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Sample records for patient care clinical

  1. Introducing Optometry Students to Clinical Patient Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Eileen M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the innovative content and structure of an introductory course on clinical patient care at the Illinois College of Optometry. Critiques its success based on student grades and feedback, concluding that it was successful in imparting skills of data analysis but had minimal impact on students' ability to empathize with patients. (EV)

  2. Caring touch--patients' experiences in an anthroposophic clinical context.

    PubMed

    Ozolins, Lise-Lotte; Hörberg, Ulrica; Dahlberg, Karin

    2015-12-01

    This study describes the phenomenon of caring touch from the patients' perspective in an anthroposophic clinical context where caring touch is often used to promote health and alleviate suffering. The aim of the study was to explore and phenomenologically describe the phenomenon of caring touch from the patients' perspectives. The study has been carried out with a Reflective Lifeworld Research approach in order to understand and describe human existential phenomena. Ten female patients were interviewed in an anthroposophic clinic in Sweden. The findings show how caring touch has multifaceted meanings and makes the patients' feel present and anchored in a meaningful context. The patients' feel that they are seen, accepted and confirmed. Furthermore, touch creates a caring space where the patients become receptive for care and has the power to alleviate the patients' suffering, as well as to frighten and cause or worsen the suffering. In order to take advantage of the caring potential, the patient needs to be invited to a respectful and sensitive form of touch. An interpersonal flexible space is necessary where the touch can be effective, and where a dynamic interplay can develop. In conclusion, caring touch is an opportunity for carers to support well-being and health. The carers need to approach their patients in both a sensitive and reflective way. A caring science perspective can serve as a help to further understand touch as a unique caring act. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Clinical dashboards: impact on workflow, care quality, and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Egan, Marie

    2006-01-01

    There is a vast array of technical data that is continuously generated within the intensive care unit environment. In addition to physiological monitors, there is information being captured by the ventilator, intravenous infusion pumps, medication dispensing units, and even the patient's bed. The ability to retrieve and synchronize data is essential for both clinical documentation and real-time problem solving for individual patients and the intensive care unit population as a whole. Technical advances that permit the integration of all relevant data into a singular display or "dashboard" may improve staff efficiency, accelerate decisions, streamline workflow processes, and reduce oversights and errors in clinical practice. Critical care nurses must coordinate all aspects of care for one or more patients. Clinical data are constantly being retrieved, documented, analyzed, and communicated to others, all within the daily routine of nursing care. In addition, many bedside monitors and devices have alarms systems that must be evaluated throughout the workday, and actions taken on the basis of the patient's condition and other data. It is obvious that the complexity within such care processes presents many potential opportunities for overlooking important details. The capability to systematically and logically link physiological monitors and other selected data sets into a cohesive dashboard system holds tremendous promise for improving care quality, patient safety, and clinical outcomes in the intensive care unit.

  4. Role of clinical nurse leadership in improving patient care.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jill; Quillinan, Bernie; Carolan, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Leadership in nursing plays a crucial part in the provision of good patient care. However, the terms 'nursing leadership' and 'nursing management' are often confused. This article discusses the difficulties in defining 'clinical leadership', outlines its development in the Republic of Ireland, and identifies issues that must be addressed if clinical nurse leaders are to be effective.

  5. Primary Care Patients' Preference for Hospitals over Clinics in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Agnus M; Cho, Seongcheol; Kim, Hyun Joo; Jung, Hyemin; Jo, Min-Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Eun, Sang Jun

    2018-05-30

    Korea is in a unique condition to observe whether patients, when equal access to the levels of health care facilities is guaranteed by the support of the national health insurance, choose the appropriate levels of health care facilities. This study was performed to investigate the primary care patients' preference for hospitals over clinics under no restriction for their choice. We used the 2011 National Inpatient Sample database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea. A primary care patient was defined as a patient who visited as an outpatient in health care facilities with one of the 52 minor conditions defined by the Korean government. We found that approximately 15% of outpatient visits of the patients who were eligible for primary care in Korea happened in hospitals. In terms of cost, the outpatient visits in hospitals accounted for about 29% of total cost of outpatient visits. This arbitrary access to hospitals can lead to an inefficient use of health care resources. In order to ensure that health care facilities are stratified in terms of access as well as size and function, interventions to distribute patients to the appropriate level of care are required.

  6. Clinical and critical care concerns in severely ill obese patient

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Sehgal, Vishal; Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of obesity has acquired an epidemic proportion throughout the globe. As a result, increasing number of obese patients is being presented to critical care units for various indications. The attending intensivist has to face numerous challenges during management of such patients. Almost all the organ systems are affected by the impact of obesity either directly or indirectly. The degree of obesity and its prolong duration are the main factors which determine the harmful effect of obesity on human body. The present article reviews few of the important clinical and critical care concerns in critically ill obese patients. PMID:23087857

  7. Standardized Cardiovascular Data for Clinical Research, Registries, and Patient Care

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, H. Vernon; Weintraub, William S.; Radford, Martha J.; Kremers, Mark S.; Roe, Matthew T.; Shaw, Richard E.; Pinchotti, Dana M.; Tcheng, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been focused on standardization of data exchange in clinical research studies and patient care activities. Both are usually managed locally using separate and generally incompatible data systems at individual hospitals or clinics. In the past decade there have been nascent efforts to create data standards for clinical research and patient care data, and to some extent these are helpful in providing a degree of uniformity. Nevertheless these data standards generally have not been converted into accepted computer-based language structures that could permit reliable data exchange across computer networks. The National Cardiovascular Research Infrastructure (NCRI) project was initiated with a major objective of creating a model framework for standard data exchange in all clinical research, clinical registry, and patient care environments, including all electronic health records. The goal is complete syntactic and semantic interoperability. A Data Standards Workgroup was established to create or identify and then harmonize clinical definitions for a base set of standardized cardiovascular data elements that could be used in this network infrastructure. Recognizing the need for continuity with prior efforts, the Workgroup examined existing data standards sources. A basic set of 353 elements was selected. The NCRI staff then collaborated with the two major technical standards organizations in healthcare, the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium and Health Level 7 International, as well as with staff from the National Cancer Institute Enterprise Vocabulary Services. Modeling and mapping were performed to represent (instantiate) the data elements in appropriate technical computer language structures for endorsement as an accepted data standard for public access and use. Fully implemented, these elements will facilitate clinical research, registry reporting, administrative reporting and regulatory compliance, and patient care. PMID

  8. Impact of patient satisfaction ratings on physicians and clinical care

    PubMed Central

    Zgierska, Aleksandra; Rabago, David; Miller, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    Background Although patient satisfaction ratings often drive positive changes, they may have unintended consequences. Objective The study reported here aimed to evaluate the clinician-perceived effects of patient satisfaction ratings on job satisfaction and clinical care. Methods A 26-item survey, developed by a state medical society in 2012 to assess the effects of patient satisfaction surveys, was administered online to physician members of a state-level medical society. Respondents remained anonymous. Results One hundred fifty five physicians provided responses (3.9% of the estimated 4,000 physician members of the state-level medical society, or approximately 16% of the state’s emergency department [ED] physicians). The respondents were predominantly male (85%) and practicing in solo or private practice (45%), hospital (43%), or academia (15%). The majority were ED (57%), followed by primary care (16%) physicians. Fifty-nine percent reported that their compensation was linked to patient satisfaction ratings. Seventy-eight percent reported that patient satisfaction surveys moderately or severely affected their job satisfaction; 28% had considered quitting their job or leaving the medical profession. Twenty percent reported their employment being threatened because of patient satisfaction data. Almost half believed that pressure to obtain better scores promoted inappropriate care, including unnecessary antibiotic and opioid prescriptions, tests, procedures, and hospital admissions. Among 52 qualitative responses, only three were positive. Conclusion These pilot-level data suggest that patient satisfaction survey utilization may promote, under certain circumstances, job dissatisfaction, attrition, and inappropriate clinical care among some physicians. This is concerning, especially in the context of the progressive incorporation of patient satisfaction ratings as a quality-of-care metric, and highlights the need for a rigorous evaluation of the optimal methods

  9. Patient engagement: an investigation at a primary care clinic

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Preetinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background Engaged employees are an asset to any organization. They are instrumental in ensuring good commercial outcomes through continuous innovation and incremental improvement. A health care facility is similar to a regular work setting in many ways. A health care provider and a patient have roles akin to a team leader and a team member/stakeholder, respectively. Hence it can be argued that the concept of employee engagement can be applied to patients in health care settings in order to improve health outcomes. Methods Patient engagement data were collected using a survey instrument from a primary care clinic in the northern Indian state of Punjab. Canonical correlation equations were formulated to identify combinations which were strongly related to each other. In addition, the cause-effect relationship between patient engagement and patient-perceived health outcomes was described using structural equation modeling. Results Canonical correlation analysis showed that the first set of canonical variables had a fairly strong relationship, ie, a magnitude > 0.80 at the 95% confidence interval, for five dimensions of patient engagement. Structural equation modeling analysis yielded a β ≥ 0.10 and a Student’s t statistic ≥ 2.96 for these five dimensions. The threshold Student’s t statistic was 1.99. Hence it was found the β values were significant at the 95% confidence interval for all census regions. Conclusion A scaled reliable survey instrument was developed to measured patient engagement. Better patient engagement is associated with better patient-perceived health outcomes. This study provides preliminary evidence that patient engagement has a causal relationship with patient-perceived health outcomes. PMID:23515133

  10. Video capture of clinical care to enhance patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Weinger, M; Gonzales, D; Slagle, J; Syeed, M

    2004-01-01

    

 Experience from other domains suggests that videotaping and analyzing actual clinical care can provide valuable insights for enhancing patient safety through improvements in the process of care. Methods are described for the videotaping and analysis of clinical care using a high quality portable multi-angle digital video system that enables simultaneous capture of vital signs and time code synchronization of all data streams. An observer can conduct clinician performance assessment (such as workload measurements or behavioral task analysis) either in real time (during videotaping) or while viewing previously recorded videotapes. Supplemental data are synchronized with the video record and stored electronically in a hierarchical database. The video records are transferred to DVD, resulting in a small, cheap, and accessible archive. A number of technical and logistical issues are discussed, including consent of patients and clinicians, maintaining subject privacy and confidentiality, and data security. Using anesthesiology as a test environment, over 270 clinical cases (872 hours) have been successfully videotaped and processed using the system. PMID:15069222

  11. The contribution of undergraduate palliative care education: does it influence the clinical patient's care?

    PubMed

    Centeno, Carlos; Rodríguez-Núñez, Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this 2-year systematic review is to understand how learner assessment and curriculum evaluation of education in palliative care is being undertaken and to examine whether current undergraduate education influences the clinical patient's care. Almost half of the 30 studies reviewed used a qualitative approach to evaluate learning experiences. Only three of them were controlled studies and a further one was a cohort study.When students openly express themselves, they agree that there is 'something' deep as regards the core or the essence of medical practice or nursing. They feel that they become better professionals and better prepared for the patients, not only in terms of end of life care, but also as regards care, irrespective of the phase of the disease.The inclusion of palliative care in undergraduate education is a way of providing knowledge, skill, and competences about palliative care (especially communication) and also improving attitudes toward caring in advanced disease and at the end of life. Different methods of experiential learning, even brief experiences, which bring students into close contact with palliative care clinical cases or patients, are providing better results. From research studies, there is only indirect evidence that palliative care training at university leads to better clinical care of patients. In the future, long-term cohort or controlled studies might answer that question.

  12. Electronic Nursing Documentation: Patient Care Continuity Using the Clinical Care Classification System (CCC).

    PubMed

    Whittenburg, Luann; Meetim, Aunchisa

    2016-01-01

    An innovative nursing documentation project conducted at Bumrungrad International Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand demonstrated patient care continuity between nursing patient assessments and nursing Plans of Care using the Clinical Care Classification System (CCC). The project developed a new generation of interactive nursing Plans of Care using the six steps of the American Nurses Association (ANA) Nursing process and the MEDCIN® clinical knowledgebase to present CCC coded concepts as a natural by-product of a nurse's documentation process. The MEDCIN® clinical knowledgebase is a standardized point-of-care terminology intended for use in electronic health record systems. The CCC is an ANA recognized nursing terminology.

  13. Identification of limited English proficient patients in clinical care.

    PubMed

    Karliner, Leah S; Napoles-Springer, Anna M; Schillinger, Dean; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2008-10-01

    Standardized means to identify patients likely to benefit from language assistance are needed. To evaluate the accuracy of the U.S. Census English proficiency question (Census-LEP) in predicting patients' ability to communicate effectively in English. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the Census-LEP alone or in combination with a question on preferred language for medical care for predicting patient-reported ability to discuss symptoms and understand physician recommendations in English. Three hundred and two patients > 18 who spoke Spanish and/or English recruited from a cardiology clinic and an inpatient general medical-surgical ward in 2004-2005. One hundred ninety-eight (66%) participants reported speaking English less than "very well" and 166 (55%) less than "well"; 157 (52%) preferred receiving their medical care in Spanish. Overall, 135 (45%) were able to discuss symptoms and 143 (48%) to understand physician recommendations in English. The Census-LEP with a high-threshold (less than "very well") had the highest sensitivity for predicting effective communication (100% Discuss; 98.7% Understand), but the lowest specificity (72.6% Discuss; 67.1% Understand). The composite measure of Census-LEP and preferred language for medical care provided a significant increase in specificity (91.9% Discuss; 83.9% Understand), with only a marginal decrease in sensitivity (99.4% Discuss; 96.7% Understand). Using the Census-LEP item with a high-threshold of less than "very well" as a screening question, followed by a language preference for medical care question, is recommended for inclusive and accurate identification of patients likely to benefit from language assistance.

  14. Unlicensed pharmaceutical preparations for clinical patient care: Ensuring safety.

    PubMed

    de Wilde, Sofieke; de Jong, Maria G H; Le Brun, Paul P H; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Schimmel, Kirsten J M

    2018-01-01

    Most medicinal products dispensed to patients have marketing authorization (MA) to ensure high quality of the product, safety, and efficacy. However, in daily practice, to treat patients adequately, there is a medical need for drugs that do not hold MA. To meet this medical need, medicinal products are used in clinical care without MA (unlicensed), such as products prepared by (local) pharmacies: the pharmaceutical preparations. Three types of pharmaceutical preparations are distinguished: (i) reconstitution in excess of summary of product characteristics; (ii) adaptation of a licensed medicinal product (outside its official labeling); (iii) medicinal products from an active pharmaceutical ingredient. Although unlicensed, patients may expect the same quality for these unlicensed pharmaceutical preparations as for the licensed medicinal products. To assure this quality, a proper risk-benefit assessment and proper documentation in (centralized) patient registries and linking to a national pharmacovigilance database should be in place. Based on a risk assessment matrix, requirements for quality assurance can be determined, which has impact on the level of documentation of a pharmaceutical preparation. In this paper, the approach for good documentation including quality assurance and benefit-risk assessment will be discussed and possibilities for patient registries are described to make these crucial preparations available for regular patient care. KEY POINTS Ensuring pharmaceutical quality and performing a proper benefit-risk assessment will guarantee safe use of pharmaceutical preparations. Good documentation of (ultra-)orphan treatments can be collected in centralized patient registries and should be combined with existing information in (inter)national databases and self-reflection of patients. Linking patient registries to a centralized database for adverse drug events is highly recommended as it increases safety control of the (ultra) orphan pharmaceutical

  15. Do Patients Who Access Clinical Information on Patient Internet Portals Have More Primary Care Visits?

    PubMed

    Leveille, Suzanne G; Mejilla, Roanne; Ngo, Long; Fossa, Alan; Elmore, Joann G; Darer, Jonathan; Ralston, James D; Delbanco, Tom; Walker, Jan

    2016-01-01

    As health care costs alarm the nation and the debate increases about the impact of health information technologies, patients are reviewing their medical records increasingly through secure Internet portals. Important questions remain about the impact of portal use on office visits. To evaluate whether use of patient Internet portals to access records is associated with increased primary care utilization. A prospective cohort study. Primary care patients registered on patient Internet portals, within an integrated health system serving rural Pennsylvania and an academic medical center in Boston. Frequency of "clinical portal use" (days/2 mo intervals over 2 y) included secure messaging about clinical issues and viewing laboratory and radiology findings. In year 2, a subset of patients also gained access to their primary care doctor's visit notes. The main outcome was number of primary care office visits. In the first 2 months of the 2-year period, 14% of 44,951 primary care patients engaged in clinical portal use 2 or more days per month, 31% did so 1 day per month, and the remainder had no clinical portal use. Overall, adjusted for age, sex, and chronic conditions, clinical portal use was not associated with subsequent office visits. Fewer than 0.1% of patients engaged in high levels of clinical portal use (31 or more login days in 2 mo) that were associated with 1 or more additional visits in the subsequent 2 months (months 3 and 4). However, the reverse was true: office visits led to subsequent clinical portal use. Similar trends were observed among patients with or without access to visit notes. Patients turn to their portals following visits, but clinical portal use does not contribute to an increase in primary care visits.

  16. How 3 rural safety net clinics integrate care for patients: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Derrett, Sarah; Gunter, Kathryn E; Nocon, Robert S; Quinn, Michael T; Coleman, Katie; Daniel, Donna M; Wagner, Edward H; Chin, Marshall H

    2014-11-01

    Integrated care focuses on care coordination and patient centeredness. Integrated care supports continuity of care over time, with care that is coordinated within and between settings and is responsive to patients' needs. Currently, little is known about care integration for rural patients. To examine challenges to care integration in rural safety net clinics and strategies to address these challenges. Qualitative case study. Thirty-six providers and staff from 3 rural clinics in the Safety Net Medical Home Initiative. Interviews were analyzed using the framework method with themes organized within 3 constructs: Team Coordination and Empanelment, External Coordination and Partnerships, and Patient-centered and Community-centered Care. Participants described challenges common to safety net clinics, including limited access to specialists for Medicaid and uninsured patients, difficulty communicating with external providers, and payment models with limited support for care integration activities. Rurality compounded these challenges. Respondents reported benefits of empanelment and team-based care, and leveraged local resources to support care for patients. Rural clinics diversified roles within teams, shared responsibility for patient care, and colocated providers, as strategies to support care integration. Care integration was supported by 2 fundamental changes to organize and deliver care to patients-(1) empanelment with a designated group of patients being cared for by a provider; and (2) a multidisciplinary team able to address rural issues. New funding and organizational initiatives of the Affordable Care Act may help to further improve care integration, although additional solutions may be necessary to address particular needs of rural communities.

  17. Missing clinical information in NHS hospital outpatient clinics: prevalence, causes and effects on patient care.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Susan J; Deelchand, Vashist; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Moorthy, Krishna; Vincent, Charles

    2011-05-23

    In Britain over 39,000 reports were received by the National Patient Safety Agency relating to failures in documentation in 2007 and the UK Health Services Journal estimated in 2008 that over a million hospital outpatient visits each year might take place without the full record available. Despite these high numbers, the impact of missing clinical information has not been investigated for hospital outpatients in the UK.Studies in primary care in the USA have found 13.6% of patient consultations have missing clinical information, with this adversely affecting care in about half of cases, and in Australia 1.8% of medical errors were found to be due to the unavailability of clinical information.Our objectives were to assess the frequency, nature and potential impact on patient care of missing clinical information in NHS hospital outpatients and to assess the principal causes. This is the first study to present such figures for the UK and the first to look at how clinicians respond, including the associated impact on patient care. Prospective descriptive study of missing information reported by surgeons, supplemented by interviews on the causes.Data were collected by surgeons in general, gastrointestinal, colorectal and vascular surgical clinics in three teaching hospitals across the UK for over a thousand outpatient appointments. Fifteen interviews were conducted with those involved in collating clinical information for these clinics.The study had ethics approval (Hammersmith and Queen Charlotte's & Chelsea Research Ethics Committee), reference number (09/H0707/27). Participants involved in the interviews signed a consent form and were offered the opportunity to review and agree the transcript of their interview before analysis. No patients were involved in this research. In 15% of outpatient consultations key items of clinical information were missing. Of these patients, 32% experienced a delay or disruption to their care and 20% had a risk of harm. In over half of

  18. Patient-Centered Care in Breast Cancer Genetic Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Brédart, Anne; Anota, Amélie; Kuboth, Violetta; Lareyre, Olivier; Cano, Alejandra; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Schmutzler, Rita; Dolbeault, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    With advances in breast cancer (BC) gene panel testing, risk counseling has become increasingly complex, potentially leading to unmet psychosocial needs. We assessed psychosocial needs and correlates in women initiating testing for high genetic BC risk in clinics in France and Germany, and compared these results with data from a literature review. Among the 442 counselees consecutively approached, 212 (83%) in France and 180 (97%) in Germany, mostly BC patients (81% and 92%, respectively), returned the ‘Psychosocial Assessment in Hereditary Cancer’ questionnaire. Based on the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA) BC risk estimation model, the mean BC lifetime risk estimates were 19% and 18% in France and Germany, respectively. In both countries, the most prevalent needs clustered around the “living with cancer” and “children-related issues” domains. In multivariate analyses, a higher number of psychosocial needs were significantly associated with younger age (b = −0.05), higher anxiety (b = 0.78), and having children (b = 1.51), but not with country, educational level, marital status, depression, or loss of a family member due to hereditary cancer. These results are in line with the literature review data. However, this review identified only seven studies that quantitatively addressed psychosocial needs in the BC genetic counseling setting. Current data lack understandings of how cancer risk counseling affects psychosocial needs, and improves patient-centered care in that setting. PMID:29439543

  19. Patient-Centered Care in Breast Cancer Genetic Clinics.

    PubMed

    Brédart, Anne; Anota, Amélie; Dick, Julia; Kuboth, Violetta; Lareyre, Olivier; De Pauw, Antoine; Cano, Alejandra; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Schmutzler, Rita; Dolbeault, Sylvie; Kop, Jean-Luc

    2018-02-12

    With advances in breast cancer (BC) gene panel testing, risk counseling has become increasingly complex, potentially leading to unmet psychosocial needs. We assessed psychosocial needs and correlates in women initiating testing for high genetic BC risk in clinics in France and Germany, and compared these results with data from a literature review. Among the 442 counselees consecutively approached, 212 (83%) in France and 180 (97%) in Germany, mostly BC patients (81% and 92%, respectively), returned the 'Psychosocial Assessment in Hereditary Cancer' questionnaire. Based on the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA) BC risk estimation model, the mean BC lifetime risk estimates were 19% and 18% in France and Germany, respectively. In both countries, the most prevalent needs clustered around the "living with cancer" and "children-related issues" domains. In multivariate analyses, a higher number of psychosocial needs were significantly associated with younger age (b = -0.05), higher anxiety (b = 0.78), and having children (b = 1.51), but not with country, educational level, marital status, depression, or loss of a family member due to hereditary cancer. These results are in line with the literature review data. However, this review identified only seven studies that quantitatively addressed psychosocial needs in the BC genetic counseling setting. Current data lack understandings of how cancer risk counseling affects psychosocial needs, and improves patient-centered care in that setting.

