx expression correlating with poor prognosis in renal clear cell carcinoma. Our data indicate that USP9x may be a useful biomarker for renal clear cell carcinoma. PMID:27462448

  5. A new pathway for mitochondrial quality control: mitochondrial-derived vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Ayumu; McLelland, Gian-Luca; Fon, Edward A; McBride, Heidi M

    2014-10-01

    The last decade has been marked by tremendous progress in our understanding of the cell biology of mitochondria, with the identification of molecules and mechanisms that regulate their fusion, fission, motility, and the architectural transitions within the inner membrane. More importantly, the manipulation of these machineries in tissues has provided links between mitochondrial dynamics and physiology. Indeed, just as the proteins required for fusion and fission were identified, they were quickly linked to both rare and common human diseases. This highlighted the critical importance of this emerging field to medicine, with new hopes of finding drugable targets for numerous pathologies, from neurodegenerative diseases to inflammation and cancer. In the midst of these exciting new discoveries, an unexpected new aspect of mitochondrial cell biology has been uncovered; the generation of small vesicular carriers that transport mitochondrial proteins and lipids to other intracellular organelles. These mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) were first found to transport a mitochondrial outer membrane protein MAPL to a subpopulation of peroxisomes. However, other MDVs did not target peroxisomes and instead fused with the late endosome, or multivesicular body. The Parkinson's disease-associated proteins Vps35, Parkin, and PINK1 are involved in the biogenesis of a subset of these MDVs, linking this novel trafficking pathway to human disease. In this review, we outline what has been learned about the mechanisms and functional importance of MDV transport and speculate on the greater impact of these pathways in cellular physiology.

  6. An Abscisic Acid-Independent Oxylipin Pathway Controls Stomatal Closure and Immune Defense in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Mondy, Samuel; Tranchimand, Sylvain; Rumeau, Dominique; Boudsocq, Marie; Garcia, Ana Victoria; Douki, Thierry; Bigeard, Jean; Laurière, Christiane; Chevalier, Anne; Castresana, Carmen; Hirt, Heribert

    2013-01-01

    Plant stomata function in innate immunity against bacterial invasion and abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to regulate this process. Using genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that (i) the Arabidopsis thaliana nine-specific-lipoxygenase encoding gene, LOX1, which is expressed in guard cells, is required to trigger stomatal closure in response to both bacteria and the pathogen-associated molecular pattern flagellin peptide flg22; (ii) LOX1 participates in stomatal defense; (iii) polyunsaturated fatty acids, the LOX substrates, trigger stomatal closure; (iv) the LOX products, fatty acid hydroperoxides, or reactive electrophile oxylipins induce stomatal closure; and (v) the flg22-mediated stomatal closure is conveyed by both LOX1 and the mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6 and involves salicylic acid whereas the ABA-induced process depends on the protein kinases OST1, MPK9, or MPK12. Finally, we show that the oxylipin and the ABA pathways converge at the level of the anion channel SLAC1 to regulate stomatal closure. Collectively, our results demonstrate that early biotic signaling in guard cells is an ABA-independent process revealing a novel function of LOX1-dependent stomatal pathway in plant immunity. PMID:23526882

  7. A new pathway for mitochondrial quality control: mitochondrial-derived vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Ayumu; McLelland, Gian-Luca; Fon, Edward A; McBride, Heidi M

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has been marked by tremendous progress in our understanding of the cell biology of mitochondria, with the identification of molecules and mechanisms that regulate their fusion, fission, motility, and the architectural transitions within the inner membrane. More importantly, the manipulation of these machineries in tissues has provided links between mitochondrial dynamics and physiology. Indeed, just as the proteins required for fusion and fission were identified, they were quickly linked to both rare and common human diseases. This highlighted the critical importance of this emerging field to medicine, with new hopes of finding drugable targets for numerous pathologies, from neurodegenerative diseases to inflammation and cancer. In the midst of these exciting new discoveries, an unexpected new aspect of mitochondrial cell biology has been uncovered; the generation of small vesicular carriers that transport mitochondrial proteins and lipids to other intracellular organelles. These mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) were first found to transport a mitochondrial outer membrane protein MAPL to a subpopulation of peroxisomes. However, other MDVs did not target peroxisomes and instead fused with the late endosome, or multivesicular body. The Parkinson's disease-associated proteins Vps35, Parkin, and PINK1 are involved in the biogenesis of a subset of these MDVs, linking this novel trafficking pathway to human disease. In this review, we outline what has been learned about the mechanisms and functional importance of MDV transport and speculate on the greater impact of these pathways in cellular physiology. PMID:25107473

  8. Control of Antagonistic Components of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway by microRNAs in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Friggi-Grelin, Florence; Lavenant-Staccini, Laurence; Therond, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical for many developmental processes and for the genesis of diverse cancers. Hh signaling comprises a series of negative regulatory steps, from Hh reception to gene transcription output. We previously showed that stability of antagonistic regulatory proteins, including the coreceptor Smoothened (Smo), the kinesin-like Costal-2 (Cos2), and the kinase Fused (Fu), is affected by Hh signaling activation. Here, we show that the level of these three proteins is also regulated by a microRNA cluster. Indeed, the overexpression of this cluster and resulting microRNA regulation of the 3′-UTRs of smo, cos2, and fu mRNA decreases the levels of the three proteins and activates the pathway. Further, the loss of the microRNA cluster or of Dicer function modifies the 3′-UTR regulation of smo and cos2 mRNA, confirming that the mRNAs encoding the different Hh components are physiological targets of microRNAs. Nevertheless, an absence of neither the microRNA cluster nor of Dicer activity creates an hh-like phenotype, possibly due to dose compensation between the different antagonistic targets. This study reveals that a single signaling pathway can be targeted at multiple levels by the same microRNAs. PMID:18493062

  9. Supraspinal control of a short-latency cutaneous pathway to hindlimb motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Fleshman, J W; Rudomin, P; Burke, R E

    1988-01-01

    The effects of two supraspinal systems on transmission through a short latency hindlimb cutaneous reflex pathway were studied in cats anesthetized with pentobarbital or alpha-chloralose. Fleshman et al. (1984) described a mixed excitatory-inhibitory input from low threshold superficial peroneal (SP) afferents to flexor digitorum longus (FDL) motoneurons with central latencies so short as to suggest a disynaptic component in the initial excitatory phase of the PSP. In the present study, conditioning stimulation of either the red nucleus (RN) or the pyramidal tract (PT) caused a marked decrease in latency and increase in amplitude of both the excitatory and inhibitory components of the SP PSP in FDL motoneurons and several other motoneuron species. The minimal central latencies of the conditioned initial excitatory phase of the PSPs were on the order of 1.5 ms, consistent with the possibility of a disynaptic linkage. The facilitatory effects of RN and PT conditioning were observed in both anesthetic conditions, although preparation-specific differences in latency were observed. Lesion experiments suggested that the interneurons involved in this pathway are located caudal to the L5 segment, most likely in segments L6 and L7.

  10. rasiRNA pathway controls antisense expression of Drosophila telomeric retrotransposons in the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Shpiz, Sergey; Kwon, Dmitry; Rozovsky, Yakov; Kalmykova, Alla

    2009-01-01

    Telomeres in Drosophila are maintained by the specialized telomeric retrotransposons HeT-A, TART and TAHRE. Sense transcripts of telomeric retroelements were shown to be the targets of a specialized RNA-interference mechanism, a repeat-associated short interfering (rasi)RNA-mediated system. Antisense rasiRNAs play a key role in this mechanism, highlighting the importance of antisense expression in retrotransposon silencing. Previously, bidirectional transcription was reported for the telomeric element TART. Here, we show that HeT-A is also bidirectionally transcribed, and HeT-A antisense transcription in ovaries is regulated by a promoter localized within its 3′ untranslated region. A remarkable feature of noncoding HeT-A antisense transcripts is the presence of multiple introns. We demonstrate that sense and antisense HeT-A-specific rasiRNAs are present in the same tissue, indicating that transcripts of both directions may be considered as natural targets of the rasiRNA pathway. We found that the expression of antisense transcripts of telomeric elements is regulated by the RNA silencing machinery, suggesting rasiRNA-mediated interplay between sense and antisense transcripts in the cell. Finally, this regulation occurs in the nucleus since disruption of the rasiRNA pathway leads to an accumulation of TART and HeT-A transcripts in germ cell nuclei. PMID:19036789

  11. Identification of Genes Discriminating Multiple Sclerosis Patients from Controls by Adapting a Pathway Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Linlin; Tian, Pu

    2016-01-01

    The focus of analyzing data from microarray experiments has shifted from the identification of associated individual genes to that of associated biological pathways or gene sets. In bioinformatics, a feature selection algorithm is usually used to cope with the high dimensionality of microarray data. In addition to those algorithms that use the biological information contained within a gene set as a priori to facilitate the process of feature selection, various gene set analysis methods can be applied directly or modified readily for the purpose of feature selection. Significance analysis of microarray to gene-set reduction analysis (SAM-GSR) algorithm, a novel direction of gene set analysis, is one of such methods. Here, we explore the feature selection property of SAM-GSR and provide a modification to better achieve the goal of feature selection. In a multiple sclerosis (MS) microarray data application, both SAM-GSR and our modification of SAM-GSR perform well. Our results show that SAM-GSR can carry out feature selection indeed, and modified SAM-GSR outperforms SAM-GSR. Given pathway information is far from completeness, a statistical method capable of constructing biologically meaningful gene networks is of interest. Consequently, both SAM-GSR algorithms will be continuously revaluated in our future work, and thus better characterized. PMID:27846233

  12. The Hippo signalling pathway coordinates organ growth and limits developmental variability by controlling dilp8 expression

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Emilie; Colombani, Julien; Andersen, Ditte S.; Léopold, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Coordination of organ growth during development is required to generate fit individuals with fixed proportions. We recently identified Drosophila Dilp8 as a key hormone in coupling organ growth with animal maturation. In addition, dilp8 mutant flies exhibit elevated fluctuating asymmetry (FA) demonstrating a function for Dilp8 in ensuring developmental stability. The signals regulating Dilp8 activity during normal development are not yet known. Here, we show that the transcriptional co-activators of the Hippo (Hpo) pathway, Yorkie (Yki, YAP/TAZ) and its DNA-binding partner Scalloped (Sd), directly regulate dilp8 expression through a Hpo-responsive element (HRE) in the dilp8 promoter. We further demonstrate that mutation of the HRE by genome-editing results in animals with increased FA, thereby mimicking full dilp8 loss of function. Therefore, our results indicate that growth coordination of organs is connected to their growth status through a feedback loop involving Hpo and Dilp8 signalling pathways. PMID:27874005

  13. The PDK1–Rsk Signaling Pathway Controls Langerhans Cell Proliferation and Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Zaru, Rossana; Matthews, Stephen P.; Edgar, Alexander J.; Prescott, Alan R.; Gomez-Nicola, Diego; Hanauer, André

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LC), the dendritic cells of the epidermis, are distributed in a distinctive regularly spaced array. In the mouse, the LC array is established in the first few days of life from proliferating local precursors, but the regulating signaling pathways are not fully understood. We found that mice lacking the kinase phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 selectively lack LC. Deletion of the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 target kinases, ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (Rsk1) and Rsk2, produced a striking perturbation in the LC network: LC density was reduced 2-fold, but LC size was increased by the same magnitude. Reduced LC numbers in Rsk1/2−/− mice was not due to accelerated emigration from the skin but rather to reduced proliferation at least in adults. Rsk1/2 were required for normal LC patterning in neonates, but not when LC were ablated in adults and replaced by bone marrow–derived cells. Increased LC size was an intrinsic response to reduced LC numbers, reversible on LC emigration, and could be observed in wild type epidermis where LC size also correlated inversely with LC density. Our results identify a key signaling pathway needed to establish a normal LC network and suggest that LC might maintain epidermal surveillance by increasing their “footprint” when their numbers are limited. PMID:26401001

  14. A direct anterior cingulate pathway to the primate primary olfactory cortex may control attention to olfaction

    PubMed Central

    García-Cabezas, Miguel Á.; Barbas, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and functional studies in humans suggest that attention plays a key role in activating the primary olfactory cortex through an unknown circuit mechanism. We report that a novel pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex, an area which has a key role in attention, projects directly to the primary olfactory cortex in rhesus monkeys, innervating mostly the anterior olfactory nucleus. Axons from the anterior cingulate cortex formed synapses mostly with spines of putative excitatory pyramidal neurons and with a small proportion of a neurochemical class of inhibitory neurons that are thought to have disinhibitory effect on excitatory neurons. This novel pathway from the anterior cingulate is poised to exert a powerful excitatory effect on the anterior olfactory nucleus, which is a critical hub for odorant processing via extensive bilateral connections with primary olfactory cortices and the olfactory bulb. Acting on the anterior olfactory nucleus, the anterior cingulate may activate the entire primary olfactory cortex to mediate the process of rapid attention to olfactory stimuli. PMID:23797208

  15. Computation of inverse functions in a model of cerebellar and reflex pathways allows to control a mobile mechanical segment.

    PubMed

    Ebadzadeh, M; Tondu, B; Darlot, C

    2005-01-01

    The command and control of limb movements by the cerebellar and reflex pathways are modeled by means of a circuit whose structure is deduced from functional constraints. One constraint is that fast limb movements must be accurate although they cannot be continuously controlled in closed loop by use of sensory signals. Thus, the pathways which process the motor orders must contain approximate inverse functions of the bio-mechanical functions of the limb and of the muscles. This can be achieved by means of parallel feedback loops, whose pattern turns out to be comparable to the anatomy of the cerebellar pathways. They contain neural networks able to anticipate the motor consequences of the motor orders, modeled by artificial neural networks whose connectivity is similar to that of the cerebellar cortex. These networks learn the direct biomechanical functions of the limbs and muscles by means of a supervised learning process. Teaching signals calculated from motor errors are sent to the learning sites, as, in the cerebellum, complex spikes issued from the inferior olive are conveyed to the Purkinje cells by climbing fibers. Learning rules are deduced by a differential calculation, as classical gradient rules, and they account for the long term depression which takes place in the dendritic arborizations of the Purkinje cells. Another constraint is that reflexes must not impede voluntary movements while remaining at any instant ready to oppose perturbations. Therefore, efferent copies of the motor orders are sent to the interneurones of the reflexes, where they cancel the sensory-motor consequences of the voluntary movements. After learning, the model is able to drive accurately, both in velocity and position, angular movements of a rod actuated by two pneumatic McKibben muscles. Reflexes comparable to the myotatic and tendinous reflexes, and stabilizing reactions comparable to the cerebellar sensory-motor reactions, reduce efficiently the effects of perturbing torques

  16. Gene Expression Profile of Adult Human Olfactory Bulb and Embryonic Neural Stem Cell Suggests Distinct Signaling Pathways and Epigenetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Marei, Hany E. S.; Ahmed, Abd-Elmaksoud; Michetti, Fabrizio; Pescatori, Mario; Pallini, Roberto; Casalbore, Patricia; Cenciarelli, Carlo; Elhadidy, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Global gene expression profiling was performed using RNA from human embryonic neural stem cells (hENSC), and adult human olfactory bulb-derived neural stem cells (OBNSCs), to define a gene expression pattern and signaling pathways that are specific for each cell lineage. We have demonstrated large differences in the gene expression profile of human embryonic NSC, and adult human OBNSCs, but less variability between parallel cultures. Transcripts of genes involved in neural tube development and patterning (ALDH1A2, FOXA2), progenitor marker genes (LMX1a, ALDH1A1, SOX10), proliferation of neural progenitors (WNT1 and WNT3a), neuroplastin (NPTN), POU3F1 (OCT6), neuroligin (NLGN4X), MEIS2, and NPAS1 were up-regulated in both cell populations. By Gene Ontology, 325 out of 3875 investigated gene sets were scientifically different. 41 out of the 307 investigated Cellular Component (CC) categories, 45 out of the 620 investigated Molecular Function (MF) categories, and 239 out of the 2948 investigated Biological Process (BP) categories were significant. KEGG Pathway Class Comparison had revealed that 75 out of 171 investigated gene sets passed the 0.005 significance threshold. Levels of gene expression were explored in three signaling pathways, Notch, Wnt, and mTOR that are known to be involved in NS cell fates determination. The transcriptional signature also deciphers the role of genes involved in epigenetic modifications. SWI/SNF DNA chromatin remodeling complex family, including SMARCC1 and SMARCE1, were found specifically up-regulated in our OBNSC but not in hENSC. Differences in gene expression profile of transcripts controlling epigenetic modifications, and signaling pathways might indicate differences in the therapeutic potential of our examined two cell populations in relation to in cell survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation following engraftments in different CNS insults. PMID:22485144

  17. Functional analysis of the gene controlling hydroxylation of festuclavine in the ergot alkaloid pathway of Neosartorya fumigata

    PubMed Central

    Bilovol, Yulia; Panaccione, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive ergot alkaloids produced by several species of fungi are important molecules in agriculture and medicine. Much of the ergot alkaloid pathway has been elucidated, but a few steps, including the gene controlling hydroxylation of festuclavine to fumigaclavine B, remain unsolved. Festuclavine is a key intermediate in the fumigaclavine branch of the ergot alkaloid pathway of the opportunistic pathogen Neosartorya fumigata and also in the dihydrolysergic acid-based ergot alkaloid pathway of certain Claviceps species. Based on several lines of evidence, the N. fumigata gene easM is a logical candidate to encode the festuclavine-hydroxylating enzyme. To test this hypothesis we disrupted easM function by replacing part of its coding sequences with a hygromycin resistance gene and transforming N. fumigata with this construct. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that easM deletion mutants were blocked in the ergot alkaloid pathway at festuclavine, and downstream products were eliminated. An additional alkaloid, proposed to be a prenylated form of festuclavine on the basis of mass spectral data, also accumulated to higher concentrations in the easM knockout. Complementation with the wild-type allele of easM gene restored the ability of the fungus to produce downstream compounds. These results indicate that easM encodes an enzyme required for fumigaclavine B synthesis likely by hydroxylating festuclavine. The festuclavine-accumulating strain of N. fumigata may facilitate future investigations of the biosynthesis of dihydrolysergic acid derivatives, which are derived from festuclavine and are the basis for several important drugs. PMID:26972831

  18. Argonaute and the Nuclear RNAs: New Pathways for RNA-Mediated Control of Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Keith T.

    2012-01-01

    Small RNAs are a commonly used tool for gene silencing and a promising platform for nucleic acid drug development. They are almost exclusively used to silence gene expression post-transcriptionally through degradation of mRNA. Small RNAs, however, can have a broader range of function by binding to Argonaute proteins and associating with complementary RNA targets in the nucleus, including long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and pre-mRNA. Argonaute–RNA complexes can regulate nuclear events like transcription, genome maintenance, and splicing. Thousands of lncRNAs and alternatively spliced pre-mRNA isoforms exist in humans, and these RNAs may serve as natural targets for regulation and therapeutic intervention. This review describes nuclear mechanisms for Argonaute proteins and small RNAs, new pathways for sequence-specific targeting, and the potential for therapeutic development of small RNAs with nuclear targets. PMID:22283730

  19. Polarity of bacterial magnetotaxis is controlled by aerotaxis through a common sensory pathway.

    PubMed

    Popp, Felix; Armitage, Judith P; Schüler, Dirk

    2014-11-14

    Most motile bacteria navigate within gradients of external chemical stimuli by regulating the length of randomly oriented swimming episodes. Magnetotactic bacteria are characterized by chains of intracellular ferromagnetic nanoparticles and their ability to sense the geomagnetic field, which is believed to facilitate directed motion, but is not well understood at the behavioural and molecular level. Here, we show that cells of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense unexpectedly display swimming polarity that depends on aerotactic signal transduction through one of its four chemotaxis operons (cheOp1). Growth of cells in magnetic fields superimposed on oxygen gradients results in a gradual inherited bias of swimming runs with one of the cell poles leading, such that the resulting overall swimming direction of entire populations can be reversed by changes in oxygen concentration. These findings clearly show that there is a direct molecular link between aerotactic sensing and the determination of magnetotactic polarity, through the sensory pathway, CheOp1.

  20. Controls on NAPL migration pathways in a mixed-waste rail yard, Dunsmuir, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidry, Lauren N.

    On a rail yard site impacted with multiple spills of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), NAPL was actively being transported in a subsurface pathway to a nearby stream. While significant quantities of NAPL were immobile on the site, further understanding of the active pathway requires understanding the site transport mechanism(s). The mixing of surface water and groundwater, and the flow conditions capable of producing a suitable environment for biochemical processes were evaluated. Additionally, a hydrogeophysical framework for evaluating sites with multiple long-term impacts was suggested. Evaluation of the site was performed by data integration of geophysical, geochemical, and hydrogeologic data. Geophysical data included 71 electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) datasets across the site. Geochemical data included onsite well data, stream data, and regional well data. Hydrogeologic data included borings and head data incorporated into a site groundwater model. These datasets were used to generate a GIS database of site data to produce maps of site parameters relative to geophysical and geologic features. Additionally principal component analysis (PCA) and end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) were used to identify anomalous wells for the site. Results of the hydrogeologic analysis indicates during high stream flow events, groundwater chemical constituents become homogenized and diluted across the site. During baseflow, chemical constituents increase in concentration in the northern end of the site due to biodegradation. The results of the EMMA analysis demonstrate geochemical constituents in the northern area of the field site were outliers from the regional and onsite samples. The southern end of the site, while impacted, reflects concentrations of background waters. This complex surface water/groundwater mixing process at the site periodically dilutes the thermally active environment, which appears to be required to mobilize NAPL. A revised hydrogeophysical framework

  1. Randomised controlled trial of GP-led in-hospital management of homeless people ('Pathway').

    PubMed

    Hewett, Nigel; Buchman, Peter; Musariri, Jeflyn; Sargeant, Christopher; Johnson, Penny; Abeysekera, Kushala; Grant, Louise; Oliver, Emily A; Eleftheriades, Christopher; McCormick, Barry; Halligan, Aidan; Marlin, Nadine; Kerry, Sally; Foster, Graham R

    2016-06-01

    Homeless people have complex problems. GP enhanced care (Pathway) has shown benefits. We performed a randomised, -parallel arm trial at two large inner city hospitals. Inpatient homeless adults were randomly allocated to either standard care (all management by the hospital-based clinical team) or enhanced care with input from a homeless care team. The hospital data system provided healthcare usage information, and we used questionnaires to assess quality of life. 206 patients were allocated to enhanced care and 204 to usual care. Length of stay (up to 90 days after admission) did not differ between groups (standard care 14.0 days, enhanced care 13.3 days). Average reattendance at the emergency department within a year was 5.8 visits in the standard care group and 4.8 visits with enhanced care, but this decrease was not significant. -Quality of life scores after discharge (in 108 patients) improved with enhanced care (EQ-5D-5L score increased by 0.12 [95% CI 0.032 to 0.22] compared wtih 0.03 [-0.1 to 0.15; p=0.076] with standard care). The proportion of people sleeping on the streets after discharge was 14.6% in the standard care arm and 3.8% in the enhanced care arm (p=0.034). The quality-of-life cost per quality-adjusted life-year was £26,000. The Pathway approach doesn't alter length of stay but improves quality of life and reduces street -homelessness.

