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Sample records for patient aux antecedents

  1. Antecedents of Manic versus Other First-Psychotic Episodes in 263 Bipolar-I Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Paola; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Khalsa, Hari-Mandir K.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perez, Jesus; Faedda, Gianni L.; Amore, Mario; Maggini, Carlo; Tohen, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Objective Since initial episode-type can predict later morbidity in bipolar disorder, we tested the hypothesis that clinical antecedents might predict initial episode-types. Method We studied 263 first-episode, adult, DSM-IV-TR type-I bipolar disorder (BD-I) subjects within the McLean-Harvard-International First-Episode Project. Based on blinded assessments of antecedents from SCID examinations and clinical records, we compared first-lifetime Manic vs. Other (mixed, depressive, or nonaffective) major psychotic-episodes. Results We identified 32 antecedents arising at early, intermediate or later times, starting 12.3±10.7 years prior to first-lifetime major psychotic-episodes. Based on multivariate modeling, antecedents associated significantly and independently with Other (n=113) more than Manic (n=150) first-lifetime major psychotic-episodes ranked by Odds Ratio: more early attentional disturbances, more late depression, more early perplexity, more detoxification, more early unstable-mixed affects, more antidepressants, more early dysphoria, more intermediate depression, more early impulsivity, more late anhedonia, longer early-to-intermediate intervals, more intermediate substance abuse, more family history of major depression, and younger at earliest antecedents. Antecedents selectively preceding Manic more than Other first-psychotic episodes included more late behavioral problems and more risk of familial BD-I. Conclusion Clinical antecedents in adult, BD-I patients, beginning a decade before first major-episodes and progressing through sequential stages were dissimilar in Manic versus Other first-psychotic-episodes. PMID:23837831

  2. Antecedents of Coping with the Disease in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Ali; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid; Ebadi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Due to many physical and mental disorders that occur in multiple sclerosis patients, identifying the factors affecting coping based on the experiences of patients using qualitative study is essential to improve their quality of life. This study was conducted to explore the antecedents of coping with the disease in patients with multiple sclerosis. Methods: This is a qualitative study conducted on 11 patients with multiple sclerosis in 2015 in Tehran, Iran. These patients were selected based on purposive sampling. Data were collected using semi-structured and in-depth interviews and coded. These data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis. The rigor of qualitative data using the criteria proposed by Guba and Lincoln were assessed. Results: Five main categories were revealed: (1) social support, (2) lenience, (3) reliance on faith, (4) knowledge of multiple sclerosis and modeling, and (5) economic and environmental situation. Each category had several distinct sub-categories. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that coping with multiple sclerosis is a complex, multidimensional and contextual concept that is affected by various factors in relation to the context of Iran. The findings of the study can provide the healthcare professionals with deeper recognition and understanding of these antecedents to improve successful coping in Iranian patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. PMID:28097178

  3. Antecedents to the integration process for recovery in older patients and spouses after a cardiovascular procedure.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Diane L

    2014-02-01

    Social isolation, psychological state and knowledge needs are important antecedents to the process of integration for recovery from cardiovascular (CV) procedures. The purpose of this study is to measure these antecedents at 6 and 12 weeks after CV procedures in patients (greater 65 years) and their spouses. This descriptive study enrolled 318 subjects; 87 patients/73 spouses responded. There was higher spousal anxiety at 6 weeks (4.64 ± 4.2) compared with 12 weeks (3.65 ± 3.3, t = -2.17, P < 0.032). Patients rated 10 and 7 self-care knowledge needs at 6 and 12 weeks as 'very important' with significant reductions in importance for 4 needs by 12 weeks. Spouses rated 14 and 10 knowledge needs as 'very important' at 6 and 12 weeks. There were three spouse care knowledge needs that were not met at 6 weeks. Data identified higher anxiety levels in spouses, and spouse needs that were unmet at 6 weeks after CV procedures.

  4. Antecedent life events, social supports and response to antidepressants in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, W; Peselow, E D; Barouche, F; Fieve, R R

    1996-11-01

    We evaluated 355 subjects who entered one of six double-blind placebo-controlled antidepressant drug trials with respect to the occurrence of antecedent adverse life events and their meaning to the patient. Patients were also assessed with regard to the degree of social support they received for the negative life event. The groups differed as to whether they did or did not meet the criteria for melancholic depression; 43 one-week placebo responders were statistically significantly more likely to believe that adverse life events predisposed them to depressive illness and that such life events precipitated their current depression, compared to 312 one-week placebo non-responders. Of the 312 patients who went on to the double-blind phase in which they were treated with either drug (n = 204) or placebo (n = 108), it was noted that, for both melancholic and non-melancholic patients, responders to drug treatment (but not placebo) had a more favourable ratio of social support received/social support desired than non-responders. Non-melancholic responders to both drug and placebo were statistically significantly more likely to report fewer adverse life events and have a less strong belief that adverse life events predispose one to depressive illness than non-responders. Melancholic patients did not show this trend.

  5. Clinical differences between patients with nonepileptic seizures who report antecedent sexual abuse and those who do not.

    PubMed

    Selkirk, Mhairi; Duncan, Roderick; Oto, Meritxell; Pelosi, Anthony

    2008-08-01

    To investigate clinical differences between patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) who report antecedent sexual abuse, and patients who do not. In a consecutive series of 176 patients with video-EEG confirmed PNES without epilepsy, we compared patients who reported antecedent sexual abuse with those who did not report sexual abuse, in respect of a range of demographic and clinical variables. Fifty-nine women (45%) and 5 men (11%) reported sexual abuse. Those reporting sexual abuse had earlier onset PNES (28.5 vs. 33.1 years, p = 0.0319) and greater delay from onset to diagnosis (median 5.2 vs. 3.2 years, p < 0.0137). They more often drew social security benefits (p = 0.0054) and were less often in cohabiting relationships (p = 0.0006). Those who reported sexual abuse had poorer mental health on a range of indicators. Their spells were more often "convulsive" (p = 0.0419), were more severe (p = 0.0011), were more likely to have emotional triggers (p = 0.0045) and to include prodromes (p = 0.0424) and flashbacks (p < 0.0001). A history of nocturnal spells (p = 0.0109), injury during spells (p = 0.0056), and incontinence during spells (p = 0.0083) were also more common in the patients reporting sexual abuse. Our results suggest that patients with PNES who report sexual abuse have more severe PNES, are more likely to have PNES with features that suggest epilepsy, and are psychiatrically more unwell than those who do not report sexual abuse.

  6. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Following Sinus Floor Elevation in Patient with Antecedents of Vertigo.

    PubMed

    Akcay, Huseyin; Ulu, Murat; Kelebek, Seyfi; Aladag, Ibrahim

    2016-07-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is an unfamiliar and rare complication occurring following osteotome sinus floor elevation (OSFE) and simultaneous implant placement. Etiology of this disorder is commonly displacement of otoliths by vibratory forces transmitted by osteotomes and mallet along with the hyperextension of the head during the operation, causing them to float around in the endolymph. This report presents a case of protracted BPPV following OSFE and simultaneous implant placement. A 43-year-old female suffered intense vertigo and nausea immediately after implant placement using an OSFE procedure. Upon further questioning after the procedure she gave an account of two times vertigo history within the last 9 years. Despite nootropic drug medication and canalith repositioning procedure applied by a specialist at operation night, the condition did not improve. Patient did not totally recover and was admitted again after 1 month. After repeated maneuvers, nine dosage intravenous serous fluid and piracetam administration the patient recovered. Duration of these procedures took 10 days and the patient was successfully treated with no recurrence of dizziness. Prevention and management of OSFE related BPPV are reviewed especially in patients having prior vertigo history in this report.

  7. Mortality in Medicare patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention with or without antecedent stress testing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Grace A; Lucas, F Lee; Malenka, David J; Skinner, Jonathan; Redberg, Rita F

    2013-05-01

    Guidelines advise testing for ischemia, such as with stress testing, before elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, pre-PCI stress testing is not always done; the implications of this practice are not known. Our objective was to evaluate whether receipt of stress testing before elective PCI predicts mortality. Using claims data from a 20% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, we identified patients who had elective PCI in 2004 and followed them for a median of 3.4 years (n=23 887). Cox proportional hazards models were used to test the relationship of pre-PCI stress testing to survival. Population-based rates of elective PCI and stress testing were calculated for 306 hospital referral regions and categorized into 4 groups: high stress test/high PCI, low stress test/low PCI, low stress test/high PCI, and high stress/low PCI regions. Cox modeling was used to test whether category of hospital referral regions is related to survival. Patients who underwent pre-PCI stress testing had a 13% lower risk of mortality than those who did not (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-0.92) after median follow-up of 3.4 years. Patients in low stress test/high PCI regions had a 14% higher risk of mortality than those in high stress test/high PCI regions (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.26). Pre-PCI stress testing is associated with lower mortality in patients undergoing elective PCI. Greater adherence to guidelines with respect to documenting ischemia before elective PCI may result in improved outcomes for patients.

  8. Fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves in patients with antecedent paralytic poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ghavanini, M R; Ghavanini, A A

    1998-12-01

    The diagnosis of post-polio syndrome depends not only on clinical signs, but on sophisticated laboratory tests such as histochemical muscle biopsy and immunohistochemical studies which are very expensive and not available in all laboratories. From eighty-eight previous poliomyelitis victims, muscles with grade 4 or lower strength were examined electromyographically for fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves. There were no muscles with grade III or IV fibrillation potential and positive sharp waves, 8 with grade I (3.7%) and 7 with grade II (3.2%). Fibrillation potentials were more frequent in muscles with lower grade of strength. The minimum time interval between primary insult and the time of evaluation for patients who had sign of denervation was 36 months. This was 28 months for patients who had no sign of denervation. So we can conclude that denervation beyond this time in muscles with power greater than 3/5 is highly suggestive of a new process rather than primary insult in patients with new atrophy or fatigue.

  9. Antecedent anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in two patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Baheerathan, A; Brownlee, W J; Chard, D T; Shields, K; Gregory, R; Trip, S A

    2017-02-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder characterised by psychiatric symptoms, movement disorder and seizures often evolving into a severe encephalopathy. An overlap has recently been recognised between anti-NMDAR encephalitis and inflammatory demyelinating disorders, particularly neuromyelitis optical spectrum disorder (NMOSD). In this case report, we describe two patients with an initial presentation consistent with anti-NMDAR encephalitis who have subsequently developed relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and discuss the literature pertaining to potential overlap between NMDAR encephalitis and inflammatory demyelinating disorders.

  10. [Kaposi's sarcoma and opportunistic infections in young patients without antecedents liable to involve immunodepression].

    PubMed

    1983-11-05

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is characterized by the occurrence, in a subject under 60, of Kaposi's sarcoma and/or severe opportunistic infection due to deficiency of the normal cell-mediated immune defence mechanism against the causative agents. In a number of patients, AIDS is preceded by fever, weight loss, profuse sweating, polyadenopathy or diarrhoea. In an epidemiological study conducted by a French multidisciplinary group from March to December, 1982, 25 cases were collected, including 11 cases of isolated Kaposi's sarcoma, 3 cases of Kaposi's sarcoma plus opportunistic infection, and 15 cases of single or multiple opportunistic infection. From this study and international studies, several points of interest have emerged, viz: (1) AIDS is present in France under multiple clinical aspects; (2) a focus of endemic AIDS has been discovered first in Haiti, then in Equatorial Africa; (3) the cause of AIDS is unknown, though presumed to be a virus (retrovirus?); (4) the disease is characterized by selective deficiency of T4 ("helper") lymphocytes; (5) the subjects at risk are male homosexuals, especially those with several partners, but not as much in France as in the USA; (6) none of the French patients was a drug-addict or a haemophiliac.

  11. Antecedents and precipitants of patient-related violence in the emergency department: Results from the Australian VENT Study (Violence in Emergency Nursing and Triage).

    PubMed

    Pich, Jacqueline V; Kable, Ashley; Hazelton, Mike

    2017-08-01

    Workplace violence is one of the most significant and hazardous issues faced by nurses globally. It is a potentially life-threatening and life-affecting workplace hazard often downplayed as just "part of the job" for nurses. A cross-sectional design was used and data were collected using a purpose developed survey tool. Surveys were distributed to all members of the College of Emergency Nurses' Australasia (CENA) in 2010 and 537 eligible responses were received (RR=51%). Patient-related violence was reported by 87% of nurses in the last six months. Precipitants and antecedents for episodes of violence were reported in three categories: nurse-related; patient-related and emergency-department specific factors. Triaging was identified as the highest risk nursing activity, and the triage area identified as the highest risk location in the department. Patients who presented with alcohol intoxication, substance misuse or mental health issues were identified as the groups at greatest risk for potential violence. Patient-related violence was reported by the majority of emergency nurses surveyed. A number of precipitants and antecedents perceived to be risk factors by participants were found to be significant and are unavoidable in the working lives of emergency department nurses. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Niveau socioéconomique et processus du recours aux soins par les familles de patients souffrant de troubles psychiques au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Sommer, Alain; Moulaï, Pierre; Chebili, Saïd; Abaoub-Germain, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le Burkina Faso a connu une amélioration constante depuis deux décennies de l'offre de soins en psychiatrie. De même, le taux d'alphabétisation sans cesse croissant s'accompagne d'une profonde modification des conceptions et des comportements. La présente étude visait à déterminer l′impact des déterminants socioéconomiques sur le processus du recours aux soins par les familles. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale portant sur 200 familles, menée dans le service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou. Variable à expliquer: premier recours aux soins par les familles (guérisseur traditionnel ou prières religieuses vs. consultations psychiatrique ou médicale). Variable explicative: catégorie socioprofessionnelle classée en suivant la nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles; niveau d’études. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel SAS version 9.2. Le test du Khi deux a été utilisé. Résultats Il existait une association entre le choix du premier recours et la Profession et la catégorie socioprofessionnelledu « décideur » (p = 0.0006) ainsi que leniveau d’études du « décideur » (p = 0.0001). Conclusion La Profession et Catégorie Sociale et le niveau d'instruction scolaire pourraient être un marqueur important dans les politiques visant à optimiser les processus de recours aux soins des patients dans le circuit de soins. PMID:25161751

  13. LAnse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-07-18

    LAnse aux Meadows is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960. This image is from NASA Terra satellite.

  14. Antecedent influences on behavior disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R G; Iwata, B A

    1997-01-01

    The influence of antecedent events on behavior disorders has been relatively understudied by applied behavior analysts. This lack of research may be due to a focus on consequences as determinants of behavior and a historical disagreement on a conceptual framework for describing and interpreting antecedent variables. We suggest that antecedent influences can be described using terms derived from basic behavioral principles and that their functional properties can be adequately interpreted as discriminative and establishing operations. A set of studies on assessment and treatment of behavior disorders was selected for review based on their relevance to the topic of antecedent events. These studies were categorized as focusing on assessment of antecedent events, antecedent treatments for behavior disorders maintained by either positive or negative reinforcement, and special cases of antecedent events in behavior disorders. Some directions for future research on antecedent influences in the analysis and treatment of behavior disorders are discussed. PMID:9210312

  15. Qualitative Studies: Historiographical Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rilla Dean

    This paper provides an overview of qualitative studies' antecedents among historiographers and of the positivist tide which nearly engulfed them. Humans live by interpretations. The task of social science--the basic task of qualitative studies--is to study these interpretations so that we can better understand the meanings which people use to…

  16. Qualitative Studies: Historiographical Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rilla Dean

    This paper provides an overview of qualitative studies' antecedents among historiographers and of the positivist tide which nearly engulfed them. Humans live by interpretations. The task of social science--the basic task of qualitative studies--is to study these interpretations so that we can better understand the meanings which people use to…

  17. Antecedents of Severe and Nonsevere Medication Errors

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun-Kyung; Mark, Barbara A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate if differences in antecedents of severe and nonsevere medication errors exist. Design A longitudinal study of 6 months of data from 279 nursing units in 146 randomly selected hospitals in the United States (US). Methods Antecedents of severe and nonsevere medication errors included work environment factors (work dynamics and RN hours), team factors (communication with physicians and nurses’ expertise), person factors (nurses’ education and experience), patient factors (age, health status, and previous hospitalization), and medication-related support services. Generalized estimating equations with a negative binomial distribution were used with nursing units as the unit of analysis. Findings None of the antecedents allowed predicting both types of medication errors. Nurses’ expertise had a negative and medication-related support services had a positive association with nonsevere medication errors. Nurses’ educational level had a significant nonlinear relationship with severe medication errors only: As the percentage of unit BSN-prepared nurses increased, severe medication errors decreased until the percentage of BSN-prepared nurses reached 54%. In contrast, RN experience had a statistically significant relationship with nonsevere medication errors only and nursing units with more experienced nurses reported more nonsevere medication errors. Conclusions Severe and nonsevere medication errors might have different antecedents. Clinical Relevance Error prevention and management strategies should be targeted to specific types of medication errors for best results. PMID:19335680

  18. Contrast-Enhanced Chest Computed Tomography Reveals Treatable Causes of Cerebral Abscesses in Patients without Antecedent Surgery or Trauma.

    PubMed

    Cox, Mougnyan; Patel, Manisha; Deshmukh, Sandeep; Roth, Christopher G; Flanders, Adam E

    2017-05-01

    Brain abscesses cause substantial morbidity and mortality even after appropriate therapy, and no underlying cause is found in 25% of cases. We investigated the added utility of contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) in the diagnostic work-up of patients presenting with cerebral abscesses and no history or prior trauma or cranial surgery. All patients presenting to a single institution with a surgically proven brain abscess were reviewed. Concurrent contrast-enhanced chest CT imaging results were reviewed when available to identify treatable predisposing causes of intracranial suppuration. This study included 31 patients with biopsy-proven abscesses. Multiple abscesses were present in 8 patients (26%). Contrast-enhanced CT was performed in 15 patients (48%). Of these 15 patients, 2 had pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, 1 had an intrapulmonary shunt, and 3 had empyemas. Definitive therapy for the chest findings was provided to 6 of the 15 patients (40%). In the remaining 9 patients, 3 had pulmonary abscesses, for which diagnostic aspiration was requested. Another patient had an incidental pulmonary embolism, resulting in same-day placement of an inferior vena caval filter (not included in chest analysis, given that the finding was incidental). Contrast-enhanced chest CT is useful for identifying treatable causes of cerebral abscesses in patients with a cerebral abscess and no history of surgery or trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Antecedents of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Altemeier, W A; O'Connor, S; Vietze, P M; Sandler, H M; Sherrod, K B

    1982-05-01

    The qualities of parents who batter their children have been determined by interviewing known abusers. Because most studies lack controls and because family characteristics may be changed by abuse, a prospective study was instituted. Fourteen hundred low-income mothers were interviewed in a prenatal clinic, and the characteristics of 23 reported for abuse within two years were compared to the characteristics of the remaining mothers. The predominant antecedents of child abuse were: unwanted pregnancy, aggressive tendencies, and aberrant childhood nurture in which disturbed family relationships were more important than outright abuse. Abusive mother had slightly less self-esteem. Factors which increased exposure between parents and children seemed to increase risk for abuse. In contrast to retrospective findings, abusive mothers did not differ in support available from others, age, education, isolation, family alcohol or drug problems, and expectations of child development.

  20. Antecedents of teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Klein, L

    1978-12-01

    Antecedent factors operative in the causation of adolescent pregnancy include: The sexuality of contemporary society, especially the media. Prolongation of educational any vocational preparation in industrialized western society. Normal physical maturation at an early age. Peer and social pressure. Low expectations of life among minority and economically poor individuals. The conspiracy of silence surrounding sexuality and the inability of society to admit and deal realistically with the sexual activity of adolescents. Failure to provide sex education, clarification of values, family-life education, preparation for parenthood, and knowledge of birth-control and family-planning services targeted to teenagers, including adolescent males. Psychological and emotional problems. Failure to provide available and accessible early pregnancy-detection services with adequate counseling and support services. Failure to provide abortion services. Failure to provide supportive services to adolescents who have a child in order to prevent repeated pregnancy. Pregnancy, childbearing, and motherhood represent ultimate feminine fulfillment to many in our society, and unless attainable expectations and desirable alternatives are available, adolescents will continue to see little reason to postpone pregnancy and childbearing.

  1. Antecedents and Consequences of Envy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Geir; Glasø, Lars; Martinsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual attributes and envy, and to determine how envy may impact personal response variables in the workplace. To address these issues we apply Vecchio's theory on antecedents and consequences of envy (1995) as a theoretical framework. The present study relied on a cross-sectional measurement design. A total of 135 leaders and 772 followers employed in business organizations participated. SEM analysis shows that span of supervision serves as an important antecedent of envy, where span of supervision is significantly associated to envy via supportive leadership. Furthermore, envy seems to be indirectly and negatively related to self-esteem via distress and directly related to social loafing. The implications of these findings are discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  2. Antecedents of Medical Workplace Violence in South China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Wenzhi; Deng, Ling; Liu, Meng; Yu, Min

    2011-01-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to explore antecedents of workplace violence in south China. The authors conducted face-to-face, in-depth, semistructured interviews with 30 hospital staff who had experienced at least one incident of workplace violence from patients during…

  3. Antecedents of Medical Workplace Violence in South China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Wenzhi; Deng, Ling; Liu, Meng; Yu, Min

    2011-01-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to explore antecedents of workplace violence in south China. The authors conducted face-to-face, in-depth, semistructured interviews with 30 hospital staff who had experienced at least one incident of workplace violence from patients during…

  4. Antecedents and Consequences of Words

    PubMed Central

    Catania, A. Charles

    2006-01-01

    As instances of behavior, words interact with environments. But they also interact with each other and with other kinds of behavior. Because of the interlocking nature of the contingencies into which words enter, their behavioral properties may become increasingly removed from nonverbal contingencies, and their relationship to those contingencies may become distorted by the social contingencies that maintain verbal behavior. Verbal behavior is an exceedingly efficient way in which one organism can change the behavior of another. All other functions of verbal behavior derive from this most basic function, sometimes called verbal governance. Functional verbal antecedents in verbal governance may be extended across time and space when individuals replicate the verbal behavior of others or their own verbal behavior. Differential contact with different verbal antecedents may follow from differential attention to verbal stimuli correlated with consequential events. Once in place, verbal behavior can be shaped by (usually social) consequences. Because these four verbal processes (verbal governance, replication, differential attention, and verbal shaping) share common stimulus and response terms, they produce interlocking contingencies in which extensive classes of behavior come to be dominated by verbal antecedents. Very different consequences follow from verbal behavior depending on whether it is anchored to environmental events, as in scientific verbal practices, or becomes independent of it, as in religious fundamentalism. PMID:22477347

  5. Aircraft Maintenance Organizational Structure Changes: An Antecedent Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE CHANGES: AN ANTECEDENT MODEL ...ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE CHANGES: AN ANTECEDENT MODEL THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate School of...AN ANTECEDENT MODEL Jeffrey M. Durand, BS Captain, USAF Approved

  6. Antecedents and Consequences of Work Engagement Among Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Sayfouri, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Engaged nurses have high levels of energy and are enthusiastic about their work which impacts quality of health care services. However, in the context of Iran, due to observed burnout, work engagement among nurses necessitates immediate exploration. Objectives: This investigation aimed to identify a suitable work engagement model in nursing profession in hospitals according to the hypothesized model and to determine antecedents and consequences related to work engagement among nurses. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was given to 279 randomly-selected nurses working in two general teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran) to measure antecedents and consequences of work engagement using the Saks’s (2005) model. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the model fitness. Results: Two paths were added using LISREL software. The resulting model showed good fitness indices (χ2 = 23.62, AGFI = 0.93, CFI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.07) and all the coefficients of the paths were significant (t ≥ 2, t ≤ -2). A significant correlation was found between work engagement and model variables. Conclusions: Paying adequate attention to the antecedents of work engagement can enhance the quality of performance among nurses. Additionally, rewards, organizational and supervisory supports, and job characteristics should be taken into consideration to establish work engagement among nurses. Further researches are required to identify other probable antecedents and consequences of nursing work engagement, which might be related to specific cultural settings. PMID:25763212

  7. Parental antecedents of adult codependency.

    PubMed

    Crothers, M; Warren, L W

    1996-03-01

    Two aspects of codependency were investigated among 442 undergraduates. First, parental antecedents were examined by subjects completing measures of codependency, perceived parental dysfunctions (compulsivity, chemical dependency, and codependency), and parental styles (coercion, control, and non-nurturance). As expected, correlations between adult codependency and parental coercion, control, non-nurturance, and maternal compulsivity were significant. However, correlations between codependency and parental chemical dependency were not significant. A multiple regression analysis identified parental codependency and maternal coercion as significant predictors of subject codependency. To examine the second aspect of codependency, which assumes that codependency was identified over 40 years ago by Karen Horney, subjects completed a loss of self measure which correlated highly with codependency.

  8. Lifetime antecedents of cognitive reserve.

    PubMed

    Richards, Marcus; Sacker, Amanda

    2003-08-01

    We used path analysis on data from the British 1946 birth cohort to model lifetime antecedents of cognitive reserve, represented by the NART at 53 years, and compared this model for verbal memory and psychomotor function at this age, cognitive outcomes that are sensitive to age-associated decline. We showed independent paths from childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupation to cognitive reserve, with that from childhood cognition the strongest, and that from adult occupation the weakest. A similar pattern was found for the verbal memory and psychomotor outcomes, although the pathways were weaker than those to the NART. The pattern was also mirrored by the paths from paternal occupation to childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupation, with that to childhood cognition the strongest, and that to adult occupation the weakest. The direct influence of paternal occupation on cognitive reserve was negligible, and almost entirely mediated by childhood cognitive ability and educational attainment.

  9. Combination antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel: the role of antecedent and concomitant doses of aspirin. An analysis of 711 patients.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, Victor L; Malinin, Alex I; Atar, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Numerous randomized studies have shown that the combination of clopidogrel with aspirin yields better clinical outcomes than monotherapy in patients with acute vascular events. However, the impact of the aspirin dose on the antiplatelet potency of clopidogrel is unclear. We sought to compare the antiplatelet profile of aspirin 81 mg (n = 252) versus aspirin 325 mg (n = 459) before and during conventional clopidogrel loading (300 mg), and/or clopidogrel maintenance (75 mg/daily) therapy. Secondary post hoc analysis of an existing dataset consisting of 711 patients after coronary stenting (n = 601) and ischemic stroke (n = 110) treated previously with aspirin for at least 1 month, and then with aspirin + clopidogrel for at least 7 days was performed. Platelet assessments include conventional and whole blood aggregometry, rapid cartridge-based analyzers, and expression of platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, and GPIIb/IIIa activity by flow cytometry measured before and after addition of clopidogrel. There was a small but consistent yet non-significant trend towards more potent platelet inhibition with aspirin 325 mg compared to aspirin 81 mg for every platelet activation parameter before addition of clopidogrel. However, after loading and/or 1 week of chronic treatment with clopidogrel + aspirin, measured platelet parameters became very similar between the groups, and identical for collagen-induced aggregation and PFA-100 analyzer readings. Before addition of clopidogrel, aspirin 325 mg has a tendency to provide stronger platelet inhibition than aspirin 81 mg. However, when clopidogrel and aspirin are used in combination, the higher aspirin dose does not translate into superior antiplatelet action. Given that the existing body of evidence supports the comparable efficacy and, particularly, superior safety of lower versus higher doses of aspirin, aspirin 81 mg should be the dose used in combination with clopidogrel. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  11. Coreference and Antecedent Representation across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lago, Sol; Sloggett, Shayne; Schlueter, Zoe; Chow, Wing Yee; Williams, Alexander; Lau, Ellen; Phillips, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that speakers of languages such as German, Spanish, and French reactivate the syntactic gender of the antecedent of a pronoun to license gender agreement. As syntactic gender is assumed to be stored in the lexicon, this has motivated the claim that pronouns in these languages reactivate the lexical entry of their…

  12. Differential Antecedents of Infidelity in Marriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, James D.; Lederer, Doris A.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated antecedents of marital infidelity for individuals (N=59) involved with coworkers or others. Data suggested that persons involved with coworkers had more satisfying marriages and scored higher on the Compatibility Index than those involved with others. The number of liaisons was not correlated with age or age at marriage. (JAC)

  13. Non-Syntactic Antecedents and Frame Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensler, Orin

    A polemic is made for frame semantics and the linguistic phenomenon of anaphoric reference without noun phrase (NP) antecedent is examined within this frame. Non-syntactic anaphora is that which does not point out into the real world but rather points back into the discourse in a frame which has been built up between the speaker and hearer in a…

  14. Work Family Relations: Antecedents and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated interrelations between conflict and facilitation in work and family domains, with spousal, managerial, and collegial social support serving as antecedents, and professional vigor and burnout as outcomes. Participants were 322 female, married teachers. Regression analyses revealed complex relations between conflict and…

  15. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  16. Childhood Depression: Theories, Antecedents and Supportive Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Laura L.

    Early detection and measurement of the intensity of childhood depression are important concerns for those treating depressed children. To examine issues of childhood depression, a review of the research was conducted which focused on: (1) childhood depression scales and their effectiveness; (2) correlates and antecedents of childhood depression;…

  17. Early Antecedents to Students' Expected Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garger, John; Thomas, Michael; Jacques, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to confirm the predictive validity of several antecedents to students' early perceptions of future performance in collegiate courses. Design/methodology/approach: A non-experimental design was used to test a proposed model based on a review of relevant literature. Students completed surveys capturing the…

  18. Some Historical Antecedents of Humanistic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Antecedents of humanistic education appear to be economic affluence and technological advancement. Historically, this phenomena occurred in classical Greece; the Renaissance; the agricultural and industrial revolutions in England; the Romantic period; the revolutions in the consciousness created by Marx, Freud, and the existentialists; and the…

  19. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  20. Antecedents and Consequences of Situational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A.; Messersmith, Emily E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. Aim: The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI; (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes; and (3) SI as a mediator of…

  1. Antecedents and Consequences of Adolescent Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene

    Antecedents and consequences of adolescent parenting were examined using a representative national sample of 1,000 adults, selected from the 1960 Project TALENT participants. Three- to four-hour interviews were conducted with these adults. Out of the total group, 10% of the men and 31% of the women had had a child during adolescence. Higher…

  2. Antecedents and Consequences of Situational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A.; Messersmith, Emily E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. Aim: The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI; (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes; and (3) SI as a mediator of…

  3. Antecedents of medical workplace violence in South China.

    PubMed

    Wenzhi Cai; Ling Deng; Meng Liu; Min Yu

    2011-01-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to explore antecedents of workplace violence in south China. The authors conducted face-to-face, in-depth, semistructured interviews with 30 hospital staff who had experienced at least one incident of workplace violence from patients during the past 12 months at three general hospitals in south China. The interviews were tape-recorded, then transcribed, and analyzed. The authors' analyses identified five major antecedents of workplace violence. First, 93.0% of medical workplace violence was related to insufficient communication between hospital staff and patients. Second, inadequate medical service quality was found to be a factor in 56.7% of the incidences. Third, unsatisfactory treatment outcome was reported in 60.0%. Fourth, heavy workload accounted for 43.3%. Fifth, patient frustration due to high medical expenses was reported in 40.0% of cases. The authors recommended a reengineering of hospital service delivery to create a more supportive and safer working environment for prevention of workplace violence.

  4. A model of psychosocial and cultural antecedents of blood pressure control.

    PubMed Central

    Bosworth, Hayden B.; Oddone, Eugene Z.

    2002-01-01

    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for stroke, congestive heart failure, and end-stage renal disease. Hypertension is particularly prevalent and deadly among African Americans. Effective treatment for hypertension has been available for decades, yet only one fourth of all individuals have their blood pressure under control. Despite the potential impact of hypertension, interventions to improve control have had limited success. We present a model of how to understand antecedents of blood pressure control according to three interrelated categories: patient characteristics, social and cultural environment, and medical environment. This theoretical paper was conducted using a literature review and a model to explain psychosocial antecedents of blood pressure control is presented. We conclude that improved understanding of important antecedents of blood pressure control coupled with technological advances, such as tailored interventions, provide clinicians with a tool that may lead to improved blood pressure control. These interventions will require the involvement of clinicians and consideration of sociocultural factors to be successful. PMID:11991336

  5. L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    L'Anse aux Meadows is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegians Helge and Anne Ingstad. The only authenticated Viking settlement in North America outside Greenland, it was the site of a multi-year archaeological dig that found dwellings, tools and implements that verified its time frame. The settlement, dating more than five hundred years before Christopher Columbus, contains the earliest European structures in North America. Named a World Heritage site by UNESCO, it is thought by many to be the semi-legendary 'Vinland' settlement of explorer Leif Ericson around AD 1000. The settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows consisted of at least eight buildings, including a forge and smelter, and a lumber yard that supported a shipyard. The largest house measured 28.8 by 15.6 m and consisted of several rooms. Sewing and knitting tools found at the site indicate women were present at L'Anse aux Meadows

    The image was acquired on September 14, 2007, covers an area of 14.2 x 14.6 km, and is located at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 55.6 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Substrate-dependent Aux cluster: A new insight into Aux/CeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kong-Jie; Yang, Yan-Ju; Lang, Jia-Jian; Teng, Bo-Tao; Wu, Feng-Min; Du, Shi-Yu; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-01

    To theoretically study the structures of metal clusters on oxides is very important and becomes one of the most challenging works in computational heterogeneous catalysis since many factors affect their structures and lead to various possibilities. In this work, it is very interesting to find that the stable structures and stability evolution of Aux clusters on ceria are varied with different index surfaces of CeO2. The corresponding reasons in chemical, geometric and electronic properties are systematically explored. Aux (x = 1-4) clusters prefer to separately disperse at the O-O bridge sites on CeO2(100) due to the low coordination number of surface O; while aggregate due to the strong Au-Au attractions when x is larger than 4. Owing to the uniform distribution of O-O bridge sites on CeO2(111) and (100), the most stable configurations of Aux are 3D structures with bottom atoms more than top ones when x is larger than 4. However, 2D configurations of Aux/CeO2(110) (x < 10) are more stable than the corresponding 3D structures due to the particular O-O arrangement on CeO2(110). 3D Aux clusters across O-O-Y lines are suggested as the most stable configurations for Aux/CeO2(110) (x ≥ 10). The present work gives a detailed example for the theoretical study of metal clusters on oxide, and will shed light into the design for controllable synthesis of ceria-based catalysts with metal nanoparticles supported on CeO2.

  7. Characterisation of aggression in Huntington's disease: rates, types and antecedents in an inpatient rehabilitation setting.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anahita; Sewell, Katherine; Fisher, Caroline A

    2017-10-01

    To systematically review aggression in an inpatient Huntington's cohort examining rates, types and antecedents. Although the prevalence of aggression in Huntington's disease is high, research into this problematic behaviour has been limited. Few studies have investigated the nature of aggressive behaviour in Huntington's disease or antecedents that contribute to its occurrence. A systematic, double-coded, electronic medical file audit. The electronic hospital medical records of 10 people with Huntington's disease admitted to a brain disorders unit were audited for a 90-day period using the Overt Aggression Scale-Modified for Neurorehabilitation framework, yielding 900 days of clinical data. Nine of 10 clients exhibited aggression during the audit period. Both verbal (37·1%) aggression and physical aggression were common (33·8%), along with episodes of mixed verbal and physical aggression (15·2%), while aggression to objects/furniture was less prevalent (5·5%). The most common antecedent was physical guidance with personal care, far exceeding any other documented antecedents, and acting as the most common trigger for four of the nine clients who exhibited aggression. For the remaining five clients, there was intraindividual heterogeneity in susceptibility to specific antecedents. In Huntington's sufferers at mid- to late stages following disease onset, particular care should be made with personal care assistance due to the propensity for these procedures to elicit an episode of aggression. However, given the degree of intraindividual heterogeneity in susceptibility to specific antecedents observed in the present study, individualised behaviour support plans and sensory modulation interventions may be the most useful in identifying triggers and managing aggressive episodes. Rates of aggression in Huntington's disease inpatients can be high. Knowledge of potential triggers, such as personal care, is important for nursing and care staff, so that attempts can be

  8. Testicular cancer and antecedent diseases.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, A J; Huttly, S R; Smith, P G

    1987-01-01

    A case-control study of the aetiology of testicular cancer was conducted using information obtained by interview and from case-notes of 259 cases with testicular cancer and two sets of control patients -238 men with diagnoses other than testicular cancer attending the same radiotherapy centres as those attended by the cases, and 251 hospital in-patients not attending radiotherapy departments. Logistic regression analyses were performed, after stratifying by age and region of residence, to estimate the relative risks (RRs) associated with various aspects of prior medical history. The risk of testicular cancer was found to be raised for men with a history of cryptorchidism (RR based on comparison with all controls = 6.3; P less than 0.001), inguinal hernia (RR = 1.6; P = 0.14), mumps orchitis (RR = 12.7; P = 0.006), atopy (RR = 1.8; P = 0.03), and meningitis (RR = 3.0; P = 0.21). Inguinal herniorrhaphy before the age of 15 years was particularly a risk factor for seminoma, whereas the relative risks were similar for seminoma and teratoma for the other factors. The results add to the growing evidence that congenital abnormalities involving the process of testicular descent and closure of the processus vaginalis are risk factors for testicular cancer, and that some types of testicular damage later in life may also be important. The findings of associations with previous atopy and certain infections suggest a possible second aetiological mechanism - that immunological abnormalities may be associated with an increased risk of testis cancer.

  9. The immediate antecedents of myocardial infarction in active men

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, T.; Shephard, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The antecedents of myocardial infarction have been reviewed in 102 patients (117 episodes) undergoing a program of rehabilitation. The year prior to the first attack was characterized by business and social problems, with some weight gain; in the week before the attach there was added tiredness, poor general health and, in some cases, increasing anginal pain. Heavy lifting and/or unusual exercise were common immediately before or during an attack; five attacks were related to the shovelling of wet snow. Both bed and the normal place of work were uncommon sites for an attack. More than 50% of patients had 30 minutes' warning of infarction. The relevance of these findings to a safe program of therapeutic exercise is discussed. PMID:4717086

  10. A prospective study of acute idiopathic neuropathy. II. Antecedent events.

    PubMed

    Winer, J B; Hughes, R A; Anderson, M J; Jones, D M; Kangro, H; Watkins, R P

    1988-05-01

    The incidence of antecedent events and serological evidence of preceding infection were studied in 100 patients with acute idiopathic neuropathy and age and sex matched control subjects in South-East England. Symptoms of respiratory infections occurred within one month before onset of neuropathic symptoms in 38% of patients and 12% of controls (p less than 0.001) and symptoms of gastrointestinal infections in 17% of patients and 3% of controls (p less than 0.005). Immunisations, insect bites and animal contact were equally common in the patient and control subjects. Eight per cent of patients had undergone an operation within the preceding 3 months. Six per cent of patients had co-existing "autoimmune" diseases. Serological evidence of recent infection was identified in 31% of patients. Campylobacter jejuni (14%) and cytomegalovirus (11%) were both significantly more frequently demonstrated in patients than controls. Serological evidence of recent infection with mycoplasma (1%), Epstein Barr virus (1-2%) and parvovirus B19 (4%) was also identified in the patients but not more frequently than in the controls. Possible explanations for the association of these agents with acute idiopathic neuropathy include possession of antigens shared with myelin and inhibition of suppressor mechanisms.

  11. Collaborateurs aux lignes directrices en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Kraut, Roni; Crawshay, Aven; Korownyk, Christina; Vandermeer, Ben; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices, les variables associées aux différences de participation des collaborateurs et si oui ou non les lignes directrices en soins primaires fournissent un énoncé sur les conflits d’intérêts. Type d’étude Analyse rétrospective des lignes directrices en soins primaires affichées sur le site web de l’Association médicale canadienne. Deux extracteurs de données indépendants ont examiné les lignes directrices et ont extrait les données pertinentes. Contexte Canada Principaux paramètres à l’étude Commanditaires des lignes directrices, territoire (national ou provincial) visé par les lignes directrices, profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices et énoncés de conflits d’intérêts rapportés dans les lignes directrices. Résultats Sur les 296 lignes directrices de pratique clinique trouvées dans la section de la médecine familiale de l’Infobanque AMC, 65 apparaissaient en double et 35 se rapportaient de façon limitée à la médecine familiale. Vingt ne fournissaient aucune information sur les collaborateurs scientifiques, ce qui laissait 176 lignes directrices propices à l’analyse. Au total, il y avait 2495 collaborateurs (auteurs et membres de comité) : 1343 (53,8 %) spécialistes autres que des médecins de famille, 423 (17,0 %) médecins de famille, 141 (5,7 %) infirmières, 75 (3,0 %) pharmaciens, 269 (10,8 %) autres cliniciens, 203 (8,1 %) scientifiques non cliniciens et 41 (1,6 %) collaborateurs de profession inconnue. La proportion des collaborateurs de ces professions différait significativement entre les lignes directrices nationales et provinciales, de même qu’entre les lignes directrices financées par l’industrie et celles qui ne l’étaient pas (p < 0,001 dans les 2 cas). Dans le cas des lignes directrices de pratique clinique provinciales, 30,8 % des collaborateurs étaient des médecins de

  12. Maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les facteurs de risque, la prise en charge et la prévention des maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques en pratique familiale. Sources des données Des articles originaux et de synthèse entre janvier 1998 et février 2012 ont été identifiés à l’aide de PubMed et des expressions de recherche en anglais water-related illness, recreational water illness et swimmer illness. Message principal Il y a un risque de 3 % à 8 % de maladies gastrointestinales (MGI) après la baignade. Les groupes à risque élevé de MGI sont les enfants de moins de 5 ans, surtout s’ils n’ont pas été vaccinés contre le rotavirus, les personnes âgées et les patients immunodéficients. Les enfants sont à plus grand risque parce qu’ils avalent plus d’eau quand ils nagent, restent dans l’eau plus longtemps et jouent dans l’eau peu profonde et le sable qui sont plus contaminés. Les adeptes des sports dans lesquels le contact avec l’eau est abondant comme le triathlon et le surf cerf-volant sont aussi à risque élevé et même ceux qui s’adonnent à des activités impliquant un contact partiel avec l’eau comme la navigation de plaisance et la pêche ont un risque de 40 % à 50 % fois plus grand de MGI par rapport à ceux qui ne pratiquent pas de sports aquatiques. Il y a lieu de faire une culture des selles quand on soupçonne une maladie reliée aux loisirs aquatiques et l’échelle clinique de la déshydratation est utile pour l’évaluation des besoins de traitement chez les enfants affectés. Conclusion Les maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques est la principale cause de MGI durant la saison des baignades. La reconnaissance que la baignade est une source importante de maladies peut aider à prévenir les cas récurrents et secondaires. On recommande fortement le vaccin contre le rotavirus chez les enfants qui se baignent souvent.

  13. Motivational antecedents of incident reporting: evidence from a survey of nurses and physicians.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Briner, Matthias; Wehner, Theo; Manser, Tanja

    2013-11-12

    Underreporting is a major issue when using incident reporting systems to improve safety in hospitals. Based on a psychological framework, this study investigated the motivational antecedents of the willingness to report into incident reporting systems in healthcare. Individual, organisational and system-related influences on the willingness to report incidents were investigated in a survey of physicians and nurses from five Swiss hospitals. The motivational antecedents were tested using structural equation modelling. The sample consisted of 818 respondents, 546 nurses and 230 physicians; the response rate was 32%. The willingness to report was assessed by using a self-report scale, validated with the self-reported number of reported incidents during the previous year. The most important influence on the willingness to report was the transparency of the incident reporting system procedures to potential users, such as. knowing how and what kind of events to report. At the individual level, the perceived effectiveness of reporting was a relevant antecedent. At the organisational level, management support positively influenced the willingness to report. Different antecedents were found to be relevant for nurses and physicians. Implications are discussed that open up alternatives for the design and implementation of incident reporting systems in healthcare. For example, the results of the study point to opportunities for making incident reporting systems more transparent and participatory and to allow for experience of how they actually improve patient safety.

  14. Classification of antecedents towards safety use of health information technology: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Lizawati; Ismail, Zuraini

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides a systematic review of safety use of health information technology (IT). The first objective is to identify the antecedents towards safety use of health IT by conducting systematic literature review (SLR). The second objective is to classify the identified antecedents based on the work system in Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model and an extension of DeLone and McLean (D&M) information system (IS) success model. A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted from peer-reviewed scholarly publications between January 2000 and July 2014. SLR was carried out and reported based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. The related articles were identified by searching the articles published in Science Direct, Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases. Data extracted from the resultant studies included are to be analysed based on the work system in Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model, and also from the extended DeLone and McLean (D&M) information system (IS) success model. 55 articles delineated to be antecedents that influenced the safety use of health IT were included for review. Antecedents were identified and then classified into five key categories. The categories are (1) person, (2) technology, (3) tasks, (4) organization, and (5) environment. Specifically, person is attributed by competence while technology is associated to system quality, information quality, and service quality. Tasks are attributed by task-related stressor. Organisation is related to training, organisation resources, and teamwork. Lastly, environment is attributed by physical layout, and noise. This review provides evidence that the antecedents for safety use of health IT originated from both social and technical aspects. However, inappropriate health IT usage potentially increases the incidence of errors and produces new safety risks. The review cautions future

  15. Examining External and Internal Poverty as Antecedents of Teen Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tamera; Turner, Jean; Denny, George; Young, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify antecedents of teen pregnancy. Methods: Data from the National Education Longitudinal Study were analyzed. This data set allowed us to identify eighth-grade antecedents of teen pregnancy/childbearing. Results: The variables that were found to be most predictive of later pregnancy were reflective of internal poverty (locus…

  16. Exploring the Relevant Antecedents of Superintendent Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Understanding antecedents to superintendent leadership development is crucial for the continued improvement of schools. This qualitative study seeks to identify skills superintendents consider critical to their position, antecedents that developed those skills, and provide an increased understanding of the methods needed for developing current and…

  17. Examining External and Internal Poverty as Antecedents of Teen Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tamera; Turner, Jean; Denny, George; Young, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify antecedents of teen pregnancy. Methods: Data from the National Education Longitudinal Study were analyzed. This data set allowed us to identify eighth-grade antecedents of teen pregnancy/childbearing. Results: The variables that were found to be most predictive of later pregnancy were reflective of internal poverty (locus…

  18. Exploring the Relevant Antecedents of Superintendent Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Understanding antecedents to superintendent leadership development is crucial for the continued improvement of schools. This qualitative study seeks to identify skills superintendents consider critical to their position, antecedents that developed those skills, and provide an increased understanding of the methods needed for developing current and…

  19. Antecedents of Low Vocational Identity in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterowd, Carrie L.; Krieshok, Thomas S.

    This study examined antecedents related to low vocational identity in college freshmen. College students (N=360) completed the 35-item Low Vocational Identity Antecedents Scale (LVIAS) developed for this study, the Vocational Identity Scale (VIS), and other measures. Based on results from this sample, a 15-item LVIAS was developed that…

  20. Wh-filler-gap dependency formation guides reflexive antecedent search

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Michael; Ackerman, Lauren; Baumann, Peter; Potter, David; Yoshida, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies on online sentence processing have shown that the parser can resolve non-local dependencies rapidly and accurately. This study investigates the interaction between the processing of two such non-local dependencies: wh-filler-gap dependencies (WhFGD) and reflexive-antecedent dependencies. We show that reflexive-antecedent dependency resolution is sensitive to the presence of a WhFGD, and argue that the filler-gap dependency established by WhFGD resolution is selected online as the antecedent of a reflexive dependency. We investigate the processing of constructions like (1), where two NPs might be possible antecedents for the reflexive, namely which cowgirl and Mary. Even though Mary is linearly closer to the reflexive, the only grammatically licit antecedent for the reflexive is the more distant wh-NP, which cowgirl. (1). Which cowgirl did Mary expect to have injured herself due to negligence? Four eye-tracking text-reading experiments were conducted on examples like (1), differing in whether the embedded clause was non-finite (1 and 3) or finite (2 and 4), and in whether the tail of the wh-dependency intervened between the reflexive and its closest overt antecedent (1 and 2) or the wh-dependency was associated with a position earlier in the sentence (3 and 4). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicate the parser accesses the result of WhFGD formation during reflexive antecedent search. The resolution of a wh-dependency alters the representation that reflexive antecedent search operates over, allowing the grammatical but linearly distant antecedent to be accessed rapidly. In the absence of a long-distance WhFGD (Experiments 3 and 4), wh-NPs were not found to impact reading times of the reflexive, indicating that the parser's ability to select distant wh-NPs as reflexive antecedents crucially involves syntactic structure. PMID:26500579

  1. Hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia arising from myelodysplastic syndrome: similar outcomes in patients with de novo disease and disease following prior therapy or antecedent hematologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chunkang; Storer, Barry E; Scott, Bart L; Bryant, Eileen M; Shulman, Howard M; Flowers, Mary E; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Witherspoon, Robert P; Nash, Richard A; Sanders, Jean E; Bedalov, Antonio; Hansen, John A; Clurman, Bruce E; Storb, Rainer; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Deeg, H Joachim

    2007-08-15

    We analyzed outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in 257 patients, 3 to 72.7 years old (median, 43 y), with secondary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) including those with transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (tAML). Conditioning regimens included high-dose total-body irradiation (TBI)/chemotherapy (n = 83); busulfan (BU)/cyclophosphamide (CY) (BUCY, n = 122; with BU targeting [tBUCY], n = 93); fludarabine (Flu) with tBU (FLUtBU; n = 12); Flu plus 200 cGy TBI (n = 26); and miscellaneous regimens (n = 14). Donors were HLA-identical or partially mismatched family members in 135 and unrelated individuals in 122 patients. Five-year relapse-free survival was highest (43%) and nonrelapse mortality lowest (28%) among tBUCY-conditioned patients. Outcomes were compared with results in 339 patients who received transplants for de novo MDS/tAML, and a multivariate analysis failed to show significant differences in outcome between the 2 cohorts. Relapse probability and relapse-free survival correlated significantly with disease stage (P < .001) and karyotype (P < .001). Relapse incidence was lower (P = .003) and relapse-free survival superior (P = .02) with unrelated donor transplants. The data suggest that overall inferior outcome in patients with secondary MDS/tAML was related to the frequency of high-risk cytogenetics. For both cohorts, transplantation outcomes improved over the time interval studied.

  2. Hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia arising from myelodysplastic syndrome: similar outcomes in patients with de novo disease and disease following prior therapy or antecedent hematologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chang, ChunKang; Storer, Barry E.; Scott, Bart L.; Bryant, Eileen M.; Shulman, Howard M.; Flowers, Mary E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Witherspoon, Robert P.; Nash, Richard A.; Sanders, Jean E.; Bedalov, Antonio; Hansen, John A.; Clurman, Bruce E.; Storb, Rainer; Appelbaum, Frederick R.

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in 257 patients, 3 to 72.7 years old (median, 43 y), with secondary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) including those with transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (tAML). Conditioning regimens included high-dose total-body irradiation (TBI)/chemotherapy (n = 83); busulfan (BU)/cyclophosphamide (CY) (BUCY, n = 122; with BU targeting [tBUCY], n = 93); fludarabine (Flu) with tBU (FLUtBU; n = 12); Flu plus 200 cGy TBI (n = 26); and miscellaneous regimens (n = 14). Donors were HLA-identical or partially mismatched family members in 135 and unrelated individuals in 122 patients. Five-year relapse-free survival was highest (43%) and nonrelapse mortality lowest (28%) among tBUCY-conditioned patients. Outcomes were compared with results in 339 patients who received transplants for de novo MDS/tAML, and a multivariate analysis failed to show significant differences in outcome between the 2 cohorts. Relapse probability and relapse-free survival correlated significantly with disease stage (P < .001) and karyotype (P < .001). Relapse incidence was lower (P = .003) and relapse-free survival superior (P = .02) with unrelated donor transplants. The data suggest that overall inferior outcome in patients with secondary MDS/tAML was related to the frequency of high-risk cytogenetics. For both cohorts, transplantation outcomes improved over the time interval studied. PMID:17488876

  3. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  4. The antecedents and implications of interracial anxiety.

    PubMed

    Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G

    2003-06-01

    Drawing on previous theorizing from both the prejudice and social anxiety literatures, a model of the antecedents and implications of intergroup anxiety is offered. It is argued that a lack of positive previous experiences with outgroup members creates negative expectancies about interracial interactions, which result in intergroup anxiety. This anxiety is posited to result in heightened hostility toward outgroup members and a desire to avoid interacting with outgroup members. Study 1 examined White participants' responses to interacting with Black people using a range of self-report measures; the associations between these responses supported the relationships outlined in the model. Study 2 explored White participants' responses to an anticipated interaction with a Black person or a White person. The findings revealed that high levels of anxiety about an interaction with a Black person, but not a White person, were associated with a lower likelihood of returning for the interaction.