  20. Improving Tracheostomy Care Delivery: Instituting Clinical Care Pathways and Nursing Education to Improve Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Colandrea, Maria; Eckardt, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The complication rates for tracheostomy patients could be serious and life threatening. As a result, length of stay (LOS) increases and patient outcomes can be negatively impacted. Examples of complications include accidental decannulation, bleeding and total occlusion. Studies suggest there is an inconsistency in tracheostomy care among providers and institutions. Other studies suggest stronger patient outcomes can result from improved staff training and appropriate protocols. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a clinical care pathway (CCP) and nursing education program to improve tracheostomy patient outcomes. The use of a CCP and nursing education program at a tertiary VA Medical Center will: decrease length of stay (LOS). decrease 30 day tracheostomy readmissions. increase patient's readiness for discharge. increase nurses' comfort level with performing tracheostomy care. increase nurses' overall competence with performing tracheostomy care. A quasi-experimental pilot study examining the effect of a CCP compared LOS and complication rates of tracheostomy patients from admission to discharge. The population included veterans from a mid-Atlantic VA Medical Center. This study involved three phases. Phase 1: Administer the Readiness for Hospital Discharge Scale (RHDS) to tracheostomy patients' preintervention. Phase 2: Provide nurses with an educational program pre and post test assessment. Phase 3: Implement the CCP and evaluate patients' readiness for discharge. Comparing the pre-intervention sample of veterans (n = 10) to the post-intervention sample (n = 6), there was an increase in LOS by 1 day. There was a 15 point increase in RHDS from 165 (SD 25.8) to 180 (SD 14.42). This pilot was underpowered with an n = 6, so there was no significant difference in LOS and 30 day readmission rates. Bootstrapping of sample resulted in RHDS p = . 039 and readmission p = .007. A paired-samples t-test was conducted to assess nurses' competence in performing

  1. Family medicine patients who use retail clinics have lower continuity of care.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, James E; Angstman, Kurt B; Garrison, Gregory M; Maxson, Julie A; Furst, Joseph W

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare continuity of care for family medicine patients using retail medicine clinics to continuity for patients not using retail clinics. Retail medicine clinics have become popular in some markets. However, their impact on continuity of care has not been studied. Electronic medical records of adult primary care patients seen in a large group practice in Minnesota in 2011 were analyzed for this study. Two randomly chosen groups of patients were selected (N = 400): those using 1 of 3 retail walk-in clinics staffed by nurse practitioners in addition to standard office care and a comparison group that only used standard office care. Continuity was measured as the percentage of visits that involved the primary care provider. We also compared patients who made zero visits to their primary care providers with those who made some visits to their primary care providers. Continuity of care was lower for patients who used retail clinics than for patients who did not use retail clinics (0.17 vs 0.44, mean difference 0.27). The percentage of patients who made zero visits to their primary care providers was 54.5 for users of retail clinics versus 31.0 for those who did not use retail clinics. Continuity of care should be monitored as retail medicine continues to expand.

  2. Clinical review: The critical care management of the burn patient

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Between 4 and 22% of burn patients presenting to the emergency department are admitted to critical care. Burn injury is characterised by a hypermetabolic response with physiologic, catabolic and immune effects. Burn care has seen renewed interest in colloid resuscitation, a change in transfusion practice and the development of anti-catabolic therapies. A literature search was conducted with priority given to review articles, meta-analyses and well-designed large trials; paediatric studies were included where adult studies were lacking with the aim to review the advances in adult intensive care burn management and place them in the general context of day-to-day practical burn management. PMID:24093225

  3. Why Do Patients Seek Care at Retail Clinics and What Alternatives Did They Consider

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Margaret C; Ryan, Gery; McGlynn, Elizabeth A; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2012-01-01

    Retail clinics are an increasingly popular new model of ambulatory care. To understand why patients seek care at these clinics and what their experiences were like, we interviewed 61 patients at six retail clinics. Patients were satisfied with the overall experience and were attracted to retail clinics because of their convenient location and fixed, transparent pricing. Patients with a primary care provider (PCP) sought care at these clinics primarily because their PCPs were not available in a timely manner. If retail clinics were not available, a quarter of patients report they would have gone to the emergency department. Retail clinics appear to be responding to the need for convenient, affordable, and consumer-centered care. PMID:20142442

  4. Caring for critically ill oldest old patients: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Nicola; Tibullo, Loredana; Landi, Emanuela; Carifi, Giovanni; Pirone, Alfonso; Pippo, Antonio; Alviggi, Immacolata; Tizzano, Renato; Salsano, Elisa; Di Grezia, Francesco; Vargas, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Despite technological advances, the mortality rate for critically ill oldest old patients remains high. The intensive caring should be able to combine technology and a deep humanity considering that the patients are living the last part of their lives. In addition to the traditional goals of ICU of reducing morbidity and mortality, of maintaining organ functions and restoring health, caring for seriously oldest old patients should take into account their end-of-life preferences, the advance or proxy directives if available, the prognosis, the communication, their life expectancy and the impact of multimorbidity. The aim of this review was to focus on all these aspects with an emphasis on some intensive procedures such as mechanical ventilation, noninvasive mechanical ventilation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, renal replacement therapy, hemodynamic support, evaluation of delirium and malnutrition in this heterogeneous frail ICU population.

  5. Achieving Core Indicators for HIV Clinical Care Among New Patients at an Urban HIV Clinic.

    PubMed

    Greer, Gillian A; Tamhane, Ashutosh; Malhotra, Rakhi; Burkholder, Greer A; Mugavero, Michael J; Raper, James L; Zinski, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Following the release of the 2010 National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) issued core clinical indicators for measuring health outcomes in HIV-positive persons. As early retention in HIV primary care is associated with improved long-term health outcomes, we employed IOM indicators as a guide to examine a cohort of persons initiating HIV outpatient medical care at a university-affiliated HIV clinic in the Southern United States (January 2007-July 2012). Using indicators for visit attendance, CD4 and viral load laboratory testing frequency, and antiretroviral therapy initiation, we evaluated factors associated with achieving IOM core indicators among care- and treatment-naïve patients during the first year of HIV care. Of 448 patients (mean age = 35 years, 35.7% white, 79.0% male, 58.4% education beyond high school, 35.9% monthly income > $1,000 US, 47.3% uninsured), 84.6% achieved at least four of five IOM indicators. In multivariable analyses, persons with monthly income > $1,000 (ORadj. = 3.71; 95% CI: 1.68-8.19; p = 0.001) and depressive symptoms (ORadj. = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.02-4.45; p = 0.04) were significantly more likely to achieve at least four of the five core indicators, while patients with anxiety symptoms were significantly less likely to achieve these indicators (ORadj. = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.26-0.97; p = 0.04). Age, sex, race, education, insurance status, transportation barriers, alcohol use, and HIV status disclosure to family were not associated with achieving core indicators. Evaluating and addressing financial barriers and anxiety symptoms during the first year of HIV outpatient care may improve individual health outcomes and subsequent achievement of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy.

  6. Examining chronic care patient preferences for involvement in health-care decision making: the case of Parkinson's disease patients in a patient-centred clinic.

    PubMed

    Zizzo, Natalie; Bell, Emily; Lafontaine, Anne-Louise; Racine, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Patient-centred care is a recommended model of care for Parkinson's disease (PD). It aims to provide care that is respectful and responsive to patient preferences, values and perspectives. Provision of patient-centred care should entail considering how patients want to be involved in their care. To understand the participation preferences of patients with PD from a patient-centred care clinic in health-care decision-making processes. Mixed-methods study with early-stage Parkinson's disease patients from a patient-centred care clinic. Study involved a modified Autonomy Preference Index survey (N=65) and qualitative, semi-structured in-depth interviews, analysed using thematic qualitative content analysis (N=20, purposefully selected from survey participants). Interviews examined (i) the patient preferences for involvement in health-care decision making; (ii) patient perspectives on the patient-physician relationship; and (iii) patient preferences for communication of information relevant to decision making. Preferences for participation in decision making varied between individuals and also within individuals depending on decision type, relational and contextual factors. Patients had high preferences for communication of information, but with acknowledged limits. The importance of communication in the patient-physician relationship was emphasized. Patient preferences for involvement in decision making are dynamic and support shared decision making. Relational autonomy corresponds to how patients envision their participation in decision making. Clinicians may need to assess patient preferences on an on-going basis. Our results highlight the complexities of decision-making processes. Improved understanding of individual preferences could enhance respect for persons and make for patient-centred care that is truly respectful of individual patients' wants, needs and values. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Balancing Patient Care and Student Education: Learning to Deliver Bad News in an Optometry Teaching Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.; Schryer, Catherine F.; Creutz, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Learning to counsel patients in a teaching clinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of…

  8. Team dynamics, clinical work satisfaction, and patient care coordination between primary care providers: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Song, Hummy; Ryan, Molly; Tendulkar, Shalini; Fisher, Josephine; Martin, Julia; Peters, Antoinette S; Frolkis, Joseph P; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Chien, Alyna T; Singer, Sara J

    Team-based care is essential for delivering high-quality, comprehensive, and coordinated care. Despite considerable research about the effects of team-based care on patient outcomes, few studies have examined how team dynamics relate to provider outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine relationships among team dynamics, primary care provider (PCP) clinical work satisfaction, and patient care coordination between PCPs in 18 Harvard-affiliated primary care practices participating in Harvard's Academic Innovations Collaborative. First, we administered a cross-sectional survey to all 548 PCPs (267 attending clinicians, 281 resident physicians) working at participating practices; 65% responded. We assessed the relationship of team dynamics with PCPs' clinical work satisfaction and perception of patient care coordination between PCPs, respectively, and the potential mediating effect of patient care coordination on the relationship between team dynamics and work satisfaction. In addition, we embedded a qualitative evaluation within the quantitative evaluation to achieve a convergent mixed methods design to help us better understand our findings and illuminate relationships among key variables. Better team dynamics were positively associated with clinical work satisfaction and quality of patient care coordination between PCPs. Coordination partially mediated the relationship between team dynamics and satisfaction for attending clinicians, suggesting that higher satisfaction depends, in part, on better teamwork, yielding more coordinated patient care. We found no mediating effects for resident physicians. Qualitative results suggest that sources of satisfaction from positive team dynamics for PCPs may be most relevant to attending clinicians. Improving primary care team dynamics could improve clinical work satisfaction among PCPs and patient care coordination between PCPs. In addition to improving outcomes that directly concern health care providers, efforts to

  9. Clinical model assisting with the collaborative care of glaucoma patients and suspects.

    PubMed

    Jamous, Khalid F; Kalloniatis, Michael; Hennessy, Michael P; Agar, Ashish; Hayen, Andrew; Zangerl, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing patient management will reduce unnecessary vision loss in glaucoma through early detection. One method is the introduction of collaborative care schemes between optometrists and ophthalmologists. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the impact of the Centre for Eye Health (CFEH) on glaucoma patient outcomes and management in primary optometric care. Patients referred to CFEH by optometrists for a glaucoma assessment were eligible for this study if written consent was provided (500 participants were randomly chosen). Clinical data were classified according to disease risk and implemented patient care and analysed against the original diagnosis and patient parameters, followed by statistical analysis. Two main parameters were evaluated; suitable referral of patients for glaucoma condition assessment and appropriate implementation of follow-up care. The majority of patients referred for glaucoma assessment (86.2%) were classified as glaucoma suspects or likely to have glaucoma, indicating suitable referral of patients for a CFEH evaluation. Further, the involvement of CFEH resulted in a false positive rate of 7.8% for those patients who proceeded to ophthalmological care. However, long-term optometric patient care was not maintained for up to a third of primarily lower risk patients. The investigated collaborative eye health-care model led to a substantial improvement in appropriate referrals of glaucoma patients to ophthalmologists and could be suitable for optimizing patient care and utilization of resources. Improvement in follow-up of patients by optometrists is required to minimize inappropriately discontinued patient care. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  10. Specialty-care access for community health clinic patients: processes and barriers.

    PubMed

    Ezeonwu, Mabel C

    2018-01-01

    Community health clinics/centers (CHCs) comprise the US's core health-safety net and provide primary care to anyone who walks through their doors. However, access to specialty care for CHC patients is a big challenge. In this descriptive qualitative study, semistructured interviews of 37 referral coordinators of CHCs were used to describe their perspectives on processes and barriers to patients' access to specialty care. Analysis of data was done using content analysis. The process of coordinating care referrals for CHC patients is complex and begins with a provider's order for consultation and ends when the referring provider receives the specialist's note. Poverty, specialist and referral coordinator shortages, lack of insurance, insurance acceptability by providers, transport and clinic-location factors, lack of clinic-hospital affiliations, and poor communication between primary and specialty providers constitute critical barriers to specialty-care access for patients. Understanding the complexities of specialty-care coordination processes and access helps determine the need for comprehensive and uninterrupted access to quality health care for vulnerable populations. Guaranteed access to primary care at CHCs has not translated into improved access to specialty care. It is critical that effective policies be pursued to address the barriers and minimize interruptions in care, and to ensure continuity of care for all patients needing specialty care.

  11. Patient satisfaction with HIV/AIDS care at private clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Miller, James S; Mhalu, Aisa; Chalamilla, Guerino; Siril, Hellen; Kaaya, Silvia; Tito, Justina; Aris, Eric; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2014-01-01

    Health system responsiveness (HSR) measures quality of care from the patient's perspective, an important component of ensuring adherence to medication and care among HIV patients. We examined HSR in private clinics serving HIV patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We surveyed 640 patients, 18 or older receiving care at one of 10 participating clinics, examining socioeconomic factors, HIV regimen, and self-reported experience with access and care at the clinic. Ordered logistic regression, adjusted for clustering of the clinic sites, was used to measure the relationships between age, gender, education, site size, and overall quality of care rating, as well as between the different HSR domains and overall rating. Overall, patients reported high levels of satisfaction with care received. Confidentiality, communication, and respect were particularly highly rated, while timeliness received lower ratings despite relatively short wait times, perhaps indicating high expectations when receiving care at a private clinic. Respect, confidentiality, and promptness were significantly associated with overall rating of health care, while provider skills and communication were not significantly associated. Patients reported that quality of service and confidentiality, rather than convenience of location, were the most important factors in their choice of a clinic. Site size (patient volume) was also positively correlated with patient satisfaction. Our findings suggest that, in the setting of urban private-sector clinics, flexible clinics hours, prompt services, and efforts to improve respect, privacy and confidentiality may prove more helpful in increasing visit adherence than geographic accessibility. While a responsive health system is valuable in its own right, more work is needed to confirm that improvements in HSR in fact lead to improved adherence to care.

  12. Honey in wound care: effects, clinical application and patient benefit.

    PubMed

    Lay-flurrie, Karen

    The use of honey in wound management has enjoyed a resurgence. This is largely due to the growing clinical problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the combined difficulties for the practitioner in managing chronic wound types, such as burns, leg ulcers or surgical wounds, that may become infected, for example, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas. The associated costs of treating such wounds are escalating as a result. While the use of honey as a wound dressing has been recognized, at least since Egyptian times circa 2000 BC, it is only more recently, due to the development and licensing of modern honey wound dressings, that such dressings have become more widely available and used in wound management. This article focuses on the use of honey in the treatment of infected wounds and burns. It will examine the effects of honey at the wound bed and its clinical applications, along with the current dressings available. Also discussed are the practical considerations, if, like any wound dressing, honey is to be used safely, appropriately and for the benefit of the patient.

  13. Outcomes of a Clinic-Based, Surveillance-Informed Intervention to Relink Patients to HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Joanna; Golden, Matthew R.; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Harrington, Robert D.; Dombrowski, Julia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving patient retention in HIV care is crucial to improving the HIV care continuum. We instituted and evaluated a relinkage program that uses clinical data to identify potentially out-of-care patients, matches those data to public health surveillance, and employs a linkage specialist (LS) to coordinate care relinkage. Methods The intervention began November 1, 2012 in the largest HIV clinic in Washington State. We evaluated program outcomes and compared patient outcomes in the year following initiation of the intervention to a historical control cohort of patients. Cox proportional hazard ratios were used to compare time to relinkage to care between cohorts, and regression models using generalized estimated equations were preformed to examine secondary outcomes of relinkage to care, engagement in care, and viral suppression. Results 753 patients were identified as “out of care” on 11/1/12. Matching with surveillance data and initial LS investigations found that 596 (79%) of these patients had moved, transferred care or were incarcerated. Of the 157 remaining patients: 40 (25%) relinked to care before LS contact, and the LS successfully contacted 38 (24%). A total of 116 (15%) patients in the intervention cohort relinked to care and 24 (20%) were contacted by the LS. Compared to the historical cohort, the time to relinkage was shorter among patients in the intervention cohort [adjusted HR=1.7 (1.2-2.3)] and a greater proportion relinked [15% vs. 10%]. Conclusions This clinic-based, surveillance-informed relinkage intervention showed statistically significant but modest effectiveness in returning out-of-care patients to HIV care compared to historical controls. PMID:26068720

  14. A Comparison of Patient Visits to Retail Clinics, Primary Care Physicians, and Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Margaret C.; Lave, Judith R.; Adams, John L.; McGlynn, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we compared the demographics and reason for visits in national samples of visits to retail clinics, primary care physicians (PCPs), and emergency departments (EDs). We find that retail clinics appear to be serving a patient population underserved by PCPs. Just 10 clinical issues such as sinusitis and immunizations encompass more than 90% of retail clinic visits. These same 10 clinical issues make up 13% of adult PCP visits, 30% of pediatric PCP visits, and 12% of ED visits. Whether there will be a shift of care from EDs or PCPs to retail clinics in the future is unknown. PMID:18780911

  15. Clinical Pathways: Recommendations for Putting Patients at the Center of Value-Based Care.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Edward; Balch, Alan; Goldsmith, Patricia; Kean, Marcia; Miller, Amy M; Omenn, Gilbert; Sonet, Ellen; Sprandio, John; Tyne, Courtney; Westrich, Kimberly

    2017-08-15

    Two major trends that have been affecting the provision of oncology care in the United States are a shift from volume-based to value-based care and a push toward patient-centered healthcare. However, these two trends are not always completely aligned with each other. Value-based payment models, including clinical pathways, are one strategy being implemented by oncology stakeholders to help encourage the uptake of value-based oncology care. If structured with the patient in mind, they can improve quality of care for patients with cancer, decrease inappropriate care while enabling appropriate personalization of care, and constrain rising prices by demanding a stronger link between cost and value. If not structured appropriately, they can limit patient choice, impede access to innovative treatments, and encourage one-size-fits-all oncology care. Clin Cancer Res; 23(16); 4545-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Specialty-care access for community health clinic patients: processes and barriers

    PubMed Central

    Ezeonwu, Mabel C

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Community health clinics/centers (CHCs) comprise the US’s core health-safety net and provide primary care to anyone who walks through their doors. However, access to specialty care for CHC patients is a big challenge. Materials and methods In this descriptive qualitative study, semistructured interviews of 37 referral coordinators of CHCs were used to describe their perspectives on processes and barriers to patients’ access to specialty care. Analysis of data was done using content analysis. Results The process of coordinating care referrals for CHC patients is complex and begins with a provider’s order for consultation and ends when the referring provider receives the specialist’s note. Poverty, specialist and referral coordinator shortages, lack of insurance, insurance acceptability by providers, transport and clinic-location factors, lack of clinic–hospital affiliations, and poor communication between primary and specialty providers constitute critical barriers to specialty-care access for patients. Conclusion Understanding the complexities of specialty-care coordination processes and access helps determine the need for comprehensive and uninterrupted access to quality health care for vulnerable populations. Guaranteed access to primary care at CHCs has not translated into improved access to specialty care. It is critical that effective policies be pursued to address the barriers and minimize interruptions in care, and to ensure continuity of care for all patients needing specialty care. PMID:29503559

  17. Improving the quality of nurse clinical documentation for chronic patients at primary care clinics: A multifaceted intervention.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Ozayr H; Naidoo, Salsohni; Asmall, Shaidah; Taylor, Myra

    2015-09-25

    Deficiencies in record keeping practices have been reported at primary care level in the public health sector in South Africa. These deficiencies have the potential to negatively impact patient health outcomes as the break in information may hinder continuity of care. This disruption in information management has particular relevance for patients with chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to establish if the implementation of a structured clinical record (SCR) as an adjunct tool to the algorithmic guidelines for chronic disease management improved the quality of clinical records at primary care level. A quasi-experimental study (before and after study with a comparison group) was conducted across 30 primary health care clinics (PHCs) located in three districts in South Africa. Twenty PHCs that received the intervention were selected as intervention clinics and 10 facilities were selected as comparison facilities. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method was used to determine the number of records required to be reviewed per diagnostic condition per facility. There was a a statistically significant increase in the percentage of clinical records achieving compliance to the minimum criteria from the baseline to six months post-intervention for both HIV patients on antiretroviral treatment and patients with non-communicable diseases (hypertension and diabetes). A multifaceted intervention using a SCR to supplement the educational outreach component (PC 101 training) has demonstrated the potential for improving the quality of clinical records for patients with chronic diseases at primary care clinics in South Africa.