  2. Functional convergence of oxylipin and abscisic acid pathways controls stomatal closure in response to drought.

    PubMed

    Savchenko, Tatyana; Kolla, Venkat A; Wang, Chang-Quan; Nasafi, Zainab; Hicks, Derrick R; Phadungchob, Bpantamars; Chehab, Wassim E; Brandizzi, Federica; Froehlich, John; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2014-03-01

    Membranes are primary sites of perception of environmental stimuli. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are major structural constituents of membranes that also function as modulators of a multitude of signal transduction pathways evoked by environmental stimuli. Different stresses induce production of a distinct blend of oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids, "oxylipins." We employed three Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotypes to examine the oxylipin signature in response to specific stresses and determined that wounding and drought differentially alter oxylipin profiles, particularly the allene oxide synthase branch of the oxylipin pathway, responsible for production of jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (12-OPDA). Specifically, wounding induced both 12-OPDA and JA levels, whereas drought induced only the precursor 12-OPDA. Levels of the classical stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) were also mainly enhanced by drought and little by wounding. To explore the role of 12-OPDA in plant drought responses, we generated a range of transgenic lines and exploited the existing mutant plants that differ in their levels of stress-inducible 12-OPDA but display similar ABA levels. The plants producing higher 12-OPDA levels exhibited enhanced drought tolerance and reduced stomatal aperture. Furthermore, exogenously applied ABA and 12-OPDA, individually or combined, promote stomatal closure of ABA and allene oxide synthase biosynthetic mutants, albeit most effectively when combined. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Brassica napus verified the potency of this combination in inducing stomatal closure in plants other than Arabidopsis. These data have identified drought as a stress signal that uncouples the conversion of 12-OPDA to JA and have revealed 12-OPDA as a drought-responsive regulator of stomatal closure functioning most effectively together with ABA.

  3. Utilising conservative tracers and spatial surveys to identify controls on pathways and DOC exports in an Arctic catchment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessels, J. S.; Tetzlaff, D.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Street, L. E.; Dean, J.; Washbourne, I. J.; Billett, M. F.; Baxter, R.; Subke, J. A.; Wookey, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is typically the predominant form of carbon exported from headwater streams, it therefore represents a major carbon export from Arctic catchments. The projected deepening of thaw depth in permafrost regions, due to an increase in air temperature, may have a significant effect on the amount of DOC exported from these systems. However, quantification of the impacts of climate driven changes on DOC export are still highly uncertain. Understanding the processes controlling DOC export is therefore crucial in predicting the potential impact of projected environmental changes. The controls of DOC production and transport are heavily influenced by soil and vegetation, which are highly variable across the landscape. To completely understand these systems information regarding spatial variability of plants, soils and thaw depths must be taken into account. In this study sub-weekly sampling of DOC was undertaken throughout 2014 in a headwater (<1 km2) catchment in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Spatial surveys of soil properties, active thaw depth and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) were collected and used in conjunction with conservative stable water isotopes tracers and major ions to understand sources, flow pathways and timing of DOC exports from the catchment. Stable isotope tracers act as fingerprints of water allowing sources and pathways to be assessed. Observations reveal changing DOC concentrations throughout the season as the active layer deepens and the connectivity of the soils to the stream network throughout the catchment increases. Linking the DOC data with the conservative tracer response improves the identification of carbon pathways and fluxes from the soils; preliminary analysis indicates DOC is being delivered via deeper more mineral soils later in the season. The results indicate that the active layer depth has a strong influence on the amount of DOC exported from the system, independent of the amount of

  4. Disrupted chronobiology of sleep and cytoprotection in obesity: possible therapeutic value of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, Daniel P; Pagano, Eleonora S; Scacchi Bernasconi, Pablo A; Reynoso, Roxana; Scacchi, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    From a physiological perspective the sleep-wake cycle can be envisioned as a sequence of three physiological states (wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement, NREM, sleep and REM sleep) which are defined by a particular neuroendocrine-immune profile regulating the metabolic balance, body weight and inflammatory responses. Sleep deprivation and circadian disruption in contemporary "24/7 Society" lead to the predominance of pro-orexic and proinflammatory mechanisms that contribute to a pandemic metabolic syndrome (MS) including obesity, diabetes and atherosclerotic disease. Thus, a successful management of MS may require a drug that besides antagonizing the trigger factors of MS could also correct a disturbed sleep-wake rhythm. This review deals with the analysis of the therapeutic validity of melatonin in MS. Melatonin is an effective chronobiotic agent changing the phase and amplitude of the sleep/wake rhythm and having cytoprotective and immunomodulatory properties useful to prevent a number of MS sequels. Several studies support that melatonin can prevent hyperadiposity in animal models of obesity. Melatonin at a low dose (2-5 mg/day) has been used for improving sleep in patients with insomnia and circadian rhythm sleep disorders. More recently, attention has been focused on the development of potent melatonin analogs with prolonged effects (ramelteon, agomelatine, tasimelteon, TK 301). In clinical trials these analogs were employed in doses considerably higher than those usually employed for melatonin. In view that the relative potencies of the analogs are higher than that of the natural compound, clinical trials employing melatonin doses in the range of 50-100 mg/day are needed to assess its therapeutic value in MS.

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders. PMID:22958433

  6. The chalcone compound isosalipurposide (ISPP) exerts a cytoprotective effect against oxidative injury via Nrf2 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jae Yun; Cho, Seung Sik; Yang, Ji Hye; Kim, Kyu Min; Jang, Chang Ho; Park, Da Eon; Bang, Joon Seok; Jung, Young Suk; Ki, Sung Hwan

    2015-08-15

    The chalcone compound isosalipurposide (ISPP) has been successfully isolated from the native Korean plant species Corylopsis coreana Uyeki (Korean winter hazel). However, the therapeutic efficacy of ISPP remains poorly understood. This study investigated whether ISPP has the capacity to activate NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling and induce its target gene expression, and to determined the protective role of ISPP against oxidative injury of hepatocytes. In HepG2 cells, nuclear translocation of Nrf2 is augmented by ISPP treatment. Consistently, ISPP increased ARE reporter gene activity and the protein levels of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) and hemeoxygenase (HO-1), resulting in increased intracellular glutathione levels. Cells pretreated with ISPP were rescued from tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glutathione depletion and consequently, apoptotic cell death. Moreover, ISPP ameliorated the mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis induced by rotenone which is an inhibitor of complex 1 of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The specific role of Nrf2 activation by ISPP was demonstrated using an ARE-deletion mutant plasmid and Nrf2-knockout cells. Finally, we observed that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but not protein kinase C (PKC)-δ or other mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), are involved in the activation of Nrf2 by ISPP. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ISPP has a cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage mediated through Nrf2 activation and induction of its target gene expression in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • We investigated the effect of ISPP on Nrf2 activation. • ISPP increased Nrf2 activity and its target gene expression. • ISPP inhibited the mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production. • Nrf2 activation by ISPP is dependent on ERK1/2 and AMPK phosphorylation. • ISPP may be a promising

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Artemisia ciniformis extracts on PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Mojarrab, Mahdi; Nasseri, Sajjad; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Farahani, Farah

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In the current study antioxidant capacities of five different extracts of Artemisia ciniformis aerial parts were evaluated by cell-free methods. Then seven fractions of the potent extract were selected and their antioxidant capacity was assayed by cell free and cell based methods. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant ability was measured using the: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test, β-carotene bleaching (BCB) method and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. Total phenolic contents (TPC) of all the samples also were determined. The cytoprotective effect of fractions was evaluated by measuring the viability of cells after exposure to doxorubicin (DOX). The mechanism of action was studied by investigating caspase-3, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the level of super-oxide dismutase (SOD) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results: Hydroethanolic extract exhibited a notably higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content. Among the fractions (A to G) of hydroethanolic extract, the highest antioxidant capacity was observed in the Fraction E. Moreover, 24 hr pretreatment of PC12 cells with fractions B, C and D decreased DOX-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, pre-treatment of cells with fraction B resulted in significant decrease in generation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increase in the activity of SOD. We were able to demonstrate remarkable reduction in the activity of caspase-3 and increase in MMP in PC12 cells following pretreatment with fraction B. Conclusion: Our observations indicated that the fraction B of A. ciniformis hydroetanolic extract possessed protective effect on oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by DOX in PC12 cells. PMID:27279988

  8. Cytoprotection by pyruvate through an anti-oxidative mechanism in cultured rat calvarial osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, N; Hinoi, E; Tsuchihashi, Y; Fujimori, S; Iemata, M; Takarada, T; Yoneda, Y

    2006-09-01

    Although we have previously shown drastic cell death by pyruvate deficiency in osteoblasts at the proliferative stage, the exact mechanism remains unclear so far. Cell survivability was significantly decreased in rat calvarial osteoblasts cultured for 0 to 3 days in vitro (DIV) following replacement of the eutrophic alpha-modified minimum essential medium (alpha-MEM) with Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) for cultivation. The addition of pyruvate enriched in alpha-MEM, but not in MEM, entirely prevented cell death induced by the medium replacement throughout a culture period from 0 to 3 DIV. Both cysteine and reduced glutathione protected cell death in cells cultured for 3 DIV without significantly affecting that in cells cultured for 1 DIV, however, while none of lactate, acetate and insulin significantly prevented the cell death irrespective of the culture period up to 3 DIV. A marked increase was detected in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels 4 h after the medium replacement. In osteoblasts cultured in alpha-MEM for 3 DIV, but not in those for 7 DIV, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) markedly decreased cell survivability when exposed for 2 to 24 h. Furthermore, H2O2 was effective in significantly decreasing cell survivability in osteoblasts cultured in DMEM for 7 DIV. Pyruvate at 1 mM not only prevented cell death by H2O2, but also suppressed the generation of intracellular ROS in osteoblasts exposed to H2O2. These results suggest that pyruvate could be cytoprotective through a mechanism associated with the anti-oxidative property rather than an energy fuel in cultured rat calvarial osteoblasts.

  9. Dietary flavonoids are neuroprotective through Nrf2-coordinated induction of endogenous cytoprotective proteins

    PubMed Central

    Leonardo, Christopher C.; Doré, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Detailed investigations into the specific dietary components of these foods have revealed that many polyphenolic constituents exert anti-oxidant effects on key substrates involved in the pathogenesis and progression of ischemic injury. These data have perpetuated the belief that the protective effects of flavonoids result from direct anti-oxidant actions at the levels of the cerebral vasculature and brain parenchyma. While many in vitro studies using purified extracts support this contention, first-pass metabolism alters the bioavailability of flavonoids such that the achievable concentrations after oral consumption are not consistent with this mechanism. Importantly, oral consumption of flavonoids may promote neural protection by facilitating the expression of gene products responsible for detoxifying the ischemic microenvironment through both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions. In particular, the transcriptional factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 has emerged as a critical regulator of flavonoid-mediated protection through the induction of various cytoprotective genes. The pleiotropic effects associated with potent transcriptional regulation likely represent the primary mechanisms of neural protection, as the flavonoid concentrations reaching ischemic tissues in vivo are sufficient to alter intracellular signal transduction but likely preclude the one-to-one stoichiometry necessary to confer protection by direct anti-oxidation. These data reflect an exciting new direction in the study of complementary and alternative medicine that may lead to the development of novel therapies for ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and other neurological disorders. PMID:22005287

  10. Cytoprotection by iloprost against paracetamol-induced toxicity in hamster isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri-Sina, P.; Fawthrop, D. J.; Wilson, J.; Boobis, A. R.; Davies, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    1 The ability of iloprost (ZK36374) to protect hamster isolated hepatocytes from the toxic effects of paracetamol and its reactive metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine (NABQI) was investigated. The cytoprotection provided by iloprost was compared with that of N-acetyl-L-cysteine. 2 Treatment of hepatocytes with either NABQI (0.4 mM) or paracetamol (2 mM) alone resulted in a considerable loss of cell viability, as assessed by trypan blue exclusion or leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, accompanied by an increase in the percentage of viable cells that were blebbed. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (1.25 mM) pretreatment diminished the loss of cell viability and the percentage of blebbed cells resulting from exposure to NABQI or paracetamol, whereas iloprost (10(-16) M to 10(-10) M) pretreatment reduced only the loss of cell viability, not the percentage of viable cells exhibiting blebbing. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine significantly attenuated the depletion by paracetamol of glutathione and decreased the covalent binding of [14C]-paracetamol to cellular proteins, whereas iloprost was without any such effects. 3 The effects of iloprost and N-acetyl-L-cysteine were also investigated by use of a model of paracetamol toxicity in which it is possible to study the biochemical events leading to cell injury separate from the generation of toxic metabolites. Hamster hepatocytes were incubated with paracetamol (4 mM) for 90 min at 37 degrees C during which metabolism of paracetamol occurs with minimal loss of cell viability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1373102

  11. Cytoprotective and pro-apoptotic activities of native Australian herbs polyphenolic-rich extracts.

    PubMed

    Sakulnarmrat, Karunrat; Fenech, Michael; Thomas, Philip; Konczak, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    Three commercially grown native herbs unique to Australia, Tasmannia pepper leaf (Tasmannia lanceolata R. Br., Winteracea; TPL), anise myrtle (Syzygium anisatum Vickery, Craven & Biffen, Myrtaceae; AM) and lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora F. Muell, Myrtaceae; LM) as well as a reference sample bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L., Lauraceae; BL) were examined for potential cytoprotective properties. All native herbs exhibited greater cellular antioxidant activity as measured by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay than bay leaf and reduced the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced death of hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells by 25-50%. All herb extracts reduced the proliferation of colon (HT-29; IC(50)=0.75-1.39mg/ml), stomach (AGS; IC(50)=0.59-1.88mg/ml), bladder (BL13; IC(50)=0.56-1.12mg/ml) and liver (HepG2; IC(50)=0.38-1.36mg/ml) cancer cells. No significant reduction of cell viability of non-transformed colon (CCD-18Co; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) and mixed stomach and intestine (Hs 738.St/Int; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) cells was observed. Flow cytometry analysis and the results of the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMNCyt) assay conducted with respectively, promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells suggest an increase in apoptosis following treatment with the herb extracts. The occurrence of apoptotic cells coincided with an increase in caspase-3 enzyme activity. The results of the CBMNCyt assay suggested no direct DNA damage in colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells as a result of treatment with all extracts, applied at final concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0mg/ml.

  12. Maternal sensitivity and latency to positive emotion following challenge: pathways through effortful control.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne; McDonough, Susan C; Mackenzie, Michael; Miller, Alison; Dayton, Carolyn; Rosenblum, Katherine; Muzik, Maria; Sameroff, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    The ability to self-generate positive emotions is an important component of emotion regulation. In this study, we focus on children's latency to express positive emotions following challenging situations and assess whether this ability operates through early maternal sensitivity and children's effortful control. Longitudinal relations between maternal sensitivity, infant negative affect, effortful control, and latency to positive emotion following challenge were examined in 156 children who were 33 months of age. Structural equation models supported the hypothesis that maternal sensitivity during infancy predicted better effortful control and, in turn, shorter latencies to positive emotions following challenge at 33 months. Directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Kinetic control over pathway complexity in supramolecular polymerization through modulating the energy landscape by rational molecular design.

    PubMed

    Ogi, Soichiro; Fukui, Tomoya; Jue, Melinda L; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Sugiyasu, Kazunori

    2014-12-22

    Far-from-equilibrium thermodynamic systems that are established as a consequence of coupled equilibria are the origin of the complex behavior of biological systems. Therefore, research in supramolecular chemistry has recently been shifting emphasis from a thermodynamic standpoint to a kinetic one; however, control over the complex kinetic processes is still in its infancy. Herein, we report our attempt to control the time evolution of supramolecular assembly in a process in which the supramolecular assembly transforms from a J-aggregate to an H-aggregate over time. The transformation proceeds through a delicate interplay of these two aggregation pathways. We have succeeded in modulating the energy landscape of the respective aggregates by a rational molecular design. On the basis of this understanding of the energy landscape, programming of the time evolution was achieved through adjusting the balance between the coupled equilibria.

  14. Failure to control prepotent pathways in early stage dementia of the Alzheimer's type: evidence from dichotic listening.

    PubMed

    Duchek, Janet M; Balota, David A

    2005-09-01

    The authors examined the right ear advantage in a dichotic listening task in healthy aging and very mild and mild stages of Alzheimer's disease. Subjects were simultaneously presented 3 pairs of digits to the left and right ears (e.g., left ear: 4, 3, 1; right ear: 9, 2, 5) for immediate ordered recall. Four lists of triads were presented, varying in presentation rate between digit pairs within a triad (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 s). Results indicated that the very mild and mild Alzheimer's groups showed a larger right ear advantage in free recall compared with the healthy controls, indicating a tendency to respond to the prepotent left hemisphere pathway for language processing. Also, the right ear advantage and proportion of switches made during recall were correlated with psychometric measures of frontal lobe function in the mild Alzheimer's group but not in the very mild or healthy control groups.

  15. Dissection of Ras-Dependent Signaling Pathways Controlling Aggressive Tumor Growth of Human Fibrosarcoma Cells: Evidence for a Potential Novel Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swati; Plattner, Rina; Der, Channing J.; Stanbridge, Eric J.

    2000-01-01

    Activation of multiple signaling pathways is required to trigger the full spectrum of in vitro and in vivo phenotypic traits associated with neoplastic transformation by oncogenic Ras. To determine which of these pathways are important for N-ras tumorigenesis in human cancer cells and also to investigate the possibility of cross talk among the pathways, we have utilized a human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080), which contains an endogenous mutated allele of the N-ras gene, and its derivative (MCH603c8), which lacks the mutant N-ras allele. We have stably transfected MCH603c8 and HT1080 cells with activating or dominant-negative mutant cDNAs, respectively, of various components of the Raf, Rac, and RhoA pathways. In previous studies with these cell lines we showed that loss of mutant Ras function results in dramatic changes in the in vitro phenotypic traits and conversion to a weakly tumorigenic phenotype in vivo. We report here that only overexpression of activated MEK contributed significantly to the conversion of MCH603c8 cells to an aggressive tumorigenic phenotype. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that blocking the constitutive activation of the Raf-MEK, Rac, or RhoA pathway alone is not sufficient to block the aggressive tumorigenic phenotype of HT1080, despite affecting a number of in vitro-transformed phenotypic traits. We have also demonstrated the possibility of bidirectional cross talk between the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway and the Rac-JNK or RhoA pathway. Finally, overexpression of activated MEK in MCH603c8 cells appears to result in the activation of an as-yet-unidentified target(s) that is critical for the aggressive tumorigenic phenotype. PMID:11094080

  16. Policy Innovation and Policy Pathways: Tuberculosis Control in Sri Lanka, 1948–1990

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This paper, based on World Health Organization and Sri Lankan sources, examines the attempts to control tuberculosis in Sri Lanka from independence in 1948. It focuses particularly on the attempt in 1966 to implement a World Health Organization model of community-orientated tuberculosis control that sought to establish a horizontally structured programme through the integration of control into the general health services. The objective was to create a cost- effective method of control that relied on a simple bacteriological test for case finding and for treatment at the nearest health facility that would take case detection and treatment to the rural periphery where specialist services were lacking. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Sri Lanka had already established a specialist control programme composed of chest clinics, mass X-ray, inpatient and domiciliary treatment, and social assistance for sufferers. This programme had both reduced mortality and enhanced awareness of the disease. This paper exposes the obstacles presented in trying to impose the World Health Organization’s internationally devised model onto the existing structure of tuberculosis control already operating in Sri Lanka. One significant hindrance to the WHO approach was lack of resources but, equally important, was the existing medical culture that militated against its acceptance. PMID:27628860

  17. Policy Innovation and Policy Pathways: Tuberculosis Control in Sri Lanka, 1948-1990.

    PubMed

    Jones, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    This paper, based on World Health Organization and Sri Lankan sources, examines the attempts to control tuberculosis in Sri Lanka from independence in 1948. It focuses particularly on the attempt in 1966 to implement a World Health Organization model of community-orientated tuberculosis control that sought to establish a horizontally structured programme through the integration of control into the general health services. The objective was to create a cost- effective method of control that relied on a simple bacteriological test for case finding and for treatment at the nearest health facility that would take case detection and treatment to the rural periphery where specialist services were lacking. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Sri Lanka had already established a specialist control programme composed of chest clinics, mass X-ray, inpatient and domiciliary treatment, and social assistance for sufferers. This programme had both reduced mortality and enhanced awareness of the disease. This paper exposes the obstacles presented in trying to impose the World Health Organization's internationally devised model onto the existing structure of tuberculosis control already operating in Sri Lanka. One significant hindrance to the WHO approach was lack of resources but, equally important, was the existing medical culture that militated against its acceptance.