  5. Developmental antecedents of borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Helgeland, Margareth I; Torgersen, Svenn

    2004-01-01

    Developmental antecedents of borderline personality disorders (BPDs) were examined in 25 DSM-IV-diagnosed subjects with BPD and 107 non-borderline control subjects on the basis of medical records and 28 years follow-up. Abuse, neglect, environmental instability, paternal psychopathology, and lower score on protective factors differentiated significantly between the groups. Environmental instability and lower score on protective factors such as artistic talents, superior school performance, above average intellectual skills, and talents in other areas were found to be independent predictors of BPD diagnosis. The results of this study suggest that both abuse and neglect, unpredictable and unstable early environment, as well as deficit in protective factors may substantially contribute to the development of BPD in persons constitutionally predisposed for the disorder. The results of the study also suggest that future research should address the impact of social and cultural context, as well as the absence of protective factors, on the development of the BPD.

  6. Antecedents and Consequences of Situational Interest

    PubMed Central

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A.; Messersmith, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. Aims The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI, (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes, and (3) SI as a mediator of classroom practices to academic outcomes. Sample Participants were 126 male and female adolescents (mean age = 14.6 years) who took part in a science course during a 3-week residential summer program for talented adolescents. Method Participants completed self-report measures prior to the start of the summer program and at the end of the program. Summer program instructors completed ratings of students’ engagement during the program. Results Multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the three study aims. After controlling for initial individual interest, perceived choice, instructor approachability, and course connections to real life were statistically significant predictors of SI during the summer program, with varying relations observed based on the form of SI (triggered, maintained-feeling, maintained-value). SI was positively related to individual interest and perceived competence in science at the end of the program as well as teacher-rated engagement; SI also mediated the relations of classroom practices to these outcomes. Conclusion Results suggest that classroom practices shape SI. In turn, SI supports motivation and engagement. Moreover, differentiated antecedents and outcomes of the three subcomponents of SI were identified, highlighting the utility of this three-component approach for studying SI. PMID:24175684

  7. Antecedents and consequences of situational interest.

    PubMed

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A; Messersmith, Emily E

    2013-12-01

    There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI; (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes; and (3) SI as a mediator of classroom practices to academic outcomes. Participants were 126 male and female adolescents (mean age = 14.6 years) who took part in a science course during a 3-week residential summer programme for talented adolescents. Participants completed self-report measures prior to the start of the summer programme and at the end of the programme. Summer programme instructors completed ratings of students' engagement during the programme. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the three study aims. After controlling for initial individual interest, perceived choice, instructor approachability, and course connections to real life were statistically significant predictors of SI during the summer programme, with varying associations observed based on the form of SI (triggered, maintained-feeling, and maintained-value). SI was positively related to individual interest and perceived competence in science at the end of the programme as well as teacher-rated engagement; SI also mediated the associations of classroom practices with these outcomes. Results suggest that classroom practices shape SI. In turn, SI supports motivation and engagement. Moreover, differentiated antecedents and outcomes of the three sub-components of SI were identified, highlighting the utility of this three-component approach for studying SI. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Toward more effective antecedent strategies for environmental programs

    SciTech Connect

    Ester, P.; Winett, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Antecedent strategies such as information and prompts when used to promote proenvironmental practices, i.e., energy and water conservation, recycling and litter control, use of mass transit or energy saving driving behaviors, are generally believed to be ineffective, particularly in comparison to consequence strategies such as feedback and use of various rewards. A review of forty-one representative studies in behavioral, environmental research indicated that when attention is given to such factors as specificity, proximity, convenience of the behavior, and salience that antecedent strategies can be effective, albeit still considerably less effective than consequence strategies. However, far more striking in the review was the poor design of antecedent strategies, the use primarily of the written medium alone, and the generally singular presentation of the intervention. The development of more effective antecedent strategies is important from a policy perspective since they are generally less expensive to implement than consequence strategies, or may be combined with consequence strategies to optimize outcome. Incorporating concepts and practices from communications and social diffusion theories, as well as more fully exploiting behavioral modeling were discussed as bases for developing more effective antecedent strategies. Examples of media-based and local, personal contact approaches are given to illustrate the potential of more effective antecedent strategies.

  9. Work environment antecedents of bullying: A review and integrative model applied to registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Trépanier, Sarah-Geneviève; Fernet, Claude; Austin, Stéphanie; Boudrias, Valérie

    2016-03-01

    This review paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge on work environment antecedents of workplace bullying and proposes an integrative model of bullying applied to registered nurses. A literature search was conducted on the databases PsycInfo, ProQuest, and CINAHL. Included in this review were empirical studies pertaining to work-related antecedents of workplace bullying in nurses. A total of 12 articles were maintained in the review. An examination of these articles highlights four main categories of work-related antecedents of workplace bullying: job characteristics, quality of interpersonal relationships, leadership styles, and organizational culture. A conceptual model depicting the interplay between these factors in relation to bullying is also presented. Suggestions regarding other factors to incorporate within the model (e.g., individual factors, outcomes of bullying) are provided to increase our understanding of bullying in registered nurses. This paper hopes to guide future efforts in order to effectively prevent and/or address this problem and ultimately ensure patient safety and quality of care provided by health care organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The antecedents and prevention of unwanted pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, M; McCann, L; Geis, B D

    1983-01-01

    Much of the research on the antecedents and consequences of birth control has focused on teenagers and members of racial minority groups, but the trends in contraceptive use indicate that the danger of unwanted pregnancy exists for most women throughout the childbearing ages of 14-45, for white and middle class women as well as minority women and women from the lower socioeconomic status levels. There are basically 4 choices open to the unmarried woman who conceives: giving the child up for adoption, keeping the child without marrying, and marriage. There are little data on the mental health consequences of giving a child up for adoption, but there is no question that the experience at the very least upsetting and may cause longterm trauma. Induced abortion is less traumatic, both physically and psychologically, than carrying a pregnancy to term, however, many women suffer from longterm depression following the procedure. The social, economic, and psychological consequences of single motherhood are clearly documented for both teenagers and older women. The most frequently cited problems are delayed or truncated emotional and social activities, unemployment, and role overload resulting from the responsibility of caring for a child without the support of a spouse. The pregnant teenager who does marry has a 50% probability of divorce within 4 years, and even if the couple does stay married they suffer some adverse consequences. In 1978 Zelnick and Kantner estimated that it would be possible to reduce the number of premarital pregnancies and presumably their psychological and economic consequences by at least 40% if all sexually active young women were to use a contraceptive method and to use it consistently. If the majority of all sexually active women were to use the most reliable methods of contraception, the unwanted pregnancy rate would be reduced even more markedly. Yet, reliable contraceptive behavior involves a complex sequence of psychological and behavioral

  11. Survivor identity after colorectal cancer: antecedents, prevalence and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Baade, Peter; Meng, Xingqiong; Youl, Pip; Aitken, Joanne; Dunn, Jeff

    2012-09-01

    Cancer survivor identity has become a dominant paradigm in describing people with cancer and in driving the focus of programmes and research in supportive care. This study investigated antecedents of survivor identity adoption and population-based prevalence. A prospective survey of a population-based sample of 1966 (57% response) patients with colorectal cancer assessed socio-demographic variables, health behaviours, optimism, benefit finding, cancer threat appraisal, psychological distress and satisfaction with life at 5 months post-diagnosis as predictors of survivor identity 5 years subsequently. Prevalence of survivor identity at 5 years post-diagnosis and psychological and lifestyle outcomes (n = 786) were later assessed. Fifty-five per cent of people identified as a cancer survivor, 39.4% as a person who had had (or has) cancer, 1.4% as a cancer patient and 1.2% as a cancer victim. People who were older and who reported higher personal growth after diagnosis were more likely to assume a survivor identity at 5 years. At 5 years, survivors had higher benefit finding and better satisfaction with life. Cancer survivors uniquely reported a significant decrease in somatization and acceptance, and increases in satisfaction with life and physical activity over time. For patients with colorectal cancer, the cancer survivor identity is common but not universal 5 years after diagnosis; and may evolve from looking for benefit after cancer through personal growth. People who adopt a cancer survivor identity report more positive adjustment outcomes after cancer and this has implications for the design of clinical and community support interventions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Developmental antecedents of partner abuse: a prospective-longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Magdol, L; Moffitt, T E; Caspi, A; Silva, P A

    1998-08-01

    Prospective measures of risk factors for partner abuse were obtained from a large birth cohort in 4 domains: socioeconomic resources, family relations, educational achievements, and problem behaviors. Partner abuse outcomes were measured at age 21. Results showed that antecedents of abuse included risk factors from all 4 domains. Risk factors were similar for men and women. Some age 3 antecedents were significant, but the strongest correlations were from age 15. In multivariate analyses, the most consistent predictor was the presence of early problem behaviors. In a cross-validation tests, abuse was moderately predictable by the same antecedents, whether the outcome measure was self-report or reports from partners of sample members. Findings suggest that theories of partner abuse should account for developmental influences from multiple life domains and that primary prevention of partner abuse should begin in adolescence.

  13. Antecedent reactivation by surface and deep anaphora in Norwegian

    PubMed Central

    HESTVIK, ARILD; NORDBY, HELGE; KARLSEN, GEIR

    2005-01-01

    Anaphora are expressions in language that depend on other linguistic entities for their full meaning. They can furthermore be divided into two types according to the level of representation where they find their antecedents: Surface anaphora, which resolve their reference at the sentence representation level, and deep anaphora, which resolve their reference at the non-grammatical level of discourse representation. The linguistic theory of these two anaphor types, and recent findings about processing differences at these two levels, combine to predict that surface anaphora should show fast and immediate reactivation of their antecedents, whereas deep anaphora should have a slower time course of antecedent reaccess. These predictions were confirmed with two lexical decision task experiments with Norwegian stimuli. PMID:15842413

  14. Examining external and internal poverty as antecedents of teen pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Young, Tamera; Turner, Jean; Denny, George; Young, Michael

    2004-01-01

    To identify antecedents of teen pregnancy. Data from the National Education Longitudinal Study were analyzed. This data set allowed us to identify eighth-grade antecedents of teen pregnancy/childbearing. The variables that were found to be most predictive of later pregnancy were reflective of internal poverty (locus of control, subject's educational expectations, and confidence in graduating from high school) and external poverty (parents' highest education). Prevention programs must begin before the eighth grade, instill an internal locus of control, promote academic achievement by enriching children's perception of personal life options for which an education is needed, empower children and their familial models, and prevent internal poverty.

  15. L'intérêt de l'accoutumance aux antituberculeux majeurs

    PubMed Central

    Aniked, Sarra; Bakouh, Ouiam; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    Les réactions d’ hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux sont relativement rares et graves par leur caractère imprévisible, elles conduisent généralement à l'arrêt ou au changement thérapeutique. Nous rapportons un cas d'hypersensibilité à trois antibacillaires majeurs (Isoniazide, Pyrazinamide, Ethombutol). Une accoutumance orale à ces trois médicaments a été réalisée permettant à la patiente de bénéficier d'un traitement antibacillaire optimal. PMID:25821550

  16. AUX: a scripting language for auditory signal processing and software packages for psychoacoustic experiments and education.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bomjun J

    2012-06-01

    This article introduces AUX (AUditory syntaX), a scripting syntax specifically designed to describe auditory signals and processing, to the members of the behavioral research community. The syntax is based on descriptive function names and intuitive operators suitable for researchers and students without substantial training in programming, who wish to generate and examine sound signals using a written script. In this article, the essence of AUX is discussed and practical examples of AUX scripts specifying various signals are illustrated. Additionally, two accompanying Windows-based programs and development libraries are described. AUX Viewer is a program that generates, visualizes, and plays sounds specified in AUX. AUX Viewer can also be used for class demonstrations or presentations. Another program, Psycon, allows a wide range of sound signals to be used as stimuli in common psychophysical testing paradigms, such as the adaptive procedure, the method of constant stimuli, and the method of adjustment. AUX Library is also provided, so that researchers can develop their own programs utilizing AUX. The philosophical basis of AUX is to separate signal generation from the user interface needed for experiments. AUX scripts are portable and reusable; they can be shared by other researchers, regardless of differences in actual AUX-based programs, and reused for future experiments. In short, the use of AUX can be potentially beneficial to all members of the research community-both those with programming backgrounds and those without.

  17. Modeling Antecedents of Student Loyalty in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perin, Marcelo Gattermann; Sampaio, Claudio Hoffmann; Simoes, Claudia; de Polvora, Rosiane Polvora

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to understand the antecedents of student loyalty in the Brazilian context. In particular we address the impact of student trust, commitment and quality perception on loyalty. A quantitative study was conducted among business management student majors from two private Brazilian Higher Education Institutions…

  18. Contextual Antecedents of Informal Feedback in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Rijt, Janine; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study brings together findings from different research angles on informal feedback in the workplace. We explore the individual and joint influences of three contextual antecedents of seeking feedback: support for learning, psychological safety, and work pressure. Based on our survey of 138 employees from various organizations, hierarchical…

  19. Developmental Trajectories and Antecedents of Distal Parental Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Groups of adolescents were identified on the basis of developmental trajectories of their families' rules and their parents' knowledge of their activities. Characteristics of the adolescent, peer antisociality, and family context were tested as antecedents. In sum, 404 parent-adolescent dyads provided data for adolescents aged 10-16. Most…

  20. Modeling Antecedents of Student Loyalty in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perin, Marcelo Gattermann; Sampaio, Claudio Hoffmann; Simoes, Claudia; de Polvora, Rosiane Polvora

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to understand the antecedents of student loyalty in the Brazilian context. In particular we address the impact of student trust, commitment and quality perception on loyalty. A quantitative study was conducted among business management student majors from two private Brazilian Higher Education Institutions…

  1. Constructing an integrated model of the antecedents of adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dawn; Abraham, Charles

    2004-09-01

    Reviews have called for integrative, theoretically informed models of the 'hundreds of associations' (Miller & Slap, 1989, p. 131) between psychosocial measures and adolescent smoking (e. g. Tyas & Pederson, 1998). Such a model was tested. A prospective, classroom-based survey measuring previously identified correlates of smoking allowed comparison of the strength of relationships between antecedents and smoking status six months later. The prospective sample included 225 13 to 14-year-olds. Measures of behaviour-specific cognitions derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)-as well as personality, self-esteem, parental support and parental control, sociodemographic factors, and descriptive norms-were included. Relationships between antecedents were explored using path analyses. High initial rates of smoking were observed. Of the variance in smoking six months later, 56% was explained by seven direct predictors: intention, perceived ease of smoking, estimated number of friends smoking, percentage of older brothers smoking, self-esteem, extraversion and car access. Results emphasize the importance of behaviour-specific cognitions specified by the TPB but suggest that other factors, including extraversion and self-esteem, need to be included in models of the antecedents of smoking. The findings also imply that some antecedents, such as parental support, may indirectly influence adolescent smoking through their effect on other variables.

  2. Student Trust and Its Antecedents in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Amit K.; Whipple, Thomas W.; Bryan, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    Based on the belief that long-term marketing costs for colleges can be reduced by focusing on building trust, studied the antecedents to trust in students and alumni. Data collected from 250 students and alumni indicated that strategic plans that improve perceived sincerity, expertise, and congeniality of a college can be successfully used to…

  3. Competition Between Antecedent and Between Subsequent Stimuli in Causal Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcediano, Francisco; Matute, Helena; Escobar, Martha; Miller, Ralph R.

    2005-01-01

    In the analysis of stimulus competition in causal judgment, 4 variables have been frequently confounded with respect to the conditions necessary for stimuli to compete: causal status of the competing stimuli (causes vs. effects), temporal order of the competing stimuli (antecedent vs. subsequent) relative to the noncompeting stimulus,…

  4. The Antecedents of the Market Orientation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasmer, D. J.; Bruner, Gordon C. II

    1999-01-01

    Examines three antecedents of the market orientation for colleges and universities facing declines in enrollments and downsizing: (1) institution size (student enrollment); (2) source of funding (public/private); and (3) institutional innovativeness. Of the three, innovativeness was found to play the largest role. Discusses implications for…

  5. Positive Antecedent and Consequent Components in Child Compliance Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dannell Speights; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe; Bellipanni, Kimberly D.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of positive antecedent (effective instruction delivery and time-in) and consequent components (contingent praise) on the compliance of 4 children in a clinic setting. Results suggest that the use of effective instruction delivery alone increased compliance above baseline levels for the 4 children and that the…

  6. Environmental Stress and Biobehavioral Antecedents of Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, David S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of research on the biobehavioral antecedents of coronary heart disease, including stressful occupational settings characterized by high demands and little control over the job, and the Type A pattern, particularly hostility and mode of anger expression (anger-in). Discusses research on physiologic responsiveness (reactivity)…

  7. Young Children's Social Information Processing: Family Antecedents and Behavioral Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runions, Kevin C.; Keating, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    Little research has examined whether social information processing (SIP) measures from early childhood predict externalizing problems beyond the shared association with familial risk markers. In the present study, family antecedents and first-grade externalizing behaviors were studied in relation to preschool and 1st-grade SIP using data from…

  8. Workplace Incivility: Worker and Organizational Antecedents and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, James E., II; Bartlett, Michelle E.; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Unresolved workplace conflicts represent the largest reducible costs to an organization (Keenan & Newton, 1985). As incivility increases (Buhler, 2003; Pearson, Andersson, & Wegner, 2001; Pearson & Porath, 2005) more research is being conducted (Tepper, Duffy, Henle, & Lambert, 2006; Vickers, 2006). This review examined antecedents (variables that…

  9. The Family Antecedents and the Subsequent Outcomes of Early Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arim, Rubab G.; Tramonte, Lucia; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Dahinten, V. Susan; Willms, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine both the family antecedents and the outcomes of early puberty, with a particular focus on factors related to family socioeconomic status (SES). The study employed a comprehensive measurement of pubertal development and longitudinal data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth.…

  10. Further Evaluation of Antecedent Social Events during Functional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, David E.; Hardesty, Samantha L.; Luczynski, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The value of a reinforcer may change based on antecedent events, specifically the behavior of others (Bruzek & Thompson, 2007). In the current study, we examined the effects of manipulating the behavior of the therapist on problem behavior while all dimensions of reinforcement were held constant. Both participants' levels of problem behaviors…

  11. Antecedents of Young Women's Sexual Risk Taking in Tourist Experiences.

    PubMed

    Berdychevsky, Liza

    2015-11-17

    The purpose of this phenomenological exploration was to shed light on the constellation of factors anteceding young women's sexual risk taking during their tourist experiences. A total of 15 in-depth interviews (1.5 to 2.5 hours each) with 13 women were conducted and analyzed through the lens of transcendental phenomenology. An analysis of antecedent factors revealed a confluence of sociopersonal characteristics (e.g., sexual definitions, attitudes, double standards, and age) and touristic attributes (e.g., the sense of temporariness/ephemerality, anonymity, and fun-oriented mentality depending on length, destination, and type of tourist experience) that underlie women's proclivity for and perceptions of sexual risk taking in certain travel scenarios. These result in myriad effects on physical, sexual health, sociocultural, mental, and emotional aspects of women's health and well-being. While the sociopersonal antecedents highlight the cross-pollination between sex-related perceptions in everyday life and touristic environments, the touristic antecedents emphasize the uniqueness of tourist experiences as the contexts for sexual risk taking. The findings address an underresearched topic in sex and tourism scholarship and offer implications for health education and intervention programs, pointing to the value of constructing the context-specific and gender-sensitive sexual health messages underpinned by the ideas of women's empowerment and sexual agency.

  12. Childhood Antecedents to Adult Coronary Artery Diseases. Special Reference Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the childhood antecedents to atherosclerosis and hypertension. While diet is related to the development of coronary artery diseases, there is some disagreement about what dietary changes are necessary or desirable in children to prevent their development, and at what age such changes should be made. Fifty-five…

  13. The Family Antecedents and the Subsequent Outcomes of Early Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arim, Rubab G.; Tramonte, Lucia; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Dahinten, V. Susan; Willms, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine both the family antecedents and the outcomes of early puberty, with a particular focus on factors related to family socioeconomic status (SES). The study employed a comprehensive measurement of pubertal development and longitudinal data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth.…

  14. Teachers' Perceptions of Administrative Support and Antecedents of Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elizabeth Morgan; Williams, Sue W.; Gleason-Gomez, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the degree to which teachers' age, perceptions of fair pay, receipt of employer-sponsored health insurance, and administrative support, as operationalized by the Competing Values Framework, predicted antecedents of turnover. Teachers' thoughts of leaving their current job and commitment to a center…

  15. Environmental Stress and Biobehavioral Antecedents of Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, David S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of research on the biobehavioral antecedents of coronary heart disease, including stressful occupational settings characterized by high demands and little control over the job, and the Type A pattern, particularly hostility and mode of anger expression (anger-in). Discusses research on physiologic responsiveness (reactivity)…

  16. Student Trust and Its Antecedents in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Amit K.; Whipple, Thomas W.; Bryan, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    Based on the belief that long-term marketing costs for colleges can be reduced by focusing on building trust, studied the antecedents to trust in students and alumni. Data collected from 250 students and alumni indicated that strategic plans that improve perceived sincerity, expertise, and congeniality of a college can be successfully used to…

  17. Forgiveness as a Psychological Antecedent of Perceived Parental Nurturance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, John R; And Others

    While forgiveness has long been a crucial concept in the churches' formulations for the establishment and the preservation of spiritual, social, and emotional health, consideration of forgiveness by psychology pales in comparison. Research is needed to identify the psychological factors in mothers and fathers which serve as antecedents of the…

  18. Antecedents of Intent to Change Careers among Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, Sally A.; Bernath, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the antecedents of intent to change careers among psychologists. Specifically, the research examined the importance of the following predictor variables: a multi-dimensional model of career commitment (career planning, career resilience, and career identity), job satisfaction, and conscientiousness. A…

  19. Teachers' Perceptions of Administrative Support and Antecedents of Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elizabeth Morgan; Williams, Sue W.; Gleason-Gomez, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the degree to which teachers' age, perceptions of fair pay, receipt of employer-sponsored health insurance, and administrative support, as operationalized by the Competing Values Framework, predicted antecedents of turnover. Teachers' thoughts of leaving their current job and commitment to a center…

  20. Information Theory for Information Science: Antecedents, Philosophy, and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losee, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an historical overview of the theoretical antecedents leading to information theory, specifically those useful for understanding and teaching information science and systems. Information may be discussed in a philosophical manner and at the same time be measureable. This notion of information can thus be the subject of…

  1. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia without evidence of antecedent viral upper respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Cristina Moran; Janvier, Jack; Zhang, Kunyan; Fonseca, Kevin; Gregson, Dan; Church, Deirdre; Laupland, Kevin; Rabin, Harvey; Elsayed, Sameer; Conly, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: USA300 community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains causing necrotizing pneumonia have been reported in association with antecedent viral upper respiratory tract infections (URI). METHODS: A case series of necrotizing pneumonia presenting as a primary or coprimary infection, secondary to CA-MRSA without evidence of antecedent viral URI, is presented. Cases were identified through the infectious diseases consultation service records. Clinical and radiographic data were collected by chart review and electronic records. MRSA strains were isolated from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, pleural fluid or blood cultures and confirmed using standard laboratory procedures. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing, agr typing and multilocus sequence typing. Testing for respiratory viruses was performed by appropriate serological testing of banked sera, or nucleic acid testing of nasopharyngeal or bronchoalveloar lavage specimens. RESULTS: Ten patients who presented or copresented with CA necrotizing pneumonia secondary to CA-MRSA from April 2004 to October 2011 were identified. The median length of stay was 22.5 days. Mortality was 20.0%. Classical risk factors for CA-MRSA were identified in seven of 10 (70.0%) cases. Chest tube placement occurred in seven of 10 patients with empyema. None of the patients had historical evidence of antecedent URI. In eight of 10 patients, serological or nucleic acid testing testing revealed no evidence of acute viral coinfection. Eight strains were CMRSA-10 (USA300). The remaining two strains were a USA300 genetically related strain and a USA1100 strain. CONCLUSION: Pneumonia secondary to CA-MRSA can occur in the absence of an antecedent URI. Infections due to CA-MRSA are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Clinicians need to have an awareness of this clinical entity, particularly in patients who are in risk

  2. The comparative efficacy of antecedent exercise and methylphenidate: a single-case randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, J M; Allison, D B

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the comparative efficacy of antecedent exercise, methylphenidate (Ritalin), and placebo in the reduction of hyperactive behaviour in a pre-school boy. A single-case alternating treatments experimental design was employed for a total of 82 days. The dependent variable was the Conners' Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire. Antecedent exercise failed to reduce hyperactive behaviour. Methylphenidate produced significantly less hyperactive behaviour than both placebo and antecedent exercise (P = 0.0238). Neither methylphenidate nor antecedent exercise produced notable side-effects as measured by the Monitoring of Side-Effects Scale. These data add to a sparse literature on the effects of antecedent exercise and methylphenidate amongst pre-school children.

  3. Antecedent nonbladder syndromes in case-control study of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Warren, John W; Howard, Fred M; Cross, Raymond K; Good, Janine L; Weissman, Myrna M; Wesselmann, Ursula; Langenberg, Patricia; Greenberg, Patty; Clauw, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    Probing for clues to the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), we sought antecedent nonbladder syndromes that distinguished incident IC/PBS cases from matched controls. Female incident IC/PBS cases were recruited nationally, and their IC/PBS onset date (index date) was established. The controls were recruited by national random digit dialing and matched to the cases by sex, age, region, and interval between the (assigned) index date and interview. The prevalence of 24 nonbladder syndromes before the index date was assessed, 7 by multiple methods. The cases with IC/PBS had greater antecedent prevalence of 11 syndromes, and 243 of 313 cases (78%) vs 145 of 313 controls (45%) had multiple syndromes (P < .001). Fibromyalgia-chronic widespread pain (FM-CWP), chronic fatigue syndrome, sicca syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome were associated with each other by pairwise and factor analyses using numerous assumptions. Cases with FM-CWP, chronic fatigue syndrome, sicca syndrome, and/or irritable bowel syndrome (n = 141, 45%) were more likely to have other syndromes (ie, migraine, chronic pelvic pain, depression, and allergy). Three other syndrome clusters were identified; each was associated with this FM-CWP cluster. Eleven antecedent syndromes were more often diagnosed in those with IC/PBS, and most syndromes appeared in clusters. The most prominent cluster comprised FM-CWP, chronic fatigue syndrome, sicca syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome; most of the other syndromes and identified clusters were associated with it. Among the hypotheses generated was that some patients with IC/PBS have a systemic syndrome and not one confined to the bladder.

  4. Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work.

    PubMed

    Parker, Sharon K; Williams, Helen M; Turner, Nick

    2006-05-01

    Using a sample of U.K. wire makers (N = 282), the authors tested a model in which personality and work environment antecedents affect proactive work behavior via cognitive-motivational mechanisms. Self-reported proactive work behaviors (proactive idea implementation and proactive problem solving) were validated against rater assessments for a subsample (n = 60) of wire makers. With the exception of supportive supervision, each antecedent was important, albeit through different processes. Proactive personality was significantly associated with proactive work behavior via role breadth self-efficacy and flexible role orientation, job autonomy was also linked to proactive behavior via these processes, as well as directly; and coworker trust was associated with proactive behavior via flexible role orientation. In further support of the model, the cognitive-motivational processes for proactive work behavior differed from those for the more passive outcome of generalized compliance.

  5. Further evaluation of antecedent social events during functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, David E; Hardesty, Samantha L; Luczynski, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The value of a reinforcer may change based on antecedent events, specifically the behavior of others (Bruzek & Thompson, 2007). In the current study, we examined the effects of manipulating the behavior of the therapist on problem behavior while all dimensions of reinforcement were held constant. Both participants' levels of problem behaviors increased as a function of the altered behavior of the therapist without direct manipulation of states of satiation or deprivation.

  6. Sequence stratigraphy of the Aux Vases Sandstone: A major oil producer in the Illinois basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leetaru, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Aux Vases Sandstone (Mississippian) has contributed between 10 and 25% of all the oil produced in Illinois. The Aux Vases is not only an important oil reservoir but is also an important source of groundwater, quarrying stone, and fluorspar. Using sequence stratigraphy, a more accurate stratigraphic interpretation of this economically important formation can be discerned and thereby enable more effective exploration for the resources contained therein. Previous studies have assumed that the underlying Spar Mountain, Karnak, and Joppa formations interfingered with the Aux Vases, as did the overlying Renault Limestone. This study demonstrates that these formations instead are separated by sequence boundaries; therefore, they are not genetically related to each other. A result of this sequence stratigraphic approach is the identification of incised valleys, paleotopography, and potential new hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Spar Mountain and Aux Vases. In eastern Illinois, the Aux Vases is bounded by sequence boundaries with 20 ft (6 m) of relief. The Aux Vases oil reservoir facies was deposited as a tidally influenced siliciclastic wedge that prograded over underlying carbonate-rich sediments. The Aux Vases sedimentary succession consists of offshore sediment overlain by intertidal and supratidal sediments. Low-permeability shales and carbonates typically surround the Aux Vases reservoir sandstone and thereby form numerous bypassed compartments from which additional oil can be recovered. The potential for new significant oil fields within the Aux Vases is great, as is the potential for undrained reservoir compartments within existing Aux Vases fields.

  7. The antecedents of buyers' perceived justice in online markets.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shun-Po; Chou, Huey-Wen; Chiu, Chao-Min

    2013-07-01

    The success of a business largely depends upon customers' intentions to continue to purchase, but this can be a challenge for vendors in online markets. This study proposes a model which identifies an initial set of justice antecedents and evaluates their relation to perceived justice, trust, and repurchase intention in online markets. The theoretical model is tested by using structural equation modeling on a data set of 424 buyers in Yahoo! Kimo online auction market. The results demonstrate that three dimensions of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) are positively and significantly related to trust, which in turn affects buyers' intention to repurchase. Moreover, among the three dimensions of justice judgments, distributive justice and interactional justice are relatively more important than procedural justice in predicting buyers' trust in sellers. In terms of the antecedents of justice, this study provides evidence that product quality and delivery performance are significantly related to distributive justice, while information quality and contact channel are important antecedents of procedural justice. This study also finds that responsiveness is important in enhancing buyers' judgments of interactional justice.

  8. Long-Term Antecedents and Outcomes of Perceived Control

    PubMed Central

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived control plays an important role in shaping development throughout adulthood and old age. Using data from the adult lifespan sample of the national German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP; N > 10,000, covering 25 years of measurement), we explored long-term antecedents, correlates, and outcomes of perceived control and examined if associations differ with age. Targeting correlates and antecedents of control, findings indicated that higher concurrent levels of social participation, life satisfaction, and self-rated health as well as more positive changes in social participation over the preceding 11 years were each predictive of between-person differences in perceived control. Targeting health outcomes of control, survival analyses revealed that perceived control predicted 14-year hazard rates for disability (n = 996 became disabled) and mortality (n = 1,382 died). The effect for mortality, but not for disability, was independent of socio-demographic and psychosocial factors. Overall, we found very limited support for age-differential associations. Our results provide further impetus to thoroughly examine processes involved in antecedent-consequent relations among perceived control, facets of social life, well-being, and health. PMID:21517184

  9. Trust in health information websites: A systematic literature review on the antecedents of trust.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeolib

    2016-06-01

    Health websites are important sources of information for consumers. In choosing websites, trust in websites largely determines which website to access and how to best utilize the information. Thus, it is critical to understand why consumers trust certain websites and distrust others. A systematic literature review was conducted with the goal of identifying the antecedents of trust in health information websites. After four rounds of screening process, 20 articles between 2000 and 2013 were harvested. Factors that determine trust are classified into individual difference antecedents, website-related antecedents, and consumer-to-website interaction-related antecedents. The most frequently studied antecedents were socio-demographics, information quality, appearance, and perceived reputation of the website. Each antecedent of trust are discussed in detail and future research directions are proposed.

  10. Examination of an antecedent communication intervention to reduce tangibly maintained challenging behavior: a controlled analog analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Gainey, Summer; Kang, Soyeon; Koch, Heather; Shubert, Jennifer; Zein, Farah El; Longino, Deanna; Chung, Moon; Xu, Ziwei; White, Pamela; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Healy, Olive; Kagohara, Deborah; van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. Individual participant multielement and reversal designs were used to compare the effects of the antecedent communication intervention versus a no antecedent communication intervention condition. Immediately following the antecedent manipulations students were exposed to the tangible condition of the functional analysis. Results indicate that the antecedent communication intervention reduced challenging behavior in the subsequent tangible test condition for all three students. The importance of examining antecedent interventions to treat challenging behavior from a function analytic perspective is discussed.

  11. A survey of antecedents of attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wareing, Carol

    Relationships among attitudes of students toward science, as measured by the WASP (Wareing Attitudes Toward Science Protocol), perceived antecedents of such attitudes, and class achievement or performance indicated by reported grades were investigated for a survey sample of 1,740 students in 87 high school science classes from five communities. Additionally, students' self-reported number of tests administered in a given course, perceived rewards, degree of stress, and internal structure of the course were examined as potential predictor variables. Results indicate a significant correspondence between report card grades, degree of structure, degree of stress, gender, degree of rewards, number of tests, and students' attitudes toward science.

  12. Antecedents of gregarious alcoholism: an a priori model.

    PubMed

    Thurber, S; Snow, M; Thurber, J

    1989-01-01

    Path analysis procedures were used to test a causal model that concerns possible antecedent conditions in relation to gregarious drinking patterns. Selected scales from The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) and The Alcohol Use Inventory (AUI) constituted the assessments. The model was partially corroborated with reference to a group of 40 alcoholics (32 males; 8 females; M age = 33) in an outpatient treatment setting. The presumed causal variables accounted for 26% of the variance in self-reported gregarious drinking. Support was obtained for the assumption that certain interpersonal deficiencies may combine with beliefs in social benefits via alcohol usage to produce gregarious alcoholism.

  13. The antecedents and belief-polarized effects of thought confidence.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsuan-Yi; Lien, Nai-Hwa; Liang, Kuan-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates 2 possible antecedents of thought confidence and explores the effects of confidence induced before or during ad exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that both consumers' dispositional optimism and spokesperson attractiveness have significant effects on consumers' confidence in thoughts that are generated after viewing the advertisement. Higher levels of thought confidence will influence the quality of the thoughts that people generate, lead to either positively or negatively polarized message processing, and therefore induce better or worse advertising effectiveness, depending on the valence of thoughts. The authors posit the belief-polarization hypothesis to explain these findings.

  14. Antecedents of opioid dependence and personality disorder: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Modestin, J; Matutat, B; Würmle, O

    2001-01-01

    Both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) were explored as possible antecedents of opioid dependence and personality disorder. One hundred adult opioid-dependent, treatment-seeking male inpatients were explored; an extended clinical semistructured interview to collect sociodemographic, drug use related, and clinical data and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV personality disorders SCID-II were carried out. Four groups of patients, namely ADHD alone (4 patients), ADHD + CD (7 patients), CD alone (47 patients) and no ADHD/no CD (42 patients) were identified and compared with each other. The results indicate that ADHD alone does not predispose to the development of opioid dependence in male inpatients. Childhood ADHD may nevertheless be found more frequently in male opioid addicts due to its comorbidity with CD, which was identified in more than half of our sample. Patients with ADHD history seemed to go through the drug abuse career earlier and to develop more frequently histrionic and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Over half of the CD patients developed borderline and/or antisocial personality disorder; both ADHD and CD predispose significantly to the PD development. Early substance use preventive measures are necessary in children and adolescents suffering from CD and from ADHD comorbid with CD.

  15. Structure-Function Analysis of the Presumptive Arabidopsis Auxin Permease AUX1W⃞

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Ranjan; Kargul, Joanna; Marchant, Alan; Zadik, Daniel; Rahman, Abidur; Mills, Rebecca; Yemm, Anthony; May, Sean; Williams, Lorraine; Millner, Paul; Tsurumi, Seiji; Moore, Ian; Napier, Richard; Kerr, Ian D.; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the subcellular localization, the domain topology, and the amino acid residues that are critical for the function of the presumptive Arabidopsis thaliana auxin influx carrier AUX1. Biochemical fractionation experiments and confocal studies using an N-terminal yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusion observed that AUX1 colocalized with plasma membrane (PM) markers. Because of its PM localization, we were able to take advantage of the steep pH gradient that exists across the plant cell PM to investigate AUX1 topology using YFP as a pH-sensitive probe. The YFP-coding sequence was inserted in selected AUX1 hydrophilic loops to orient surface domains on either apoplastic or cytoplasmic faces of the PM based on the absence or presence of YFP fluorescence, respectively. We were able to demonstrate in conjunction with helix prediction programs that AUX1 represents a polytopic membrane protein composed of 11 transmembrane spanning domains. In parallel, a large aux1 allelic series containing null, partial-loss-of-function, and conditional mutations was characterized to identify the functionally important domains and amino acid residues within the AUX1 polypeptide. Whereas almost all partial-loss-of-function and null alleles cluster in the core permease region, the sole conditional allele aux1-7 modifies the function of the external C-terminal domain. PMID:15486104

  16. Impact of antecedent climate on fire regimes in coastal California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Severe fire weather is a major determinant of fire size in coastal California; however, it is unclear to what extent antecedent climate also controls fire activity. This study investigates the relationship between fire activity and climate in central coastal and southern California. Climate variables included the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), total monthly precipitation, mean monthly maximum temperature and the autumn and winter Southern Oscillation Indices (SOI). For both the central coast and the south coast regions there was no significant relationship between growing season PDSI, precipitation or temperature and number of fires. When examined by season, summer temperatures were positively correlated with number of fires in the central coast and autumn PDSI and precipitation were negatively correlated with fire occurrence in the south coast region. Area burned was not correlated with any current year climate variables in southern California although, in the central coast, drought during spring and autumn were correlated, but explained less than 10% of the variation in the area burned. Although there was a modest relationship between the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and local climate parameters, there was only a relatively weak relationship with fire activity. The importance of autumn foehn winds is illustrated by the observation that large fires occur most commonly during the autumn, regardless of PDSI. Antecedent climate, however, does appear to play some role in determining the length of the fire season on these landscape as PDSI is consistently related to the occurrence of large fires that occur before or after the autumn months.

  17. Starting up a Firm or Not: Differences in the Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varamäki, Elina; Joensuu, Sanna; Viljamaa, Anmari

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) and their antecedents have been extensively studied in student populations. The results suggest that higher education does not promote the formation of EI in students. This article examines the antecedents of intentions in two different student populations: those who are currently starting a firm and those who are…

  18. Antecedents of Absorptive Capacity: A New Model for Developing Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei-Zadeh, Mohammad; Darwish, Tamer K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrated framework to indicate which antecedents of absorptive capacity (AC) influence its learning processes, and to propose testing of this model in future work. Design/methodology/approach Relevant literature into the antecedents of AC was critically reviewed and analysed with the objective…

  19. Starting up a Firm or Not: Differences in the Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varamäki, Elina; Joensuu, Sanna; Viljamaa, Anmari

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) and their antecedents have been extensively studied in student populations. The results suggest that higher education does not promote the formation of EI in students. This article examines the antecedents of intentions in two different student populations: those who are currently starting a firm and those who are…

  20. Emotional Antecedents and Consequences of Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Alexander L.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.

    2007-01-01

    Emotional experiences immediately prior to (emotional antecedents) and following (emotional consequences) deliberate self-harm and suicide attempts in female inmates (N = 63) were examined. Anger was the antecedent emotion reported by the largest proportion of individuals who had engaged in deliberate self-harm (45.16%), suicide attempts (40.9%),…

  1. Antecedents and Consequences of Retirement Planning and Decision-Making: A Meta-Analysis and Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan Antonio; Depolo, Marco; Alcover, Carlos-Maria; Morales, J. Francisco

    2009-01-01

    In this study, meta-analytic procedures were used to examine the relationships between retirement planning, retirement decision and their antecedent and consequences. Our review of the literature generated 341 independent samples obtained from 99 primary studies with 188,222 participants. A small effect size (ES) for antecedents of retirement…

  2. Brief Experimental Analysis of Antecedent Variables Related to Noncompliance in Young Children in an Outpatient Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Tracy J.; Wacker, David P.; Cooper, Linda; Richman, David; Kayser, Krista

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate a methodology for analyzing the interactive effects of two different antecedent variables on child noncompliance in an outpatient clinic. Phase 1 of this study consisted of antecedent manipulations to identify situations that occasioned problematic behaviors (i.e., presence or absence of the…

  3. Antecedent Classroom Factors and Disruptive Behaviors of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Asmus, Jennifer M.; Boyd, Brian A.; Ladwig, Crystal N.; Sellers, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships between antecedent classroom factors and the disruptive behaviors of five elementary-aged students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the influence of four types of molar antecedent classroom factors (i.e., instructional setting, instructional activity,…

  4. Pre-Service Teacher Beliefs on the Antecedents to Bullying: A Concept Mapping Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Joel A.; Nowicki, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, researchers gathered Canadian pre-service teachers' beliefs on the antecedents to bullying. Concept mapping (Kane & Trochim, 2007) was used to analyze the data. This study's findings identified pre-service teachers to have accurate beliefs, inaccurate beliefs, and a lack of knowledge about the antecedents to bullying. Concept…

  5. Antecedents and Consequences of Retirement Planning and Decision-Making: A Meta-Analysis and Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan Antonio; Depolo, Marco; Alcover, Carlos-Maria; Morales, J. Francisco

    2009-01-01

    In this study, meta-analytic procedures were used to examine the relationships between retirement planning, retirement decision and their antecedent and consequences. Our review of the literature generated 341 independent samples obtained from 99 primary studies with 188,222 participants. A small effect size (ES) for antecedents of retirement…

  6. Identifying antecedent and illness course variables differentiating bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Parker, Gordon; Fletcher, Kathryn; McCraw, Stacey; Futeran, Shulamit; Hong, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Clinical differentiation of bipolar conditions (and especially bipolar II disorder) from unipolar conditions is not always straightforward. We sought to identify illness antecedents and correlates that may assist their differentiation and complement clinical symptoms. We undertook detailed comparative analyses of comprehensive data obtained from patients diagnosed with a bipolar or unipolar mood disorder. The sample comprised 138 bipolar (45 bipolar I and 93 bipolar II) and 214 unipolar participants. Univariate analyses identified numerous differentiating variables, while multivariate analyses generated a refined variable list to determine discriminatory capacity. Controlling for all other factors, those with a bipolar (I or II) condition were more likely than the unipolar sub-set to report a family history of bipolar disorder, experiencing bullying at school, to make a suicide/self-harm attempt, and be less likely to be clinically judged as having 'problematic' personality traits. Factors differentiating bipolar II from unipolar sub-sets included the aforementioned variables, as well as higher rates of lifetime heavy drinking and female gender, and briefer depressive episodes in the bipolar II group. Bipolar I and II sub-sets differentiated solely by higher rates of hospitalization in the former group. Some study variables (e.g., hospitalization) may merely reflect DSM-IV diagnostic criteria or consequences rather than illness antecedents or correlates. Other self-reported variables (e.g., bullying) are subject to memory biases, and may reflect higher-order variables (e.g., early problematic personality traits). Study findings provide assistance to determining non-symptom features that may improve discrimination of the bipolar disorders from themselves and from unipolar conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Application de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebas, E.; Martin, G. H.

    2002-04-01

    La réduction des émissions d'oxydes d'azote sur turbines à gaz est obtenue par diminution de la température au sein de la chambre de combustion. Les techniques possibles comprennent l'injection d'eau ou de vapeur, la combustion pauvre et l'oxydation catalytique. Parmi celles-ci, la dernière est la plus prometteuse en terme de coûts et de performances, avec des émissions de NOx ramenées à un seul chiffre (typiquement inférieures à 3 ppm). L'IFP travaille depuis maintenant 10 ans sur l'adaptation de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz. Les études ont été conduites au travers de projets européen tels que AGATA (Advance Gas Turbine for Automotive Application) et ULECAT (Ultra Low CATalytic combustor for dual fuel gas turbine). Le premier projet était destiné au développement de véhicules hybrides et le second à la combustion stationnaire de biogaz et de combustible Diesel. Les études en cours dans ce domaine portent sur le développement d'une unité de cogénération intégrant une microturbine à combustion catalytique. Les travaux menés à l'IFP concernent la mise au point de catalyseurs répondant aux exigences de la combustion catalytique en turbine à gaz et le développement de chambres de combustion permettant la mise en oeuvre de ces catalyseurs.

  8. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from age 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from age 5 to 15. Analyses indicated distinct physical discipline trajectory groups that varied in frequency of physical discipline and rate of change. In both samples, family ecological disadvantage differentiated the trajectory groups; in the first sample, early child externalizing also differentiated the groups. Controlling for early childhood externalizing, the minimal/ceasing trajectory groups were associated with the lowest levels of subsequent adolescent antisocial behavior in both samples and with parent-adolescent positive relationship quality in the second sample. PMID:19765007

  9. Internal marketing and the antecedents of nurse satisfaction and loyalty.

    PubMed

    Peltier, James W; Pointer, Lucille; Schibrowsky, John A

    2008-01-01

    Employee satisfaction and retention are critical issues that influence the success of any organization. Yet, one of the most critical problems facing the worldwide health care industry is the shortage of qualified nurses. Recent calls have been made within the traditional nursing literature for research that utilizes marketing and business models to better understand nurse satisfaction and retention. The purpose of this study is to develop scales that can be used to empirically test a model of the proposed antecedents of nurse job satisfaction and loyalty which have been used widely in the internal marketing and the relationship-marketing literature. Specifically, the study will investigate the degree to which structural bonding, social bonding, financial bonding activities, and quality of care impact how well nurses are satisfied with their job and their commitment to the organization. The results show that quality of care most impacted nurse satisfaction and loyalty, followed by structural, social, and financial bonds.

  10. Explaining potential antecedents of workplace social support: reciprocity or attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Bowling, Nathan A; Beehr, Terry A; Johnson, Adam L; Semmer, Norbert K; Hendricks, Elizabeth A; Webster, Heather A

    2004-10-01

    Effects of social support are an important topic in occupational stress theories and research, yet little is known about support's potential antecedents. Based on reciprocity theory, the authors hypothesized that the social support received is related to the extent the employee performs organizational citizenship behaviors directed at individuals and to one's social competence; based on the notion of personal attraction, the authors hypothesized that employees' physical attractiveness and sense of humor would be associated with the amount of social support received. In a survey of 123 high school employees and separate ratings of their attractiveness, reciprocity variables were related but attraction variables were not related to social support availability. Further research should examine reciprocity in predicting social support.

  11. Historical antecedents to the philosophy of Paul Feyerabend.

    PubMed

    Munévar, Gonzalo

    2016-06-01

    Paul Feyerabend has been considered a very radical philosopher of science for proposing that we may advance hypotheses contrary to well-confirmed experimental results, that observations make theoretical assumptions, that all methodological rules have exceptions, that ordinary citizens may challenge the judgment of experts, and that human happiness should be a key value for science. As radical as these theses may sound, they all have historical antecedents. In defending the Copernican view, Galileo exemplified the first two; Mill, Aristotle and Machiavelli all argued for pluralism; Aristotle gave commonsense reasons for why ordinary citizens may be able to judge the work of experts; and a combination of Plato's and Aristotle's views can offer strong support for the connection between science and happiness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The neural antecedents to voluntary action: Response to commentaries

    PubMed Central

    Nachev, Parashkev; Hacker, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience must attend to the conceptual coherence of its hypotheses as well as to their empirical support. Examining the most influential studies of the neural antecedents to voluntary action, our Discussion Paper sought to identify the real-world consequences of neglecting the former in what we argued has been too narrow a pursuit of the latter. Though conceptual in form, our analysis is sharply empirical in its conclusions, revealing what have long been thought to be momentous experimental observations—such as the readiness potential—as the outcome of previously unidentified confounds that rob them of significance. Conversely, we suggested that experimental studies of two-way control, amongst other defining features of the voluntary, have been given less emphasis than the subject demands. Here, we ramify our analysis down the paths identified by others in the commentaries we received. PMID:26001157

  13. Psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Sagarin, Brad J

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed.

  14. Positive antecedent and consequent components in child compliance training.

    PubMed

    Speights Roberts, Dannell; Tingstrom, Daniel H; Olmi, D Joe; Bellipanni, Kimberly D

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of positive antecedent (effective instruction delivery and time-in) and consequent components (contingent praise) on the compliance of 4 children in a clinic setting. Results suggest that the use of effective instruction delivery alone increased compliance above baseline levels for the 4 children and that the additions of time-in and contingent praise further increased compliance for 3 of the 4 children. All three positive treatment components resulted in compliance greater than 80% for all children. Compliance levels were maintained at 1-month follow-up for 2 children. Results are discussed in terms of the benefits to using all of the positive components in compliance training.

  15. AUX/LAX family of auxin influx carriers—an overview

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Ranjan; Péret, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Auxin regulates several aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin is unique among plant hormones for exhibiting polar transport. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the major form of auxin in higher plants, is a weak acid and its intercellular movement is facilitated by auxin influx and efflux carriers. Polarity of auxin movement is provided by asymmetric localization of auxin carriers (mainly PIN efflux carriers). PIN-FORMED (PIN) and P-GLYCOPROTEIN (PGP) family of proteins are major auxin efflux carriers whereas AUXIN1/LIKE-AUX1 (AUX/LAX) are major auxin influx carriers. Genetic and biochemical evidence show that each member of the AUX/LAX family is a functional auxin influx carrier and mediate auxin related developmental programmes in different organs and tissues. Of the four AUX/LAX genes, AUX1 regulates root gravitropism, root hair development and leaf phyllotaxy whereas LAX2 regulates vascular development in cotyledons. Both AUX1 and LAX3 have been implicated in lateral root (LR) development as well as apical hook formation whereas both AUX1 and LAX1 and possibly LAX2 are required for leaf phyllotactic patterning. PMID:23087694

  16. OsAUX1 controls lateral root initiation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heming; Ma, Tengfei; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yingtian; Ma, Haoli; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by influx and efflux transporters, controls many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin influx carriers in Arabidopsis have been shown to control lateral root development and gravitropism, but little is known about these proteins in rice. This paper reports on the functional characterization of OsAUX1. Three OsAUX1 T-DNA insertion mutants and RNAi knockdown transgenic plants reduced lateral root initiation compared with wild-type (WT) plants. OsAUX1 overexpression plants exhibited increased lateral root initiation and OsAUX1 was highly expressed in lateral roots and lateral root primordia. Similarly, the auxin reporter, DR5-GUS, was expressed at lower levels in osaux1 than in the WT plants, which indicated that the auxin levels in the mutant roots had decreased. Exogenous 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) treatment rescued the defective phenotype in osaux1-1 plants, whereas indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-D could not, which suggested that OsAUX1 was a putative auxin influx carrier. The transcript levels of several auxin signalling genes and cell cycle genes significantly declined in osaux1, hinting that the regulatory role of OsAUX1 may be mediated by auxin signalling and cell cycle genes. Overall, our results indicated that OsAUX1 was involved in polar auxin transport and functioned to control auxin-mediated lateral root initiation in rice.