  18. Patient perspectives of maintaining dignity in Indonesian clinical care settings: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Asmaningrum, Nurfika; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2018-03-01

    To gain an understanding towards the perspectives of hospitalized inpatients in Indonesia regarding maintaining dignity during clinical care. Dignity is a basic human right that is crucial for an individual's well-being. Respect for a person as a valuable human is a concept that is comparable to treating a person with dignity. Maintaining patient's dignity is an ethical goal of nursing care. Nevertheless, the concept is highly dependent on cultural context. This issue has not been well studied in Indonesia. This study used a qualitative descriptive design. Thirty-five participants were recruited by purposive sampling from medical to surgical wards of six public hospitals in Eastern Java, Indonesia. Data were collected in 2016 through individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Inductive content analysis was applied to the data. Four major categories which described qualities of nursing care essential for maintaining a patient's dignity in clinical care settings were revealed: (1) responsiveness; (2) respectful nurse-patient relationships; (3) caring characteristics and (4) personalized service. Our findings provide a cultural viewpoint of dignity for care recipients in Indonesia. The findings provide empirical support for linking dignified care and person-centred care principles with regards to cultural sensitivity. Nurses must not only be clinically competent but also culturally competent. The ability to provide culturally competent care is important for nurses as a strategy to maintain patient dignity during hospitalized care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Does clinical supervision of healthcare professionals improve effectiveness of care and patient experience? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, David A; Leggat, Sandra G; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-11-28

    To ensure quality of care delivery clinical supervision has been implemented in health services. While clinical supervision of health professionals has been shown to improve patient safety, its effect on other dimensions of quality of care is unknown. The purpose of this systematic review is to determine whether clinical supervision of health professionals improves effectiveness of care and patient experience. Databases MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE and AMED were searched from earliest date available. Additional studies were identified by searching of reference lists and citation tracking. Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of each study was rated using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument. Data were extracted on effectiveness of care (process of care and patient health outcomes) and patient experience. Seventeen studies across multiple health professions (medical (n = 4), nursing (n = 7), allied health (n = 2) and combination of nursing, medical and/or allied health (n = 4)) met the inclusion criteria. The clinical heterogeneity of the included studies precluded meta-analysis. Twelve of 14 studies investigating 38,483 episodes of care found that clinical supervision improved the process of care. This effect was most predominant in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and African health settings. Three of six studies investigating 1756 patients found that clinical supervision improved patient health outcomes, namely neurological recovery post cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n = 1) and psychological symptom severity (n = 2). None of three studies investigating 1856 patients found that clinical supervision had an effect on patient experience. Clinical supervision of health professionals is associated with effectiveness of care. The review found significant improvement in the process of care that may improve compliance with processes that are associated with enhanced patient health

  20. Patient and Physician Views about Protocolized Dialysis Treatment in Randomized Trials and Clinical Care.

    PubMed

    Kraybill, Ashley; Dember, Laura M; Joffe, Steven; Karlawish, Jason; Ellenberg, Susan S; Madden, Vanessa; Halpern, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Pragmatic trials comparing standard-of-care interventions may improve the quality of care for future patients, but raise ethical questions about limitations on decisional autonomy. We sought to understand how patients and physicians view and respond to these questions in the contexts of pragmatic trials and of usual clinical care. We conducted scenario-based, semi-structured interviews with 32 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving maintenance hemodialysis in outpatient dialysis units and with 24 nephrologists. Each participant was presented with two hypothetical scenarios in which a protocolized approach to hemodialysis treatment time was adopted for the entire dialysis unit as part of a clinical trial or a new clinical practice. A modified grounded theory analysis revealed three major themes: 1) the value of research, 2) the effect of protocolized care on patient and physician autonomy, and 3) information exchange between patients and physicians, including the mechanism of consent. Most patients and physicians were willing to relinquish decisional autonomy and were more willing to relinquish autonomy for research purposes than in clinical care. Patients' concerns towards clinical trials were tempered by their desires for certainty for a positive outcome and for physician validation. Patients tended to believe that being informed about research was more important than the actual mechanism of consent, and most were content with being able to opt out from participating. This qualitative study suggests the general acceptability of a pragmatic clinical trial comparing standard-of-care interventions that limits decisional autonomy for nephrologists and patients receiving hemodialysis. Future studies are needed to determine whether similar findings would emerge among other patients and providers considering other standard-of-care trials.

  1. Increasing access to specialty care: patient discharges from a gastroenterology clinic.

    PubMed

    Tuot, Delphine S; Sewell, Justin L; Day, Lukejohn; Leeds, Kiren; Chen, Alice Hm

    2014-10-01

    Access to specialty care among safety net patients in the United States is inadequate. Discharging appropriate patients to routine primary care follow-up may improve specialty care access. We sought to identify, by consensus, patients who could safely be discharged from a gastroenterology (GI) clinic, and to evaluate the impact of the discharges on GI clinic work flow. Pre- and post intervention. We developed and implemented a modified Delphi process. Gastroenterologists and primary care providers (PCPs) rated their comfort (using 5-point Likert scales) with discharging patients immediately post endoscopy for 24 clinical scenarios, assuming formal recommendations were communicated to the PCP. We examined the impact of implementing these criteria on clinic wait times and on the ratio of new to follow-up visits. All gastroenterologists (100%; 7 of 7) and 71.0% of PCPs (130 of 183) participated. Consensus was achieved for 13 of the 24 clinical scenarios for which discharge criteria were developed. Post intervention, 403 patients were discharged from the GI clinic, compared with 0 patients in the same 4 calendar months pre-intervention. The ratio of new to follow-up appointments increased from 0.9:1 to 1:1 (P = .05). Median wait time for the third next available appointment at GI clinics decreased from 158 days to 74 days (P = .0001). Discharging patients from specialty care back to primary care with consensus standards is one method to improve access to specialty care. Understanding the concerns of all stakeholders is necessary to refine and disseminate this process to other specialties and healthcare systems to ensure timely access to specialty services for all patients.

  2. Clinically applied medical ethnography: relevance to cultural competence in patient care.

    PubMed

    Engebretson, Joan

    2011-06-01

    Medical anthropology provides an excellent resource for nursing research that is relevant to clinical nursing. By expanding the understanding of ethnographic research beyond ethnicity, nurses can conduct research that explores patient's constructions and explanatory models of health and healing and how they make meaning out of chronic conditions and negotiate daily life. These findings can have applicability to culturally competent care at both the organizational or systems level, as well as in the patient/provider encounter. Individual patient care can be improved by applying ethnographic research findings to build provider expertise and then using a cultural negotiation process for individualized patient care. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Randomised clinical trial of early specialist palliative care plus standard care versus standard care alone in patients with advanced cancer: The Danish Palliative Care Trial.

    PubMed

    Groenvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Damkier, Anette; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern; Nielsen, Jan Bjoern; Pedersen, Lise; Sjøgren, Per; Strömgren, Annette Sand; Vejlgaard, Tove Bahn; Gluud, Christian; Lindschou, Jane; Fayers, Peter; Higginson, Irene J; Johnsen, Anna Thit

    2017-10-01

    Beneficial effects of early palliative care have been found in advanced cancer, but the evidence is not unequivocal. To investigate the effect of early specialist palliative care among advanced cancer patients identified in oncology departments. The Danish Palliative Care Trial (DanPaCT) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01348048) is a multicentre randomised clinical trial comparing early referral to a specialist palliative care team plus standard care versus standard care alone. The planned sample size was 300. At five oncology departments, consecutive patients with advanced cancer were screened for palliative needs. Patients with scores exceeding a predefined threshold for problems with physical, emotional or role function, or nausea/vomiting, pain, dyspnoea or lack of appetite according to the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were eligible. The primary outcome was the change in each patient's primary need (the most severe of the seven QLQ-C30 scales) at 3- and 8-week follow-up (0-100 scale). Five sensitivity analyses were conducted. Secondary outcomes were change in the seven QLQ-C30 scales and survival. Totally 145 patients were randomised to early specialist palliative care versus 152 to standard care. Early specialist palliative care showed no effect on the primary outcome of change in primary need (-4.9 points (95% confidence interval -11.3 to +1.5 points); p = 0.14). The sensitivity analyses showed similar results. Analyses of the secondary outcomes, including survival, also showed no differences, maybe with the exception of nausea/vomiting where early specialist palliative care might have had a beneficial effect. We did not observe beneficial or harmful effects of early specialist palliative care, but important beneficial effects cannot be excluded.

  4. Tracking Patient Encounters and Clinical Skills to Determine Competency in Ambulatory Care Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Chrystian R.; Harris, Ila M.; Moon, Jean Y.; Westberg, Sarah M.; Kolar, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine if the amount of exposure to patient encounters and clinical skills correlates to student clinical competency on ambulatory care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Design. Students in ambulatory care APPEs tracked the number of patients encountered by medical condition and the number of patient care skills performed. At the end of the APPE, preceptors evaluated students’ competency for each medical condition and skill, referencing the Dreyfus model for skill acquisition. Assessment. Data was collected from September 2012 through August 2014. Forty-six responses from a student tracking tool were matched to preceptor ratings. Students rated as competent saw more patients and performed more skills overall. Preceptors noted minimal impact on workload. Conclusions. Increased exposure to patient encounters and skills performed had a positive association with higher Dreyfus stage, which may represent a starting point in the conversation for more thoughtful design of ambulatory care APPEs. PMID:26941440

  5. Patient and Physician Views about Protocolized Dialysis Treatment in Randomized Trials and Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Kraybill, Ashley; Dember, Laura M.; Joffe, Steven; Karlawish, Jason; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Madden, Vanessa; Halpern, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pragmatic trials comparing standard-of-care interventions may improve the quality of care for future patients, but raise ethical questions about limitations on decisional autonomy. We sought to understand how patients and physicians view and respond to these questions in the contexts of pragmatic trials and of usual clinical care. Methods We conducted scenario-based, semi-structured interviews with 32 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving maintenance hemodialysis in outpatient dialysis units and with 24 nephrologists. Each participant was presented with two hypothetical scenarios in which a protocolized approach to hemodialysis treatment time was adopted for the entire dialysis unit as part of a clinical trial or a new clinical practice. Results A modified grounded theory analysis revealed three major themes: 1) the value of research, 2) the effect of protocolized care on patient and physician autonomy, and 3) information exchange between patients and physicians, including the mechanism of consent. Most patients and physicians were willing to relinquish decisional autonomy and were more willing to relinquish autonomy for research purposes than in clinical care. Patients’ concerns towards clinical trials were tempered by their desires for certainty for a positive outcome and for physician validation. Patients tended to believe that being informed about research was more important than the actual mechanism of consent, and most were content with being able to opt out from participating. Conclusions This qualitative study suggests the general acceptability of a pragmatic clinical trial comparing standard-of-care interventions that limits decisional autonomy for nephrologists and patients receiving hemodialysis. Future studies are needed to determine whether similar findings would emerge among other patients and providers considering other standard-of-care trials. PMID:27833931

  6. An Electronic Nursing Patient Care Plan Helps in Clinical Decision Support.

    PubMed

    Wong, C M; Wu, S Y; Ting, W H; Ho, K H; Tong, L H; Cheung, N T

    2015-01-01

    Information technology can help to improve health care delivery. The utilisation of informatics principle enhances the quality of nursing practices through improved communication, documentation and efficiency. The Nursing Profession constitutes 34% of the total workforce in the Hong Kong Hospital Authority (HA) and includes 21,000 nurses in 2012. To enhance the quality of care and patient safety in both hospitals and community care setting, it is essential that an integrated electronic decision support system for nurses is designed to track documentation and support care or service including observations, decisions, actions and outcomes throughout the care process at each point-of-care. The Patient Care Plan project was set up to achieve these objectives. The Project adheres to strict documentation information architecture to ensure data sharing is freely available. Preliminary results showed very promising improvement in clinical care.

  7. Clinical nurses' attitudes towards death and caring for dying patients in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Li, Chaxiang; Zhang, Qiongling; Li, YaJie

    2018-01-02

    To examine Chinese clinical nurses' attitudes towards death and caring for dying patients, and to examine the relationships between clinical nurses' attitudes towards death and caring for dying patients. A convenience sample of 770 clinical nurses from 15 hospitals in China. All participants completed the Chinese version of the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale, Form B (FATCOD-B-C), the Chinese version of the Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAP-R-C), and a demographic questionnaire. The mean score of the FATCOD-B-C items was 95.62 (SD = 7.45). The majority of Chinese clinical nurses were likely to provide care for the dying person's family (mean = 3.77), but did not have a positive attitude towards communication with the dying person(mean = 2.62). The majority of Chinese clinical nurses showed low scores on death avoidance (mean=1.96) and natural acceptance (mean = 1.61), and most of them viewed death as a passageway to a happy afterlife (mean = 4.33). Attitudes towards caring for dying patients were significantly negatively correlated with fear of death (r = -0.120) and positively correlated with approach acceptance (r = 0.127) and natural acceptance (r = 0.117). Factors that predicted clinical nurses' attitudes towards the care of dying patients included education level, fear of death, approach acceptance, religious beliefs, previous education on death and dying, natural acceptance, professional title, and experience with death or dying patients, which accounted for 18.7% of the variance. Nurses' personal attitudes towards death were associated with their attitudes towards the care of dying patients. Training and educational programmes for clinical nurses should take into consideration nurses' personal attitudes towards death as well as their cultural backgrounds and religious beliefs.

  8. Integrating patient-centered care and clinical ethics into nutrition practice.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Denise Baird

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the application of patient-centered care and clinical ethics into nutrition practice, illustrate the process in a case study, and promote change in the current healthcare clinical ethics model. Nutrition support clinicians have an opportunity to add another dimension to their practice with the incorporation of patient-centered care and clinical ethics. This represents a culture change for healthcare professionals, including nutrition support clinicians, patients and their family. All of these individuals are stakeholders in the process and have the ability to modify the current healthcare system to improve communication and facilitate a change by humanizing nutrition support practice. Nutrition support is a medical, life-sustaining treatment, and the use of this therapy requires knowledge by the nutrition support clinician of patient-centered care concepts, preventive clinical ethics, religion/spirituality and cultural diversity, palliative care team role, and advance care planning. Integrating these into the practice of nutrition support is an innovative approach and results in new knowledge that requires a change in the culture of care and engagement and empowerment of the patient and their family in the process. This is more than a healthcare issue; it involves a social/family conversation movement that will be enhanced by the nutrition support clinician's participation.

  9. Clinical decision-making: predictors of patient participation in nursing care.

    PubMed

    Florin, Jan; Ehrenberg, Anna; Ehnfors, Margareta

    2008-11-01

    To investigate predictors of patients' preferences for participation in clinical decision-making in inpatient nursing care. Patient participation in decision-making in nursing care is regarded as a prerequisite for good clinical practice regarding the person's autonomy and integrity. A cross-sectional survey of 428 persons, newly discharged from inpatient care. The survey was conducted using the Control Preference Scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used for testing the association of patient characteristics with preferences for participation. Patients, in general, preferred adopting a passive role. However, predictors for adopting an active participatory role were the patient's gender (odds ratio = 1.8), education (odds ratio = 2.2), living condition (odds ratio = 1.8) and occupational status (odds ratio = 2.0). A probability of 53% was estimated, which female senior citizens with at least a high school degree and who lived alone would prefer an active role in clinical decision-making. At the same time, a working cohabiting male with less than a high school degree had a probability of 8% for active participation in clinical decision making in nursing care. Patient preferences for participation differed considerably and are best elicited by assessment of the individual patient. Relevance to clinical practice. The nurses have a professional responsibility to act in such a way that patients can participate and make decisions according to their own values from an informed position. Access to knowledge of patients'basic assumptions and preferences for participation is of great value for nurses in the care process. There is a need for nurses to use structured methods and tools for eliciting individual patient preferences regarding participation in clinical decision-making.

  10. Patient profile, referral sources, and consultant utilization in a primary care sports medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Butcher, J D; Zukowski, C W; Brannen, S J; Fieseler, C; O'Connor, F G; Farrish, S; Lillegard, W A

    1996-12-01

    Sports medicine has matured as a focused discipline within primary care with the number of primary care sports medicine physicians growing annually. The practices of these physicians range from "part-time" sports medicine as a part of a broader practice in their primary specialty, to functioning as a full-time team physician for a university or college. Managed care organizations are increasingly incorporating primary care sports medicine providers into their organizations. The optimal role of these providers in a managed care system has not been described. A descriptive analysis was made of patient contacts in a referral-based, free-standing primary care sports medicine clinic associated with a large managed care system. This study describes patient information including demographic data, referral source, primary diagnosis, specialized diagnostic testing, and subsequent specialty consultation. A total of 1857 patient contacts were analyzed. New patients were referred from a full range of physicians both primary care (family practice, internal medicine, pediatrics, and emergency physicians) and other specialists, with family practice clinic providers (physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) accounting for the largest percentage of new referrals. The majority of patient visits were for orthopedic injuries (95.4%); the most frequently involved injury sites were: knee (26.5%), shoulder (18.2%), back (14.3%), and ankle (10%). The most common types of injury were: tendinitis (21.3%), chronic anterior knee pain (10.6%), and ligament sprains (9.9%). Specialized testing was requested for 8% of all patients. The majority of patients were treated at the Ft Belvoir Sports Medicine Clinic by primary care sports medicine physicians without further specialty referral. Primary care sports medicine physicians offer an intermediate level of care for patients while maintaining a practice in their primary care specialty. This dual practice is ideal in the managed

  11. Physician office vs retail clinic: patient preferences in care seeking for minor illnesses.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Arif; Fincham, Jack E

    2010-01-01

    Retail clinics are a relatively new phenomenon in the United States, offering cheaper and convenient alternatives to physician offices for minor illness and wellness care. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cost of care and appointment wait time on care-seeking decisions at retail clinics or physician offices. As part of a statewide random-digit-dial survey of households, adult residents of Georgia were interviewed to conduct a discrete choice experiment with 2 levels each of 4 attributes: price ($59; $75), appointment wait time (same day; 1 day or longer), care setting-clinician combination (nurse practitioner in retail clinic; physician in private office), and acute illness (urinary tract infection [UTI]; influenza). The respondents indicated whether they would seek care under each of the 16 resulting choice scenarios. A cooperation rate of 33.1% yielded 493 completed telephone interviews. The respondents preferred to seek care for both conditions; were less likely to seek care for UTI (beta = -0.149; P = .008); preferred to seek care from a physician (beta = 1.067; P < .001) and receive same day care (beta = -2.789; P < .001). All else equal, cost savings of $31.42 would be required for them to seek care at a retail clinic and $82.12 to wait 1 day or more. Time and cost savings offered by retail clinics are attractive to patients, and they are likely to seek care there given sufficient cost savings. Appointment wait time is the most important factor in care-seeking decisions and should be considered carefully in setting appointment policies in primary care practices.

  12. Physician Office vs Retail Clinic: Patient Preferences in Care Seeking for Minor Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Arif; Fincham, Jack E.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Retail clinics are a relatively new phenomenon in the United States, offering cheaper and convenient alternatives to physician offices for minor illness and wellness care. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cost of care and appointment wait time on care-seeking decisions at retail clinics or physician offices. METHODS As part of a statewide random-digit-dial survey of households, adult residents of Georgia were interviewed to conduct a discrete choice experiment with 2 levels each of 4 attributes: price ($59; $75), appointment wait time (same day; 1 day or longer), care setting–clinician combination (nurse practitioner in retail clinic; physician in private office), and acute illness (urinary tract infection [UTI]; influenza). The respondents indicated whether they would seek care under each of the 16 resulting choice scenarios. A cooperation rate of 33.1% yielded 493 completed telephone interviews. RESULTS The respondents preferred to seek care for both conditions; were less likely to seek care for UTI (β =−0.149; P = .008); preferred to seek care from a physician (β =1.067; P <.001) and receive same day care (β =−2.789; P<.001). All else equal, cost savings of $31.42 would be required for them to seek care at a retail clinic and $82.12 to wait 1 day or more. CONCLUSIONS Time and cost savings offered by retail clinics are attractive to patients, and they are likely to seek care there given sufficient cost savings. Appointment wait time is the most important factor in care-seeking decisions and should be considered carefully in setting appointment policies in primary care practices. PMID:20212298

  13. Linking clinician interaction and coordination to clinical performance in Patient-Aligned Care Teams.

    PubMed

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Thomas, Candice L; Spitzmüller, Christiane; Amspoker, Amber B; Woodard, LeChauncy; Modi, Varsha; Naik, Aanand D

    2016-01-15

    Team coordination within clinical care settings is a critical component of effective patient care. Less is known about the extent, effectiveness, and impact of coordination activities among professionals within VA Patient-Aligned Care Teams (PACTs). This study will address these gaps by describing the specific, fundamental tasks and practices involved in PACT coordination, their impact on performance measures, and the role of coordination task complexity. First, we will use a web-based survey of coordination practices among 1600 PACTs in the national VHA. Survey findings will characterize PACT coordination practices and assess their association with clinical performance measures. Functional job analysis, using 6-8 subject matter experts who are 3rd and 4th year residents in VA Primary Care rotations, will be utilized to identify the tasks involved in completing clinical performance measures to standard. From this, expert ratings of coordination complexity will be used to determine the level of coordinative complexity required for each of the clinical performance measures drawn from the VA External Peer Review Program (EPRP). For objective 3, data collected from the first two methods will evaluate the effect of clinical complexity on the relationships between measures of PACT coordination and their ratings on the clinical performance measures. Results from this study will support successful implementation of coordinated team-based work in clinical settings by providing knowledge regarding which aspects of care require the most complex levels of coordination and how specific coordination practices impact clinical performance.