  18. Control of CREB expression in tumors: from molecular mechanisms and signal transduction pathways to therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Steven, André; Seliger, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) protein has pleiotropic activities in physiologic processes. Due to its central position downstream of many growth signaling pathways CREB has the ability to influence cell survival, growth and differentiation of normal, but also of tumor cells suggesting an oncogenic potential of CREB. Indeed, increased CREB expression and activation is associated with tumor progression, chemotherapy resistance and reduced patients' survival. We summarize here the different cellular functions of CREB in tumors of distinct histology as well as its use as potential prognostic marker. In addition, the underlying molecular mechanisms to achieve constitutive activation of CREB including structural alterations, such as gene amplification and chromosomal translocation, and deregulation, which could occur at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational level, will be described. Since downregulation of CREB by different strategies resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation, invasion and induction of apoptosis, the role of CREB as a promising target for cancer therapy will be also discussed. PMID:26934558

  19. Distinct ECM mechanosensing pathways regulate microtubule dynamics to control endothelial cell branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kenneth A.; Applegate, Kathryn T.

    2011-01-01

    During angiogenesis, cytoskeletal dynamics that mediate endothelial cell branching morphogenesis during vascular guidance are thought to be regulated by physical attributes of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in a process termed mechanosensing. Here, we tested the involvement of microtubules in linking mechanosensing to endothelial cell branching morphogenesis. We used a recently developed microtubule plus end–tracking program to show that specific parameters of microtubule assembly dynamics, growth speed and growth persistence, are globally and regionally modified by, and contribute to, ECM mechanosensing. We demonstrated that engagement of compliant two-dimensional or three-dimensional ECMs induces local differences in microtubule growth speed that require myosin II contractility. Finally, we found that microtubule growth persistence is modulated by myosin II–mediated compliance mechanosensing when cells are cultured on two-dimensional ECMs, whereas three-dimensional ECM engagement makes microtubule growth persistence insensitive to changes in ECM compliance. Thus, compliance and dimensionality ECM mechanosensing pathways independently regulate specific and distinct microtubule dynamics parameters in endothelial cells to guide branching morphogenesis in physically complex ECMs. PMID:21263030

  20. Functional and structural insight into properdin control of complement alternative pathway amplification.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Dennis V; Roumenina, Lubka; Jensen, Rasmus K; Gadeberg, Trine Af; Marinozzi, Chiara; Picard, Capucine; Rybkine, Tania; Thiel, Steffen; Sørensen, Uffe Bs; Stover, Cordula; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Andersen, Gregers R

    2017-03-06

    Properdin (FP) is an essential positive regulator of the complement alternative pathway (AP) providing stabilization of the C3 and C5 convertases, but its oligomeric nature challenges structural analysis. We describe here a novel FP deficiency (E244K) caused by a single point mutation which results in a very low level of AP activity. Recombinant FP E244K is monomeric, fails to support bacteriolysis, and binds weakly to C3 products. We compare this to a monomeric unit excised from oligomeric FP, which is also dysfunctional in bacteriolysis but binds the AP proconvertase, C3 convertase, C3 products and partially stabilizes the convertase. The crystal structure of such a FP-convertase complex suggests that the major contact between FP and the AP convertase is mediated by a single FP thrombospondin repeat and a small region in C3b. Small angle X-ray scattering indicates that FP E244K is trapped in a compact conformation preventing its oligomerization. Our studies demonstrate an essential role of FP oligomerization in vivo while our monomers enable detailed structural insight paving the way for novel modulators of complement.

  1. Calorie restriction and methionine restriction in control of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production by the transsulfuration pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hine, Christopher; Mitchell, James R.

    2015-01-01

    H2S is a gas easily identified by its distinctive odor. Although environmental exposure to H2S has been viewed alternately as therapeutic or toxic through the centuries, H2S has recently regained recognition for its numerous beneficial biological effects. Most experiments documenting such benefits, including improved glucose tolerance, increased stress resistance, and even lifespan extension, are based on exposure of experimental organisms to exogenous sources of H2S. However, appreciation is growing for the importance of H2S produced endogenously by the evolutionary conserved transsulfuration pathway (TSP) in health and longevity. Recent data implicate H2S produced by the TSP in pleiotropic benefits of dietary restriction (DR), or reduced nutrient/energy intake without malnutrition. DR, best known as the most reliable way to extend lifespan in a wide range of experimental organisms, includes various regimens aimed at either reducing overall calorie intake (calorie restriction, intermittent/ every-other-day fasting) or reducing particular nutrients such as protein or the essential amino acid, methionine (methionine restriction), with overlapping functional benefits on stress resistance, metabolic fitness and lifespan. Here we will review the small but growing body of literature linking the TSP to the functional benefits of DR in part through the production of endogenous H2S, with an emphasis on regulation of the TSP and H2S production by diet and mechanisms of beneficial H2S action. PMID:25523462

  2. A TRPC5-regulated calcium signaling pathway controls dendrite patterning in the mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Puram, Sidharth V; Riccio, Antonio; Koirala, Samir; Ikeuchi, Yoshiho; Kim, Albert H; Corfas, Gabriel; Bonni, Azad

    2011-12-15

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been implicated as sensors of diverse stimuli in mature neurons. However, developmental roles for TRP channels in the establishment of neuronal connectivity remain largely unexplored. Here, we identify an essential function for TRPC5, a member of the canonical TRP subfamily, in the regulation of dendrite patterning in the mammalian brain. Strikingly, TRPC5 knockout mice harbor long, highly branched granule neuron dendrites with impaired dendritic claw differentiation in the cerebellar cortex. In vivo RNAi analyses suggest that TRPC5 regulates dendrite morphogenesis in the cerebellar cortex in a cell-autonomous manner. Correlating with impaired dendrite patterning in the cerebellar cortex, behavioral analyses reveal that TRPC5 knockout mice have deficits in gait and motor coordination. Finally, we uncover the molecular basis of TRPC5's function in dendrite patterning. We identify the major protein kinase calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II β (CaMKIIβ) as a critical effector of TRPC5 function in neurons. Remarkably, TRPC5 forms a complex specifically with CaMKIIβ, but not the closely related kinase CaMKIIα, and thereby induces the CaMKIIβ-dependent phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase Cdc20-APC at the centrosome. Accordingly, centrosomal CaMKIIβ signaling mediates the ability of TRPC5 to regulate dendrite morphogenesis in neurons. Our findings define a novel function for TRPC5 that couples calcium signaling to a ubiquitin ligase pathway at the centrosome and thereby orchestrates dendrite patterning and connectivity in the brain.

  3. Convective Influence and Transport Pathways Controlling the Tropical Distribution of Carbon Monoxide at 100 Hpa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Bergman, John; Pfister, Leonard; Ueyama, Rei; Kinnison, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Trajectory calculations with convective influence diagnosed from geostationary-satellite cloud measurements are used to evaluate the relative importance of different Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) transport pathways for establishing the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) at 100 hPa as observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board the Aura satellite. Carbon monoxide is a useful tracer for investigating TTL transport and convective influence because the CO lifetime is comparable to the time require for slow ascent through the TTL (a couple of months). Offline calculations of TTL radiative heating are used to determine the vertical motion field. The simple trajectory model does a reasonable job of reproducing the MLS CO distributions during Boreal wintertime and summertime. The broad maximum in CO concentration over the Pacific is primarily a result of the strong radiative heating (indicating upward vertical motion) associated with the abundant TTL cirrus in this region. Sensitivity tests indicate that the distinct CO maximum in the Asian monsoon anticyclone is strongly impacted by extreme convective systems with detrainment of polluted air above 360 K potential temperature. The relative importance of different CO source regions will also be discussed.

  4. Targeting Plant Ethylene Responses by Controlling Essential Protein-Protein Interactions in the Ethylene Pathway.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Melanie M A; Groth, Georg

    2015-08-01

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many processes of high agronomic relevance throughout the life span of plants. A central element in ethylene signaling is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized membrane protein ethylene insensitive2 (EIN2). Recent studies indicate that in response to ethylene, the extra-membranous C-terminal end of EIN2 is proteolytically processed and translocated from the ER to the nucleus. Here, we report that the conserved nuclear localization signal (NLS) mediating nuclear import of the EIN2 C-terminus provides an important domain for complex formation with ethylene receptor ethylene response1 (ETR1). EIN2 lacking the NLS domain shows strongly reduced affinity for the receptor. Interaction of EIN2 and ETR1 is also blocked by a synthetic peptide of the NLS motif. The corresponding peptide substantially reduces ethylene responses in planta. Our results uncover a novel mechanism and type of inhibitor interfering with ethylene signal transduction and ethylene responses in plants. Disruption of essential protein-protein interactions in the ethylene signaling pathway as shown in our study for the EIN2-ETR1 complex has the potential to guide the development of innovative ethylene antagonists for modern agriculture and horticulture.

  5. Lithospermic acid B protects beta-cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis by alleviating apoptotic pathways and activating anti-apoptotic pathways of Nrf2-HO-1 and Sirt1

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Wan; Chun, Sung Wan; Kim, Soo Hyun; Lee, Yongho; Kang, Eun Seok; Cha, Bong-Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2011-04-01

    Lithospermic acid B (LAB) has been reported to protect OLETF rats, an established type 2 diabetic animal model, from the development of diabetes-related vascular complications. We investigated whether magnesium lithospermate B (LAB) has a protective role under cytokine-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells in vitro and whether it slows the development of diabetes in OLETF rats in vivo. Pretreatment with 50 {mu}M LAB significantly reduced the 1000 U/mL INF-{gamma} and 100 U/mL IL-1{beta}-induced INS-1 cell death. LAB significantly alleviated cytokine-induced phosphorylations of p38 and JNK in accordance with a decrease in cleaved caspase-3 activity in beta-cells. LAB also protected against the cytokine-induced caspase-3 apoptotic pathway via significant activation of Nrf2-HO (heme-oxigenase)-1 and Sirt1 expression. OLETF rats treated with 40 mg/kg/day LAB showed a significant improvement in glucose tolerance compared to untreated OLETF control rats in vivo. Our results suggest that the cytoprotective effects of LAB on pancreatic {beta}-cells are related with both alleviating apoptotic pathways and activating anti-apoptotic pathways of Nrf2-HO-1 and Sirt1.

  6. Adaptive cytoprotection against deoxycholate-induced injury in human gastric cells in vitro: is there a role for endogenous prostaglandins?

    PubMed

    Kokoska, E R; Smith, G S; Rieckenberg, C L; Deshpande, Y; Banan, A; Miller, T A

    1998-04-01

    The majority of previous work investigating adaptive cytoprotection has involved in vivo studies, which have suggested that this protective response is in large part mediated by endogenous prostaglandins (PGs). The aim of this study was to investigate adaptive cytoprotection under in vitro conditions in human gastric cells and to better delineate the role of endogenous PGs in this protective response. AGS cells (a human gastric carcinoma cell line) were characterized morphologically and subsequently used for all experiments. Sodium deoxycholate was used as both the mild irritant and the damaging agent, and cell injury was quantified using both a commercial viability/cytotoxicity kit as well as transepithelial permeability studies. Finally, endogenous PG synthesis in response to varying concentrations of deoxycholate was determined. AGS cells were determined to be morphologically similar to gastric mucous cells. Pretreatment of cells with low-dose deoxycholate significantly attenuated injury upon subsequent exposure to damaging concentrations of deoxycholate, and this protection was determined to be dependent upon both concentration and duration of mild irritant exposure. Preincubation of AGS cells with indomethacin reversed protection induced by mild irritant pretreatment and also significantly increased cellular susceptibility to injury. Results of the permeability studies closely paralleled those assessing cell mortality. While deoxycholate exposure increased PG synthesis, the concentrations required were much higher than those needed to initiate protection. Adaptive cytoprotection exists in AGS cells under in vitro conditions independent of intact blood flow, neural innervation, or circulating humoral mediators. While this protection is reversed by indomethacin, it appears that this reversal results from increased cellular injury secondary to diminished basal PGs, rather than inhibition of endogenous PG synthesis.

  7. Pathways to Problem Behaviors: Chaotic Homes, Parent and Child Effortful Control, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Reiser, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Guided by Belsky's and Eisenberg, Cumberland, and Spinrad's heuristic models, we tested a process model with hypothesized paths from parents' effortful control (EC) and family chaos to indices of parenting to children's EC, and finally children's externalizing problem behavior. Parents reported on all constructs and children (N = 188; M age = 9.55…

  8. Involvement of microRNA-related regulatory pathways in the glucose-mediated control of Arabidopsis early seedling development

    PubMed Central

    Vincentz, Michel

    2013-01-01

    In plants, sugars such as glucose act as signalling molecules that promote changes in gene expression programmes that impact on growth and development. Recent evidence has revealed the potential importance of controlling mRNA decay in some aspects of glucose-mediated regulatory responses suggesting a role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in these responses. In order to get a better understanding of glucose-mediated development modulation involving miRNA-related regulatory pathways, early seedling development of mutants impaired in miRNA biogenesis (hyl1-2 and dcl1-11) and miRNA activity (ago1-25) was evaluated. All mutants exhibited a glucose hyposensitive phenotype from germination up to seedling establishment, indicating that miRNA regulatory pathways are involved in the glucose-mediated delay of early seedling development. The expression profile of 200 miRNA primary transcripts (pri-miRs) was evaluated by large-scale quantitative real-time PCR profiling, which revealed that 38 pri-miRs were regulated by glucose. For several of them, the corresponding mature miRNAs are known to participate directly or indirectly in plant development, and their accumulation was shown to be co-regulated with the pri-miR by glucose. Furthermore, the expression of several miRNA target genes was found to be deregulated in response to glucose in the miRNA machinery mutants ago1-25, dcl1-11, and hyl1-2. Also, in these mutants, glucose promoted misexpression of genes for the three abscisic acid signalling elements ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5. Thus, miRNA regulatory pathways play a role in the adjustments of growth and development triggered by glucose signalling. PMID:23997203

  9. Cadium pathways during gestation and lactation in control vs. metallothionein 1,2-knockout mice.

    SciTech Connect

    Brako, E. E.; Wilson, A. K.; Jonah, M. M.; Blum, C. A.; Cerny, E. A.; Williams, K. L.; Bhattacharyya, M. H.; Winona State Univ.; Benedictine Univ.; Dominican Univ.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of metallothionein (MT) on cadmium absorption and transfer pathways during gestation and lactation in mice were investigated. Female 129/SvJ metallothionein-knockout (MT1,2KO) and metallothionein-normal (MTN) mice received drinking water containing trace amounts of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} (0.15 ng Cd/ml; 0.074 {mu}Ci {sup 109}Cd/ml). {sup 109}Cd and MT in maternal, fetal, and pup tissues were measured on gestation days 7, 14, and 17 and lactation day 11. In dams, MT influenced both the amount of {sup 109}Cd transferred from intestine into body (two- to three-fold higher in MT1,2KO than MTN dams) and tissue-specific {sup 109}Cd distribution (higher liver/kidney ratio in MT1,2KO dams). Placental {sup 109}Cd concentrations in MT1,2KO dams were three- and seven-fold higher on gestation days 14 and 17, respectively, than in MTN dams. Fetal {sup 109}Cd levels were low in both mouse types, but at least 10-fold lower in MTN fetuses. MT had no effect on the amount of {sup 109}Cd transferred to pups via milk; furthermore, 85--90% of total pup {sup 109}Cd was recovered in gastrointestinal tracts of both types, despite high duodenal MT only in MTN pups. A relatively large percentage of milk-derived intestinal {sup 109}Cd was transferred to other pup tissues in both MT1,2KO and MTN pups (14 and 10%, respectively). These results demonstrate that specific sequestration of cadmium by both maternal and neonatal intestinal tract does not require MT. Although MT decreased oral cadmium transfer from intestine to body tissues at low cadmium exposure levels, MT did not play a major role in restricting transfer of cadmium from dam to fetus via placenta and to neonate via milk.

  10. Suppressor lymphocytes induced by epicutaneous sensitization of UV-irradiated mice control multiple immunological pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, S E; Yee, G K; Kripke, M L

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the formation of hapten-specific suppressor T lymphocytes induced by the epicutaneous sensitization of UV-irradiated mice could suppress other hapten-specific immune responses in addition to contact hypersensitivity (CHS). Suppressor cells were induced by applying trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) to the unexposed skin of mice irradiated several days earlier with 40 kJ/m2 UVB (280-320 nm) radiation. Previous work demonstrated that the spleens of such animals contain Lyt-1+, 2-T lymphocytes which prevent the induction of CHS to TNCB when transferred to normal mice, and inhibit proliferation of normal lymphocytes in vitro to TNP-modified syngeneic cells. These studies show that addition of T lymphocytes from UV-irradiated, TNCB-sensitized mice to cultures of normal lymphocytes and TNP-modified syngeneic cells inhibited the generation of TNP-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). The inhibition was dose-dependent and occurred only when the suppressor cells were present during the first 24 hr of culture. The suppressor cells had no effect on the activity of preformed CTL. In addition, injection of the suppressor lymphocytes into mice at the time of i.v. injection of TNP-modified sheep red blood cells (TNP-SRBC) reduced the number of direct plaque-forming cells against TNP, but had no effect on the production of antibody against SRBC. Cells that inhibited anti-TNP antibody formation were Thy-1+, Lyt-1+, 2-. These results indicate that hapten-specific suppressor cells from UV-irradiated mice prevent the activation of several different hapten-specific immunological pathways. PMID:2940172

  11. Cadmium pathways during gestation and lactation in control versus metallothoinein 1,2-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Brako, Emmanuel E; Wilson, Allison K; Jonah, Margaret M; Blum, Carmen A; Cerny, Elizabeth A; Williams, Kanesha L; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2003-02-01

    Effects of metallothionein (MT) on cadmium absorption and transfer pathways during gestation and lactation in mice were investigated. Female 129/SvJ metallothionein-knockout (MT1,2KO) and metallothionein-normal (MTN) mice received drinking water containing trace amounts of (109)CdCl(2) (0.15 ng Cd/ml; 0.074 micro Ci (109)Cd/ml). (109)Cd and MT in maternal, fetal, and pup tissues were measured on gestation days 7, 14, and 17 and lactation day 11. In dams, MT influenced both the amount of (109)Cd transferred from intestine into body (two- to three-fold higher in MT1,2KO than MTN dams) and tissue-specific (109)Cd distribution (higher liver/kidney ratio in MT1,2KO dams). Placental (109)Cd concentrations in MT1,2KO dams were three- and seven-fold higher on gestation days 14 and 17, respectively, than in MTN dams. Fetal (109)Cd levels were low in both mouse types, but at least 10-fold lower in MTN fetuses. MT had no effect on the amount of (109)Cd transferred to pups via milk; furthermore, 85-90% of total pup (109)Cd was recovered in gastrointestinal tracts of both types, despite high duodenal MT only in MTN pups. A relatively large percentage of milk-derived intestinal (109)Cd was transferred to other pup tissues in both MT1,2KO and MTN pups (14 and 10%, respectively). These results demonstrate that specific sequestration of cadmium by both maternal and neonatal intestinal tract does not require MT. Although MT decreased oral cadmium transfer from intestine to body tissues at low cadmium exposure levels, MT did not play a major role in restricting transfer of cadmium from dam to fetus via placenta and to neonate via milk.

  12. The plumbing of the global biological pump: Efficiency control through leaks, pathways, and time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquier, Benoît; Holzer, Mark

    2016-08-01

    We systematically quantify the pathways and time scales that set the efficiency, Ebio, of the global biological pump by applying Green-function-based diagnostics to a data-assimilated phosphorus cycle embedded in a jointly assimilated ocean circulation. We consider "bio pipes" that consist of phosphorus paths that connect specified regions of last biological utilization with regions where regenerated phosphate first reemerges into the euphotic zone. The bio pipes that contribute most to Ebio connect the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEqP) and Equatorial Atlantic to the Southern Ocean ((21 ± 3)% of Ebio), as well as the Southern Ocean to itself ((15 ± 3)% of Ebio). The bio pipes with the largest phosphorus flow rates connect the EEqP to itself and the subantarctic Southern Ocean to itself. The global mean sequestration time of the biological pump is 130 ± 70 years, while the sequestration time of the bio pipe from anywhere to the Antarctic region of the Southern Ocean is 430 ± 30 years. The distribution of phosphorus flowing within a given bio pipe is quantified by its transit-time partitioned path density. For the largest bio pipes, ˜1/7 of their phosphorus is carried by thermocline paths with transit times less than ˜300-400 years, while ˜4/7 of their phosphorus is carried by abyssal paths with transit times exceeding ˜700 years. The path density reveals that Antarctic Intermediate Water carries about a third of the regenerated phosphate last utilized in the EEqP that is destined for the Southern Ocean euphotic zone. The Southern Ocean is where (62 ± 2)% of the regenerated inventory and (69 ± 1)% of the preformed inventory first reemerge into the euphotic zone.

  13. A parieto-medial temporal pathway for the strategic control over working memory biases in human visual attention.

    PubMed

    Soto, David; Greene, Ciara M; Kiyonaga, Anastasia; Rosenthal, Clive R; Egner, Tobias

    2012-12-05

    The contents of working memory (WM) can both aid and disrupt the goal-directed allocation of visual attention. WM benefits attention when its contents overlap with goal-relevant stimulus features, but WM leads attention astray when its contents match features of currently irrelevant stimuli. Recent behavioral data have documented that WM biases of attention may be subject to strategic cognitive control processes whereby subjects are able to either enhance or inhibit the influence of WM contents on attention. However, the neural mechanisms supporting cognitive control over WM biases on attention are presently unknown. Here, we characterize these mechanisms by combining human functional magnetic resonance imaging with a task that independently manipulates the relationship between WM cues and attention targets during visual search (with WM contents matching either search targets or distracters), as well as the predictability of this relationship (100 vs 50% predictability) to assess participants' ability to strategically enhance or inhibit WM biases on attention when WM contents reliably matched targets or distracter stimuli, respectively. We show that cues signaling predictable (> unpredictable) WM-attention relations reliably enhanced search performance, and that this strategic modulation of the interplay between WM contents and visual attention was mediated by a neuroanatomical network involving the posterior parietal cortex, the posterior cingulate, and medial temporal lobe structures, with responses in the hippocampus proper correlating with behavioral measures of strategic control of WM biases. Thus, we delineate a novel parieto-medial temporal pathway implementing cognitive control over WM biases to optimize goal-directed selection.