  17. Psychosocial antecedents and consequences of workplace aggression for hospital nurses.

    PubMed

    Demir, Defne; Rodwell, John

    2012-12-01

    To test a full model of the antecedents to and consequences of various forms of workplace aggression, considering psychosocial factors, for hospital nursing staff. Cross-sectional survey design. Two hundred and seven nurses and midwives working across wards within a medium to large Australian hospital completed the survey. The survey response rate was 26.9%. High frequencies of nurses reported exposure to workplace bullying and internal and external emotional abuse violence types. In terms of antecedents, bullying was linked to high negative affectivity (NA), as well as low supervisor support and coworker support. Internal emotional abuse was associated with low levels of these support variables, as well as high outside work support and low job control. External threat of assault was related to high job demands and NA. In terms of consequences, bullying and verbal sexual harassment were linked to increased psychological distress levels. Bullying and internal emotional abuse were related to lowered organizational commitment. Changes in job satisfaction were not found for any of the workplace aggression types. NA was a significant covariate for all analyses examining consequences of aggression. Different combinations of work conditions (job demands-resources) and individual levels of NA predicted certain types of aggression. Further, nurse perceptions of psychological distress and organizational commitment were affected by exposure to several types of aggression, even after controlling for NA as a potential perceptual bias. This study therefore extends previous research on workplace bullying as a stressor to other types of workplace aggression for nurses. The findings highlight factors that are important in considering effective prevention and intervention of workplace aggression among nursing staff, particularly those working in hospital settings. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  18. Obstetric Antecedents to Body Cooling Treatment of the Newborn Infant

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David B.; Lucke, Ashley M.; McIntire, Donald D.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Chalak, Lina F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obstetric antecedents were analyzed in births where the infant received whole-body cooling for neonatal encephalopathy. Methods This retrospective cohort study included all live-born singleton infants delivered at or beyond 36 weeks gestation from October 2005 through December 2011. Infants who had received whole-body cooling identified by review of a prospective neonatal registry were compared to a control group comprising the remaining obstetric population delivered at greater than 36 weeks but not cooled. Univariable analysis was followed by a staged, stepwise selection of variables with the intent to rank significant risk factors for cooling. Results A total of 86,371 women delivered during the study period and 98 infants received whole-body cooling (1.1/1,000 livebirths). Of these 98 infants, 80 (88%) newborns had moderate encephalopathy and 10 (12%) had severe encephalopathy prior to cooling. Maternal age less than or equal to 15 years, low parity, maternal body habitus (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2), diabetes, preeclampsia, induction, epidural analgesia, chorioamnionitis, length of labor, and mode of delivery were associated with significantly increased risk of infant cooling during univariable analysis. Catastrophic events to include umbilical cord prolapse (OR 14; 95%CI, 3–72), placental abruption (OR 17; 95%CI, 7–44), uterine rupture (OR 130; 95%CI, 11–1477) were the strongest factors associated with infant cooling after staged-stepwise logistic analysis. Conclusion A variety of intrapartum characteristics were associated with infant cooling for neonatal encephalopathy with the most powerful antecedents being umbilical cord prolapse, placental abruption, and uterine rupture. PMID:24530976

  19. A model of global citizenship: antecedents and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva

    2013-01-01

    As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, exposure to global cultures affords individuals opportunities to develop global identities. In two studies, we examine the antecedents and outcomes of identifying with a superordinate identity--global citizen. Global citizenship is defined as awareness, caring, and embracing cultural diversity while promoting social justice and sustainability, coupled with a sense of responsibility to act. Prior theory and research suggest that being aware of one's connection with others in the world (global awareness) and embedded in settings that value global citizenship (normative environment) lead to greater identification with global citizens. Furthermore, theory and research suggest that when global citizen identity is salient, greater identification is related to adherence to the group's content (i.e., prosocial values and behaviors). Results of the present set of studies showed that global awareness (knowledge and interconnectedness with others) and one's normative environment (friends and family support global citizenship) predicted identification with global citizens, and global citizenship predicted prosocial values of intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and a felt responsibility to act for the betterment of the world. The relationship between antecedents (normative environment and global awareness) and outcomes (prosocial values) was mediated by identification with global citizens. We discuss the relationship between the present results and other research findings in psychology, the implications of global citizenship for other academic domains, and future avenues of research. Global citizenship highlights the unique effect of taking a global perspective on a multitude of topics relevant to the psychology of everyday actions, environments, and identity.

  20. Approche aux soins en milieu communautaire à des adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Osmun, W.E.; Chan, Nelson; Solomon, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les obligations d’ordre médical, éthique et juridique dans les soins aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) qui vivent dans la communauté. Sources des données Des recherches ont été faites dans Google et MEDLINE à l’aide des mots disabled, disability, vulnerable et community. Les lois pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal Le traitement d’un patient ayant une DD varie en fonction de facteurs comme la pathogenèse du problème actuel du patient, ses affections concomitantes, la gravité de ses déficiences et ses soutiens sociaux habituels. Bien que l’on s’entende sur les bienfaits du transfert des soins institutionnels vers des soins communautaires pour les patients ayant une DD, il s’est révélé difficile de leur dispenser des soins de grande qualité en milieu communautaire. Par ailleurs, il existe peu de travaux de recherche sur les façons d’offrir efficacement des soins aux adultes ayant une DD. En tant que professionnels des soins primaires, les médecins de famille sont souvent le premier point de contact pour les patients et sont à la fois responsables de la coordination et de la continuité des soins. Compte tenu de l’importance accrue accordée aux soins préventifs et à la détection précoce des maladies, la participation active du patient revêt aussi une grande importance. Les valeurs et les objectifs du patient sont des éléments essentiels à prendre en compte, même s’ils vont à l’encontre de la bonne santé du patient ou des propres valeurs du clinicien. Les lois s’appliquant aux personnes vulnérables varient d’une province à l’autre. Par conséquent, l’obligation de signaler des mauvais traitements suspectés pourrait différer selon que la personne vulnérable habite dans un centre de soins ou la communauté, que la personne qui soupçonne le comportement abusif est un fournisseur de services ou un professionnel de la santé ou

  1. The significance of the time interval between antecedent pregnancy and diagnosis of high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Powles, T; Young, A; Sammit, A; Stebbing, J; Short, D; Bower, M; Savage, P M; Seckl, M J; Schmid, P

    2006-01-01

    It is thought that the time interval between the antecedent pregnancy and diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic tumours (GTTs) may influence the outcome of these patients. In this study, we investigate the significance of this time interval. Multivariate analysis was used to investigate if the time interval was of prognostic significance from our cohort of 241 high-risk patients with GTT. Subsequent cutpoint analysis was used to determine an optimal cutpoint for the interval covariate. The outcome of these patients was plotted according to the Kaplan–Meier method. The time interval was of prognostic significance on multivariate analysis. A period of greater than 2.8 years after pregnancy was found to be of most significance. The 5-year overall survival was 62.0% (95% CI: 47–76%) for greater than 2.8 years vs 94% (95% CI: 91–97%) for less than 2.8 years (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed the presence of liver metastasis and the number of metastasis was also of prognostic importance. The interval between antecedent pregnancy and diagnosis in high-risk GTT is of prognostic significance. This gives some insight into the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:17031399

  2. Antecedents of willingness to report medical treatment errors in health care organizations: a multilevel theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Naveh, Eitan; Katz-Navon, Tal

    2014-01-01

    To avoid errors and improve patient safety and quality of care, health care organizations need to identify the sources of failures and facilitate implementation of corrective actions. Hence, health care organizations try to collect reports and data about errors by investing enormous resources in reporting systems. However, despite health care organizations' declared goal of increasing the voluntary reporting of errors and although the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (S.544, Public Law 109-41) legalizes efforts to secure reporters from specific liabilities, the problem of underreporting of adverse events by staff members remains. The purpose of the paper is to develop a theory-based model and a set of propositions to understand the antecedents of staff members' willingness to report errors based on a literature synthesis. The model aims to explore a complex system of considerations employees use when deciding whether to report their errors or be silent about them. The model integrates the influences of three types of organizational climates (psychological safety, psychological contracts, and safety climate) and individual perceptions of the applicability of the organization's procedures and proposes their mutual influence on willingness to report errors and, as a consequence, patient safety. The model suggests that managers should try to control and influence both the way employees perceive procedure applicability and organizational context-i.e., psychological safety, no-blame contracts, and safety climate-to increase reporting and improve patient safety.

  3. A new physically-based model considered antecedent rainfall for shallow landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yu; He, Siming

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall is the most significant factor to cause landslide especially shallow landslide. In previous studies, rainfall intensity and duration are take part in the physically based model to determining the occurrence of the rainfall-induced landslides, but seldom considered the antecedent rainfall. In this study, antecedent rainfall is took into account to derive a new physically based model for shallow landslides prone area predicting at the basin scale. Based on the Rosso's equation of seepage flow considering the antecedent rainfall to construct the hillslope hydrology model. And then, the infinite slope stability theory is using to construct the slope stability model. At last, the model is apply in the Baisha river basin of Chengdu, Sichuan, China, and the results are compared with the one's from unconsidered antecedent rainfall. The results show that the model is simple, but has the capability of consider antecedent rainfall in the triggering mechanism of shallow landslide. Meanwhile, antecedent rainfall can make an obvious effect on shallow landslides, so in shallow landslide hazard assessment, the influence of the antecedent rainfall can't be ignored.

  4. Effects of antecedent exercise on academic engagement and stereotypy during instruction.

    PubMed

    Neely, Leslie; Rispoli, Mandy; Gerow, Stephanie; Ninci, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Antecedent physical exercise has emerged as a potentially promising treatment for reducing challenging behavior and increasing academic behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of physical exercise conducted prior to instructional sessions (antecedent physical exercise) on academic engagement and stereotypy during instructional sessions for two children diagnosed with ASD. Functional analysis results suggested stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement for both participants. A multielement design was employed to evaluate academic engagement and stereotypy during instructional sessions following randomly sequenced conditions involving either (a) no antecedent exercise, (b) brief durations of antecedent exercise, or (c) antecedent exercise that continued until the participant engaged in a systematically determined behavioral indicator of satiation. Both participants demonstrated higher levels of academic engagement and reduced levels of stereotypy during the instructional sessions which followed antecedent physical exercise that continued until behavioral indicators of satiation occurred. This study replicates previous research suggesting that individuals with ASD may benefit from physical exercise prior to academic instruction and further suggests that the duration of antecedent exercise may be optimally individualized based on behavioral indicators of satiation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. The identification and characterization of specific ARF-Aux/IAA regulatory modules in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Krogan, Naden T; Berleth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The current model of auxin-inducible transcription describes numerous regulatory interactions between AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) and Aux/IAAs. However, specific relationships between individual members of these families in planta remain largely uncharacterized. Using a systems biology approach, the entire suite of Aux/IAA genes directly regulated by the developmentally pivotal ARF MONOPTEROS (MP) was recently determined for multiple Arabidopsis tissue types. This study showed that MP directly targets distinct subclades of Aux/IAAs, revealing potential regulatory modules of redundantly acting Aux/IAAs involved in MP-dependent processes. Further, functional analyses indicated that the protein products of these targeted Aux/IAAs negatively feedback on MP. Thus, comprehensive identification of Aux/IAAs targeted by individual ARFs will generate biologically meaningful networks of ARF-Aux/IAA regulatory modules controlling distinct plant pathways.

  6. Event-Level Analysis of Antecedents for Youth Violence: Comparison of Dating Violence with Non-Dating Violence

    PubMed Central

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Walton, Maureen A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Blow, Frederic C.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dating violence (DV) has emerged as a major concern among youth with links to substance use, injuries, and death. The Emergency Department (ED) provides an opportunity for violence screening and prevention interventions. Additional data are needed regarding antecedents of DV versus non-dating violence (NDV; e.g., acquaintance, stranger) to develop ED-based violence interventions for youth. Methods Participants were 575 patients screening positive for past 6-month drug use in an urban ED who completed timeline follow-back aggression modules at Baseline, 6-, and 12-months, indicating event-specific antecedents of violence. Multi-level logistic regressions using event-level data, nested by individual and time (i.e. Baseline, 6- and 12-month assessment intervals) to examine antecedents of DV vs. NDV. Post-hoc analyses examined substance use × reasons and gender interactions. Results Prescription sedative/opioid misuse was more likely to be reported prior to DV whereas alcohol only, and co-ingested alcohol and marijuana only, were more likely to be reported prior to NDV. Reasons for DV included: “personal belongings, “angry/bad mood,” “jealousy,” “drunk/high on drugs” and “arguing about sex”. Reasons for NDV included: “rumors,” “retaliation,” “personal space” and “aid (someone) due to physical attack”. Substance use before/during conflicts and reasons for conflicts were both uniquely associated with DV versus NDV. Two gender interactions were found. Conclusions ED based interventions for urban youth need to be tailored by gender, substance use (alcohol, cocaine, sedatives), reasons for violence, and type of violence (DV vs. NDV). PMID:24182751

  7. Event-level analysis of antecedents for youth violence: comparison of dating violence with non-dating violence.

    PubMed

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M; Walton, Maureen A; Chermack, Stephen T; Blow, Frederic C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2014-01-01

    Dating violence (DV) has emerged as a major concern among youth with links to substance use, injuries, and death. The emergency department (ED) provides an opportunity for violence screening and prevention interventions. Additional data are needed regarding antecedents of DV versus non-dating violence (NDV; e.g., acquaintance, stranger) to develop ED-based violence interventions for youth. Participants were 575 patients screening positive for past 6-month drug use in an urban ED who completed timeline follow-back aggression modules at baseline and 6- and 12-months, indicating event-specific antecedents of violence. Multi-level logistic regressions using event-level data, nested by individual and time (i.e. baseline, 6- and 12-month assessment intervals), were used to examine antecedents of DV vs. NDV. Post-hoc analyses examined substance use×reasons and gender interactions. Prescription sedative/opioid misuse was more likely to be reported prior to DV whereas alcohol only, and co-ingested alcohol and marijuana only, were more likely to be reported prior to NDV. Reasons for DV included: "personal belongings", "angry/bad mood," "jealousy," "drunk/high on drugs" and "arguing about sex". Reasons for NDV included: "rumors," "retaliation," "personal space" and "aid (someone) due to physical attack". Substance use before/during conflicts and reasons for conflicts were both uniquely associated with DV versus NDV. Two gender interactions were found. ED based interventions for urban youth need to be tailored by gender, substance use (alcohol, cocaine, sedatives), reasons for violence, and type of violence (DV vs. NDV). © 2013.

  8. Antecedent Moisture and Biological Inertia as Predictors of Plant and Ecosystem Productivity in Arid and Semiarid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogle, K.

    2011-12-01

    Many plant and ecosystem processes in arid and semiarid systems may be affected by antecedent environmental conditions (e.g., precipitation patterns, soil water availability, temperature) that integrate over past days, weeks, months, seasons, or years. However, the importance of such antecedent exogenous effects relative to conditions occurring at the time of the observed process is relatively unexplored. Even less is known about the potential importance of antecedent endogenous effects that describe the influence of past ecosystem states on the current ecosystem state; e.g., how is current ecosystem productivity related to past productivity patterns? We hypothesize that incorporation of antecedent exogenous and endogenous factors can improve our predictive understanding of many plant and ecosystem processes, especially in arid and semiarid ecosystems. Furthermore, the common approach to quantifying the effects of antecedent (exogenous) variables relies on arbitrary, deterministic definitions of antecedent variables that (1) may not accurately describe the role of antecedent conditions and (2) ignore uncertainty associated with applying deterministic definitions. In this study, we employ a stochastic framework for (1) computing the antecedent variables that estimates the relative importance of conditions experienced each time unit into the past, also providing insight into potential lag responses, and (2) estimating the effect of antecedent factors on the response variable of interest. We employ this approach to explore the potential roles of antecedent exogenous and endogenous influences in three settings that illustrate the: (1) importance of antecedent precipitation for net primary productivity in the shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado, (2) dependency of tree growth on antecedent precipitation and past growth states for pinyon growing in western Colorado, and (3) influence of antecedent soil water and prior root status on observed root growth in the Mojave

  9. Tétanos associé aux soins: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo

    2016-01-01

    La prophylaxie antitétanique lors de la prise en charge des blessures, est une stratégie majeure de prévention du tétanos en milieu de soins. Toute défaillance de la prise en charge des blessures expose dangereusement les victimes à la maladie. Nous rapportons un cas de tétanos survenu à la suite d’une blessure frontale prise en charge dans une structure sanitaire sans prophylaxie antitétanique. L’objectif est de rappeler aux cliniciens sur l’importance de cette prophylaxie chez tout blessé non vacciné ou ayant un statut immunitaire douteux. Patient de 52 ans non vacciné contre le tétanos a été admisau CHU YO pour cervicalgie, dysphagie, difficulté à la marche et à l’ouverture de la bouche. Dans ses antécédents il souligne une blessure frontale profonde ayant été suturée sans prophylaxie antitétanique il y a trois semaines environ. L’examen à son admission notaitun trismus lâche, une contracture abdominale, une dysphagie, une température à 36°5Cet une cicatrice au niveau du front mesurant environ 7 cm. Le diagnostic d’un tétanos généralisé stade II à porte d’entrée frontale a été retenu. Sous traitement l’évolution a été favorable et il est sorti de l’hôpital le 18septembre 2015. La prévention du tétanos associé aux soins requiert l’application rigoureuse des mesures d’asepsie, la systématisation de la sérothérapie antitétanique lors de la prise en charge de toute blessure profonde du patient non vacciné ou ayant un statut immunitaire douteux. PMID:28292071

  10. Temporal effects of antecedent exercise on students' disruptive behaviors: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Folino, Anthony; Ducharme, Joseph M; Greenwald, Naomi

    2014-10-01

    Although a growing body of literature indicates that antecedent exercise is effective at reducing disruptive behaviors, there is a paucity of research examining the temporal effects of antecedent exercise. The present investigation involved 4 students (age range 11 to 14years) enrolled in a self-contained special education behavior classroom due to severe aggressive, disruptive, and oppositional behaviors. In an alternating treatment design with baseline, students were first exposed to baseline conditions and then to 2 experimental conditions (i.e., an antecedent exercise condition and a control condition) in a randomized fashion. Results indicated that 30min of moderate to intense aerobic exercise resulted in approximately 90min of behavioral improvements. In addition, there appeared to be an inverse relation between arousal levels and behavioral difficulties. The potential utility of antecedent exercise as a treatment alternative in schools for students with severe disruptive behavior is discussed.

  11. Antecedents to Member Participation within Small Groups: A Review of Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Stephen Joel; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on member characteristics and conditions that increase the likelihood of group participation. Describes positive consequences of small group participation and antecedents to participation including attitudes, atmosphere, leader characteristics, expectations, and group structure. (JAC)

  12. The Role of Antecedent Positive and Negative Comments in the Control of Children's Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, William H.; Winston, Andrew S.

    1974-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of positive and negative adult preference statements in controlling children's behavior was studied. Results indicated that the adult's antecedent negative comments exerted greater control over the children than did the positive comments. (ST)

  13. The Binding of Auxin to the Arabidopsis Auxin Influx Transporter AUX11[OA

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, David J.; Bakar, Norliza Tendot Abu; Swarup, Ranjan; Callaghan, Richard; Napier, Richard M.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Kerr, Ian D.

    2008-01-01

    The cellular import of the hormone auxin is a fundamental requirement for the generation of auxin gradients that control a multitude of plant developmental processes. The AUX/LAX family of auxin importers, exemplified by AUX1 from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), has been shown to mediate auxin import when expressed heterologously. The quantitative nature of the interaction between AUX1 and its transport substrate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is incompletely understood, and we sought to address this in the present investigation. We expressed AUX1 to high levels in a baculovirus expression system and prepared membrane fragments from baculovirus-infected insect cells. These membranes proved suitable for determination of the binding of IAA to AUX1 and enabled us to determine a Kd of 2.6 μm, comparable with estimates for the Km for IAA transport. The efficacy of a number of auxin analogues and auxin transport inhibitors to displace IAA binding from AUX1 has also been determined and can be rationalized in terms of their physiological effects. Determination of the parameters describing the initial interaction between a plant transporter and its hormone ligand provides novel quantitative data for modeling auxin fluxes. PMID:18614710

  14. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  15. A qualitative and quantitative examination of the antecedents of customer incivility.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Michael; Jones, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    Customer incivility is known to have a negative impact on employees working in service jobs. Despite an understanding of the negative outcomes of customer incivility (e.g., burnout, disengagement, absenteeism), little research has investigated antecedents of this low-intensity deviant behavior. This is a clear oversight, given that understanding antecedents of customer incivility is essential for determining methods for reducing this stressor. As such, we conducted 2 studies examining these antecedents. For Study 1, we used a qualitative approach, assessing customer incivility from the perspective of the customer. Three overall themes (with 13 subthemes) emerged that could potentially lead to customer incivility: characteristics of the customer, characteristics of the organization/environment, and characteristics of the service employee. In Study 2, we conducted a quantitative study to investigate-from the perspective of the service employee-customer incivility antecedents that could be potentially controlled by the organization, either through changing the work environment or the employee (through training and selection). The results of a 2 time-point survey study showed that the service environment, service rep incivility, service orientation, agreeableness, and neuroticism served as antecedents to customer incivility. Practical implications are discussed, identifying options for organizational leaders interested in reducing customer incivility, and advice is provided for researchers seeking to further examine the antecedents of customer incivility. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-12-22

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this "gender paradox" in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others' or one's own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one's ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth.

  17. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this “gender paradox” in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others’ or one’s own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one’s ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

  18. Motivational antecedent beliefs of endurance, strength, and flexibility activities.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Matheson, Deborah Hunt

    2007-03-01

    Research into the correlates of physical activity has focused almost exclusively on physical activity as an omnibus construct. Health Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine, however, advocate physical activity in terms of performing regular endurance, strength, and flexibility activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the absolute and relative contributions of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs associated with endurance, strength, and flexibility activities within a theory of planned behavior (TPB) structure. Participants were 185 undergraduates who completed measures of the TPB and a 2-week follow-up of endurance, strength, and flexibility behavior. Results using structural equation modeling and Hotelling's t-tests for dependent correlations identified different motivational antecedents for each type of physical activity (p < .05). Endurance behavior was influenced exclusively by behavioral beliefs, flexibility behavior was influenced by normative and control beliefs, and strength behavior was influenced by key behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. The different motivational profiles for each physical activity allude to the importance of tailoring interventions by physical activity type.

  19. Investigating the strategic antecedents of agility in humanitarian logistics.

    PubMed

    L'Hermitte, Cécile; Brooks, Benjamin; Bowles, Marcus; Tatham, Peter H

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the strategic antecedents of operational agility in humanitarian logistics. It began by identifying the particular actions to be taken at the strategic level of a humanitarian organisation to support field-level agility. Next, quantitative data (n=59) were collected on four strategic-level capabilities (being purposeful, action-focused, collaborative, and learning-oriented) and on operational agility (field responsiveness and flexibility). Using a quantitative analysis, the study tested the relationship between organisational capacity building and operational agility and found that the four strategic-level capabilities are fundamental building blocks of agility. Collectively they account for 52 per cent of the ability of humanitarian logisticians to deal with ongoing changes and disruptions in the field. This study emphasises the need for researchers and practitioners to embrace a broader perspective of agility in humanitarian logistics. In addition, it highlights the inherently strategic nature of agility, the development of which involves focusing simultaneously on multiple drivers. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  20. Antecedents of approach-avoidance goals in sport.

    PubMed

    Morris, Rebecca L; Kavussanu, Maria

    2008-03-01

    We investigated antecedents of mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals in sport. University athletes (n = 230) aged 18-25 years (mean 20.3 years, s = 1.5) completed measures of approach-avoidance goals, perceived parental motivational climate, perceived team motivational climate, perceived competence, and demographics. Multiple regression analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals were positively predicted by perceived competence, mastery team climate, learning/enjoyment parental climate, and gender, with males being higher on these goals than females. Mastery-avoidance goals were predicted positively by learning/enjoyment parental climate and negatively by gender, with females being higher on these goals than males. Performance-approach goals were positively predicted by perceived competence, performance team climate, and gender, with males being higher on these goals than females. Finally, performance-avoidance goals were predicted positively by worry-conducive parental climate. These findings suggest that a mastery or performance climate is related to whether athletes adopt a mastery or performance goal, whereas the perception of competence is associated with whether athletes adopt approach-focused goals. Gender should be considered in future examinations of the approach-avoidance achievement goals in sport.

  1. Antecedent precipitation index determined from CST estimates of rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, David W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with an experimental calculation of a satellite-based antecedent precipitation index (API). The index is also derived from daily rain images produced from infrared images using an improved version of GSFC's Convective/Stratiform Technique (CST). API is a measure of soil moisture, and is based on the notion that the amount of moisture in the soil at a given time is related to precipitation at earlier times. Four different CST programs as well as the Geostationary Operational Enviroment Satellite (GOES) Precipitation Index developed by Arkin in 1979 are compared to experimental results, for the Mississippi Valley during the month of July. Rain images are shown for the best CST code and the ARK program. Comparisons are made as to the accuracy and detail of the results for the two codes. This project demonstrates the feasibility of running the CST on a synoptic scale. The Mississippi Valley case is well suited for testing the feasibility of monitoring soil moisture by means of CST. Preliminary comparisons of CST and ARK indicate significant differences in estimates of rain amount and distribution.

  2. The Historical Antecedents of the UPR School of Tropical Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mayo-Santana, Raúl; Peña-Carro, Lucy; Rabionet, Silvia E

    2016-06-01

    This article deals with the historical antecedents of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) School of Tropical Medicine (STM) under the auspices of Columbia University. It presents a general view of the social, institutional and conceptual factors that were correlated with the establishment of the STM. The authors start by examining the historical continuities and discontinuities present during the imperial transitions between Spanish colonial and U.S. military medicine at the turn of the 20th century. The clarification of these changes is important for the proper understanding of the emergence of tropical medicine in Puerto Rico, marked by the identification of the biological determinant of the so called "peasants' anemia." The essay focuses on two institutional precursor events: the Puerto Rico Anemia Commissions (1904-1908) and the Institute of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (1912-1914). Their nature and work paved the way for the establishment of the STM. The notions of tropical medicine and diseases are considered as historical concepts. The support of the Rockefeller Foundation to several significant public health activities in Puerto Rico is also examined. Finally, the social and health conditions which prevailed at the time of the creation of the STM have been summarized. In general, the article provides a sense of historical context deemed essential to understand the emergence and evolution of the STM.

  3. Romantic Relationship Patterns in Young Adulthood and Their Developmental Antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Rauer, Amy J.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The delayed entry into marriage that characterizes modern society raises questions about young adults' romantic relationship trajectories and whether patterns found to characterize adolescent romantic relationships persist into young adulthood. The current study traced developmental transitions into and out of romantic relationships from age 18 through age 25 in a sample of 511 young adults. The developmental antecedents of these different romantic relationship experiences in both distal and proximal family and peer domains were also examined. Analyses included both person-oriented and variable-oriented approaches. Findings show 5 distinct clusters varying in timing, duration, and frequency of participation in romantic relationships that range from those who had only recently entered into a romantic relationship to those who had been in the same relationship from age 18 to age 25. These relationship outcome trajectory clusters were predicted by variations in competence in early relationships with family and peers. Interpersonal experiences in family and peer contexts in early childhood through adolescence thus may form a scaffold on which later competence in romantic relationships develops. Findings shed light on both normative and nonnormative developmental transitions of romantic relationships in young adulthood. PMID:23421803

  4. Romantic relationship patterns in young adulthood and their developmental antecedents.

    PubMed

    Rauer, Amy J; Pettit, Gregory S; Lansford, Jennifer E; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2013-11-01

    The delayed entry into marriage that characterizes modern society raises questions about young adults' romantic relationship trajectories and whether patterns found to characterize adolescent romantic relationships persist into young adulthood. The current study traced developmental transitions into and out of romantic relationships from age 18 through age 25 in a sample of 511 young adults. The developmental antecedents of these different romantic relationship experiences in both distal and proximal family and peer domains were also examined. Analyses included both person-oriented and variable-oriented approaches. Findings show 5 distinct clusters varying in timing, duration, and frequency of participation in romantic relationships that range from those who had only recently entered into a romantic relationship to those who had been in the same relationship from age 18 to age 25. These relationship outcome trajectory clusters were predicted by variations in competence in early relationships with family and peers. Interpersonal experiences in family and peer contexts in early childhood through adolescence thus may form a scaffold on which later competence in romantic relationships develops. Findings shed light on both normative and nonnormative developmental transitions of romantic relationships in young adulthood.

  5. Antecedents and consequences of intra-group conflict among nurses.

    PubMed

    Almost, Joan; Doran, Diane M; McGillis Hall, Linda; Spence Laschinger, Heather K

    2010-11-01

    To test a theoretical model linking selected antecedent variables to intra-group conflict among nurses, and subsequently conflict management style, job stress and job satisfaction. A contributing factor to the nursing shortage is job dissatisfaction as a result of conflict among nurses. To develop strategies to reduce conflict, research is needed to understand the causes and outcomes of conflict in nursing work environments. A predictive, non-experimental design was used in a random sample of 277 acute care nurses. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the hypothesised model. Nurses' core self-evaluations, complexity of care and relationships with managers and nursing colleagues influenced their perceived level of conflict. Conflict management style partially mediated the relationship between conflict and job satisfaction. Job stress had a direct effect on job satisfaction and core self-evaluation had a direct effect on job stress. Conflict and its associated outcomes is a complex process, affected by dispositional, contextual and interpersonal factors. How nurses manage conflict may not prevent the negative effects of conflict, however, learning to manage conflict using collaboration and accommodation may help nurses experience greater job satisfaction. Strategies to manage and reduce conflict include building interactional justice practices and positive interpersonal relationships. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Examining the Antecedents of U.S. Nonmarital Fatherhood

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Marcia J.; VanOrman, Alicia G.; Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the dramatic rise in U.S. nonmarital childbearing in recent decades, limited attention has been paid to factors affecting nonmarital fatherhood (beyond studies of young fathers). In this article, we use data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort to examine the antecedents of nonmarital fatherhood, as compared to marital fatherhood. Overall, we find the strongest support across both data sets for education and race/ethnicity as key predictors of having a nonmarital first birth, consistent with prior literature about women’s nonmarital childbearing and about men’s early/teenage fatherhood. Education is inversely related to the risk of nonmarital fatherhood, and minority (especially black) men are much more likely to have a child outside of marriage than white men. We find little evidence that employment predicts nonmarital fertility, although it does strongly (and positively) predict marital fertility. High predicted earnings are also associated with a greater likelihood of marital childbearing but with a lower likelihood of nonmarital childbearing. Given the socioeconomic disadvantage associated with nonmarital fatherhood, this research suggests that nonmarital fatherhood may be an important aspect of growing U.S. inequality and stratification both within and across generations. PMID:23576263

  7. Antecedents of teachers’ emotions in the classroom: an intraindividual approach

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Eva S.; Keller, Melanie M.; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Taxer, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Using a preexisting, but as yet empirically untested theoretical model, the present study investigated antecedents of teachers’ emotions in the classroom. More specifically, the relationships between students’ motivation and discipline and teachers’ enjoyment and anger were explored, as well as if these relationships are mediated by teachers’ subjective appraisals (goal conduciveness and coping potential). The study employed an intraindividual approach by collecting data through a diary. The sample consisted of 39 teachers who each participated with one of their 9th or 10th grade mathematics classes (N = 758 students). Both teachers and students filled out diaries for 2–3 weeks pertaining to 8.10 lessons on average (N = 316 lessons). Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that students’ motivation and discipline explained 24% of variance in teachers’ enjoyment and 26% of variance in teachers’ anger. In line with theoretical assumptions, after introducing teachers’ subjective appraisals as a mediating mechanism into the model, the explained variance systematically increased to 65 and 61%, for teachers’ enjoyment and anger respectively. The effects of students’ motivation and discipline level on teachers’ emotions were partially mediated by teachers’ appraisals of goal conduciveness and coping potential. The findings imply that since teachers’ emotions depend to a large extent on subjective evaluations of a situation, teachers should be able to directly modify their emotional experiences during a lesson through cognitive reappraisals. PMID:26042067

  8. Antecedents of teachers' emotions in the classroom: an intraindividual approach.

    PubMed

    Becker, Eva S; Keller, Melanie M; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C; Taxer, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    Using a preexisting, but as yet empirically untested theoretical model, the present study investigated antecedents of teachers' emotions in the classroom. More specifically, the relationships between students' motivation and discipline and teachers' enjoyment and anger were explored, as well as if these relationships are mediated by teachers' subjective appraisals (goal conduciveness and coping potential). The study employed an intraindividual approach by collecting data through a diary. The sample consisted of 39 teachers who each participated with one of their 9th or 10th grade mathematics classes (N = 758 students). Both teachers and students filled out diaries for 2-3 weeks pertaining to 8.10 lessons on average (N = 316 lessons). Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that students' motivation and discipline explained 24% of variance in teachers' enjoyment and 26% of variance in teachers' anger. In line with theoretical assumptions, after introducing teachers' subjective appraisals as a mediating mechanism into the model, the explained variance systematically increased to 65 and 61%, for teachers' enjoyment and anger respectively. The effects of students' motivation and discipline level on teachers' emotions were partially mediated by teachers' appraisals of goal conduciveness and coping potential. The findings imply that since teachers' emotions depend to a large extent on subjective evaluations of a situation, teachers should be able to directly modify their emotional experiences during a lesson through cognitive reappraisals.

  9. The family antecedents and the subsequent outcomes of early puberty.

    PubMed

    Arim, Rübab G; Tramonte, Lucia; Shapka, Jennifer D; Dahinten, V Susan; Willms, J Douglas

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine both the family antecedents and the outcomes of early puberty, with a particular focus on factors related to family socioeconomic status (SES). The study employed a comprehensive measurement of pubertal development and longitudinal data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. The sample (N = 8,440; 49% girls) included four cohorts of children who were followed biennially for 10 years, starting from age 4-11 to 14-21 years. Data were drawn at different years of age from these cohorts of children. Girls whose fathers were unemployed were more likely to experience early puberty than those whose fathers were employed. For boys, those living with fathers who had not finished secondary school were more likely to experience early puberty. Early maturing girls tended to engage in smoking and drinking at an earlier age compared with their peers. These findings provide support for psychosocial acceleration theory and suggest that different aspects of low family SES may act as a psychosocial stress for early pubertal maturation in boys versus girls, which may lead to engagement in drinking and smoking at a younger age, at least for girls.

  10. Statut phospho-calcique en hémodialyse chronique dans l’Oriental Marocain: évaluation de l’adhésion aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO

    PubMed Central

    Benabdellah, Nawal; Karimi, Ilham; Bentata, Yassamine; Yacoubi, Hicham; Haddiya, Intissar

    2013-01-01

    Les troubles phosphocalciques sont fréquents en hémodialyse chronique. Leurs conséquences justifient une prévention et un traitement adaptés aux recommandations des sociétés savantes. L’objectif de notre étude était de déterminer le statut phosphocalcique de nos patients hémodialysés chroniques (HDC) et l’évaluation des taux de conformité des indicateurs aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO. Ainsi, nous avons réalisé une étude transversale incluant les 83 patients HDC du centre d’hémodialyse de l’hôpital Al Farabi d’Oujda. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 49.8± 15.6 ans. Une prédominance masculine a été notée. La conformité des indicateurs du bilan phosphocalcique chez nos patients hémodialysés chroniques par rapport aux recommandations KDIGO était de l’ordre de 21.6%. Le pourcentage des patients ayant des données phosphocalciques conformes aux cibles recommandées par les K/DOQI était Les patients répondants simultanément aux quatres critères recommandés par les K/DOQI n’étaient que 8.4%. PMID:24570784

  11. Symetries et integrabilite des equations aux differences finies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafortune, Stephane

    2000-09-01

    La présente thèse porte sur l'étude des symétries et des propriétés d'intégrabilité des équations aux différences finies. Dans le chapitre 1, le groupe de symétrie ponctuelle d'un système couplé à deux équations différentielles aux différences est étudié. On montre que dans certains cas, la dimension du groupe peut être infinie. Les équations peuvent décrire l'interaction de deux longues chaînes moléculaires, chacune étant composée d'atomes d'un même type. Dans le chapitre 2, une classe de théories de champs avec interaction exponentielle est introduite. L'interaction dépend de deux matrices de ``couplage'' et est suffisamment générale pour inclure toutes les théories de champs de Toda existant dans la littérature. Les symétries de Lie ponctuelles sont obtenues pour les cas où l'on a un nombre fini, infini ou semi-infini de champs. Une attention spéciale est accordée à la présence de l'invariance conforme. Dans le chapitre 3, nous procédons à la classification et à l'étude d'équations linéarisables. Nous examinons tout d'abord l'équation de Gambier continue qui contient, comme réductions, toutes les équations de deuxième ordre intégrables par linéarisation. Nous introduisons par la suite la forme discrète de cette équation et obtenons les conditions d'intégrabilité à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Nous étudions aussi les différentes réductions du cas discret. De plus, nous obtenons des transformations de Schlesinger pour les équations de Gambier discrète et continue. Dans la dernière partie du chapitre, nous étudions une famille d'équations discrètes du deuxième ordre incluant des équations résolubles par linéarisation. Plusieurs cas intégrables sont obtenus. Dans le cas discret, l'étude de l'intégrabilité est faite à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Dans le chapitre 4, nous étudions un autre critère d'intégrabilité: l'entropie algébrique. Nous montrons que les r

  12. Réactions aux interfaces de bicristaux compatibles et incompatibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taisne, A.; Décamps, B.; Priester, L.

    2003-03-01

    La rupture intergranulaire peut apparaître suite à la non accommodation des contraintes au voisinage de l'interface. La transmission du glissement au travers d'une interface est un des modes de relaxation possible qui dépend des paramètres suivants : facteurs géométriques (caractéristiques de l'interface et systèmes de glissement activés), constantes élastiques de chacune des phases. Dans cette étude, la microscopie électronique à transmission (MET) est utilisée pour analyser les configurations de dislocations résultant d'une déformation par fatigue de bicristaux d'acier austénoferritique de désorientations contrôlées. Deux types de bicristaux sont étudiés, compatible et incompatible plastiquement. Pour chacun d'eux, la déformation est initiée soit dans la phase ferritique α soit dans la phase austénitique γ selon la localisation d'une entaille préalable à l'essai mécanique. Les résultats permettent de remonter aux mécanismes élémentaires qui régissent le transfert “direct” ou “indirect” des dislocations à travers l'interface. Une corrélation avec le comportement des bicristaux à l'échelle macroscopique est également tentée.

  13. Structural basis for the auxin-induced transcriptional regulation by Aux/IAA17.

    PubMed

    Han, Mookyoung; Park, Yangshin; Kim, Iktae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Yu, Tae-Kyung; Rhee, Sangkee; Suh, Jeong-Yong

    2014-12-30

    Auxin is the central hormone that regulates plant growth and organ development. Transcriptional regulation by auxin is mediated by the auxin response factor (ARF) and the repressor, AUX/IAA. Aux/IAA associates with ARF via domain III-IV for transcriptional repression that is reversed by auxin-induced Aux/IAA degradation. It has been known that Aux/IAA and ARF form homo- and hetero-oligomers for the transcriptional regulation, but what determines their association states is poorly understood. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first solution structure of domain III-IV of Aux/IAA17 (IAA17), and characterize molecular interactions underlying the homotypic and heterotypic oligomerization. The structure exhibits a compact β-grasp fold with a highly dynamic insert helix that is unique in Aux/IAA family proteins. IAA17 associates to form a heterogeneous ensemble of front-to-back oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner. IAA17 and ARF5 associate to form homo- or hetero-oligomers using a common scaffold and binding interfaces, but their affinities vary significantly. The equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) for homo-oligomerization are 6.6 μM and 0.87 μM for IAA17 and ARF5, respectively, whereas hetero-oligomerization reveals a ∼ 10- to ∼ 100-fold greater affinity (KD = 73 nM). Thus, individual homo-oligomers of IAA17 and ARF5 spontaneously exchange their subunits to form alternating hetero-oligomers for transcriptional repression. Oligomerization is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions, so that charge complementarity at the interface determines the binding affinity. Variable binding affinity by surface charge modulation may effectively regulate the complex interaction network between Aux/IAA and ARF family proteins required for the transcriptional control of auxin-response genes.

  14. Structural basis for the auxin-induced transcriptional regulation by Aux/IAA17

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mookyoung; Park, Yangshin; Kim, Iktae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Yu, Tae-Kyung; Rhee, Sangkee; Suh, Jeong-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Auxin is the central hormone that regulates plant growth and organ development. Transcriptional regulation by auxin is mediated by the auxin response factor (ARF) and the repressor, AUX/IAA. Aux/IAA associates with ARF via domain III−IV for transcriptional repression that is reversed by auxin-induced Aux/IAA degradation. It has been known that Aux/IAA and ARF form homo- and hetero-oligomers for the transcriptional regulation, but what determines their association states is poorly understood. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first solution structure of domain III−IV of Aux/IAA17 (IAA17), and characterize molecular interactions underlying the homotypic and heterotypic oligomerization. The structure exhibits a compact β-grasp fold with a highly dynamic insert helix that is unique in Aux/IAA family proteins. IAA17 associates to form a heterogeneous ensemble of front-to-back oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner. IAA17 and ARF5 associate to form homo- or hetero-oligomers using a common scaffold and binding interfaces, but their affinities vary significantly. The equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) for homo-oligomerization are 6.6 μM and 0.87 μM for IAA17 and ARF5, respectively, whereas hetero-oligomerization reveals a ∼10- to ∼100-fold greater affinity (KD = 73 nM). Thus, individual homo-oligomers of IAA17 and ARF5 spontaneously exchange their subunits to form alternating hetero-oligomers for transcriptional repression. Oligomerization is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions, so that charge complementarity at the interface determines the binding affinity. Variable binding affinity by surface charge modulation may effectively regulate the complex interaction network between Aux/IAA and ARF family proteins required for the transcriptional control of auxin-response genes. PMID:25512488

  15. The Motivating Effect of Antecedent Stimuli on the Web Shop: A Conjoint Analysis of the Impact of Antecedent Stimuli at the Point of Online Purchase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstrom, Asle

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of motivating operation (MO) to the field of online consumer research. A conjoint analysis was conducted to assess the motivating impact of antecedent stimuli on online purchasing. Stimuli tested were in-stock status, price, other customers' reviews, order confirmation procedures, and donation to charity. The…

  16. The Motivating Effect of Antecedent Stimuli on the Web Shop: A Conjoint Analysis of the Impact of Antecedent Stimuli at the Point of Online Purchase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstrom, Asle

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of motivating operation (MO) to the field of online consumer research. A conjoint analysis was conducted to assess the motivating impact of antecedent stimuli on online purchasing. Stimuli tested were in-stock status, price, other customers' reviews, order confirmation procedures, and donation to charity. The…

  17. Medication-related errors: a literature review of incidence and antecedents.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Gaya; Blegen, Mary A

    2006-01-01

    Patient safety has become a major concern for both society and policymakers. Since nurses are intimately involved in the delivery of medications and are ultimately responsible during the medication administration phase, it is important for nursing to understand factors contributing to medication administration errors. The purpose of this chapter is to identify the incidence of these errors and the associated factors in an attempt to better understand the problem and lessen future error occurrence. Literature review revealed both active failures and latent conditions established in Reason's theory remain prevalent in current literature where active failures often display themselves in the form of incorrect drug calculations, lack of individual knowledge, and failure to follow established protocol. Latent conditions are evidenced as time pressures, fatigue, understaffing, inexperience, design deficiencies, and inadequate equipment and may lie dormant within a system until combined with active failures to create opportunity for error. Although medication error research has shifted in emphasis toward identification of system problems inherent in error occurrence, no one force emerges as a clear antecedent, reinforcing the need for further research and replication of existing studies with emphasis placed on more dependable reporting measures through which nurses are not threatened by reprisal.

  18. Patterns of antecedents of catastrophic reactions in nursing home residents with dementia in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Hye-A; Watson, Nancy M

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the patterns of antecedents of catastrophic reactions (CRs) in nursing home residents with dementia in the United States. A total of 229 catastrophic reaction events were the sample for this study. Ten antecedent variables were selected and analyzed using cluster analysis to address the patterns of antecedents of CRs in dementia. Data were obtained from field observation and a structured recording form over a 6-week period covering all 7 days of the week and all three shifts (i.e., 21 shifts in total) in two nursing homes in the United States. This study showed that there were two distinct patterns of antecedent conditions at the time of, or immediately prior to, CRs in dementia: (a) a cluster of antecedents that consists of components of the physical environment including public location, olfactory stimulation, use of media, sundowning hours, and being in a dementia unit ("Stimulation in Early Evening"); and (b) a cluster of antecedents that is composed of mixed components of the physical and social environment including olfactory stimulation, activities of daily living (ADL)-related care activities, demands of tasks, and being in a dementia unit ("Stress due to Care, Tasks, and Odors"). The findings suggest that elders who are exposed to overstimulation in sundowning hours or experience stress from care activities and task performance beyond their baseline competency are likely to be at risk of presenting with CRs. Health care providers need to be aware that a CR is a multi-factorial phenomenon in which multiple contextual antecedents are involved and that creation of a therapeutic physical and social milieu is an important nursing goal in preventing the occurrence of CRs in nursing home residents with dementia. [Asian Nursing Research 2009;3(3):99-110].

  19. The antecedents, attributes and consequences of trust among nurses and nurse managers: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    McCabe, T J; Sambrook, Sally

    2014-05-01

    Although trust has been investigated in the health context, limited research explores nurse and nurse manager perceptions of trust. To explore the concept of trust amongst nurses and nurse managers at individual, interpersonal and organisational levels. Our paper reports the findings from an interpretivist study conducted within the British National Health Service, involving thirty-nine semi-structured interviews with nurses and nurse managers. Large acute and small community organisation within the British National Health Service. 28 nurses and 11 nurse managers working within an Acute and a Community sector organisation - 20 and 19 in each organisation. Participants were selected through a process of purposive sampling, reflecting variations in terms of age, grade, ward and tenure. We utilise a concept analysis framework in exploring the antecedents, attributes and consequences of trust amongst nurses and nurse managers at individual, interpersonal and organisational levels. Key findings suggest that trust is formed within the immediate ward environment, and is significantly influenced by the role of line manager. Other positively influencing factors include professionalism and commitment to the nursing profession. These form the basis for the teamwork, delegation, support, open communication systems, confidentiality and discretion essential to delivering quality patient care. Negatively influencing factors include new management concepts, practices and styles overseen by managers recruited from the private sector. New management concepts were associated with reductions in the number of qualified nurses and increasing numbers of untrained nursing staff, reduced direct patient contact, less opportunities for professional training and development and deteriorating terms and conditions of employment. Our findings offer insight for managers, nurses and human resource practitioners to help build high trust relationships in a health care context. Of particular import

  20. Key organizational commitment antecedents for nurses, paramedical professionals and non-clinical staff.

    PubMed

    Caykoylu, Sinan; Egri, Carolyn P; Havlovic, Stephen; Bradley, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a causal model that explains the antecedents and mediating factors predicting the organizational commitment of healthcare employees in different work roles. This study tests an integrative causal model that consists of a number of direct and indirect relationships for antecedents of organizational commitment. It is proposed that the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment is best understood by focusing on the three interrelated facets of job satisfaction, i.e. satisfaction with career advancement, satisfaction with supervisor, and satisfaction with co-workers. However, the model also advances that these job satisfaction facets have different mediating effects for other antecedents of organizational commitment. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) path analysis showed that the job satisfaction facets of career advancement and satisfaction with supervisor had a direct impact on organizational commitment. Employee empowerment, job-motivating potential, effective leadership, acceptance by co-workers, role ambiguity and role conflict were also important determinants of organizational commitment. Interestingly, post hoc analyses showed that satisfaction with co-workers only had an indirect impact on organizational commitment. While there has been extensive research on organizational commitment and its antecedents in healthcare organizations, most previous studies have been limited either to a single employee group or to a single time frame. This study proposes a practical causal model of antecedents of organizational commitment that tests relationships across time and across different healthcare employee groups.

  1. Ti1-xAux Alloys: Hard Biocompatible Metals and Their Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevzi; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Morosan, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Furthermore, using materials for biomedical applications calls for alloys with high biocompatibility which are even more sparse. The Ti1-xAux (0 . 22 <= x <= 0 . 8) exhibit extreme hardness and strength values, elevated melting temperatures (compared to those of constituent elements), reduced density compared to Au, high malleability, bulk metallicity, high biocompatibility, low wear, reduced friction, potentially high radio opacity, as well as osseointegration. All these properties render the Ti1-xAux alloys particularly useful for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications, where they could be used as both permanent and temporary components. Additionally, the ability of Ti1-xAux alloys to adhere to ceramic parts could reduce the weight and cost of these components. The work at Rice was supported by NSF DMR 0847681 (E.M. and E.S.).

  2. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  3. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.

    PubMed

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-07

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed.

  4. Réactions immunoallergiques graves aux antibacillaires: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Sabah El Machichi; Hammi, Sanae; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    L'hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux est l'un des effets secondaires imprévisibles qui apparait chez 4 à 5 % de la population exposée et s’élève à 25% chez les sujets VIH positifs. Dans notre étude parmi 39 patients ayant présenté des réactions immunoallergiques, 10 avaient des formes graves. Le délai moyen d'apparition des signes était de 23 jours. Les réactions immunoallergiques observées étaient 5 cas de toxidermie généralisée fébrile, un cas de Dress syndrome, un cas de neutropénie, un cas de pancitopénie et 2 cas de thrombopénie. Tous nos patients avaient bien évolué cliniquement et bactériologiquement après l'adoption d'un régime thérapeutique excluant le ou les médicaments incriminés. En pratique, si l'effet indésirable imputé à un antituberculeux est grave, il est impératif de l'arrêter, de traiter l'incident et d'associer une autre molécule chez certains cas. Notre étude a montré une fréquence significative des complications graves probablement sous-estimée, surtout dans les pays fortement touchés par l'infection HIV.

  5. Falls in institutionalized older adults: risks, consequences and antecedents.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Antonio Herculano de; Patrício, Anna Cláudia Freire de Araújo; Ferreira, Milenna Azevedo Minhaqui; Rodrigues, Brenda Feitosa Lopes; Santos, Thayná Dias Dos; Rodrigues, Thays Domingos de Brito; Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo da

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the occurrence of falls in institutionalized elderly addressing the risks, consequences and antecedents. Cross-sectional study carried out with 45 older adults in Long-Term Care Facilities for the Older adult in João Pessoa, Brazil, in June and July 2016. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the Berg Balance Scale were applied, classifying as risk of fall scores lower than 45. Descriptive statistics and tests were conducted: independent t-test, Anova (Tukey), Chi-square, Mann Whitney. Statistically significance was p <0.05. Data were processed in SPSS version 19.0. A total of 66.7% (30) falls occurred, 20% (9) of them in the external area, with 66.7% (30) of the participants having hypertension as a previous disease and, as consequence, the fracture was highlighted with 11.2% (5). The Berg Scale had different scores when compared to the falls suffered by the elderly and previous diseases influenced the occurrence of falls (p <0.05). It is necessary to implement public financing policies or partnerships that allow environments adaptations aiming at reducing the risks of falls. Analisar a ocorrência de quedas em idosos institucionalizados quanto aos riscos, consequências e antecedentes. Estudo transversal, realizado com 45 idosos em Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos em João Pessoa/PB, Brasil, em junho e julho de 2016. Aplicou-se questionário sociodemográfico e Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg classificando risco de quedas quando escore inferior a 45. Realizou-se estatística descritiva e testes: t independente, Anova (Tukey), Qui-quadrado, Mann Whitney. Considerado significativamente estatístico p < 0,05 e processados no SPSS versão 19.0. As quedas ocorreram em 66,7% (30), sendo 20% (9) na área externa, 66,7% (30) com doença prévia hipertensão e como consequência destacou-se fratura com 11,2% (5). A Escala de Berg avaliou pontuações diferentes (p < 0,05) quando comparadas às quedas sofridas pelos idosos, e as doenças pr

  6. Combination of AIDP and pyramidal signs associated with antecedent hepatitis A infection: a rare (co)occurrence.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhawna; Nagpal, Kadam; Handa, Rahul; Dubey, Parul

    2013-06-12

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a postinfectious illness and commonly occurs in association with infective agents such as Campylobacter jejuni, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, HIV, shigella, clostridium, Haemophilus influenzae; occasionally with acute hepatitis B, C, E; and more rarely with hepatitis A, as documented in various case reports. Classically, GBS presents with hyporeflexia or areflexia, but preserved and brisk reflexes have been described in context with GBS variant, AMAN (acute motor axonal neuropathy), in approximately 33% of the cases. Preserved or exaggerated tendon reflexes with extensor plantar response is not usually seen in patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP). We report a rare case of AIDP with upper motor neuron signs in association with an antecedent hepatitis A infection.

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA—BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA—AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa.