  14. The ENDOCARE questionnaire guides European endometriosis clinics to improve the patient-centeredness of their care.

    PubMed

    Dancet, E A F; Apers, S; Kluivers, K B; Kremer, J A M; Sermeus, W; Devriendt, C; Nelen, W L D M; D'Hooghe, T M

    2012-11-01

    How patient-centered are two included specialized endometriosis clinics relative to each other and how can they improve the patient-centeredness of their care? The validated ENDOCARE questionnaire (ECQ) reliably concluded that the adjusted overall patient-centeredness did not differ between the clinics, that each clinic was significantly more patient-centered for 2 out of 10 dimensions of patient-centered endometriosis care and that clinics 1 and 2 had to improve 8 and 13 specific care aspects, respectively. Patient-centered endometriosis care is essential to high-quality care and is defined by 10 dimensions. The ECQ was developed, validated and proved to be reliable in a European setting of self-reported endometriosis patients but had not yet been used at a clinic level for quality management. A cross-sectional survey was disseminated in 2011 to all 514 women diagnosed with endometriosis during a laparoscopy indicated for pain and/or infertility during a retrospective 2-year period (2009-2010) in two university clinics from two different European countries. In total 337 patients completed the ECQ (216 and 121 per clinic). Respondents had a mean age of 34.3 years. Three in four reported a surgical diagnosis of moderate or severe endometriosis and the majority reported surgical treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The ECQ assessed the 10 dimensions of patient-centeredness, more specifically whether the health-care performance, as perceived by patients, measured up to what is important to patients in general. The ECQ was completed by 337 respondents (response rate = 65.6%). Reliability and validity of the ECQ for use on clinic level were confirmed. Clinics did not differ in overall mean importance scores; importance rankings of the ECQ dimensions were almost identical. The overall patient-centeredness scores (PCS), adjusted for education level, did not discriminate between the clinics. However, the adjusted PCS for the dimensions 'clinic staff' and 'technical

  15. Association of medical home team-based care functions and perceived improvements in patient-centered care at VHA primary care clinics.

    PubMed

    Helfrich, Christian D; Dolan, Emily D; Fihn, Stephan D; Rodriguez, Hector P; Meredith, Lisa S; Rosland, Ann-Marie; Lempa, Michele; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Joos, Sandra; Lawler, Lauren H; Harvey, Henry B; Stark, Richard; Schectman, Gordon; Nelson, Karin M

    2014-12-01

    Team-based care is central to the patient-centered medical home (PCMH), but most PCMH evaluations measure team structure exclusively. We assessed team-based care in terms of team structure, process and effectiveness, and the association with improvements in teams׳ abilities to deliver patient-centered care. We fielded a cross-sectional survey among 913 VA primary care clinics implementing a PCMH model in 2012. The dependent variable was clinic-level respondent-reported improvements in delivery of patient-centered care. Independent variables included three sets of measures: (1) team structure, (2) team process, and (3) team effectiveness. We adjusted for clinic workload and patient comorbidity. 4819 surveys were returned (25% estimated response rate). The highest ratings were for team structure (median of 89% of respondents being assigned to a teamlet, i.e., a PCP working with the same clinical associate, nurse care manager and clerk) and lowest for team process (median of 10% of respondents reporting the lowest level of stress/chaos). In multivariable regression, perceived improvements in patient-centered care were most strongly associated with participatory decision making (β=32, P<0.0001) and history of change in the clinic (β=18, P=0008) (both team processes). A stressful/chaotic clinic environment was associated with higher barriers to patient centered care (β=0.16-0.34, P=<0.0001), and lower improvements in patient-centered care (β=-0.19, P=0.001). Team process and effectiveness measures, often omitted from PCMH evaluations, had stronger associations with perceived improvements in patient-centered care than team structure measures. Team process and effectiveness measures may facilitate synthesis of evaluation findings and help identify positive outlier clinics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Use of an Orientation Clinic to Reduce Failed New Patient Appointments in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sharad; Chou, Calvin L

    2000-01-01

    Patients who fail to attend initial appointments reduce clinic efficiency. To maximize attendance by newly referred outpatients, we introduced a mandatory group orientation clinic for all new patients and determined its effects on no-show rates. Orientation clinic also provided health care screening and opportunities for patient feedback. The new patient no-show rate for initial provider visits decreased significantly from 45% before institution of orientation clinic to 18% afterwards (P < .0001). The total no-show (patients who failed to attend orientation clinic or an initial provider visit) rate of the postintervention group was 51% (P = .28, compared with before the intervention). This intervention improved the efficiency and minimized the wasted time of our clinicians. PMID:11119184

  17. Comparison of patient perceived primary care quality in public clinics, public hospitals and private clinics in rural China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhua; Maitland, Elizabeth; Nicholas, Stephen; Loban, Ekaterina; Haggerty, Jeannie

    2017-10-03

    In rural China, patients have free choice of health facilities for outpatient services. Comparison studies exploring the attributes of different health facilities can help identify optimal primary care service models. Using a representative sample of Chinese provinces, this study aimed to compare patients' rating of three primary care service models used by rural residents (public clinics, public hospitals and private clinics) on a range of health care attributes related to responsiveness. This was a secondary analysis using the household survey data from World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). Using a multistage cluster sampling strategy, eight provinces were selected and finally 3435 overall respondents reporting they had visited public clinics, public hospitals or private clinics during the last year, were included in our analysis. Five items were used to measure patient perceived quality in five domains including prompt attention, communication and autonomy, dignity and confidentiality. ANOVA and Turkey's post hoc tests were used to conduct comparative analysis of five domains. Separate multivariate linear regression models were estimated to examine the association of primary care service models with each domain after controlling for patient characteristics. The distribution of last health facilities visited was: 29.5% public clinics; 31.2% public hospitals and; 39.3% private clinics. Public clinics perform best in all five domains: prompt attention (4.15), dignity (4.17), communication (4.07), autonomy (4.05) and confidentiality (4.02). Public hospitals perform better than private clinics in dignity (4.03 vs 3.94), communication (3.97 vs 3.82), autonomy (3.92 vs 3.74) and confidentiality (3.94 vs 3.73), but equivalently in prompt attention (3.92 vs 3.93). Rural residents who are older, wealthier, and with higher self-rated health status have significantly higher patient perceived quality of care in all domains. Rural

  18. Abortion clinic patients' opinions about obtaining abortions from general women's health care providers.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Tracy Ann; Cockrill, Kate

    2010-12-01

    Most U.S. women obtain abortions at specialty clinics. This qualitative study explores abortion clinic patients' opinions about receiving abortions from general women's health care providers. We conducted 20 h-long, semi-structured interviews with diverse women who had abortions in the U.S. Heartland. Each described her usual health care provider and how she accessed abortion care. We used qualitative analytic methods to organize and interpret the data. Despite having a general provider, most women sought clinic abortions. Some women offered reasons for preferring specialty care and others for preferring abortion from their general provider. Most women assumed their general provider did not "do abortion" and many believed those providers were opposed to abortion. Women who had delivered a baby were concerned with their image in their general provider's eyes. Two women were denied care by their general providers. Women's preferences for abortion care centered on privacy, cost, empathy, ability to control their image, and desire for safe quality care. Two women who sought abortions through their general providers experienced negative repercussions. General providers should proactively make patients aware of their positions on abortion and if supportive indicate that they can provide that care and/or a referral. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Balancing patient care and student education: learning to deliver bad news in an optometry teaching clinic.

    PubMed

    Spafford, Marlee M; Schryer, Catherine F; Creutz, Stefan

    2009-05-01

    Learning to counsel patients in a teaching clinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of seven senior optometry students and six optometrist instructors at a Canadian optometry teaching clinic. The participants described their experiences in learning to deliver bad news. Using a grounded theory approach, our analysis was informed by situated learning and activity theory. Optometry students received formal classroom training regarding how to deliver bad news, including exposure to the medically-based six-step SPIKES protocol (Baile et al. The Oncologist, 5, 302-311, 2000). Yet, application of this protocol to the teaching clinic was limited by the lack of exposure most instructors had received to this strategy. Determinants of the students' complex learning process during their clinical apprenticeship, included: (i) knowing one's place, (ii) knowing one's audience, (iii) knowing through feedback, and (iv) knowing who speaks. The experiences of these participants pointed toward the need for: (1) more instructional "scaffolding" (Bruner and Sherwood Play: Its role in development and evolution, p. 280, 1976) in the clinical setting when the learning task is complex, and (2) explicit discussions about the impacts that unfold when the activities of patient care and student education overlap. We reflect on the possible consequences to student education and patient care in the absence of these changes.

  20. Early return visits by primary care patients: a retail nurse practitioner clinic versus standard medical office care.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, James E; Angstman, Kurt B; Garrison, Gregory

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare return visits made by patients within 2 weeks after using retail nurse practitioner clinics to return visits made by similar patients after using standard medical office clinics. Retail medicine clinics have become widely available. However, their impact on return visit rates compared to standard medical office visits for similar patients has not been extensively studied. Electronic medical records of adult primary care patients seen in a large group practice in Minnesota in 2009 were analyzed for this study. Patients who were treated for sinusitis were selected. Two groups of patients were studied: those who used one of 2 retail walk-in clinics staffed by nurse practitioners and a comparison group who used one of 4 regular office clinics. The dependent variable was a return office visit to any site within 2 weeks. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for case-mix differences between groups. Unadjusted odds of return visits were lower for retail clinic patients than for standard office care patients. After adjustment for case mix, patients with more outpatient visits in the previous 6 months had higher odds of return visits within 2 weeks (2-6 prior visits: odds ratio [OR]=1.99, P=0.00; 6 or more prior visits: OR=6.80, P=0.00). The odds of a return visit within 2 weeks were not different by clinic type after adjusting for propensity to use services (OR=1.17, P=0.28). After adjusting for case mix differences, return visit rates did not differ by clinic type.

  1. Impact of Pre-Dialysis Care on Clinical Outcomes in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Spigolon, Dandara N; de Moraes, Thyago P; Figueiredo, Ana E; Modesto, Ana Paula; Barretti, Pasqual; Bastos, Marcus Gomes; Barreto, Daniela V; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Structured pre-dialysis care is associated with an increase in peritoneal dialysis (PD) utilization, but not with peritonitis risk, technical and patient survival. This study aimed at analyzing the impact of pre-dialysis care on these outcomes. All incident patients starting PD between 2004 and 2011 in a Brazilian prospective cohort were included in this analysis. Patients were divided into 2 groups: early pre-dialysis care (90 days of follow-up by a nephrology team); and late pre-dialysis care (absent or less than 90 days follow-up). The socio-demographic, clinical and biochemical characteristics between the 2 groups were compared. Risk factors for the time to the first peritonitis episode, technique failure and mortality based on Cox proportional hazards models. Four thousand one hundred seven patients were included. Patients with early pre-dialysis care presented differences in gender (female - 47.0 vs. 51.1%, p = 0.01); race (white - 63.8 vs. 71.7%, p < 0.01); education (<4 years - 61.9 vs. 71.0%, p < 0.01), respectively, compared to late care. Patients with early pre-dialysis care presented a higher prevalence of comorbidities, lower levels of creatinine, phosphorus, and glucose with a significantly better control of hemoglobin and potassium serum levels. There was no impact of pre-dialysis care on peritonitis rates (hazard ratio (HR) 0.88; 95% CI 0.77-1.01) and technique survival (HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.92-1.36). Patient survival (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.03-1.41) was better in the early pre-dialysis care group. Earlier pre-dialysis care was associated with improved patient survival, but did not influence time to the first peritonitis nor technique survival in this national PD cohort. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Assessing barriers to adherence in routine clinical care for pediatric kidney transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Varnell, Charles D; Rich, Kristin L; Nichols, Melissa; Dahale, Devesh; Goebel, Jens W; Pai, Ahna L H; Hooper, David K; Modi, Avani C

    2017-11-01

    Patient-identified barriers to immunosuppressive medications are associated with poor adherence and negative clinical outcomes in transplant patients. Assessment of adherence barriers is not part of routine post-transplant care, and studies regarding implementing such a process in a reliable way are lacking. Using the Model for Improvement and PDSA cycles, we implemented a system to identify adherence barriers, including patient-centered design of a barriers assessment tool, identification of eligible patients, clear roles for clinic staff, and creating a culture of non-judgmental discussion around adherence. We performed time-series analysis of our process measure. Secondary analyses examined the endorsement and concordance of adherence barriers between patient-caregiver dyads. After three methods of testing, the most reliable delivery system was an EHR-integrated tablet that alerted staff of patient eligibility for assessment. Barriers were endorsed by 35% of caregivers (n=85) and 43% of patients (n=60). The most frequently patient-endorsed barriers were forgetting, poor taste, and side effects. Caregivers endorsed forgetting and side effects. Concordance between patient-caregiver dyads was fair (k=0.299). Standardized adherence barriers assessment is feasible in the clinical care of pediatric kidney transplant patients. Features necessary for success included automation, redundant systems with designated staff to identify and mitigate failures, aligned reporting structures, and reliable measurement approaches. Future studies will examine whether barriers predict clinical outcomes (eg, organ rejection, graft loss). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Automating Collection of Pain-Related Patient-Reported Outcomes to Enhance Clinical Care and Research.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Ashli; Mayhew, Meghan; Leo, Michael C; Varga, Alexandra; Benes, Lindsay; Bonifay, Allison; DeBar, Lynn

    2018-05-01

    Chronic pain is highly prevalent, and the ability to routinely measure patients' pain and treatment response using validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessments is important to clinical care. Despite this recognition, systematic use in everyday clinical care is rare. The aims of this study were to (1) describe infrastructure designed to automate PRO data collection, (2) compare study-enhanced PRO completion rates to those in clinical care, and (3) evaluate patient response rates by method of PRO administration and sociodemographic and/or clinical characteristics. The Pain Program for Active Coping and Training (PPACT) is a pragmatic clinical trial conducted within three regions of the Kaiser Permanente health care system. PPACT evaluates the effect of integrative primary care-based pain management services on outcomes for chronic pain patients on long-term opioid treatment. We implemented a tiered process for quarterly assessment of PROs to supplement clinical collection and ensure adequate trial data using three methods: web-based personal health records (PHR), automated interactive voice response (IVR) calls, and live outreach. Among a subset of PPACT participants examined (n = 632), the tiered study-enhanced PRO completion rates were higher than in clinical care: 96% completed ≥ 1 study-administered PRO with mean of 3.46 (SD = 0.85) vs. 74% completed in clinical care with a mean of 2.43 (SD = 2.08). Among all PPACT participants at 3 months (n = 831), PRO completion was 86% and analyses of response by key characteristics found only that participant age predicted an increased likelihood of responding to PHR and IVR outreach. Adherence to pain-related PRO data collection using our enhanced tiered approach was high. No demographic or clinical identifiers other than age were associated with differential response by modality. Successful ancillary support should employ multimodal electronic health record functionalities for PRO administration

  4. Linking Nurses' Clinical Leadership to Patient Care Quality: The Role of Transformational Leadership and Workplace Empowerment.

    PubMed

    Boamah, Sheila

    2018-03-01

    Background While improving patient safety requires strong nursing leadership, there has been little empirical research that has examined the mechanisms by which leadership influences patient safety outcomes. Aim To test a model examining relationships among transformational leadership, structural empowerment, staff nurse clinical leadership, and nurse-assessed adverse patient outcomes. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a randomly selected sample of 378 registered nurses working in direct patient care in acute care hospitals across Ontario, Canada. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. Results The model had an acceptable fit, and all paths were significant. Transformational leadership was significantly associated with decreased adverse patient outcomes through structural empowerment and staff nurse clinical leadership. Discussion This study highlights the importance of transformational leadership in creating empowering practice environments that foster high-quality care. The findings indicate that a more complete understanding of what drives desired patient outcomes warrants the need to focus on how to empower nurses and foster clinical leadership practices at the point of care. Conclusion In planning safety strategies, managers must demonstrate transformational leadership behaviors in order to modify the work environment to create better defenses for averting adverse events.

  5. [Description of clinical pathological concordance and patient satisfaction in minor surgery in a Primary Care centre].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Arriola, María Gabriela; Hamido Mohamed, Naima; Abad Vivás-Pérez, Juan José; Bretones Alcaráz, Juan José; García Torrecillas, Juan Manuel; Huber, Evelyn

    2017-02-01

    To describe the minor surgery (MS) characteristics in a Primary Care (PC) centre, and to evaluate the clinical pathological concordance and patient satisfaction. Descriptive and retrospective study. Primary Care, urban health care centre, Almería, Spain. The population were the patients belonging to urban Primary Health Care centre, referred by their family physicians or paediatricians for the performing of MS during year 2013, and who consented to the intervention. A sample of 223 patients was obtained. Variables analysed were: sex, age, locations of the lesions, type of intervention, clinical diagnosis, histopathology diagnosis, complications, and patient satisfaction. The data were extracted from the medical history, the histopathology reports, and by using a satisfaction questionnaire completed by post or telephone by the patients. The population consisted of 53.8% males, and had a mean age of 51.12 years (SD 19.02). The location of the most intervened lesions was in the head (35.4%). Electro-surgery was the most used procedure (62.8%), with only 16.9% of the lesions being biopsied, of which the most frequent was fibroids (32.3%). The clinical pathological concordance was >80% and the Kappa index was 0.783 (P<.001). The complications presented were low. The patient's satisfaction was high. Although a simple MS technique like electro-surgery has become more extensive, MS in PC remains safe and satisfactory for the user. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical case management for patients with schizophrenia with high care needs.

    PubMed

    Mas-Expósito, Laia; Amador-Campos, Juan Antonio; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Mauri-Mas, Lluís; Lalucat-Jo, Lluís

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the effectiveness of a clinical case management (CM) programme compared to a standard treatment programme (STP) in patients with schizophrenia. Patients for the CM programme were consecutively selected among patients in the STP with schizophrenia who had poor functioning. Seventy-five patients were admitted to the CM programme and were matched to 75 patients in the STP. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at 1 year follow-up. At baseline, patients in the CM programme showed lower levels of clinical and psychosocial functioning and more care needs than patients in the STP. Both treatment programmes were effective in maintaining contact with services but the CM programme did not show advantages over the STP on outcomes. Differences between groups at baseline may be masking the effects of CM at one year follow-up. A longer follow-up may be required to evaluate the real CM practices effects.

  7. [Clinical evaluation of bedridden patients with pneumonia receiving home health care].

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Hajime; Ishida, Tadashi; Tachibana, Hiromasa; Iga, Chiya; Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Ito, Akihiro; Ubukata, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Arita, Machiko; Hashimoto, Toru

    2010-12-01

    Pneumonia which develops in patients while living in their own home is categorized as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), even if these patients are bedridden and receiving home health care. However, because of the differences in patient backgrounds, we speculated that the clinical outcomes and pathogens of bedridden patients with pneumonia who are receiving home health care would be different from those of CAP. We conducted a prospective study of patients with CAP who were hospitalized at our hospital from April 2007 through September 2009. We compared home health care bedridden pneumonia (performance status 4, PS4-CAP) with non-PS4-CAP in a total of 505 enrolled patients in this study. Among these, 66 had PS4-CAP, mostly associated with aspiration. Severity scores, mortality rate, recurrence rate and length of hospital stay of those with PS4-CAP were significantly higher than those with non-PS4-CAP. Drug resistant pathogens were more frequently isolated from patients with PS4-CAP than from those of non-PS4-CAP. The results of patients with PS4-CAP were in agreement with those of previous health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) reports. The present study suggested home health care bedridden pneumonia should be categorized as HCAP, not CAP.