  14. Development of Tract-Specific White Matter Pathways During Early Reading Development in At-Risk Children and Typical Controls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingying; Mauer, Meaghan V; Raney, Talia; Peysakhovich, Barbara; Becker, Bryce L C; Sliva, Danielle D; Gaab, Nadine

    2016-04-25

    Developmental dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic basis. Previous studies observed white matter alterations in the left posterior brain regions in adults and school-age children with dyslexia. However, no study yet has examined the development of tract-specific white matter pathways from the pre-reading to the fluent reading stage in children at familial risk for dyslexia (FHD+) versus controls (FHD-). This study examined white matter integrity at pre-reading, beginning, and fluent reading stages cross-sectionally (n = 78) and longitudinally (n = 45) using an automated fiber-tract quantification method. Our findings depict white matter alterations and atypical lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus at the pre-reading stage in FHD+ versus FHD- children. Moreover, we demonstrate faster white matter development in subsequent good versus poor readers and a positive association between white matter maturation and reading development using a longitudinal design. Additionally, the combination of white matter maturation, familial risk, and psychometric measures best predicted later reading abilities. Furthermore, within FHD+ children, subsequent good readers exhibited faster white matter development in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus compared with subsequent poor readers, suggesting a compensatory mechanism. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of white matter pathway maturation in the development of typical and atypical reading skills.

  15. Kif26b controls endothelial cell polarity through the Dishevelled/Daam1-dependent planar cell polarity-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Guillabert-Gourgues, Aude; Jaspard-Vinassa, Beatrice; Bats, Marie-Lise; Sewduth, Raj N; Franzl, Nathalie; Peghaire, Claire; Jeanningros, Sylvie; Moreau, Catherine; Roux, Etienne; Larrieu-Lahargue, Frederic; Dufourcq, Pascale; Couffinhal, Thierry; Duplàa, Cecile

    2016-03-15

    Angiogenesis involves the coordinated growth and migration of endothelial cells (ECs) toward a proangiogenic signal. The Wnt planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, through the recruitment of Dishevelled (Dvl) and Dvl-associated activator of morphogenesis (Daam1), has been proposed to regulate cell actin cytoskeleton and microtubule (MT) reorganization for oriented cell migration. Here we report that Kif26b--a kinesin--and Daam1 cooperatively regulate initiation of EC sprouting and directional migration via MT reorganization. First, we find that Kif26b is recruited within the Dvl3/Daam1 complex. Using a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay, we show that Kif26b and Daam1 depletion impairs tip cell polarization and destabilizes extended vascular processes. Kif26b depletion specifically alters EC directional migration and mislocalized MT organizing center (MTOC)/Golgi and myosin IIB cell rear enrichment. Therefore the cell fails to establish a proper front-rear polarity. Of interest, Kif26b ectopic expression rescues the siDaam1 polarization defect phenotype. Finally, we show that Kif26b functions in MT stabilization, which is indispensable for asymmetrical cell structure reorganization. These data demonstrate that Kif26b, together with Dvl3/Daam1, initiates cell polarity through the control of PCP signaling pathway-dependent activation.

  16. Starvation-Dependent Regulation of Golgi Quality Control Links the TOR Signaling and Vacuolar Protein Sorting Pathways.

    PubMed

    Dobzinski, Niv; Chuartzman, Silvia G; Kama, Rachel; Schuldiner, Maya; Gerst, Jeffrey E

    2015-09-22

    Upon amino acid (AA) starvation and TOR inactivation, plasma-membrane-localized permeases rapidly undergo ubiquitination and internalization via the vacuolar protein sorting/multivesicular body (VPS-MVB) pathway and are degraded in the yeast vacuole. We now show that specific Golgi proteins are also directed to the vacuole under these conditions as part of a Golgi quality-control (GQC) process. The degradation of GQC substrates is dependent upon ubiquitination by the defective-for-SREBP-cleavage (DSC) complex, which was identified via genetic screening and includes the Tul1 E3 ligase. Using a model GQC substrate, GFP-tagged Yif1, we show that vacuolar targeting necessitates upregulation of the VPS pathway via proteasome-mediated degradation of the initial endosomal sorting complex required for transport, ESCRT-0, but not downstream ESCRT components. Thus, early cellular responses to starvation include the targeting of specific Golgi proteins for degradation, a phenomenon reminiscent of the inactivation of BTN1, the yeast Batten disease gene ortholog.

  17. Amyloid domains in the cell nucleus controlled by nucleoskeletal protein lamin B1 reveal a new pathway of mercury neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Arnhold, Florian; Gührs, Karl-Heinz; von Mikecz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a bioaccumulating trace metal that globally circulates the atmosphere and waters in its elemental, inorganic and organic chemical forms. While Hg represents a notorious neurotoxicant, the underlying cellular pathways are insufficiently understood. We identify amyloid protein aggregation in the cell nucleus as a novel pathway of Hg-bio-interactions. By mass spectrometry of purified protein aggregates, a subset of spliceosomal components and nucleoskeletal protein lamin B1 were detected as constituent parts of an Hg-induced nuclear aggregome network. The aggregome network was located by confocal imaging of amyloid-specific antibodies and dyes to amyloid cores within splicing-speckles that additionally recruit components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Hg significantly enhances global proteasomal activity in the nucleus, suggesting that formation of amyloid speckles plays a role in maintenance of protein homeostasis. RNAi knock down showed that lamin B1 for its part regulates amyloid speckle formation and thus likewise participates in nuclear protein homeostasis. As the Hg-induced cascade of interactions between the nucleoskeleton and protein homeostasis reduces neuronal signalling, amyloid fibrillation in the cell nucleus is introduced as a feature of Hg-neurotoxicity that opens new avenues of future research. Similar to protein aggregation events in the cytoplasm that are controlled by the cytoskeleton, amyloid fibrillation of nuclear proteins may be driven by the nucleoskeleton.

  18. Network-based multiple sclerosis pathway analysis with GWAS data from 15,000 cases and 30,000 controls.

    PubMed

    2013-06-06

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory CNS disease with a substantial genetic component, originally mapped to only the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region. In the last 5 years, a total of seven genome-wide association studies and one meta-analysis successfully identified 57 non-HLA susceptibility loci. Here, we merged nominal statistical evidence of association and physical evidence of interaction to conduct a protein-interaction-network-based pathway analysis (PINBPA) on two large genetic MS studies comprising a total of 15,317 cases and 29,529 controls. The distribution of nominally significant loci at the gene level matched the patterns of extended linkage disequilibrium in regions of interest. We found that products of genome-wide significantly associated genes are more likely to interact physically and belong to the same or related pathways. We next searched for subnetworks (modules) of genes (and their encoded proteins) enriched with nominally associated loci within each study and identified those modules in common between the two studies. We demonstrate that these modules are more likely to contain genes with bona fide susceptibility variants and, in addition, identify several high-confidence candidates (including BCL10, CD48, REL, TRAF3, and TEC). PINBPA is a powerful approach to gaining further insights into the biology of associated genes and to prioritizing candidates for subsequent genetic studies of complex traits.

  19. Intron-less RNA injected into the nucleus of Xenopus oocytes accesses a regulated translation control pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Braddock, M; Muckenthaler, M; White, M R; Thorburn, A M; Sommerville, J; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1994-01-01

    The translation of a capped, polyadenylated RNA after injection into the nucleus of Xenopus oocytes occurs only if the RNA contains an intron. A single point mutation in the splice donor site prevents translation. Intron-less RNA is exported efficiently to the cytoplasm and is held, undegraded, in a translationally inert state for several days. Translation can be activated by treating the oocytes with progesterone or by injecting antibodies that bind the FRGY2 class of messenger RNA binding proteins, p56 and p60, but these antibodies are only effective if delivered to the nucleus. Inhibitors of casein kinase II also activate translation whereas phosphatase inhibitors block progesterone-mediated activation of translation. These data suggest the presence of an RNA handling pathway in the nucleus of Xenopus oocytes which is regulated by casein kinase type II phosphorylation and which directs transcripts to be sequestered by p56/p60 or by closely related proteins. This pathway can be bypassed if the RNA contains an intron and it can be reversed by progesterone treatment. These data may have implications for understanding translational control during early development. Images PMID:7816614

  20. Growth of the developing cerebral cortex is controlled by microRNA-7 through the p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Andrew; Bian, Shan; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Zhengming; Sun, Tao

    2014-05-22

    Proper growth of the mammalian cerebral cortex is crucial for normal brain functions and is controlled by precise gene-expression regulation. Here, we show that microRNA-7 (miR-7) is highly expressed in cortical neural progenitors and describe miR-7 sponge transgenic mice in which miR-7-silencing activity is specifically knocked down in the embryonic cortex. Blocking miR-7 function causes microcephaly-like brain defects due to reduced intermediate progenitor (IP) production and apoptosis. Upregulation of miR-7 target genes, including those implicated in the p53 pathway, such as Ak1 and Cdkn1a (p21), is responsible for abnormalities in neural progenitors. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Ak1 or p21 and specific blockade of miR-7 binding sites in target genes using protectors in vivo induce similarly reduced IP production. Using conditional miRNA sponge transgenic approaches, we uncovered an unexpected role for miR-7 in cortical growth through its interactions with genes in the p53 pathway.

  1. Amyloid domains in the cell nucleus controlled by nucleoskeletal protein lamin B1 reveal a new pathway of mercury neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Arnhold, Florian; Gührs, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a bioaccumulating trace metal that globally circulates the atmosphere and waters in its elemental, inorganic and organic chemical forms. While Hg represents a notorious neurotoxicant, the underlying cellular pathways are insufficiently understood. We identify amyloid protein aggregation in the cell nucleus as a novel pathway of Hg-bio-interactions. By mass spectrometry of purified protein aggregates, a subset of spliceosomal components and nucleoskeletal protein lamin B1 were detected as constituent parts of an Hg-induced nuclear aggregome network. The aggregome network was located by confocal imaging of amyloid-specific antibodies and dyes to amyloid cores within splicing-speckles that additionally recruit components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Hg significantly enhances global proteasomal activity in the nucleus, suggesting that formation of amyloid speckles plays a role in maintenance of protein homeostasis. RNAi knock down showed that lamin B1 for its part regulates amyloid speckle formation and thus likewise participates in nuclear protein homeostasis. As the Hg-induced cascade of interactions between the nucleoskeleton and protein homeostasis reduces neuronal signalling, amyloid fibrillation in the cell nucleus is introduced as a feature of Hg-neurotoxicity that opens new avenues of future research. Similar to protein aggregation events in the cytoplasm that are controlled by the cytoskeleton, amyloid fibrillation of nuclear proteins may be driven by the nucleoskeleton. PMID:25699204

  2. Feedback in the brainstem: An excitatory disynaptic pathway for control of whisking

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, David W.; Deschênes, Martin; Furuta, Takahiro; Moore, Jeffrey D.; Wang, Fan; Karten, Harvey J.; Kleinfeld, David

    2014-01-01

    Sensorimotor processing relies on hierarchical neuronal circuits to mediate sensory-driven behaviors. In the mouse vibrissa system, trigeminal brainstem circuits are thought to mediate the first stage of vibrissa scanning control via sensory feedback that provides reflexive protraction in response to stimulation. However, these circuits are not well defined. Here, we describe a complete disynaptic sensory receptor-to-muscle circuit for positive feedback in vibrissa movement. We identified a novel region of trigeminal brainstem, spinal trigeminal nucleus pars muralis, that contains a class of vGluT2+ excitatory projection neurons involved in vibrissa motor control. Complementary single- and duallabeling with traditional and virus tracers demonstrate that these neurons both receive primary inputs from vibrissa sensory afferent fibers and send monosynaptic connections to facial nucleus motoneurons that directly innervate vibrissa musculature. These anatomical results suggest a general role of disynaptic architecture in fast positive feedback for motor output driving active sensation. PMID:25503925

  3. Control of Mammary Differentiation by Ras-Dependent Signal Transduction Pathways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    differentiation and apoptosis during pregnancy and lactation. These processes are initiated by a complex series of signals that include mammotrophic hormones...differentiation and apoptosis during pregnancy and lactation. These processes are initiated by a complex series of signals which include mammotrophic...differentiation will provide critical insight into control of this process in HCI I cells. Because inhibition of differentiation in HCI 1 cells

  4. The Roles of the Olivocerebellar Pathway in Motor Learning and Motor Control. A Consensus Paper.

    PubMed

    Lang, Eric J; Apps, Richard; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Cerminara, Nadia L; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Ebner, Timothy J; Heck, Detlef H; Jaeger, Dieter; Jörntell, Henrik; Kawato, Mitsuo; Otis, Thomas S; Ozyildirim, Ozgecan; Popa, Laurentiu S; Reeves, Alexander M B; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Sugihara, Izumi; Xiao, Jianqiang

    2017-02-01

    For many decades, the predominant view in the cerebellar field has been that the olivocerebellar system's primary function is to induce plasticity in the cerebellar cortex, specifically, at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse. However, it has also long been proposed that the olivocerebellar system participates directly in motor control by helping to shape ongoing motor commands being issued by the cerebellum. Evidence consistent with both hypotheses exists; however, they are often investigated as mutually exclusive alternatives. In contrast, here, we take the perspective that the olivocerebellar system can contribute to both the motor learning and motor control functions of the cerebellum and might also play a role in development. We then consider the potential problems and benefits of it having multiple functions. Moreover, we discuss how its distinctive characteristics (e.g., low firing rates, synchronization, and variable complex spike waveforms) make it more or less suitable for one or the other of these functions, and why having multiple functions makes sense from an evolutionary perspective. We did not attempt to reach a consensus on the specific role(s) the olivocerebellar system plays in different types of movements, as that will ultimately be determined experimentally; however, collectively, the various contributions highlight the flexibility of the olivocerebellar system, and thereby suggest that it has the potential to act in both the motor learning and motor control functions of the cerebellum.

  5. Cytoprotection “gone astray”: Nrf2 and its role in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Geismann, Claudia; Arlt, Alexander; Sebens, Susanne; Schäfer, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Nrf2 has gained great attention with respect to its pivotal role in cell and tissue protection. Primarily defending cells against metabolic, xenobiotic and oxidative stress, Nrf2 is essential for maintaining tissue integrity. Owing to these functions, Nrf2 is regarded as a promising drug target in the chemoprevention of diseases, including cancer. However, much evidence has accumulated that the beneficial role of Nrf2 in cancer prevention essentially depends on the tight control of its activity. In fact, the deregulation of Nrf2 is a critical determinant in oncogenesis and found in many types of cancer. Therefore, amplified Nrf2 activity has profound effects on the phenotype of tumor cells, including radio/chemoresistance, apoptosis protection, invasiveness, antisenescence, autophagy deficiency, and angiogenicity. The deregulation of Nrf2 can result from various epigenetic and genetic alterations directly affecting Nrf2 control or from the complex interplay of Nrf2 with numerous oncogenic signaling pathways. Additionally, alterations of the cellular environment, eg, during inflammation, contribute to Nrf2 deregulation and its persistent activation. Therefore, the status of Nrf2 as anti- or protumorigenic is defined by many different modalities. A better understanding of these modalities is essential for the safe use of Nrf2 as an activation target for chemoprevention on the one hand and as an inhibition target in cancer therapy on the other. The present review mainly addresses the conditions that promote the oncogenic function of Nrf2 and the resulting consequences providing the rationale for using Nrf2 as a target structure in cancer therapy. PMID:25210464

  6. Conflict processing in juvenile patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and healthy controls - Two pathways to success.

    PubMed

    Bluschke, Annet; von der Hagen, Maja; Papenhagen, Katharina; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a monogenetic autosomal-dominant disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms and is commonly associated with cognitive deficits. Patients with NF1 frequently exhibit cognitive impairments like attention problems, working memory deficits and dysfunctional inhibitory control. The latter is also relevant for the resolution of cognitive conflicts. However, it is unclear how conflict monitoring processes are modulated in NF1. To examine this question in more detail, we used a system neurophysiological approach combining high-density ERP recordings with source localisation analyses in juvenile patients with NF1 and controls during a flanker task. Behaviourally, patients with NF1 perform significantly slower than controls. Specifically on trials with incompatible flanker-target pairings, however, the patients with NF1 made significantly fewer errors than healthy controls. Yet, importantly, this overall successful conflict resolution was reached via two different routes in the two groups. The healthy controls seem to arrive at a successful conflict monitoring performance through a developing conflict recognition via the N2 accompanied by a selectively enhanced N450 activation in the case of perceived flanker-target conflicts. The presumed dopamine deficiency in the patients with NF1 seems to result in a reduced ability to process conflicts via the N2. However, NF1 patients show an increased N450 irrespective of cognitive conflict. Activation differences in the orbitofrontal cortex (BA11) and anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) underlie these modulations. Taken together, juvenile patients with NF1 and juvenile healthy controls seem to accomplish conflict monitoring via two different cognitive neurophysiological pathways.

  7. Lck/PLCγ control migration and proliferation of interleukin (IL)-2-stimulated T cells via the Rac1 GTPase/glycogen phosphorylase pathway.

    PubMed

    Llavero, Francisco; Artaso, Alain; Lacerda, Hadriano M; Parada, Luis A; Zugaza, José L

    2016-11-01

    Recently, we have reported that the IL-2-stimulated T cells activate PKCθ in order to phosphorylate the serine residues of αPIX-RhoGEF, and to switch on the Rac1/PYGM pathway resulting in T cell migration and proliferation. However, the molecular mechanism connecting the activated IL-2-R with the PKCθ/αPIX/Rac1/PYGM pathway is still unknown. In this study, the use of a combined pharmacological and genetic approach identified Lck, a Src family member, as the tyrosine kinase phosphorylating PLCγ leading to Rac1 and PYGM activation in the IL-2-stimulated Kit 225 T cells via the PKCθ/αPIX pathway. The PLCγ tyrosine phosphorylation was required to activate first PKCθ, and then αPIX and Rac1/PYGM. The results presented here delineate a novel signalling pathway ranking equally in importance to the three major pathways controlled by the IL-2-R, i.e. PI3K, Ras/MAPK and JAK/STAT pathways. The overall evidence strongly indicates that the central biological role of the novel IL-2-R/Lck/PLCγ/PKCθ/αPIX/Rac1/PYGM signalling pathway is directly related to the control of fundamental cellular processes such as T cell migration and proliferation.

  8. Pre-exposure to low-power diode laser irradiation promotes cytoprotection in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue; Zhang, Shisheng; Liao, Huaping; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether pre-exposure to low-power laser irradiation can provoke an effect on cellular protection in the rat retina. The right eyes of 40 rats were exposed to a 3-mm diode laser beam for 1 min in different light intensities and different experimental sets: group A low power of 60 mW (34.27 J/cm(2) on the retina in consideration of the energy losses along the optical pathway) prior to high power of 80 mW (44.88 J/cm(2) on the retina in consideration of the energy losses along the optical pathway), group B high power, group C low power, group D (the left eyes from the counterpart of group A) and group E (untreated rat eyes) as controls. Morphological retinal change retinas were assessed using light microscopy and/or transmission electron microscopy. Heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 and cleaved caspase 3 protein expression were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot. Cellular injury was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Hsp 70 expression in the inner plexiform layer and the outer plexiform layer in group A were 73.09 ± 6.49 and 78.03 ± 3.05%, respectively, which was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those observed in group B (59.07 ± 1.40 and 32.25 ± 4.26%, respectively). The Hsp70/β-actin ratio was 0.49 ± 0.06 in group C, which was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of group B (0.27 ± 0.04). Cleaved caspase 3 expression in group C both was significantly lower than that observed in group B. TUNEL staining showed that positive cells in the outer nuclear layer and inner nuclear layer in group A were significantly lower than those of group B. Pre-exposure to a 60-mW (34.27 J/cm(2) on the retina) power laser irradiation stimulates a hyperexpression of Hsp70 together with a hypoexpression of cleaved caspase 3 in rat retina, which may suggest a cellular protective effect.

  9. Antagonizing retinoic acid and FGF/MAPK pathways control posterior body patterning in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Pasini, Andrea; Manenti, Raoul; Rothbächer, Ute; Lemaire, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate embryos exploit the mutual inhibition between the RA and FGF signalling pathways to coordinate the proliferative elongation of the main body axis with the progressive patterning and differentiation of its neuroectodermal and paraxial mesodermal structures. The evolutionary history of this patterning system is still poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role played by the RA and FGF/MAPK signals during the development of the tail structures in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, an invertebrate chordate belonging to the sister clade of vertebrates, in which the prototypical chordate body plan is established through very derived morphogenetic processes. Ciona embryos are constituted of few cells and develop according to a fixed lineage; elongation of the tail occurs largely by rearrangement of postmitotic cells; mesoderm segmentation and somitogenesis are absent. We show that in the Ciona embryo, the antagonism of the RA and FGF/MAPK signals is required to control the anteroposterior patterning of the tail epidermis. We also demonstrate that the RA, FGF/MAPK and canonical Wnt pathways control the anteroposterior patterning of the tail peripheral nervous system, and reveal the existence of distinct subpopulations of caudal epidermal neurons with different responsiveness to the RA, FGF/MAPK and canonical Wnt signals. Our data provide the first demonstration that the use of the antagonism between the RA and FGF signals to pattern the main body axis predates the emergence of vertebrates and highlight the evolutionary plasticity of this patterning strategy, showing that in different chordates it can be used to pattern different tissues within the same homologous body region.