  9. The Evolution of Minehunting in France (L’Evolution de la Chasse aux Mines en France),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-13

    AD-A132 532 THE EVOLUTION OF MINEHUNTING IN FRANCE IL’EVOLUTION DE I/1 LA CHASSE AUX MINES EN FRANCE)(U) NAVAL INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT CENTER WASHINGTON...SEP 16 0 -wm- a/or.’- i.,it ______ D a " THE EVOLUTION OF MINEHUNTING IN FRANCE (de Drezigue, Cdr; L’Evolution de la Chasse aux Mines en France...than the minehunter could assure this mission? Evolution of Minehunting The guiding thought of this evolution is the following: to have a good

  10. Is Utilitarianism Risky? How the Same Antecedents and Mechanism Produce Both Utilitarian and Risky Choices.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Brian J; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-07-01

    Philosophers and psychologists have long been interested in identifying factors that influence moral judgment. In the current analysis, we compare the literatures on moral psychology and decision making under uncertainty to propose that utilitarian choices are driven by the same forces that lead to risky choices. Spanning from neurocognitive to hormonal to interpersonal levels of analysis, we identify six antecedents that increase both utilitarian and risky choices (ventromedial prefrontal cortex brain lesions, psychopathology, testosterone, incidental positive affect, power, and social connection) and one antecedent that reduces these choices (serotonin activity). We identify the regulation of negative affect as a common mechanism through which the effects of each antecedent on utilitarian and risky choices are explained. By demonstrating that the same forces and the same underlying mechanism that produce risky choices also promote utilitarian choices, we offer a deeper understanding of how basic psychological systems underlie moral judgment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The correlation of Skylab L-band brightness temperatures with antecedent precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The S194 L-band radiometer flown on the Skylab mission measured terrestrial radiation at the microwave wavelength of 21.4 cm. The terrain emissivity at this wavelength is strongly dependent on the soil moisture content, which can be inferred from antecedent precipitation. For the Skylab data acquisition pass from the Oklahoma panhandle to southeastern Texas on 11 June 1973, the S194 brightness temperatures are highly correlated with antecedent precipitation from the preceding eleven day period, but very little correlation was apparent for the preceding five day period. The correlation coefficient between the averaged antecedent precipitation index values and the corresponding S194 brightness temperatures between 230 K and 270 K, the region of apparent response to soil moisture in the data, was -0.97. The equation of the linear least squares line is given.

  12. Should flood regimes change in a warming climate? The role of antecedent moisture conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldemeskel, Fitsum; Sharma, Ashish

    2016-07-01

    Assessing changes to flooding is important for designing new and redesigning existing infrastructure to withstand future climates. While there is speculation that floods are likely to intensify in the future, this question is often difficult to assess due to inadequate records on streamflow extremes. An alternate way of determining possible extreme flooding is through assessment of the two key factors that lead to the intensification of floods: the intensification of causative rainfall and changes in the wetness conditions prior to rainfall. This study assesses global changes in the antecedent wetness prior to extreme rainfall. Our results indicate a significant increase in the antecedent moisture in Australia and Africa over the last century; however, there was also a decrease in Eurasia and insignificant change in North America. Given the nature of changes found in this study, any future flood assessment for global warming conditions should take into account antecedent moisture conditions.

  13. An assessment of antecedent events influencing noncompliance in an outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Call, Nathan A; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Cooper-Brown, Linda J; Boeiter, Eric W

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown that various factors can influence noncompliance, including task novelty, rate of presentation, and task preference. This study examined the impact of selected antecedent variables on noncompliance in an outpatient clinic setting. In two experiments involving 6 typically developing children, the consequences for noncompliance remained constant. During Experiment 1, demands that included noncontingent access to adult attention were contrasted with the same demands that did not include attention within a multielement design. In Experiment 2, demands were altered by decreasing the difficulty or amount of work or providing access to attention. In both experiments, results indicated idiosyncratic responses to the manipulated variables, with decreases in noncompliance observed following introduction of one or more antecedent variables with 5 of the 6 participants. These results suggested that noncompliance can be reduced via changes in antecedent variables, including adding potential positive reinforcers to the task situation, and that it is possible to probe variables that alter noncompliance in an outpatient clinic setting.

  14. Antecedent infections in Fisher syndrome: a common pathogenesis of molecular mimicry.

    PubMed

    Koga, M; Gilbert, M; Li, J; Koike, S; Takahashi, M; Furukawa, K; Hirata, K; Yuki, N

    2005-05-10

    To assess the production mechanism of anti-GQ1b autoantibody in Fisher syndrome (FS). The authors conducted a prospective case-control serologic study of five antecedent infections (Campylobacter jejuni, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae) in 73 patients with FS and 73 sex- and age-matched hospital controls (HCs). Serologic evidence in FS patients of C. jejuni (21%) and H. influenzae (8%) infections was present significantly more often than in the HCs. None of the five pathogens examined was found in the 49 (67%) patients with FS. Anti-GQ1b IgG antibody was detected in most FS patients infected with C. jejuni or H. influenzae. Mass spectrometry analysis identified a C. jejuni strain (CF93-6) carrying a GT1a-like lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) that had been isolated from an FS patient. Immunization of complex ganglioside-lacking knockout mice with the GT1a-like LOS generated IgG class monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that reacted with GQ1b and GT1a. Thin-layer chromatography with immunostaining showed that anti-GQ1b mAb bound to the C. jejuni LOS (50% of the 20 FS-related strains) more commonly than in the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)-related (7% of 70) or enteritis-related (20% of 65) strains. Anti-GM1 and anti-GD1a mAbs also reacted with the LOS from some FS-related strains (both 20%), but binding frequencies were higher in the GBS-related strains (74 and 57%). The GQ1b epitope was detected in 4 (40%) of the 10 FS-related H. influenzae strains but was absent in strains from patients with GBS (n = 4) and uncomplicated respiratory infections (n = 10). C. jejuni and H. influenzae are related to Fisher syndrome (FS) development, and production of anti-GQ1b autoantibody is mediated by the GQ1b-mimicking lipo-oligosaccharides on those bacteria. The causative agents remain unclear in the majority of patients with FS.

  15. Sensibilité aux antibiotiques des souches destaphylococcus aureus communautaires dans la région de Nouakchott (Mauritanie)

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohamed Lemine Ould; Ghaber, Sidi Mohamed; Baba, Sidi El Wafi Ould; Maouloud, Mohamed Mahmoud Ould

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Staphylocoque aureus reste un pathogène majeur de l'homme causant des infections très diverses, cutanées, urinaires, pulmonaires ainsi que des septicémies. L'objectif de ce travail est d'évaluer la sensibilité des souches communautaires de Staphylococcus aureus isolées dans différents produits pathologiques vis-à-vis des principaux antibiotiques utilisés, dans la région de Nouakchott (Mauritanie). Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective réalisée sur 281 souches de Staphylococus aureus isolées entre Janvier 2014 et Août 2015 au laboratoire du Centre Hospitalier National et aux deux laboratoires privés de la ville de Nouakchott, dans différents produits pathologiques des patients non hospitalisés. La sensibilité aux antibiotiques a été déterminée par la méthode de diffusion de disques en milieu gélosé de Mueller Hinton selon les recommandations du CA-SFM. Résultats Le taux de résistance à la pénicilline G était élevé (96 à 100%). Le taux de SARM communautaires se situe entre 25 et 26% dans les suppurations, de 34,3% dans les ECBU et de 28% dans les spermocultures. La résistance aux Macrolides-Lincosamyne-Streptogramines (MLS), donnant le phénotype MLSb inductible, était retrouvée dans 6% des souches urinaires et 27% des souches isolées à partir des suppurations. L'activité des aminosides est variable, l'amikacine était active sur toutes les souches. L'activité du cotrimoxazol est faible (77% de résistance) et aucune résistance à la vancomycine n'a été notée. Conclusion L'activité de la Pénicilline G sur les souches de Staphylococcus aureus isolées dans la région de Nouakchott est quasi nulle et le taux de SARM communautaire est important atteignant jusqu'à 34%. Ceci pourrait être expliqué par l'usage anarchique de ces molécules dans notre pays. PMID:28154631

  16. Genome-wide analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in maize (Zea mays. L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijun; Deng, Dexiang; Bian, Yunlong; Lv, Yanping; Xie, Qin

    2010-12-01

    The phytohormone auxin is important in various aspects of organism growth and development. Aux/IAA genes encoding short-lived nuclear proteins are responsive primarily to auxin induction. Despite their physiological importance, systematic analysis of Aux/IAA genes in maize have not yet been reported. In this paper, we presented the isolation and characterization of maize Aux/IAA genes in whole-genome scale. A total of 31 maize Aux/IAA genes (ZmIAA1 to ZmIAA31) were identified. ZmIAA genes are distributed in all the maize chromosomes except chromosome 2. Aux/IAA genes expand in the maize genome partly due to tandem and segmental duplication events. Multiple alignment and motif display results revealed major maize Aux/IAA proteins share all the four conserved domains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated Aux/IAA family can be divided into seven subfamilies. Putative cis-acting regulatory DNA elements involved in auxin response, light signaling transduction and abiotic stress adaption were observed in the promoters of ZmIAA genes. Expression data mining suggested maize Aux/IAA genes have temporal and spatial expression pattern. Collectively, these results will provide molecular insights into the auxin metabolism, transport and signaling research.

  17. Motivational Antecedents of Preventive Proactivity in Late Life: Linking Future Orientation and Exercise1

    PubMed Central

    Kahana, Eva; Kahana, Boaz; Zhang, Jianping

    2007-01-01

    Future orientation is considered as a motivational antecedent of late-life proactivity. In a panel study of 453 old-old adults, we linked future orientation to exercise, a key component of late-life proactivity. Findings based on hierarchical linear modeling reveal that future orientation at baseline predicts changes in exercise during the subsequent four years. Whereas exercise behavior generally declined over time, future orientation and female gender were associated with smaller decline. These results suggest that future-oriented thinking has a lasting impact on health promotion behavior. Future orientation thus represents a dispositional antecedent of preventive proactivity as proposed in our successful aging model. PMID:18080009

  18. Motivational Antecedents of Preventive Proactivity in Late Life: Linking Future Orientation and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kahana, Eva; Kahana, Boaz; Zhang, Jianping

    2005-12-01

    Future orientation is considered as a motivational antecedent of late-life proactivity. In a panel study of 453 old-old adults, we linked future orientation to exercise, a key component of late-life proactivity. Findings based on hierarchical linear modeling reveal that future orientation at baseline predicts changes in exercise during the subsequent four years. Whereas exercise behavior generally declined over time, future orientation and female gender were associated with smaller decline. These results suggest that future-oriented thinking has a lasting impact on health promotion behavior. Future orientation thus represents a dispositional antecedent of preventive proactivity as proposed in our successful aging model.

  19. Targeting early antecedents to prevent tobacco smoking: findings from an epidemiologically based randomized field trial.

    PubMed Central

    Kellam, S G; Anthony, J C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether interventions aimed at aggressive/disruptive classroom behavior and poor academic achievement would reduce the incidence of initiation of smoking. METHODS: An epidemiologically based, universal randomized preventive trial involved 2311 children in 2 classroom-based preventive interventions or controls. Each intervention was directed at 1 of the aforementioned 2 antecedents over first and second grades in 19 urban schools. RESULTS: Smoking initiation was reduced in both cohorts for boys assigned to the behavioral intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting early risk antecedents such as aggressive behavior appears to be an important smoking prevention strategy. PMID:9772850

  20. The Influence of the Antecedent Variable on the Teachers' Performance through Achievement Motivation in Senior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewi, Erni R.; Bundu, Patta; Tahmir, Suradi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at analysing whether the antecedent variable directly affects the performance of the high school teachers or not. In addition, this research strives to find out whether the antecedent variable indirectly affects the teachers' performance through the achievement motivation of the high school teachers. It was a quantitative research…

  1. The carrier AUXIN RESISTANT (AUX1) dominates auxin flux into Arabidopsis protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Rutschow, Heidi L; Baskin, Tobias I; Kramer, Eric M

    2014-11-01

    The ability of the plant hormone auxin to enter a cell is critical to auxin transport and signaling. Auxin can cross the cell membrane by diffusion or via auxin-specific influx carriers. There is little knowledge of the magnitudes of these fluxes in plants. Radiolabeled auxin uptake was measured in protoplasts isolated from roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. This was done for the wild-type, under treatments with additional unlabeled auxin to saturate the influx carriers, and for the influx carrier mutant auxin resistant 1 (aux1). We also used flow cytometry to quantify the relative abundance of cells expressing AUX1-YFP in the assayed population. At pH 5.7, the majority of auxin influx into protoplasts - 75% - was mediated by the influx carrier AUX1. An additional 20% was mediated by other saturable carriers. The diffusive influx of auxin was essentially negligible at pH 5.7. The influx of auxin mediated by AUX1, expressed as a membrane permeability, was 1.5 ± 0.3 μm s(-1) . This value is comparable in magnitude to estimates of efflux permeability. Thus, auxin-transporting tissues can sustain relatively high auxin efflux and yet not become depleted of auxin.

  2. Cloning and expression analysis of novel Aux/IAA family genes in Gossypium hirsutum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Members of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encode proteins to mediate the responses of auxin gene expression and to regulate various aspects of plant morphological development. In this paper, we report the identification of nine cDNAs that contain complete open reading frame (OR...

  3. An Experimental Investigation of the Antecedents and Consequences of Psychological Reactance in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Hannah; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2014-01-01

    Psychological reactance theory (PRT) is largely understudied in the classroom context. In this experiment, we manipulated instructors' use of clarity and forceful language as antecedents of psychological reactance and examined student communication outcomes (i.e., instructional dissent and challenge behavior) as ways in which students restore…

  4. Antecedents and Correlates of the Popular-Aggressive Phenomenon in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2010-01-01

    This study identified correlates and developmental antecedents that distinguish popular-aggressive elementary school children from other youth. Drawing on the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1022), popular-aggressive children were identified through teacher ratings over…

  5. Antecedents of Compliance in 2-Year-Olds From a High-Risk Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha Farrell; Crichton, Leslie

    In order to identify antecedents of infant's compliance with mothers' directions on how to solve four tasks (graded in terms of stressfulness to the infant), 194 high-risk mothers and their 2-year-old children were observed on videotape and assessed with a six-point rating scale. Data collected prenatally and postnatally at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months…

  6. Compulsive Buying among College Students: An Investigation of Its Antecedents, Consequences, and Implications for Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James A.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the incidence, antecedents, consequences, and policy implications of compulsive buying among college students (n=300). Details contributing factors and discusses the relationship between credit card use and compulsive buying. Discusses the implications for consumer policy and suggestions for further research. (JOW)

  7. Racial/ethnic harassment and discrimination, its antecedents, and its effect on job-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Mindy E; Palmieri, Patrick A; Drasgow, Fritz; Ormerod, Alayne J

    2012-01-01

    A general model of workplace prejudice acts, their antecedents, and their consequences is proposed and examined in the context of racial/ethnic harassment and discrimination (REHD). Antecedents proposed and tested here include context and climate, whereas consequences proposed and tested here include work, supervisor, and opportunity satisfaction and turnover intentions. The theoretical model is first tested and cross-validated in two ethnically diverse subsamples (approximately 2,000 each). Then, hierarchical multigroup modeling was conducted to determine whether the relationships among REHD, its antecedents, and its outcomes are equivalent across five racial/ethnic groups (N = 1,000 per group) in the U.S. military. This addresses the issue of differential exposure (i.e., varying amounts of stressors across groups) versus differential vulnerability (i.e., discrepant impact of a stressor on outcomes across groups) across racial/ethnic groups. Consistent with expectations, results suggest that although racial/ethnic groups differ in their mean exposure to REHD, the relationships among REHD and its outcomes are the same across race/ethnicity, supporting the differential exposure view. In addition, the results show some differences between antecedents and REHD across race/ethnicity.

  8. Evidence-Based Practice: Quality Indicator Analysis of Antecedent Exercise in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasner, Melanie; Reid, Greg; MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to conduct a quality indicator analysis of studies exploring the effects of antecedent exercise on self-stimulatory behaviors of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), Google Scholar, SPORTDiscus, PsychINFO, and PubMed/MedLine databases from 1980 to October…

  9. Socialization and Individual Antecedents of Adolescents' and Young Adults' Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Buchmann, Marlis

    2010-01-01

    Socialization and individual differences were examined as antecedents of moral motivation in representative samples of 15-year-old adolescents (N = 1,258; 54% female) and 21-year-old young adults (N = 584; 53% female). The adolescents' primary caregivers (N = 1,056) also participated. The strength of moral motivation was rated by participants'…

  10. Teachers' Everyday Professional Development: Mapping Informal Learning Activities, Antecedents, and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Gijbels, David; Grosemans, Ilke; Donche, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Although a lot is known about teacher development by means of formal learning activities, research on teachers' everyday learning is limited. In the current systematic review, we analyzed 74 studies focusing on teachers' informal learning to identify teachers' learning activities, antecedents for informal learning, and learning outcomes. In…

  11. The Antecedents of Friendships in Moderately Diverse Classrooms: Social Preference, Social Impact, and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the antecedents of cross-racial/ethnic friendships and same-racial/ethnic friendships. The sample consisted of 444 (161 African American, 108 European American, 100 Asian American, and 75 Latino) children who were in the fourth grade from 39 classrooms in 10 public elementary schools. Results of Mixed Linear…

  12. Responsive and Proactive Stakeholder Orientation in Public Universities: Antecedents and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Casablancas-Segura, Carme; Llonch, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study, based on institutional theory, dynamic capabilities, and stakeholder theory, investigates the relationships between the antecedents of responsive and proactive stakeholder orientation and their consequences in the public university context. The results obtained mainly stress that the mimetic effect of copying successful university…

  13. The correlation of Skylab L-band brightness temperatures with antecedent precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The S194 L-band radiometer flown on the Skylab mission measured terrestrial radiation at the microwave wavelength of 21.4 cm. The terrain emissivity at this wavelength is strongly dependent on the soil moisture content, which can be inferred from antecedent precipitation. For the Skylab data acquisition pass from the Oklahoma panhandle to southeastern Texas on 11 June 1973, the S194 brightness temperatures are highly correlated with antecedent precipitation from the preceding eleven day period, but very little correlation was apparent for the preceding five day period. The correlation coefficient between the averaged antecedent precipitation index values and the corresponding S194 brightness temperatures between 230 K and 270 K, the region of apparent response to soil moisture in the data, was -0.97. The equation of the linear least squares line fitted to the data was: API (cm) = 31.99 -0.114 TB (K), where API is the antecedent precipitation index and TB is the S194 brightness temperature.

  14. Analysis of the Relationships among Trust Antecedents, Organizational Structures, and Performance Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    groups contained an equally distributed 40 representation of age, experience, military service branch, officer subspecialty, gender , and country of...the extent to which factors leading to perceived trust, also known as “trust antecedents,” are responsible for performance in a given structure. To...Edward H. Powley, Lead Advisor _____________________________________ Dr. Mark E. Nissen, Support Advisor

  15. Antecedents and Consequences of Service Quality in a Higher Education Context: A Qualitative Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…

  16. The Use of Structural Analysis to Develop Antecedent-Based Interventions for Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stichter, Janine P.; Randolph, Jena K.; Kay, Denise; Gage, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Evidence continues to maintain that the use of antecedent variables (i.e., instructional practices, and environmental characteristics) increase prosocial and adaptive behaviors of students with disabilities (e.g., Kern et al. in J Appl Behav Anal 27(1):7-19, 1994; Stichter et al. in Behav Disord 30:401-418, 2005). This study extends the literature…

  17. Contagious Flow: Antecedents and Consequences of Optimal Experience in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Satoris S.; Fullagar, Clive J.; Simmons, Mathias J.; Zhu, Mengmeng

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined undergraduate student understanding of, and interest in, course material as potential antecedents to student experiences of flow within a classroom setting. In addition, the social, informative, and contagious nature of flow were examined, as was the influence of being in flow during classroom coverage of material on…

  18. Antecedents of Psychological Empowerment in the Malaysian Private Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghani, Nik Azida Abd.; Hussin, Tengku Ahmad Badrul Shah bin Raja; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    Psychological empowerment comprising four cognitive dimensions i.e. meaning, competence, autonomy and impact in the context of private higher education institutions is being validated. Five factors considered as antecedents i.e. access to information, resources, organizational support and opportunity to learn and develop, and trust were studied.…

  19. Parent-Child and Triadic Antecedents of Children's Social Competence: Cultural Specificity, Shared Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq

    2010-01-01

    Guided by theories of cultural participation, the authors examined mother-child, father-child, and triadic interactive behaviors in 141 Israeli and Palestinian couples and their firstborn child at 5 and 33 months as antecedents of children's social competence. Four parent-child measures (parent sensitivity, child social engagement, parental…

  20. Situational and Dispositional Factors as Antecedents of Ingratiatory Behaviors in Organizational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kacmar, K. Michele; Carlson, Dawn S.; Bratton, Virginia K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined both situational and dispositional antecedents of four ingratiatory behaviors: other-enhancing, opinion conformity, favor rendering, and self-promotion. The two situational variables (i.e., role ambiguity and leader-member exchange) and the four dispositional variables (i.e., self-esteem, need for power, job involvement, and…

  1. The Undefined Role of the Antecedent: Addressing the Measurement Quagmires in Applied Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stichter, Janine Peck; Conroy, Maureen A.; Boyd, Brian A.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have examined trends in the antecedent research literature through discussion of key conceptual models considered to guide this research (Conroy & Stichter, 2003; Smith & Iwata, 1997; Smith, Iwata, & Michael, 2000) as well as related trends in measurement (Mahon, Shores, & Buske, 1999). Despite varied points…

  2. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among teachers'…

  3. Exploring a Decrease in Recognition Performance for Non-Antecedents Following the Processing of Anaphors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopkins, Stephen; Nordlie, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Recognition judgments to the non-antecedents of a repeated-noun anaphor are slower and less accurate after than before the processing of the anaphor. Disagreement exists as to whether this pattern of performance reflects a bias shift carried out by a memory process associated with the recognition of a word that has previously occurred in the…

  4. ERP Evidence for the Rapid Assignment of an (Appropriate) Antecedent to PRO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demestre, Josep; Garcia-Albea, Jose E.

    2007-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were recorded while subjects listened to sentences containing a controlled infinitival complement. Subject and object control items were used, both with 2 potential antecedents in the upper clause. Half of the sentences had a gender agreement violation between the null subject of the infinitival complement and an…

  5. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a subsample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this article reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of "secure base script knowledge", as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are…

  6. Teachers' Everyday Professional Development: Mapping Informal Learning Activities, Antecedents, and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Gijbels, David; Grosemans, Ilke; Donche, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Although a lot is known about teacher development by means of formal learning activities, research on teachers' everyday learning is limited. In the current systematic review, we analyzed 74 studies focusing on teachers' informal learning to identify teachers' learning activities, antecedents for informal learning, and learning outcomes. In…

  7. Parent Behavior Antecedents, Cognitive Correlates and Multidimensionality of Locus of Control in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mark W.

    A discussion of parent behavior antecedents, cognitive correlates, and the multidimensionality of locus of control in young children includes reports of several different experiments. Results indicated that development of internal control expectancies is correlated with cognitive-intellectual development. Maternal behaviors were studied through a…

  8. Parent-Child and Triadic Antecedents of Children's Social Competence: Cultural Specificity, Shared Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq

    2010-01-01

    Guided by theories of cultural participation, the authors examined mother-child, father-child, and triadic interactive behaviors in 141 Israeli and Palestinian couples and their firstborn child at 5 and 33 months as antecedents of children's social competence. Four parent-child measures (parent sensitivity, child social engagement, parental…

  9. Antecedents and Concomitants of Parenting Stress in Adolescent Mothers in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karen S.; Holdsworth, Michelle J. A.; HoganBruen, Kathy D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to examine variables associated with different short-term trajectories in multiply disadvantaged adolescent mothers by investigating antecedents and concomitants of parenting stress. Method: We followed 49 adolescent mothers (ages 14-18 at study outset) who were wards in Illinois foster care using a longitudinal…

  10. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among teachers'…

  11. Impact of Antecedent Factors on Collaborative Technologies Usage among Academic Researchers in Malaysian Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohd Daud, Norzaidi; Zakaria, Halimi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of antecedent factors on collaborative technologies usage among academic researchers in Malaysian research universities. Design/methodology/approach: Data analysis was conducted on data collected from 156 academic researchers from five Malaysian research universities. This study…

  12. Proform-Antecedent Linking in Listeners with Language Impairments and Unimpaired Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Samantha Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores how listeners extract meaning from personal and reflexive pronouns in spoken language. To be understood, words like her and herself must be linked to a prior element in the speech stream (or antecedent). This process draws on syntactic knowledge and verbal working memory processes. I present two original research studies…

  13. Exploring the Antecedents of Learning-Related Emotions and Their Relations with Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niculescu, Alexandra Corina; Tempelaar, Dirk; Dailey-Hebert, Amber; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Recent work suggests that learning-related emotions (LREs) play a crucial role in performance especially in the first year of university, a period of transition for most students; however, additional research is needed to show how these emotions emerge. We developed a framework which links a course-contextualized antecedent--academic control in…

  14. Integrating Real-Time Antecedent Rubrics via Blackboard™ into a Community College General Psychology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the innovative and effective delivery of online course content by community colleges, but not much has been done on how learning management systems (LMS) can deliver real-time (immediate data delivery) antecedents that inform students of performance requirements. This pilot study used Blackboard's™ interactive…

  15. Antecedents and Correlates of Course Cancellation in a University "Drop and Add" Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babad, Elisha; Icekson, Tamar; Yelinek, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    Most institutions of higher education allow students to drop or add courses in the first 2-3 weeks of each term (D&A). Arguing that course cancellation is not merely an administrative issue involving enrollment trends but represents complex decision making processes taken by students, this study investigated antecedents and correlates of course…

  16. An Experimental Investigation of the Antecedents and Consequences of Psychological Reactance in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Hannah; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2014-01-01

    Psychological reactance theory (PRT) is largely understudied in the classroom context. In this experiment, we manipulated instructors' use of clarity and forceful language as antecedents of psychological reactance and examined student communication outcomes (i.e., instructional dissent and challenge behavior) as ways in which students restore…

  17. Developmental Antecedents and Social and Academic Consequences of Stereotype-Consciousness in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Strambler, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which included 124 children ages 5-11, examined developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness, defined as awareness of others' stereotypes. Greater age and more frequent parent-reported racial socialization practices were associated with greater likelihood of stereotype-consciousness.…

  18. A Longitudinal Panel Study on Antecedents and Outcomes of Work-Home Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Holger; Frese, Michael; Schmidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical models of the antecedents and outcomes of work-home interference (WHI) suggest that work characteristics (e.g., job stressors, working hours) increase the probability that an individual experiences work-home interference. Since work-home interference is considered as a role stressor, these experiences should be detrimental for…

  19. Responsive and Proactive Stakeholder Orientation in Public Universities: Antecedents and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Casablancas-Segura, Carme; Llonch, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study, based on institutional theory, dynamic capabilities, and stakeholder theory, investigates the relationships between the antecedents of responsive and proactive stakeholder orientation and their consequences in the public university context. The results obtained mainly stress that the mimetic effect of copying successful university…

  20. Brief Antecedent Assessment and Treatment of Tics in the General Education Classroom: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, T.; Dufrene, Brad; Weaver, Adam; Butler, Tonya; Meeks, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if specific classroom antecedents were associated with motor and vocal tics in two males diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome. A functional assessment consisting of teacher and student interviews, direct observations, brief functional analysis, and confirmatory naturalistic observations indicated that…

  1. An Empirical Investigation of Dispositional Antecedents and Performance-Related Outcomes of Credit Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernerth, Jeremy B.; Taylor, Shannon G.; Walker, H. Jack; Whitman, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations use credit scores as an employment screening tool, but little is known about the legitimacy of such practices. To address this important gap, the reported research conceptualized credit scores as a biographical measure of financial responsibility and investigated dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes. Using…

  2. Entrepreneurial Mindset in Department of Defense (DoD) Organizations: Antecedents and Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    include such facets as flexibility, innovativeness, and action-orientation (Chittipeddi and Wallett , 1991); goal-orientation and optimism (Kuratko et al...Pursues the best opportunities Focus on adaptive execution Engages everyone’s energy Chittipeddi and Wallett (1991) Flexibility...of an organization (Chittipeddi and Wallett , 1991). Therefore, the antecedents identified in the private sector studies may be applicable to public

  3. The Situational Antecedents of Pride and Happiness: Developmental and Domain Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornilaki, Ekaterina N.; Chlouverakis, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    This study examines whether young children can differentiate between the situational antecedents of happiness and pride and the effect of the type of situation on the attribution of pride. One hundred and fifty 7-, 9- and 11-year-olds were asked to rate the extent to which two types of situations would elicit a protagonist's feelings of happiness…

  4. Antecedents of Employees' Involvement in Work-Related Learning: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Baert, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Involvement in work-related learning seems to be more complex than a simple supply-demand fit. An interplay of several factors can influence this involvement at different stages of the decision-making process of the employee. The aim of this systematic review is to examine which antecedents of work-related learning have been identified in previous…

  5. Job Level, Demands, and Resources as Antecedents of Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiRenzo, Marco S.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Weer, Chisty H.

    2011-01-01

    Although substantial research has examined the conflict that employees experience between their work and family roles, the literature has not investigated the prevalence and antecedents of work-family conflict for individuals who work at different levels of an organization. This study examines differences in work-family conflict (work interference…

  6. A Longitudinal Panel Study on Antecedents and Outcomes of Work-Home Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Holger; Frese, Michael; Schmidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical models of the antecedents and outcomes of work-home interference (WHI) suggest that work characteristics (e.g., job stressors, working hours) increase the probability that an individual experiences work-home interference. Since work-home interference is considered as a role stressor, these experiences should be detrimental for…

  7. Dispositional Antecedents and Outcomes of Political Skill in Organizations: A Four-Study Investigation with Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yongmei; Ferris, Gerald R.; Zinko, Robert; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Weitz, Bart; Xu, Jun

    2007-01-01

    We developed a four-study research plan to examine the dispositional antecedents of political skill and its job performance consequences, and also to incorporate the mediating role of reputation, drawing upon a recent theoretical model of political skill in organizations. Study 1 established the psychometric properties of the two reputation scales…

  8. The correlation of Skylab L-band brightness temperatures with antecedent precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The S194 L-band radiometer flown on the Skylab mission measured terrestrial radiation at the microwave wavelength of 21.4 cm. The terrain emissivity at this wavelength is strongly dependent on the soil moisture content, which can be inferred from antecedent precipitation. For the Skylab data acquisition pass from the Oklahoma panhandle to southeastern Texas on 11 June 1973, the S194 brightness temperatures are highly correlated with antecedent precipitation from the preceding eleven day period, but very little correlation was apparent for the preceding five day period. The correlation coefficient between the averaged antecedent precipitation index values and the corresponding S194 brightness temperatures between 230 K and 270 K, the region of apparent response to soil moisture in the data, was -0.97. The equation of the linear least squares line fitted to the data was: API (cm) = 31.99 -0.114 TB (K), where API is the antecedent precipitation index and TB is the S194 brightness temperature.

  9. Examination of an Antecedent Communication Intervention to Reduce Tangibly Maintained Challenging Behavior: A Controlled Analog Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Gainey, Summer; Kang, Soyeon; Koch, Heather; Shubert, Jennifer; El Zein, Farah; Longino, Deanna; Chung, Moon; Xu, Ziwei; White, Pamela; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Healy, Olive; Kagohara, Deborah; van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. Individual participant multielement and reversal designs were used…

  10. The Costs of Today's Jobs: Job Characteristics and Organizational Supports as Antecedents of Negative Spillover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotto, Angela R.; Lyness, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined job characteristics and organizational supports as antecedents of negative work-to-nonwork spillover for 1178 U.S. employees. Based on hierarchical regression analyses of 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce data and O*NET data, job demands (requirements to work at home beyond scheduled hours, job complexity, time and…

  11. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  12. Evaluation of Increasing Antecedent Specificity in Goal Statements on Adherence to Positive Behavior-Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohrs, Corey M.; Shriver, Mark D.; Burke, Raymond V.; Allen, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of antecedent specificity in goal statements on adherence to positive behavior-management strategies. Teaching staff were recruited from 2 different school settings where there were routine expectations to use behavior-specific praise in the classroom, but adherence was poor. In a concurrent multiple baseline design, the…

  13. Brief Antecedent Assessment and Treatment of Tics in the General Education Classroom: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, T.; Dufrene, Brad; Weaver, Adam; Butler, Tonya; Meeks, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if specific classroom antecedents were associated with motor and vocal tics in two males diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome. A functional assessment consisting of teacher and student interviews, direct observations, brief functional analysis, and confirmatory naturalistic observations indicated that…

  14. Compulsive Buying among College Students: An Investigation of Its Antecedents, Consequences, and Implications for Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James A.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the incidence, antecedents, consequences, and policy implications of compulsive buying among college students (n=300). Details contributing factors and discusses the relationship between credit card use and compulsive buying. Discusses the implications for consumer policy and suggestions for further research. (JOW)

  15. Family and Religious Antecedents of Civic Involvement in Middle Class African American Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    We examined family and religiousspiritual antecedents and correlates of current and intended civic involvement in 76 middle class African American late adolescents (M = 18.43 years) who had been followed longitudinally for 3 years. Adolescents' spirituality/religiosity and mothers' current involvement influenced the overall ratings and more…

  16. Antecedents of Teachers' Perceived Effectiveness of School-Based-Managing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nir, Adam

    2007-01-01

    The difficulty in education to determine causality between means and ends brings various issues and variables to the discussion about the antecedents of school effectiveness. Although teachers' level of professional development is clearly among the factors influencing student outcomes, little is known about the extent to which teachers connect…

  17. Effects of Fishing Education Programs on Antecedents of Responsible Environmental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemer, William F.; Knuth, Barbara A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates fishing and aquatic stewardship outcomes associated with different levels of program exposure among n=619 participants in a national fishing education program (Hooked on Fishing-Not on Drugs) designed for youth in Grades 6-8. Supports the assumption that such programs are more likely to influence antecedents to environmentally…

  18. Antecedents of Early Marital and Fertility Behavior: Impact of Adolescent Attitudes on Early Marriage and Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Kimball P.; Cosby, Arthur G.

    A process model which included the influences of social origin, encouragement, and the formation of adolescent period attitudes as antecedents of early marital and fertility behavior was constructed and evaluated using three-wave panel data obtained from 176 nonmetropolitan females from selected Alabama, Georgia, Texas, and South Carolina high…

  19. Antecedents of Career Exploration among Hong Kong Chinese University Students: Testing Contextual and Developmental Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Raysen; Arnold, John

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the antecedents of career exploration. We apply the perspectives of Flum and Blustein [Flum, H., & Blustein, D. L. (2000). Reinvigorating the study of vocational exploration: A framework for research. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56", 380-404] for the first time in Hong Kong, and we also test…

  20. The Antecedents of Organizational Commitment: The Case of Australian Casual Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Therese A.; Bakalis, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the increasing attention of organizational commitment in the management literature, most studies predominantly focus on full-time workers in traditional work settings. This paper examined the antecedents of organizational commitment among casual academics working in the tertiary education sector in Australia.…

  1. Students' Emotions during Homework in Mathematics: Testing a Theoretical Model of Antecedents and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettmers, Swantje; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    The experience of pleasant and unpleasant emotions in academic situations is known to affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to extend previous research by examining the antecedents and consequences of student emotions in the homework context. Multilevel analyses of a longitudinal dataset containing 3483 grade 9 and grade 10…

  2. Socialization and Individual Antecedents of Adolescents' and Young Adults' Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Buchmann, Marlis

    2010-01-01

    Socialization and individual differences were examined as antecedents of moral motivation in representative samples of 15-year-old adolescents (N = 1,258; 54% female) and 21-year-old young adults (N = 584; 53% female). The adolescents' primary caregivers (N = 1,056) also participated. The strength of moral motivation was rated by participants'…

  3. Antecedents and Consequences of Service Quality in a Higher Education Context: A Qualitative Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…

  4. Antecedent Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Graduate Students at the Nairobi Evangelical Graduate School of Theology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbogo, Rosemary Wahu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Master's level thesis work that was done in 1997 to assess the antecedent factors affecting the academic performance of graduate students at the Nairobi Evangelical School of Theology (N.E.G.S.T.), which is currently Africa International University (AIU). The paper reviews the effect of lack of finance on…

  5. Evidence-Based Practice: Quality Indicator Analysis of Antecedent Exercise in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasner, Melanie; Reid, Greg; MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to conduct a quality indicator analysis of studies exploring the effects of antecedent exercise on self-stimulatory behaviors of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), Google Scholar, SPORTDiscus, PsychINFO, and PubMed/MedLine databases from 1980 to October…

  6. Integrating Real-Time Antecedent Rubrics via Blackboard™ into a Community College General Psychology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the innovative and effective delivery of online course content by community colleges, but not much has been done on how learning management systems (LMS) can deliver real-time (immediate data delivery) antecedents that inform students of performance requirements. This pilot study used Blackboard's™ interactive…

  7. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a subsample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this article reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of "secure base script knowledge", as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are…

  8. Social Networks in the Classroom: Personality Factors as Antecedents of Student Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Matthew T.; Johnson, Bryan R.; Darnold, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines personality factors as antecedents of student social capital. We hypothesize relationships between two constructs taken from the five-factor model of personality (agreeableness and extraversion) and two variables that reflect a student's social capital (quantity of ties and strength of ties) in an academic setting. Analysis of…

  9. Using an Antecedent Art Intervention to Improve the Behavior of a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng; Plavnick, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an antecedent art intervention on reduction of off-task behavior for a 3-year-old child with autism. A single-case reversal design was used to show that one-on-one art task instruction occurring prior to large group instructional sessions produced decreased levels of off-task behavior when compared to…

  10. Antecedents and Concomitants of Parenting Stress in Adolescent Mothers in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karen S.; Holdsworth, Michelle J. A.; HoganBruen, Kathy D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to examine variables associated with different short-term trajectories in multiply disadvantaged adolescent mothers by investigating antecedents and concomitants of parenting stress. Method: We followed 49 adolescent mothers (ages 14-18 at study outset) who were wards in Illinois foster care using a longitudinal…

  11. Investigating the Individual Difference Antecedents of Perceived Enjoyment in Students' Use of Blogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi-Shun; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    With the proliferation of weblogs (blogs) used in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to blog has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this study is to explore the individual difference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence blogging…

  12. Examination of an Antecedent Communication Intervention to Reduce Tangibly Maintained Challenging Behavior: A Controlled Analog Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Gainey, Summer; Kang, Soyeon; Koch, Heather; Shubert, Jennifer; El Zein, Farah; Longino, Deanna; Chung, Moon; Xu, Ziwei; White, Pamela; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Healy, Olive; Kagohara, Deborah; van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. Individual participant multielement and reversal designs were used…

  13. The Antecedents of Organizational Commitment: The Case of Australian Casual Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Therese A.; Bakalis, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the increasing attention of organizational commitment in the management literature, most studies predominantly focus on full-time workers in traditional work settings. This paper examined the antecedents of organizational commitment among casual academics working in the tertiary education sector in Australia.…

  14. Antecedents of Late Birthtiming Decisions of Men and Women in Dual-Career Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soloway, N. Maxine; Smith, Rebecca M.

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed 30 recent fathers and mothers to examine antecedent factors associated with late birthtiming decisions of men and women in dual-career marriages. Findings suggest that biological time clock precipitates reassessment of family injunctions about status of education, occupation, finances, and marriage, which, in turn, precipitates issues…

  15. Evaluation of Increasing Antecedent Specificity in Goal Statements on Adherence to Positive Behavior-Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohrs, Corey M.; Shriver, Mark D.; Burke, Raymond V.; Allen, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of antecedent specificity in goal statements on adherence to positive behavior-management strategies. Teaching staff were recruited from 2 different school settings where there were routine expectations to use behavior-specific praise in the classroom, but adherence was poor. In a concurrent multiple baseline design, the…

  16. Contagious Flow: Antecedents and Consequences of Optimal Experience in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Satoris S.; Fullagar, Clive J.; Simmons, Mathias J.; Zhu, Mengmeng

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined undergraduate student understanding of, and interest in, course material as potential antecedents to student experiences of flow within a classroom setting. In addition, the social, informative, and contagious nature of flow were examined, as was the influence of being in flow during classroom coverage of material on…

  17. Effects of Fishing Education Programs on Antecedents of Responsible Environmental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemer, William F.; Knuth, Barbara A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates fishing and aquatic stewardship outcomes associated with different levels of program exposure among n=619 participants in a national fishing education program (Hooked on Fishing-Not on Drugs) designed for youth in Grades 6-8. Supports the assumption that such programs are more likely to influence antecedents to environmentally…

  18. Antecedents and behavior-problem outcomes of parental monitoring and psychological control in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pettit, G S; Laird, R D; Dodge, K A; Bates, J E; Criss, M M

    2001-01-01

    The early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control were examined in this prospective, longitudinal, multi-informant study. Parenting data were collected during home visit interviews with 440 mothers and their 13-year-old children. Behavior problems (anxiety/depression and delinquent behavior) were assessed via mother, teacher, and/or adolescent reports at ages 8 through 10 years and again at ages 13 through 14. Home-interview data collected at age 5 years were used to measure antecedent parenting (harsh/reactive, positive/proactive), family background (e.g., socioeconomic status), and mother-rated child behavior problems. Consistent with expectation, monitoring was anteceded by a proactive parenting style and by advantageous family-ecological characteristics, and psychological control was anteceded by harsh parenting and by mothers' earlier reports of child externalizing problems. Consistent with prior research, monitoring was associated with fewer delinquent behavior problems. Links between psychological control and adjustment were more complex: High levels of psychological control were associated with more delinquent problems for girls and for teens who were low in preadolescent delinquent problems, and with more anxiety/depression for girls and for teens who were high in preadolescent anxiety/depression.

  19. A Study on the Conceptualization of Librarians' Career Movement and Identification of Antecedents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Younghee

    2011-01-01

    In today's world, the surrounding environment and organizations are constantly requiring individuals to engage in lifelong learning and develop boundaryless careers. In this paper, the antecedents of career movement for librarians or those working in related organizations will be identified and conceptualized. To this end, this study establishes a…

  20. Using an Antecedent Art Intervention to Improve the Behavior of a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng; Plavnick, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an antecedent art intervention on reduction of off-task behavior for a 3-year-old child with autism. A single-case reversal design was used to show that one-on-one art task instruction occurring prior to large group instructional sessions produced decreased levels of off-task behavior when compared to…

  1. The Costs of Today's Jobs: Job Characteristics and Organizational Supports as Antecedents of Negative Spillover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotto, Angela R.; Lyness, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined job characteristics and organizational supports as antecedents of negative work-to-nonwork spillover for 1178 U.S. employees. Based on hierarchical regression analyses of 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce data and O*NET data, job demands (requirements to work at home beyond scheduled hours, job complexity, time and…

  2. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  3. Utilizing Antecedent Manipulations and Reinforcement in the Treatment of Food Selectivity by Texture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najdowski, Adel C.; Tarbox, Jonathan; Wilke, Arthur E.

    2012-01-01

    Food selectivity by texture is relatively common in children. Treatments for food selectivity by texture have included components such as stimulus fading, reinforcement, and escape extinction. The purpose of the current study was to attempt to treat food selectivity by texture utilizing antecedent manipulations and reinforcement in the absence of…

  4. Developmental Antecedents and Social and Academic Consequences of Stereotype-Consciousness in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Strambler, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which included 124 children ages 5-11, examined developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness, defined as awareness of others' stereotypes. Greater age and more frequent parent-reported racial socialization practices were associated with greater likelihood of stereotype-consciousness.…

  5. An Empirical Investigation of Dispositional Antecedents and Performance-Related Outcomes of Credit Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernerth, Jeremy B.; Taylor, Shannon G.; Walker, H. Jack; Whitman, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations use credit scores as an employment screening tool, but little is known about the legitimacy of such practices. To address this important gap, the reported research conceptualized credit scores as a biographical measure of financial responsibility and investigated dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes. Using…

  6. Utilizing Antecedent Manipulations and Reinforcement in the Treatment of Food Selectivity by Texture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najdowski, Adel C.; Tarbox, Jonathan; Wilke, Arthur E.

    2012-01-01

    Food selectivity by texture is relatively common in children. Treatments for food selectivity by texture have included components such as stimulus fading, reinforcement, and escape extinction. The purpose of the current study was to attempt to treat food selectivity by texture utilizing antecedent manipulations and reinforcement in the absence of…

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis of antecedents of blood donation behavior and intentions.

    PubMed

    Bednall, Timothy C; Bove, Liliana L; Cheetham, Ali; Murray, Andrea L

    2013-11-01

    This meta-analysis sought to identify the strongest antecedents of blood donation behavior and intentions. It synthesized the results of 24 predictive correlational studies of donation behavior and 37 studies of donation intentions. The antecedents were grouped into six research programs: (1) the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and its extensions, (2) prosocial motivation, (3) affective expectations, (4) donor site experience, (5) past donation behavior, and (6) donor demographics. Antecedent categories were cross-validated by multiple coders, and combined effect sizes were analyzed using a random-effects model. For donation behavior, medium positive associations were found with five of the constructs from the extended TPB: intentions to donate, perceived behavioral control, attitude toward donation, self-efficacy and donor role identity. Other antecedents displaying a positive association with donation behavior included anticipated regret for not donating, number of past donations and donor age. Donor experiences at the collection site in the form of temporary deferral or adverse reactions had a medium negative association with behavior. For donation intentions, strong positive associations were observed for perceived behavioral control, attitude, self-efficacy, role identity and anticipated regret. Medium positive associations were observed for personal moral norm, subjective norm, satisfaction, and service quality. All other potential antecedents had weak or non-significant associations with behavior and intentions. Several of these associations were moderated by between-study differences, including donor experience, the period of data collection in which donation behavior was observed, and the use of a nominal (yes/no return) versus a ratio measure of donation behavior. Collectively, the results underscore the importance of enhancing donors' attitudes towards donation and building their perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy to donate. Further

  8. Chronic neuropathic ulcer is not the most common antecedent of lower limb infection or amputation among diabetics admitted to a regional hospital in Jamaica: results from a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    East, Jeffrey M; Fray, Delroy A; Hall, Dwayne E; Longmore, Chapman A

    2015-09-21

    Guidelines of the International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot state that "Amputation of the lower extremity or part of it is usually preceded by a foot ulcer". The authors' impression has been that this statement might not be applicable among patients treated in our institution. A prospective cohort study was designed to determine the frequency distribution of antecedents of lower limb infection or gangrene and amputation among adult diabetics admitted to a Regional Hospital in western Jamaica. Adult diabetics admitted to Hospital with a primary diagnosis of lower limb infection and/or gangrene were eligible for recruitment for a target sample size of 126. Thirty five variables were assessed for each patient-episode of infection and/or gangrene, main outcome variable being amputation during admission or 6-months follow-up. Primary statistical output is the frequency distribution of antecedents/precipitants of lower limb infection and/or gangrene. The data is interrogated by univariate and multivariable logistic regression for variables statistically associated with the main antecedent/precipitant events. Data for 128 patient-episodes were recorded. Most common antecedents/precipitants, in order of decreasing frequency, were idiopathic acute soft tissue infection/ulceration (30.5%, CI; 22.6-39.2%), chronic neuropathic ulcer (23.4%, CI; 16.4-31.7%), closed puncture wounds (19.5%, CI; 13.1-27.5%) and critical limb ischemia (7.8%, CI; 3.8-13.9%). Variables positively associated with non-traumatic antecedents/precipitants at the 5% level of significance were male gender and non-ulcerative foot deformity for idiopathic acute soft tissue infection/ulcer; diabetes >5 years, previous infection either limb, insulin dependence and peripheral sensory neuropathy for chronic neuropathic ulcer and older age, diabetes >5 years, hypertension, non-palpable distal pulses and ankle-brachial index ≤0.4 for critical limb ischemia. Chronic neuropathic ulcer accounted for only 23

  9. AUX/LAX Genes Encode a Family of Auxin Influx Transporters That Perform Distinct Functions during Arabidopsis Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Péret, Benjamin; Swarup, Kamal; Ferguson, Alison; Seth, Malvika; Yang, Yaodong; Dhondt, Stijn; James, Nicholas; Casimiro, Ilda; Perry, Paula; Syed, Adnan; Yang, Haibing; Reemmer, Jesica; Venison, Edward; Howells, Caroline; Perez-Amador, Miguel A.; Yun, Jeonga; Alonso, Jose; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Laplaze, Laurent; Murphy, Angus; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Nielsen, Erik; Swarup, Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Auxin transport, which is mediated by specialized influx and efflux carriers, plays a major role in many aspects of plant growth and development. AUXIN1 (AUX1) has been demonstrated to encode a high-affinity auxin influx carrier. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AUX1 belongs to a small multigene family comprising four highly conserved genes (i.e., AUX1 and LIKE AUX1 [LAX] genes LAX1, LAX2, and LAX3). We report that all four members of this AUX/LAX family display auxin uptake functions. Despite the conservation of their biochemical function, AUX1, LAX1, and LAX3 have been described to regulate distinct auxin-dependent developmental processes. Here, we report that LAX2 regulates vascular patterning in cotyledons. We also describe how regulatory and coding sequences of AUX/LAX genes have undergone subfunctionalization based on their distinct patterns of spatial expression and the inability of LAX sequences to rescue aux1 mutant phenotypes, respectively. Despite their high sequence similarity at the protein level, transgenic studies reveal that LAX proteins are not correctly targeted in the AUX1 expression domain. Domain swapping studies suggest that the N-terminal half of AUX1 is essential for correct LAX localization. We conclude that Arabidopsis AUX/LAX genes encode a family of auxin influx transporters that perform distinct developmental functions and have evolved distinct regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22773749

  10. Reduced Hypoglycemia and Increased Time in Target Using Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery During Nights With or Without Antecedent Afternoon Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sherr, Jennifer L.; Cengiz, Eda; Palerm, Cesar C.; Clark, Bud; Kurtz, Natalie; Roy, Anirban; Carria, Lori; Cantwell, Martin; Tamborlane, William V.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Afternoon exercise increases the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia (NH) in subjects with type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that automated feedback-controlled closed-loop (CL) insulin delivery would be superior to open-loop (OL) control in preventing NH and maintaining a higher proportion of blood glucose levels within the target blood glucose range on nights with and without antecedent afternoon exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects completed two 48-h inpatient study periods in random order: usual OL control and CL control using a proportional-integrative-derivative plus insulin feedback algorithm. Each admission included a sedentary day and an exercise day, with a standardized protocol of 60 min of brisk treadmill walking to 65–70% maximum heart rate at 3:00 p.m. RESULTS Among 12 subjects (age 12–26 years, A1C 7.4 ± 0.6%), antecedent exercise increased the frequency of NH (reference blood glucose <60 mg/dL) during OL control from six to eight events. In contrast, there was only one NH event each on nights with and without antecedent exercise during CL control (P = 0.04 vs. OL nights). Overnight, the percentage of glucose values in target range was increased with CL control (P < 0.0001). Insulin delivery was lower between 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. on nights after exercise on CL versus OL, P = 0.008. CONCLUSIONS CL insulin delivery provides an effective means to reduce the risk of NH while increasing the percentage of time spent in target range, regardless of activity level in the mid-afternoon. These data suggest that CL control could be of benefit to patients with type 1 diabetes even if it is limited to the overnight period. PMID:23757427

  11. Reduced hypoglycemia and increased time in target using closed-loop insulin delivery during nights with or without antecedent afternoon exercise in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sherr, Jennifer L; Cengiz, Eda; Palerm, Cesar C; Clark, Bud; Kurtz, Natalie; Roy, Anirban; Carria, Lori; Cantwell, Martin; Tamborlane, William V; Weinzimer, Stuart A

    2013-10-01

    Afternoon exercise increases the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia (NH) in subjects with type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that automated feedback-controlled closed-loop (CL) insulin delivery would be superior to open-loop (OL) control in preventing NH and maintaining a higher proportion of blood glucose levels within the target blood glucose range on nights with and without antecedent afternoon exercise. Subjects completed two 48-h inpatient study periods in random order: usual OL control and CL control using a proportional-integrative-derivative plus insulin feedback algorithm. Each admission included a sedentary day and an exercise day, with a standardized protocol of 60 min of brisk treadmill walking to 65-70% maximum heart rate at 3:00 p.m. Among 12 subjects (age 12-26 years, A1C 7.4±0.6%), antecedent exercise increased the frequency of NH (reference blood glucose<60 mg/dL) during OL control from six to eight events. In contrast, there was only one NH event each on nights with and without antecedent exercise during CL control (P=0.04 vs. OL nights). Overnight, the percentage of glucose values in target range was increased with CL control (P<0.0001). Insulin delivery was lower between 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. on nights after exercise on CL versus OL, P=0.008. CL insulin delivery provides an effective means to reduce the risk of NH while increasing the percentage of time spent in target range, regardless of activity level in the mid-afternoon. These data suggest that CL control could be of benefit to patients with type 1 diabetes even if it is limited to the overnight period.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Brunner, A.; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  13. Candidate Elastic Quantum Critical Point in LaCu6-xAux

    DOE PAGES

    Poudel, Lekh; May, Andrew F.; Koehler, Michael R.; ...