  8. Building Imaging Institutes of Patient Care Outcomes: Imaging as a Nidus for Innovation in Clinical Care, Research, and Education.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Myria; Cronin, Paul; Altaee, Duaa K; Kelly, Aine M; Foerster, Bradley R

    2018-05-01

    Traditionally, radiologists have been responsible for the protocol of imaging studies, imaging acquisition, supervision of imaging technologists, and interpretation and reporting of imaging findings. In this article, we outline how radiology needs to change and adapt to a role of providing value-based, integrated health-care delivery. We believe that the way to best serve our specialty and our patients is to undertake a fundamental paradigm shift in how we practice. We describe the need for imaging institutes centered on disease entities (eg, lung cancer, multiple sclerosis) to not only optimize clinical care and patient outcomes, but also spur the development of a new educational focus, which will increase opportunities for medical trainees and other health professionals. These institutes will also serve as unique environments for testing and implementing new technologies and for generating new ideas for research and health-care delivery. We propose that the imaging institutes focus on how imaging practices-including new innovations-improve patient care outcomes within a specific disease framework. These institutes will allow our specialty to lead patient care, provide the necessary infrastructure for state-of-the art-education of trainees, and stimulate innovative and clinically relevant research. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences in clinical characteristics between patients assessed for NHS specialist psychotherapy and primary care counselling.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Marco; Fonagy, Peter; Bateman, Anthony W

    2007-12-01

    Although several studies have described patient populations in primary care counselling settings and NHS (National Health Service) specialist psychotherapy settings, there is a paucity of studies specifically comparing differences in clinical characteristics between the two groups of patients. The aim of this study is to ascertain if specialist psychotherapy referrals represent a more challenging client group than primary care counselling patients. We compare the socio-demographic features and severity of presentation in the symptomatic, interpersonal problems and global adjustment dimensions of a sample of patients (N=384) assessed by a primary care counselling service located in North London and a sample of patients (N=853) assessed in eight NHS psychotherapy centres located within urban settings in England. Both the groups completed the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure. Patients referred for specialist psychotherapy services were more dysfunctional than those referred for primary care counselling. The linear function constructed to discriminate the groups showed that a combination of more psychotic symptoms, social inhibitions and higher risk of self-harm effectively identified those referred to psychotherapy services, while patients exhibiting greater levels of somatic and anxiety symptoms and non-assertiveness were more likely to be seen in primary care settings. However, similarities between the two samples were also marked, as shown by the overlap in the distribution of clinical outcomes in routine evaluation clinical scores in the two samples. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for policy and service delivery of these two types of psychological therapy services.

  10. A combination of process of care and clinical target among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in general medical clinics and specialist diabetes clinics at hospital levels.

    PubMed

    Sieng, Sokha; Hurst, Cameron

    2017-08-07

    This study compares a combination of processes of care and clinical targets among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) between specialist diabetes clinics (SDCs) and general medical clinics (GMCs), and how differences between these two types of clinics differ with hospital type (community, provincial and regional). Type 2 diabetes mellitus patient medical records were collected from 595 hospitals (499 community, 70 provincial, 26 regional) in Thailand between April 1 to June 30, 2012 resulting in a cross-sectional sample of 26,860 patients. Generalized linear mixed modeling was conducted to examine associations between clinic type and quality of care. The outcome variables of interest were split into clinical targets and process of care. A subsequent subgroup analysis was conducted to examine if the nature of clinical target and process of care differences between GMCs and SDCs varied with hospital type (regional, provincial, community). Regardless of the types of hospitals (regional, provincial, or community) patients attending SDCs were considerably more likely to have eye and foot exam. In terms of larger hospitals (regional and provincial) patients attending SDCs were more likely to achieve HbA1c exam, All FACE exam, BP target, and the Num7Q. Interestingly, SDCs performed better than GMCs at only provincial hospitals for LDL-C target and the All7Q. Finally, patients with T2DM who attended community hospital-GMCs had a better chance of achieving the blood pressure target than patients who attended community hospital-SDCs. Specialized diabetes clinics outperform general medical clinics for both regional and provincial hospitals for all quality of care indicators and the number of quality of care indicators achieved was never lower. However, this better performance of SDC was not observed in community hospital. Indeed, GMCs outperformed SDCs for some quality of care indicators in the community level setting.

  11. Virtual Patients in Primary Care: Developing a Reusable Model That Fosters Reflective Practice and Clinical Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Zary, Nabil; Björklund, Karin; Toth-Pal, Eva; Leanderson, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary care is an integral part of the medical curriculum at Karolinska Institutet, Sweden. It is present at every stage of the students’ education. Virtual patients (VPs) may support learning processes and be a valuable complement in teaching communication skills, patient-centeredness, clinical reasoning, and reflective thinking. Current literature on virtual patients lacks reports on how to design and use virtual patients with a primary care perspective. Objective The objective of this study was to create a model for a virtual patient in primary care that facilitates medical students’ reflective practice and clinical reasoning. The main research question was how to design a virtual patient model with embedded process skills suitable for primary care education. Methods The VP model was developed using the Open Tufts University Sciences Knowledgebase (OpenTUSK) virtual patient system as a prototyping tool. Both the VP model and the case created using the developed model were validated by a group of 10 experienced primary care physicians and then further improved by a work group of faculty involved in the medical program. The students’ opinions on the VP were investigated through focus group interviews with 14 students and the results analyzed using content analysis. Results The VP primary care model was based on a patient-centered model of consultation modified according to the Calgary-Cambridge Guides, and the learning outcomes of the study program in medicine were taken into account. The VP primary care model is based on Kolb’s learning theories and consists of several learning cycles. Each learning cycle includes a didactic inventory and then provides the student with a concrete experience (video, pictures, and other material) and preformulated feedback. The students’ learning process was visualized by requiring the students to expose their clinical reasoning and reflections in-action in every learning cycle. Content analysis of the focus

  12. Alcohol Screening among Opioid Agonist Patients in a Primary Care Clinic and an Opioid Treatment Program.

    PubMed

    Klimas, Jan; Muench, John; Wiest, Katharina; Croff, Raina; Rieckman, Traci; McCarty, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Problem alcohol use is associated with adverse health and economic outcomes, especially among people in opioid agonist treatment. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) are effective in reducing alcohol use; however, issues involved in SBIRT implementation among opioid agonist patients are unknown. To assess identification and treatment of alcohol use disorders, we reviewed clinical records of opioid agonist patients screened for an alcohol use disorder in a primary care clinic (n = 208) and in an opioid treatment program (n = 204) over a two-year period. In the primary care clinic, 193 (93%) buprenorphine patients completed an annual alcohol screening and six (3%) had elevated AUDIT scores. In the opioid treatment program, an alcohol abuse or dependence diagnosis was recorded for 54 (27%) methadone patients. Practitioner focus groups were completed in the primary care (n = 4 physicians) and the opioid treatment program (n = 11 counselors) to assess experience with and attitudes towards screening opioid agonist patients for alcohol use disorders. Focus groups suggested that organizational, structural, provider, patient, and community variables hindered or fostered alcohol screening. Alcohol screening is feasible among opioid agonist patients. Effective implementation, however, requires physician training and systematic changes in workflow.

  13. Clinic Network Collaboration and Patient Tracing to Maximize Retention in HIV Care.

    PubMed

    McMahon, James H; Moore, Richard; Eu, Beng; Tee, Ban-Kiem; Chen, Marcus; El-Hayek, Carol; Street, Alan; Woolley, Ian; Buggie, Andrew; Collins, Danielle; Medland, Nicholas; Hoy, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Understanding retention and loss to follow up in HIV care, in particular the number of people with unknown outcomes, is critical to maximise the benefits of antiretroviral therapy. Individual-level data are not available for these outcomes in Australia, which has an HIV epidemic predominantly focused amongst men who have sex with men. A network of the 6 main HIV clinical care sites was established in the state of Victoria, Australia. Individuals who had accessed care at these sites between February 2011 and June 2013 as assessed by HIV viral load testing but not accessed care between June 2013 and February 2014 were considered individuals with potentially unknown outcomes. For this group an intervention combining cross-referencing of clinical data between sites and phone tracing individuals with unknown outcomes was performed. 4966 people were in care in the network and before the intervention estimates of retention ranged from 85.9%-95.8% and the proportion with unknown outcomes ranged from 1.3-5.5%. After the intervention retention increased to 91.4-98.8% and unknown outcomes decreased to 0.1-2.4% (p<.01 for all sites for both outcomes). Most common reasons for disengagement from care were being too busy to attend or feeling well. For those with unknown outcomes prior to the intervention documented active psychiatric illness at last visit was associated with not re-entering care (p = 0.04). The network demonstrated low numbers of people with unknown outcomes and high levels of retention in care. Increased levels of retention in care and reductions in unknown outcomes identified after the intervention largely reflected confirmation of clinic transfers while a smaller number were successfully re-engaged in care. Factors associated with disengagement from care were identified. Systems to monitor patient retention, care transfer and minimize disengagement will maximise individual and population-level outcomes for populations with HIV.

  14. The concerns of patients under palliative care and a heart failure clinic are not being met.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H; Ward, C; Eardley, A; Gomm, S A; Connolly, M; Coppinger, T; Corgie, D; Williams, J L; Makin, W P

    2001-07-01

    Patients with a terminal illness, identified by palliative care teams working in Manchester, and patients attending a heart failure clinic, were asked to participate in a prospective survey to determine their main concerns. Data were collected from 213 palliative care (PC) patients (mostly with cancer) and 66 patients with heart failure (HF). The median ages of the two patient groups were similar, but the HF patients were more likely to be male and living with a partner; 13% of PC and 7% of HF patients reported that they had no carer. The PC patients had more district nurse, hospice, social work and physiotherapy input. The most frequently reported troublesome problems for PC patients were pain (49%), loss of independence (30%) and difficulty walking (27%). HF patients reported dyspnoea (55%), angina (32%) and tiredness (27%) as the most troublesome problems. From a checklist of symptoms, the frequency of tiredness (PC = 77%, HF = 82%) and difficulty getting about (PC = 71%, HF = 65%) were high in each group. Psychological problems were reported by 61% of PC and 41% of HF patients. Cardiac patients reported more breathlessness and cough than PC patients (83% vs 49% and 44% vs 26%, respectively). Reduced libido was more common in cardiac patients (42% vs 21%). Patient disclosure of troublesome problems to professional carers was high (>87% in both PC and HF patients). Documented action was greater for physical than social or psychological problems. For PC patients, documented action was recorded for 83% physical, 43% social/functional and 52% psychological problems. For HF patients documented action was recorded for 74% cardiac, 60% physical - non-cardiac, 30% social/functional and 28% psychological problems. Clearly many patients' troublesome problems were not being addressed. As a result of this study, specific action by health care professionals was taken in 50% of PC patients and 71% of HF patients. We plan to target specific educational events on the treatment

  15. [Clinical pattern of patients cared for at pain clinic by first time].

    PubMed

    Covarrubias-Gómez, Alfredo; Guevara-López, Uriah; Lara-Solares, Argelia; Tamayo-Valenzuela, Antonio C; Salinas-Cruz, Jorge; Torres-González, Rubén

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies about frequency and prevalence of chronic pain in Mexico are scarce. However, it has been documented that chronic pain is a frequent complain in general population and mainly in older adults. It influences physical patient capacity and it impacts social health services with its expensive cost. Our objective was to identify the clinical pattern of patients attending at a Pain Clinic by first time. We conducted a descriptive-retrospective study, in a five years period, with patients attending a Pain Clinic by first time. We collected demographic data and information about the cause of pain (malignant vs. non-malignant etiology), its intensity by visual analogue scale (VAS), and type (somatic, visceral, neuropathic and mixed). 1453 clinical records were analyzed. Women were more affected; the average age was 59 +/- 16 years; non-malignant pain and neuropathic pain were more frequent; the intensity average was 6 +/- 2, and it increases with age. It is necessary to generate epidemiological studies to fundament health policies regarding the management of these patients.

  16. Perspectives on optimizing care of patients in multidisciplinary chronic kidney disease clinics.

    PubMed

    Collister, David; Russell, Randall; Verdon, Josee; Beaulieu, Monica; Levin, Adeera

    2016-01-01

    To summarize a jointly held symposium by the Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN), the Canadian Association of Nephrology Administrators (CANA), and the Canadian Kidney Knowledge Translation and Generation Network (CANN-NET) entitled "Perspectives on Optimizing Care of Patients in Multidisciplinary Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Clinics" that was held on April 24, 2015, in Montreal, Quebec. The panel consisted of a variety of members from across Canada including a multidisciplinary CKD clinic patient (Randall Russell), nephrology fellow (Dr. David Collister), geriatrician (Dr. Josee Verdon), and nephrologists (Dr. Monica Beaulieu, Dr. Adeera Levin). The objectives of the symposium were (1) to gain an understanding of the goals of care for CKD patients, (2) to gain an appreciation of different perspectives regarding optimal care for patients with CKD, (3) to examine the components required for optimal care including education strategies, structures, and tools, and (4) to describe a framework and metrics for CKD care which respect patient and system needs. This article summarizes the key concepts discussed at the symposium from a patient and physician perspectives. Key messages include (1) understanding patient values and preferences is important as it provides a framework as to what to prioritize in multidisciplinary CKD clinic and provincial renal program models, (2) barriers to effective communication and education are common in the elderly, and adaptive strategies to limit their influence are critical to improve adherence and facilitate shared decision-making, (3) the use of standardized operating procedures (SOPs) improves efficiency and minimizes practice variability among health care practitioners, and (4) CKD scorecards with standardized system processes are useful in approaching variability as well as measuring and improving patient outcomes. The perspectives provided may not be applicable across centers given the differences in patient populations including

  17. Telehealth 2.0: Preserving Continuity of Behavioral Health Clinical Care to Patients Using Mobile Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: CDMRPL-16-0-DM167009 TITLE: Telehealth 2.0; Preserving Continuity of Behavioral Health Clinical Care to Patients Using Mobile...requirements, but require and are engaged in behavioral health (BH) services. The effort will focus on utilization of the patient’s personal mobile device...mobile health (mHealth) product to support this project (2) to test the feasibility of the mobile interface for patient use; (3) to establish the

  18. Opportunities for improving patient care through lateral integration: the clinical nurse leader.

    PubMed

    Begun, James W; Tornabeni, Jolene; White, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    Today, healthcare organizations are faced with the growing realization that functional and professional silos within the organization are counter to the provision of efficient and effective patient care and are fertile grounds for errors or sentinel events to occur. The improvement of patient care and prevention of errors require that collaboration among professionals occur at the patient care delivery level, not just within the leadership team. A new nursing role-the clinical nurse leader, the first new nursing role advanced nationally in more than three decades--currently is under development in more than 180 pilot healthcare delivery sites across the United States and Puerto Rico. The clinical nurse leader is a master's-prepared nurse who assumes accountability for healthcare outcomes for a specific group of clients within a unit or setting through the assimilation and application of research-based information to design, implement, and evaluate client plans of care. The clinical nurse leader serves as a lateral integrator for the healthcare team and facilitates, coordinates, and oversees the care provided by the healthcare team. Healthcare administrators should seize the opportunity to work with nurses in healthcare delivery organizations to influence the early evolution and diffusion of this new role.

  19. Patient perspectives on care received at community acupuncture clinics: a qualitative thematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Tippens, Kimberly M; Chao, Maria T; Connelly, Erin; Locke, Adrianna

    2013-10-29

    Community acupuncture is a recent innovation in acupuncture service delivery in the U.S. that aims to improve access to care through low-cost treatments in group-based settings. Patients at community acupuncture clinics represent a broader socioeconomic spectrum and receive more frequent treatments compared to acupuncture users nationwide. As a relatively new model of acupuncture in the U.S., little is known about the experiences of patients at community acupuncture clinics and whether quality of care is compromised through this high-volume model. The aim of this study was to assess patients' perspectives on the care received through community acupuncture clinics. The investigators conducted qualitative, thematic analysis of written comments from an observational, cross-sectional survey of clients of the Working Class Acupuncture clinics in Portland, Oregon. The survey included an open-ended question for respondents to share comments about their experiences with community acupuncture. Comments were received from 265 community acupuncture patients. Qualitative analysis of written comments identified two primary themes that elucidate patients' perspectives on quality of care: 1) aspects of health care delivery unique to community acupuncture, and 2) patient engagement in health care. Patients identified unique aspects of community acupuncture, including structures that facilitate access, processes that make treatments more comfortable and effective and holistic outcomes including physical improvements, enhanced quality of life, and empowerment. The group setting, community-based locations, and low cost were highlighted as aspects of this model that allow patients to access acupuncture. Patients' perspectives on the values and experiences unique to community acupuncture offer insights on the quality of care received in these settings. The group setting, community-based locations, and low cost of this model potentially reduce access barriers for those who might not

  20. [Impact of Lean methodology to improve care processes and levels of satisfaction in patient care in a clinical laboratory].

    PubMed

    Morón-Castañeda, L H; Useche-Bernal, A; Morales-Reyes, O L; Mojica-Figueroa, I L; Palacios-Carlos, A; Ardila-Gómez, C E; Parra-Ardila, M V; Martínez-Nieto, O; Sarmiento-Echeverri, N; Rodríguez, C A; Alvarado-Heine, C; Isaza-Ruget, M A

    2015-01-01

    The application of the Lean methodology in health institutions is an effective tool to improve the capacity and workflow, as well as to increase the level of satisfaction of patients and employees. To optimise the time of outpatient care in a clinical laboratory, by implementing a methodology based on the organisation of operational procedures to improve user satisfaction and reduce the number of complaints for delays in care. A quasi-experimental before and after study was conducted between October 2011 to September 2012. XBar and S charts were used to observe the mean service times and standard deviation. The user satisfaction was assessed using service questionnaires. A reduction of 17 minutes was observed in the time of patient care from arrival to leaving the laboratory, and a decrease of 60% in complaints of delay in care. Despite the high staff turnover and 38% increase in the number of patients seen, a culture of empowerment and continuous improvement was acquired, as well as greater efficiency and productivity in the care process, which was reflected by maintaining standards 12 months after implementation. Lean is a viable methodology for clinical laboratory procedures, improving their efficiency and effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus: Patients' Risk Factors and Knowledge in an Urban Clinic Providing Wound Care.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Barbara; Sickon, Katharine

    2018-03-01

    Affecting about 3.2 million people in the United States, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the primary cause of chronic liver disease and a global health challenge. Hepatitis C virus can affect the functioning of the liver, the health of the person, and thus wound healing. This quality project explores risk factors of HCV; self-reported screening, occurrence, and treatment; and knowledge of HCV in patients seeking wound care in an urban clinic. Demographic risk factors, HCV history, and responses to a 22-item true-false-don't know HCV Knowledge Test were obtained from 58 patients. Risk factors included age (mean, 61.07 years), male sex (n = 41), non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity (n = 51), and history of injection drugs (n = 38). Thirty-nine (67.2%) stated they had been screened for HCV; 31 were told they were infected. Only 14 went to a clinic for HCV care and 11 reported they were treated. The mean number of correct answers on the HCV Knowledge Test was 14.4 (standard deviation, 5.7). This urban clinic had patients with multiple HCV risk factors; they often lacked HCV screening and/or referral for treatment. Their HCV knowledge was generally low. As a major public health problem that could impact wound healing, wound care practitioners should ask patients about their HCV status, encourage HCV screening and care, and provide HCV information.

  2. Patient initiated clinics for patients with chronic or recurrent conditions managed in secondary care: a systematic review of patient reported outcomes and patient and clinician satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cost to the NHS of missed or inappropriate hospital appointments is considerable. Alternative methods of appointment scheduling might be more flexible to patients’ needs without jeopardising health and service quality. The objective was to systematically review evidence of patient initiated clinics in secondary care on patient reported outcomes among patients with chronic/recurrent conditions. Methods Seven databases were searched from inception to June 2013. Hand searching of included studies references was also conducted. Studies comparing the effects of patient initiated clinics with traditional consultant led clinics in secondary care for patients with long term chronic or recurrent diseases on health related quality of life and/or patient satisfaction were included. Data was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Results were synthesised narratively. Results Seven studies were included in the review, these covered a total of 1,655 participants across three conditions: breast cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Quality of reporting was variable. Results showed no significant differences between the intervention and control groups for psychological and health related quality of life outcomes indicating no evidence of harm. Some patients reported significantly more satisfaction using patient-initiated clinics than usual care (p < 0.001). Conclusions The results show potential for patient initiated clinics to result in greater patient and clinician satisfaction. The patient-consultant relationship appeared to play an important part in patient satisfaction and should be considered an important area of future research as should the presence or absence of a guidebook to aid self-management. Patient initiated clinics fit the models of care suggested by policy makers and so further research into long term outcomes for patients and service use in this area of practice is both relevant and timely. PMID:24289832

  3. Documentation of clinical care in hospital patients' medical records: A qualitative study of medical students' perspectives on clinical documentation education.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Stella; Coverdale, Steven; Callen, Joanne

    2016-12-01

    Clinical documentation is essential for communication between health professionals and the provision of quality care to patients. To examine medical students' perspectives of their education in documentation of clinical care in hospital patients' medical records. A qualitative design using semi-structured interviews with fourth-year medical students was undertaken at a hospital-based clinical school in an Australian university. Several themes reflecting medical students' clinical documentation education emerged from the data: formal clinical documentation education using lectures and tutorials was minimal; most education occurred on the job by junior doctors and student's expressed concerns regarding variation in education between teams and receiving limited feedback on performance. Respondents reported on the importance of feedback for their learning of disease processes and treatments. They suggested that improvements could be made in the timing of clinical documentation education and they stressed the importance of training on the job. On-the-job education with feedback in clinical documentation provides a learning opportunity for medical students and is essential in order to ensure accurate, safe, succinct and timely clinical notes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Separate and unequal: clinics where minority and nonminority patients receive primary care.