  10. Antagonizing Retinoic Acid and FGF/MAPK Pathways Control Posterior Body Patterning in the Invertebrate Chordate Ciona intestinalis

    PubMed Central

    Pasini, Andrea; Manenti, Raoul; Rothbächer, Ute; Lemaire, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate embryos exploit the mutual inhibition between the RA and FGF signalling pathways to coordinate the proliferative elongation of the main body axis with the progressive patterning and differentiation of its neuroectodermal and paraxial mesodermal structures. The evolutionary history of this patterning system is still poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role played by the RA and FGF/MAPK signals during the development of the tail structures in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, an invertebrate chordate belonging to the sister clade of vertebrates, in which the prototypical chordate body plan is established through very derived morphogenetic processes. Ciona embryos are constituted of few cells and develop according to a fixed lineage; elongation of the tail occurs largely by rearrangement of postmitotic cells; mesoderm segmentation and somitogenesis are absent. We show that in the Ciona embryo, the antagonism of the RA and FGF/MAPK signals is required to control the anteroposterior patterning of the tail epidermis. We also demonstrate that the RA, FGF/MAPK and canonical Wnt pathways control the anteroposterior patterning of the tail peripheral nervous system, and reveal the existence of distinct subpopulations of caudal epidermal neurons with different responsiveness to the RA, FGF/MAPK and canonical Wnt signals. Our data provide the first demonstration that the use of the antagonism between the RA and FGF signals to pattern the main body axis predates the emergence of vertebrates and highlight the evolutionary plasticity of this patterning strategy, showing that in different chordates it can be used to pattern different tissues within the same homologous body region. PMID:23049976

  11. Precision controlled atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy using spiral scan pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Xiahan; Lupini, Andrew R.; Ding, Jilai; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Unocic, Raymond R.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic-resolution imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can enable direct correlation between atomic structure and materials functionality. The fast and precise control of the STEM probe is, however, challenging because the true beam location deviates from the assigned location depending on the properties of the deflectors. To reduce these deviations, i.e. image distortions, we use spiral scanning paths, allowing precise control of a sub-Å sized electron probe within an aberration-corrected STEM. Although spiral scanning avoids the sudden changes in the beam location (fly-back distortion) present in conventional raster scans, it is not distortion-free. “Archimedean” spirals, with a constant angular frequency within each scan, are used to determine the characteristic response at different frequencies. We then show that such characteristic functions can be used to correct image distortions present in more complicated constant linear velocity spirals, where the frequency varies within each scan. Through the combined application of constant linear velocity scanning and beam path corrections, spiral scan images are shown to exhibit less scan distortion than conventional raster scan images. The methodology presented here will be useful for in situ STEM imaging at higher temporal resolution and for imaging beam sensitive materials. PMID:28272404

  12. Precision controlled atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy using spiral scan pathways.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xiahan; Lupini, Andrew R; Ding, Jilai; Kalinin, Sergei V; Jesse, Stephen; Unocic, Raymond R

    2017-03-08

    Atomic-resolution imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can enable direct correlation between atomic structure and materials functionality. The fast and precise control of the STEM probe is, however, challenging because the true beam location deviates from the assigned location depending on the properties of the deflectors. To reduce these deviations, i.e. image distortions, we use spiral scanning paths, allowing precise control of a sub-Å sized electron probe within an aberration-corrected STEM. Although spiral scanning avoids the sudden changes in the beam location (fly-back distortion) present in conventional raster scans, it is not distortion-free. "Archimedean" spirals, with a constant angular frequency within each scan, are used to determine the characteristic response at different frequencies. We then show that such characteristic functions can be used to correct image distortions present in more complicated constant linear velocity spirals, where the frequency varies within each scan. Through the combined application of constant linear velocity scanning and beam path corrections, spiral scan images are shown to exhibit less scan distortion than conventional raster scan images. The methodology presented here will be useful for in situ STEM imaging at higher temporal resolution and for imaging beam sensitive materials.

  13. Precision controlled atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy using spiral scan pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Xiahan; Lupini, Andrew R.; Ding, Jilai; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Unocic, Raymond R.

    2017-03-01

    Atomic-resolution imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can enable direct correlation between atomic structure and materials functionality. The fast and precise control of the STEM probe is, however, challenging because the true beam location deviates from the assigned location depending on the properties of the deflectors. To reduce these deviations, i.e. image distortions, we use spiral scanning paths, allowing precise control of a sub-Å sized electron probe within an aberration-corrected STEM. Although spiral scanning avoids the sudden changes in the beam location (fly-back distortion) present in conventional raster scans, it is not distortion-free. “Archimedean” spirals, with a constant angular frequency within each scan, are used to determine the characteristic response at different frequencies. We then show that such characteristic functions can be used to correct image distortions present in more complicated constant linear velocity spirals, where the frequency varies within each scan. Through the combined application of constant linear velocity scanning and beam path corrections, spiral scan images are shown to exhibit less scan distortion than conventional raster scan images. The methodology presented here will be useful for in situ STEM imaging at higher temporal resolution and for imaging beam sensitive materials.

  14. Regulation of the protein glycosylation pathway in yeast: structural control of N-linked oligosaccharide elongation

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal, P.K.; Ballou, C.E.

    1987-12-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae X2180 strain with the mnn1 mnn2 mnn9 mutations, all of which affect mannoprotein glycosylation, synthesizes N-linked oligosaccharides. Membrane fractions from the mnn1 mnn2 and mnn1 mnn2 mnn9 mutants are equally effective in catalyzing transfer from GDP-(/sup 3/H)mannose to add mannose in both ..cap alpha..1 ..-->.. 2 and ..cap alpha..1 ..-->.. 6 linkages to an oligosaccharide. Neither membrane preparation can utilize the homologous mnn1 mnn2 mnn9 oligosaccharide as an acceptor. Thus, addition of the ..cap alpha..1 ..-->.. 2-linked mannose side chain to the terminal ..cap alpha..1 ..-->.. 6-linked mannose in oligosaccharides of the mnn9 mutant inhibits the elongation reaction and may serve as an important structural control of mannoprotein glycosylation. The mnn9 mutation also increases the transit time for invertase secretion, meaning that this mutation could affect the processing machinery in the Golgi apparatus.

  15. Ubiquitin facilitates a quality-control pathway that removes damaged chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Woodson, Jesse D.; Joens, Matthew S.; Sinson, Andrew B.; Gilkerson, Jonathan; Salome, Patrice A.; Weigel, Detlef; Fitzpatrick, James A.; Chory, Joanne

    2015-10-23

    Energy production by chloroplasts and mitochondria causes constant oxidative damage. A functioning photosynthetic cell requires quality-control mechanisms to turn over and degrade chloroplasts damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here in this study, we generated a conditionally lethal Arabidopsis mutant that accumulated excess protoporphyrin IX in the chloroplast and produced singlet oxygen. Damaged chloroplasts were subsequently ubiquitinated and selectively degraded. A genetic screen identified the plant U-box 4 (PUB4) E3 ubiquitin ligase as being necessary for this process. pub4-6 mutants had defects in stress adaptation and longevity. As a result, we have identified a signal that leads to the targeted removal of ROS-overproducing chloroplasts.

  16. Enhancing radiation tolerance by controlling defect mobility and migration pathways in multicomponent single-phase alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chenyang; Niu, Liangliang; Chen, Nanjun; Jin, Ke; Yang, Taini; Xiu, Pengyuan; Zhang, Yanwen; Gao, Fei; Bei, Hongbin; Shi, Shi; He, Mo-Rigen; Robertson, Ian M.; Weber, William J.; Wang, Lumin

    2016-12-01

    A grand challenge in material science is to understand the correlation between intrinsic properties and defect dynamics. Radiation tolerant materials are in great demand for safe operation and advancement of nuclear and aerospace systems. Unlike traditional approaches that rely on microstructural and nanoscale features to mitigate radiation damage, this study demonstrates enhancement of radiation tolerance with the suppression of void formation by two orders magnitude at elevated temperatures in equiatomic single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys, and more importantly, reveals its controlling mechanism through a detailed analysis of the depth distribution of defect clusters and an atomistic computer simulation. The enhanced swelling resistance is attributed to the tailored interstitial defect cluster motion in the alloys from a long-range one-dimensional mode to a short-range three-dimensional mode, which leads to enhanced point defect recombination. The results suggest design criteria for next generation radiation tolerant structural alloys.

  17. Membrane proteases in the bacterial protein secretion and quality control pathway.

    PubMed

    Dalbey, Ross E; Wang, Peng; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2012-06-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of proteins that are permanently or transiently associated with the cytoplasmic membrane is crucially important for a wide range of essential processes in bacteria. This applies in particular to the secretion of proteins and to membrane protein quality control. Major progress has been made in elucidating the structure-function relationships of many of the responsible membrane proteases, including signal peptidases, signal peptide hydrolases, FtsH, the rhomboid protease GlpG, and the site 1 protease DegS. These enzymes employ very different mechanisms to cleave substrates at the cytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic membrane surfaces or within the plane of the membrane. This review highlights the different ways that bacterial membrane proteases degrade their substrates, with special emphasis on catalytic mechanisms and substrate delivery to the respective active sites.

  18. Enhancing radiation tolerance by controlling defect mobility and migration pathways in multicomponent single-phase alloys

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chenyang; Niu, Liangliang; Chen, Nanjun; Jin, Ke; Yang, Taini; Xiu, Pengyuan; Zhang, Yanwen; Gao, Fei; Bei, Hongbin; Shi, Shi; He, Mo-Rigen; Robertson, Ian M.; Weber, William J.; Wang, Lumin

    2016-01-01

    A grand challenge in material science is to understand the correlation between intrinsic properties and defect dynamics. Radiation tolerant materials are in great demand for safe operation and advancement of nuclear and aerospace systems. Unlike traditional approaches that rely on microstructural and nanoscale features to mitigate radiation damage, this study demonstrates enhancement of radiation tolerance with the suppression of void formation by two orders magnitude at elevated temperatures in equiatomic single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys, and more importantly, reveals its controlling mechanism through a detailed analysis of the depth distribution of defect clusters and an atomistic computer simulation. The enhanced swelling resistance is attributed to the tailored interstitial defect cluster motion in the alloys from a long-range one-dimensional mode to a short-range three-dimensional mode, which leads to enhanced point defect recombination. The results suggest design criteria for next generation radiation tolerant structural alloys. PMID:27976669

  19. Enhancing radiation tolerance by controlling defect mobility and migration pathways in multicomponent single-phase alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Chenyang; Niu, Liangliang; Chen, Nanjun; ...

    2016-12-15

    A grand challenge in material science is to understand the correlation between intrinsic properties and defect dynamics. Radiation tolerant materials are in great demand for safe operation and advancement of nuclear and aerospace systems. Unlike traditional approaches that rely on microstructural and nanoscale features to mitigate radiation damage, this study demonstrates enhancement of radiation tolerance with the suppression of void formation by two orders magnitude at elevated temperatures in equiatomic single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys, and more importantly, reveals its controlling mechanism through a detailed analysis of the depth distribution of defect clusters and an atomistic computer simulation. The enhancedmore » swelling resistance is attributed to the tailored interstitial defect cluster motion in the alloys from a long-range one-dimensional mode to a short-range three-dimensional mode, which leads to enhanced point defect recombination. Finally, the results suggest design criteria for next generation radiation tolerant structural alloys.« less

  20. Enhancing radiation tolerance by controlling defect mobility and migration pathways in multicomponent single-phase alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Chenyang; Niu, Liangliang; Chen, Nanjun; Jin, Ke; Yang, Taini; Xiu, Pengyuan; Zhang, Yanwen; Gao, Fei; Bei, Hongbin; Shi, Shi; He, Mo-Rigen; Robertson, Ian M.; Weber, William J.; Wang, Lumin

    2016-12-15

    A grand challenge in material science is to understand the correlation between intrinsic properties and defect dynamics. Radiation tolerant materials are in great demand for safe operation and advancement of nuclear and aerospace systems. Unlike traditional approaches that rely on microstructural and nanoscale features to mitigate radiation damage, this study demonstrates enhancement of radiation tolerance with the suppression of void formation by two orders magnitude at elevated temperatures in equiatomic single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys, and more importantly, reveals its controlling mechanism through a detailed analysis of the depth distribution of defect clusters and an atomistic computer simulation. The enhanced swelling resistance is attributed to the tailored interstitial defect cluster motion in the alloys from a long-range one-dimensional mode to a short-range three-dimensional mode, which leads to enhanced point defect recombination. Finally, the results suggest design criteria for next generation radiation tolerant structural alloys.

  1. Regulation of phagocyte triglyceride by a STAT-ATG2 pathway controls mycobacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Péan, Claire B.; Schiebler, Mark; Tan, Sharon W. S.; Sharrock, Jessica A.; Kierdorf, Katrin; Brown, Karen P.; Maserumule, M. Charlotte; Menezes, Shinelle; Pilátová, Martina; Bronda, Kévin; Guermonprez, Pierre; Stramer, Brian M.; Andres Floto, R.; Dionne, Marc S.

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a global threat to human health, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating immunity remain poorly understood. Cytokines can promote or inhibit mycobacterial survival inside macrophages and the underlying mechanisms represent potential targets for host-directed therapies. Here we show that cytokine-STAT signalling promotes mycobacterial survival within macrophages by deregulating lipid droplets via ATG2 repression. In Drosophila infected with Mycobacterium marinum, mycobacterium-induced STAT activity triggered by unpaired-family cytokines reduces Atg2 expression, permitting deregulation of lipid droplets. Increased Atg2 expression or reduced macrophage triglyceride biosynthesis, normalizes lipid deposition in infected phagocytes and reduces numbers of viable intracellular mycobacteria. In human macrophages, addition of IL-6 promotes mycobacterial survival and BCG-induced lipid accumulation by a similar, but probably not identical, mechanism. Our results reveal Atg2 regulation as a mechanism by which cytokines can control lipid droplet homeostasis and consequently resistance to mycobacterial infection in Drosophila. PMID:28262681

  2. Ubiquitin facilitates a quality-control pathway that removes damaged chloroplasts

    DOE PAGES

    Woodson, Jesse D.; Joens, Matthew S.; Sinson, Andrew B.; ...

    2015-10-23

    Energy production by chloroplasts and mitochondria causes constant oxidative damage. A functioning photosynthetic cell requires quality-control mechanisms to turn over and degrade chloroplasts damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here in this study, we generated a conditionally lethal Arabidopsis mutant that accumulated excess protoporphyrin IX in the chloroplast and produced singlet oxygen. Damaged chloroplasts were subsequently ubiquitinated and selectively degraded. A genetic screen identified the plant U-box 4 (PUB4) E3 ubiquitin ligase as being necessary for this process. pub4-6 mutants had defects in stress adaptation and longevity. As a result, we have identified a signal that leads to the targetedmore » removal of ROS-overproducing chloroplasts.« less

  3. Cell-kinetic alterations induced by aspirin in human gastric mucosa and their prevention by a cytoprotective agent.

    PubMed

    Biasco, G; Paganelli, G M; Di Febo, G; Siringo, S; Barbara, L

    1992-01-01

    The effect on gastric epithelial cell proliferation of a short-term, low-dose treatment with aspirin was evaluated in 9 healthy volunteers. Nine days before and during aspirin administration, the subjects assumed sulglycotide, a sulfated glycopeptide with cytoprotective properties. Endoscopic biopsies were collected in each subject from the gastric body and antrum before and after treatment. The specimens were incubated in a culture medium containing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The proliferative activity was evaluated by immunohistochemical detection of BrdU uptake. A decrease in BrdU-labelled cells together with a shortening of the length of gastric columns were observed after treatment with aspirin and placebo in biopsies of both body and antrum (p less than 0.05). On the contrary, no modifications were observed after treatment with aspirin and sulglycotide. We conclude that a decrease in the proliferative activity of the epithelial cells could be one of the mechanisms by which aspirin affects the defensive properties of gastric mucosa. The treatment with a cytoprotective drug seems to be effective in preventing this alteration.

  4. Cytoprotective and antigenotoxic potential of Mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone against cadmium chloride induced toxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Satish Rao, B S; Sreedevi, M V; Nageshwar Rao, B

    2009-03-01

    Mangiferin (MGN), a glucosylxanthone present in large amounts in the leaves and edible mango fruits of Mangifera indica. Here, we report about MGN's potential for mitigating cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) induced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in HepG2 cells growing in vitro. The cytoprotective potential was assessed by MTT, clonogenic and apoptotic assays, while antigenotoxic effect by micronucleus and comet assay. The established cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were well indicated after CdCl(2) treatment and was mitigated by pretreatment with MGN. MGN prior to CdCl(2) treatment increased the cell survival (MTT), surviving fraction (clonogenic assay) and inhibited sub-G(1) population (flow cytometric analysis). Further, inhibition of CdCl(2) induced apoptotic cell death by MGN was confirmed by microscopic and DNA fragmentation assays. A significant (p<0.01) reduction in the micronuclei frequency and comet parameters after MGN pretreatment to CdCl(2) clearly indicated the antigenotoxic potential. Similarly, the reactive oxygen species generated by the CdCl(2) treatment were inhibited significantly (p<0.001) by MGN. Taken together, our study revealed that MGN has potent cytoprotective and antigenotoxic effect against CdCl(2) induced toxicity in HepG2 cell line and which may be attributed to decrease in CdCl(2) induced reactive oxygen species levels and resultant oxidative stress.

  5. Cytoprotective and Cytotoxic Effects of Rice Bran Extracts in Rat H9c2(2-1) Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xian Wen; Bhave, Mrinal; Fong, Alan Yean Yip; Matsuura, Eiji; Kobayashi, Kazuko; Shen, Lian Hua; Hwang, Siaw San

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at preliminarily assessing the cytoprotective and antioxidative effects of rice bran extracts (RBEs) from a Sarawak local rice variety (local name: “BJLN”) and a commercial rice variety, “MR219,” on oxidative stress in rat H9c2(2-1) cardiomyocytes. The cardiomyocytes were incubated with different concentrations of RBE and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), respectively, to identify their respective IC50 values and safe dose ranges. Two nonlethal and close-to-IC50 doses of RBE were selected to evaluate their respective effects on H2O2 induced oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Both RBEs showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity effects on cardiomyocytes. H2O2 induction of cardiomyocytes pretreated with RBE further revealed the dose-dependent cytoprotective and antioxidative effects of RBE via an increase in IC50 values of H2O2. Preliminary analyses of induction effects of RBE and H2O2 on cellular antioxidant enzyme, catalase (CAT), also revealed their potential in regulating these activities and expression profile of related gene on oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Pretreated cardiomyocytes significantly upregulated the enzymatic activity and expression level of CAT under the exposure of H2O2 induced oxidative stress. This preliminary study has demonstrated the potential antioxidant effects of RBE in alleviating H2O2-mediated oxidative injuries via upregulation in enzymatic activities and expression levels of CAT. PMID:27239253

  6. Erythrocytes and cell line-based assays to evaluate the cytoprotective activity of antioxidant components obtained from natural sources.

    PubMed

    Botta, Albert; Martínez, Verónica; Mitjans, Montserrat; Balboa, Elena; Conde, Enma; Vinardell, M Pilar

    2014-02-01

    Oxidative stress can damage cellular components including DNA, proteins or lipids, and may cause several skin diseases. To protect from this damage and addressing consumer's appeal to natural products, antioxidants obtained from algal and vegetal extracts are being proposed as antioxidants to be incorporated into formulations. Thus, the development of reliable, quick and economic in vitro methods to study the cytoactivity of these products is a meaningful requirement. A combination of erythrocyte and cell line-based assays was performed on two extracts from Sargassum muticum, one from Ulva lactuca, and one from Castanea sativa. Antioxidant properties were assessed in erythrocytes by the TBARS and AAPH assays, and cytotoxicity and antioxidant cytoprotection were assessed in HaCaT and 3T3 cells by the MTT assay. The extracts showed no antioxidant activity on the TBARS assay, whereas their antioxidant capacity in the AAPH assay was demonstrated. On the cytotoxicity assays, extracts showed low toxicity, with IC50 values higher than 200μg/mL. C. sativa extract showed the most favourable antioxidant properties on the antioxidant cytoprotection assays; while S. muticum and U. lactuca extracts showed a slight antioxidant activity. This battery of methods was useful to characterise the biological antioxidant properties of these natural extracts.

  7. The restorative effects of smoking upon self-control resources: a negative reinforcement pathway.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Bryan W; Ditre, Joseph W; Brandon, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Based on a model in which self-control (SC) is considered to be a limited resource, research suggests that diminished SC resources may increase the likelihood of tobacco smoking. Yet, the inverse--how smoking may influence SC resources--has not been tested. The authors of this study utilized a randomized, 2 × 2 crossed-factorial (SC Depletion Manipulation × Smoking Manipulation), between-subjects design to test the hypothesis that smoking restores depleted SC resources. To manipulate SC depletion, experimenters instructed half of 132 nicotine dependent smokers to suppress their emotional reaction to a brief video depicting environmental damage (i.e., depletion), whereas the other half were instructed to "act natural" (i.e., no depletion) during viewing. Half of the participants in each condition then smoked a cigarette, whereas the other half sat patiently without smoking (i.e., smoke vs. no smoke). All participants then completed behavioral measures of SC. As hypothesized, an interaction occurred between the depletion and smoking manipulations for duration of time spent on a frustrating mirror-tracing task. That is, depletion reduced persistence on the task, unless depletion was followed by smoking. This effect was mediated by positive affect (PA). Thus, smoking appeared to restore depleted SC resources via modulation of PA, but independent of negative affect or smoking urges. These findings suggest that restoration of SC resources may represent another means by which smoking is negatively reinforced. The application of the self-control strength model to the study of nicotine dependence may inform the development of novel treatment modalities.

  8. The hormonal pathway controlling cell death during metamorphosis in a hemimetabolous insect.

    PubMed

    Mané-Padrós, Daniel; Cruz, Josefa; Vilaplana, Lluisa; Nieva, Claudia; Ureña, Enric; Bellés, Xavier; Martín, David

    2010-10-01

    Metamorphosis in holometabolous insects is mainly based on the destruction of larval tissues. Intensive research in Drosophila melanogaster, a model of holometabolan metamorphosis, has shown that the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signals cell death of larval tissues during metamorphosis. However, D. melanogaster shows a highly derived type of development and the mechanisms regulating apoptosis may not be representative in the insect class context. Unfortunately, no functional studies have been carried out to address whether the mechanisms controlling cell death are present in more basal hemimetabolous species. To address this, we have analyzed the apoptosis of the prothoracic gland of the cockroach Blattella germanica, which undergoes stage-specific degeneration just after the imaginal molt. Here, we first show that B. germanica has two inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins and that one of them, BgIAP1, is continuously required to ensure tissue viability, including that of the prothoracic gland, during nymphal development. Moreover, we demonstrate that the degeneration of the prothoracic gland is controlled by a complex 20E-triggered hierarchy of nuclear receptors converging in the strong activation of the death-inducer Fushi tarazu-factor 1 (BgFTZ-F1) during the nymphal-adult transition. Finally, we have also shown that prothoracic gland degeneration is effectively prevented by the presence of juvenile hormone (JH). Given the relevance of cell death in the metamorphic process, the characterization of the molecular mechanisms regulating apoptosis in hemimetabolous insects would allow to help elucidate how metamorphosis has evolved from less to more derived insect species.