    2016-11-30

    In this paper, the structural properties of LaCu6-xAux are studied using neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and heat capacity measurements. The continuous orthorhombic-monoclinic structural phase transition in LaCu6 is suppressed linearly with Au substitution until a complete suppression of the structural phase transition occurs at the critical composition xc=0.3. Heat capacity measurements at low temperatures indicate residual structural instability at xc. The instability is ferroelastic in nature, with density functional theory calculations showing negligible coupling to electronic states near the Fermi level. Finally, the data and calculations presented here are consistent with the zero temperature termination of a continuous structural phasemore » transition suggesting that the LaCu6-xAux series hosts an elastic quantum critical point.« less

  14. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Hanneke J M; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G B; Van Den Hoek Ostende, Lars W; Hume, Julian P; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ∼4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo (Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  15. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Hanneke J. M.; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G. B.; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Hume, Julian P.; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ˜4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo ( Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  16. The Aux/IAA, Sl-IAA17 regulates quality parameters over tomato fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Su, LY; Audran, C; Bouzayen, M; Roustan, JP; Chervin, C

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is known to be involved in all the stages of fruit development. Aux/IAAs are regulators of the auxin signaling at the transcription level. In a recent study, using RNAi strategy to limit the expression Sl-IAA17, it was shown that this tomato AuxIAA regulates fruit size mainly through altering the ploidy level of pericarp cells. Indeed, Sl-IAA17 down-regulated lines showed fruit with larger diameter, bigger volume and heavier weight than wild-type. The increase in fruit size was associated with thicker pericarp rather than larger locular spaces. The thicker pericarp was linked to larger cells harboring higher ploidy level, probably due to more active endoreduplication at the beginning of fruit development. The present report describes some additional phenotypes, not described in the initial article, among which are soluble solid content, juice pH, firmness, seed weight and fruit morphology. PMID:26317283

  17. Disruptions in AUX1-dependent auxin influx alter hypocotyl phototropism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Stone, Bethany B; Stowe-Evans, Emily L; Harper, Reneé M; Celaya, R Brandon; Ljung, Karin; Sandberg, Göran; Liscum, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Phototropism represents a differential growth response by which plant organs can respond adaptively to changes in the direction of incident light to optimize leaf/stem positioning for photosynthetic light capture and root growth orientation for water/nutrient acquisition. Studies over the past few years have identified a number of components in the signaling pathway(s) leading to development of phototropic curvatures in hypocotyls. These include the phototropin photoreceptors (phot1 and phot2) that perceive directional blue-light (BL) cues and then stimulate signaling, leading to relocalization of the plant hormone auxin, as well as the auxin response factor NPH4/ARF7 that responds to changes in local auxin concentrations to directly mediate expression of genes likely encoding proteins necessary for development of phototropic curvatures. While null mutations in NPH4/ARF7 condition an aphototropic response to unidirectional BL, seedlings carrying the same mutations recover BL-dependent phototropic responsiveness if co-irradiated with red light (RL) or pre-treated with either ethylene. In the present study, we identify second-site enhancer mutations in the nph4 background that abrogate these recovery responses. One of these mutations--map1 (modifier of arf7 phenotypes 1)--was found to represent a missense allele of AUX1--a gene encoding a high-affinity auxin influx carrier previously associated with a number of root responses. Pharmacological studies and analyses of additional aux1 mutants confirmed that AUX1 functions as a modulator of hypocotyl phototropism. Moreover, we have found that the strength of dependence of hypocotyl phototropism on AUX1-mediated auxin influx is directly related to the auxin responsiveness of the seedling in question.

  18. Decommissioning of the nuclear licensed facilities at the Fontenay aux Roses CEA center

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Piketty, Laurence; Letuhaire, Nathalie; Mandard, Lionel; Meden, Igor; Estivie, David; Boissonneau, Jean Francois; Fouquereau, Alain; Pichereau, Eric; Binet, Cedric

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) center at Fontenay aux Roses (CEN-FAR) is the Commission's oldest center is located in the southern suburbs of Paris. It was opened on 26 March 1946 to host the first French nuclear reactor ZOE that went critical on 12 December 1946. The first laboratories were installed in existing buildings on the site. (authors)

  19. Analysis of subcellular localization of auxin carriers PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, SuiKang; Shen, ChenJia; Zhang, SaiNa; Xu, YanXia; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2011-01-01

    Auxin transport at least correlates to the three gene families: efflux carriers PIN-formed (PIN), p-glycoprotein (PGP), and influx carrier auxin resistant 1/like aux1(AUX/LAX) in Arabidopsis thaliana. In monocotyledon Sorghum bicolor, the biological function of these genes retains unclear. Our previous study reported that the member analysis, organ-specific expression and expression profiles of the auxin transporter PIN, PGP and AUX/LAX gene families in Sorghum bicolor under IAA, brassinosteroid, polar auxin transport inhibitors and abiotic stresses. Here we further supply the prediction of subcellular localization of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP proteins and discuss the potential relationship between the subcellular localization and stress response. The predicted results showed that the most of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP proteins are localized to the plasma membrane, except few localized to vacuolar membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. This data set provides novel information for investigation of auxin transporters in Sorghum bicolor. PMID:22112459

  20. Antecedents and consequences of pediatric dog-bite injuries and their developmental trends: 101 cases in rural China.

    PubMed

    Shen, J; Li, S; Xiang, H; Lu, S; Schwebel, D C

    2014-02-01

    Study the contextual antecedents and consequences of pediatric dog bites in rural China. A total of 101 caregivers from rural Anhui Province, China, whose children had suffered dog-bite injuries in the past year, participated in a structured interview about the circumstances, antecedents and consequences of their child's injury. Contextual circumstances identified frequently included outside-home environment and presence of peers but not adult supervisors. Frequent antecedents were dogs' initiation of the encounter, children walking to/from school, and dogs unleashed. Consequences to children identified frequently were rabies vaccines, restricted activity, and fear of dogs. Developmental trends emerged, with bite circumstances differing by children's ages. These results offer data on common antecedents and consequences of pediatric dog bites in rural China, a necessary prerequisite for development of empirically supported prevention programs in a vulnerable population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social Antecedents of Learned Helplessness in the Health Care Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Kenneth

    The literature on attitudes of health workers toward the elderly suggests three variables as contributing to the elderly patient's perception of helplessness in the health care setting. First, the health worker may age-stereotype the elderly person as dependent, low in competence, and unlikely to respond to treatment. Secondly, the disparity in…

  2. Considering Antecedent Factors for Transplant Recipient Athletes Learning to Live

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Patient education about managing chronic illness is critical given the growing burden of health care costs on society. Transplant recipients are forced into obtaining and learning how to understand complex information. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to highlight learning barriers and effective techniques used to manage care through…

  3. Considering Antecedent Factors for Transplant Recipient Athletes Learning to Live

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Patient education about managing chronic illness is critical given the growing burden of health care costs on society. Transplant recipients are forced into obtaining and learning how to understand complex information. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to highlight learning barriers and effective techniques used to manage care through…

  4. Antecedents and correlates of the popular-aggressive phenomenon in elementary school.

    PubMed

    Rodkin, Philip C; Roisman, Glenn I

    2010-01-01

    This study identified correlates and developmental antecedents that distinguish popular-aggressive elementary school children from other youth. Drawing on the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1022), popular-aggressive children were identified through teacher ratings over Grades 3-6. Potential correlates included social competence as rated by observers, mothers, and teachers. Potential developmental antecedents included cognitive functioning, maternal sensitivity, and participation in child care through age 4.5. Multinomial regressions allowed for the determination of group differences net of covariates such as gender, ethnicity, maternal education, and income-to-needs. Results showed that popular-aggressive elementary school children were distinguished from other youth as having had an extensive child-care history. Discussion focuses on developmental associations between child-care quantity and aggression.

  5. Individual and contextual antecedents of workplace aggression in aged care nurses and certified nursing assistants.

    PubMed

    Rodwell, John; Demir, Defne; Gulyas, Andre

    2015-08-01

    Employees in aged care are at high risk of workplace aggression. Research rarely examines the individual and contextual antecedents of aggression for specific types of workers within these settings, such as nurses and certified nursing assistants (CNAs). The study aimed to explore characteristics of the job demands-resources model (JD-R), negative affectivity (NA) and demographics related to workplace aggression for aged care workers. The survey study was based on 208 nurses and 83 CNAs working within aged care. Data from each group were analysed separately using ordinal regressions. Both aged care nurses and CNAs reported high rates of bullying, external emotional abuse, threat of assault and physical assault. Elements of the JD-R model and individual characteristics were related to aggression types for both groups. Characteristics of the JD-R model, NA and demographics are important in understanding the antecedents of aggression observed among aged care workers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Correlations between Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer data and an antecedent precipitation index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilke, G. D.; Mcfarland, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Passive microwave brightness temperatures from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) can be used to infer the soil moisture content over agricultural areas such as the southern Great Plains of the United States. A linear regression analysis between three transforms of the five dual polarized SMMR wavelengths of 0.81, 1.36, 1.66, 2.80 and 4.54 cm and an antecedent precipitation index representing the precipitation history showed correlation coefficients greater than 0.90 for pixel aggregates of 25-50 km. The use of surface air temperatures to approximate the temperature of the emitting layer was not required to obtain high correlation coefficients between the transforms and the antecedent precipitation index.

  7. [Satisfaction and psychological well-being as antecedents of organisational commitment].

    PubMed

    Mañas, Miguel A; Salvador, Carmen; Boada, Joan; González, Esperanza; Agulló, Esteban

    2007-08-01

    Satisfaction and psychological well-being as antecedents of organisational commitment. The role of organisational commitment in public administration and its repercussions on the institution are examined in this study. It reports part of a larger research project that studies job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being as antecedents of organisational commitment. Data were collected from 697 public-sector employees, using questionnaires. Results showed that job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being were strong predictors of organisational commitment. Higher levels of job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being were associated with more favourable perceptions of organisational commitment. Furthermore, this study highlights the impact of dynamic work on the employee's commitment.

  8. Antecedent manipulations in a tangible condition: effects of stimulus preference on aggression.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, M M; Wilczynski, S M; Moore, J W; Fusilier, I; Trahant, D

    2001-01-01

    After a functional analysis indicated that aggression of an 8-year-old boy with autism was maintained by access to preferred items, antecedent manipulations involving the relative preference of restricted and noncontingently available stimuli were conducted. Restricting highly preferred items evoked the highest rates of aggression regardless of the preference level of the noncontingently available alternative items. Restricting less preferred stimuli was associated with moderate rates of aggression even when the alternative items were more preferred. PMID:11421319

  9. Perceived sexual harassment at work: meta-analysis and structural model of antecedents and consequences.

    PubMed

    Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Morales Domínguez, J F; Depolo, Marco

    2008-05-01

    Although sexual harassment has been extensively studied, empirical research has not led to firm conclusions about its antecedents and consequences, both at the personal and organizational level. An extensive literature search yielded 42 empirical studies with 60 samples. The matrix correlation obtained through meta-analytic techniques was used to test a structural equation model. Results supported the hypotheses regarding organizational environmental factors as main predictors of harassment.

  10. [Mobbing: a meta-analysis and integrative model of its antecedents and consequences].

    PubMed

    Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Depolo, Marco; Morales Domínguez, J Francisco

    2007-02-01

    Although mobbing has been extensively studied, empirical research has not led to firm conclusions regarding its antecedents and consequences, both at personal and organizational levels. An extensive literature search yielded 86 empirical studies with 93 samples. The matrix correlation obtained through meta-analytic techniques was used to test a structural equation model. Results supported hypotheses regarding organizational environmental factors as main predictors of mobbing.

  11. What is Informal Learning and What are its Antecedents? An Integrative and Meta-Analytic Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Christopher P. Cerasoli George M. Alliger Jamie S. Donsbach The Group for Organizational Effectiveness John E. Mathieu University of...Christopher P. Cerasoli, George M. Alliger , Jamie S. Donsbach; John E. Mathieu; Scott I. Tannenbaum; Karin A. Orvis 5c. PROJECT NUMBER...What are its Antecedents? An Integrative and Meta-Analytic Review Christopher P. Cerasoli, George M. Alliger Jamie S. Donsbach The Group for

  12. Increased hair cortisol and antecedent somatic complaints in children with a first epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Stavropoulos, Ioannis; Pervanidou, Panagiota; Gnardellis, Charalampos; Loli, Nomiki; Theodorou, Virginia; Mantzou, Aimilia; Soukou, Faye; Sinani, Olga; Chrousos, George P

    2017-03-01

    Stress is the most frequent seizure-precipitating factor reported by patients with epilepsy, while stressful life events may increase seizure susceptibility in humans. In this study, we investigated the relations between both biological and behavioral measures of stress in children with a first epileptic seizure (hereafter called seizure). We hypothesized that hair cortisol, a biomarker of chronic stress reflecting approximately 3months of preceding exposure, might be increased in children with a first seizure. We also employed standardized questionnaires to examine presence of stress-related behavioral markers. This was a cross-sectional clinical study investigating stress-related parameters in children with a first seizure (First Epileptic Seizure Group (FESG), n=22) in comparison to healthy children without seizures (Control Group, n=29). Within 24h after a first seizure, hair samples were collected from children for the determination of cortisol. In parallel, perceived stress and anxiety and depressive symptoms were examined with appropriate self- and parent-completed questionnaires, and history of stressful life events during the past year was recorded. Emotional and behavioral problems were also assessed by parent-reported validated and widely-used questionnaires. Higher hair cortisol measurements were observed in the FESG than control children (7.5 versus 5.0pg/mg respectively, p=0.001). The former were more likely to complain of somatic problems than the latter (59.8 vs. 55.4 according to DSM-oriented Scale, p=0.021); however, there were no differences in perceived stress and anxiety or depressive symptoms between the two groups. Using ROC analysis of hair cortisol measurements for predicting disease status, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were observed for a cut-off point of 5.25pg/mg. Increased hair cortisol indicates chronic hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis prior to the first seizure. This might have contributed to

  13. Intoxications aigues aux organophosphores chez la femme enceinte

    PubMed Central

    Barhoumi, Mohamed Hafed; Bannour, Badra; Barhoumi, Tarek; Jouini, Rami; Marwene, Nadia; Fatnassi, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-01-01

    Les intoxications aiguës par les pesticides organophosphorés (OP) au cours de la grossesse sont des événements rares, peu décrites dans la littérature. A travers cette étude rétrospective, nous rapportons les résultats de sept cas d’ingestion suicidaire d’OP chez des femmes enceintes. Cette intoxication était le plus souvent grave. En effet, cinq des sept parturientes avaient un Glasgow initial < 9 et le POP score était ≥ 3 chez toutes les parturientes. Cinq patientes avaient nécessité une ventilation mécanique de durée moyenne de 3,4 jours. L’évolution était favorable pour toutes les patientes mais dans plus de la moitié des cas elle était défavorable pour le fœtus (mort fœtal in utéro). Deux mécanismes peuvent expliquer ces complications fœtales. Le premier est l’hypoxie fœtale associée ou non à un état de choc qui peuvent se traduire au niveau du RCF par une tachycardie ou des décélérations et aboutir ainsi à un décès in utero. Le deuxième mécanisme est le passage de ces pesticides à travers la barrière placentaire, ce qui pose un risque potentiel pour le fœtus par altération des systèmes enzymatiques des microsomes. PMID:28293343

  14. The effects of preterm birth and its antecedents on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Bensley, Jonathan G; De Matteo, Robert; Harding, Richard; Black, Mary J

    2016-06-01

    Preterm birth occurs in approximately 10% of all births worldwide. It prematurely exposes the developing cardiovascular system to the hemodynamic transition that occurs at birth and to the subsequent functional demands of life ex utero. This review describes the current knowledge of the effects of preterm birth, and some of its common antecedents (chorioamnionitis, intra-uterine growth restriction, and maternal antenatal corticosteroid administration), on the structure of the myocardium. A thorough literature search was conducted for articles relating to how preterm birth, and its antecedents, affect development of the heart. Given that sheep are an excellent model for the studies of cardiac development, this review has focused on experimental studies in sheep as well as clinical findings. Our review of the literature demonstrates that individuals born preterm are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life, including increased mean arterial pressure, abnormally shaped and sub-optimally performing hearts and changes in the vasculature. The review highlights how antenatal corticosteroids, intra-uterine growth restriction, and exposure to chorioamnionitis also have the potential to impact cardiac growth in the preterm newborn. Preterm birth and its common antecedents (antenatal corticosteroids, intra-uterine growth restriction, and chorioamnionitis) have the potential to adversely impact cardiac structure immediately following birth and in later life. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Antecedent ADHD, dementia, and metabolic dysregulation: A U.S. based cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Fluegge, Keith; Fluegge, Kyle

    2017-08-12

    Epidemiological and genetic studies have reported a link between antecedent ADHD and dementia. The underpinning mechanisms of these associations are not known and have generated considerable speculation. We have extracted hospitalization discharge data on dementia and ADHD (representing a severe phenotype) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUPnet) and utilized a Poisson regression with two-ways fixed effects to investigate this association. An unadjusted ten-year lagged measure of a severe ADHD phenotype increases hospitalization risk for an all-listed Lewy Body Dementia (LBD) diagnosis (IRR: 1.21, 95% C.I. 1.08-1.35) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) discharge diagnosis (IRR: 1.15, 95% C.I.: 1.05-1.27). However, these relationships may be dependent upon the extent of metabolic dysregulation in a subtype-specific manner, as controlling for diabetes removes the significant association between antecedent ADHD and risk of AD but not LBD. These results indicate that the association between antecedent ADHD and dementia risk may be uniquely influenced by metabolic dysregulation, building upon prior discussion in this journal of a purported link between AD and diabetes. We tie the current findings to environmental risk factors that we have previously implicated in the etiology of ADHD to generate testable hypotheses on the underlying brain neurochemistry that may facilitate the link between metabolic dysregulation and dementia subtype risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An assessment of antecedent events influencing noncompliance in an outpatient clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Call, Nathan A; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Cooper-Brown, Linda J; Boeiter, Eric W

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown that various factors can influence noncompliance, including task novelty, rate of presentation, and task preference. This study examined the impact of selected antecedent variables on noncompliance in an outpatient clinic setting. In two experiments involving 6 typically developing children, the consequences for noncompliance remained constant. During Experiment 1, demands that included noncontingent access to adult attention were contrasted with the same demands that did not include attention within a multielement design. In Experiment 2, demands were altered by decreasing the difficulty or amount of work or providing access to attention. In both experiments, results indicated idiosyncratic responses to the manipulated variables, with decreases in noncompliance observed following introduction of one or more antecedent variables with 5 of the 6 participants. These results suggested that noncompliance can be reduced via changes in antecedent variables, including adding potential positive reinforcers to the task situation, and that it is possible to probe variables that alter noncompliance in an outpatient clinic setting. PMID:15293634

  17. Antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment in organizations: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Scott E; Wang, Gang; Courtright, Stephen H

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides meta-analytic support for an integrated model specifying the antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment. Results indicate that contextual antecedent constructs representing perceived high-performance managerial practices, socio-political support, leadership, and work characteristics are each strongly related to psychological empowerment. Positive self-evaluation traits are related to psychological empowerment and are as strongly related as the contextual factors. Psychological empowerment is in turn positively associated with a broad range of employee outcomes, including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and task and contextual performance, and is negatively associated with employee strain and turnover intentions. Team empowerment is positively related to team performance. Further, the magnitude of parallel antecedent and outcome relationships at the individual and team levels is statistically indistinguishable, demonstrating the generalizability of empowerment theory across these 2 levels of analysis. A series of analyses also demonstrates the validity of psychological empowerment as a unitary second-order construct. Implications and future directions for empowerment research and theory are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Lésions concomitantes aux genoux flottants et gravite

    PubMed Central

    Eone, Daniel Handy; Lamah, Léopold; Bayiha, Jean Emile; Ondoa, Danielle Larissa Essomba; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Ibrahima, Farikou; Bahebeck, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Le genou flottant est issu d’un traumatisme de haute énergie, dont la genèse suggère de vaste dégâts aussi bien sur le plan locorégional que général. Faisant référence au polytaumatisme. Le but de notre étude était de recenser toutes les lésions concomitantes au genou flottant dans notre milieu de pratique et d’évaluer la sévérité. Nous avons mené une étude descriptive et rétrospective couvrant une période de 14 ans et 9 mois. Sur un échantillon de 75 genoux flottants, avec une moyenne d’âge de 35 ans. Soixante six patients avaient obtenu un score d’ISS supérieur ou égal à 16 donc qualifié de polytraumatisé. Les traumatismes crâniens, les lésions thoraciques et abdominales retrouvés en même temps que le genou flottant exigent une réanimation adéquate. PMID:28292046

  19. Semi-arid vegetation response to antecedent climate and water balance windows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thoma, David P.; Munson, Seth M.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Witwicki, Dana L.; Bunting, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Questions Can we improve understanding of vegetation response to water availability on monthly time scales in semi-arid environments using remote sensing methods? What climatic or water balance variables and antecedent windows of time associated with these variables best relate to the condition of vegetation? Can we develop credible near-term forecasts from climate data that can be used to prepare for future climate change effects on vegetation? Location Semi-arid grasslands in Capitol Reef National Park, Utah, USA. Methods We built vegetation response models by relating the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from MODIS imagery in Mar–Nov 2000–2013 to antecedent climate and water balance variables preceding the monthly NDVI observations. We compared how climate and water balance variables explained vegetation greenness and then used a multi-model ensemble of climate and water balance models to forecast monthly NDVI for three holdout years. Results Water balance variables explained vegetation greenness to a greater degree than climate variables for most growing season months. Seasonally important variables included measures of antecedent water input and storage in spring, switching to indicators of drought, input or use in summer, followed by antecedent moisture availability in autumn. In spite of similar climates, there was evidence the grazed grassland showed a response to drying conditions 1 mo sooner than the ungrazed grassland. Lead times were generally short early in the growing season and antecedent window durations increased from 3 mo early in the growing season to 1 yr or more as the growing season progressed. Forecast accuracy for three holdout years using a multi-model ensemble of climate and water balance variables outperformed forecasts made with a naïve NDVI climatology. Conclusions We determined the influence of climate and water balance on vegetation at a fine temporal scale, which presents an opportunity to forecast vegetation

  20. Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Influenza Vaccination, and Antecedent Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Infections: A Case-Centered Analysis in the Vaccine Safety Datalink, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Sharon K.; Rett, Melisa D.; Vellozzi, Claudia; Li, Lingling; Kulldorff, Martin; Marcy, S. Michael; Daley, Matthew F.; Belongia, Edward A.; Baxter, Roger; Fireman, Bruce H.; Jackson, Michael L.; Omer, Saad B.; Nordin, James D.; Jin, Robert; Weintraub, Eric S.; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Lee, Grace M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) can be triggered by gastrointestinal or respiratory infections, including influenza. During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in the United States, monovalent inactivated influenza vaccine (MIV) availability coincided with high rates of wildtype influenza infections. Several prior studies suggested an elevated GBS risk following MIV, but adjustment for antecedent infection was limited. Methods We identified patients enrolled in health plans participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink and diagnosed with GBS from July 2009 through June 2011. Medical records of GBS cases with 2009–10 MIV, 2010–11 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV), and/or a medically-attended respiratory or gastrointestinal infection in the 1 through 141 days prior to GBS diagnosis were reviewed and classified according to Brighton Collaboration criteria for diagnostic certainty. Using a case-centered design, logistic regression models adjusted for patient-level time-varying sources of confounding, including seasonal vaccinations and infections in GBS cases and population-level controls. Results Eighteen confirmed GBS cases received vaccination in the 6 weeks preceding onset, among 1.27 million 2009–10 MIV recipients and 2.80 million 2010–11 TIV recipients. Forty-four confirmed GBS cases had infection in the 6 weeks preceding onset, among 3.77 million patients diagnosed with medically-attended infection. The observed-versus-expected odds that 2009–10 MIV/2010–11 TIV was received in the 6 weeks preceding GBS onset was odds ratio = 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59–3.99; risk difference = 0.93 per million doses, 95% CI, −0.71–5.16. The association between GBS and medically-attended infection was: odds ratio = 7.73, 95% CI, 3.60–16.61; risk difference = 11.62 per million infected patients, 95% CI, 4.49–26.94. These findings were consistent in sensitivity analyses using alternative infection definitions

  1. Les surdosages aux antivitamines K à Dakar: aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutifs

    PubMed Central

    Dia, Khadidiatou; Sarr, Simon Antoine; Mboup, Mohamed Cherif; Ba, Djibril Marie; Fall, Pape Diadie

    2016-01-01

    Les antivitamines K (AVK) sont largement utilisées dans la prévention et le traitement curatif des accidents thromboemboliques. Les objectifs de ce travail étaient de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutifs des surdosages en AVK et d’en déterminer les facteurs hémorragiques. Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive, transversale monocentrique réalisée à l’Hôpital Principal de Dakar. Tous les patients qui présentaient un INR supérieur à 5 étaient inclus. Etaient étudiés le sexe, l’âge du patient, l’AVK utilisé, l’ancienneté de sa prise, les indications, la valeur de l’INR, les médicaments associés, la présence d’hémorragie, la prise en charge immédiate et l’évolution. Nous avons inclus 154 patients. L’acénocoumarol était l’AVK le plus prescrit. Le sexe ratio était en faveur des femmes. L’âge moyen était de 63 ans. Le surdosage était asymptomatique chez 43% des patients. Les hémorragies étaient représentées principalement par des gingivorragies, épistaxis. Des hémorragies majeures étaient présentes chez 8,6% des patients représentées par des mélénas chez 6 patients (3,9%), un hématome musculaire profond chez 2 patients (1,3%) et des hématomes cérébraux intra-parenchymateux chez 2 autres. Deux patients présentaient un collapsus cardiovasculaire avec déglobulisation. Une prise d’AINS était notée chez 21% des patients. Les AVK ont été transitoirement arrêtés chez tous les patients. La mortalité était de 2% par hémorragie intracrânienne. La réduction des surdosages aux AVK passe par une maitrise par le personnel soignant des facteurs de surdosage et par bonne éducation thérapeutique des patients. PMID:27795783

  2. New Graduate Nurses' Professional Commitment: Antecedents and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Sylvie; Chênevert, Denis; Kilroy, Steven

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the factors that increase new graduate nurses' professional commitment and how this professional commitment in turn affects professional turnover intentions, anxiety, and physical health symptoms. The study was carried out in association with the nursing undergraduate's affiliation of Quebec, Canada. A three-wave longitudinal design was employed among nursing students. Nurses were surveyed before they entered the labor market, and then twice after they started working. Participants were contacted by post at their home address. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Professional commitment explains why good work characteristics and the provision of organizational resources related to patient care reduce nurses' anxiety and physical symptoms, and increase their professional turnover intentions. Pre-entry professional perceptions moderate the effects of work characteristics on professional commitment such that when participants hold positive pre-entry perceptions about the profession, the propensity to develop professional commitment is higher. There is a worldwide shortage of nurses. From a nurse training perspective, it is important to create realistic perceptions of the nursing role. In hospitals, providing a good work environment and resources conducive to their professional ethos is critical for ensuring nurses do not leave the profession early on in their careers. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission.

  4. The impact of antecedent trauma exposure and mental health symptoms on the post-deployment mental health of Afghanistan-deployed Australian troops.

    PubMed

    Searle, Amelia K; Van Hooff, Miranda; Lawrence-Wood, Ellie R; Grace, Blair S; Saccone, Elizabeth J; Davy, Carol P; Lorimer, Michelle; McFarlane, Alexander C

    2017-10-01

    Both traumatic deployment experiences and antecedent traumas increase personnel's risk of developing PTSD and depression. However, only cross-sectional studies have assessed whether antecedent trauma moderates stress reactions to deployment experiences. This study prospectively examines whether antecedent trauma moderates the association between deployment trauma and post-deployment PTSD and depressive symptoms after accounting for antecedent mental health problems, in a large Australian Defence Force (ADF) sample. In the ADF Middle East Area of Operations Prospective Study, currently-serving military personnel deployed to Afghanistan across 2010-2012 (n = 1122) completed self-reported measures at pre-deployment and post-deployment. Within multivariable regressions, associations between deployment trauma and PTSD and depressive symptoms at post-deployment were stronger for personnel with greater antecedent trauma. However, once adjusting for antecedent mental health problems, these significant interaction effects disappeared. Instead, deployment-related trauma and antecedent mental health problems showed direct associations with post-deployment mental health problems. Antecedent trauma was also indirectly associated with post-deployment mental health problems through antecedent mental health problems. Similar associations were seen with prior combat exposure as a moderator. Antecedent and deployment trauma were reported retrospectively. Self-reports may also suffer from social desirability bias, especially at pre-deployment. Our main effects results support the pervasive and cumulative negative effect of trauma on military personnel, regardless of its source. While antecedent trauma does not amplify personnel's psychological response to deployment trauma, it is indirectly associated with increased post-deployment mental health problems. Antecedent mental health should be considered within pre-deployment prevention programs, and deployment-trauma within post

  5. Chemical composition and geologic history of saline waters in Aux Vases and Cypress Formations, Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demir, I.; Seyler, B.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six samples of formation waters were collected from oil wells producing from the Aux Vases or Cypress Formations in the Illinois Basin. Forty core samples of the reservoir rocks were also collected from the two formations. Analyses of the samples indicated that the total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the waters ranged from 43,300 to 151,400 mg/L, far exceeding the 35,400 mg/mL of TDS found in typical seawater. Cl-Br relations suggested that high salinities in the Aux Vases and Cypress formation waters resulted from the evaporation of original seawater and subsequent mixing of the evaporated seawater with concentrated halite solutions. Mixing with the halite solutions increased Na and Cl concentrations and diluted the concentration of other ions in the formation waters. The elemental concentrations were influenced further by diagenetic reactions with silicate and carbonate minerals. Diagenetic signatures revealed by fluid chemistry and rock mineralogy delineated the water-rock interactions that took place in the Aux Vases and Cypress sandstones. Dissolution of K-feldspar released K into the solution, leading to the formation of authigenic illite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Some Mg was removed from the solution by the formation of authigenic chlorite and dolomite. Dolomitization, calcite recrystallization, and contribution from clay minerals raised Sr levels significantly in the formation waters. The trend of increasing TDS of the saline formation waters with depth can be explained with density stratification. But, it is difficult to explain the combination of the increasing TDS and increasing Ca/Na ratio with depth without invoking the controversial 'ion filtration' mechanism.

  6. Identification of ARF and AUX/IAA gene families in Rafflesia cantleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Nur Atiqah Mohd; Goh, Hoe-Han; Isa, Nurulhikma Md; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2016-11-01

    Rafflesia is a unique plant that produces the largest flowers in the world. It has a short blooming period of 6 to 7 days. Due to its rarity and limited accessibility, little is known about the growth and developmental process in the Rafflesia plant. In all plant species, auxin is the key hormone that is involved in growth and development. The auxin signal transduction involves members of the ARF transcription factor and AUX/IAA regulator families, which activate or inhibit the regulation of auxin response genes, thereby control the developmental process in plants. To gain a better understanding of molecular regulations in the Rafflesia plant development during flowering, members of the ARF and AUX/IAA gene families were identified from the transcriptome data of flower blooming stages in Rafflesia cantleyi. Based on Rafflesia unique transcripts (UTs) against the Arabidopsis TAIR database using BLASTX search, a total of nine UTs were identified as ARF transcription factors, while another seven UTs were identified as AUX/IAA regulators. These genes were found to be expressed in all three R. cantleyi flower stages i.e. days 1 (F1), 3 (F2), and 5 (F3). Gene expression analysis identified three genes that are differentially expressed in stage F1 vs. F2 i.e. IAA4 is upregulated while IAA8 and ARF3 are downregulated. These genes may be involved in the activation and/or inhibition of the auxin signal transduction pathway. Further analysis of these genes may unravel their function in the phenotypic development of the Rafflesia plant.

  7. Silver birch (Betula pendula) plants with aux and rol genes show consistent changes in morphology, xylem structure and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Piispanen, Riikka; Aronen, Tuija; Chen, Xiwen; Saranpää, Pekka; Häggman, Hely

    2003-08-01

    The effects of Agrobacterium pRiA4 rol and aux genes, controlled by their endogenous promoters, on tree growth and wood anatomy and chemistry were studied in 5- and 7-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) plants. Southern hybridization confirmed the following rol and aux gene combinations: control plants (no genes transferred); plants with rolC and rolD genes; plants with rolA, rolB, rolC and rolD genes; and plants with rolA, rolB, rolC, rolD, aux1 and aux2 genes. Transgene mRNA was most abundant in phloem/cambium samples and in the developing xylem, whereas no expression was detected in leaves. Plants with rolC and rolD genes or with all the rol genes were significantly shorter and had smaller leaves and a more bushy growth habit than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Morphological observations and wood chemistry analyses revealed that plants with rol genes produced less xylem and broke bud later than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Tension wood was detected in both control and transgenic plants irrespective of their gene combination, probably as a result of greenhouse cultivation. Xylem fibers were shorter in transgenic plants than in control plants, and plants with all the rol genes were characterized by shorter vessels compared with the control plants and a smaller proportional area of vessels compared with the other groups. In addition, silver birch plants with all the rol genes had approximately a 3.3% lower concentration of total acid soluble carbohydrates than control plants. We conclude that the rolC and rolD genes induced the typical "rol-phenotype," and that this was emphasized by concomitant expression of the rolA and rolB genes and alleviated by the presence of aux1 and aux2 genes. We observed consistent phenotypic effects of rol and aux genes on the morphology, anatomy and cell wall chemistry of the plants.

  8. Arabidopsis seed germination speed is controlled by SNL histone deacetylase-binding factor-mediated regulation of AUX1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Chen, Fengying; Li, Xiaoying; Cao, Hong; Ding, Meng; Zhang, Cun; Zuo, Jinghong; Xu, Chaonan; Xu, Jimei; Deng, Xin; Xiang, Yong; Soppe, Wim J. J.; Liu, Yongxiu

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is known to affect the speed of seed germination, but the molecular regulatory basis of this remains ambiguous. Here we report that loss of function of two histone deacetylase-binding factors, SWI-INDEPENDENT3 (SIN3)-LIKE1 (SNL1) and SNL2, results in accelerated radicle protrusion and growth during seed germination. AUXIN RESISTANT 1 (AUX1) is identified as a key factor in this process, enhancing germination speed downstream of SNL1 and SNL2. AUX1 expression and histone H3 acetylation at lysines 9 and 18 is regulated by SNL1 and SNL2. The D-type cyclins encoding genes CYCD1;1 and CYCD4;1 display increased expression in AUX1 over-expression lines and the snl1snl2 double mutant. Accordingly, knockout of CYCD4;1 reduces seed germination speed of AUX1 over-expression lines and snl1snl2 suggesting the importance of cell cycling for radicle protrusion during seed germination. Together, our work identifies AUX1 as a link between histone acetylation mediated by SNL1 and SNL2, and radicle growth promoted by CYCD1;1 and CYCD4;1 during seed germination. PMID:27834370

  9. The role of AUX1 gene and auxin content to the branching phenotype of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).

    PubMed

    Arumingtyas, Estri L; Mastuti, R; Indriyani, S

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify auxin gene, AUX1, and to determine the plant auxin content and their role in conferring branching on Kenaf. PCR analysis using AUX1 primer capable to amplify the DNA of non branching (KR11) and branching kenaf mutant, resulting in 800 bp PCR product. The sequence of the PCR product showed high degree of homology with the sequence of AUX1 gene of other plants in the NCBI GenBank database, confirming kenaf possession of the gene AUX1. However, some variation on the DNA sequence was found between branching and non branching phenotype indicated allele differences of the same gene which were responsible for the variation in the type of branching. Identification of auxin content in the roots, apical shoot, and axillary branches using spectrophotometry method showed that the branching plant has higher auxin content in the apical shoot compared to the content in the branches. This indicate that AUX1 controls the formation of branches by controlling either the content of auxin in the apical shoot and branches, or the ratio of auxin content in the shoot and branches.

  10. Antecedent rivers and early rifting: a case study from the Plio-Pleistocene Corinth rift, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemelsdaël, Romain; Ford, Mary; Malartre, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    Models of early rifting present syn-rift sedimentation as the direct response to the development of normal fault systems where footwall-derived drainage supplies alluvial to lacustrine sediments into hangingwall depocentres. These models often include antecedent rivers, diverted into active depocentres and with little impact on facies distributions. However, antecedent rivers can supply a high volume of sediment from the onset of rifting. What are the interactions between major antecedent rivers and a growing normal fault system? What are the implications for alluvial stratigraphy and facies distributions in early rifts? These questions are investigated by studying a Plio-Pleistocene fluvial succession on the southern margin of the Corinth rift (Greece). In the northern Peloponnese, early syn-rift deposits are preserved in a series of uplifted E-W normal fault blocks (10-15 km long, 3-7 km wide). Detailed sedimentary logging and high resolution mapping of the syn-rift succession (400 to 1300 m thick) define the architecture of the early rift alluvial system. Magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphic markers are used to date and correlate the fluvial succession within and between fault blocks. The age of the succession is between 4.0 and 1.8 Ma. We present a new tectonostratigraphic model for early rift basins based on our reconstructions. The early rift depositional system was established across a series of narrow normal fault blocks. Palaeocurrent data show that the alluvial basin was supplied by one major sediment entry point. A low sinuosity braided river system flowed over 15 to 30 km to the NE. Facies evolved downstream from coarse conglomerates to fined-grained fluvial deposits. Other minor sediment entry points supply linked and isolated depocentres. The main river system terminated eastward where it built stacked small deltas into a shallow lake (5 to 15 m deep) that occupied the central Corinth rift. The main fluvial axis remained constant and controlled

  11. Predictive parameters for the antecedent development of hip pathology associated with long segment fusions to the pelvis for the treatment of adult spinal deformity

    PubMed Central

    Kinon, Merritt D.; Nasser, Rani; Nakhla, Jonathan P.; Adogwa, Owoicho; Moreno, Jessica R.; Harowicz, Michael; Verla, Terence; Yassari, Reza; Bagley, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The surgical treatment of adult scoliosis frequently involves long segment fusions across the lumbosacral joints that redistribute tremendous amounts of force to the remaining mobile spinal segments as well as to the pelvis and hip joints. Whether or not these forces increase the risk of femoral bone pathology remains unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the correlation between long segment spinal fusions to the pelvis and the antecedent development of degenerative hip pathologies as well as what predictive patient characteristics, if any, correlate with their development. Methods: A retrospective chart review of all long segment fusions to the pelvis for adult degenerative deformity operated on by the senior author at the Duke Spine Center from February 2008 to March 2014 was undertaken. Enrolment criteria included all available demographic, surgical, and clinical outcome data as well as pre and postoperative hip pathology assessment. All patients had prospectively collected outcome measures and a minimum 2-year follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed comparing the incidence of preoperative hip pain and antecedent postoperative hip pain as a function of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and number of spinal levels fused. Results: In total, 194 patients were enrolled in this study. Of those, 116 patients (60%) reported no hip pain prior to surgery. Eighty-three patients (71.6%) remained hip pain free, whereas 33 patients (28.5%) developed new postoperative hip pain. Age, gender, and BMI were not significant among those who went on to develop hip pain postoperatively (P < 0.0651, 0.3491, and 0.1021, respectively). Of the 78 patients with preoperative hip pain, 20 patients (25.6%) continued to have hip pain postoperatively, whereas 58 patients reported improvement in the hip pain after long segment fusion for correction of their deformity, a 74.4% rate of reduction. Age, gender, and BMI were not significant among

  12. The Influence of Antecedent Soil Moisture on Springtime Runoff in the Sierra Nevada Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Dettinger, M. D.

    2009-12-01

    As the changing climate influences precipitation, air temperature, and snowmelt, measurements in the Sierra Nevada are illustrating the contribution of antecedent soil moisture on the timing and volume of springtime runoff. Delays in runoff correspond to low antecedent soil moisture from the preceding fall when snow fell on dry soil. In the Tuolumne River streamgage at the Little Grand Canyon just above Hetch Hetchy reservoir, no delay occurred between runoff and snowmelt in 2007 when the soil was wetter due to a cooler summer and fall rains. However, a 26-day delay in runoff was observed after the onset of snowmelt in 2008 when the soil was drier than the preceding fall at the time of the first snowfall due to a hotter and drier summer. If soils are dry prior to snowfall then the soil moisture is first replenished by springtime snowmelt, which not only delays runoff, but also reduces runoff volume to less than that estimated from snow pack. Typical runoff forecasts rely heavily on snow survey data and snowpack conditions, and the exclusion of soil moisture data could lead to an overestimate of the amount of runoff and compromise reservoir operations. In an average snowfall year, for example, the Kaweah Basin in the southern Sierra Nevada could lose as much as 20 percent of its snow water equivalent and the Merced Basin could lose 12 percent of its snow water equivalent simply to recharge soil moisture. Analyses of measured soil moisture in the Sierra Nevada, corresponding high elevation streamflow records, regional hydrologic modeling, and analysis of future climate projections to define the nature of summer and fall temperature and precipitation, will be used to illustrate the important role antecedent soil moisture plays in the timing and volume of springtime runoff in a changing climate.

  13. Why continuous simulation? The role of antecedent moisture in design flood estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathiraja, S.; Westra, S.; Sharma, A.

    2012-06-01

    Continuous simulation for design flood estimation is increasingly becoming a viable alternative to traditional event-based methods. The advantage of continuous simulation approaches is that the catchment moisture state prior to the flood-producing rainfall event is implicitly incorporated within the modeling framework, provided the model has been calibrated and validated to produce reasonable simulations. This contrasts with event-based models in which both information about the expected sequence of rainfall and evaporation preceding the flood-producing rainfall event, as well as catchment storage and infiltration properties, are commonly pooled together into a single set of "loss" parameters which require adjustment through the process of calibration. To identify the importance of accounting for antecedent moisture in flood modeling, this paper uses a continuous rainfall-runoff model calibrated to 45 catchments in the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Flood peaks derived using the historical daily rainfall record are compared with those derived using resampled daily rainfall, for which the sequencing of wet and dry days preceding the heavy rainfall event is removed. The analysis shows that there is a consistent underestimation of the design flood events when antecedent moisture is not properly simulated, which can be as much as 30% when only 1 or 2 days of antecedent rainfall are considered, compared to 5% when this is extended to 60 days of prior rainfall. These results show that, in general, it is necessary to consider both short-term memory in rainfall associated with synoptic scale dependence, as well as longer-term memory at seasonal or longer time scale variability in order to obtain accurate design flood estimates.

  14. The Relationship Between Anaphor Features and Antecedent Retrieval: Comparing Mandarin Ziji and Ta-Ziji

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Brian; Chow, Wing-Yee; Xiang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we report two self-paced reading experiments that investigate antecedent retrieval processes in sentence comprehension by contrasting the real-time processing behavior of two different reflexive anaphors in Mandarin Chinese. Previous work has suggested that comprehenders initially evaluate the fit between the morphologically simple long-distance reflexive “ziji” and the closest available subject position, only subsequently considering more structurally distant antecedents (Gao et al., 2005; Liu, 2009; Li and Zhou, 2010; Dillon et al., 2014; cf. Chen et al., 2012). In this paper, we investigate whether this locality bias effect obtains for other reflexive anaphors in Mandarin Chinese, or if it is associated specifically with the morphologically simple reflexive ziji. We do this by comparing the processing of ziji to the processing of the morphologically complex reflexive ta-ziji (lit. s/he-self). In Experiment 1, we investigate the processing of ziji, and replicate the finding of a strong locality bias effect for ziji in self-paced reading measures. In Experiment 2, we investigate the processing of the morphologically complex reflexive ta-ziji in the same structural configurations as Experiment 1. A comparison of our experiments reveals that ta-ziji shows a significantly weaker locality bias effect than ziji does. We propose that this results from the difference in the number of morphological and semantic features on the anaphor ta-ziji relative to ziji. Specifically, we propose that the additional retrieval cues associated with ta-ziji reduce interference from irrelevant representations in memory, allowing it to more reliably access an antecedent regardless its linear or structural distance. This reduced interference in turn leads to a diminished locality bias effect for the morphologically complex anaphor ta-ziji. PMID:26779079

  15. Antecedents to workplace injury in the health care industry: A synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    McCaughey, Deirdre; Kimmel, Ashley; Savage, Grant; Lukas, Tiana; Walsh, Erin; Halbesleben, Jonathon

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Labor has identified the health care industry as a major source of all U.S. workplace injuries. Studies have shown that injury within the health care workforce is related to high turnover rates, burnout, poor job satisfaction, and leaving the health care workforce permanently, thus contributing to the existing health care workforce shortages. The purpose of this synthesis of the literature was twofold. The first was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the occupational health and safety literature to determine the key antecedents to health care provider injury. The second was to utilize the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) framework to organize the findings. Empirical studies published between 1985 and 2013 examining work-related injuries sustained by nurses and nurses' aides were systematically reviewed and evaluated for inclusion in the synthesis of the literature. Thirty-six studies met the criteria for inclusion. Using the NIOSH framework, antecedent variables to workplace injury were identified and then grouped into three broad categories that were highlighted during the synthesis: organization of work, job characteristics, and safety programs and training. A fourth category, individual characteristics, was added based on its use by many studies. Over half of the studies (n = 20) included factors within the organization of work category. Over two thirds of the studies (n = 26) included job characteristics such as task and demand. Nine studies contained information related to safety programs and training, whereas 17 studies included information on individual factors. The findings suggest that the NIOSH framework, with the addition of individual characteristics, provide a foundation for conceptually organizing occupational health and safety studies. Health care administrators and leaders should be aware and understand the antecedents to workplace injury that will assist their organizations in developing

  16. Application of GPR, EMI, and Lidar to Assess the Role of Antecedent Geology in Barrier Island Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernette, P. A.; Weymer, B. A.; Houser, C.; Bishop, M. P.; Everett, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Barrier island longevity is threatened by the observed and modeled accelerating rates of sea-level rise. It has been suggested that subsurface geologic structure is also an important factor controlling barrier island morphology and long-term island evolution, yet the precise role of antecedent geology on the response and recovery of barrier islands to hurricanes and sea-level rise remains unclear. Thus, this study aims to provide more detailed insight into the role of the antecedent geology on barrier island evolution at two sites along the Texas, USA coast: Follets Island and a portion of North Padre Island. Alongshore and across-island ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic inductance (EMI) surveys are used in this study to infer subsurface geologic structure. The accuracy of the interpreted geophysical survey data was assessed using selective vibracoring. Information about island morphology is derived from airborne and terrestrial LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). Preliminary results suggest that dune height is generally lower and washover frequency higher in areas where the antecedent geologic surface is deeper. Another important factor influencing dune breaching and washover locations is offshore bathymetry. The barrier island is generally narrower in areas where an offshore swale is present. The antecedent geologic structure is an important factor influencing barrier island morphology. Integrating EMI, GPR, and seismic subsurface geologic structure information and surficial morphology information helps improve our understanding of factors affecting barrier island evolution and the role that antecedent geology plays in island morphology.

  17. Wearing the cloak: antecedents and consequences of creating facades of conformity.

    PubMed

    Hewlin, Patricia Faison

    2009-05-01

    This study examines a select set of relationships proposed in P. F. Hewlin's (2003) conceptual model of antecedents and consequences of creating facades of conformity. Results from a survey study of 238 employees working in multiple industries indicate that perceived nonparticipative work environments, minority status, self-monitoring, and collectivism are related to creating facades of conformity. Emotional exhaustion serves as a mediator between creating facades of conformity and members' intention to leave the organization. Collectivism moderates the relationship between emotional exhaustion and intention to leave. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Modeling activities in air traffic control systems: antecedents and consequences of a mid-air collision.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Paulo Victor R; Ferreira, Bemildo

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a model of some functions and activities of the Brazilian Air traffic Control System (ATS) in the period in which occurred a mid-air collision between flight GLO1907, a commercial aircraft Boeing 737-800, and flight N600XL, an executive jet EMBRAER E-145, to investigate key resilience characteristics of the ATM. Modeling in some detail activities during the collision and related them to overall behavior and antecedents that stress the organization uncover some drift into failure mechanisms that erode safety defenses provided by the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), enabling a mid-air collision to be happen.

  19. Antecedents and effects of consumer involvement in fish as a product group.

    PubMed

    Juhl, H J; Poulsen, C S

    2000-06-01

    The importance of the symbolic value and of the product utility for a consumer's involvement in fish products was determined by applying a model to data collected in Denmark in 1999. The relative importance of these two antecedents of product involvement differed between two segments of consumers important to marketing strategies. However, the potential effects of involvement did not differ between the segments. Rather, the customer's involvement ensures that sign value and utility have effects such as greater enjoyment of shopping and higher frequency of usage.

  20. Antecedents to Psychological Reactance: The Impact of Threat, Message Frame, and Choice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lijiang

    2015-01-01

    A 2 (Threat: high vs. low) × 2 (Frame: gain vs. loss) × 2 (Choice: yes vs. no) × 2 (Behavior: prevention vs. detection) factorial design Web-based experiment (N = 814) was conducted to investigate the impact of threat to freedom, message frame, and behavioral choice as antecedents to psychological reactance. The intertwined model for reactance measure was replicated. Results showed that threat to freedom and the loss frame increased, and the gain frame and choice mitigated psychological reactance. The advantages of choice and the gain frame were most salient when threat was high.

  1. Antecedent flow conditions and nitrate concentrations in the Mississippi River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Sprague, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between antecedent flow conditions and nitrate concentrations was explored at eight sites in the 2.9 million square kilometers (km2) Mississippi River basin, USA. Antecedent flow conditions were quantified as the ratio between the mean daily flow of the previous year and the mean daily flow from the period of record (Qratio), and the Qratio was statistically related to nitrate anomalies (the unexplained variability in nitrate concentration after filtering out season, long-term trend, and contemporaneous flow effects) at each site. Nitrate anomaly and Qratio were negatively related at three of the four major tributary sites and upstream in the Mississippi River, indicating that when mean daily streamflow during the previous year was lower than average, nitrate concentrations were higher than expected. The strength of these relationships increased when data were subdivided by contemporaneous flow conditions. Five of the eight sites had significant negative relationships (p ≤ 0.05) at high or moderately high contemporaneous flows, suggesting nitrate that accumulates in these basins during a drought is flushed during subsequent high flows. At half of the sites, when mean daily flow during the previous year was 50 percent lower than average, nitrate concentration can be from 9 to 27 percent higher than nitrate concentrations that follow a year with average mean daily flow. Conversely, nitrate concentration can be from 8 to 21 percent lower than expected when flow during the previous year was 50 percent higher than average. Previously documented for small, relatively homogenous basins, our results suggest that relationships between antecedent flows and nitrate concentrations are also observable at a regional scale. Relationships were not observed (using all contemporaneous flow data together) for basins larger than 1 million km2, suggesting that above this limit the overall size and diversity within these basins may necessitate the use of more

  2. Relationship quality and relationship context as antecedents of person- and task-focused interpersonal citizenship behavior.

    PubMed

    Settoon, Randall P; Mossholder, Kevin W

    2002-04-01

    A model hypothesizing relationship quality and relationship context as antecedents of two complementary forms of interpersonal citizenship behavior (ICB) was tested. Measures with coworkers as the frame of reference were used to collect data from 273 individuals working in 2 service-oriented organizations. As hypothesized, variables reflecting relationship quality were associated with person-focused ICB, as mediated by empathic concern. Also as hypothesized, a relationship context variable, network centrality, exhibited a direct relationship with task-focused ICB. Unexpectedly, network centrality was directly associated with person-focused ICB. and empathic concern was associated with task-focused ICB. The results are discussed, and implications for research and practice are offered.

  3. Survivor reactions to reorganization: antecedents and consequences of procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice.

    PubMed

    Kernan, Mary C; Hanges, Paul J

    2002-10-01

    This study tested a model of survivor reactions to reorganization, which incorporated multiple predictors and consequences of procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice. The 3 justice types had different correlates: all 4 antecedents (employee input, victim support, implementation, and communication quality) predicted interpersonal fairness, implementation and communication quality were associated with informational fairness, and employee input was the sole predictor of procedural justice. Procedural justice was strongly related to all 4 outcome variables, and interpersonal and informational justice added unique variance to the prediction of trust in management. The reorganization effort was still predictive of employee outcomes, although primarily through procedural justice approximately I year after its completion.