    PubMed

    Varkey, Anita B; Manwell, Linda Baier; Williams, Eric S; Ibrahim, Said A; Brown, Roger L; Bobula, James A; Horner-Ibler, Barbara A; Schwartz, Mark D; Konrad, Thomas R; Wiltshire, Jacqueline C; Linzer, Mark

    2009-02-09

    Few studies have examined the influence of physician workplace conditions on health care disparities. We compared 96 primary care clinics in New York, New York, and in the upper Midwest serving various proportions of minority patients to determine differences in workplace organizational characteristics. Cross-sectional data are from surveys of 96 clinic managers, 388 primary care physicians, and 1701 of their adult patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or congestive heart failure participating in the Minimizing Error, Maximizing Outcome (MEMO) study. Data from 27 clinics with at least 30% minority patients were contrasted with data from 69 clinics with less than 30% minority patients. Compared with clinics serving less than 30% minority patients, clinics serving at least 30% minority patients have less access to medical supplies (2.7 vs 3.4, P < .001), referral specialists (3.0 vs 3.5, P < .005) on a scale of 1 (none) to 4 (great), and examination rooms per physician (2.2 vs 2.7, P =.002) . Their patients are more frequently depressed (22.8% vs 12.1%), are more often covered by Medicaid (30.2% vs 11.4%), and report lower health literacy (3.7 vs 4.4) on a scale of 1 (low) to 5 (high) (P < .001 for all). Physicians from clinics serving higher proportions of minority populations perceive their patients as frequently speaking little or no English (27.1% vs 3.4%, P =.004), having more chronic pain (24.1% vs 12.9%, P < .001) and substance abuse problems (15.1% vs 10.1%, P =.005), and being more medically complex (53.1% vs 39.9%) and psychosocially complex (44.9% vs 28.2%) (P < .001 for both). In regression analyses, clinics with at least 30% minority patients are more likely to have chaotic work environments (odds ratio, 4.0; P =.003) and to have fewer physicians reporting high work control (0.2; P =.003) or high job satisfaction (0.4; P =.01). Clinics serving higher proportions of minority patients have more challenging workplace and organizational

  5. Comparison of patients' experiences in public and private primary care clinics in Malta.

    PubMed

    Pullicino, Glorianne; Sciortino, Philip; Calleja, Neville; Schäfer, Willemijn; Boerma, Wienke; Groenewegen, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Demographic changes, technological developments and rising expectations require the analysis of public-private primary care (PC) service provision to inform policy makers. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study using the dataset of the Maltese arm of the QUALICOPC Project to compare the PC patients' experiences provided by public-funded and private (independent) general practitioners in Malta. Seven hundred patients from 70 clinics completed a self-administered questionnaire. Direct logistic regression showed that patients visiting the private sector experienced better continuity of care with more difficulty in accessing out-of-hours care. Such findings help to improve (primary) healthcare service provision and resource allocation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment Considerations and the Role of the Clinical Pharmacist Throughout Transitions of Care for Patients With Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    McNeely, Elizabeth B

    2017-08-01

    Heart failure is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality, resulting in substantial health-care costs. Clinical pharmacists have an opportunity to reduce health-care costs and improve disease management as patients transition from inpatient to outpatient care by leading interventions to develop patient care plans, educate patients and clinicians, prevent adverse drug reactions, reconcile medications, monitor drug levels, and improve medication access and adherence. Through these methods, clinical pharmacists are able to reduce rates of hospitalization, readmission, and mortality. In addition, care by clinical pharmacists can improve dosing levels and adherence to guideline-directed therapies. A greater benefit in patient management occurs when clinical pharmacists collaborate with other members of the health-care team, emphasizing the importance of heart failure treatment by a multidisciplinary health-care team. Education is a key area in which clinical pharmacists can improve care of patients with heart failure and should not be limited to patients. Clinical pharmacists should provide education to all members of the health-care team and introduce them to new therapies that may further improve the management of heart failure. The objective of this review is to detail the numerous opportunities that clinical pharmacists have to improve the management of heart failure and reduce health-care costs as part of a multidisciplinary health-care team.

  7. Integrating Musculoskeletal Education and Patient Care at Medical Student-Run Free Clinics.

    PubMed

    McQuillan, Thomas; Wilcox-Fogel, Nate; Kraus, Emily; Ladd, Amy; Fredericson, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Student-run free clinics (SRFCs) have emerged as an important educational component of United States (U.S.) medical schools. Despite the prevalence of musculoskeletal (MSK) problems presenting to SRFCs, students and clinics are often unprepared to diagnose and to treat common MSK complaints. We sought to determine the scope of diagnosis and treatment at a medical student-run free clinic specializing in musculoskeletal care using physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) residents. Secondary goals included reviewing student satisfaction and determining the appropriateness of the clinic in medical education. Retrospective chart review, anonymous online survey. Primary care, free student clinic affiliated with tertiary academic medical center. A total of 20 medical student volunteers, 6 PM&R residents, and 91 community patients. We established a musculoskeletal clinic as a specialty referral clinic for the 2 primary care SRFCs with institutional support from a partner medical school. We then reviewed clinical operations retrospectively using electronic medical records and student satisfaction based on an online survey. We analyzed patient demographics and chief complaints, referrals provided, and medical services rendered. We also used a 5-point Likert scale to assess student satisfaction. A monthly musculoskeletal referral clinic was established with the oversight of PM&R attendings and residents. The clinic received 91 referrals and managed 61 unique patients over a 2.5-year study period. The most common presentations to the clinic involved knee pain (n = 17, 27.9%) and back pain (n = 16, 26.2%). Pro bono relationships with community and institutional partners enabled all patients to receive medical examinations, physical therapy visits, plain film radiographs, and insurance consultations free of charge. Student satisfaction with teaching and patient care was high, with 19 of 20 students reporting their experience as "good" or "excellent." SRFCs represent an

  8. A managed clinical network for cardiac services: set-up, operation and impact on patient care.

    PubMed

    Stc Hamilton, Karen E; Sullivan, Frank M; Donnan, Peter T; Taylor, Rex; Ikenwilo, Divine; Scott, Anthony; Baker, Chris; Wyke, Sally

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the set up and operation of a Managed Clinical Network for cardiac services and assess its impact on patient care. This single case study used process evaluation with observational before and after comparison of indicators of quality of care and costs. The study was conducted in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland and used a three-level framework. Process evaluation of the network set-up and operation through a documentary review of minutes; guidelines and protocols; transcripts of fourteen semi-structured interviews with health service personnel including senior managers, general practitioners, nurses, cardiologists and members of the public. Outcome evaluation of the impact of the network through interrupted time series analysis of clinical data of 202 patients aged less than 76 years admitted to hospital with a confirmed myocardial infarction one-year pre and one-year post, the establishment of the network. The main outcome measures were differences between indicators of quality of care targeted by network protocols. Economic evaluation of the transaction costs of the set-up and operation of the network and the resource costs of the clinical care of the 202 myocardial infarction patients from the time of hospital admission to 6 months post discharge through interrupted time series analysis. The outcome measure was different in National Health Service resource use. Despite early difficulties, the network was successful in bringing together clinicians, patients and managers to redesign services, exhibiting most features of good network management. The role of the energetic lead clinician was crucial, but the network took time to develop and 'bed down'. Its primary "modus operand" was the development of a myocardial infarction pathway and associated protocols. Of sixteen clinical care indicators, two improved significantly following the launch of the network and nine showed improvements, which were not statistically significant. There was no difference

  9. A managed clinical network for cardiac services: set-up, operation and impact on patient care

    PubMed Central

    E StC Hamilton, Karen; M Sullivan, Frank; T Donnan, Peter; Taylor, Rex; Ikenwilo, Divine; Scott, Anthony; Baker, Chris; Wyke, Sally

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To investigate the set up and operation of a Managed Clinical Network for cardiac services and assess its impact on patient care. Methods This single case study used process evaluation with observational before and after comparison of indicators of quality of care and costs. The study was conducted in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland and used a three-level framework. Process evaluation of the network set-up and operation through a documentary review of minutes; guidelines and protocols; transcripts of fourteen semi-structured interviews with health service personnel including senior managers, general practitioners, nurses, cardiologists and members of the public. Outcome evaluation of the impact of the network through interrupted time series analysis of clinical data of 202 patients aged less than 76 years admitted to hospital with a confirmed myocardial infarction one-year pre and one-year post, the establishment of the network. The main outcome measures were differences between indicators of quality of care targeted by network protocols. Economic evaluation of the transaction costs of the set-up and operation of the network and the resource costs of the clinical care of the 202 myocardial infarction patients from the time of hospital admission to 6 months post discharge through interrupted time series analysis. The outcome measure was different in National Health Service resource use. Results Despite early difficulties, the network was successful in bringing together clinicians, patients and managers to redesign services, exhibiting most features of good network management. The role of the energetic lead clinician was crucial, but the network took time to develop and ‘bed down’. Its primary “modus operand” was the development of a myocardial infarction pathway and associated protocols. Of sixteen clinical care indicators, two improved significantly following the launch of the network and nine showed improvements, which were not

  10. System requirements for a computerised patient record information system at a busy primary health care clinic.

    PubMed

    Blignaut, P J; McDonald, T; Tolmie, C J

    2001-05-01

    A prototyping approach was used to determine the essential system requirements of a computerised patient record information system for a typical township primary health care clinic. A pilot clinic was identified and the existing manual system and business processes in this clinic was studied intensively before the first prototype was implemented. Interviews with users, incidental observations and analysis of actual data entered were used as primary techniques to refine the prototype system iteratively until a system with an acceptable data set and adequate functionalities were in place. Several non-functional and user-related requirements were also discovered during the prototyping period.

  11. Epidemiological profile of colombian patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a specialized care clinic.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Fernández-Avila, Daniel; Jiménez, Ruth; Cardozo, Rosa; Marín, Andrés; Soler, María Del Pilar; Gómez, Olga; Ruiz, Oscar

    Few studies report the epidemiological profile of RA patients attending clinics for comprehensive care. We describe the clinical, socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidities of a cohort of patients with RA. Cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients according to ACR criteria/EULAR 2010 classification who have entered to the AR clinic since October 2012 until May 2014, referred from primary care. Frequencies for socio-demographic, comorbidity, state of disease activity, functional status, biomarkers and therapeutic modalities variables are described. In total, 1652 patients were included with a mean age of 58 years and a duration of 9 years. Rheumatoid factor was positive in 80% and anti-citrullinated peptide antibody in 63% of patients. In total, 43.6% of patients had comorbidities: Hypertension (20.4%), osteoporosis (17.3%) and Sjögren's syndrome (10.4%). Fifty percent of the patients had moderate and high disease activity level measured by DAS-28 score, and the mean HAQ score was 0.64 (DS 1.12). Seventy three percent of patients were treated with oral disease modified anti rheumatic treatment and 63.6% of them were with methotrexate. 42.4% of the patients were treated with glucocorticoids (mean dose 6.3mg). The epidemiological behavior of a group of RA patients is reported. The presence of comorbidities is significant affecting the risk of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The definition of the epidemiological profile of this population will allow the design of research questions to resolve outstanding problems in the clinical context of this pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  12. The Perceived Impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on North Carolina's Free Clinics.

    PubMed

    Swan, Greg A; Foley, Kristie L

    2016-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) may dramatically affect the demographics of the uninsured population and the funding prospects for free health clinics. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 64 of 80 free clinics (80.0% response rate) in North Carolina to assess free clinic directors' knowledge of the ACA and their perceptions of how the ACA would affect clinic operations. Free clinic directors were knowledgeable about well publicized aspects of the ACA (eg, lack of Medicaid expansion in North Carolina), but they were less knowledgeable about provisions such as the Federal Tort Claims Act and high-risk pools, which may have direct and indirect effects on free clinics. Directors expressed concern over the unintended consequences of the ACA, such as reduced funding and reduced volunteerism. Anticipated clinic changes as a result of the ACA include initiation of electronic medical records and, to a lesser extent, a move to become "hybrid" clinics (federally qualified health center look-alikes). This study is focused on North Carolina free clinics that are members of the North Carolina Association of Free Clinics (NCAFC). Findings cannot be generalized to non-NCAFC free clinics or to free clinic networks outside the state. Despite its effort to expand health insurance coverage, the ACA may have unintended consequences to low-cost free clinics that serve uninsured populations. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical Pathways and the Patient Perspective in the Pursuit of Value-Based Oncology Care.

    PubMed

    Ersek, Jennifer L; Nadler, Eric; Freeman-Daily, Janet; Mazharuddin, Samir; Kim, Edward S

    2017-01-01

    The art of practicing oncology has evolved substantially in the past 5 years. As more and more diagnostic tests, biomarker-directed therapies, and immunotherapies make their way to the oncology marketplace, oncologists will find it increasingly difficult to keep up with the many therapeutic options. Additionally, the cost of cancer care seems to be increasing. Clinical pathways are a systematic way to organize and display detailed, evidence-based treatment options and assist the practitioner with best practice. When selecting which treatment regimens to include on a clinical pathway, considerations must include the efficacy and safety, as well as costs, of the therapy. Pathway treatment regimens must be continually assessed and modified to ensure that the most up-to-date, high-quality options are incorporated. Value-based models, such as the ASCO Value Framework, can assist providers in presenting economic evaluations of clinical pathway treatment options to patients, thus allowing the patient to decide the overall value of each treatment regimen. Although oncologists and pathway developers can decide which treatment regimens to include on a clinical pathway based on the efficacy of the treatment, assessment of the value of that treatment regimen ultimately lies with the patient. Patient definitions of value will be an important component to enhancing current value-based oncology care models and incorporating new, high-quality, value-based therapeutics into oncology clinical pathways.

  14. Effects of clinical supervision on resident learning and patient care during simulated ICU scenarios.

    PubMed

    Piquette, Dominique; Tarshis, Jordan; Regehr, Glenn; Fowler, Robert A; Pinto, Ruxandra; LeBlanc, Vicki R

    2013-12-01

    Closer supervision of residents' clinical activities has been promoted to improve patient safety, but may additionally affect resident participation in patient care and learning. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of closer supervision on patient care, resident participation, and the development of resident ability to care independently for critically ill patients during simulated scenarios. This quantitative study represents a component of a larger mixed-methods study. Residents were randomized to one of three levels of supervision, defined by the physical proximity of the supervisor (distant, immediately available, and direct). Each resident completed a simulation scenario under the supervision of a critical care fellow, immediately followed by a modified scenario of similar content without supervision. The simulation center of a tertiary, university-affiliated academic center in a large urban city. Fifty-three residents completing a critical care rotation and 24 critical care fellows were recruited between April 2009 and June 2010. None. During the supervised scenarios, lower team performance checklist scores were obtained for distant supervision compared with immediately available and direct supervision (mean [SD], direct: 72% [12%] vs immediately available: 77% [10%] vs distant: 61% [11%]; p = 0.0013). The percentage of checklist items completed by the residents themselves was significantly lower during direct supervision (median [interquartile range], direct: 40% [21%] vs immediately available: 58% [16%] vs distant: 55% [11%]; p = 0.005). During unsupervised scenarios, no significant differences were found on the outcome measures. Care delivered in the presence of senior supervising physicians was more comprehensive than care delivered without access to a bedside supervisor, but was associated with lower resident participation. However, subsequent resident performance during unsupervised scenarios was not adversely affected. Direct

  15. [Pharmaceutical care of patients with diabetes mellitus and its relationship to clinical pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Vlcek, J; Malý, J; Dosedel, M

    2009-04-01

    Pharmaceutical care develops both at universities in the Czech Republic and in daily practice, and is focused on drug-related issues as a pharmacist has the broadest knowledge of the drug and offers such knowledge to other persons involved in patient care. Pharmaceutical care is part of health care and although the pharmacist is considered to be a health service officer by legislation, health insurance companies--probably due to the fact the pharmacist is paid based on the margin obtained in business activities from the purchase and sale of prescribed drugs--do not see the pharmacist as such and they need to be convinced that such activity is necessary for the patient and is positive within the medical team. The aim of the article is to define what pharmaceutical care is, where it can be provided, why it is necessary within medical and nursing care, and to point out drug-related issues occurring in diabetic patients as well as the method for identifying and resolving them. The method is the answer to the following questions: Where to class pharmaceutical care and how to define the knowledge preconditions for such activity? Where is pharmaceutical care provided and what is its objective? How and where is pharmaceutical care taught? How can pharmaceutical care be applied in diabetology? The answers to the questions raised are based on literature and the authors' own teaching experience and activities performed in the position of clinical pharmacist at the 2nd Department of Internal Medicine of the University Hospital in Hradec Králové. Another method was the analysis of the incidence of drug issues related to the prescription of antidiabetics identified by 66 pharmacists over 2 months of active recording of drug-related issues and detected in hospitalized patients of the 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, both in outpatient and inpatient care. Another method was the monitoring of physicians' opinions about the doctor-pharmacist cooperation in the form of an

  16. Improving Efficiency While Improving Patient Care in a Student-Run Free Clinic.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason S; Combs, Kristen; Pasarica, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Student-run free clinics (SRFCs) have the capacity to decrease health care inequity in underserved populations. These facilities can benefit from improved patient experience and outcomes. We implemented a series of quality improvement interventions with the objectives to decrease patient wait times and to increase the variety of services provided. A needs assessment was performed. Problems related to time management, communication between staff and providers, clinic resources, and methods for assessing clinic performance were identified as targets to reduce wait times and improve the variety of services provided. Seventeen interventions were designed and implemented over a 2-month period. The interventions resulted in improved efficiency for clinic operations and reduced patient wait times. The number of specialty providers, patient visits for specialty care, lifestyle education visits for disease prevention and treatment, free medications, and free laboratory investigations increased to achieve the goal of improving the availability and the variety of services provided. We demonstrated that it is feasible to implement successful quality improvement interventions in SRFCs to decrease patient wait times and to increase the variety of services provided. We believe that the changes we implemented can serve as a model for other SRFCs to improve their performance. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  17. Management of patients in a combined thyroid eye clinic in secondary care.

    PubMed

    Benzimra, J D; Quinn, A G; Kersey, T; McGrane, D; Goss, L; Vaidya, B

    2014-02-01

    The European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) recommends the use of specialised multidisciplinary clinics for the management of thyroid eye disease (TED). In the UK, many patients with TED are managed outside of specialised clinics. We describe the organisation of a combined TED clinic in a secondary care setting and present the result of a prospective audit of the patient characteristics and outcomes during the first four years of a combined TED clinic. Of a total of 132 patients referred to the TED clinic, 114 (86 %) had TED (90 females, median age 56 years; range 17-90 years). At presentation, 77 (67 %) were current or ex-smokers and 99 (87 %) were biochemically euthyroid. Median duration of eye symptoms was 12 months. Fifty-two percent, 45 and 3 had mild, moderate-to-severe and sight-threatening TED, respectively. Only 18 % of patients had a clinical activity score (CAS) of ≥3. Sixty-nine patients (61 %) required follow-up appointments in the TED clinic. In those who required follow-up, 43 % (n = 30) received either immunosuppressive or surgical treatment. CAS improved from first to final visit, with 29 % (n = 20) having a CAS of ≥3 at the first visit and 1 % (n = 1) at the final visit (p = 0.0001). There was also a decrease in prevalence of smoking and thyroid dysfunction at the final visit. A multidisciplinary specialised TED clinic offers an optimal setting for managing patients with TED; however, patients are often referred late to a specialist TED clinic.

  18. From Care to Cure: Demonstrating a Model of Clinical Patient Navigation for Hepatitis C Care and Treatment in High-Need Patients.

    PubMed

    Ford, Mary M; Johnson, Nirah; Desai, Payal; Rude, Eric; Laraque, Fabienne

    2017-03-01

    The NYC Department of Health implemented a patient navigation program, Check Hep C, to address patient and provider barriers to HCV care and potentially lifesaving treatment. Services were delivered at two clinical care sites and two sites that linked patients to off-site care. Working with a multidisciplinary care team, patient navigators provided risk assessment, health education, treatment readiness and medication adherence counseling, and medication coordination. Between March 2014 and January 2015, 388 participants enrolled in Check Hep C, 129 (33%) initiated treatment, and 119 (91% of initiators) had sustained virologic response (SVR). Participants receiving on-site clinical care had higher odds of initiating treatment than those linked to off-site care. Check Hep C successfully supported high-need participants through HCV care and treatment, and SVR rates demonstrate the real-world ability of achieving high cure rates using patient navigation care models. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Confronting Disparities in Diabetes Care: The Clinical Effectiveness of Redesigning Care Management for Minority Patients in Rural Primary Care Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Paul; Thompson, Debra; Wynn, Joan D.; Cummings, Doyle M.; Whetstone, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    Context: Diabetes mellitus and its complications disproportionately affect minority citizens in rural communities, many of whom have limited access to comprehensive diabetes management services. Purpose: To explore the efficacy of combining care management and interdisciplinary group visits for rural African American patients with diabetes…

  20. Clinical decision making in cancer care: a review of current and future roles of patient age.

    PubMed

    Tranvåg, Eirik Joakim; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Ottersen, Trygve

    2018-05-09

    Patient age is among the most controversial patient characteristics in clinical decision making. In personalized cancer medicine it is important to understand how individual characteristics do affect practice and how to appropriately incorporate such factors into decision making. Some argue that using age in decision making is unethical, and how patient age should guide cancer care is unsettled. This article provides an overview of the use of age in clinical decision making and discusses how age can be relevant in the context of personalized medicine. We conducted a scoping review, searching Pubmed for English references published between 1985 and May 2017. References concerning cancer, with patients above the age of 18 and that discussed age in relation to diagnostic or treatment decisions were included. References that were non-medical or concerning patients below the age of 18, and references that were case reports, ongoing studies or opinion pieces were excluded. Additional references were collected through snowballing and from selected reports, guidelines and articles. Three hundred and forty-seven relevant references were identified. Patient age can have many and diverse roles in clinical decision making: Contextual roles linked to access (age influences how fast patients are referred to specialized care) and incidence (association between increasing age and increasing incidence rates for cancer); patient-relevant roles linked to physiology (age-related changes in drug metabolism) and comorbidity (association between increasing age and increasing number of comorbidities); and roles related to interventions, such as treatment (older patients receive substandard care) and outcome (survival varies by age). Patient age is integrated into cancer care decision making in a range of ways that makes it difficult to claim age-neutrality. Acknowledging this and being more transparent about the use of age in decision making are likely to promote better clinical decisions

  1. Clinical governance for elderly patients with renal insufficiency. Community care programs.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Michele

    2010-01-01

    From a clinical governance perspective, process management is essential because it allows attention to be focused on the health problems of the people affected by illness, creating care programs that arise out of a holistic vision. This is all the more true when the people involved have specific care needs, like the elderly and patients with chronic illnesses whose primary place of care is outside the hospital and who, in any case, require continuity and coordination of care. This group certainly includes elderly patients with chronic kidney disease, the management of which has significant effects on health care settings. The national and regional dialysis and transplant registers currently provide partial data on this phenomenon, but our information is incomplete. What we lack is an unambiguous, uniform care program which addresses itself to community care for the elderly with chronic kidney disease and which, above all, places the nephrologist in a leading role. The issue is to provide a suitable solution for this anomaly, so that by putting aside an anachronistic hospital-centered vision, the nephrologist can move out into the community and come into contact with the sorts of cases which currently remain outside his or her field of vision. It is to be hoped that the Italian Society of Nephrology will spearhead this initiative by becoming more aware of the structural and organizational changes that the Italian health system is currently undergoing.