  9. Light controls growth and development via a conserved pathway in the fungal kingdom.

    PubMed

    Idnurm, Alexander; Heitman, Joseph

    2005-04-01

    Light inhibits mating and haploid fruiting of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, but the mechanisms involved were unknown. Two genes controlling light responses were discovered through candidate gene and insertional mutagenesis approaches. Deletion of candidate genes encoding a predicted opsin or phytochrome had no effect on mating, while strains mutated in the white collar 1 homolog gene BWC1 mated equally well in the light or the dark. The predicted Bwc1 protein shares identity with Neurospora crassa WC-1, but lacks the zinc finger DNA binding domain. BWC1 regulates cell fusion and repression of hyphal development after fusion in response to blue light. In addition, bwc1 mutant strains are hypersensitive to ultraviolet light. To identify other components required for responses to light, a novel self-fertile haploid strain was created and subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis. One UV-sensitive mutant that filaments equally well in the light and the dark was identified and found to have an insertion in the BWC2 gene, whose product is structurally similar to N. crassa WC-2. The C. neoformans Bwc1 and Bwc2 proteins interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Deletion of BWC1 or BWC2 reduces the virulence of C. neoformans in a murine model of infection; the Bwc1-Bwc2 system thus represents a novel protein complex that influences both development and virulence in a pathogenic fungus. These results demonstrate that a role for blue/UV light in controlling development is an ancient process that predates the divergence of the fungi into the ascomycete and basidiomycete phyla.

  10. Autophagy As A Stress Response And Quality Control Mechanism—Implications for Cell Injury and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murrow, Lyndsay; Debnath, Jayanta

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy, a vital catabolic process that degrades cytoplasmic components within the lysosome, serves as an essential cytoprotective response to pathologic stresses that occur during diseases such as cancer, ischemia, and infection. In addition to its role as a stress response pathway, autophagy plays an essential quality control function in the cell by promoting basal turnover of long-lived proteins and organelles as well as selectively degrading damaged cellular components. This homeostatic function protects against a wide variety of diseases including neurodegeneration, myopathy, liver disease, and diabetes. This review discusses our current understanding of these two principal functions for autophagy as a physiologic stress response and quality control mechanism within mammalian cells and details how alterations in autophagy promote human disease. PMID:23072311

  11. Hydrology without hillslopes: runoff controls and pathways on a near-level, engineered landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, Halya; Ali, Genevieve

    2015-04-01

    Low relief, artificially drained landscapes like those of the Prairies in south-central Canada have received little consideration in hydrologic study. While topography is generally asserted as the main control of runoff generation, it is unknown whether this is also the case where relief is low, or if in the absence of high relief other landscape characteristics become relatively more influential. To address this knowledge gap, runoff behaviour was analysed via event rainfall-runoff hydrographs and perched water table level at 6 study sites to infer dominant runoff processes and their control factors. Instrumentation was deployed in the Catfish Creek watershed, a 642 km2 near-level, mixed land use and engineered Prairie watershed located 90 km northeast of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Specifically, surface water levels were measured at the outlet of six sub-watersheds while perched water table levels were monitored in riparian areas. At each site, rainfall events were delineated and rainfall-runoff parameters, perched water table maximum rise and antecedent rainfall variables (as surrogates for antecedent moisture conditions or AMCs) were calculated on an event basis. Landscape characteristics, including elevation, slope, and land use and land cover statistics, were also determined for each sub-watershed. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis were then carried out including all variables. Rainfall-runoff responses were highly variable across sites. Event hydrographs were generally characterized by short lag times and initial abstractions which correlated moderately to total event rainfall. However, sub-watersheds characteristics did not influence the different hydrograph characteristics recorded across sites. Threshold behaviour was observed only in the two study sub-watersheds of greatest relief. Runoff generation was hypothesized to occur predominantly as Hortonian overland flow, although the dominant runoff process shifted under certain moisture

  12. The amygdalo-motor pathways and the control of facial expressions

    PubMed Central

    Gothard, Katalin M.

    2013-01-01

    Facial expressions reflect decisions about the perceived meaning of social stimuli and the expected socio-emotional outcome of responding (or not) with a reciprocating expression. The decision to produce a facial expression emerges from the joint activity of a network of structures that include the amygdala and multiple, interconnected cortical and subcortical motor areas. Reciprocal transformations between these sensory and motor signals give rise to distinct brain states that promote, or impede the production of facial expressions. The muscles of the upper and lower face are controlled by anatomically distinct motor areas. Facial expressions engage to a different extent the lower and upper face and thus require distinct patterns of neural activity distributed across multiple facial motor areas in ventrolateral frontal cortex, the supplementary motor area, and two areas in the midcingulate cortex. The distributed nature of the decision manifests in the joint activation of multiple motor areas that initiate the production of facial expression. Concomitantly multiple areas, including the amygdala, monitor ongoing overt behaviors (the expression itself) and the covert, autonomic responses that accompany emotional expressions. As the production of facial expressions is brought into the framework of formal decision making, an important challenge will be to incorporate autonomic and visceral states into decisions that govern the receiving-emitting cycle of social signals. PMID:24678289

  13. Notch pathway inhibition controls myeloma bone disease in the murine MOPC315.BM model

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, R; Nickel, N; Godau, J; Willie, B M; Duda, G N; Schwarzer, R; Cirovic, B; Leutz, A; Manz, R; Bogen, B; Dörken, B; Jundt, F

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence that deregulated Notch signalling is a master regulator of multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis, its contribution to myeloma bone disease remains to be resolved. Notch promotes survival of human MM cells and triggers human osteoclast activity in vitro. Here, we show that inhibition of Notch through the γ-secretase inhibitor XII (GSI XII) induces apoptosis of murine MOPC315.BM myeloma cells with high Notch activity. GSI XII impairs murine osteoclast differentiation of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells in vitro. In the murine MOPC315.BM myeloma model GSI XII has potent anti-MM activity and reduces osteolytic lesions as evidenced by diminished myeloma-specific monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig)-A serum levels and quantitative assessment of bone structure changes via high-resolution microcomputed tomography scans. Thus, we suggest that Notch inhibition through GSI XII controls myeloma bone disease mainly by targeting Notch in MM cells and possibly in osteoclasts in their microenvironment. We conclude that Notch inhibition is a valid therapeutic strategy in MM. PMID:24927406

  14. Notch pathway inhibition controls myeloma bone disease in the murine MOPC315.BM model.

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, R; Nickel, N; Godau, J; Willie, B M; Duda, G N; Schwarzer, R; Cirovic, B; Leutz, A; Manz, R; Bogen, B; Dörken, B; Jundt, F

    2014-06-13

    Despite evidence that deregulated Notch signalling is a master regulator of multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis, its contribution to myeloma bone disease remains to be resolved. Notch promotes survival of human MM cells and triggers human osteoclast activity in vitro. Here, we show that inhibition of Notch through the γ-secretase inhibitor XII (GSI XII) induces apoptosis of murine MOPC315.BM myeloma cells with high Notch activity. GSI XII impairs murine osteoclast differentiation of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells in vitro. In the murine MOPC315.BM myeloma model GSI XII has potent anti-MM activity and reduces osteolytic lesions as evidenced by diminished myeloma-specific monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig)-A serum levels and quantitative assessment of bone structure changes via high-resolution microcomputed tomography scans. Thus, we suggest that Notch inhibition through GSI XII controls myeloma bone disease mainly by targeting Notch in MM cells and possibly in osteoclasts in their microenvironment. We conclude that Notch inhibition is a valid therapeutic strategy in MM.

  15. Exploring new pathways of neurodegeneration in ALS: the role of mitochondria quality control

    PubMed Central

    Palomo, Gloria M.; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal cells are highly dependent on mitochondria, and mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with neurodegenerative diseases. As perturbed mitochondrial function renders neurons extremely sensitive to a wide variety of insults, such as oxidative stress and bioenergetic defects, mitochondrial defects can profoundly affect neuronal fate. Several studies have linked ALS with mitochondrial dysfunction, stemming from observations of mitochondrial abnormalities, both in patients and in cellular and mouse models of familial forms of ALS. Mitochondrial changes have been thoroughly investigated in mutants of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), one of the most common causes of familial ALS, for which excellent cellular and animal models are available, but recently evidence is emerging also in other forms of ALS, both familial and sporadic. Mitochondrial defects in ALS involve many critical physiopathological processes, from defective bioenergetics to abnormal calcium homeostasis, to altered morphology and impaired trafficking. In this review, we summarize established evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in ALS, especially in SOD1 mutant models of familial ALS. The main focus of the review is on defective mitochondrial quality control (MQC) in ALS. MQC operates at multiple levels to clear damaged proteins through proteostasis and to eliminate irreparably damaged organelles through mitophagy. However, since ALS motor neurons progressively accumulate damaged mitochondria, it is plausible that the MQC is ineffective or overwhelmed by excessive workload imposed by the chronic and extensive mitochondrial damage. PMID:25301687

  16. Characterization of regulatory pathways in Xylella fastidiosa: genes and phenotypes controlled by gacA.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang Yang; Dumenyo, C Korsi; Hernandez-Martinez, Rufina; Azad, Hamid; Cooksey, Donald A

    2009-04-01

    The xylem-limited, insect-transmitted bacterium Xylella fastidiosa causes Pierce's disease in grapes through cell aggregation and vascular clogging. GacA controls various physiological processes and pathogenicity factors in many gram-negative bacteria, including biofilm formation in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Cloned gacA of X. fastidiosa was found to restore the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity in gacA mutants of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and Erwinia amylovora. A gacA mutant of X. fastidiosa (DAC1984) had significantly reduced abilities to adhere to a glass surface, form biofilm, and incite disease symptoms on grapevines, compared with the parent (A05). cDNA microarray analysis identified 7 genes that were positively regulated by GacA, including xadA and hsf, predicted to encode outer membrane adhesion proteins, and 20 negatively regulated genes, including gumC and an antibacterial polypeptide toxin gene, cvaC. These results suggest that GacA of X. fastidiosa regulates many factors, which contribute to attachment and biofilm formation, as well as some physiological processes that may enhance the adaptation and tolerance of X. fastidiosa to environmental stresses and the competition within the host xylem.

  17. DNAJA1 controls the fate of misfolded mutant p53 through the mevalonate pathway

    PubMed Central

    Parrales, Alejandro; Ranjan, Atul; Iyer, Swathi V.; Padhye, Subhash; Weir, Scott J.; Roy, Anuradha; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2017-01-01

    Stabilization of mutant p53 (mutp53) in tumours greatly contributes to malignant progression. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic approaches to destabilize mutp53. Here, through high-throughput screening we identify statins, cholesterol-lowering drugs, as degradation inducers for conformational or misfolded p53 mutants with minimal effects on wild-type p53 (wtp53) and DNA contact mutants. Statins preferentially suppress mutp53-expressing cancer cell growth. Specific reduction of mevalonate-5-phosphate by statins or mevalonate kinase knockdown induces CHIP ubiquitin ligase-mediated nuclear export, ubiquitylation, and degradation of mutp53 by impairing interaction of mutp53 with DNAJA1, a Hsp40 family member. Knockdown of DNAJA1 also induces CHIP-mediated mutp53 degradation, while its overexpression antagonizes statin-induced mutp53 degradation. Our study reveals that DNAJA1 controls the fate of misfolded mutp53, provides insights into potential strategies to deplete mutp53 through the mevalonate pathway–DNAJA1 axis, and highlights the significance of p53 status in impacting statins’ efficacy on cancer therapy. PMID:27775703

  18. Controlling herpetic stromal keratitis by modulating lymphotoxin-alpha-mediated inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Parga, Tamara; Giménez, Fernanda; Mulik, Sachin; Chiang, Eugene Y; Grogan, Jane L; Rouse, Barry T

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 infection of the eye can result in stromal keratitis, a chronic immunoinflammatory lesion that is a significant cause of human blindness. A key to controlling the severity of lesions is to identify cellular and molecular events responsible for tissue damage. This report evaluates the role of lymphotoxin-α, a proinflammatory cytokine that could be involved during stromal keratitis. We demonstrate that after infection, both lymphotoxin-α and lymphotoxin-β transcripts are detectable at high levels 48 h postinfection, suggesting roles for the secreted homotrimer lymphotoxin-α3 and the membrane-bound lymphotoxin-α1β2 heterotrimer in stromal keratitis. Using a corneal stromal fibroblast cell line, lymphotoxin-α3 and lymphotoxin-α1β2 were found to have proinflammatory roles by stimulating production of chemokines. Treatment of mice with a depleting anti-lymphotoxin-α mAb during the clinical phase of the disease significantly attenuated stromal keratitis lesions. In treated mice, expression of proinflammatory molecules and chemokines was reduced, as were numbers of cornea-infiltrating proinflammatory cells, particularly Th1 cells. The protective effect of anti-lymphotoxin-α mAb was highly reduced with a mutant version of the mAb that lacks Fc receptor binding activity, indicating that depletion of lymphotoxin-expressing cells was mainly responsible for efficacy, with LT-α3 contributing minimally to inflammation. These data demonstrate that lymphotoxin-expressing cells, such as Th1 cells, mediate stromal keratitis.

  19. Long-term evaluation of the controlled pressure method for assessment of the vapor intrusion pathway.

    PubMed

    Holton, Chase; Guo, Yuanming; Luo, Hong; Dahlen, Paul; Gorder, Kyle; Dettenmaier, Erik; Johnson, Paul C

    2015-02-17

    Vapor intrusion (VI) investigations often require sampling of indoor air for evaluating occupant risks, but can be confounded by temporal variability and the presence of indoor sources. Controlled pressure methods (CPM) have been proposed as an alternative, but temporal variability of CPM results and whether they are indicative of impacts under natural conditions have not been rigorously investigated. This study is the first involving a long-term CPM test at a house having a multiyear high temporal resolution indoor air data set under natural conditions. Key observations include (a) CPM results exhibited low temporal variability, (b) false-negative results were not obtained, (c) the indoor air concentrations were similar to the maximum concentrations under natural conditions, and (d) results exceeded long-term average concentrations and emission rates under natural conditions by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Thus, the CPM results were a reliable indicator of VI occurrence and worst-case exposure regardless of day or time of year of the CPM test.

  20. A Transcription Factor Network Coordinates Attraction, Repulsion, and Adhesion Combinatorially to Control Motor Axon Pathway Selection

    PubMed Central

    Zarin, Aref Arzan; Asadzadeh, Jamshid; Hokamp, Karsten; McCartney, Daniel; Yang, Long; Bashaw, Greg J.; Labrador, Juan-Pablo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Combinations of transcription factors (TFs) instruct precise wiring patterns in the developing nervous system; however, how these factors impinge on surface molecules that control guidance decisions is poorly understood. Using mRNA profiling, we identified the complement of membrane molecules regulated by the homeobox TF Even-skipped (Eve), the major determinant of dorsal motor neuron (dMN) identity in Drosophila. Combinatorial loss- and gain-of-function genetic analyses of Eve target genes indicate that the integrated actions of attractive, repulsive, and adhesive molecules direct eve-dependent dMN axon guidance. Furthermore, combined misexpression of Eve target genes is sufficient to partially restore CNS exit and can convert the guidance behavior of interneurons to that of dMNs. Finally, we show that a network of TFs, comprised of eve, zfh1, and grain, induces the expression of the Unc5 and Beaten-path guidance receptors and the Fasciclin 2 and Neuroglian adhesion molecules to guide individual dMN axons. PMID:24560702

  1. Nucleation of protein crystals: critical nuclei, phase behavior, and control pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, Oleg; Vekilov, Peter G.

    2001-11-01

    We have studied the nucleation of crystals of the model protein lysozyme using a novel technique that allows direct determinations of homogeneous nucleation rates. At constant temperature of 12.6°C we varied the thermodynamic supersaturation by changing the concentrations of protein and precipitant. We found a broken dependence of the homogeneous nucleation rate on supersaturation that is beyond the predictions of the classical nucleation theory. The nucleation theorem allows us to relate this to discrete changes of the size of the crystal nuclei with increasing supersaturation as (10 or 11)→(4 or 5)→(1 or 2). Furthermore, we observe that the existence of a second liquid phase at high protein concentrations strongly affects crystal nucleation kinetics. We show that the rate of homogeneous nucleation of lysozyme crystals passes through a maximum in the vicinity of the liquid-liquid phase boundary hidden below the liquidus (solubility) line in the phase diagram of the protein solution. We found that glycerol and polyethylene glycol (PEG), which do not specifically bind to proteins, shift this phase boundary and significantly suppress or enhance the crystal nucleation rates, although no simple correlation exists between the action of PEG on the phase diagram and the nucleation kinetics. This provides for a control mechanism which does not require changes in the protein concentration, or the acidity and ionicity of the solution. The effects of the two additives on the phase diagram strongly depend on their concentration and this provides opportunities for further tuning of nucleation rates.

  2. Exploring new pathways of neurodegeneration in ALS: the role of mitochondria quality control.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Gloria M; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2015-05-14

    Neuronal cells are highly dependent on mitochondria, and mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with neurodegenerative diseases. As perturbed mitochondrial function renders neurons extremely sensitive to a wide variety of insults, such as oxidative stress and bioenergetic defects, mitochondrial defects can profoundly affect neuronal fate. Several studies have linked ALS with mitochondrial dysfunction, stemming from observations of mitochondrial abnormalities, both in patients and in cellular and mouse models of familial forms of ALS. Mitochondrial changes have been thoroughly investigated in mutants of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), one of the most common causes of familial ALS, for which excellent cellular and animal models are available, but recently evidence is emerging also in other forms of ALS, both familial and sporadic. Mitochondrial defects in ALS involve many critical physiopathological processes, from defective bioenergetics to abnormal calcium homeostasis, altered morphology and impaired trafficking. In this review, we summarize established evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in ALS, especially in SOD1 mutant models of familial ALS. The main focus of the review is on defective mitochondrial quality control (MQC) in ALS. MQC operates at multiple levels to clear damaged proteins through proteostasis and to eliminate irreparably damaged organelles through mitophagy. However, since ALS motor neurons progressively accumulate damaged mitochondria, it is plausible that the MQC is ineffective or overwhelmed by excessive workload imposed by the chronic and extensive mitochondrial damage. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ALS complex pathogenesis.

  3. The golgin tether giantin regulates the secretory pathway by controlling stack organization within Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Koreishi, Mayuko; Gniadek, Thomas J; Yu, Sidney; Masuda, Junko; Honjo, Yasuko; Satoh, Ayano

    2013-01-01

    Golgins are coiled-coil proteins that play a key role in the regulation of Golgi architecture and function. Giantin, the largest golgin in mammals, forms a complex with p115, rab1, GM130, and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), thereby facilitating vesicle tethering and fusion processes around the Golgi apparatus. Treatment with the microtubule destabilizing drug nocodazole transforms the Golgi ribbon into individual Golgi stacks. Here we show that siRNA-mediated depletion of giantin resulted in more dispersed Golgi stacks after nocodazole treatment than by control treatment, without changing the average cisternal length. Furthermore, depletion of giantin caused an increase in cargo transport that was associated with altered cell surface protein glycosylation. Drosophila S2 cells are known to have dispersed Golgi stacks and no giantin homolog. The exogenous expression of mammalian giantin cDNA in S2 cells resulted in clustered Golgi stacks, similar to the Golgi ribbon in mammalian cells. These results suggest that the spatial organization of the Golgi ribbon is mediated by giantin, which also plays a role in cargo transport and sugar modifications.

  4. Activation of the Hypoglossal to Tongue Musculature Motor Pathway by Remote Control

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Garret A.; Fraigne, Jimmy J.; Torontali, Zoltan A.; Snow, Matthew B.; Lapierre, Jennifer L.; Liu, Hattie; Montandon, Gaspard; Peever, John H.; Horner, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    Reduced tongue muscle tone precipitates obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and activation of the tongue musculature can lessen OSA. The hypoglossal motor nucleus (HMN) innervates the tongue muscles but there is no pharmacological agent currently able to selectively manipulate a channel (e.g., Kir2.4) that is highly restricted in its expression to cranial motor pools such as the HMN. To model the effect of manipulating such a restricted target, we introduced a “designer” receptor into the HMN and selectively modulated it with a “designer” drug. We used cre-dependent viral vectors (AAV8-hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry) to transduce hypoglossal motoneurons of ChAT-Cre+ mice with hM3Dq (activating) receptors. We measured sleep and breathing in three conditions: (i) sham, (ii) after systemic administration of clozapine-N-oxide (CNO; 1 mg/kg) or (iii) vehicle. CNO activates hM3Dq receptors but is otherwise biologically inert. Systemic administration of CNO caused significant and sustained increases in tongue muscle activity in non-REM (261 ± 33% for 10 hrs) and REM sleep (217 ± 21% for 8 hrs), both P < 0.01 versus controls. Responses were specific and selective for the tongue with no effects on diaphragm or postural muscle activities, or sleep-wake states. These results support targeting a selective and restricted “druggable” target at the HMN (e.g., Kir2.4) to activate tongue motor activity during sleep. PMID:28383527

  5. Mechanistic pathway for controlled extraction of guest molecule bound to herring sperm DNA using α-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffer, S. Syed; Ghosh, Prasun; Purkayastha, Pradipta

    2011-05-01

    trans-2-[4-(Dimethylamino)styryl]benzothiazole (DMASBT) is known to have dual emitting states where the locally excited (LE) state is responsible for fluorescence in less polar environment and in polar milieu fluorescence is from the twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state. This compound also undergoes minor groove binding to herring sperm DNA (hsDNA) evidenced by the absorption spectra before and after the binding process and an effect on DMASBT fluorescence by an anionic quencher. The binding occurs efficiently in a 1:1 manner, i.e. one guest molecule binds to one site on the hsDNA. Instead of following the DNA twist, the aromatic part seems to project outward. Thus, the bound molecule can be successfully extracted out from the DNA in a controlled way by the hydrophobic cavity of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD). The extraction starts even with a low concentration of α-CD and increases as the concentration is increased. Absorption, steady-state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic methods have been employed to explore the mechanistic pathway of binding of DMASBT to hsDNA. The mechanistic approach toward controlled extraction of the guest molecules from hsDNA by α-CD is reported and is expected to serve a significant purpose in treatment of drug overdose.