  4. Maternal empathy, self-confidence, and stress as antecedents of preschool children's behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lorraine O; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2007-04-01

    To test psychosocial antecedents (maternal stress, self-confidence, and empathy) of preschoolers' behavior problems. One hundred and twenty-two postpartum mothers completed a 24-month longitudinal mail survey. A structural equation model that included empathy was tested. Stress, but not maternal self-confidence or empathy, was directly related to child behavior problems (t=1.98, p=.05). Maternal empathy in combination with self-confidence or stress, however, moderated adverse effects on behavior problems (p=.03). Predictors explained 16% of variance of behavior problems. Empathy was protective when stress was high. Empathy training may enhance high-risk parent education.

  5. Precise AuxPt1−x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1−x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1−x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1−x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h. PMID:26856888

  6. Precise AuxPt1‑x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-02-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1‑x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1‑x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1‑x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h.

  7. Novel auxin transport inhibitors phenocopy the auxin influx carrier mutation aux1.

    PubMed

    Parry, G; Delbarre, A; Marchant, A; Swarup, R; Napier, R; Perrot-Rechenmann, C; Bennett, M J

    2001-02-01

    The hormone auxin is transported in plants through the combined actions of diffusion and specific auxin influx and efflux carriers. In contrast to auxin efflux, for which there are well documented inhibitors, understanding the developmental roles of carrier-mediated auxin influx has been hampered by the absence of specific competitive inhibitors. However, several molecules that inhibit auxin influx in cultured cells have been described recently. The physiological effects of two of these novel influx carrier inhibitors, 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA) and 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (CHPAA), have been investigated in intact seedlings and tissue segments using classical and new auxin transport bioassays. Both molecules do disrupt root gravitropism, which is a developmental process requiring rapid auxin redistribution. Furthermore, the auxin-insensitive and agravitropic root-growth characteristics of aux1 plants were phenocopied by 1-NOA and CHPAA. Similarly, the agravitropic phenotype of inhibitor-treated seedlings was rescued by the auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, but not by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, again resembling the relative abilities of these two auxins to rescue the phenotype of aux1. Further investigations have shown that none of these compounds block polar auxin transport, and that CHPAA exhibits some auxin-like activity at high concentrations. Whilst results indicate that 1-NOA and CHPAA represent useful tools for physiological studies addressing the role of auxin influx in planta, 1-NOA is likely to prove the more useful of the two compounds.

  8. Exposition précoce aux aliments et allergies alimentaires chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Benetta; Chan, Edmond S.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’étais sous l’impression qu’on devrait éviter de donner aux nourrissons des aliments potentiellement allergènes comme des noix, du lait de vache et des œufs pour prévenir le développement de réactions allergiques. Quels conseils devrait-on donner aux parents concernant l’introduction des aliments durant la petite enfance et le développement des allergies alimentaires? Réponse Il n’y a pas de données probantes indiquant que retarder l’introduction d’aliments particuliers après l’âge de 6 mois aide à prévenir les allergies. Une récente déclaration de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie ne recommande aucun délai quant à l’introduction d’aliments durant la petite enfance. De récentes études de recherche semblent aussi faire valoir que l’introduction précoce (entre 4 et 6 mois) d’aliments possiblement allergènes procure une forme de protection et contribue à prévenir les allergies, mais il faudrait plus de recherche à ce sujet.

  9. Superconducting parameters of BaPt4-xAuxGe12 filled skutterudite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisuradze, A.; Gumeniuk, R.; Schnelle, W.; Nicklas, M.; Baines, C.; Khasanov, R.; Amato, A.; Leithe-Jasper, A.

    2012-11-01

    We report on a study of the superconducting properties for a series of polycrystalline BaPt4-xAuxGe12 filled skutterudite compounds for x=0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1. Muon spin rotation (μSR) spectroscopy as well as magnetization, specific-heat, and electrical resistivity measurements were performed. The magnetic penetration depth λ, the coherence length ξ, and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ are evaluated. The temperature dependence of the superfluid density is well described by an s-wave superconducting gap and this classical scenario is supported by the field-independent λ. The gap-to-Tc ratio Δ0/kBTc increases with the Au content from 1.70 for x=0 to 2.1(1) for x=1. By combining μSR, magnetization, and specific-heat data, we find that BaPt4-xAuxGe12 compounds are in between the dirty and clean limits with mean free paths of the carriers l˜ξ. Interestingly, resistivity data for BaPt4Ge12 indicate a much higher upper critical field, which is probably due to defects or impurities close to the surface of the crystallites.

  10. Responses of soil water percolation to dynamic interactions among rainfall, antecedent moisture and season in a forest site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xiaoming; Liao, Kaihua; Feng, Huihui; Zhu, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of soil water percolation below the rooting zone and its responses to the dynamic interactions of different factors are important for the control of non-point source pollution. Based on 3600 scenarios in Hydrus-1D simulation, this study revealed the integrated effects of rainfall characteristics (rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity or MRI, time distribution characteristics of rainfall or TDC), antecedent moisture and the season on deep percolation (DP) at a forest site in Taihu Lake Basin, China. Results showed that Hydrus-1D model can well simulate the soil water dynamics at this site. Antecedent moisture had the greatest relative contribution to DP (85.7%), followed by rainfall amount (10.9%) and MRI (3.4%). As the antecedent moisture increased, the relative contribution of the season on DP increased from 0.0% to 16.4%. In comparison, that of MRI decreased from 58.7% to 38.5% and that of rainfall amount followed a bell shape pattern (greatest when the antecedent moisture was 0.26 m3 m-3). The relative contribution of antecedent moisture to DP in summer was the greatest (87.8%), while that of the rainfall was the least. The TDC influenced DP by affecting the responses of DP to other factors. When the rainfall amount was ⩾80 mm and the antecedent moisture content was ⩾0.34 m3 m-3, effect of TDC on DP could be observed. The DP of TDC_B (rainfall intensity linearly increased with time) was the lowest, while that of TDC_E (rainfall intensity kept constant with time) was the greatest. Findings of this study have practical significance for investigating the water and pollutant transport in vadose zone.

  11. [Antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying: a longitudinal analysis with a structural equation model].

    PubMed

    Carretero Domínguez, Noelia; Gil-Monte, Pedro Rafael; Luciano Devis, Juan Vicente

    2011-11-01

    Most studies focusing on the antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying have used a cross-sectional design, which impedes determining the causality of the relationships. In the present work, we analyzed, by means of structural equation models, the relationship between workplace bullying and some variables that are considered antecedents (interpersonal conflicts, role ambiguity, role conflict, and workplace social support) or consequences (health complaints and inclination to absenteeism from work) of this phenomenon. Multicenter study with two phases. The sample consisted of 696 employees from 66 centers. Workplace bullying was assessed by means of the "Mobbing-UNIPSICO" questionnaire, and the other variables with frequency scales. The cross-sectional models indicated a significant association between role conflict, workplace social support, and workplace bullying in both study periods. Concerning the longitudinal relationships, only workplace social support was a significant predictor of workplace bullying, which, in turn, was a cross-sectional and longitudinal predictor of workers' health complaints. Our results show the mediating effect of workplace bullying between certain work conditions and health complaints, and it is recommendable to replicate these findings in a multi-occupational sample.

  12. Creative Self-Efficacy: An Exploration of Its Antecedents, Consequences, and Applied Implications.

    PubMed

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    Creativity and innovation are at the core of important outcomes such as economic and sales growth, production of articles and students' learning. Thus, it is not surprising to find research articles on creativity and innovation across different disciplines such as business, psychology, and education. Given the importance of understanding creativity and innovation, we reviewed the empirical literature examining the antecedents and consequences of creative self-efficacy in the work domain. Our review used the theory of individual creative action and social cognitive theory as guiding frameworks to place creative self-efficacy in the creativity and innovation process, define creativity and innovation, explore how creative self-efficacy has been measured, examine the antecedents and consequences of creative self-efficacy, point out gaps in knowledge and offer suggestions for future research and provide some applied implications. One important finding was that creative self-efficacy has made a significant contribution as a process variable explaining how several organizational and personal factors influence creative outcomes via their influence on creative self-efficacy.

  13. Small is big: Interactive Trumps passive information in breaking information barriers and impacting behavioral antecedents

    DOE PAGES

    Beck, Ariane L.; Lakkaraju, Kiran; Rai, Varun; ...

    2017-01-18

    The wealth of information available on seemingly every topic creates a considerable challenge both for information providers trying to rise above the noise and discerning individuals trying to find relevant, trustworthy information. We approach this information problem by investigating how passive versus interactive information interventions can impact the antecedents of behavior change using the context of solar energy adoption, where persistent information gaps are known to reduce market potential. We use two experiments to investigate the impact of both passive and interactive approaches to information delivery on the antecedents (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in the Theory ofmore » Planned Behavior) of intentions and behavior, as well as their effect on intentions and behavior directly. The passive information randomized control trial delivered via Amazon Mechanical Turk tests the effectiveness of delivering the same content in a single message versus multiple shorter messages. The interactive information delivery uses an online (mobile and PC) trivia-style gamification platform. Both experiments use the same content and are carried out over a two-week time period. Lastly, our findings suggest that interactive, gamified information has greater impact than passive information, and that shorter multiple messages of passive information are more effective than a single passive message.« less

  14. Small Is Big: Interactive Trumps Passive Information in Breaking Information Barriers and Impacting Behavioral Antecedents.

    PubMed

    Beck, Ariane L; Lakkaraju, Kiran; Rai, Varun

    2017-01-01

    The wealth of information available on seemingly every topic creates a considerable challenge both for information providers trying to rise above the noise and discerning individuals trying to find relevant, trustworthy information. We approach this information problem by investigating how passive versus interactive information interventions can impact the antecedents of behavior change using the context of solar energy adoption, where persistent information gaps are known to reduce market potential. We use two experiments to investigate the impact of both passive and interactive approaches to information delivery on the antecedents (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in the Theory of Planned Behavior) of intentions and behavior, as well as their effect on intentions and behavior directly. The passive information randomized control trial delivered via Amazon Mechanical Turk tests the effectiveness of delivering the same content in a single message versus multiple shorter messages. The interactive information delivery uses an online (mobile and PC) trivia-style gamification platform. Both experiments use the same content and are carried out over a two-week time period. Our findings suggest that interactive, gamified information has greater impact than passive information, and that shorter multiple messages of passive information are more effective than a single passive message.

  15. Correlation between hypocenter depth, antecedent precipitation and earthquake-induced landslide spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Eisuke

    2017-04-01

    Since Keefer published the paper on earthquake magnitude and affected area, maximum epicentral/fault distance of induced landslide distribution in 1984, showing the envelope of plots, a lot of studies on this topic have been conducted. It has been generally supposed that landslides have been triggered by shallow quakes and more landslides are likely to occur with heavy rainfalls immediately before the quake. In order to confirm this, we have collected 22 case records of earthquake-induced landslide distribution in Japan and examined the effect of hypocenter depth and antecedent precipitation. Earthquake magnitude by JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) of the cases are from 4.5 to 9.0. Analysis on hycpocenter depth showed the deeper quake cause wider distribution. Antecedent precipitation was evaluated using the Soil Water Index (SWI), which was developed by JMA for issuing landslide alert. We could not find meaningful correlation between SWI and the earthquake-induced landslide distribution. Additionally, we found that smaller minimum size of collected landslides results in wider distribution especially between 1,000 to 100,000 m2.

  16. Identifying Patterns of Situational Antecedents to Heavy Drinking among College Students.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Braitman, Abby L; Stamates, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Emerging adults have the highest prevalence of heavy drinking as compared to all other age groups. Given the negative consequences associated with such drinking, additional research efforts focused on at-risk consumption are warranted. The current study sought to identify patterns of situational antecedents to drinking and to examine their associations with drinking motivations, alcohol involvement, and mental health functioning in a sample of heavy drinking college students. Participants were 549 (65.8% women) college student drinkers. Latent profile analysis identified three classes based on likelihood of heavy drinking across eight situational precipitants. The "High Situational Endorsement" group reported the greatest likelihood of heavy drinking in most situations assessed. This class experienced the greatest level of alcohol-related harms as compared to the "Low Situational Endorsement" and "Moderate Situational Endorsement" groups. The Low Situational Endorsement class was characterized by the lowest likelihood of heavy drinking across all situational antecedents and they experienced the fewest alcohol-related harms, relative to the other classes. Class membership was related to drinking motivations with the "High Situational Endorsement" class endorsing the highest coping- and conformity-motivated drinking. The "High Situational Endorsement" class also reported experiencing more mental health symptoms than other groups. The current study contributed to the larger drinking literature by identifying profiles that may signify a particularly risky drinking style. Findings may help guide intervention work with college heavy drinkers.

  17. Small Is Big: Interactive Trumps Passive Information in Breaking Information Barriers and Impacting Behavioral Antecedents

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The wealth of information available on seemingly every topic creates a considerable challenge both for information providers trying to rise above the noise and discerning individuals trying to find relevant, trustworthy information. We approach this information problem by investigating how passive versus interactive information interventions can impact the antecedents of behavior change using the context of solar energy adoption, where persistent information gaps are known to reduce market potential. We use two experiments to investigate the impact of both passive and interactive approaches to information delivery on the antecedents (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in the Theory of Planned Behavior) of intentions and behavior, as well as their effect on intentions and behavior directly. The passive information randomized control trial delivered via Amazon Mechanical Turk tests the effectiveness of delivering the same content in a single message versus multiple shorter messages. The interactive information delivery uses an online (mobile and PC) trivia-style gamification platform. Both experiments use the same content and are carried out over a two-week time period. Our findings suggest that interactive, gamified information has greater impact than passive information, and that shorter multiple messages of passive information are more effective than a single passive message. PMID:28099478

  18. Development of perceived job insecurity across two years: associations with antecedents and employee outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Mäkikangas, Anne; Mauno, Saija; De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

    2014-04-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study among 848 university employees investigated the individual development of perceived job insecurity (JI) in the context of changes occurring in the Finnish universities during the follow-up time. Adopting a person-oriented approach through latent profile analysis, 8 classes of employees with similar mean levels and mean-level changes in JI were identified. Two of these classes (75% of the participants) indicated stable (low, moderately high) JI, and the remaining 6 classes (25% of the participants) showed change (decreasing, increasing, curvilinear) in the level of JI across time. We then examined possible differences between these classes with respect to individual antecedents and outcomes of JI. Of the antecedents, the type of employment contract distinguished best between the JI classes. Of the outcomes, moderately high stable JI was associated with low stable vigor and high stable levels of exhaustion and turnover intentions across time. In addition, it seemed that a decrease in JI was associated with a decrease in exhaustion and turnover intentions and vice versa. Altogether the findings suggest that developmental JI classes exhibit a substantial amount of heterogeneity, which is simultaneously reflected in occupational well-being.

  19. Antenatal and early postnatal antecedents of parent-reported attention problems at 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Downey, L Corbin; O'Shea, T Michael; Allred, Elizabeth N; Kuban, Karl; McElrath, Thomas F; Warner, Diane D; Ware, Janice; Hecht, Jonathan L; Onderdonk, Andrew; Leviton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    To assess antenatal and early postnatal antecedents of attention problems identified by the Child Behavior Checklist in extremely preterm children. In a cohort of 826 children born between 23 and 27 weeks' gestation, we collected demographic, birth, and postnatal information. We then identified behavior problems by using parent ratings from the Child Behavior Checklist at 2 years' adjusted age. We created time-oriented logistic regression risk models to identify significant risk factors for attention problems and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-compatible attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (ADHP(DSM)). Children were at increased risk of both attention problems if they were born to a woman who had no formal education beyond high school and/or a woman who was exposed to secondhand smoke. Recovery of a single organism from the placenta was associated with increased risk of an attention problem, and fetal stem vessel thrombosis and recovery of Mycoplasma species were associated with increased risk of ADHP(DSM). Infants of multifetal gestations were at reduced risk of both attention problems. The only postnatal risk factor for an attention problem was recovery of bacteria from a tracheal aspirate. Among extremely preterm infants, several potentially modifiable antenatal and perinatal antecedents are associated with increased risk for attention problems and ADHP(DSM) at 2 years adjusted age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antecedents of CIOs' Innovation Capability in Hospitals: Results of an Empirical Study.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Jan-David; Esdar, Moritz; Thye, Johannes; Hübner, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    CIOs' innovation capability is regarded as a precondition of successful HIT adoption in hospitals. Based on the data of 142 CIOs, this study aimed at identifying antecedents of perceived innovation capability. Eight features describing the status quo of the hospital IT management (e.g. use of IT governance frameworks), four features of the hospital structure (e.g. functional diversification) and four CIO characteristics (e.g. duration of employment) were tested as potential antecedents in an exploratory stepwise regression approach. Perceived innovation capability in its entirety and its three sub-dimensions served as criterion. The results show that CIOs' perceived innovation capability could be explained significantly (R2=0.34) and exclusively by facts that described the degree of formalism and structure of IT management in a hospital, e.g. intensive and formalised strategic communication, the existence of an IT strategy and the use of IT governance frameworks. Breaking down innovation capability into its constituents revealed that "innovative organisational culture" contributed to a large extent (R2=0.26) to the overall result sharing several predictors. In contrast, "intrapreneurial personality" (R2=0.11) and "openness towards users" (R2=0.18) could be predicted less well. These results hint at the relationship between working in a well-structured, formalised and strategy oriented environment and the overall feeling of being capable to promote IT innovation.

  1. Identifying Patterns of Situational Antecedents to Heavy Drinking among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N.; Braitman, Abby L.; Stamates, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Emerging adults have the highest prevalence of heavy drinking as compared to all other age groups. Given the negative consequences associated with such drinking, additional research efforts focused on at-risk consumption are warranted. The current study sought to identify patterns of situational antecedents to drinking and to examine their associations with drinking motivations, alcohol involvement, and mental health functioning in a sample of heavy drinking college students. Method Participants were 549 (65.8% women) college student drinkers. Results Latent profile analysis identified three classes based on likelihood of heavy drinking across eight situational precipitants. The “High Situational Endorsement” group reported the greatest likelihood of heavy drinking in most situations assessed. This class experienced the greatest level of alcohol-related harms as compared to the “Low Situational Endorsement” and “Moderate Situational Endorsement” groups. The Low Situational Endorsement class was characterized by the lowest likelihood of heavy drinking across all situational antecedents and they experienced the fewest alcohol-related harms, relative to the other classes. Class membership was related to drinking motivations with the “High Situational Endorsement” class endorsing the highest coping- and conformity-motivated drinking. The “High Situational Endorsement” class also reported experiencing more mental health symptoms than other groups. Conclusions The current study contributed to the larger drinking literature by identifying profiles that may signify a particularly risky drinking style. Findings may help guide intervention work with college heavy drinkers. PMID:28163666

  2. Electronic storage capacity of ceria: role of peroxide in Aux supported on CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinli; Li, Huiying; Yu, Jun; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2015-11-07

    Density functional theory (DFT+U) was used to study the adsorption of Aux (x = 1-4) clusters on the defective CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption on the corresponding Aux/CeO2-x catalyst, in this work Aux clusters are adsorbed onto the CeO2-x + superoxide/peroxide surface. When Au1 is supported on the CeO2(111) facet with an O vacancy, the strong electronegative Au(δ-) formed is not favorable for CO adsorption. When peroxide is adsorbed on the CeO2(111) facet with the O vacancy, Aux was oxidized, resulting in stable Aux adsorption on the defective ceria surface with peroxide, which promotes CO adsorption on the Aux/CeO2-x catalyst. With more Au atoms in supported Aux clusters, CO adsorption on this surface becomes stronger. During both the Au being supported on CeO2-x and CO being adsorbed on Aux/CeO2-x, CeO2 acts as an electron buffer that can store/release the electrons. These results provide a scientific understanding for the development of high-performance rare earth catalytic materials.

  3. Conceptualizing a "Strong Start": Antecedents of Positive Child Outcomes at Birth and into Early Childhood. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2007-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Cassandra; Moore, Kristin; Manlove, Jennifer; Mincieli, Lisa; Cottingham, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This research brief presents the results of an extensive review of research studies to identify maternal and family antecedents (conditions and characteristics before and during pregnancy) of healthy infant and child outcomes. The researchers identified seven major categories of antecedents associated with a strong start in life: the mother's…

  4. Tracking Performance Requirements for Tracking Performance Requirements for Rotorcraft Instrument Approaches to Reduced Minima. Phase 1. Preliminary Study (Exigences Relatives Aux Performances De Suivi D’Approche Aux Instruments D’Un Giravion Afin De Reduire Les)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    A l’a~ronautique jug~es importantes, completes et durables en termes de contribution aux connaissances actuelles. CAHIERS D’AERONAUTIQUE (AN...83 large overshoot of pad (50 + feet); late in power application 84 past pad by 10 feet; large flare 85 stopped short - taxied to pad 86 50-75 foot

  5. The AUX1 LAX family of auxin influx carriers is required for the establishment of embryonic root cell organization in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ugartechea-Chirino, Yamel; Swarup, Ranjan; Swarup, Kamal; Péret, Benjamin; Whitworth, Morag; Bennett, Malcolm; Bougourd, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The root meristem of the Arabidopsis thaliana mature embryo is a highly organized structure in which individual cell shape and size must be regulated in co-ordination with the surrounding cells. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the AUX1 LAX family of auxin import carriers during the establishment of the embryonic root cell pattern. Methods The radicle apex of single and multiple aux1 lax mutant mature embryos was used to evaluate the effect of this gene family upon embryonic root organization and root cap size, cell number and cell size. Key Results It was demonstrated here that mutations within the AUX1 LAX family are associated with changes in cell pattern establishment in the embryonic quiescent centre and columella. aux1 lax mutants have a larger radicle root cap than the wild type and this is associated with a significant increase in the root-cap cell number, average cell size, or both. Extreme disorganization of the radicle apex was observed among quadruple aux1 lax1 lax2 lax3 mutant embryos, but not in single aux1 null or in lax1, lax2 and lax3 single mutants, indicating redundancy within the AUX1 LAX family. Conclusions It was determined that the AUX1 LAX family of auxin influx facilitators participates in the establishment of cell pattern within the apex of the embryonic root in a gene-redundant fashion. It was demonstrated that aux1 lax mutants are affected in cell proliferation and cell growth within the radicle tip. Thus AUX1 LAX auxin importers emerge as new players in morphogenetic processes involved in patterning during embryonic root formation. PMID:19952011

  6. Longitudinal changes in the antecedent and early manifest course of bipolar disorder-A narrative review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Pfennig, Andrea; Leopold, Karolina; Ritter, Philipp; Böhme, Anne; Severus, Emanuel; Bauer, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Prospective study designs ideally allow patients to be followed from the first manifestations of the illness or even from an at-risk stage. It can thus provide data on the predictive value of changes in clinical symptomatology, cognition or further biological markers to broaden our understanding of the etiopathology and symptomatic trajectory of bipolar disorders. The scope of this narrative review is to summarize evidence from prospectively collected data on psychopathological and other clinical and biological changes in the early developmental course of bipolar disorders. The narrative review was based on a literature search conducted in February 2016 within the PubMed library for prospective study data of persons in antecedent and early manifest stages of manifest bipolar disorder published within the last 15 years. A total of 19 prospective studies were included. Regarding psychopathological features; personality, temperament and character traits as well as changes in sleep and circadian rhythm, the evidence suggests that risk factors for the development of bipolar disorder can already be described and should be studied further to understand their interaction, mediation with other factors and timing in the developmental process of bipolar disorder. Apart from the positive family history, childhood anxiety, sleep problems, subthreshold (hypo)manic symptoms and certain character traits/emotionality should be identified and monitored already in clinical practice as their presence likely increases risk of bipolar disorder. Up to date no substantiated evidence was found from prospective studies addressing cognitive features, life events, immunological parameters and morphological central nervous system changes as potential risk factors for bipolar disorder. For an improved understanding of episodic disorders, longitudinal data collection is essential. Since the etiology of bipolar disorders is complex, a number of potential risk factors have been proposed

  7. Localized iron supply triggers lateral root elongation in Arabidopsis by altering the AUX1-mediated auxin distribution.

    PubMed

    Giehl, Ricardo F H; Lima, Joni E; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation.

  8. Soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Mettre à jour les lignes directrices canadiennes de 2006 sur les soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) et présenter des recommandations pratiques fondées sur les connaissances actuelles pour traiter des problèmes de santé particuliers chez des adultes ayant une DD. Qualité des preuves Des professionnels de la santé expérimentés participant à un colloque et un groupe de travail subséquent ont discuté et convenu des révisions aux lignes directrices de 2006 en se fondant sur une recherche documentaire exhaustive, la rétroaction obtenue des utilisateurs du guide de pratique et les expériences cliniques personnelles. La plupart des preuves disponibles dans ce domaine viennent de l’opinion d’experts ou de déclarations consensuelles publiées (niveau III). Message principal Les adultes ayant une DD ont des problèmes de santé complexes, dont plusieurs diffèrent de ceux de la population en général. De bons soins primaires permettent d’identifier les problèmes de santé particuliers dont souffrent les adultes ayant une DD pour améliorer leur qualité de vie et leur accès aux soins de santé et prévenir la morbidité et le décès prématuré. Ces lignes directrices résument les problèmes de santé générale, physique, comportementale et mentale des adultes ayant une DD que devraient connaître les professionnels des soins primaires et présentent des recommandations pour le dépistage et la prise en charge en se basant sur les connaissances actuelles que les cliniciens peuvent mettre en pratique. En raison de l’interaction des facteurs biologiques, psychoaffectifs et sociaux qui contribuent à la santé et au bien-être des adultes ayant une DD, ces lignes directrices insistent sur la participation des aidants, l’adaptation des interventions, au besoin, et la consultation auprès de divers professionnels de la santé quand ils sont accessibles. Elles mettent aussi en évidence la

  9. Improving riverine constituent concentration and flux estimation by accounting for antecedent discharge conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Ball, William P.

    2017-04-01

    Regression-based approaches are often employed to estimate riverine constituent concentrations and fluxes based on typically sparse concentration observations. One such approach is the recently developed WRTDS (;Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season;) method, which has been shown to provide more accurate estimates than prior approaches in a wide range of applications. Centered on WRTDS, this work was aimed at developing improved models for constituent concentration and flux estimation by accounting for antecedent discharge conditions. Twelve modified models were developed and tested, each of which contains one additional flow variable to represent antecedent conditions and which can be directly derived from the daily discharge record. High-resolution (∼daily) data at nine diverse monitoring sites were used to evaluate the relative merits of the models for estimation of six constituents - chloride (Cl), nitrate-plus-nitrite (NOx), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and suspended sediment (SS). For each site-constituent combination, 30 concentration subsets were generated from the original data through Monte Carlo subsampling and then used to evaluate model performance. For the subsampling, three sampling strategies were adopted: (A) 1 random sample each month (12/year), (B) 12 random monthly samples plus additional 8 random samples per year (20/year), and (C) flow-stratified sampling with 12 regular (non-storm) and 8 storm samples per year (20/year). Results reveal that estimation performance varies with both model choice and sampling strategy. In terms of model choice, the modified models show general improvement over the original model under all three sampling strategies. Major improvements were achieved for NOx by the long-term flow-anomaly model and for Cl by the ADF (average discounted flow) model and the short-term flow-anomaly model. Moderate improvements were achieved for SS, TP, and TKN

  10. The influence of antecedent conditions on flood risk in sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischiniotis, Konstantinos; van den Hurk, Bart; Coughlan de Perez, Erin; Jongman, Brenden; Veldkamp, Ted; Aerts, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, flood risk management has focused on long-term flood protection measures. However, many countries are often not able to afford hard infrastructure that provides sufficient safety levels due to the high investment costs. As a consequence, they rely more on post disaster response and timely warning systems. Most early warning systems have predominantly focused on precipitation as the main predictive factor, having usually lead times of hours or days. However, other variables could also play a role. For instance, anomalous positive water storage, soil saturation and evapotranspiration are physical factors that may influence the length of the flood build-up period. This period can vary from some days to several months before the event and it is particularly important in flood risk management since longer flood warning lead times during this period could result in better flood preparation actions. This study addresses how the antecedent conditions of historical reported flood events over the period 1980 to 2010 in sub-Saharan Africa relate to flood generation. The seasonal-scale conditions are reflected in the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which is calculated using monthly precipitation and temperature data and accounts for the wetness/dryness of an area. Antecedent conditions are separated into a) a short term 'weather-scale' period (0-7 days) and b) a 'seasonal-scale' period (up to 6 months) before the flood event in such a way that they do not overlap. Total 7-day precipitation, which is based on daily meteorological data, was used to evaluate the short-term weather-scale conditions. Using a pair of coordinates, derived from the NatCatSERVICE database on global flood losses, each flood event is positioned on a 0.5°x 0.5° grid cell. The antecedent SPEI conditions of the two periods and their joint influence in flood generation are compared to the same period conditions of the other years of the dataset. First results

  11. The role of antecedent drainage networks and isolated normal fault propagation on basin stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, E.; Brocklehurst, S. H.; Gawthorpe, R.

    2010-12-01

    The stratigraphy of an extensional basin reflects a history of fault activity, erosion, drainage network evolution, and sediment transport and deposition. Here a three-dimensional numerical model of erosion and clastic sedimentation is applied to investigate the effect of displacement on a normal fault to the distribution of deposition in an extensional basin. Material is eroded from the hinterland through a stream-power incision law and deposited in the basin using a modified diffusion algorithm. Experiments are implemented for 3Ma, in which the initial 1Ma are used to permit a drainage network to evolve to a topographic steady state. This system is then perturbed by the introduction of a propagating isolated normal fault at varying displacement rates (1.0m/kyr - 2.0m/kyr) to demonstrate the influence of fault propagation on drainage capture, network re-organisation, sediment routing and deposition. Faster displacement rates and smaller antecedent drainage networks cause footwall-derived deltas to be cut-off more rapidly from the hinterland source area. Drainage networks are re-organised such that sediment is then transported around the fault tips into axially sourced deltas. Sediments may continue to be deposited in the hanging wall at the fault centre, but this material has not been sourced directly from the adjacent footwall, even though the stratigraphic architecture might suggest that this is the case. Drainage networks are modified by drainage reversals in the antecedent channels, and the development of areas of abandoned/trapped drainage. These changes in sediment supply due to network re-organisation are also reflected in the basin stratigraphy, with rapid back-stepping of deltas when the source is removed in the adjacent footwall. Later incision and headward erosion of the footwall channels may cause re-capture of earlier channels, while network re-organisation may also cause depositional in-filling of earlier channels. The drainage divide shifts

  12. The Sequential Introduction of Positive Antecedent and Consequent Components in a Compliance Training Package with Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellipanni, Kimberly D.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe; Roberts, Dannell S.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the separate and combined effects of the antecedent manipulations of effective instruction delivery and time-in, as well as the effects of the addition of the consequent manipulation of contingent praise in a compliance training package for four elementary students displaying low levels of compliance. Four teachers were trained to…

  13. Examining the "Neglected Side of the Work-Family Interface": Antecedents of Positive and Negative Family-to-Work Spillover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Daphne Pedersen; Minnotte, Krista Lynn; Mannon, Susan E.; Kiger, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This study extends previous research by Dilworth by examining antecedents of both positive and negative family-to-work spillover--a long-neglected area of research. It also uses an extended definition of domestic labor that includes emotion work and status enhancement. Using data from a random sample of dual-earner couples, the study found gender…

  14. An Evaluation of Antecedent Exercise on Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement Using a Three-Component Multiple Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Heather; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Atwell, Amy

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated antecedent exercise for treating the automatically reinforced problem behavior of 4 individuals with autism. We conducted preference assessments to identify leisure and exercise items that were associated with high levels of engagement and low levels of problem behavior. Next, we conducted three 3-component multiple-schedule…

  15. Use of an Antecedent Analysis and a Force Sensitive Platform to Compare Stereotyped Movements and Motor Tics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosland, Kimberly A.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schroeder, Stephen; Zarcane, Troy; Fowler, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Stereotyped movements displayed by 6 participants and tics displayed by 6 children were evaluated using an antecedent behavioral analysis and a force sensitive platform. We found that tics occurred more often in an alone condition when compared to high preference toy and play conditions, whereas stereotyped movements were more variable across…

  16. Middle Childhood Antecedents to Progressions in Male Adolescent Substance Use: An Ecological Analysis of Risk and Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Yoerger, Karen

    1999-01-01

    This study examined antecedents to early patterned alcohol and tobacco use and marijuana experimentation between ages 11 and 16 for an at-risk male sample. Findings suggested that family, peer, and child characteristics were inextricably connected within an ecology of development. A structural equation prediction model suggested a higher order…

  17. Antecedents and Outcomes of Level and Rates of Change in Perceived Control: The Moderating Role of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infurna, Frank J.; Okun, Morris A.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived control is interrelated with aging-related outcomes across adulthood and old age. Relatively little is known, however, about resources as antecedents of longitudinal change in perceived control and the role of perceived control as a buffer against mortality risk when these resources are low. We examined functional limitations, depressive…

  18. Early Antecedents of Social Competence in Elementary School of Later Peer Reputation and Sociometric Status in Dutch Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Ron H. J.; Haselager, Gerbert J. T.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M.

    Noting that a child's peer competence and sociometric status not only are important indices of the child's current social functioning, but may also predict adolescent adaptation, this study examined the antecedents in peer competence and sociometric status in early and late elementary school years of five peer reputation dimensions. These five…

  19. Brief Report: Comparative Effects of Antecedent Exercise and Lorazepam on the Aggressive Behavior of an Autistic Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, David B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This case study of a 24-year-old man with autistic disorder and mental retardation who exhibited aggression found that antecedent exercise significantly decreased aggression; drug therapy with an anxiolytic (lorazepam) alone had no significant effect on aggression; and exercise plus medication decreased aggression to a somewhat lesser degree than…

  20. Consideration of "g" as a Common Antecedent for Cognitive Ability Test Performance, Test Motivation, and Perceived Fairness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Lam, Holly

    2007-01-01

    Several different analyses were used to test the hypothesis that test-taking motivation, perceived test fairness, and actual test performance are correlated only because they share a common antecedent. First, hierarchical regressions reveal that initial test performance has a unique influence on non-ability factors even after controlling for…

  1. Antecedents and Outcomes of Level and Rates of Change in Perceived Control: The Moderating Role of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infurna, Frank J.; Okun, Morris A.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived control is interrelated with aging-related outcomes across adulthood and old age. Relatively little is known, however, about resources as antecedents of longitudinal change in perceived control and the role of perceived control as a buffer against mortality risk when these resources are low. We examined functional limitations, depressive…

  2. Childhood Antecedents of Being a Cigarette Smoker in Early Adulthood. The Finnish "From a Boy to a Man" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemela, Solja; Sourander, Andre; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Susser, Ezra; Helenius, Hans; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Tamminen, Tuula; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify childhood psychiatric symptoms as antecedents of cigarette smoking at age 18. Methods: In 1989, a general population sample of 2946 8-year-old boys born in Finland in 1981 was assessed using the Rutter's parent and teacher questionnaires, and the Child Depression Inventory. This birth cohort was followed up in 1999, when the…

  3. Antecedents and Outcomes of Joint Trajectories of Mother-Son Conflict and Warmth during Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Criss, Michael M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lacourse, Eric; Hyde, Luke W.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the development of mother-son relationship quality from ages 5 to 15 in a sample of 265 low-income families. Nonparametric random effects modeling was utilized to uncover distinct and homogeneous developmental trajectories of conflict and warmth; antecedents and outcomes of the trajectory groups also were examined. Four…

  4. An Interdisciplinary Meta-Analysis of the Potential Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences of Protege Perceptions of Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Lillian Turner de Tormes; Allen, Tammy D.; Hoffman, Brian J.; Baranik, Lisa E.; Sauer, Julia B.; Baldwin, Sean; Morrison, M. Ashley; Kinkade, Katie M.; Maher, Charleen P.; Curtis, Sara; Evans, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarized youth, academic, and workplace research on the potential antecedents (demographics, human capital, and relationship attributes), correlates (interaction frequency, relationship length, performance, motivation, and social capital), and consequences (attitudinal, behavioral, career-related, and health-related outcomes)…

  5. Childhood Antecedents of Being a Cigarette Smoker in Early Adulthood. The Finnish "From a Boy to a Man" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemela, Solja; Sourander, Andre; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Susser, Ezra; Helenius, Hans; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Tamminen, Tuula; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify childhood psychiatric symptoms as antecedents of cigarette smoking at age 18. Methods: In 1989, a general population sample of 2946 8-year-old boys born in Finland in 1981 was assessed using the Rutter's parent and teacher questionnaires, and the Child Depression Inventory. This birth cohort was followed up in 1999, when the…

  6. The Relationship between Use and Perception: The Case of Catalan Variants of a Subject Coreferential with an Antecedent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa Carreras, Joan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the relationship between use and perception of five Catalan variants of the variable "subject coreferential with an antecedent." This will be done by examining the results of a cloze test and three perception surveys answered in 1997 by 26 respondents. Two different correct constructions were then presented as…

  7. Perceived Deep-Level Dissimilarity: Personality Antecedents and Impact on Overall Job Attitude, Helping, Work Withdrawal, and Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Hui; Chuang, Aichia; Joshi, Aparna

    2008-01-01

    The current research extends three research areas in relational demography: considering deep-level dissimilarity in theory building, assessing dissimilarity perceptions directly in theory testing, and examining the antecedents of dissimilarity perceptions. The results, based on two field studies using diverse samples, demonstrate the effects of…

  8. The Relationship between Use and Perception: The Case of Catalan Variants of a Subject Coreferential with an Antecedent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa Carreras, Joan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the relationship between use and perception of five Catalan variants of the variable "subject coreferential with an antecedent." This will be done by examining the results of a cloze test and three perception surveys answered in 1997 by 26 respondents. Two different correct constructions were then presented as…

  9. Use of an Antecedent Analysis and a Force Sensitive Platform to Compare Stereotyped Movements and Motor Tics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosland, Kimberly A.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schroeder, Stephen; Zarcane, Troy; Fowler, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Stereotyped movements displayed by 6 participants and tics displayed by 6 children were evaluated using an antecedent behavioral analysis and a force sensitive platform. We found that tics occurred more often in an alone condition when compared to high preference toy and play conditions, whereas stereotyped movements were more variable across…

  10. An Interdisciplinary Meta-Analysis of the Potential Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences of Protege Perceptions of Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Lillian Turner de Tormes; Allen, Tammy D.; Hoffman, Brian J.; Baranik, Lisa E.; Sauer, Julia B.; Baldwin, Sean; Morrison, M. Ashley; Kinkade, Katie M.; Maher, Charleen P.; Curtis, Sara; Evans, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarized youth, academic, and workplace research on the potential antecedents (demographics, human capital, and relationship attributes), correlates (interaction frequency, relationship length, performance, motivation, and social capital), and consequences (attitudinal, behavioral, career-related, and health-related outcomes)…

  11. Perceived Deep-Level Dissimilarity: Personality Antecedents and Impact on Overall Job Attitude, Helping, Work Withdrawal, and Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Hui; Chuang, Aichia; Joshi, Aparna

    2008-01-01

    The current research extends three research areas in relational demography: considering deep-level dissimilarity in theory building, assessing dissimilarity perceptions directly in theory testing, and examining the antecedents of dissimilarity perceptions. The results, based on two field studies using diverse samples, demonstrate the effects of…

  12. Completing College: A Longitudinal Examination of Potential Antecedents of Success in Postsecondary Education for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achola, Edwin Obilo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the antecedent conditions that contribute to post-secondary education (PSE) completion for students with disabilities, taking into account institutional experiences associated with social integration. A prospective longitudinal design was used to analyze data from the National Longitudinal Transition…

  13. The Sequential Introduction of Positive Antecedent and Consequent Components in a Compliance Training Package with Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellipanni, Kimberly D.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe; Roberts, Dannell S.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the separate and combined effects of the antecedent manipulations of effective instruction delivery and time-in, as well as the effects of the addition of the consequent manipulation of contingent praise in a compliance training package for four elementary students displaying low levels of compliance. Four teachers were trained to…

  14. An examination of antecedents to coal miners' hearing protection behaviors: A test of the theory of planned behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Quick, B.L.; Stephenson, M.T.; Witte, K.; Vaught, C.; Booth-Butterfield, S.; Patel, D.

    2008-07-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) National Occupational Research Agenda (DHHS Publication No. 96-115) reports that approximately 50% of miners will experience hearing loss by age 50, compared to only 9% of the general population. The present investigation examines three antecedents believed to be associated with miner's use of hearing protection. A posttest-delayed-posttest-control group field research design was employed to assess antecedents toward wearing hearing protection. Following the initial posttest, miners' attitudes and subjective norms were antecedents to intentions to wear hearing protection devices. Also, intentions toward wearing hearing protection predicted hearing protection behaviors. Approximately six weeks later, miners' attitudes and perceived behavioral control were each significant predictors of intentions to wear hearing protection and again, intentions were positively associated with hearing protection behaviors. Our results indicate that appeals to normative influences may be the most effective antecedent to employ when persuading coal miners to wear hearing protection. However, messages designed to impact attitudes and perceived behavioral control were also effective.

  15. Preschool Antecedents of Mathematics Achievement of Latinos: The Influence of Family Resources, Early Literacy Experiences, and Preschool Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Edward M.; Gallimore, Ronald; Garnier, Helen; Reese, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Seventy-three Latino middle school students participated in a longitudinal study of the preschool antecedents of their mathematics achievement. Path analysis indicated that family resources (parents' educational level, occupation, and income) predicted home literacy activities, which predicted combined early Spanish literacy and English language…

  16. Brief Report: Use of an Antecedent Procedure to Decrease Night Awakening in an Infant--A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cautilli, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Borowski, Hunter, and Johnson (2001) found that an antecedent strategy such as white noise could decrease sleep awakenings for infants in the natural home environment. This study attempts to replicate the findings using an ABAB reversal design. A five month and one week old child, who had difficulty with waking an average of four times per night,…

  17. A systematic meta-review grading the evidence for non-genetic risk factors and putative antecedents of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Sandra L; Shepherd, Alana M; Laurens, Kristin R; Carr, Vaughan J

    2011-12-01

    Identifying the relative strength of evidence associated with non-genetic risk factors and putative antecedents of schizophrenia will guide research and may inform the design of early detection and intervention strategies. To present and quality assess current evidence for non-genetic risk factors and putative antecedents derived from well-conducted systematic reviews that report pooled data. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Current Contents, and PsycINFO databases were searched systematically, and supplemented by hand searching. Review reporting quality was assessed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist, review methodology was assessed using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklist, and evidence quality was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Twenty-four reviews met inclusion criteria. The risk factors with the highest quality evidence, reporting medium effect sizes, were advanced paternal age, obstetric complications, and cannabis use. The strongest evidence among the putative antecedents was identified for motor dysfunction and low IQ. More research is required that applies sound methodological practices, taking into consideration specificity for schizophrenia and possible confounding factors, to robustly identify the non-genetic risk factors and putative antecedents of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation des indicateurs d’alerte précoce de la résistance du VIH aux ARV en Côte d’Ivoire en 2011

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kouadio Jean; Damey, Néto Florence; Konan, Diby Jean Paul; Aka, Joseph; Aka-Konan, Sandrine; Ani, Alex; Bonle, Marguerite Te; Kouassi, Dinard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction En 2001, l'Organisation des Nations Unies recommandait de rendre disponible les médicaments antirétroviraux dans les pays à ressources limitées. Cependant, l'utilisation de ces médicaments à grande échelle s'accompagne du développement de résistance du virus. En Côte d'Ivoire, plusieurs sites prescrivent les antirétroviraux. Cette étude avait pour objectif d'évaluer les facteurs programmatiques associés à un risque élevé d'émergence de résistance du VIH aux antirétroviraux. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une cohorte rétrospective sur 20 sites de prise en charge des personnes vivant avec le VIH. La population d'étude était constituée des personnes ayant initié leur traitement antirétroviral sur les sites en 2008-2009. L'estimation de la taille de l'échantillon a été faite à partir de la stratégie d'échantillonnage de l'OMS. Résultats Sur 20 sites, 98% des prescriptions initiales étaient conformes aux directives nationales et 20% des sites avaient 100% de prescriptions conformes. Au total, 33% des patients étaient perdus de vue au cours des 12 premiers mois de traitement antirétroviral et 20% des sites avaient moins de 20% de perdus de vue. A 12 mois, 51% des patients demeuraient sous traitement de première intention approprié et 11% des sites ont atteint le seuil d'au moins 70% de patients sous traitement de première intention approprié. Un seul site n'a pas connu de rupture d'antirétroviraux sur les 12 mois. Conclusion Des insuffisances relevées dans la prise en charge des personnes vivant avec le VIH traduisent l'existence d'un risque important de résistance du virus aux antirétroviraux en 2008-2009. Pour minimiser ce risque les pratiques de prescription devraient être améliorées, un système de recherche des absents aux rendez-vous devrait être mis en place et la disponibilité constante des antirétroviraux devraient être assurée. PMID:28250876

  19. A Model of Consumer Response to Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising: Antecedents and Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisu; Delorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the health care marketplace and lack of systematic research on OTC drug advertising (OTCA) effects, this study tested a theory-based, product category-specific OTCA effects model. Structural equation modeling analysis of data for 1 OTC drug category, analgesics, supported the proposed model, explaining the OTCA effect process from key consumer antecedents to ad involvement, from ad involvement to ad attention, from ad attention to cognitive responses, then to affective/evaluative responses, leading to the final behavioral outcome. Several noteworthy patterns also emerged: (a) Product involvement was directly linked to ad attention, rather than exerting an indirect influence through ad involvement; (b) ad attention was significantly related to both cognitive and affective/evaluative responses to different degrees, with stronger links to cognitive responses; and

  20. A Five-Factor Model framework for understanding childhood personality disorder antecedents.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Barbara; De Fruyt, Filip

    2012-12-01

    The present contribution reviews evidence that supports the relevance of childhood antecedents of personality disorders, and advocates that the validity of a Five-Factor Model framework for describing general trait differences in childhood can be extended towards the field of developmental personality difficulties. In addition, we suggest that several traditional childhood Axis I conditions include a substantial trait component that may be responsible for the recurring finding that childhood Axis I disorders are predictive for adult Axis II disorders. Given the valuable information provided by a trait assessment, we further propose to integrate dimensional personality and personality pathology measures as standard tools in mental health assessments at a young age. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organisations: antecedents and consequences of safety behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Muñiz, Beatriz; Montes-Peón, José Manuel; Vázquez-Ordás, Camilo José

    2012-03-01

    The occupational health and safety standard OHSAS 18001 has gained considerable acceptance worldwide, and firms from diverse sectors and of varying sizes have implemented it. Despite this, very few studies have analysed safety management or the safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organisations. The current work aims to analyse the safety climate in these organisations, identify its dimensions, and propose and test a structural equation model that will help determine the antecedents and consequences of employees' safety behaviour. For this purpose, the authors carry out an empirical study using a sample of 131 OHSAS 18001-certified organisations located in Spain. The results show that management's commitment, and particularly communication, have an effect on safety behaviour and on safety performance, employee satisfaction, and firm competitiveness. These findings are particularly important for management since they provide evidence about the factors that should be encouraged to reduce risks and improve performance in this type of organisation.

  2. The effects of antecedent flows on sediment entrainment in a mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Luca; Comiti, Francesco; Dell'Agnese, Andrea; Engel, Angel; Lucia, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The difficulty for predicting bedload transport and identifying incipient motion thresholds in high mountain streams is well-known, especially during flood events. Surrogate methods aiming at quantification of sediment transport rates and sizes have been developed thorughout the last decades; among those, tracers in general, and PITs (Passive Integrated Transponders) in particular are a good alternative in particle dynamics study. Usually, the recovery of PITs after flood events is done by means of a portable antenna; however an alternate valid option is represented by antennas fixed on the channel bank or on the river shores. The use of stationary antennas allows to know the actual discharge at the moment of motion. This study focuses on incipient motion of tracers measured by means of a stationary antenna system in the upper part of a mountain basin (Saldur River, drainage area 18.6 km2, Italian Alps) where significant daily fluctuations in summer - due to the part of the basin (2.3 km2) being glacierized - are monitored. From 2011 to 2013, flow discharge varied between 1 and 10 m3s-1. A total of 587 clasts equipped with PITs ranging from 35 to 580 mm were released along the main channel, in a confined reach with bed morphology transitional from plane-bed to step-pool (6% slope). PIT-tagged clasts were gently deployed on the riverbed, few meters upstream of an antenna anchored to the channel bed. Flow stage data were acquired at 10 min interval by means of a pressure transducer installed near the fixed antenna. The analysis of preliminary results showed that the relationship between the size of transported tracers and the discharge measured at the time clasts were passing above the antenna is weak. Hence, it was investigated the influence of antecedent flows on incipient motion, by dividing the peak discharge recorded between each PIT deployment and the subsequent entrainment by the actual critical discharge at the time of movement (ratio Qmax/Qc). Results show

  3. Attitudinal and motivational antecedents of participation in voluntary employee development activities.

    PubMed

    Hurtz, Gregory M; Williams, Kevin J

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated factors influencing ongoing participation in employee development activities. A multiple-indicator structural equation model building on the theory of planned behavior and prior employee development literature was tested with a survey across 4 organizations on 2 occasions. The model uses reactions to past participation and past supportiveness of the social and organizational environment as indirect antecedents of participation, filtered through their impact on attitudes and behavioral intentions toward future participation. Learning goal orientation also influenced attitudes toward participation. Whereas personal control over participation and higher levels of voluntariness were negatively related to participation, intentions to participate and availability of opportunities arose as strong predictors of higher participation rates. Many significant hypothesized paths were found, and 85% of the variance in participation was explained by the model variables. Increasing employee awareness of opportunities and managing positive attitudes toward those opportunities are recommended as key factors for increasing participation rates.

  4. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sub-sample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this paper reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of secure base script knowledge, as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved. Secure base script knowledge was (a) modestly to moderately correlated with more well established assessments of adult attachment, (b) associated with mother-child attachment in the first three years of life and with observations of maternal and paternal sensitivity from childhood to adolescence, and (c) partially accounted for associations previously documented in the SECCYD cohort between early caregiving experiences and Adult Attachment Interview states of mind (Booth-LaForce & Roisman, 2014) as well as self-reported attachment styles (Fraley, Roisman, Booth-LaForce, Owen, & Holland, 2013). PMID:25264703

  5. Antecedents of positive self-disclosure online: an empirical study of US college students’ Facebook usage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the factors predicting positive self-disclosure on social networking sites (SNSs). There is a formidable body of empirical research relating to online self-disclosure, but very few studies have assessed the antecedents of positive self-disclosure. To address this literature gap, the current study tests the effects of self-esteem, life satisfaction, social anxiety, privacy concerns, public self-consciousness (SC), and perceived collectivism on positive self-disclosure on SNSs. Data were collected online via Qualtrics in April 2013. Respondents were undergraduate students from the University of Connecticut. Using ordinary least squares regression, the current study found that self-esteem and perceived collectivism increased positive self-disclosure, life satisfaction, and privacy concerns decreased positive self-disclosure, and the effects of social anxiety and public SC were not significant. PMID:28579840

  6. Developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark; Strambler, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which included 124 children ages 5-11, examined developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype-consciousness, defined as awareness of others' stereotypes. Greater age and more frequent parent-reported racial socialization practices were associated with greater likelihood of stereotype-consciousness. Children who knew of broadly held stereotypes more often explained hypothetical negative interracial encounters between White actors and Black targets as discriminatory. In addition, among African American and Latino children who knew about broadly held stereotypes, diagnostic testing conditions led to stereotype threat effects on a standardized working memory task. Findings are discussed in terms of the contribution to our understanding of children's developing thinking about and response to stereotypes and related phenomena.

  7. A Study of the Antecedents and Consequences of Members' Helping Behaviors in Online Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Kuo-Ming

    Despite the growing popularity of online communities, there are a major gap between practitioners and academicians as to how to share information and knowledge among members of these groups. However, none of the previous studies have integrated these variables into a more comprehensive framework. Thus more validations are required the aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical model that enables us to examine the antecedents and consequences effects of members’ helping behavior in online communities. The moderating effects of the sense of community on the relationships between members’ helping behaviors on information sharing and knowledge contribution are also evaluated. A complete model is developed for empirical testing. Using Yahoo’s members as the samples of this study, the empirical results suggested that online communities members’ helping behavior represents a large pool of product know-how. They seem to be a promising source of innovation capabilities for new product development.