  2. Usability Assessment of Secure Messaging for Clinical Document Sharing between Health Care Providers and Patients.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Michelle A; Porter, Brian W; Patel, Himalaya; Zillich, Alan J; Simon, Steven R; Russ, Alissa L

    2018-04-01

     Web-based patient portals feature secure messaging systems that enable health care providers and patients to communicate information. However, little is known about the usability of these systems for clinical document sharing.  This article evaluates the usability of a secure messaging system for providers and patients in terms of its ability to support sharing of electronic clinical documents.  We conducted usability testing with providers and patients in a human-computer interaction laboratory at a Midwestern U.S. hospital. Providers sent a medication list document to a fictitious patient via secure messaging. Separately, patients retrieved the clinical document from a secure message and returned it to a fictitious provider. We collected use errors, task completion, task time, and satisfaction.  Twenty-nine individuals participated: 19 providers (6 physicians, 6 registered nurses, and 7 pharmacists) and 10 patients. Among providers, 11 (58%) attached and sent the clinical document via secure messaging without requiring assistance, in a median (range) of 4.5 (1.8-12.7) minutes. No patients completed tasks without moderator assistance. Patients accessed the secure messaging system within 3.6 (1.2-15.0) minutes; retrieved the clinical document within 0.8 (0.5-5.7) minutes; and sent the attached clinical document in 6.3 (1.5-18.1) minutes. Although median satisfaction ratings were high, with 5.8 for providers and 6.0 for patients (scale, 0-7), we identified 36 different use errors. Physicians and pharmacists requested additional features to support care coordination via health information technology, while nurses requested features to support efficiency for their tasks.  This study examined the usability of clinical document sharing, a key feature of many secure messaging systems. Our results highlight similarities and differences between provider and patient end-user groups, which can inform secure messaging design to improve learnability and efficiency

  3. Clinical predictors of anticipatory emesis in patients treated with chemotherapy at a tertiary care cancer hospital.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Fawad; Shafi, Azhar; Ali, Sheeraz; Siddiqui, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    To determine the clinical predictors of anticipatory emesis in patients treated with chemotherapy at a tertiary care cancer hospital. This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 200 patients undergoing first line chemotherapy with minimum of two cycles at inpatient department and chemotherapy bay of Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre Pakistan. Anticipatory nausea and vomiting develops before administration of chemotherapy. Clinical signs and symptoms in patients with or without anticipatory emesis were compared using chi square test statistics. The mean age of the study participants was 36.68 years (SD±12.23). The mean numbers of chemotherapy cycles administered were 3.23 (SD±1.2). Chemotherapy related nausea and vomiting was experienced by 188 (94%) patients and anticipatory nausea vomiting was reported in 90 (45%) of patients. Greater proportions of patients with anticipatory emesis were females. Fourteen (15.5%) p-value=0.031 patients with anticipatory emesis had history of anxiety and depression. Fifty nine (65.5%) p-value =< 0.0001 patients with anticipatory emesis had severe nausea after last chemotherapy cycle. Forty six (51.11%) p=<0.0001 patients had motion sickness. Female gender, history of motion sickness, anxiety and depression, severe nausea and vomiting experienced in pervious cycle of chemotherapy were clinical predictors of anticipatory nausea and vomiting.

  4. Clinical course and quality of care in ART-naïve patients newly presenting in a HIV outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Platten, M; Linnemann, R; Kümmerle, T; Jung, N; Wyen, C; Ehren, K; Gravemann, S; Gillor, D; Cornely, O A; Fischer, J; Lehmann, C; Rockstroh, J K; Fätkenheuer, G; Vehreschild, J J

    2014-10-01

    Little data exist about the quality of care for HIV-infected subjects in Germany. We investigated the clinical course of HIV-infected subjects newly presenting in our HIV outpatient clinic. Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve HIV-infected subjects presenting between 2007 and 2008 were followed until June 2012. Clinical data and laboratory parameters were collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively. From 281 subjects included, 34 patients (12%) were lost to follow-up. 247 subjects remained, and 171 patients were followed for 1,497 days [1,121/1,726] (all data: median [interquartile range]). ART was started in 199 patients (81%) 182 days [44/849] after HIV diagnosis, and all patients were treated according to European guidelines or within clinical trials. The CD4 cell count at first presentation was 320/µL [160/500] and declined to 210/µL [100/300] at ART start. 12 months thereafter, the CD4 cell count increased to 410/µL [230/545]. The HIV RNA was suppressed below 50 copies/mL after 108 days [63/173] in 182 patients (91%). Initial ART was changed in 71 patients (36%) after 281 days [99/718], in five patients (7%) due to virological failure, in 66 patients (93%) due to other reasons, e.g. side effects or patient's request. Two-thirds of the included patients were followed for more than 3 years, and ART was initiated in 81% of the patients leading to complete virological suppression in most patients. Compliance of physicians with treatment guidelines was high. Late presentation with a severely compromised immune function remains a problem and impairs the otherwise good prognosis of HIV infection.

  5. The development and evaluation of a nursing information system for caring clinical in-patient.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu-Wen; Li, Chih-Ping; Wang, Mei-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to develop a nursing information system in order to simplify the admission procedure for caring clinical in-patient, enhance the efficiency of medical information documentation. Therefore, by correctly delivering patients’ health records, and providing continues care, patient safety and care quality would be effectively improved. The study method was to apply Spiral Model development system to compose a nursing information team. By using strategies of data collection, working environment observation, applying use-case modeling, and conferences of Joint Application Design (JAD) to complete the system requirement analysis and design. The Admission Care Management Information System (ACMIS) mainly included: (1) Admission nursing management information system. (2) Inter-shift meeting information management system. (3) The linkage of drug management system and physical examination record system. The framework contained qualitative and quantitative components that provided both formative and summative elements of the evaluation. System evaluation was to apply information success model, and developed questionnaire of consisting nurses’ acceptance and satisfaction. The results of questionnaires were users’ satisfaction, the perceived self-involvement, age and information quality were positively to personal and organizational effectiveness. According to the results of this study, the Admission Care Management Information System was practical to simplifying clinic working procedure and effective in communicating and documenting admission medical information.

  6. Is organizational justice associated with clinical performance in the care for patients with diabetes in primary care? Evidence from the improving Quality of care in Diabetes study.

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Marko; Steen, Nick; Presseau, Justin; Francis, Jill; Hrisos, Susan; Hawthorne, Gillian; Johnston, Marie; Stamp, Elaine; Hunter, Margaret; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Eccles, Martin P

    2013-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly prevalent illness, and there is considerable variation in the quality of care provided to patients with diabetes in primary care. The aim of this study was to explore whether organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviour are associated with the behaviours of clinical staff when providing care for patients with diabetes. The data were from an ongoing prospective multicenter study, the 'improving Quality of care in Diabetes' (iQuaD) study. Participants (N = 467) were clinical staff in 99 primary care practices in the UK. The outcome measures were six self-reported clinical behaviours: prescribing for glycaemic control, prescribing for blood pressure control, foot examination, giving advice about weight management, providing general education about diabetes and giving advice about self-management. Organizational justice perceptions were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The associations between organizational justice and behavioural outcomes were tested using linear multilevel regression modelling. Higher scores on the procedural component of organizational justice were associated with more frequent weight management advice, self-management advice and provision of general education for patients with diabetes. The associations between justice and clinical behaviours were not explained by individual or practice characteristics, but evidence was found for the partial mediating role of organizational citizenship behaviour. Quality improvement efforts aimed at increasing advice and education provision in diabetes management in primary care could target also perceptions of procedural justice.

  7. The Affordable Care Act Decreased the Proportion of Uninsured Patients in a Safety Net Orthopaedic Clinic.

    PubMed

    Gil, Joseph A; Goodman, Avi D; Kleiner, Justin; Kamal, Robin N; Baker, Laurence C; Akelman, Edward

    2018-05-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was approved in 2010, substantially altering the economics of providing and receiving healthcare services in the United States. One of the primary goals of this legislation was to expand insurance coverage for under- and uninsured residents. Our objective was to examine the effect of the ACA on the insurance status of patients at a safety net clinic. Our institution houses a safety net clinic that provides the dominant majority of orthopaedic care for uninsured patients in our state. Therefore, our study allows us to accurately examine the magnitude of the effect on insurance status in safety net orthopaedic clinics. (1) Did the ACA result in a decrease in the number of uninsured patients at a safety net orthopaedic clinic that provides the dominant majority of orthopaedic care for the uninsured in the state? (2) Did the proportion of patients insured after passage of the ACA differ across age or demographic groups in one state? We retrospectively examined our longitudinally maintained adult orthopaedic surgery clinic database from January 2009 to March 2015 and collected visit and demographic data, including zip code income quartile. Based on the data published by the Rhode Island Department of Health, our clinic provides the dominant majority of orthopaedic care for uninsured patients in our state. Therefore, examination of the changes in the proportion of insurance status in our clinic allows us to assess the effect of the ACA on the state level. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between demographic variables and insurance status. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated for the proportion of uninsured visits. The proportion of uninsured visits before and after implementation of the ACA was evaluated with an interrupted time-series analysis. The reduction in the proportion of patients without insurance between demographic groups (ie, race

  8. Patient Responses on Quality of Care and Satisfaction with Staff After Integrated HIV Care in South African Primary Health Care Clinics.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Angeli; Uebel, Kerry; Moore, David; Cingl, Lubomir; Yassi, Annalee

    2018-05-16

    HIV care integrated into primary health care (PHC) encourages reorganized service delivery but could increase workload. In 2012-2013, we surveyed 910 patients and caregivers at two time points after integration in four clinics in Free State, South Africa. Likert surveys measured quality of care (QoC) and satisfaction with staff (SwS). QoC scores were lower for females, those older than 56 years, those visiting clinics every 3 months, and child health participants. Regression estimates showed QoC scores higher for ages 36-45 versus 18-25 years, and lower for those attending clinics for more than 10 years versus 6-12 months. Overall, SwS scores were lower for child health attendees and higher for tuberculosis attendees compared to chronic disease care attendees. Research is needed to understand determinants of disparities in QoC and SwS, especially for child health, diabetes, and hypertension attendees, to ensure high-quality care experiences for all patients attending PHC clinics with integrated HIV care. Copyright © 2018 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of clinical librarian services on patients and health care organisations.

    PubMed

    Brettle, Alison; Maden, Michelle; Payne, Clare

    2016-06-01

    Systematic reviews have found limited evidence of effectiveness and impact of clinical librarians (CLs) due to the poor quality of reporting, scale and design of previous studies. To measure specific CL impact on organisational and patient outcomes using a robust approach that helps CLs develop research skills. Questionnaire and interviews. Clinical librarians contribute to a wide range of outcomes in the short and longer term reflecting organisational priorities and objectives. These include direct contributions to choice of intervention (36%) diagnosis (26%) quality of life (25%), increased patient involvement in decision making (26%) and cost savings and risk management including avoiding tests, referrals, readmissions and reducing length of stay (28%). Interventions provided by CL's are complex and each contributes to multiple outcomes of importance to health care organisations. This study is unique in taking a wide view of potential and specific impacts to which CLs contribute across health care organisations. It is the largest UK evaluation of CL services to date and demonstrates CLs affect direct patient care, improve quality and save money. Future researchers are urged to use the tools presented to collect data on the same outcomes to build a significant and comprehensive international evidence base about the effectiveness and impact of clinical librarian services. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  10. Hospitalized hemorrhagic stroke patients with renal insufficiency: clinical characteristics, care patterns, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ovbiagele, Bruce; Schwamm, Lee H; Smith, Eric E; Grau-Sepulveda, Maria V; Saver, Jeffrey L; Bhatt, Deepak L; Hernandez, Adrian F; Peterson, Eric D; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2014-10-01

    There is a paucity of information on clinical characteristics, care patterns, and clinical outcomes for hospitalized intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We assessed characteristics, care processes, and in-hospital outcome among ICH patients with CKD in the Get With the Guidelines-Stroke (GWTG-Stroke) program. We analyzed 113,059 ICH patients hospitalized at 1472 US centers participating in the GWTG-Stroke program between January 2009 and December 2012. In-hospital mortality and use of 2 predefined ICH performance measures were examined based on glomerular filtration rate. Renal dysfunction was categorized as a dichotomous (+CKD = estimated glomerular filtration rate <60) or rank ordered variable as CKD (<60), and by clinical stage: (normal [≥90], mild [≥60-<90], moderate [≥30-<60], severe [≥15-<30], and/or kidney failure [<15 or dialysis]). There were 33,219 (29%) ICH patients with CKD. Patients with CKD were more likely to be older, female, and with comorbid conditions such as diabetes. Compared with patients with normal kidney function, those with CKD were slightly less likely to receive deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis but similarly received discharge smoking cessation intervention. Inpatient mortality was also higher for those with CKD (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-1.52), mild dysfunction (adjusted OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16), moderate dysfunction (adjusted OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.39-1.53), severe dysfunction (adjusted OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.81-2.12), and kidney failure (adjusted OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 2.04-2.43) relative to those with normal renal function. Chronic kidney disease is present in nearly a third of patients hospitalized with ICH and is associated with slightly worse care and substantially higher mortality than those with normal renal function. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical, operational and economic outcomes of point-of-care blood gas analysis in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Paloma; Buno, Antonio; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo; Fernandez-Calle, Pilar; Alcaide, Maria Jose; Casitas, Raquel; Garcia-Quero, Cristina; Madero, Rosario; Gomez-Rioja, Ruben; Iturzaeta, Jose Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Arterial blood gas analysis is relevant in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a blood gas analyzer in pulmonology departments improves the clinical, operational and economic outcomes when compared with clinical laboratory measurements. It is an observational prospective study. 112 patients were selected. After specimen collection, the measurement was performed both in pulmonology office as point-of-care and in laboratory. We evaluated clinical outcomes (modification of the indication of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) according to results, changes in blood gas analysis results, relationship of the partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) obtained in the medical visit and velocity of change of the PaO2, influence of total haemoglobin concentration and the change in PaO2), operational outcomes (turnaround time (TAT) from specimen collection to receiving the blood gas analysis report) and economic outcomes (overall cost per process of patient care). There were discrepancies in the indication of LTOT in 13.4% of patients. All parameters showed changes. PaO2 levels showed changes in 2 ways, though they frequently increase over time. The correlation was not good in the other two clinical outcomes. The median TATs in pulmonology office were 1 min versus 79 in laboratory, with 52 min for specimen preparation and transport and 17 min for TAT intralaboratory. The overall cost for the 112 patients in pulmonology office and laboratory was 16,769.89€ and 22,260.97€ respectively. The use of a blood gas analyzer in a pulmonology office improves clinical, operational and economic outcomes when compared with clinical laboratory. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Engaging nurses in patient care: clinical reflection by a student nurse.

    PubMed

    Bail, Kasia Siobhan

    2007-01-01

    I stood by, the endless student nurse observer, as a woman (let's call her Joan) was transferred by trolley from the helicopter into emergency following an acute period of respiratory distress. Two nurses from the department were present for hand-over, and three ambulance persons brought her in. Joan's condition appeared stable, as far as I could tell; her bed was at a ninety-degree angle and her oxygen-assisted breathing was very laboured, but she seemed aware of her immediate surroundings. Joan traveled on the helicopter trolley into the emergency ward, was transferred to an emergency bed, the necessary tubes and wires were re-organised, her hand-over was verbalised and the personal weekends of the treating team were discussed amongst themselves. To my increasing frustration, not one staff member looked Joan in the eye, said hello, or did anything to acknowledge her presence as anything other than another technical detail. This paper was inspired by this incident viewed as a nursing student in the emergency department. The clinical reflection that developed around this particular incident was how easily care by nurses could be limited to the physical needs of the patient. This paper is premised on the clinical reflection that engagement by nurses with patients is necessary for optimal patient care. The literature was reviewed, and the concept of 'engagement' was used to refer to the actual connection of one person to another via honest care and dedicated communication. I suggest, with literary support, that this lack of engagement extends from the inability of the nurse to provide sufficient care to fulfill the needs of the patient. The current mismatch between duty and ability for nurses is cited as being due to an increasing number of stressors. Major stressors include a lack of support from senior staff; insufficient staff; having too much work and too little time, and the inability to meet patients' needs (McNeely 1996). Accumulated stress has detrimental

  13. The effect of a clinical medical librarian on in-patient care outcomes*

    PubMed Central

    Esparza, Julia M.; Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry; Comegys, Marianne; Banks, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The research sought to determine the effect of a clinical medical librarian (CML) on outcomes of in-patients on the internal medicine service. Methods: A prospective study was performed with two internal medicine in-patient teams. Team 1 included a CML who accompanied the team on daily rounds. The CML answered questions posed at the point of care immediately or in emails post-rounds. Patients on Team 2, which did not include a CML, as well as patients who did not require consultation by the CML on Team 1, served as the control population. Numerous clinical and library metrics were gathered on each question. Results: Patients on Team 1 who required an answer to a clinical question were more ill and had a longer length of stay, higher costs, and higher readmission rates compared to those in the control group. Using a matched pair analysis, we showed no difference in clinical outcomes between the intervention group and the control group. Conclusions: This study is the largest attempt to prospectively measure changes in patient outcomes when physicians were accompanied by a CML on rounds. This approach may serve as a model for further studies to define when and how CMLs are most effective. PMID:23930088

  14. The effect of a clinical medical librarian on in-patient care outcomes.

    PubMed

    Esparza, Julia M; Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry; Comegys, Marianne; Banks, Daniel E

    2013-07-01

    The research sought to determine the effect of a clinical medical librarian (CML) on outcomes of in-patients on the internal medicine service. A prospective study was performed with two internal medicine in-patient teams. Team 1 included a CML who accompanied the team on daily rounds. The CML answered questions posed at the point of care immediately or in emails post-rounds. Patients on Team 2, which did not include a CML, as well as patients who did not require consultation by the CML on Team 1, served as the control population. Numerous clinical and library metrics were gathered on each question. Patients on Team 1 who required an answer to a clinical question were more ill and had a longer length of stay, higher costs, and higher readmission rates compared to those in the control group. Using a matched pair analysis, we showed no difference in clinical outcomes between the intervention group and the control group. This study is the largest attempt to prospectively measure changes in patient outcomes when physicians were accompanied by a CML on rounds. This approach may serve as a model for further studies to define when and how CMLs are most effective.

  15. Foot care and footwear practices among patients attending a specialist diabetes clinic in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Gayle, Krystal A.T.; Tulloch Reid, Marshall K.; Younger, Novie O.; Francis, Damian K.; McFarlane, Shelly R.; Wright-Pascoe, Rosemarie A.; Boyne, Michael S.; Wilks, Rainford J.; Ferguson, Trevor S.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) Diabetes Clinic who engage in recommended foot care and footwear practices. Seventy-two participants from the UHWI Diabetes Clinic completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on foot care practices and types of footwear worn. Participants were a subset of a sex-stratified random sample of clinic attendees and were interviewed in 2010. Data analysis included frequency estimates of the various foot care practices and types of footwear worn. Participants had a mean age of 57.0±14.3 years and mean duration of diabetes of 17.0±10.3 years. Fifty-three percent of participants reported being taught how to care for their feet, while daily foot inspection was performed by approximately 60% of participants. Most participants (90%) reported daily use of moisturizing lotion on the feet but almost 50% used lotion between the toes. Approximately 85% of participants reported wearing shoes or slippers both indoors and outdoors but over 40% reported walking barefoot at some time. Thirteen percent wore special shoes for diabetes while over 80% wore shoes without socks at some time. Although much larger proportions reported wearing broad round toe shoes (82%) or leather shoes (64%), fairly high proportions reported wearing pointed toe shoes (39%), and 43% of women wore high heel shoes. In conclusion, approximately 60% of patients at the UHWI diabetic clinic engage in daily foot inspection and other recommended practices, but fairly high proportions reported foot care or footwear choices that should be avoided. PMID:24765484

  16. Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: A Roadmap about Good Clinical Practice and Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Frati, Paola; Scopetti, Matteo; Santurro, Alessandro; Gatto, Vittorio; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    The latest research achievements in the field of stem cells led in 2016 to the publication of "Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation" by the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR). Updating the topics covered in previous publications, the new recommendations offer interesting ethical and scientific insights. Under the common principles of research integrity, protection of patient's welfare, respect for the research subjects, transparency and social justice, the centrality of good clinical practice, and informed consent in research and translational medicine is supported. The guidelines implement the abovementioned publications, requiring rigor in all areas of research, promoting the validity of the scientific activity results and emphasizing the need for an accurate and efficient public communication. This paper aims to analyze the aforementioned guidelines in order to provide a valid interpretive tool for experts. In particular, a research activity focused on the bioethical, scientific, and social implications of the new recommendations is carried out in order to provide food for thought. Finally, as an emerging issue of potential impact of current guidelines, an overview on implications of compensation for egg donation is offered.