  6. Combinatorial control of diverse metabolic and physiological functions by transcriptional regulators of the yeast sulfur assimilation pathway.

    PubMed

    Petti, Allegra A; McIsaac, R Scott; Ho-Shing, Olivia; Bussemaker, Harmen J; Botstein, David

    2012-08-01

    Methionine abundance affects diverse cellular functions, including cell division, redox homeostasis, survival under starvation, and oxidative stress response. Regulation of the methionine biosynthetic pathway involves three DNA-binding proteins-Met31p, Met32p, and Cbf1p. We hypothesized that there exists a "division of labor" among these proteins that facilitates coordination of methionine biosynthesis with diverse biological processes. To explore combinatorial control in this regulatory circuit, we deleted CBF1, MET31, and MET32 individually and in combination in a strain lacking methionine synthase. We followed genome-wide gene expression as these strains were starved for methionine. Using a combination of bioinformatic methods, we found that these regulators control genes involved in biological processes downstream of sulfur assimilation; many of these processes had not previously been documented as methionine dependent. We also found that the different factors have overlapping but distinct functions. In particular, Met31p and Met32p are important in regulating methionine metabolism, whereas p functions as a "generalist" transcription factor that is not specific to methionine metabolism. In addition, Met31p and Met32p appear to regulate iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis through direct and indirect mechanisms and have distinguishable target specificities. Finally, CBF1 deletion sometimes has the opposite effect on gene expression from MET31 and MET32 deletion.

  7. Combinatorial control of diverse metabolic and physiological functions by transcriptional regulators of the yeast sulfur assimilation pathway

    PubMed Central

    Petti, Allegra A.; McIsaac, R. Scott; Ho-Shing, Olivia; Bussemaker, Harmen J.; Botstein, David

    2012-01-01

    Methionine abundance affects diverse cellular functions, including cell division, redox homeostasis, survival under starvation, and oxidative stress response. Regulation of the methionine biosynthetic pathway involves three DNA-binding proteins—Met31p, Met32p, and Cbf1p. We hypothesized that there exists a “division of labor” among these proteins that facilitates coordination of methionine biosynthesis with diverse biological processes. To explore combinatorial control in this regulatory circuit, we deleted CBF1, MET31, and MET32 individually and in combination in a strain lacking methionine synthase. We followed genome-wide gene expression as these strains were starved for methionine. Using a combination of bioinformatic methods, we found that these regulators control genes involved in biological processes downstream of sulfur assimilation; many of these processes had not previously been documented as methionine dependent. We also found that the different factors have overlapping but distinct functions. In particular, Met31p and Met32p are important in regulating methionine metabolism, whereas p functions as a “generalist” transcription factor that is not specific to methionine metabolism. In addition, Met31p and Met32p appear to regulate iron–sulfur cluster biogenesis through direct and indirect mechanisms and have distinguishable target specificities. Finally, CBF1 deletion sometimes has the opposite effect on gene expression from MET31 and MET32 deletion. PMID:22696679

  8. ARHGEF3 controls HDACi-induced differentiation via RhoA-dependent pathways in acute myeloid leukemias.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Loredana; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Conte, Mariarosaria; Ciotta, Alfonso; Scisciola, Lucia; Carissimo, Annamaria; Nebbioso, Angela; Altucci, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Altered expression and activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been correlated with tumorigenesis. Inhibitors of HDACs (HDACi) induce acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins affecting gene expression, cell cycle progression, cell migration, terminal differentiation and cell death. Here, we analyzed the regulation of ARHGEF3, a RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, by the HDACi MS275 (entinostat). MS275 is a well-known benzamide-based HDACi, which induces differentiation of the monoblastic-like human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937 to monocytes/macrophages. Incubation of U937 cells with MS275 resulted in an up regulation of ARHGEF3, followed by a significant enhancement of the marker of macrophage differentiation CD68. ARHGEF3 protein is primarily nuclear, but MS275 treatment rapidly induced its translocation into the cytoplasm. ARHGEF3 cytoplasmic localization is associated with activation of the RhoA/Rho-associated Kinase (ROCK) pathway. In addition to cytoskeletal rearrangements orchestrated by RhoA, we showed that ARHGEF3/RhoA-dependent signals involve activation of SAPK/JNK and then Elk1 transcription factor. Importantly, MS275-induced CD68 expression was blocked by exposure of U937 cells to exoenzyme C3 transferase and Y27632, inhibitors of Rho and ROCK respectively. Moreover, ARHGEF3 silencing prevented RhoA activation leading to a reduction in SAPK/JNK phosphorylation, Elk1 activation and CD68 expression, suggesting a crucial role for ARHGEF3 in myeloid differentiation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ARHGEF3 modulates acute myeloid leukemia differentiation through activation of RhoA and pathways directly controlled by small GTPase family proteins. The finding that GEF protein modulation by HDAC inhibition impacts on cell differentiation may be important for understanding the antitumor mechanism(s) by which HDACi treatment stimulates differentiation in cancer.

  9. The Hippo Pathway Controls a Switch between Retinal Progenitor Cell Proliferation and Photoreceptor Cell Differentiation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Asaoka, Yoichi; Hata, Shoji; Namae, Misako; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The precise regulation of numbers and types of neurons through control of cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation is an essential aspect of neurogenesis. The Hippo signaling pathway has recently been identified as playing a crucial role in promoting cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation in multiple types of stem cells, including in retinal progenitor cells. When Hippo signaling is activated, the core Mst1/2 kinases activate the Lats1/2 kinases, which in turn phosphorylate and inhibit the transcriptional cofactor Yap. During mouse retinogenesis, overexpression of Yap prolongs progenitor cell proliferation, whereas inhibition of Yap decreases this proliferation and promotes retinal cell differentiation. However, to date, it remains unknown how the Hippo pathway affects the differentiation of distinct neuronal cell types such as photoreceptor cells. In this study, we investigated whether Hippo signaling regulates retinogenesis during early zebrafish development. Knockdown of zebrafish mst2 induced early embryonic defects, including altered retinal pigmentation and morphogenesis. Similar abnormal retinal phenotypes were observed in zebrafish embryos injected with a constitutively active form of yap [(yap (5SA)]. Loss of Yap’s TEAD-binding domain, two WW domains, or transcription activation domain attenuated the retinal abnormalities induced by yap (5SA), indicating that all of these domains contribute to normal retinal development. Remarkably, yap (5SA)-expressing zebrafish embryos displayed decreased expression of transcription factors such as otx5 and crx, which orchestrate photoreceptor cell differentiation by activating the expression of rhodopsin and other photoreceptor cell genes. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that Rx1 is a novel interacting partner of Yap that regulates photoreceptor cell differentiation. Our results suggest that Yap suppresses the differentiation of photoreceptor cells from retinal progenitor cells by repressing Rx1

  10. Activation of the type I interferon pathway is enhanced in response to human neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Jocelyn R; Altschaefl, Kate M; O'Shea, K Sue; Miller, David J

    2013-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of innate immunity in preventing or controlling pathogen-induced damage in most, if not all, cell types, very little is known about the activity of this essential defense system in central nervous system neurons, especially in humans. In this report we use both an established neuronal cell line model and an embryonic stem cell-based system to examine human neuronal innate immunity and responses to neurotropic alphavirus infection in cultured cells. We demonstrate that neuronal differentiation is associated with increased expression of crucial type I interferon signaling pathway components, including interferon regulatory factor-9 and an interferon receptor heterodimer subunit, which results in enhanced interferon stimulation and subsequent heightened antiviral activity and cytoprotective responses against neurotropic alphaviruses such as western equine encephalitis virus. These results identify important differentiation-dependent changes in innate immune system function that control cell-autonomous neuronal responses. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the utility of human embryonic stem cell-derived cultures as a platform to study the interactions between innate immunity, virus infection, and pathogenesis in central nervous system neurons.

  11. The miRNA Pathway Controls Rapid Changes in Activity-Dependent Synaptic Structure at the Drosophila melanogaster Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Nesler, Katherine R.; Sand, Robert I.; Symmes, Breanna A.; Pradhan, Sarala J.; Boin, Nathan G.; Laun, Anna E.; Barbee, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that long-term changes in synapse structure and function are mediated by rapid activity-dependent gene transcription and new protein synthesis. A growing amount of evidence suggests that the microRNA (miRNA) pathway plays an important role in coordinating these processes. Despite recent advances in this field, there remains a critical need to identify specific activity-regulated miRNAs as well as their key messenger RNA (mRNA) targets. To address these questions, we used the larval Drosophila melanogaster neuromuscular junction (NMJ) as a model synapse in which to identify novel miRNA-mediated mechanisms that control activity-dependent synaptic growth. First, we developed a screen to identify miRNAs differentially regulated in the larval CNS following spaced synaptic stimulation. Surprisingly, we identified five miRNAs (miRs-1, -8, -289, -314, and -958) that were significantly downregulated by activity. Neuronal misexpression of three miRNAs (miRs-8, -289, and -958) suppressed activity-dependent synaptic growth suggesting that these miRNAs control the translation of biologically relevant target mRNAs. Functional annotation cluster analysis revealed that putative targets of miRs-8 and -289 are significantly enriched in clusters involved in the control of neuronal processes including axon development, pathfinding, and growth. In support of this, miR-8 regulated the expression of a wingless 3′UTR (wg 3′ untranslated region) reporter in vitro. Wg is an important presynaptic regulatory protein required for activity-dependent axon terminal growth at the fly NMJ. In conclusion, our results are consistent with a model where key activity-regulated miRNAs are required to coordinate the expression of genes involved in activity-dependent synaptogenesis. PMID:23844193

  12. Keap1/Nrf2 pathway in the frontiers of cancer and non-cancer cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Kensler, Thomas W

    2015-08-01

    Cancer cells adapt their metabolism to their increased needs for energy and substrates for protein, lipid and nucleic acid synthesis. Nuclear erythroid factor 2-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway is usually activated in cancers and has been suggested to promote cancer cell survival mainly by inducing a large battery of cytoprotective genes. This mini review focuses on metabolic pathways, beyond cytoprotection, which can be directly or indirectly regulated by Nrf2 in cancer cells to affect their survival. The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is enhanced by Nrf2 in cancers and aids their growth. PPP has also been found to be up-regulated in non-cancer tissues and other pathways, such as de novo lipogenesis, have been found to be repressed after activation of the Nrf2 pathway. The importance of these Nrf2-regulated metabolic pathways in cancer compared with non-cancer state remains to be determined. Last but not least, the importance of context about Nrf2 and cancer is highlighted as the Nrf2 pathway may be activated in cancers but its pharmacological activators are useful in chemoprevention.

  13. Kif26b controls endothelial cell polarity through the Dishevelled/Daam1-dependent planar cell polarity–signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guillabert-Gourgues, Aude; Jaspard-Vinassa, Beatrice; Bats, Marie-Lise; Sewduth, Raj N.; Franzl, Nathalie; Peghaire, Claire; Jeanningros, Sylvie; Moreau, Catherine; Roux, Etienne; Larrieu-Lahargue, Frederic; Dufourcq, Pascale; Couffinhal, Thierry; Duplàa, Cecile

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the coordinated growth and migration of endothelial cells (ECs) toward a proangiogenic signal. The Wnt planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, through the recruitment of Dishevelled (Dvl) and Dvl-associated activator of morphogenesis (Daam1), has been proposed to regulate cell actin cytoskeleton and microtubule (MT) reorganization for oriented cell migration. Here we report that Kif26b—a kinesin—and Daam1 cooperatively regulate initiation of EC sprouting and directional migration via MT reorganization. First, we find that Kif26b is recruited within the Dvl3/Daam1 complex. Using a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay, we show that Kif26b and Daam1 depletion impairs tip cell polarization and destabilizes extended vascular processes. Kif26b depletion specifically alters EC directional migration and mislocalized MT organizing center (MTOC)/Golgi and myosin IIB cell rear enrichment. Therefore the cell fails to establish a proper front–rear polarity. Of interest, Kif26b ectopic expression rescues the siDaam1 polarization defect phenotype. Finally, we show that Kif26b functions in MT stabilization, which is indispensable for asymmetrical cell structure reorganization. These data demonstrate that Kif26b, together with Dvl3/Daam1, initiates cell polarity through the control of PCP signaling pathway–dependent activation. PMID:26792835

  14. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  15. Small RNAs, big impact: small RNA pathways in transposon control and their effect on the host stress response.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Bayly S

    2013-12-01

    Transposons are mobile genetic elements that are a major constituent of most genomes. Organisms regulate transposable element expression, transposition, and insertion site preference, mitigating the genome instability caused by uncontrolled transposition. A recent burst of research has demonstrated the critical role of small non-coding RNAs in regulating transposition in fungi, plants, and animals. While mechanistically distinct, these pathways work through a conserved paradigm. The presence of a transposon is communicated by the presence of its RNA or by its integration into specific genomic loci. These signals are then translated into small non-coding RNAs that guide epigenetic modifications and gene silencing back to the transposon. In addition to being regulated by the host, transposable elements are themselves capable of influencing host gene expression. Transposon expression is responsive to environmental signals, and many transposons are activated by various cellular stresses. TEs can confer local gene regulation by acting as enhancers and can also confer global gene regulation through their non-coding RNAs. Thus, transposable elements can act as stress-responsive regulators that control host gene expression in cis and trans.

  16. Small hepatocyte-like progenitor cells may be a Hedgehog signaling pathway-controlled subgroup of liver stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhibin; Li, Wei; Li, Chun; Yang, Yang; Li, Wang; Zhang, Liying; Sun, Shumei; Li, Junxiang; Cai, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the expression levels of components of the Hedgehog signaling pathway (HH) during the proliferation of a liver stem cell subgroup, namely small hepatocyte-like progenitor cells (SHPCs). Retrorsine-treated Fisher 344 rats underwent a partial hepatectomy (PH) to induce the proliferation of SHPCs, after which reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were performed to analyze the expression of various components of the HH in primary SHPCs at different times points post-PH. A number of components of the HH, including Indian hedgehog (IHH), patched (PTCH), smoothened and glioma-associated oncogene (GLI)1, 2 and 3, were continuously expressed and showed dynamic changes in proliferating SHPCs. In addition, the expression levels of IHH, PTCH and GLI1 were significantly different as compared with those of the control group at the same time point, and there were significant differences among the various time points in the experimental group (P<0.01). Furthermore, there was an association between the postoperative day and expression levels of HH components in the retrorsine-treated group. An immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that PTCH was also expressed at the protein level. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that the HH was continuously activated during the proliferation of SHPCs, thus indicating that SHPCs may be a subgroup of stem cells that are regulated by the HH. PMID:27703504

  17. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain. PMID:26982717

  18. PCH1 integrates circadian and light-signaling pathways to control photoperiod-responsive growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, He; Yoo, Chan Yul; Bindbeutel, Rebecca; Goldsworthy, Jessica; Tielking, Allison; Alvarez, Sophie; Naldrett, Michael J; Evans, Bradley S; Chen, Meng; Nusinow, Dmitri A

    2016-01-01

    Plants react to seasonal change in day length through altering physiology and development. Factors that function to harmonize growth with photoperiod are poorly understood. Here we characterize a new protein that associates with both circadian clock and photoreceptor components, named PHOTOPERIODIC CONTROL OF HYPOCOTYL1 (PCH1). pch1 seedlings have overly elongated hypocotyls specifically under short days while constitutive expression of PCH1 shortens hypocotyls independent of day length. PCH1 peaks at dusk, binds phytochrome B (phyB) in a red light-dependent manner, and co-localizes with phyB into photobodies. PCH1 is necessary and sufficient to promote the biogenesis of large photobodies to maintain an active phyB pool after light exposure, potentiating red-light signaling and prolonging memory of prior illumination. Manipulating PCH1 alters PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 levels and regulates light-responsive gene expression. Thus, PCH1 is a new factor that regulates photoperiod-responsive growth by integrating the clock with light perception pathways through modulating daily phyB-signaling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13292.001 PMID:26839287

  19. Immune cell-specific transcriptional profiling highlights distinct molecular pathways controlled by Tob1 upon experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Didonna, Alessandro; Cekanaviciute, Egle; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Baranzini, Sergio E.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by focal lymphocytic infiltration, demyelination and neurodegeneration. Despite the recent advances in understanding MS molecular basis, no reliable biomarkers have been identified yet to monitor disease progression. Our group has previously reported that low levels of TOB1 in CD4+ T cells are strongly associated with a higher risk of MS conversion in individuals experiencing an initial demyelinating event. Consistently, Tob1 ablation in mice exacerbates the clinical phenotype of the MS model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). To shed light on Tob1 molecular functions in the immune system, we have conducted the first cell-based transcriptomic analysis in Tob1−/− and wildtype mice upon EAE. Next-generation sequencing was employed to characterize the changes in gene expression in T and B cells at pre- and post-symptomatic EAE stages. Remarkably, we found only modest overlap among the different genetic signatures, suggesting that Tob1 may control distinct genetic programs in the different cytotypes. This hypothesis was corroborated by gene ontology and global interactome analyses, which highlighted specific cellular pathways in each cellular subset before and after EAE induction. In summary, our work pinpoints a multifaceted activity of Tob1 in both homeostasis and disease progression. PMID:27546286

  20. A novel autoregulatory loop between the Gcn2-Atf4 pathway and L-Proline metabolism controls stem cell identity

    PubMed Central

    D'Aniello, C; Fico, A; Casalino, L; Guardiola, O; Di Napoli, G; Cermola, F; De Cesare, D; Tatè, R; Cobellis, G; Patriarca, E J; Minchiotti, G

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that metabolism is implicated in the control of stem cell identity. Here, we demonstrate that embryonic stem cell (ESC) behaviour relies on a feedback loop that involves the non-essential amino acid L-Proline (L-Pro) in the modulation of the Gcn2-Eif2α-Atf4 amino acid starvation response (AAR) pathway that in turn regulates L-Pro biosynthesis. This regulatory loop generates a highly specific intrinsic shortage of L-Pro that restricts proliferation of tightly packed domed-like ESC colonies and safeguards ESC identity. Indeed, alleviation of this nutrient stress condition by exogenously provided L-Pro induces proliferation and modifies the ESC phenotypic and molecular identity towards that of mesenchymal-like, invasive pluripotent stem cells. Either pharmacological inhibition of the prolyl-tRNA synthetase by halofuginone or forced expression of Atf4 antagonises the effects of exogenous L-Pro. Our data provide unprecedented evidence that L-Pro metabolism and the nutrient stress response are functionally integrated to maintain ESC identity. PMID:25857264

  1. Effect of acetylation on antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of polysaccharides isolated from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva).

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yuyu; Duan, Liusheng; Zhou, Chunli; Ni, Yuanying; Liao, Xiaojun; Li, Quanhong; Hu, Xiaosong

    2013-10-15

    Acetylation of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva variety) polysaccharide using acetic anhydride with pyridines as catalyst under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of acetylation on a laboratory scale. Furthermore, antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of pumpkin polysaccharide and its acetylated derivatives were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Results showed that addition of pyridine as catalyst could increase the degree of substitution, whereas volume of acetic anhydride had little effect. The acetylated polysaccharides in DPPH scavenging radical activity assay, superoxide anion radical activity assay and reducing power assay exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that of unmodified polysaccharide. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by pumpkin polysaccharide and its acetylated derivatives and the derivatives presented higher protective effects. On the whole, acetylated polysaccharide showed relevant antioxidant activity both in vitro and in a cell system.

  2. Chemical constituents from Phyllanthus emblica and the cytoprotective effects on H2O2-induced PC12 cell injuries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Zhao, Lijuan; Guo, Xiaojiang; Li, Chao; Li, Haizhen; Lou, Hongxiang; Ren, Dongmei

    2016-09-01

    Two new compounds (1-2), including a bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid (1), one new diphenyl ether derivative (2), together with 23 known compounds (3-25), were isolated from the fruits of Phyllanthus emblica. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis. All the isolated compounds were screened for the DPPH scavenging effects and cytoprotective effects against H2O2 induced PC12 cells injury. Compounds 12-15 showed significant DPPH scavenging effects with the IC50 values in the range of 3.25-4.18 μM. Among these potential antioxidants, compound 14 improved the survival of PC12 cells after H2O2 exposure without showing any cytotoxicity at the tested concentrations.

  3. [Usefulness of clinical pathway for community-acquired pneumonia as both an educational and a cost-management tool--an intervention study to compare the usefulness of management with a critical pathway to historical control of conventional management].

    PubMed

    Aoshima, Masahiro; Satoh, Tadashi; Uchiyama, Noboru; Chonabayashi, Naohiko

    2002-08-01

    To delineate the usefulness of a clinical pathway for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) as an educational tool as well as a cost management tool, we conducted a prospective controlled trial including a historical control group. Consecutive CAP patients classified under Category 3 of the American Thoracic Society and admitted to our hospital were evaluated. Using the clinical pathway method, 42 patients were managed between April and December 2000 as the intervention group, and 33 patients received conventional management between April and December 1999 as a historical control. For the intervention group, the clinical pathway, which was a time-task matrix formatted with consideration for guidance for disease treatment, laboratory tests, physical examinations, oxygen saturation monitoring, ambulation, diet, education for the patient and clinical outcomes, was implemented. We determined (1) educational effect, measured using reduction of delay caused by physicians; (2) quality of clinical practice, measured using the success rate of the initial antimicrobial therapy and readmission rate; and (3) economic efficacy, measured using health care cost and length of hospital stay. The delay caused by physicians was reduced by 16% in the Intervention Group (5% vs. 21%; p = 0.045). The success rates of initial antimicrobial therapy in the two groups were similar (85.7% vs. 84.8%). In the intention-to-treat set, the median value of health care cost was reduced by yen 48,055 (yen 277,460 vs. yen 325,515; p = 0.017) and the median length of a hospital stay was shortened by 3 days (8 vs. 11 days; p = 0.0007) in the Intervention Group. In conclusion, the clinical pathway had an educational effect on physicians regarding the management of hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia as well as on the cost management.