  8. B. F. Skinner's Science and Human Behavior: its antecedents and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Catania, A Charles

    2003-11-01

    Skinner's Science and Human Behavior marked a transition from a treatment of behavior that took physics as its reference science to one that emphasized behavior as a fundamental part of the subject matter of biology. The book includes what may be Skinner's earliest statement about the similarity of operant selection to Darwinian natural selection in phylogeny. Other major topics discussed in the book included multiple causation, private events, the self, and social contingencies. Among the important antecedents were Skinner's own Behavior of Organisms and Keller & Schoenfeld's Pincinples of Psychology. Current developments in education, behavioral economics, and some behavior therapies can be attributed at least in part to Skinner's seminal work. The effective behavioral analysis of governmental and religious systems will probably depend on elaborations of our understanding of verbal behavior.

  9. Facet personality and surface-level diversity as team mental model antecedents: implications for implicit coordination.

    PubMed

    Fisher, David M; Bell, Suzanne T; Dierdorff, Erich C; Belohlav, James A

    2012-07-01

    Team mental models (TMMs) have received much attention as important drivers of effective team processes and performance. Less is known about the factors that give rise to these shared cognitive structures. We examined potential antecedents of TMMs, with a specific focus on team composition variables, including various facets of personality and surface-level diversity. Further, we examined implicit coordination as an important outcome of TMMs. Results suggest that team composition in terms of the cooperation facet of agreeableness and racial diversity were significantly related to team-focused TMM similarity. TMM similarity was also positively predictive of implicit coordination, which mediated the relationship between TMM similarity and team performance. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant interaction between the trust facet of agreeableness and racial diversity in predicting TMM similarity. Results are discussed in terms of facilitating the emergence of TMMs and corresponding implications for team-related human resource practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Antecedents of positive self-disclosure online: an empirical study of US college students' Facebook usage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the factors predicting positive self-disclosure on social networking sites (SNSs). There is a formidable body of empirical research relating to online self-disclosure, but very few studies have assessed the antecedents of positive self-disclosure. To address this literature gap, the current study tests the effects of self-esteem, life satisfaction, social anxiety, privacy concerns, public self-consciousness (SC), and perceived collectivism on positive self-disclosure on SNSs. Data were collected online via Qualtrics in April 2013. Respondents were undergraduate students from the University of Connecticut. Using ordinary least squares regression, the current study found that self-esteem and perceived collectivism increased positive self-disclosure, life satisfaction, and privacy concerns decreased positive self-disclosure, and the effects of social anxiety and public SC were not significant.

  11. Antecedents and consequences of workplace aggression in the allied health context.

    PubMed

    Demir, Defne; Rodwell, John; Flower, Rebecca L

    2014-01-01

    Workplace aggression research has typically focused on groups in the health care industry considered to be high risk (e.g., nursing); however, aggression also occurs among other health care professional groups, such as those in allied health. This study aimed to investigate the antecedents and consequences of workplace aggression among allied health professionals. Allied health professionals working for an Australian health care organization were surveyed, with 134 (49%) responding. The largest group of allied health professionals surveyed were social workers (49%). Job demands, job control, and social support were linked to different types of aggression. Different sources of aggression were linked to various employee outcomes. The importance of considering stressors surrounding employee work conditions is highlighted.

  12. An empirical investigation of dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes of credit scores.

    PubMed

    Bernerth, Jeremy B; Taylor, Shannon G; Walker, H Jack; Whitman, Daniel S

    2012-03-01

    Many organizations use credit scores as an employment screening tool, but little is known about the legitimacy of such practices. To address this important gap, the reported research conceptualized credit scores as a biographical measure of financial responsibility and investigated dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes. Using personality data collected from employees, objective credit scores obtained from the Fair Isaac Corporation, and performance data provided by supervisors, we found conscientiousness to be positively related and agreeableness to be negatively related to credit scores. Results also indicate significant relationships between credit scores and task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Credit scores did not, however, predict workplace deviance. Implications for organizations currently using or planning to use credit scores as part of the screening process are discussed.

  13. Antecedents and consequences of social identity complexity: intergroup contact, distinctiveness threat, and outgroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Tausch, Nicole; Cairns, Ed; Hughes, Joanne

    2009-08-01

    Social identity complexity defines people's more or less complex cognitive representations of the interrelationships among their multiple ingroup identities. Being high in complexity is contingent on situational, cognitive, or motivational factors, and has positive consequences for intergroup relations. Two survey studies conducted in Northern Ireland examined the extent to which intergroup contact and distinctiveness threat act as antecedents, and outgroup attitudes as consequences, of social identity complexity. In both studies, contact was positively, and distinctiveness threat negatively, associated with complex multiple ingroup perceptions, whereas respondents with more complex identity structures also reported more favorable outgroup attitudes. Social identity complexity also mediated the effects of contact and distinctiveness threat on attitudes. This research highlights that the extent to which individuals perceive their multiple ingroups in more or less complex and differentiated ways is of central importance to understanding intergroup phenomena.

  14. Abstinence in late adolescence--antecedents to and covariates of a sober lifestyle and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Leifman, H; Kühlhorn, E; Allebeck, P; Andréasson, S; Romelsjö, A

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was first to compare 18-19-year-old male abstainers with alcohol consumers, and especially light consumers, regarding degree of sociability as indicated by their (in)security in the company of others, their number of close friends, intimate conversations with friends and their popularity in school. Secondly, we analysed the importance of antecedents to and covariates of abstinence. In addition, the significant antecedents and covariates gave us information as to abstinence patterns. The study was based on a survey of all Swedish males, 18-19 years old, conscripted for military service in 1969-70. Data had been collected by means of questionnaires and psychological interviews, giving measures of each respondent's social background, psychiatric/psychological and psychosomatic health status, substance use, deviant behaviour and degree of sociability. Poor sociability was more common among the abstainers than among all the other categories of drinkers, including the light consumers. The conscripts' social background, and especially their fathers' drinking habits, had the strongest effects in explaining abstinence. Sixty-two per cent of all abstainers had non-drinking fathers, compared to 28% of the light consumers. As to the majority of abstainers, this indicates a link between the social background of temperance and their own reported abstinence. Their poor sociability could be a consequence of abstaining at a young age when abstinence is uncommon. Those who abstained despite a drinking father showed a worsening psychological status, suggesting a link between psychologically impaired health, poor sociability and abstinence. Though the abstainers were the least sociable, the difference between the abstainers, the light consumers and the moderate consumers in other categories were generally small.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Antecedents of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms in children born extremely preterm

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Samantha; Kochhar, Puja; Hennessy, Enid; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter; Hollis, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate antecedents of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children born extremely preterm (EP; <26 weeks gestation). Method The EPICure Study recruited all babies born EP in the UK and Ireland in March-December 1995. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed at 2.5 (n=283; 90%), 6 (n=160; 78%) and 11 (n=219; 71%) years of age. Parents and teachers completed the Du Paul Rating Scale-IV to assess inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms at 11 years. Regression analyses were used to explore the association of neonatal, neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes to 6 years with ADHD symptoms at 11 years. Results EP children had significantly more inattention (mean difference 1.2 SD; 95% CI 0.9, 1.5) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (0.5 SD; 0.2, 0.7) than controls, with a significantly greater effect size for inattention than hyperactivity/impulsivity. Significant independent predictors of inattention at 11 years included smaller head circumference, lower IQ and pervasive peer relationship problems at 6 years, and motor development at 2.5 years. In contrast, significant independent predictors of hyperactivity/impulsivity included lower IQ, pervasive conduct problems and ADHD symptoms at 6 years, externalizing problems at 2.5 years and non-white maternal ethnicity. Conclusions EP children are at increased risk for ADHD symptoms, predominantly inattention, for which the antecedents differ by symptom domain. Attention deficits following EP birth were associated with poor brain growth and neurological function. Cognitive and behavioral assessments in early and middle childhood to identify neurodevelopmental and peer relationship problems may be beneficial for identifying EP children at risk for inattention. PMID:27096570

  16. Obstetric antecedents to body-cooling treatment of the newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David B; Lucke, Ashley M; McIntire, Donald D; Sánchez, Pablo J; Leveno, Kenneth J; Chalak, Lina F

    2014-08-01

    Obstetric antecedents were analyzed in births in which the infant received whole-body cooling for neonatal encephalopathy. This retrospective cohort study included all live-born singleton infants delivered at or beyond 36 weeks' gestation from October 2005 through December 2011. Infants who had received whole-body cooling identified by review of a prospective neonatal registry were compared with a control group comprising the remaining obstetric population delivered at greater than 36 weeks but not cooled. Univariable analysis was followed up by a staged, stepwise selection of variables with the intent to rank significant risk factors for cooling. A total of 86,371 women delivered during the study period and 98 infants received whole-body cooling (1.1 per 1000 live births). Of these 98 infants, 80 newborns (88%) had moderate encephalopathy and 10 (12%) had severe encephalopathy prior to cooling. Maternal age of 15 years or younger, low parity, maternal body habitus (body mass index of ≥40 kg/m(2)), diabetes, preeclampsia, induction, epidural analgesia, chorioamnionitis, length of labor, and mode of delivery were associated with significantly increased risk of infant cooling during a univariable analysis. Catastrophic events to include umbilical cord prolapse (odds ratio [OR], 14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3-72), placental abruption (OR, 17; 95% CI, 7-44), uterine rupture (OR, 130; 95% CI, 11-1477) were the strongest factors associated with infant cooling after staged-stepwise logistic analysis. A variety of intrapartum characteristics were associated with infant cooling for neonatal encephalopathy, with the most powerful antecedents being umbilical cord prolapse, placental abruption, and uterine rupture. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antecedents of Neonatal Encephalopathy in the Vermont Oxford Network Encephalopathy Registry

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Peter; Edwards, Erika M.; Horbar, Jeffrey D.; Kenny, Michael J.; Inder, Terrie; Pfister, Robert H.; Raju, Tonse; Soll, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major predictor of death and long-term neurologic disability, but there are few studies of antecedents of NE. OBJECTIVES: To identify antecedents in a large registry of infants who had NE. METHODS: This was a maternal and infant record review of 4165 singleton neonates, gestational age of ≥36 weeks, meeting criteria for inclusion in the Vermont Oxford Network Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry. RESULTS: Clinically recognized seizures were the most prevalent condition (60%); 49% had a 5-minute Apgar score of ≤3 and 18% had a reduced level of consciousness. An abnormal maternal or fetal condition predated labor in 46%; maternal hypertension (16%) or small for gestational age (16%) were the most frequent risk factors. In 8%, birth defects were identified. The most prevalent birth complication was elevated maternal temperature in labor of ≥37.5°C in 27% of mothers with documented temperatures compared with 2% to 3.2% in controls in population-based studies. Clinical chorioamnionitis, prolonged membrane rupture, and maternal hypothyroidism exceeded rates in published controls. Acute asphyxial indicators were reported in 15% (in 35% if fetal bradycardia included) and inflammatory indicators in 24%. Almost one-half had neither asphyxial nor inflammatory indicators. Although most infants with NE were observably ill since the first minutes of life, only 54% of placentas were submitted for examination. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically recognized asphyxial birth events, indicators of intrauterine exposure to inflammation, fetal growth restriction, and birth defects were each observed in term infants with NE, but much of NE in this large registry remained unexplained. PMID:23071210

  18. Antecedents of neonatal encephalopathy in the Vermont Oxford Network Encephalopathy Registry.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Karin B; Bingham, Peter; Edwards, Erika M; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Kenny, Michael J; Inder, Terrie; Pfister, Robert H; Raju, Tonse; Soll, Roger F

    2012-11-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major predictor of death and long-term neurologic disability, but there are few studies of antecedents of NE. To identify antecedents in a large registry of infants who had NE. This was a maternal and infant record review of 4165 singleton neonates, gestational age of ≥ 36 weeks, meeting criteria for inclusion in the Vermont Oxford Network Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry. Clinically recognized seizures were the most prevalent condition (60%); 49% had a 5-minute Apgar score of ≤ 3 and 18% had a reduced level of consciousness. An abnormal maternal or fetal condition predated labor in 46%; maternal hypertension (16%) or small for gestational age (16%) were the most frequent risk factors. In 8%, birth defects were identified. The most prevalent birth complication was elevated maternal temperature in labor of ≥ 37.5 °C in 27% of mothers with documented temperatures compared with 2% to 3.2% in controls in population-based studies. Clinical chorioamnionitis, prolonged membrane rupture, and maternal hypothyroidism exceeded rates in published controls. Acute asphyxial indicators were reported in 15% (in 35% if fetal bradycardia included) and inflammatory indicators in 24%. Almost one-half had neither asphyxial nor inflammatory indicators. Although most infants with NE were observably ill since the first minutes of life, only 54% of placentas were submitted for examination. Clinically recognized asphyxial birth events, indicators of intrauterine exposure to inflammation, fetal growth restriction, and birth defects were each observed in term infants with NE, but much of NE in this large registry remained unexplained.

  19. Antecedents and sequelae of sudden parental death in offspring and surviving caregivers.

    PubMed

    Melhem, Nadine M; Walker, Monica; Moritz, Grace; Brent, David A

    2008-05-01

    To examine the psychiatric antecedents that put parents at risk for early death, and the psychological sequelae of bereavement in offspring and caregivers. A population-based study. Bereaved families were recruited through the coroner's records and by advertisement. Control families were recruited by random-digit dialing and advertisement. Families with biological offspring from 7 to 25 years of age in which 1 parent died of suicide, accident, or sudden natural death were included (n = 140). Controls (n = 99) had 2 living parents and their biological offspring and had no death of a first-degree relative within the past 2 years. Lifetime psychiatric history for deceased parents (probands) and new-onset psychiatric disorders, self-reported symptoms, and functional status in offspring and surviving caregivers. Bipolar disorder, substance abuse, and personality disorders are more common in probands who died of suicide or accident than in control parents. Bereaved offspring and their caregivers were at increased risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Bereaved offspring had a 3-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.3-7.0) increased risk of depression, even after controlling for antecedent and concomitant risk factors. Offspring bereaved by suicide showed similar outcomes compared with those bereaved by other types of death. Bereavement conveys an increased risk of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder above and beyond other vulnerability factors. Better integration of medical and psychiatric care may prevent premature parental death, but once it occurs, physicians should be alert to the increased risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in bereaved offspring and their caregivers.

  20. Antecedents and Sequelae of Sudden Parental Death in Offspring and Surviving Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Melhem, Nadine M.; Walker, Monica; Moritz, Grace; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To examine the psychiatric antecedents that put parents at risk for early death, and the psychological sequelae of bereavement in offspring and caregivers. Design A population-based study. Setting Bereaved families were recruited through the coroner’s records and by advertisement. Control families were recruited by random-digit dialing and advertisement. Participants Families with biological offspring from 7 to 25 years of age in which 1 parent died of suicide, accident, or sudden natural death were included (n=140). Controls (n=99) had 2 living parents and their biological offspring and had no death of a first-degree relative within the past 2 years. Main Outcome Measures Lifetime psychiatric history for deceased parents (probands) and new-onset psychiatric disorders, self-reported symptoms, and functional status in offspring and surviving caregivers. Results Bipolar disorder, substance abuse, and personality disorders are more common in probands who died of suicide or accident than in control parents. Bereaved offspring and their caregivers were at increased risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Bereaved offspring had a 3-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.3–7.0) increased risk of depression, even after controlling for antecedent and concomitant risk factors. Offspring bereaved by suicide showed similar outcomes compared with those bereaved by other types of death. Conclusions Bereavement conveys an increased risk of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder above and beyond other vulnerability factors. Better integration of medical and psychiatric care may prevent premature parental death, but once it occurs, physicians should be alert to the increased risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in bereaved offspring and their caregivers. PMID:18458185

  1. Antecedents of Attitudes to Aging: A Study of the Roles of Personality and Well-being.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Christina; Bei, Bei; Gilson, Kim-Michelle; Komiti, Angela; Jackson, Henry; Judd, Fiona

    2016-04-01

    Little research has examined factors that contribute to the formation of attitudes toward one's own aging. The current study aimed to examine personality as defined by the Five-Factor model of personality as an antecedent of attitudes, while taking into account demographic and health factors known to be relevant to such attitudes. Participants aged 60 years or older (N = 421) were part of a longitudinal study of health and well-being in Australia, and completed a postal survey comprising measures of personality, the Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire, the SF-12 health survey, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Higher levels of neuroticism were associated with less positive attitudes toward old age as a time of psychological growth, and higher extraversion and agreeableness were significant predictors of less negative attitudes toward psychosocial loss. Baseline measures of self-reported mental and physical health, as well as change in those scores, also made significant contributions to attitudes toward aging. Personality was a significant antecedent of attitudes towards aging, as were mental and physical health. The data highlight the role of potentially modifiable factors, such as mental and physical health. If these factors act as resources that shape an individual's attitudes during the aging process, then one potential foundation for holding positive attitudes to aging is to maintain physical and mental health. This requires interventions and policies that are effective in encouraging health-promoting behaviors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  3. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Adil

    L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis

  4. Conséquences comportementales de la violence faite aux enfants

    PubMed Central

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Discuter des répercussions de la violence sur le développement comportemental durant l’enfance, mettre en évidence certains signes comportementaux susceptibles d’alerter les médecins à la présence d’une maltraitance continue d’un enfant et explorer le rôle précis du médecin de famille dans une telle situation clinique. Sources des données Une recension systématique a servi à examiner la recherche pertinente, les articles de révision clinique et les sites web des organismes de protection de la jeunesse. Message principal Le comportement d’un enfant est une manifestation extériorisée de sa stabilité et de sa sécurité intérieures. C’est une lentille au travers de laquelle le médecin de famille peut observer le développement de l’enfant pendant toute sa vie. Tous les genres de violence sont dommageables pour les enfants, qu’elle soit physique, affective ou psychologique, et peuvent causer des problèmes à long terme dans le développement du comportement et de la santé mentale. Les médecins de famille doivent connaître les indices de maltraitance et de négligence envers les enfants et être aux aguets de ces derniers afin d’entreprendre les interventions appropriées et améliorer les résultats pour ces enfants. Conclusion La violence faite aux enfants peut causer un développement psychologique désordonné et des problèmes de comportement. Les médecins de famille exercent un rôle important dans la reconnaissance des signes comportementaux laissant présager une maltraitance, ainsi que pour offrir de l’aide afin de protéger les enfants.

  5. Influence of Antecedent Hydrologic Conditions on Nitrate and Phosphorus Export from a Small Agricultural Catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrae, M. L.; English, M. C.; Schiff, S. L.; Stone, M.

    2009-04-01

    The ability of the scientific community to quantify and predict discharge and nutrient transport in a range of settings is confounded by the effects of antecedent hydrologic conditions in upland areas. Previous work has empirically linked spatial variables such as land use, soil type, topography, and drainage characteristics to hydrochemical export from various landscapes (e.g. MCDOWELL et al., 2001; ARHEIMER and LIDEN, 2000; STAMM et al., 1998; JORDAN et al., 1997; WELSCH et al., 2001). However, the specific reasons why similar types of events produce different nutrient export patterns are poorly understood. Nutrient (nitrate, soluble and total phosphorus) transport from agricultural catchments is difficult to quantify and predict because of the influence of variable hydrologic flowpaths and their interaction with varying nutrient pools. This research examines the role of antecedent hydrologic conditions on stream discharge and nitrate (NO3-), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) export from a small (2.7 km2) first-order agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada. During 59 events occurring over a two-year sampling period (year-round), runoff ratios ranged from 0-0.99). Runoff ratios increased throughout successive events as conditions became wetter although key indices of antecedent wetness such as water table position, pre-event streamflow and soil moisture did not yield predictive relationships. Nitrate, SRP and TP transport from the catchment increased with antecedent wetness during some periods but decreased with antecedent wetness during other periods. This variability appears to be linked to a combination of the position of water table before and during the event, as well as timing of fertilizer application. It is hypothesized that in general, wetter antecedent hydrologic conditions increase nutrient transport from the catchment by increasing macropore connectivity between surface soil horizons and tile drains, although this

  6. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  7. Antecedents of New-Onset Major Depressive Disorder in Children and Adolescents at High Familial Risk.

    PubMed

    Rice, Frances; Sellers, Ruth; Hammerton, Gemma; Eyre, Olga; Bevan-Jones, Rhys; Thapar, Ajay K; Collishaw, Stephan; Harold, Gordon T; Thapar, Anita

    2017-02-01

    Early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in individuals at high familial risk of depression and is associated with poor long-term mental health, social, and educational outcomes. To examine the developmental pathways that lead to first-episode adolescent-onset MDD (incident cases) in those at high familial risk and to postulate a theoretically informed model that enables simultaneous testing of different pathways to incident adolescent-onset MDD composed of contributions from familial/genetic and social risk factors, as well as effects via specific clinical antecedents. This investigation was a 4-year longitudinal study (April 2007 to March 2011) among offspring of depressed parents in the general community. Analyses were conducted between September 1, 2015, and May 27, 2016. Participants were 337 families in whom the index parent (315 mothers and 22 fathers) had experienced at least 2 episodes of MDD (recruited through primary care) and among whom there was a biologically related child in the age range of 9 to 17 years living with the index parent (197 girls and 140 boys with a mean [SD] age of 12.4 [2.0] years) at baseline. Offspring with MDD before the study or at baseline (n = 27), offspring with an episode of MDD that had remitted by follow-up (n = 4), and offspring with missing baseline MDD data (n = 2) were excluded. Ninety-two percent (279 of 304) of families completed the follow-up. The primary outcome was new-onset offspring MDD, and the secondary outcome was the total DSM-IV MDD symptom score. On average, children and adolescents had a mean (SD) of 1.85 (1.74) (range, 0-8.5) DSM-IV symptoms of MDD at follow-up. Twenty (6 males and 14 females) had new-onset MDD, with a mean (SD) age at onset of 14.4 (2.0) years (range, 10-18 years). Irritability (β = 0.12, P = .03) and fear and/or anxiety (β = 0.38, P < .001) were significant independent clinical antecedents of new adolescent-onset MDD, but disruptive behavior (

  8. Does antecedent precipitation play a role for floods in (small) Swiss catchments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froidevaux, Paul; Schwanbeck, Jan; Weingartner, Rolf; Chevalier, Clément; Romppainen-Martius, Olivia

    2014-05-01

    River flooding is one of the most devastating natural hazards worldwide. In Switzerland, like in many other regions, the building of flood protection infrastructures is complicated by difficulties in assessing flood risk due to: - The large year-to-year variability in flood losses. The variations amount to several orders of magnitude (see for ex. Hilker et al., 2009). - The non-stationarity of the flood risk at longer time scales. A pronounced decadal variability in flood risk has been observed by Schmocker-Fackel and Naef (2010) and Köplin et al. (2013) show that climate change will induce diverse and complex regional changes in flood risk. A better understanding of flood processes is therefore required in order to better predict changes in flood frequency. It has been hypothesized that flood frequency variations are linked to changes in the atmospheric circulation. Consequently, the whole mechanism chain starting from atmospheric circulation patterns triggering severe precipitation weather and ending with extreme river discharge must be considered. In a step in that direction we characterize precipitation events that triggered observed annual maximum discharges at 120 discharge stations during the last 53 years in Switzerland. The precipitation dataset is a temporally-homogeneous complex interpolation of daily rain gauge data on a 1 by 1 km grid covering the Swiss territory (MeteoSwiss, 2011). We test the relationship between different catchment-averaged precipitation indices and flood occurrence. We explicitly separate antecedent and event-associated precipitation. The preliminary results show that antecedent precipitation (weekly to monthly sums ending 3 days before the event) are no significant flood predictors for most of the catchments. On the other hand, a very strong signal is found for the 1-3 days precipitation sums. Lessons for flood modeling in Swiss catchments is that a strong effort is required in order to represent the flood-associated weather

  9. Assessment of Potential Cross-Reactivity of Human Endogenous Matrix Metalloproteinases with Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum Antibodies in Human Sera Obtained from Patients with Dupuytren's Contracture

    PubMed Central

    Edkins, Thomas J.; Koller-Eichhorn, Roland; Alhadeff, Jack A.; Mayer, Ulrich; Faust, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) contains a fixed ratio of class I (AUX-I) and class II (AUX-II) collagenases and is used as treatment for Dupuytren's contracture. These two Zn-dependent enzymes, produced by the Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium histolyticum, are related functionally to matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which, among other functions, degrade the extracellular matrix. Since AUX-I and AUX-II exhibit sequence similarities to human MMPs, we assessed MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase), MMP-2 (gelatinase A), MMP-3 (stromelysin 1), MMP-8 (collagenase 2), and MMP-13 (collagenase 3) for cross-reactivity with anti-AUX-I and anti-AUX-II antibodies in patient serum. Serum samples from 71 subjects enrolled in a long-term clinical study (58 males and 13 females; 63 ± 10 years old [mean ± standard error]) were evaluated for cross-reactivity with the five MMPs using the two validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Inhibition cutoff points for anti-AUX-I and anti-AUX-II antibodies were based on assay inhibition obtained with a nonspecific protein, bovine gamma globulin, which was tested for each clinical sample. No MMP cross-reactivity was found for any of the 71 clinical antibody-positive sera evaluated. Sequence identity assessments indicated minimal, nonmeaningful alignments of the MMPs and AUX-I/AUX-II. Furthermore, clinical adverse event assessments indicated no safety signals related to MMP inhibition. The bioanalytical results, sequence identity, and clinical assessments consistently did not demonstrate cross-reactivity between CCH antidrug antibodies and endogenous human matrix metalloproteinases. The results presented here suggest that treatment of Dupuytren's contracture patients with CCH does not lead to any clinical adverse events associated with MMP inhibition. PMID:22357647

  10. The Tomato Aux/IAA Transcription Factor IAA9 Is Involved in Fruit Development and Leaf MorphogenesisW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Jones, Brian; Li, Zhengguo; Frasse, Pierre; Delalande, Corinne; Regad, Farid; Chaabouni, Salma; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2005-01-01

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins are transcriptional regulators that mediate many aspects of plant responses to auxin. While functions of most Aux/IAAs have been defined mainly by gain-of-function mutant alleles in Arabidopsis thaliana, phenotypes associated with loss-of-function mutations have been scarce and subtle. We report here that the downregulation of IAA9, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene from a distinct subfamily of Aux/IAA genes, results in a pleiotropic phenotype, consistent with its ubiquitous expression pattern. IAA9-inhibited lines have simple leaves instead of wild-type compound leaves, and fruit development is triggered before fertilization, giving rise to parthenocarpy. This indicates that IAA9 is a key mediator of leaf morphogenesis and fruit set. In addition, antisense plants displayed auxin-related growth alterations, including enhanced hypocotyl/stem elongation, increased leaf vascularization, and reduced apical dominance. Auxin dose–response assays revealed that IAA9 downregulated lines were hypersensitive to auxin, although the only early auxin-responsive gene that was found to be upregulated in the antisense lines was IAA3. The activity of the IAA3 promoter was stimulated in the IAA9 antisense genetic background, indicating that IAA9 acts in planta as a transcriptional repressor of auxin signaling. While no mutation in any member of subfamily IV has been reported to date, the phenotypes associated with the downregulation of IAA9 reveal distinct and novel roles for members of the Aux/IAA gene family. PMID:16126837

  11. Isolation of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 from etiolated pea epicotyls and their expression on a three-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    We isolated novel cDNAs containing the complete open reading frames of a putative auxin influx carrier, PsAUX1, and a putative auxin efflux carrier, PsPIN2, from etiolated pea epicotyls. High levels of homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (Accession No. AY222857) and AtPINs. Phylogenetic analyses based on deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 and AtPIN7, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1. The results were similar for PsAUX1 and AtAUX1, where PsAUX1 belongs to the same subclade as AtAUX1 and CS-AUX1. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in pea epicotyl segments was promoted upon incubation of the segments with auxin (indole-3-acetic acid). In 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings, relatively high expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 was observed in the hook region, growing epicotyls and root tips as compared with those in mature regions of epicotyls and roots. Expression of PsPIN2 in roots was less than that in shoots. Simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat remarkably increased gene expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the hook and the internodes of pea epicotyls, but the increase in PsPIN2 was less. In contrast, polar auxin transport of pea epicotyls was substantially suppressed under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3D clinostat, similar to data from a space experiment on STS-95. These results suggest that PsPINs and PsAUX1 are auxin-inducible genes, and that the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 genes is sensitive to gravistimulation.

  12. Antecedent moisture content and soil texture effects on infiltration and erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, A. I.; Huang, C.; Levy, G. J.

    2006-12-01

    Water infiltration, seal formation, runoff and erosion depend on the soil's inherent properties and surface conditions. Most erosion models consider only soil inherent properties (mainly texture) in assessing infiltration and erosion without consideration of spatial and temporary variation in the surface condition, particularly the antecedent moisture content. We studied the interaction of two different surface conditions, i.e. antecedent moisture content (AMC) and aging (timing after wetting) on infiltration (IR), seal formation (runoff generation) and erosion in four soils varying from loam to clay. Soil samples were packed in erosion box and wetted with different amounts of water (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, or 16 mm) to obtain a wide moisture range (i.e., pF 0-6.2, or from air dry to full saturation). The boxes were put in plastic bags and allowed to age for 0.01, 1, 3, or 7 days. Then the soil in the erosion box exposed to 60 mm of rain. At no aging final IR of soils did not change significantly, but runoff volume (a measure for seal development) and soil loss increased with an increase in AMC mainly because of aggregate breakdown. For any given aging, the highest IR and smallest runoff volume and soil loss were obtained at the intermediate AMC levels (pF 2.4-4.2, between wilting point and field capacity). For instance, in the clay soil to which 3 mm of water (pF~2.7) was added, as aging increased from one to seven days, final IR increased from 5.3 to 7.9 mm h-1, while runoff and soil loss decreased from 34 mm to 22 mm, and from 630 to 360 g m2 respectively. At this AMC range, increasing aging time resulted in up to 40% increase in IR and decrease in runoff or soil loss. This tendency significantly more pronounced for clay soils because water-filled pores in the clay fabric were considered active in the stabilization process and the development of cohesive bonds between and within particles during the aging period. The results of this study are important for soil

  13. Antecedents of Suicide among Youth Aged 11-15: A Multistate Mixed Methods Analysis.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kristin M; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Logan, Joseph E; Leemis, Ruth W

    2016-11-14

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for youth aged 11 to 15, taking over 5,500 lives from 2003 to 2014. Suicide among this age group is linked to risk factors such as mental health problems, family history of suicidal behavior, biological factors, family problems, and peer victimization and bullying. However, few studies have examined the frequency with which such problems occur among youth suicide decedents or the context in which decedents experience these risk factors and the complex interplay of risk that results in a decedent's decision to take his/her own life. Data from a random sample of 482 youth (ages 11-15) suicide cases captured in the National Violent Death Reporting System from 2003 to 2014 were analyzed. The sample had fewer girls than boys (31 vs. 69 %) and comprised primarily White youth (79 %), but also African Americans (13 %), Asians (4 %), and youth of other races (4 %). Narrative data from coroner/medical examiner and law enforcement investigative reports were coded and analyzed to identify common behavioral patterns that preceded suicide. Emergent themes were quantified and examined using content and constant comparative analysis. Themes regarding antecedents across multiple levels of the social ecology emerged. Relationship problems, particularly with parents, were the most common suicide antecedent. Also, a pattern demonstrating a consistent progression toward suicidal behavior emerged from the data. Narratives indicated that youth were commonly exposed to one or more problems, often resulting in feelings of loneliness and burdensomeness, which progressed toward thoughts and sometimes plans for or attempts at suicide. Continued exposure to negative experiences and thoughts/plans about suicide, and/or self-injurious acts resulted in an acquired capacity to self-harm, eventually leading to suicide. These findings provide support for theories of suicidal behavior and highlight the importance of multi-level, comprehensive

  14. Antecedents and consequences of emotional work in midwifery: A prospective field study.

    PubMed

    Drach-Zahavy, Anat; Buchnic, Rinat; Granot, Michal

    2016-08-01

    Given the effort made in today's birthing rooms to increase women's childbirth satisfaction, special attention is directed to midwives' expressions of authenticity (namely to display emotions that he/she actually experience) in birth encounters. To explore antecedents and consequences of emotional work strategies expressed in a specific birth encounter, to (1) understand the specific factors in a midwife-birthing woman encounter, namely parity (whether or not it is a first birth), use of epidural analgesia, induction of labor, and instrumental birth that stimulate the use of deep or surface acting; (2) test the link between emotional work strategies and birthing experience, and (3) assess whether associations between the midwife's choice of strategy (deep acting or surface acting), and the woman's childbirth experience is moderated by the birthing woman's perception of the midwife's emotional work strategies. A prospective-correlational field study. 104 births, selected by a convenience sampling method-including 24 midwives and 104 birthing women, in one birthing room in Israel. Data were collected by validated questionnaires at two time points: immediately after labor and 48h after labor. Linear mixed model analyses revealed that of the antecedents to emotional work strategies, epidural analgesia was negatively associated with surface acting (β=-.301, p<.05); primigravida was significantly associated with deep acting (β=611, p<.01) and negatively associated with surface acting (β=-.433, p<.01); induction of birth was not associated with deep or surface acting (p>.05), and instrumental birth was significantly associated with deep acting (β=-.590, p<.05) and positively associated with surface acting (β=.444, p<.05). Regarding consequences of emotional work strategies, the midwife's engagement with surface acting was negatively related to the woman's birthing experience (β=-.155, p<.05), whereas the relationship between midwife's engagement in deep acting and

  15. Coring Performance to Characterise the Geology in the ``Cran aux Iguanodons'' of Bernissart (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibangu, Jean-Pierre; Dagrain, Fabrice; Legrain, Hughes; Deschamps, Benoît

    The Cran aux iguanodons of Bernissart is a sinkhole (or chimney caving) with a valuable paleontological deposit due to the exceptional quantity and diversity of fossils found during the excavation conducted from 1878 to 1881. In fact, bones have been discovered in a clayey geological formation when digging à mine gallery at the -322 m level. A subsequent extraction gave an overall production of 29 iguanodons skeletons. Referring to the available data at the Natural Sciences Museum of Brussels where the found skeletons are exhibited, one does not know the degree of depletion of the deposit after the extraction. A feasibility study (Tshibangu and Dagrain 1998) showed then the need to drill 4 exploration wells of 400 m depth with different objectives: to evaluate the chance of finding more fossils, understanding how and when the geological formations moved down, and testing a seismic geophysical technique for ground imaging. The typical geological formations concerned are: chalk, limestone, conglomerate, clays, and layers of silex nodules. In October 2002 the workings started with a completely cored well (the Number 3) using the PQ wireline technique. During operations, different parameters have been recorded: rate of penetration, core recovery and a brief core description. Some problems have been encountered when crossing silex stones contained in a clayey matrix; and this paper gives some interpretations in terms of the relationship between the lithology and the drilling performances.

  16. How different types of users develop trust in technology: A qualitative analysis of the antecedents of active and passive user trust in a shared technology

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Le, Kim; Deitermann, Annika; Montague, Enid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antecedents of trust in technology for active users and passive users working with a shared technology. According to the prominence-interpretation theory, to assess the trustworthiness of a technology, a person must first perceive and evaluate elements of the system that includes the technology. An experimental study was conducted with 54 participants who worked in two-person teams in a multi-task environment with a shared technology. Trust in technology was measured using a trust in technology questionnaire and antecedents of trust were elicited using an open-ended question. A list of antecedents of trust in technology was derived using qualitative analysis techniques. The following categories emerged from the antecedent: technology factors, user factors, and task factors. Similarities and differences between active users and passive user responses, in terms of trust in technology were discussed. PMID:24882059

  17. How different types of users develop trust in technology: a qualitative analysis of the antecedents of active and passive user trust in a shared technology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Le, Kim; Deitermann, Annika; Montague, Enid

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antecedents of trust in technology for active users and passive users working with a shared technology. According to the prominence-interpretation theory, to assess the trustworthiness of a technology, a person must first perceive and evaluate elements of the system that includes the technology. An experimental study was conducted with 54 participants who worked in two-person teams in a multi-task environment with a shared technology. Trust in technology was measured using a trust in technology questionnaire and antecedents of trust were elicited using an open-ended question. A list of antecedents of trust in technology was derived using qualitative analysis techniques. The following categories emerged from the antecedent: technology factors, user factors, and task factors. Similarities and differences between active users and passive user responses, in terms of trust in technology were discussed.

  18. Alkoxy-auxins Are Selective Inhibitors of Auxin Transport Mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S.; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCFTIR1 auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development. PMID:21084292

  19. Comparative performance of Fungichrom I, Candifast and API 20C Aux systems in the identification of clinically significant yeasts.

    PubMed

    Gündeş, S G; Gulenc, S; Bingol, R

    2001-12-01

    To compare the performance of current chromogenic yeast identification methods, three commercial systems (API 20C Aux, Fungichrom I and Candifast) were evaluated in parallel, along with conventional tests to identify yeasts commonly isolated in this clinical microbiology laboratory. In all, 116 clinical isolates, (68 Candida albicans, 12 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. glabrata and 24 other yeasts) were tested. Germ-tube production, microscopical morphology and other conventional methods were used as standards to definitively identify yeast isolates. The percentage of isolates identified correctly varied between 82.7% and 95.6%. Overall, the performance obtained with Fungichrom I was highest with 95.6% identification (111 of 116 isolates). The performance of API 20C Aux was higher with 87% (101 of 116 isolates) than that of Candifast with 82.7% (96 of 116). The Fungichrom I method was found to be rapid, as 90% of strains were identified after incubation for 24 h at 30 degrees C. Both of the chromogenic yeast identification systems provided a simple, accurate alternative to API 20C Aux and conventional assimilation methods for the rapid identification of most commonly encountered isolates of Candida spp. Fungichrom seemed to be the most appropriate system for use in a clinical microbiology laboratory, due to its good performance with regard to sensitivity, ease of use and reading, rapidity and the cost per test.

  20. Shoot-supplied ammonium targets the root auxin influx carrier AUX1 and inhibits lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Su, Yanhua; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Liming; Mi, Guohua; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2011-06-01

    Deposition of ammonium (NH₄+) from the atmosphere is a substantial environmental problem. While toxicity resulting from root exposure to NH₄+ is well studied, little is known about how shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) affects root growth. In this study, we show that SSA significantly affects lateral root (LR) development. We show that SSA inhibits lateral root primordium (LRP) emergence, but not LRP initiation, resulting in significantly impaired LR number. We show that the inhibition is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and sucrose uptake in shoots but relates to the auxin response in roots. Expression analyses of an auxin-responsive reporter, DR5:GUS, and direct assays of auxin transport demonstrated that SSA inhibits root acropetal (rootward) auxin transport while not affecting basipetal (shootward) transport or auxin sensitivity of root cells. Mutant analyses indicated that the auxin influx carrier AUX1, but not the auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN)1 or PIN2, is required for this inhibition of LRP emergence and the observed auxin response. We found that AUX1 expression was modulated by SSA in vascular tissues rather than LR cap cells in roots. Taken together, our results suggest that SSA inhibits LRP emergence in Arabidopsis by interfering with AUX1-dependent auxin transport from shoot to root. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Alkoxy-auxins are selective inhibitors of auxin transport mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 transporters.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-21

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCF(TIR1) auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development.

  2. To Fake or Not to Fake: Antecedents to Interview Faking, Warning Instructions, and Its Impact on Applicant Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Law, Stephanie J.; Bourdage, Joshua; O’Neill, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the antecedents and processes that impact job interviewees’ decisions to engage in deceptive impression management (i.e., interview faking). Willingness and capacity to engage in faking were found to be the processes underlying the decision to use deceptive impression management in the interview. We also examined a personality antecedent to this behavior, Honesty-Humility, which was negatively related to the use of deceptive impression management through increased willingness to engage in these behaviors. We also tested a possible intervention to reduce IM. In particular, we found that warnings against faking – specifically, an identification warning - reduced both the perceived capacity to engage in interview faking, and subsequent use of several faking behaviors. Moreover, this warning reduced faking without adversely impacting applicant reactions. PMID:27895609

  3. Internalizing Antecedents and Consequences of Binge-Eating Behaviors in a Community-Based, Urban Sample of African American Females

    PubMed Central

    Musci, Rashelle J.; Hart, Shelley R.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of problem-eating behaviors is often overlooked in research as it typically shares many symptoms with other more common psychiatric illnesses. Binge-eating problems are at the forefront of the popular media because of the connection to obesity; therefore, increased knowledge of binge eating problems, particularly the internalizing antecedents and consequences will have implications in a multitude of domains, including prevention programs aimed at physical and mental health. The current study examines the antecedents of binge-eating behaviors by exploring how the growth of internalizing symptoms influences the proximal outcome of a binge-eating inventory in a longitudinal sample of African American girls. Additional consequences of binge-eating problems are also explored. This study focuses on binge-eating problems in order to present valuable information for prevention scientists who wish to develop target individuals at high risk for internalizing problems such as suicide. PMID:23873475

  4. An evaluation of antecedent exercise on behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement using a three-component multiple schedule.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Heather; Roscoe, Eileen M; Atwell, Amy

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated antecedent exercise for treating the automatically reinforced problem behavior of 4 individuals with autism. We conducted preference assessments to identify leisure and exercise items that were associated with high levels of engagement and low levels of problem behavior. Next, we conducted three 3-component multiple-schedule sequences: an antecedent-exercise test sequence, a noncontingent leisure-item control sequence, and a social-interaction control sequence. Within each sequence, we used a 3-component multiple schedule to evaluate preintervention, intervention, and postintervention effects. Problem behavior decreased during the postintervention component relative to the preintervention component for 3 of the 4 participants during the exercise-item assessment; however, the effects could not be attributed solely to exercise for 1 of these participants.

  5. Antecedents of team potency and team effectiveness: an examination of goal and process clarity and servant leadership.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Liden, Robert C

    2011-07-01

    Integrating theories of self-regulation with team and leadership literatures, this study investigated goal and process clarity and servant leadership as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team effectiveness, operationalized as team performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Our sample of 304 employees represented 71 teams in 5 banks. Results showed that team-level goal and process clarity as well as team servant leadership served as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior. Furthermore, we found that servant leadership moderated the relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency, such that the positive relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency were stronger in the presence of servant leadership.

  6. Antecedent moisture and temperature conditions modulate the response of ecosystem respiration to elevated CO2 and warming.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Edmund M; Ogle, Kiona; Zelikova, Tamara J; LeCain, Dan R; Williams, David G; Morgan, Jack A; Pendall, Elise

    2015-02-25

    Terrestrial plant and soil respiration, or ecosystem respiration (Reco ), represents a major CO2 flux in the global carbon cycle. However, there is disagreement in how Reco will respond to future global changes, such as elevated atmosphere CO2 and warming. To address this, we synthesized six years (2007-2012) of Reco data from the Prairie Heating And CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment. We applied a semi-mechanistic temperature-response model to simultaneously evaluate the response of Reco to three treatment factors (elevated CO2 , warming, and soil water manipulation) and their interactions with antecedent soil conditions [e.g., past soil water content (SWC) and temperature (SoilT)] and aboveground factors (e.g., vapor pressure deficit, photosynthetically active radiation, vegetation greenness). The model fits the observed Reco well (R(2 ) = 0.77). We applied the model to estimate annual (March-October) Reco , which was stimulated under elevated CO2 in most years, likely due to the indirect effect of elevated CO2 on SWC. When aggregated from 2007 to 2012, total six-year Reco was stimulated by elevated CO2 singly (24%) or in combination with warming (28%). Warming had little effect on annual Reco under ambient CO2 , but stimulated it under elevated CO2 (32% across all years) when precipitation was high (e.g., 44% in 2009, a 'wet' year). Treatment-level differences in Reco can be partly attributed to the effects of antecedent SoilT and vegetation greenness on the apparent temperature sensitivity of Reco and to the effects of antecedent and current SWC and vegetation activity (greenness modulated by VPD) on Reco base rates. Thus, this study indicates that the incorporation of both antecedent environmental conditions and aboveground vegetation activity are critical to predicting Reco at multiple timescales (subdaily to annual) and under a future climate of elevated CO2 and warming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A paradoxical effect of presession attention on stereotypy: antecedent attention as an establishing, not an abolishing, operation.

    PubMed

    Roantree, Christina F; Kennedy, Craig H

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that presession attention for problem behavior can serve as an abolishing operation when attention functions as a positive reinforcer. In the current study, we show that the stereotypy of a child with severe disabilities was undifferentiated during standard analogue functional analysis conditions. However, when noncontingent presession attention was provided, stereotypy occurred for social attention as a positive reinforcer, suggesting that the antecedent manipulation functioned as an establishing operation.

  8. [The Bernardino Álvarez Farm Hospital and Farm School: antecedents to Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-de Romo, Ana Cecilia; Castañeda-López, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    By 1960, México's Manicomio General (General Asylum) could no longer fulfill the functions for which it was created so implementation of the so-called Castañeda Operation began, an initiative designed to close down and relocate psychiatric patients to other institutions. At that time, Dr. Manuel Velasco-Suárez was in charge of the General Direction of Neurology, Mental Health and Rehabilitation, and planned to create the Institute of Neurology on a site he already possessed for its construction. The Asylum was a dependency of the aforementioned Direction and Velasco- Suárez decided that some patients at the Castañeda could be moved to the old hacienda house that stood on that terrain. Thus was born the Bernardino Álvarez Farm Hospital. A year later, in 1961, the Farm School for the Weak-Minded, also named Bernardino Álvarez was established there as well. This paper examines the history of these two institutions as antecedents to the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía.

  9. Misperceptions of facial emotions among youth aged 9-14 years who present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Hannah; Calkins, Monica E; Kohler, Christian G; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Laurens, Kristin R

    2014-03-01

    Similar to adults with schizophrenia, youth at high risk for developing schizophrenia present difficulties in recognizing emotions in faces. These difficulties might index vulnerability for schizophrenia and play a role in the development of the illness. Facial emotion recognition (FER) impairments have been implicated in declining social functioning during the prodromal phase of illness and are thus a potential target for early intervention efforts. This study examined 9- to 14-year-old children: 34 children who presented a triad of well-replicated antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz), including motor and/or speech delays, clinically relevant internalizing and/or externalizing problems, and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), and 34 typically developing (TD) children who presented none of these antecedents. An established FER task (ER40) was used to assess correct recognition of happy, sad, angry, fearful, and neutral expressions, and facial emotion misperception responses were made for each emotion type. Relative to TD children, ASz children presented an overall impairment in FER. Further, ASz children misattributed neutral expressions to face displaying other emotions and also more often mislabeled a neutral expression as sad compared with healthy peers. The inability to accurately discriminate subtle differences in facial emotion and the misinterpretation of neutral expressions as sad may contribute to the initiation and/or persistence of PLEs. Interventions that are effective in teaching adults to recognize emotions in faces could potentially benefit children presenting with antecedents of schizophrenia.

  10. Family, Employment, and Individual Resource-Based Antecedents of Maternal Work-Family Enrichment from Infancy through Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    This study used data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,019) to examine family, employment, and individual antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood. Work-family conflict and important confounding factors were controlled. From the family domain, higher income-to-needs ratio and social support were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the employment domain, greater job rewards, benefits of employment for children, and work commitment were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the individual domain, higher maternal education and extroversion were associated with higher work-family enrichment. No family, employment, and individual characteristics were associated with work-family conflict across time except for partner intimacy. In general, the results supported antecedents of work-family enrichment that supply needed resources. The present study contributed to the literature by identifying antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment across early child developmental stages, which goes beyond examinations of particular life stages and a work-family conflict perspective. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:26641483

  11. Family, employment, and individual resource-based antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-07-01

    This study used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,019) to examine family, employment, and individual antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood. Work-family conflict and important confounding factors were controlled. From the family domain, higher income-to-needs ratio and social support were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the employment domain, greater job rewards, benefits of employment for children, and work commitment were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the individual domain, higher maternal education and extroversion were associated with higher work-family enrichment. No family, employment, and individual characteristics were associated with work-family conflict across time except for partner intimacy. In general, the results supported antecedents of work-family enrichment that supply needed resources. The present study contributed to the literature by identifying antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment across early child developmental stages, which goes beyond examinations of particular life stages and a work-family conflict perspective. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Adoption of clinical decision support systems in a developing country: Antecedents and outcomes of physician's threat to perceived professional autonomy.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilzadeh, Pouyan; Sambasivan, Murali; Kumar, Naresh; Nezakati, Hossein

    2015-08-01

    The basic objective of this research is to study the antecedents and outcomes of professional autonomy which is a central construct that affects physicians' intention to adopt clinical decision support systems (CDSS). The antecedents are physicians' attitude toward knowledge sharing and interactivity perception (about CDSS) and the outcomes are performance expectancy and intention to adopt CDSS. Besides, we include (1) the antecedents of attitude toward knowledge sharing-subjective norms, social factors and OCB (helping behavior) and (2) roles of physicians' involvement in decision making, computer self-efficacy and effort expectancy in our framework. Data from a stratified sample of 335 Malaysian physicians working in 12 public and private hospitals in Malaysia were collected to test the hypotheses using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The important findings of our research are: (1) factors such as perceived threat to professional autonomy, performance expectancy, and physicians' involvement in making decision about CDSS have significant impact on physicians' intention to adopt CDSS; (2) physicians' attitude toward knowledge sharing, interactivity perception and computer self-efficacy of physicians play a crucial role in influencing their perceived threat to professional autonomy; and (3) social network, shared goals and OCB (helping behavior) impact physicians' attitude toward knowledge sharing. The findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the factors that influence physicians' intention to adopt CDSS in a developing country. The results can help hospital managers manage CDSS implementation in an effective manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating the efficacy of distributed detention structures to reduce downstream flooding under variable rainfall, antecedent soil, and structural storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicholas W.; Arenas Amado, Antonio; Schilling, Keith E.; Weber, Larry J.

    2016-10-01

    This research systematically analyzed the influence of antecedent soil wetness, rainfall depth, and the subsequent impact on peak flows in a 45 km2 watershed. Peak flows increased with increasing antecedent wetness and rainfall depth, with the highest peak flows occurring under intense precipitation on wet soils. Flood mitigation structures were included and investigated under full and empty initial storage conditions. Peak flows were reduced at the outlet of the watershed by 3-17%. The highest peak flow reductions occurred in scenarios with dry soil, empty project storage, and low rainfall depths. These analyses showed that with increased rainfall depth, antecedent moisture conditions became increasingly less impactful. Scaling invariance of peak discharges were shown to hold true within this basin and were fit through ordinary least squares regression for each design scenario. Scale-invariance relationships were extrapolated beyond the outlet of the analyzed basin to the point of intersection of with and without structure scenarios. In each scenario extrapolated peak discharge benefits depreciated at a drainage area of approximately 100 km2. The associated drainage area translated to roughly 2 km downstream of the Beaver Creek watershed outlet. This work provides an example of internal watershed benefits of structural flood mitigation efforts, and the impact the may exert outside of the basin. Additionally, the influence of 1.8 million in flood reduction tools was not sufficient to routinely address downstream flood concerns, shedding light on the additional investment required to alter peak flows in large basins.

  14. Examining antecedents of clean indoor air policy support: implications for campaigns promoting clean indoor air.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L; Bates, Benjamin R; Romina, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought to examine the association between knowledge of the risks associated with environmental tobacco smoke and voter support for clean indoor air policies. In doing so, 2 antecedents were employed to enhance understanding of this relationship: attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, differences between nonsmokers and smokers were assessed across the aforementioned variables. The study sampled participants (N = 550) living in the Appalachian foothills as a means of conducting formative research prior to developing messages promoting clean indoor air policies. The study controlled for tobacco usage, age, biological sex, and income. Results revealed that awareness of risk is a good predictor of attitudes and social norms, and in return, attitudes and social norms are good predictors of support for clean indoor air policies. In addition, results reveal that nonsmokers maintain a significantly stronger belief in the dangers associated with environmental tobacco smoke, as well as more favorable attitudes, subjective norms, and support for clean indoor air policies when compared with smokers. These findings are discussed with a focus on message design strategies for practitioners and academics with interests in promoting clean indoor air policies.