  4. Monotherapy versus dual therapy for the initial treatment of hypertension (PATHWAY-1): a randomised double-blind controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Thomas M; Williams, Bryan; Caulfield, Mark; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Webb, David J; Mackenzie, Isla S; Salsbury, Jackie; Morant, Steve; Ford, Ian; Brown, Morris J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have suggested that more intensive initial therapy for hypertension results in better long-term blood pressure (BP) control. We test this hypothesis comparing initial monotherapy with dual therapy in the management of essential hypertension. Methods and analysis The study is a prospective, multicentre, double-blind, active-controlled trial in patients with essential hypertension. Around 50% of patients studied will be newly diagnosed and the others will be known hypertensives who previously received only monotherapy. The trial is divided into three phases as follows: Phase 1 (Week 0–Week 16): Randomised, parallel-group, masked assignation to either combination or monotherapy. Phase 2 (Week 17–Week 32): Open-label combination therapy. Phase 3 (Week 33–Week 52): Open-label combination therapy plus open-label add-on (if BP is above 140/90 mm Hg). Hierarchical primary end points are: a comparison of home BP (home systolic blood pressure (HSBP)) averaged over the duration of phase 1 and 2 in the combination versus monotherapy arms. If combination is superior in this analysis, then the averaged mean HSBP between initial monotherapy and initial combination therapy at the end of phase 2 will be compared. Secondary end points include: BP control at 1 year; the role of age, baseline renin, sodium status, plasma volume, haemodynamic compensation and peripheral resistance on BP control; validation of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence/British Hypertension Society joint guideline algorithm; safety and tolerability of combination therapy; and the impact of combination versus monotherapy on left ventricular mass and aortic pulse wave velocity. A sample size of 536 (268 in each group) will have 90% power to detect a difference in means of 4 mm Hg. Ethics and dissemination PATHWAY 1 was approved by UK ethics (REC Reference 09/H0308/132). Trial results will be published and all participating subjects will be informed of the

  5. COUP-TFII Controls Mouse Pancreatic β-Cell Mass through GLP-1-β-Catenin Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Boutant, Marie; Ramos, Oscar Henrique Pereira; Tourrel-Cuzin, Cécile; Movassat, Jamileh; Ilias, Anissa; Vallois, David; Planchais, Julien; Pégorier, Jean-Paul; Schuit, Frans; Petit, Patrice X.; Bossard, Pascale; Maedler, Kathrin; Grapin-Botton, Anne; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Background The control of the functional pancreatic β-cell mass serves the key homeostatic function of releasing the right amount of insulin to keep blood sugar in the normal range. It is not fully understood though how β-cell mass is determined. Methodology/Principal Findings Conditional chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII)-deficient mice were generated and crossed with mice expressing Cre under the control of pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (pdx1) gene promoter. Ablation of COUP-TFII in pancreas resulted in glucose intolerance. Beta-cell number was reduced at 1 day and 3 weeks postnatal. Together with a reduced number of insulin-containing cells in the ductal epithelium and normal β-cell proliferation and apoptosis, this suggests decreased β-cell differentiation in the neonatal period. By testing islets isolated from these mice and cultured β-cells with loss and gain of COUP-TFII function, we found that COUP-TFII induces the expression of the β-catenin gene and its target genes such as cyclin D1 and axin 2. Moreover, induction of these genes by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) via β-catenin was impaired in absence of COUP-TFII. The expression of two other target genes of GLP-1 signaling, GLP-1R and PDX-1 was significantly lower in mutant islets compared to control islets, possibly contributing to reduced β-cell mass. Finally, we demonstrated that COUP-TFII expression was activated by the Wnt signaling-associated transcription factor TCF7L2 (T-cell factor 7-like 2) in human islets and rat β-cells providing a feedback loop. Conclusions/Significance Our findings show that COUP-TFII is a novel component of the GLP-1 signaling cascade that increases β-cell number during the neonatal period. COUP-TFII is required for GLP-1 activation of the β-catenin-dependent pathway and its expression is under the control of TCF7L2. PMID:22292058

  6. Antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract as an anti-ulcerogenic agent

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cassia sieberiana is a savannah tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of various stomach disorders including gastric ulcer, stomach pains and indigestion. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antioxidant, gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins, secretory phospholipase A2, phytochemical and acute toxicity properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract in a bid to justify its phytotherapeutic applications in gastric ulcer. Methods Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of the roots bark extract of Cassia sieberiana were assayed. Serum secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) concentration and activity and the formation of gastric mucosal prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and I2 (PGI2) were also assessed. Comparisons between means were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Students Standard Newman-Keuls post hoc analysis to determine statistical significance. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The extract was found to possess significant ferric reducing antioxidant power and can scavenge hydroxyl radicals. The extract also possesses DPPH scavenging activity, can chelate ferrous ion and a dose-dependent protective effect against lipid peroxidation and free radical generation. Prostaglandin studies showed that the roots bark extract dose dependently increased gastric mucosal PGE2 and PGI2 levels and also decreased serum sPLA2 activity. Phytochemical analyses suggest that the roots extract contains polyhydroxyl/phenolic substances. Acute toxicity test showed no sign of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/kg body weight p.o. Conclusions C. sieberiana roots extract possesses significant antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandin properties as well as serum secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity which could be due to its content of polyhydroxy and/or phenolic substances. This may justify its use as an anti-ulcerogenic agent in traditional medicine in

  7. Involvement of the MyD88-independent pathway in controlling the intracellular fate of Burkholderia pseudomallei infection in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.

    PubMed

    Tangsudjai, S; Pudla, M; Limposuwan, K; Woods, D E; Sirisinha, S; Utaisincharoen, P

    2010-05-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium which is capable of surviving and multiplying inside macrophages. B. pseudomallei strain SRM117, a LPS mutant which lacks the O-antigenic polysaccharide moiety, is more susceptible to macrophage killing during the early phase of infection than is its parental wild type strain (1026b). In this study, it was shown that the wild type is able to induce expression of genes downstream of the MyD88-dependent (ikappabzeta, il-6 and tnf-alpha), but not of the MyD88-independent (inos, ifn-beta and irg-1), pathways in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. In contrast, LPS mutant-infected macrophages were able to express genes downstream of both pathways. To elucidate the significance of activation of the MyD88-independent pathway in B. pseudomallei-infected macrophages, the expression of TBK1, an essential protein in the MyD88-independent pathway, was silenced prior to the infection. The results showed that silencing the tbk1 expression interferes with the gene expression profile in LPS mutant-infected macrophages and allows the bacteria to replicate intracellularly, thus suggesting that the MyD88-independent pathway plays an essential role in controlling intracellular survival of the LPS mutant. Moreover, exogenous IFN-gamma upregulated gene expression downstream of the MyD88-independent pathway, and interfered with intracellular survival in both wild type and tbk1-knockdown macrophages infected with either the wild type or the LPS mutant. These results suggest that gene expression downstream of the MyD88-independent pathway is essential in regulating the intracellular fate of B. pseudomallei, and that IFN-gamma regulates gene expression through the TBK1-independent pathway.

  8. Signals controlling un-differentiated states in embryonic stem and cancer cells: role of the phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Voskas, Daniel; Ling, Ling Sunny; Woodgett, James Robert

    2014-10-01

    The capacity of embryonic stem (ES) cells to differentiate into cell lineages comprising the three germ layers makes them powerful tools for studying mammalian early embryonic development in vitro. The human body consists of approximately 210 different somatic cell types, the majority of which have limited proliferative capacity. However, both stem cells and cancer cells bypass this replicative barrier and undergo symmetric division indefinitely when cultured under defined conditions. Several signal transduction pathways play important roles in regulating stem cell development, and aberrant expression of components of these pathways is linked to cancer. Among signaling systems, the critical role of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) coupled to the Jak/STAT3 (signal transduction and activation of transcription-3) pathway in maintaining stem cell self-renewal has been extensively reviewed. This pathway additionally plays multiple roles in tumorigenesis. Likewise, the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) pathway has been determined to play an important role in both stem cell maintenance and tumor development. This pathway is often induced in cancer with frequent mutational activation of the catalytic subunit of PI3K or loss of a primary PI3K antagonist, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN). This review focusses on roles of the PI3K signal transduction pathway components, with emphasis on functions in stem cell maintenance and cancer. Since the PI3K pathway impinges on and collaborates with other signaling pathways in regulating stem cell development and/or cancer, aspects of the canonical Wnt, Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and TGF-β signaling pathways are also discussed.

  9. Signals Controlling Un-Differentiated States in Embryonic Stem and Cancer Cells: Role of the Phosphatidylinositol 3′ Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Voskas, Daniel; Ling, Ling Sunny; Woodgett, James Robert

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of embryonic stem (ES) cells to differentiate into cell lineages comprising the three germ layers makes them powerful tools for studying mammalian early embryonic development in vitro. The human body consists of approximately 210 different somatic cell types, the majority of which have limited proliferative capacity. However, both stem cells and cancer cells bypass this replicative barrier and undergo symmetric division indefinitely when cultured under defined conditions. Several signal transduction pathways play important roles in regulating stem cell development, and aberrant expression of components of these pathways is linked to cancer. Among signaling systems, the critical role of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) coupled to the Jak/STAT3 (signal transduction and activation of transcription-3) pathway in maintaining stem cell self-renewal has been extensively reviewed. This pathway additionally plays multiple roles in tumorigenesis. Likewise, the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) pathway has been determined to play an important role in both stem cell maintenance and tumor development. This pathway is often induced in cancer with frequent mutational activation of the catalytic subunit of PI3K or loss of a primary PI3K antagonist, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN). This review focusses on roles of the PI3K signal transduction pathway components, with emphasis on functions in stem cell maintenance and cancer. Since the PI3K pathway impinges on and collaborates with other signaling pathways in regulating stem cell development and/or cancer, aspects of the canonical Wnt, Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and TGF-β signaling pathways are also discussed. J. Cell. Physiol. 229: 1312–1322, 2014. PMID:24604594

  10. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors activate the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) stress response pathway and improve glucose regulation in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee-Hyung; Gao, Jiaping; Kosinski, Penelope A; Elliman, Stephen J; Hughes, Thomas E; Gromada, Jesper; Kemp, Daniel M

    2013-01-18

    The cytoprotective stress response factor HSF1 regulates the transcription of the chaperone HSP70, which exhibits anti-inflammatory effects and improves insulin sensitivity. We tested the therapeutic potential of this pathway in rodent models of diabetes using pharmacological tools. Activation of the HSF1 pathway was achieved using potent inhibitors of the upstream regulatory protein, HSP90. Treatment with AUY922, a selective HSP90 inhibitor led to robust inhibition of JNK1 phosphorylation, cytoprotection and improved insulin signaling in cells, consistent with effects observed with HSP70 treatment. Chronic dosing with HSP90 inhibitors reversed hyperglycemia in the diabetic db/db mouse model, and improved insulin sensitivity in the diet-induced obese mouse model of insulin resistance, further supporting the concept that the HSF1 pathway is a potentially viable anti-diabetes target.

  11. Effects of Resveratrol on Crosstalk between Canonical Β-Catenin/Wnt and FOXO Pathways in Coronary Artery Disease Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shanaki, Mehrnoosh; Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Meshkani, Reza; Beigy, Maani; Shirzad, Mahmoud; Pasalar, Parvin; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of resveratrol (RES) on Canonical β-catenin/Wnt and forkhead box O (FOXO) pathways in CAD patients. We performed this study on 10 metabolic syndrome patients with three-vessel CAD and 10 sex-aged matched healthy subjects. The effects of RES on β-Catenin, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR-δ) expression were evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of participants. RES could increase the MnSOD expression in CAD patients (38%, p < 0.0001). After RES treatment, the MnSOD expression of patients is still non-significantly lower than controls. In both blank and RES treatments, a significant positive correlation between β-catenin and MnSOD mRNA expressions was found in controls, whereas no correlation between these gene expressions was found in untreated PBMCs of CAD patients. However, RES could modestly improve this pathway in CAD. RES could increase the MnSOD activity in healthy and CAD subjects (p = 0.051 and p = 0.009, respectively). Furthermore, in both blank and RES treatments, the significant correlation was found between total β-catenin protein and the MnSOD activity in PBMCs of the controls but not in patients. The cross-talk between β-catenin/Wnt and FOXO pathways was impaired in PBMCs of CAD patients. RES treatment could lead to a modest increase in the MnSOD activity independent of β-catenin/FOXO pathway. Despite a modest improvement in the β-catenin/FOXO pathway after RES treatment, this pathway was not completely repaired in CAD patients. PMID:27980591

  12. IKK connects autophagy to major stress pathways.

    PubMed

    Criollo, Alfredo; Senovilla, Laura; Authier, Hélène; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Morselli, Eugenia; Vitale, Ilio; Kepp, Oliver; Tasdemir, Ezgi; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Shen, Shensi; Tailler, Maximilien; Delahaye, Nicolas; Tesniere, Antoine; De Stefano, Daniela; Younes, Aména Ben; Harper, Francis; Pierron, Gérard; Lavandero, Sergio; Zitvogel, Laurence; Israel, Alain; Baud, Véronique; Kroemer, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Cells respond to stress by activating cytoplasmic mechanisms as well as transcriptional programs that can lead to adaptation or death. Autophagy represents an important cytoprotective response that is regulated by both transcriptional and transcription-independent pathways. NFkappaB is perhaps the transcription factor most frequently activated by stress and has been ascribed with either pro- or anti-autophagic functions, depending on the cellular context. Our results demonstrate that activation of the IKK (IkappaB kinase) complex, which is critical for the stress-elicited activation of NFkappaB, is sufficient to promote autophagy independent of NFkappaB, and that IKK is required for the optimal induction of autophagy by both physiological and pharmacological autophagic triggers.

  13. Cruciferous vegetable phytochemical sulforaphane affects phase II enzyme expression and activity in rat cardiomyocytes through modulation of Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Leoncini, Emanuela; Malaguti, Marco; Angeloni, Cristina; Motori, Elisa; Fabbri, Daniele; Hrelia, Silvana

    2011-09-01

    The isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SF), abundant in Cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce antioxidant/detoxification enzymes in many cancer cell lines, but studies focused on its cytoprotective action in nontransformed cells are just at the beginning. Since we previously demonstrated that SF elicits cardioprotection through an indirect antioxidative mechanism, the aim of this study was to analyze the signaling pathways through which SF exerts its protective effects. Using cultured rat cardiomyocytes, we investigated the ability of SF to activate Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways, which are implicated in cardiac cell survival, and to increase the phosphorylation of Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its binding to the antioxidant response element. By means of specific inhibitors, we demonstrated that the Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway represents a mechanism through which SF influences both expression and activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, thioredoxin reductase, and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1, analyzed by western immunoblotting and spectrophotometric assay, respectively, and modulates Nrf2 binding and phosphorylation resulting in a cytoprotective action against oxidative damage. Results of this study confirm the importance of phase II enzymes modulation as cytoprotective mechanism and support the nutritional assumption of Cruciferous vegetables as source of nutraceutical cardioprotective agents.

  14. Inhibition of Major Virulence Pathways of Streptococcus mutans by Quercitrin and Deoxynojirimycin: A Synergistic Approach of Infection Control

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Danisuddin, Mohd; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the synergistic effect of Quercitrin and Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) together with their individual inhibitory effect against virulence pathways of Streptococcus mutans. Methodology MICs of both the compounds were determined by the microdilution method, followed by their in vitrosynergy using checkerboard and time kill assay. The nature of interaction was classified as synergistic on the basis of fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) value of ≤0.5. Furthermore, the activity of Quercitrin and DNJ was evaluated individually and in combination against various cariogenic properties of S. mutans UA159 such as acidogenesis, aciduracity, glucan production, hydrophobicity, biofilm and adherence. Moreover, expression of virulent genes in S. mutans was analysed by quantitative RT- PCR (qRT-PCR) and inhibition of F1F0-ATPase, lactate dehydrogenase and enolase was also evaluated. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate structural obliteration of biofilm. Results The in vitro synergism between Quercitrin and DNJ was observed, with a FICI of 0.313. Their MIC values were found to be 64 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml respectively. The synergistic combination consistently showed best activity against all the virulence factors as compared to Quercitrin and DNJ individually. A reduction in glucan synthesis and biofilm formation was observed at different phases of growth. The qRT-PCR revealed significant downregulation of various virulent genes. Electron micrographs depicted the obliteration of biofilm as compared to control and the activity of cariogenic enzymes was also inhibited. Conclusions The whole study reflects a prospective role of Quercitrin and DNJ in combination as a potent anticariogenic agent against S. mutans. PMID:24622055

  15. Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Stimulates Dopamine Release from PC12 Cells via Ca(2+)-Independent Phospholipase A₂ Pathways.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jihui; Maeng, Jeehye; Kim, Hwa-Jung

    2016-10-24

    The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), initially identified as a tumor- and growth-related protein, is also known as a histamine-releasing factor (HRF). TCTP is widely distributed in the neuronal systems, but its function is largely uncharacterized. Here, we report a novel function of TCTP in the neurotransmitter release from a neurosecretory, pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Treatment with recombinant TCTP (rTCTP) enhanced both basal and depolarization (50 mM KCl)-evoked [³H]dopamine release in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Interestingly, even though rTCTP induced the increase in intracellular calcium levels ([Ca(2+)]i), the rTCTP-driven effect on dopamine release was mediated by a Ca(2+)-independent pathway, as evidenced by the fact that Ca(2+)-modulating agents such as Ca(2+) chelators and a voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+)-channel blocker did not produce any changes in rTCTP-evoked dopamine release. In a study to investigate the involvement of phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) in rTCTP-induced dopamine release, the inhibitor for Ca(2+)-independent PLA₂ (iPLA₂) produced a significant inhibitory effect on rTCTP-induced dopamine release, whereas this release was not significantly inhibited by Ca(2+)-dependent cytosolic PLA₂ (cPLA₂) and secretory PLA₂ (sPLA₂) inhibitors. We found that rTCTP-induced dopamine release from neuronal PC12 cells was modulated by a Ca(2+)-independent mechanism that involved PLA₂ in the process, suggesting the regulatory role of TCTP in the neuronal functions.

  16. Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Stimulates Dopamine Release from PC12 Cells via Ca2+-Independent Phospholipase A2 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jihui; Maeng, Jeehye; Kim, Hwa-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), initially identified as a tumor- and growth-related protein, is also known as a histamine-releasing factor (HRF). TCTP is widely distributed in the neuronal systems, but its function is largely uncharacterized. Here, we report a novel function of TCTP in the neurotransmitter release from a neurosecretory, pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Treatment with recombinant TCTP (rTCTP) enhanced both basal and depolarization (50 mM KCl)-evoked [3H]dopamine release in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Interestingly, even though rTCTP induced the increase in intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+]i), the rTCTP-driven effect on dopamine release was mediated by a Ca2+-independent pathway, as evidenced by the fact that Ca2+-modulating agents such as Ca2+ chelators and a voltage-gated L-type Ca2+-channel blocker did not produce any changes in rTCTP-evoked dopamine release. In a study to investigate the involvement of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in rTCTP-induced dopamine release, the inhibitor for Ca2+-independent PLA2 (iPLA2) produced a significant inhibitory effect on rTCTP-induced dopamine release, whereas this release was not significantly inhibited by Ca2+-dependent cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) and secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) inhibitors. We found that rTCTP-induced dopamine release from neuronal PC12 cells was modulated by a Ca2+-independent mechanism that involved PLA2 in the process, suggesting the regulatory role of TCTP in the neuronal functions. PMID:27783042

  17. Oxidative damage in MauG: implications for control of high-valent iron species and radical propagation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yukl, Erik T.; Williamson, Heather R.; Higgins, LeeAnn; Davidson, Victor L.; Wilmol, Carrie M.

    2014-01-01

    The di-heme enzyme MauG catalyzes the oxidative biosynthesis of a tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) cofactor on a precursor of the enzyme methylamine dehydrogenase (preMADH). Reaction of H2O2 with the diferric form of MauG, or reaction of O2 with diferrous MauG, forms the catalytic intermediate known as bis-Fe(IV), which acts as the key oxidant during turnover. The site of substrate oxidation is over 40 A from the high-spin heme iron where H2O2 initially reacts, and catalysis relies on radical hopping through an interfacial residue, MauG Trp199. In the absence of preMADH, the bis-Fe(IV) intermediate is remarkably stable, but repeated exposure to H2O2 results in suicide inactivation. Using mass spectrometry, we show that this process involves the oxidation of three Met residues (108, 114 and 116) near the high-spin heme through ancillary electron transfer pathways engaged in the absence of substrate. The mutation of a conserved Pro107 in the distal pocket of the high-spin heme results in a dramatic increase in oxidation of these Met residues. These results illustrate structural mechanisms by which MauG controls reaction with its high-valent heme cofactor and limits uncontrolled oxidation of protein residues and loss of catalytic activity. The conservation of Met residues near the high-spin heme among MauG homologues from different organisms suggests that eventual deactivation of MauG may function in a biological context. That is, methionine oxidation may represent a protective mechanism that prevents the generation of reactive oxygen species by MauG in the absence of preMADH. PMID:24320950

  18. KynR, a Lrp/AsnC-type transcriptional regulator, directly controls the kynurenine pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Knoten, Claire A; Hudson, L Lynn; Coleman, James P; Farrow, John M; Pesci, Everett C

    2011-12-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can utilize a variety of carbon sources and produces many secondary metabolites to help survive harsh environments. P. aeruginosa is part of a small group of bacteria that use the kynurenine pathway to catabolize tryptophan