  15. Urban Waste Recycling Behavior: Antecedents of Participation in a Selective Collection Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcés, Conchita; Lafuente, Alberto; Pedraja, Marta; Rivera, Pilar

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the antecedents of urban waste recycling behavior. To achieve this goal, a concrete urban waste management program was chosen. The study focuses on the Selective Collection Program (SCP) in Zaragoza, a medium-sized city in northeastern Spain. The research starts with a conceptual model in which the variables that potentially affect recycling behavior can be classified into two groups: incentives and barriers. Moreover, the sociodemographic characteristics of the individuals are included in our study. Given that the proposed model requires specification of latent variables or constructs, the analysis is based on the Structural Equation Models (SEM) methodology. The results revealed that environmental awareness, knowledge of the environmental impact of urban waste, and the positive perception of management by local government exercise a positive effect on individual recycling behavior, while perceived personal difficulties (space and time availability) and distance to and from the container have a negative effect. As regards sociodemographic variables, this study found that annual family income sustains a negative relationship with recycling behavior, while age maintains a positive one. The results obtained clearly show the important role that the public authorities play, especially municipal governments, in achieving the waste recycling objectives established in accordance with international legislation.

  16. Attendance dynamics at work: the antecedents and correlates of presenteeism, absenteeism, and productivity loss.

    PubMed

    Johns, Gary

    2011-10-01

    Presenteeism is attending work when ill. This study examined the antecedents and correlates of presenteeism, absenteeism, and productivity loss attributed to presenteeism. Predictors included work context, personal characteristics, and work experiences. Business school graduates employed in a variety of work positions (N = 444) completed a Web-based survey. Presenteeism was positively associated with task significance, task interdependence, ease of replacement, and work to family conflict and negatively associated with neuroticism, equity, job security, internal health locus of control, and the perceived legitimacy of absence. Absenteeism was positively related to task significance, perceived absence legitimacy, and family to work conflict and negatively related to task interdependence and work to family conflict. Those high on neuroticism, the unconscientious, the job-insecure, those who viewed absence as more legitimate, and those experiencing work-family conflict reported more productivity loss. Overall, the results reveal the value of a behavioral approach to presenteeism over and above a strict medical model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Exploring health information technology innovativeness and its antecedents in Canadian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Paré, G; Jaana, M; Sicotte, C

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the antecedents of health information technology (HIT) innovativeness in public hospitals. To do so, we built upon our own previous work to relate the level of HIT innovativeness to organizational capacity characteristics. We conducted a survey of chief information officers (CIOs) in public hospitals in the two largest Canadian provinces to identify the level of HIT innovativeness in these settings and test nine research hypotheses derived from the proposed research model. A total of 106 completed questionnaires were received, which represents a response rate of 52%. Our findings indicate strong support for the research model. Seven out of nine hypotheses were supported indicating a significant relationship between HIT innovativeness and structural, financial, leadership, and knowledge sharing capacity characteristics. Results also reveal a moderate level of HIT innovativeness in the surveyed hospitals, with more emphasis on administrative systems and their integration than on clinical systems and emerging technologies. This study demonstrates that organizational characteristics are related to HIT innovativeness; this relationship holds irrespective of the public or private nature of hospitals.

  18. Urban waste recycling behavior: antecedents of participation in a selective collection program.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Conchita; Lafuente, Alberto; Pedraja, Marta; Rivera, Pilar

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the antecedents of urban waste recycling behavior. To achieve this goal, a concrete urban waste management program was chosen. The study focuses on the Selective Collection Program (SCP) in Zaragoza, a medium-sized city in northeastern Spain. The research starts with a conceptual model in which the variables that potentially affect recycling behavior can be classified into two groups: incentives and barriers. Moreover, the sociodemographic characteristics of the individuals are included in our study. Given that the proposed model requires specification of latent variables or constructs, the analysis is based on the Structural Equation Models (SEM) methodology. The results revealed that environmental awareness, knowledge of the environmental impact of urban waste, and the positive perception of management by local government exercise a positive effect on individual recycling behavior, while perceived personal difficulties (space and time availability) and distance to and from the container have a negative effect. As regards sociodemographic variables, this study found that annual family income sustains a negative relationship with recycling behavior, while age maintains a positive one. The results obtained clearly show the important role that the public authorities play, especially municipal governments, in achieving the waste recycling objectives established in accordance with international legislation.

  19. Antecedents and outcomes of organizational support for development: the critical role of career opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kraimer, Maria L; Seibert, Scott E; Wayne, Sandy J; Liden, Robert C; Bravo, Jesus

    2011-05-01

    This study examines antecedents and behavioral outcomes of employees' perceptions of organizational support for development. We first propose that employees' past participation in formal developmental activities and experience with developmental relationships positively relate to their perceptions of organizational support for development. We then propose that perceived career opportunity within the organization moderates the relationship between organizational support for development and employee performance and turnover. Using a sample of 264 exempt-level employees and their supervisors, we found that participation in training classes, leader-member exchange, and career mentoring were each positively related to employees' perceptions of organizational support for development. We also found support for the moderator hypotheses. Specifically, development support positively related to job performance, but only when perceived career opportunity within the organization was high. Further, development support was associated with reduced voluntary turnover when perceived career opportunity was high, but it was associated with increased turnover when perceived career opportunity was low. Our study demonstrates that social exchange and career motivation theory work together to explain when and how employees' perceptions of organizational support for development relate to turnover and job performance.

  20. Effects of Antecedent GABA A Receptor Activation on Counterregulatory Responses to Exercise in Healthy Man.

    PubMed

    Hedrington, Maka S; Tate, Donna B; Younk, Lisa M; Davis, Stephen N

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether antecedent stimulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors with the benzodiazepine alprazolam can blunt physiologic responses during next-day moderate (90 min) exercise in healthy man. Thirty-one healthy individuals (16 male/15 female aged 28 ± 1 year, BMI 23 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were studied during separate, 2-day protocols. Day 1 consisted of morning and afternoon 2-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic or hypoglycemic clamps with or without 1 mg alprazolam given 30 min before a clamp. Day 2 consisted of 90-min euglycemic cycling exercise at 50% VO2max. Despite similar euglycemia (5.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and insulinemia (46 ± 6 pmol/L) during day 2 exercise studies, GABA A activation with alprazolam during day 1 euglycemia resulted in significant blunting of plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone responses. Lipolysis (glycerol, nonesterified fatty acids) and endogenous glucose production during exercise were also reduced, and glucose infusion rates were increased following prior euglycemia with alprazolam. Prior hypoglycemia with alprazolam resulted in further reduction of glucagon and cortisol responses during exercise. We conclude that prior activation of GABA A pathways can play a significant role in blunting key autonomous nervous system, neuroendocrine, and metabolic physiologic responses during next-day exercise in healthy man.

  1. Paving the road to war with group membership, appraisal antecedents, and anger.

    PubMed

    Cheung-Blunden, Violet; Blunden, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This study uses appraisal theory, functionalist approach to emotions, and recent theory on group emotions as a basic framework to model the genesis of supporting military action. During the year after the events of 9/11, 588 college students participated in a series of four studies that assessed religious affiliation, appraisal antecedents, anger response to viewing photographs of the 9/11 attack, and support for military action. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that the relation between support for the war and attitudes toward terrorism and relevance could be explained adequately by a model in which anger mediated the effects of attitudes and relevance on support. Attitudes toward terrorism were further identified as mediators that could explain the group effect by Christians. The result was not only generalizable across the conflict in Afghanistan and Iraq, but also in terms of how consent for war manifests itself--outright calls for bloodshed versus more subtle, politically loaded, posturing (e.g. entreaties to "support our troops").

  2. Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists*,†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender’s grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors’ plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. PMID:24313297

  3. Examining Antisocial Behavioral Antecedents of Juvenile Sexual Offenders and Juvenile Non-Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism and their antecedents in full-time Australian employees.

    PubMed

    Magee, Christopher A; Caputi, Peter; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated distinct longitudinal trajectories of absenteeism over time, and underlying demographic, work, and health antecedents. Data from the Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia Survey were used; this is a panel study of a representative sample of Australian households. This paper focused on 2,481 full-time employees across a 5-year period. Information on annual sick leave and relevant sociodemographic, work, and health-related factors was collected through interviews and self-completed surveys. Growth mixture modeling indicated 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism over time. The moderate absenteeism trajectory (34.8%) of the sample had 4-5 days of sick leave per year and was used as the reference group. The low absenteeism trajectory (33.5%) had 1-2 days of absenteeism per year, while the no absenteeism trajectory (23.6%) had very low rates of absenteeism (<1 day per year). Finally, a smaller trajectory accounting for 8.1% of the sample had high levels of absenteeism (>11 days per year). Compared with the moderate absenteeism trajectory, the high absenteeism trajectory was characterized by poor health; the no absenteeism and low absenteeism trajectories had better health but may also reflect processes relating to presenteeism. These results provide important insights into the nature of absenteeism in Australian employees, and suggest that different patterns of absenteeism over time could reflect a range of demographic, work, and health related factors.

  5. Prediction of Lapse from Associations between Smoking and Situational Antecedents Assessed by Ecological Momentary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Saul; Balabanis, Mark H.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Paty, Jean A.; Gnys, Maryann; Kassel, Jon D.; Hickcox, Mary; Paton, Stephanie M.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is associated with particular moods and activities, but it is not known whether there are individual differences in these associations and whether these differences are associated with success in smoking cessation. We assessed such associations using Ecological Momentary Assessment: real-world, real-time data, collected by palm-top computer. 214 smokers participating in a smoking cessation study provided data during ad lib smoking at baseline. Participants recorded moods and activities each time they smoked and, for comparison, at randomly-selected non-smoking occasions. Situational associations with smoking were captured by examining the associations between smoking and antecedents considered relevant to lapse risk: negative affect (NA), arousal, socializing with others, the presence of others smoking, and consumption of coffee and alcohol. The associations varied across participants, confirming individual differences in situational smoking associations. Survival analyses revealed that only the NA pattern predicted first lapse. The effect was only seen in EMA assessments of NA smoking, and was not captured by questionnaire measures of negative affect smoking, which did not predict lapse risk. Moreover, the effect was not mediated by nicotine dependence. PMID:17628353

  6. Antecedents of Intact Cognition and Dementia at Age 90: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.; Okereke, Olivia I; Mukamal, Kenneth; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the possible antecedents of both dementia and sustained intact cognition at age 90 among men who underwent a prospective, multidisciplinary assessment from age 19 to 90, with little attrition. Methods A prospective 20-year reassessment of the 196 (out of 268) former Harvard College sophomores who survived until age 70. Begun in 1939 the Study gathered measurements of childhood environment, dominant personality traits, and objective mental and physical health over time, smoking in pack years, alcohol abuse and depression. Questionnaires were obtained every two years and physical exams every five years. Cognitive status was assessed at ages 80, 85 and 90. Results Despite addressing a wide variety health, behavioral and social factors over the lifespan, we observed few predictors with strong association with either intact cognition at age 90 (n = 40) or dementia (n = 44). Univariate analysis revealed seven suggestive predictors of intact cognition at age 90 or of dementia: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, high maternal education, young age of mother at subject’s birth, low BMI, good physical health at 60, and late retirement. Only the first 3 variables: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, and high maternal education remained significant with logistic regression. Conclusions In this prospective study of long-lived, highly educated men several well-known putative predictors of AD did not distinguish those who over the next 20 years developed dementia from those with unimpaired cognition until age 90. PMID:24733646

  7. Examining antecedents and consequences of gambling passion: the case of gambling on horse races.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C; Lee, Tae Kyung

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion (HP). Study results indicated that extrinsic motivation influenced OP whereas intrinsic motivation significantly affected HP. Furthermore, OP was correlated with negative emotion, whereas HP was related to positive emotion. Gamblers' satisfaction was found to be influenced positively by positive emotion and negatively by negative emotion. Finally, satisfaction appeared to affect gamblers' behavioral intentions. Study results echoed the notion of distinct and separate gambling motivations and passions among horse racing gamblers. Furthermore, results identified specific areas to which horse racing operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling.

  8. Mental toughness in sport: motivational antecedents and associations with performance and psychological health.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, John W; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Mallett, Cliff J; Mallet, Cliff J

    2014-06-01

    We argue that basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) offers impetus to the value of mental toughness as a mechanism for optimizing human functioning. We hypothesized that psychological needs satisfaction (thwarting) would be associated with higher (lower) levels of mental toughness, positive affect, and performance and lower (higher) levels of negative affect. We also expected that mental toughness would be associated with higher levels of positive affect and performance and lower levels of negative affect. Further, we predicted that coaching environments would be related to mental toughness indirectly through psychological needs and that psychological needs would indirectly relate with performance and affect through mental toughness. Adolescent cross-country runners (136 male and 85 female, M(age) = 14.36) completed questionnaires pertaining to BPNT variables, mental toughness, and affect. Race times were also collected. Our findings supported our hypotheses. We concluded that BPNT is generative in understanding some of the antecedents and consequences of mental toughness and is a novel framework useful for understanding mental toughness.

  9. Unraveling care integration: Assessing its dimensions and antecedents in the Italian Health System.

    PubMed

    Calciolari, Stefano; Ilinca, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, consensus has grown on the need to organize health systems around the concept of care integration to better confront the challenges associated with demographic trends and financial sustainability. However, care integration remains an imprecise umbrella term in both the academic and policy arenas. In addition, little substantive knowledge exists on the success factors for integration initiatives. We propose a composite measure of care integration and a conceptual framework suggesting its relationships with three types of antecedents: contextual, cultural, and organizational factors. Our framework was tested using data from the Italian National Health System (NHS). We administered an ad-hoc questionnaire to all Italian local health units (LHUs), with a 60.4% response rate, and used structural equation modeling to assess the relationships between the relevant latent constructs. The results validated our measure of care integration and supported the hypothesized relationships. In particular, integration was found to be fostered by results-oriented institutional settings, a professional culture conducive to inclusiveness and shared goals, and organizational arrangements promoting clear expectations among providers. Thus, integration improves care and mediates the effects of specific operating means on care enhancement.

  10. Predictive statistical models linking antecedent meteorological conditions and waterway bacterial contamination in urban waterways.

    PubMed

    Farnham, David J; Lall, Upmanu

    2015-06-01

    Although the relationships between meteorological conditions and waterway bacterial contamination are being better understood, statistical models capable of fully leveraging these links have not been developed for highly urbanized settings. We present a hierarchical Bayesian regression model for predicting transient fecal indicator bacteria contamination episodes in urban waterways. Canals, creeks, and rivers of the New York City harbor system are used to examine the model. The model configuration facilitates the hierarchical structure of the underlying system with weekly observations nested within sampling sites, which in turn were nested inside of the harbor network. Models are compared using cross-validation and a variety of Bayesian and classical model fit statistics. The uncertainty of predicted enterococci concentration values is reflected by sampling from the posterior predictive distribution. Issuing predictions with the uncertainty reasonably reflected allows a water manager or a monitoring agency to issue warnings that better reflect the underlying risk of exposure. A model using only antecedent meteorological conditions is shown to correctly classify safe and unsafe levels of enterococci with good accuracy. The hierarchical Bayesian regression approach is most valuable where transient fecal indicator bacteria contamination is problematic and drainage network data are scarce.

  11. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Pesce, Caterina; Chiang, Yi-Te; Kuo, Cheng-Yuh; Fong, Dong-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict) control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT), with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity.

  12. Childhood antecedents of exposure to traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Anthony, James C; Breslau, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    The authors prospectively examined childhood antecedents of exposure to traumatic events to estimate the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among those exposed to trauma. Two consecutive cohorts of children entering first grade of a public school system in a large mid-Atlantic city in the mid-1980s were followed into young adulthood (mean age=21). Exposure to traumatic events and PTSD were assessed in 75% of the original cohort (N=1,698). Childhood assessments, conducted upon entry into the first grade, included standardized measures of reading readiness, teacher ratings of behavioral problems, and child self-reports about depression and anxiety. Family characteristics were assessed by parental report. Young adults who had been rated by their first grade teacher as having aggressive/disruptive behavior problems were more likely to experience traumatic assaultive violence events (e.g., being mugged/threatened with a weapon, badly beaten-up) (relative risk=2.6) but not PTSD following trauma exposure. Youths with high levels of self-rated depressive and anxious feelings in first grade were more likely to experience PTSD once exposed to trauma (relative risk=1.5). Youths who scored in the highest quartile on a reading test in the first grade were at lower risk for exposure to assaultive violence traumas. Childhood behavioral and depressive/anxious problems may influence the risk for PTSD directly by increasing the vulnerability to the PTSD effects of trauma exposure, and indirectly by increasing the likelihood of exposure to assaultive violence.

  13. Effect of antecedent growth conditions on sensitivity of Escherichia coli to chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, J D; Matin, A; Roberts, P V

    1982-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to inactivation by antibacterial agents that is induced by the growth environment was studied. Escherichia coli was grown in batch culture and in a chemostat, and the following parameters were varied: type of substrate, growth rate, temperature, and cell density during growth. Low doses (0.75 mg/liter) of chlorine dioxide were used to inactivate the cultures. The results demonstrated that populations grown under conditions that more closely approximated natural aquatic environments were more resistant than those grown under commonly employed batch culture conditions. In particular, bacteria grown at submaximal rates were more resistant than their counterparts grown at mumax. The most resistant populations encountered in this study were those grown at D values of 0.02 h-1 and 0.06 h-1 at 25 degrees C. Growth at 15 degrees C led to greater resistance than did growth at 37 degrees C. The conditions that produced relatively resistant phenotypes were much closer to those found in most natural environments than are the typical conditions of batch culture methods. The importance of major physiological changes that can be induced by the antecedent growth environment is discussed in light of the possible modes of action of several disinfectants. PMID:6756305

  14. Adolescent Substance Use Groups: Antecedent and Concurrent Personality Differences in a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Elizabeth M.; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study attempted to extend Shedler and Block’s (1990) influential study which found that adolescent drug experimenters had the healthiest personality functioning compared to abstainers and frequent users. METHOD Using a prospective design, we examined the relationship between antecedent and concurrent personality and age-18 substance use in a community sample of 1,298 twins (96% Caucasian, 49% male). Personality measures at ages 11 and 18 assessed positive emotionality (agentic and communal), negative emotionality, and constraint. Substance use groups—abstainers, experimenters, and problem users—were created at age 18. RESULTS Age-18 substance use groups differed in age-11 and age-18 constraint such that problem users were lower than experimenters who were lower than abstainers. Age-18 substance use groups did not differ in age-18 positive emotionality. However, abstainers were significantly lower than experimenters in communal positive emotionality while female abstainers scored higher in agentic positive emotionality than female experimenters who scored higher than female problem users. Experimenters were significantly lower in negative emotionality than problem users. CONCLUSIONS Our findings are inconsistent with the notion that experimenters had the healthiest personality functioning and instead suggest different strengths and weaknesses for each group. Future studies should examine agentic and communal positive emotionality separately. PMID:22091739

  15. Exploring utilitarian and hedonic antecedents for adopting information from a recommendation agent and unplanned purchase behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Research indicated that in order for properly utilizing recommendation agents (RAs), customers must rationally evaluate capability and suggestions of RAs during the interaction process. However, enjoying interactive processes and interface is also important. Methods for increasing user enjoyment of RAs are yet unknown. This study investigated the influences of utilitarian and hedonic factors on intention to adopt RAs suggestions and their antecedents. Involvement influences relative importance of utilitarian and hedonic factors. Contrary to common assumptions, customers may make unplanned purchases, rather than rational purchase. A field experiment with 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design reveals main findings. First, information diagnosticity and enjoyment enhance adoption intention simultaneously. Information diagnosticity is more important than enjoyment. Diagnosticity was determined by outcome similarity, and enjoyment was determined by both outcome similarity and atmospherics. The context of interacting with RAs is important. Outcome similarity even directly affects adoption intention. Second, highly involved users considered enjoyment and diagnosticity when forming adoption intentions, while users with low involvement only considered enjoyment. Third, information cascades altered the relationship between adoption intention and unplanned purchases. Most customers change selection after seeing ratings from other customers, even if they originally strongly want to adoption suggestion from RAs. Theoretical and managerial implications are proposed.

  16. Antecedents and consequences of customer-company identification: expanding the role of relationship marketing.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, Michael; Bhattacharya, C B; Gruen, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    This article presents an empirical test of organizational identification in the context of customer-company (C-C) relationships. It investigates whether customers identify with companies and what the antecedents and consequences of such identification are. The model posits that perceived company characteristics, construed external image, and the perception of the company's boundary-spanning agent lead to C-C identification. In turn, such identification is expected to impact both in-role behavior (i.e., product utilization) as well as extra-role behavior (i.e., citizenship). The model was tested in a consultative selling context of pharmaceutical sales reps calling on physicians. Results from the empirical test indicated that customers do indeed identify with organizations and that C-C identification positively impacts both product utilization behavior and extra-role behavior even when the effect of brand perception is accounted for. Second, the study found that the organization's characteristics as well as the salesperson's characteristics contributed to the development of C-C identification.

  17. Academic Performance Antecedent Scale: validation with native and recent immigrant children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru-Jer; Kuo, Kung-Bin; Cheng, Chien-Ming; Hsieh, Pei-Jung; Wang, Han-Yu; Chang, Ya-Wen; Shen, Chia-Yi

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance of the three subscales of the newly developed Academic Performance Antecedent Scale (APAS)--School Factors, Mother's Parenting Style, and Individual Factors--across native and new immigrant children in Taiwan. The study sample comprised 527 Grade 4 students (M age = 10.4 yr., SD = 0.6), 263 boys and 264 girls. The three groups were urban and rural children of Taiwanese natives (n = 343, 65.1%), and 184 children with non-Taiwanese mothers (34.9%). The four-factor structure of the School Factors Subscale, the three-factor structure of the Mother's Parenting Style Subscale, and the five-factor structure of the Individual Factors Subscale all showed at least acceptable fit for the groups. In addition, metric invariance was confirmed for the School Factors and Individual Factors Subscales. Metric invariance was partially obtained for the Mother's Parenting Style Subscale. The findings provide validity evidences for cross-cultural generalizability of the APAS.

  18. Examining Antecedents and Consequences of Gambling Passion: The Case of Gambling on Horse Races

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. Methods An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion (HP). Results Study results indicated that extrinsic motivation influenced OP whereas intrinsic motivation significantly affected HP. Furthermore, OP was correlated with negative emotion, whereas HP was related to positive emotion. Gamblers' satisfaction was found to be influenced positively by positive emotion and negatively by negative emotion. Finally, satisfaction appeared to affect gamblers' behavioral intentions. Conclusion Study results echoed the notion of distinct and separate gambling motivations and passions among horse racing gamblers. Furthermore, results identified specific areas to which horse racing operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling. PMID:24474985

  19. Antecedent glycemic control reduces severe hypoglycemia-induced neuronal damage in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Reno, Candace M; Tanoli, Tariq; Bree, Adam; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Cui, Chen; Maloney, Susan E; Wozniak, David F; Fisher, Simon J

    2013-06-15

    Brain damage due to severe hypoglycemia occurs in insulin-treated people with diabetes. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic insulin therapy that normalizes elevated blood glucose in diabetic rats would be neuroprotective against brain damage induced by an acute episode of severe hypoglycemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were split into three groups: 1) control, non-diabetic; 2) STZ-diabetic; and 3) insulin-treated STZ-diabetic. After 3 wk of chronic treatment, unrestrained awake rats underwent acute hyperinsulinemic severe hypoglycemic (10-15 mg/dl) clamps for 1 h. Rats were subsequently analyzed for brain damage and cognitive function. Severe hypoglycemia induced 15-fold more neuronal damage in STZ-diabetic rats compared with nondiabetic rats. Chronic insulin treatment of diabetic rats, which nearly normalized glucose levels, markedly reduced neuronal damage induced by severe hypoglycemia. Fortunately, no cognitive defects associated with the hypoglycemia-induced brain damage were observed in any group. In conclusion, antecedent blood glucose control represents a major modifiable therapeutic intervention that can afford diabetic subjects neuroprotection against severe hypoglycemia-induced brain damage.

  20. Parent-child and triadic antecedents of children's social competence: cultural specificity, shared process.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq

    2010-03-01

    Guided by theories of cultural participation, the authors examined mother-child, father-child, and triadic interactive behaviors in 141 Israeli and Palestinian couples and their firstborn child at 5 and 33 months as antecedents of children's social competence. Four parent-child measures (parent sensitivity, child social engagement, parental control, dyadic reciprocity) and two family-level measures (cohesion and rigidity) were coded at each age. Children's social competence was observed at child-care locations. Cultural differences were observed for parent sensitivity and child social engagement, and the large cultural differences in sensitivity observed in infancy were attenuated by the toddler age. Interactive behaviors correlated with culture-specific parenting practices, child-rearing goals, and sex-role attitudes. Mother-child reciprocity in infancy and child engagement with father and family-level cohesion at both time points predicted social competence. Maternal sensitivity in infancy facilitated social competence only among Israeli children. Paternal control in toddlerhood interfered with Israeli children's social functioning but contributed to competence among Palestinians. Results underscore the links between early relational experiences and children's adaptation to the social milieu.

  1. Strabismus at Age 2 Years in Children Born Before 28 Weeks’ Gestation: Antecedents and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    VanderVeen, Deborah K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Wallace, David K.; Leviton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Children born very preterm are at greater risk of ophthalmic morbidities, including strabismus, than children born at term. We evaluated perinatal factors associated with strabismus at age 2 years in a large population of infants delivered before 28 weeks’ gestation. A total of 996 infants in the multicenter ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn) study who had a retinal exam in infancy and a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age are included. Their mothers were interviewed about the pregnancy, and both mother and newborn charts were reviewed. Certified examiners administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and performed an examination of ocular alignment. Time-oriented logistic regression risk models were created to evaluate the associations of characteristics and exposures with the development of strabismus. Overall, 14% (n = 141) of the children had strabismus at 2 years, and 80% of strabismic children had esotropia. Characteristics associated with strabismus were birth before 26 weeks’ gestation, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal history of aspirin ingestion. Associated postnatal factors included a SNAP-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology) illness severity value ≥30, brain ventriculomegaly, type I retinopathy of prematurity, and ventilator-dependent severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strabismus in very preterm populations is associated with a number of antenatal and postnatal antecedents as well as clinical and imaging correlates indicative of brain damage in these children. Routine ophthalmologic assessments in the early years can allow appropriate and timely interventions. PMID:26350726

  2. Bombing alone: tracing the motivations and antecedent behaviors of lone-actor terrorists,.

    PubMed

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender's grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors' plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article.

  3. Evaluation of increasing antecedent specificity in goal statements on adherence to positive behavior-management strategies.

    PubMed

    Cohrs, Corey M; Shriver, Mark D; Burke, Raymond V; Allen, Keith D

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the impact of antecedent specificity in goal statements on adherence to positive behavior-management strategies. Teaching staff were recruited from 2 different school settings where there were routine expectations to use behavior-specific praise in the classroom, but adherence was poor. In a concurrent multiple baseline design, the use of behavior-specific praise by 4 participants was found to be unaffected by goal statements that increasingly specified the behavior to be used and the conditions under which the behavior should occur. However, adherence by 3 of the 4 participants did change when goal statements included teacher-specified frequencies with which the behavior should occur. Results were systematically replicated in a second study in which, in a concurrent multiple baseline design, 3 participants showed marked increases in adherence when goal statements specified the target behavior, the conditions under which it should occur, and the frequency with which it should occur. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Patient Prioritization Preferences among Physiotherapy Entry-Level Students: The Importance of Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Laliberté, Maude; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Objectif : Étudier les préférences des étudiants en physiothérapie au niveau débutant sur le plan de l'attribution d'une priorité aux patients, en particulier aux patients vivant avec une douleur chronique. Méthode: Après une discussion en groupe, 249 étudiants canadiens en physiothérapie au niveau débutant ont rempli un questionnaire basé sur cinq scénarios distincts (cas de patients fictifs). On a demandé aux répondants d'attribuer une priorité aux patients (P1=priorité la plus élevée, P5=priorité la plus basse). Résultats : Les étudiants en physiothérapie ont accordé la priorité la plus élevée aux patients vivant avec de la douleur chronique et aux patients qui venaient de subir une intervention chirurgicale. Le patient âgé et le patient qui avait un déficit cognitif ont reçu une priorité plus basse. Conclusions : Les étudiants en physiothérapie accordent la plus grande priorité à un diagnostic de douleur chronique. Les publications montrent toutefois que la douleur chronique constitue la priorité la plus basse dans les outils de triage des départements de physiothérapie. Il pourrait y avoir un virage au niveau des préférences entre la période qui précède la pratique (étudiants) et celle qui la suit (clinicien) en ce qui a trait aux patients vivant avec une douleur chronique.

  5. Aspects épidémiologiques des accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan (ICA)

    PubMed Central

    N'goran, Yves N'da Kouakou; Traore, Fatou; Tano, Micesse; Kramoh, Kouadio Euloge; Kakou, Jean-Baptiste Anzouan; Konin, Christophe; Kakou, Maurice Guikahue

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de notre étude était de décrire les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et les Facteurs de Risque cardio-Vasculaires (FRV) des patients admis pour accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) dans un service autre que celui de la neurologie. Méthodes Étude transversale rétrospective sur une période de 2 ans (janv. 2010 et déc. 2011), réalisée aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan. Résultats Il s'agissait de 176 adultes avec un âge moyen de 60 ans, une prédominance féminine. Les facteurs de risque majeurs retrouvés étaient l'hypertension artérielle dans 86,4% des cas, le diabète dans 11,4% des cas, le tabagisme dans 2,2% des cas. Les motifs de consultation étaient la perte de connaissance dans 36,4% des cas, l'hémiplégie dans 31,8% des cas, les céphalées dans 17,4% des cas, les vertiges dans 10,9% et les palpitations dans 2,2% des cas. La tension artérielle systolique moyenne était à 174 mmHg, la tension artérielle diastolique moyenne était à 105 mmHg et la pression pulsée moyenne était à 70 mmHg. Les AVC étaient associés à une arythmie complète par fibrillation auriculaire dans 11,4% des cas. Les AVC ischémiques représentaient 84,1%. L’évolution aux urgences a été marquée par un décès dans 17% (30) des cas. Conclusion Les AVC constituent un problème majeur de santé publique. Malgré sa prédominance féminine, ils (AVC) touchaient 44% des hommes dans notre étude lorsqu'on sait qu'en Afrique l'activité sociale repose sur les hommes. Ils restent une pathologie grave par la forte létalité. PMID:26327997

  6. Application du groupe de renormalisation aux conducteurs organiques quasi-unidimensionnels soumis a un champ magnetique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Laurent

    Des conducteurs organiques fortement anisotropes presentent, sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique, une etonnante variete de proprietes physiques tel que: l'effet Shubnikov-de Haas, l'effet de Haas-van-Alphen, l'existence de cascades d'ondes de densite de spin apparentees a l'effet Hall quantique, reentrance vers la phase metallique pouvant provenir d'un 'breakdown' magnetique, et tout recemment la possibilite d'un confinement charge induit par le champ magnetique. A cela s'ajoute les nombreuses caracteristiques deja apparues en variant la pression hydrostatique ou la substitution chimique: separation spin-charge, localisation de la charge, transition spin-Peierls, antiferromagnetisme itinerant ou non, supraconductivite, et l'existence d'une frontiere commune entre les phases supraconductrice et antiferromagnetique. En vue de completer la description theorique du diagramme de phase generalise des conducteurs organiques, nous adaptons et elargissons la methode du groupe de renormalisation quantique (GRQ) au cas ou le champ magnetique est non nul. On sait deja que cette methode permet de resoudre le dilemme tout particulier des composes Q-1D, soit leur capacite de produire des transitions de phase malgre leur forte anisotropie et consequemment de leur faible dimensionalite. Cette methode est deja utilisee pour decrire le diagramme de phase temperature versus pression des sels de Bechgaard, de leurs analogues souffres et mixtes. Le GRQ permet aussi de comprendre comment des systemes anisotropes comme les conducteurs organiques peuvent se comporter comme des liquides de Luttinger a haute temperature et comme des liquides de Fermi ou condenses a basse temperature. Nous montrons que l'introduction d'un champ magnetique dans un regime de saut coherent interchai ne a deux particules n'apporte que de simples corrections aux lois d'echelles dans le canal zero son, alors qu'il introduit un mecanisme de brisure de paire dans le canal Cooper. Dans le regime de saut coherent a une

  7. Tectonic conditions of hydrothermal polymetallic vein-type mineralization, Sainte Marie-aux-Mines, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeznia, Y.; Bourlange, S.; Ohnenstetter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines (SMM) mines host one of the most famous and oldest silver deposits in Europe. The SMM district is located in the central part of the Vosges mountains, France, within gneiss and granites of the Moldanubian zone. The SMM district includes the Neuenberg E-W vein-type Cu-Ag-As/Pb-Zn deposit and the Altenberg N-S vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposit. Deposition of the SMM hydrothermal mineralization occurred under a brittle tectonic regime that might be connected to neo-Variscan and/or post-Variscan tectonics, in a similar way as the polymetallic vein deposits of the Black Forest, Germany. A structural study was done in the Neuenberg area, in the vicinity of the Saint-Jacques vein, and within the Gabe Gottes mine, considering the orientation, extent, chronology and density of faults as well as the nature of the infilling minerals. In the Gabe-Gottes mine, the Saint-Jacques vein comprises multiple successive, sub-parallel subvertical veinlets with gangue minerals, mostly carbonates and quartz, and metal-bearing phases, sulfides and sulfosalts. The veinlets are 2 to 50 cm thick and strike N80° to N110°, the earlier veins slightly dipping towards the north, and the latest one, to the south. Seven systems of faults were identified, which may be classified into three major groups formed respectively before, during and after the main stage of ore deposition: a) Pre-mineralization faults - These consist of sinistral NE-SW strike-slip faults, and NW-SE and NE-SW steeply dipping normal faults. These could be related to Carboniferous events considering their relationships with the granitoid intrusives present in the mine area (Brézouard leucogranite ~329 Ma), and the extensional tectonics developed during exhumation processes. b) Faults associated with the main ore-deposition - These faults could be related to late-Hercynian processes from compressional to extensional tectonic regimes. Mineralization controlling faults consist of dextral and sinistral E

  8. Contribution aux Methodes Analytiques des Substances a L'aide de Faisceaux de Particules Chargees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Abdelmajid

    Nous avons vu les possibilites d'analyse par particules chargees des aerosols recueillis sur des filtres de type MILLIPORE. La meme technique a ete utilisee pour des filtres ayant servi a la filtration de l'eau du fleuve Saint-laurent. Deux techniques ont ete utilisees: (1) FAST (Forward Alpha Scattering Technique): pour analyser l'hydrogene, le carbone, l'oxygene et puis l'azote. Des alpha de 12 MeV ont ete utilises. (2) PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission): pour analyser les elements moyens et lourds, dans ce cas des protons de 3 MeV ainsi que des ions d'argon de 1 et 1.6 MeV ont ete utilises. Les etudes ont montre que sous vide, la majorite des problemes proviennent des dommages causes par l'echauffement du a l'impact du faisceau sur le filtre. L'analyse quantitative par l'intermediaire du faisceau extrait peut presenter des difficultes en ce qui concerne les elements legers pour lesquels l'absorption des rayonnements caracteristiques dans l'atmosphere externe est importante. Les ions lourds se pretent mal aux analyses des aerosols du fait de leur limite de sensibilite. L'analyse directe de liquides par des protons est particulierement interessante puisqu'elle ne necessite aucune preparation prealable des echantillons. A cet effet, un programme de calcul de concentration des elements dans la solution a analyser a ete mis au point. Nous avons determine la limite de sensibilite de la methode PIXE pour les cibles minces (filtre) et pour le cas ou la matrice est de l'eau. Enfin, la technique FAST peut etre un complement de la technique PIXE.

  9. Work-Family Conflict, Part I: Antecedents of Work-Family Conflict in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I-A Certified Athletic Trainers

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Bruening, Jennifer E; Casa, Douglas J

    2008-01-01

    Context: Work-family conflict (WFC) involves discord that arises when the demands of work interfere with the demands of family or home life. Long work hours, minimal control over work schedules, and time spent away from home are antecedents to WFC. To date, few authors have examined work-family conflict within the athletic training profession. Objective: To investigate the occurrence of WFC in certified athletic trainers (ATs) and to identify roots and factors leading to quality-of-life issues for ATs working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I-A setting. Design: Survey questionnaire and follow-up, in-depth, in-person interviews. Setting: Division I-A universities sponsoring football. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 587 ATs (324 men, 263 women) responded to the questionnaire. Twelve ATs (6 men, 6 women) participated in the qualitative portion: 2 head ATs, 4 assistant ATs, 4 graduate assistant ATs, and 2 AT program directors. Data Collection and Analysis: Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine whether workload and travel predicted levels of WFC. Analyses of variance were calculated to investigate differences among the factors of sex, marital status, and family status. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and then analyzed using computer software as well as member checks and peer debriefing. The triangulation of the data collection and multiple sources of qualitative analysis were utilized to limit potential researcher prejudices. Results: Regression analyses revealed that long work hours and travel directly contributed to WFC. In addition to long hours and travel, inflexible work schedules and staffing patterns were discussed by the interview participants as antecedents to WFC. Regardless of sex (P  =  .142), marital status (P  =  .687), family status (P  =  .055), or age of children (P  =  .633), WFC affected Division I-A ATs. Conclusions: No matter their marital or family status, ATs employed at

  10. Predicting Short Term Runoff Efficiency Using Antecedent Soil Moisture Estimates From Ground Penetrating Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermance, J. F.; Bohidar, R. N.

    2002-05-01

    Hydrologists universally recognize the importance of antecedent soil moisture conditions for predicting the response of catchments to storm events. We describe a pilot study involving a series of repeat geophysical measurements over a 5 month period to determine the water content of the subsurface immediately before a sequence of precipitation events. We correlate the resultant streamflow "response" of the local catchment to each event with the antecedent soil moisture at our reference site using a metric commonly employed by hydrologists: the ratio Qef/W, referred to here as the "short term runoff efficiency", which is simply the time-integrated volume of event flow (Qef) at the catchment's outflow point normalized by the volume of total precipitation (W) over its area. To determine the volumetric water content (Cw) of soils, past studies suggest the effectiveness of pulsed radio frequency methods, such as time domain reflectometry (TDR), or ground-penetrating radar (GPR). To first order, for typical field conditions and procedures, the velocity of a radio pulse in the subsurface is inversely proportional to the square root of the bulk dielectric constant, which in turn is proportional to the soil's water content. For this study, the advantage of GPR over conventional TDR measurements is that the GPR procedure determines average velocities from two-way traveltimes to an interface at depth, resulting in estimates of average physical properties over much larger volumes of the subsurface than would TDR. Our hydrologic data are USGS daily averaged discharges from the Ten Mile River (watershed area = 138 km2; 53.2 mi2) in southern New England. Daily values of precipitation were provided by personnel from the Seekonk Water District Office (MA) adjacent to the field site. Our hydrograph separation was facilitated by the observation that the event flow seems to be adequately represented by a simple composite cascaded linear reservoir model. The GPR data involved a series

  11. Mental Health Antecedents of Early Midlife Insomnia: Evidence from a Four-Decade Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Gregory, Alice M.; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, HonaLee; Parsons, Michael; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia is a highly prevalent condition that constitutes a major public health and economic burden. However, little is known about the developmental etiology of adulthood insomnia. Design: We examined whether indicators of psychological vulnerability across multiple developmental periods (psychiatric diagnoses in young adulthood and adolescence, childhood behavioral problems, and familial psychiatric history) predicted subsequent insomnia in adulthood. Setting and Participants: We used data from the ongoing Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a population-representative birth cohort study of 1,037 children in New Zealand who were followed prospectively from birth (1972–1973) through their fourth decade of life with a 95% retention rate. Measurements: Insomnia was diagnosed at age 38 according to DSM-IV criteria. Psychiatric diagnoses, behavioral problems, and family psychiatric histories were assessed between ages 5 and 38. Results: In cross-sectional analyses, insomnia was highly comorbid with multiple psychiatric disorders. After controlling for this concurrent comorbidity, our results showed that individuals who have family histories of depression or anxiety, and who manifest lifelong depression and anxiety beginning in childhood, are at uniquely high risk for age-38 insomnia. Other disorders did not predict adulthood insomnia. Conclusions: The link between lifelong depression and anxiety symptoms and adulthood insomnia calls for further studies to clarify the neurophysiological systems or behavioral conditioning processes that may underlie this association. Citation: Goldman-Mellor S, Gregory AM, Caspi A, Harrington H, Parsons M, Poulton R, Moffitt TE. Mental health antecedents of early midlife insomnia: evidence from a four-decade longitudinal study. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1767-1775. PMID:25364072

  12. Antecedents of teenage pregnancy from a 14-year follow-up study using data linkage.

    PubMed

    Gaudie, Jennifer; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David; Stanley, Fiona J; Silburn, Sven R; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2010-02-11

    Many western nations continue to have high rates of teenage pregnancies and births, which can result in adverse outcomes for both mother and child. This study identified possible antecedents of teenage pregnancy using linked data from administrative sources to create a 14-year follow-up from a cross-sectional survey. Data were drawn from two sources - the 1993 Western Australian Child Health Survey (WACHS), a population-based representative sample of 2,736 children aged 4 to 16 years (1,374 girls); and administrative data relating to all their subsequent births and hospital admissions. We used weighted population estimates to examine differences between rates for teenage pregnancy, motherhood and abortion. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model risk for teenage pregnancy. There were 155 girls aged less than 20 years at the time of their first recorded pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy was significantly associated with: family type; highest school year completed by primary carer; combined carer income; whether the primary carer was a smoker; and whether the girl herself displayed aggressive and delinquent behaviours. An age-interaction analysis on the association with aggressive and delinquent behaviours found that while girls with aggressive and delinquent behaviours who were older at the time of the survey were at highest risk of teenage pregnancy, there was elevated risk for future teenage pregnancy across all ages. Our findings suggest that interventions to reduce teenage pregnancy rates could be introduced during primary school years, including those that are focused on the prevention and management of aggressive and delinquent behaviour.

  13. The impact of antecedent fire area on burned area in southern California coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Bradstock, Ross A; Keeley, Jon E; Syphard, Alexandra D

    2012-12-30

    Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed burning is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the area of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between annual wildfire area and antecedent fire area in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for annual variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire area resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire area was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-annual variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation burns each year and so wildfires rarely encounter burned patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed burning is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this area, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ~ 0.25).

  14. A covariance structure model test of antecedents of adolescent alcohol misuse and a prevention effort.

    PubMed

    Dielman, T E; Shope, J T; Butchart, A T; Campanelli, P C; Caspar, R A

    1989-01-01

    As part of an alcohol misuse prevention evaluation, questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. A conceptual model of the antecedents of adolescent alcohol misuse and the effectiveness of a prevention effort was tested using covariance structure modeling techniques. The factor loadings for the model were all moderate to high, indicating that the observed variables served well as measurement instruments for the latent variables. The hypothesized structural relationships among the latent variables of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem were supported by the data. The full model explained 45 percent of the variance in alcohol misuse in the analysis based on the total sample. The direct effect of the intervention on alcohol misuse was small but significant in the hypothesized direction. The direct effects of the intervention on susceptibility to peer pressure and internal health locus of control were not significant. The model was tested separately for groups of students who had high versus low scores on susceptibility to peer pressure in order to test the interaction between susceptibility to peer pressure and exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol. The percentage of variance accounted for in alcohol misuse did not increase upon testing the model separately for students who had high versus low scores on susceptibility to peer pressure. Observed differences in the significance of the parameter estimates between the high and low susceptibility to peer pressure groups suggest that different approaches to the design and evaluation of substance abuse prevention programs may be necessary for different subgroups of students.

  15. A Meta-Analysis on Antecedents and Outcomes of Detachment from Work

    PubMed Central

    Wendsche, Johannes; Lohmann-Haislah, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Detachment from work has been proposed as an important non-work experience helping employees to recover from work demands. This meta-analysis (86 publications, k = 91 independent study samples, N = 38,124 employees) examined core antecedents and outcomes of detachment in employee samples. With regard to outcomes, results indicated average positive correlations between detachment and self-reported mental (i.e., less exhaustion, higher life satisfaction, more well-being, better sleep) and physical (i.e., lower physical discomfort) health, state well-being (i.e., less fatigue, higher positive affect, more intensive state of recovery), and task performance (small to medium sized effects). However, average relationships between detachment and physiological stress indicators and work motivation were not significant while associations with contextual performance and creativity were significant, but negative. Concerning work characteristics, as expected, job demands were negatively related and job resources were positively related to detachment (small sized effects). Further, analyses revealed that person characteristics such as negative affectivity/neuroticism (small sized effect) and heavy work investment (medium sized effect) were negatively related to detachment whereas detachment and demographic variables (i.e., age and gender) were not related. Moreover, we found a medium sized average negative relationship between engagement in work-related activities during non-work time and detachment. For most of the examined relationships heterogeneity of effect sizes was moderate to high. We identified study design, samples' gender distribution, and affective valence of work-related thoughts as moderators for some of these aforementioned relationships. The results of this meta-analysis point to detachment as a non-work (recovery) experience that is influenced by work-related and personal characteristics which in turn is relevant for a range of employee outcomes. PMID:28133454

  16. The 'Brain Drain' of physicians: historical antecedents to an ethical debate, c. 1960–79

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David; Flis, Nathan; Gupta, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Many western industrialized countries are currently suffering from a crisis in health human resources, one that involves a debate over the recruitment and licensing of foreign-trained doctors and nurses. The intense public policy interest in foreign-trained medical personnel, however, is not new. During the 1960s, western countries revised their immigration policies to focus on highly-trained professionals. During the following decade, hundreds of thousands of health care practitioners migrated from poorer jurisdictions to western industrialized countries to solve what were then deemed to be national doctor and nursing 'shortages' in the developed world. Migration plummeted in the 1980s and 1990s only to re-emerge in the last decade as an important debate in global health care policy and ethics. This paper will examine the historical antecedents to this ethical debate. It will trace the early articulation of the idea of a 'brain drain', one that emerged from the loss of NHS doctors to other western jurisdictions in the 1950s and 1960s. Only over time did the discussion turn to the 'manpower' losses of 'third world countries', but the inability to track physician migration, amongst other variables, muted any concerted ethical debate. By contrast, the last decade's literature has witnessed a dramatically different ethical framework, informed by globalization, the rise of South Africa as a source donor country, and the ongoing catastrophe of the AIDS epidemic. Unlike the literature of the early 1970s, recent scholarship has focussed on a new framework of global ethics. PMID:19000306

  17. Antecedents of teenage pregnancy from a 14-year follow-up study using data linkage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many western nations continue to have high rates of teenage pregnancies and births, which can result in adverse outcomes for both mother and child. This study identified possible antecedents of teenage pregnancy using linked data from administrative sources to create a 14-year follow-up from a cross-sectional survey. Methods Data were drawn from two sources - the 1993 Western Australian Child Health Survey (WACHS), a population-based representative sample of 2,736 children aged 4 to 16 years (1,374 girls); and administrative data relating to all their subsequent births and hospital admissions. We used weighted population estimates to examine differences between rates for teenage pregnancy, motherhood and abortion. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model risk for teenage pregnancy. Results There were 155 girls aged less than 20 years at the time of their first recorded pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy was significantly associated with: family type; highest school year completed by primary carer; combined carer income; whether the primary carer was a smoker; and whether the girl herself displayed aggressive and delinquent behaviours. An age-interaction analysis on the association with aggressive and delinquent behaviours found that while girls with aggressive and delinquent behaviours who were older at the time of the survey were at highest risk of teenage pregnancy, there was elevated risk for future teenage pregnancy across all ages. Conclusions Our findings suggest that interventions to reduce teenage pregnancy rates could be introduced during primary school years, including those that are focused on the prevention and management of aggressive and delinquent behaviour. PMID:20149221

  18. Antecedents and consequences of fear of childbirth in nulliparous and parous women.

    PubMed

    Pazzagli, Chiara; Laghezza, Loredana; Capurso, Michele; Sommella, Ciro; Lelli, Franco; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the differences in the role of specific personal and interpersonal risk factors in predicting fear of childbirth (FOC) and to examine whether FOC predicts postnatal maternal adaptation in nulliparous and parous women. A prospective correlational design with two time periods (pre- and postnatal) was carried out with 158 women, 85 nulliparous and 73 parous. Women at Week 32 of gestation completed a demographic questionnaire, the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (K.Wijma, B. Wijma, & M. Zar, 1998), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (C.D. Spielberger, R.L. Gorsuch, & R.E. Lushene, 1970), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (L.R. Derogatis, 1983), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (G.B. Spanier, 1976), and the Reciprocal Attachment Questionnaire (M. West, A. Sheldon, & L. Reiffer, 1987). Three months after delivery, the women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (J.L. Cox, J.M. Holden, & R. Sagovsky, 1987) and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (R. Abidin, 1986). Pearson's correlations and a series of multiple regressions were conducted. The results indicated that in the prenatal period, higher state anxiety, β = .35, p < .001, lower dyadic adjustment, β = -.26, p = .03, and higher insecurity in attachment relationships, β = .39, p < .001, predicted FOC in first-time mothers only. In the postnatal period, FOC predicted postnatal maternal risk for depression, β = .39, p = .02, and parenting stress, β = .42, p = .02, for nulliparous women only. The specific antecedents and consequences of FOC in nulliparous and parous women should be taken into consideration when developing specific interventions.

  19. Prevalence and childhood antecedents of Depersonalization Syndrome in a UK Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lee, William E.; Kwok, Charlie H. T.; Hunter, Elaine C. M.; Richards, Marcus; David, Anthony S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Depersonalization syndrome is characterised by a sense of unreality about the self (depersonalization: DP) and/or the outside world (derealization: DR). Prevalence estimates vary widely. Little is known about childhood antecedents of the disorder although emotional abuse is thought to play a role. Methods Longitudinal data from 3275 participants of a UK population based birth cohort (the MRC National Survey of Health and Development) were used to: i) assess the prevalence of DP syndrome at age 36, measured by the Present State Examination (PSE); and ii) examine the effects of a range of socio-demographic, childhood adversity and emotional responses as potential risk factors for DP. Results Thirty three survey members were classified with DP, yielding a prevalence of 0.95% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.56 to 1.34). There were no associations with socioeconomic status, parental death or divorce; self reported accidents, childhood depression, tendency to daydream or reactions to criticism. However, teacher-estimated childhood anxiety was a strong independent predictor of adult depersonalization, and there were strong cross-sectional relationships between DP and anxiety and depression caseness. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first study assessing nationwide prevalence of the DP syndrome and uses longitudinal data to explore childhood risk factors for adult DP. The prevalence of adult DP was slightly lower than reported by other surveys. The study found that childhood anxiety was the only significant predictor of the adult DP syndrome, supporting the view that depersonalisation disorder forms part of the spectrum of responses to anxiety. PMID:21181112

  20. Antenatal antecedents of cognitive impairment at 24 months in extremely low gestational age newborns.

    PubMed

    Helderman, Jennifer B; O'Shea, Thomas M; Kuban, Karl C K; Allred, Elizabeth N; Hecht, Jonathan L; Dammann, Olaf; Paneth, Nigel; McElrath, T F; Onderdonk, Andrew; Leviton, Alan

    2012-03-01

    Extremely low gestational age neonates are more likely than term infants to develop cognitive impairment. Few studies have addressed antenatal risk factors of this condition. We identified antenatal antecedents of cognitive impairment determined by the Mental Development Index (MDI) portion of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID-II), at 24 months corrected age. We studied a multicenter cohort of 921 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation during 2002 to 2004 and assessed their placentas for histologic characteristics and microorganisms. The mother was interviewed and her medical record was reviewed. At 24 months adjusted age, children were assessed with BSID-II. Multinomial logistic models were used to estimate odds ratios. A total of 103 infants (11%) had an MDI <55, and 99 infants (11%) had an MDI between 55 and 69. No associations were identified between organisms recovered from the placenta and developmental delay. Factors most strongly associated with MDI <55 were thrombosis of fetal vessels (OR 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2, 7.7), maternal BMI >30 (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.5), maternal education ≤12 years (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.9, 6.2), nonwhite race (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3, 3.8), birth weight z score < -2 (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.1, 6.9), and male gender (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.6, 4.5). Antenatal factors, including thrombosis of fetal vessels in the placenta, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal obesity, convey information about the risk of cognitive impairment among extremely premature newborns.