  17. Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: A Roadmap about Good Clinical Practice and Patient Care

    PubMed Central

    Scopetti, Matteo; Gatto, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    The latest research achievements in the field of stem cells led in 2016 to the publication of “Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation” by the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR). Updating the topics covered in previous publications, the new recommendations offer interesting ethical and scientific insights. Under the common principles of research integrity, protection of patient's welfare, respect for the research subjects, transparency and social justice, the centrality of good clinical practice, and informed consent in research and translational medicine is supported. The guidelines implement the abovementioned publications, requiring rigor in all areas of research, promoting the validity of the scientific activity results and emphasizing the need for an accurate and efficient public communication. This paper aims to analyze the aforementioned guidelines in order to provide a valid interpretive tool for experts. In particular, a research activity focused on the bioethical, scientific, and social implications of the new recommendations is carried out in order to provide food for thought. Finally, as an emerging issue of potential impact of current guidelines, an overview on implications of compensation for egg donation is offered. PMID:29090010

  18. Impact of Information Technology, Clinical Resource Constraints, and Patient-Centered Practice Characteristics on Quality of Care.

    PubMed

    Baek, JongDeuk; Seidman, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Factors in the practice environment, such as health information technology (IT) infrastructure, availability of other clinical resources, and financial incentives, may influence whether practices are able to successfully implement the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model and realize its benefits. This study investigates the impacts of those PCMH-related elements on primary care physicians' perception of quality of care. A multiple logistic regression model was estimated using the 2004 to 2005 CTS Physician Survey, a national sample of salaried primary care physicians (n = 1733). The patient-centered practice environment and availability of clinical resources increased physicians' perceived quality of care. Although IT use for clinical information access did enhance physicians' ability to provide high quality of care, a similar positive impact of IT use was not found for e-prescribing or the exchange of clinical patient information. Lack of resources was negatively associated with physician perception of quality of care. Since health IT is an important foundation of PCMH, patient-centered practices are more likely to have health IT in place to support care delivery. However, despite its potential to enhance delivery of primary care, simply making health IT available does not necessarily translate into physicians' perceptions that it enhances the quality of care they provide. It is critical for health-care managers and policy makers to ensure that primary care physicians fully recognize and embrace the use of new technology to improve both the quality of care provided and the patient outcomes.

  19. [Better coordination between primary care, community settings and diabetes outpatient clinic for patients with type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Gjessing, Hans Jørgen; Jørgensen, Ulla Linding; Møller, Charlotte Chrois; Huge, Lis; Dalgaard, Anne Mette; Nielsen, Kristian Wendelboe; Thomsen, Lis; Buch, Martin Sandberg

    2014-06-02

    Integrated care programmes for patients with type 2 diabetes can be successfully implemented by planning the programmes in coordination between the sectors primary care, community settings and diabetes outpatient clinic, and with involvement of leaders and employees. Our project has resulted in: 1) more patients with type 2 diabetes receiving diabetes management courses, 2) improved diabetes management of primary care, and 3) improved confidence and respect between sectors involved in diabetes care.

  20. Clinico-epidemiological profile of patients attending Suraksha Clinic of tertiary care hospital of North India

    PubMed Central

    Banger, H. S.; Sethi, Anisha; Malhotra, Sita; Malhotra, Suresh Kumar; Kaur, Tejinder

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a global health problem. Trends of STIs vary from place to place depending on various epidemiological factors prevailing in that respective geographic area. Aims and Objectives: The present study was conducted to find the pattern and prevalence of different STIs out of total STI clinic attendees, to identify any change in the trend of STIs, various epidemiological factors, and behavior of individual diseases. Materials and Methods: Case records of the patients, attending the STI clinic (Suraksha Clinic) attached with Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprosy of a tertiary care medical college and hospital of North India from April 2007 to March 2014, were analyzed. All the patients were thoroughly examined and investigated. Results: This study included a total of 5468 STI clinic attendees out of which 3908 were diagnosed to have STIs. Most of the patients were male, married, and in the third decade of their lives. In our study, the highest number of patients had herpes genitalis, i.e., 850 patients (21.75%) followed by 415 patients (10.61%) having genital warts. Molluscum contagiosum was present in 239 patients (6.11%), 106 patients (2.71%) had urethral discharge whereas 81 patients (2.07%) diagnosed to have syphilis. Viral infections accounted for 38.48% of cases. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positivity was seen in 414 patients (10.59%) of total STI cases. Conclusion: The trend of STIs is changing from bacterial to viral diseases. This is because of the widespread use of antibacterial, self-medication, and treatment through national program. STIs enhance the susceptibility of an individual to acquire or transmit HIV through sexual contact. PMID:28442804

  1. When a physician and a clinical ethicist collaborate for better patient care.

    PubMed

    Arawi, Thalia; Charafeddine, Lama

    2018-06-01

    Bioethics is a relatively new addition to bedside medical care in Arab world which is characterized by a special culture that often makes blind adaptation of western ethics codes and principles; a challenge that has to be faced. To date, the American University of Beirut Medical Center is the only hospital that offers bedside ethics consultations in the Arab Region aiming towards better patient-centered care. This article tackles the role of the bedside clinical ethics consultant as an active member of the medical team and the impact of such consultations on decision-making and patient-centered care. Using the case of a child with multiple medical problems and a futile medical condition, we describe how the collaboration of the medical team and the clinical ethics consultant took a comprehensive approach to accompany and lead the parents and the medical team in their decision-making process and how the consultations allowed several salient issues to be addressed. This approach proved to be effective in the Arab cultural setting and indeed did lead to better patientcentered care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Patient Partnerships Transforming Sleep Medicine Research and Clinical Care: Perspectives from the Sleep Apnea Patient-Centered Outcomes Network

    PubMed Central

    Redline, Susan; Baker-Goodwin, Si; Bakker, Jessie P.; Epstein, Matthew; Hanes, Sherry; Hanson, Mark; Harrington, Zinta; Johnston, James C.; Kapur, Vishesh K.; Keepnews, David; Kontos, Emily; Lowe, Andy; Owens, Judith; Page, Kathy; Rothstein, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Due to an ongoing recent evolution in practice, sleep medicine as a discipline has been compelled to respond to the converging pressures to reduce costs, improve outcomes, and demonstrate value. Patient “researchers” are uniquely placed to participate in initiatives that address the specific needs and priorities of patients and facilitate the identification of interventions with high likelihood of acceptance by the “customer.” To date, however, the “patient voice” largely has been lacking in processes affecting relevant policies and practice guidelines. In this Special Report, patient and research leaders of the Sleep Apnea Patient-Centered Outcomes Network (SAPCON), a national collaborative group of patients, researchers and clinicians working together to promote patient-centered comparative effectiveness research, discuss these interrelated challenges in the context of sleep apnea, and the role patients and patient-centered networks may play in informing evidence-based research designed to meet patient's needs. We first briefly discuss the challenges facing sleep medicine associated with costs, outcomes, and value. We then discuss the key role patients and patient-centered networks can play in efforts to design research to guide better sleep health care, and national support for such initiatives. Finally, we summarize some of the challenges in moving to a new paradigm of patient-researcher-clinician partnerships. By forging strong partnerships among patients, clinicians and researchers, networks such as SAPCON can serve as a living demonstration of how to achieve value in health care. Citation: Redline S, Baker-Goodwin S, Bakker JP, Epstein M, Hanes S, Hanson M, Harrington Z, Johnston JC, Kapur VK, Keepnews D, Kontos E, Lowe A, Owens J, Page K, Rothstein N, Sleep Apnea Patient-Centered Outcomes Network. Patient partnerships transforming sleep medicine research and clinical care: perspectives from the Sleep Apnea Patient-Centered Outcomes Network. J

  3. Patients' view of retail clinics as a source of primary care: boon for nurse practitioners?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Arif; Fincham, Jack E

    2011-04-01

    To estimate consumer utilities associated with major attributes of retail clinics (RCs). A discrete choice experiment (DCE) with 383 adult residents of the metropolitan statistical areas in Georgia conducted via Random Digit Dial survey of households. The DCE had two levels each of four attributes: price ($59; $75), appointment wait time (same day; 1 day or more), care setting-provider combination (nurse practitioner [NP]-RC; physician-private office), and acute illness (urinary tract infection; influenza), resulting in 16 choice scenarios. The respondents indicated whether they would seek care under each scenario. Cost savings and convenience offered by RCs are attractive to urban patients, and given sufficient cost savings they are likely to seek care there. All else equal, one would require cost savings of at least $30.21 to seek care from an NP at RC rather than a physician at private office, and $83.20 to wait one day or more. Appointment wait time is a major determinant of care-seeking decisions for minor illnesses. The size of the consumer utility associated with the convenience feature of RCs indicates that there is likely to be further growth and employment opportunities for NPs in these clinics. ©2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  4. Development of Clinical Pharmacy in Switzerland: Involvement of Community Pharmacists in Care for Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Hersberger, Kurt E; Messerli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    The role of the community pharmacist in primary care has been undergoing change in Switzerland in parallel to international developments: it has become more clinically and patient oriented. Special services of community pharmacists to older patients taking long-term or multiple medications, discharged from hospitals or experiencing cognitive impairment or disability have been developed. These services require more clinical knowledge and skills from community pharmacists and are based on, for example, 'simple or intermediate medication reviews' focused primarily to improve medication adherence and rational drug use by a patient. Reflecting the new role of community pharmacies, this article describes the current services provided by community pharmacies in Switzerland, e.g., 'polymedication check', 'weekly pill organizer', and 'services for chronic patients', as well as new Swiss educational and reimbursement systems supporting development of these services. In the international context, involvement of community pharmacists in patient-oriented care is growing. This review summarizes positive and negative experiences from implementation of community pharmacy services in Switzerland and provides examples for the development of such services in other countries.

  5. Fluid therapy in neurointensive care patients: ESICM consensus and clinical practice recommendations.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Mauro; Poole, Daniele; Helbok, Raimund; Meyfroidt, Geert; Stocchetti, Nino; Bouzat, Pierre; Cecconi, Maurizio; Geeraerts, Thomas; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Quintard, Hervé; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Geocadin, Romergryko G; Hemphill, Claude; Ichai, Carole; Menon, David; Payen, Jean-François; Perner, Anders; Smith, Martin; Suarez, José; Videtta, Walter; Zanier, Elisa R; Citerio, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    To report the ESICM consensus and clinical practice recommendations on fluid therapy in neurointensive care patients. A consensus committee comprising 22 international experts met in October 2016 during ESICM LIVES2016. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussions between the members of the committee subsequently served to discuss and develop the consensus process. Population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) questions were reviewed and updated as needed, and evidence profiles generated. The consensus focused on three main topics: (1) general fluid resuscitation and maintenance in neurointensive care patients, (2) hyperosmolar fluids for intracranial pressure control, (3) fluid management in delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid haemorrhage. After an extensive literature search, the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system were applied to assess the quality of evidence (from high to very low), to formulate treatment recommendations as strong or weak, and to issue best practice statements when applicable. A modified Delphi process based on the integration of evidence provided by the literature and expert opinions-using a sequential approach to avoid biases and misinterpretations-was used to generate the final consensus statement. The final consensus comprises a total of 32 statements, including 13 strong recommendations and 17 weak recommendations. No recommendations were provided for two statements. We present a consensus statement and clinical practice recommendations on fluid therapy for neurointensive care patients.

  6. Changes across Three Editions of "The Suicidal Patient: Clinical and Legal Standards of Care": Relevance to Counseling Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polychronis, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Treating suicidality is one of the most challenging situations managed by college and university counseling centers. The first edition of Bongar's (1991) "The Suicidal Patient: Clinical and Legal Standards of Care," a compendium of empirical knowledge and clinical research regarding standard of care in the treatment of suicidality, was…

  7. Patients who return to care after tracking remain at high risk of attrition: experience from a large HIV clinic, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nakiwogga-Muwanga, A; Musaazi, J; Katabira, E; Worodria, W; Talisuna, S Alamo; Colebunders, R

    2015-01-01

    We determined the retention rate of patients infected with HIV who resumed care after being tracked at the Infectious Diseases Clinic (IDC) in Kampala, Uganda. Between April 2011 and September 2013, patients who missed their clinic appointment for 8-90 days were tracked, and those who returned to the clinic within 120 days were followed up. The proportion of patients retained among tracked patients, and those who resumed care before tracking started was compared. At 18 months of follow up, 33 (39%) of the tracked patients and 72 (61%) of those who had resumed care before tracking started were retained in care. The most important cause of attrition among the traceable was self-transfer to another clinic (38 [73%] patients), whereas among those who resumed care before tracking was loss to follow up (LTFU) (32 [71%] patients). Tracked patients who resume care following a missed appointment are at high risk of attrition. To increase retention, antiretroviral therapy clinics need to adopt a chronic care model which takes into consideration patients' changing needs and their preference for self-management. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Clinical care costing method for the Clinical Care Classification System.

    PubMed

    Saba, Virginia K; Arnold, Jean M

    2004-01-01

    To provide a means for calculating the cost of nursing care using the Clinical Care Classification System (CCCS). Three CCCS indicators of care components, actions, and outcomes in conjunction with Clinical Care Pathways (CCPs). The cost of patient care is based on the type of action time multiplied by care components and nursing costs. The CCCM for the CCCS makes it possible to measure and cost out clinical practice. The CCCM may be used with CCPs in the electronic patient medical record. The CCPs make it easy to track the clinical nursing care across time, settings, population groups, and geographical locations. Collected data may be used many times, allowing for improved documentation, analysis, and costing out of care.

  9. Characteristics of Patients Who Report Confusion After Reading Their Primary Care Clinic Notes Online.

    PubMed

    Root, Joseph; Oster, Natalia V; Jackson, Sara L; Mejilla, Roanne; Walker, Jan; Elmore, Joann G

    2016-01-01

    Patient access to online electronic medical records (EMRs) is increasing and may offer benefits to patients. However, the inherent complexity of medicine may cause confusion. We elucidate characteristics and health behaviors of patients who report confusion after reading their doctors' notes online. We analyzed data from 4,528 patients in Boston, MA, central Pennsylvania, and Seattle, WA, who were granted online access to their primary care doctors' clinic notes and who viewed at least one note during the 1-year intervention. Three percent of patients reported confusion after reading their visit notes. These patients were more likely to be at least 70 years of age (p < .0001), have fewer years of education (p < .0017), be unemployed (p < .0001), have lower levels of self-reported health (p < .0043), and worry more after reading visit notes (relative risk [RR] 4.83; confidence interval [CI] 3.17, 7.36) compared to patients who were not confused. In adjusted analyses, they were less likely to report feeling more in control of their health (RR 0.42; CI 0.25, 0.71), remembering their care plan (RR 0.26; CI 0.17, 0.42), and understanding their medical conditions (RR 0.32; CI 0.19, 0.54) as a result of reading their doctors' notes compared to patients who were not confused. Patients who were confused by reading their doctors' notes were less likely to report benefits in health behaviors. Understanding this small subset of patients is a critical step in reducing gaps in provider-patient communication and in efforts to tailor educational approaches for patients.

  10. Ethnocultural and sex characteristics of patients attending a tertiary care pain clinic in Toronto, Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Yegneswaran, Balaji; Nicholson, Keith; Lakha, SF; Papagapiou, Marios; Steiman, Amanda J; Ng, Danny; Cohodarevic, Tea; Umana, Margarita; Zurowski, Mateusz

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ethnocultural factors and sex may greatly affect pain perception and expression. Emerging literature is also documenting racial and ethnic differences in pain access and care. OBJECTIVE: To define the sex and ethnocultural characteristics of patients attending a tertiary care, university-affiliated pain clinic in Toronto, Ontario. METHODS: Data were collected on 1242 consecutive, new patients seen over a three-year period at the Comprehensive Pain Program (CPP) in downtown Toronto. Data were compared with the Canada 2001 Census. RESULTS: English-speaking, Canadian-born patients constituted 58.6% of the CPP population, similar to the 2001 Canadian Census data for the Greater Toronto Area. Certain visible minority groups (Indo-Pakistani and Chinese) were significantly under-represented, while European groups were over-represented. While women outnumbered men, they presented with lower levels of physical pathology in general, particularly in certain ethnic groups. Patients from Europe (representing primarily immigrants who arrived in Canada before 1960), were older, by 10 years to 15 years, than the average CPP population, and had a much higher incidence of physical or medical disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The implications of the study and the importance of sex and ethnicity in terms of presentation to Canadian pain clinics are discussed. Future well-designed studies are needed to shed light on the role of both patients’ and physicians’ ethnicity and sex in pain perception and expression, decision-making regarding pain treatments and acceptance of pain treatments. PMID:17505571

  11. [Analysis of patient complaints in Primary Care: An opportunity to improve clinical safety].

    PubMed

    Añel-Rodríguez, R M; Cambero-Serrano, M I; Irurzun-Zuazabal, E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and type of the clinical safety problems contained in the complaints made by patients and users in Primary Care. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted by analysing both the complaint forms and the responses given to them in the period of one year. At least 4.6% of all claims analysed in this study contained clinical safety problems. The family physician is the professional who received the majority of the complaints (53.6%), and the main reason was the problems related to diagnosis (43%), mainly the delay in diagnosis. Other variables analysed were the severity of adverse events experienced by patients (in 68% of cases the patient suffered some harm), the subsequent impact on patient care, which was affected in 39% of cases (7% of cases even requiring hospital admission), and the level of preventability of adverse events (96% avoidable) described in the claims. Finally the type of response issued to each complaint was analysed, being purely bureaucratic in 64% of all cases. Complaints are a valuable source of information about the deficiencies identified by patients and healthcare users. There is considerable scope for improvement in the analysis and management of claims in general, and those containing clinical safety issues in particular. To date, in our area, there is a lack of appropriate procedures for processing these claims. Likewise, we believe that other pathways or channels should be opened to enable communication by patients and healthcare users. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of pharmacists' interventions on patient outcomes in an HIV primary care clinic.

    PubMed

    March, Kristi; Mak, May; Louie, Stan G

    2007-12-15

    The effects of pharmacists' interventions on patient outcomes in an HIV primary care clinic were studied. All study participants were referred to a pharmacist-managed drug optimization clinic (DOC) in a county-based HIV primary care clinic between November 1, 2003, and September 30, 2004. Patients were eligible for study participation if they were 18 years of age or older and gave informed consent to participate. Pharmacists' interventions were categorized as follows: patient education, addition of a medication, dosage adjustment, discontinuation of a medication, and interpretation of viral-resistance tests. Changes in baseline CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and viral load were also measured over the study period. Toxicities related to highly active antiretroviral therapy were recorded and graded from 0 to 4, with 0 indicating no toxicity and 4 indicating severe toxicity. Study participants used a standardized survey to measure their own health-related quality of life. Changes in CD4+ lymphocyte counts and viral load were analyzed using Student's t test and analysis of variance. Toxicity grades were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A total of 34 patients completed the study. Pharmacists made a total of 253 interventions, most of which were categorized as patient education. The mean CD4+ lymphocyte count increased from baseline levels by 54 +/- 78 cells/mm3 over the study period (p < 0.0002). The mean +/- S.D. reduction in circulating viral load over the study period was 1.02 log10 copies/mL ( p < 0.004). HIV-infected patients who were managed by pharmacists in a DOC demonstrated significant improvement from baseline in their CD4+ lymphocyte counts, viral loads, and drug-related toxicities.

  13. Nutritional Care of Gastric Cancer Patients with Clinical Outcomes and Complications: A Review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wook Jin; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-04-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have been steadily decreased over the past few decades. However, gastric cancer is still one of the leading causes of cancer deaths across many regions of the world, particularly in Asian countries. In previous studies, nutrition has been considered one of significant risk factors in gastric cancer patients. Especially, malnourished patients are at greater risk of adverse clinical outcomes (e.g., longer hospital stay) and higher incidence of complications (e.g., wound/infectious complications) compared to well-nourished patients. Malnutrition is commonly found in advanced gastric cancer patients due to poor absorption of essential nutrients after surgery. Therefore, nutritional support protocols, such as early oral and enternal feeding, have been proposed in many studies, to improve unfavorable clinical outcomes and to reduce complications due to delayed application of oral nutritional support or parental feeding. Also, the supplied with enternal immune-enriched diet had more benefits in improving clinical outcomes and fewer complications compared to a group supplied with control formula. Using nutritional screening tools, such as nutritional risk index (NRI) and nutritional risk screening (NRS 2002), malnourished patients showed higher incidence of complications and lower survival rates than non-malnourished patients. However, a long-term nutritional intervention, such as nutritional counseling, was not effective in the patients. Therefore, early assessment of nutritional status in patients using a proper nutritional screening tool is suggested to prevent malnutrition and adverse health outcomes. Further studies with numerous ethnic groups may provide stronger scientific evidences in association between nutritional care and recovery from surgery in patients with gastric cancer.

  14. Team Clinic: An Innovative Group Care Model for Youth with Type 1 Diabetes-Engaging Patients and Meeting Educational Needs.

    PubMed

    Berget, Cari; Lindwall, Jennifer; Shea, Jacqueline J; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J; Anderson, Barbara J; Cain, Cindy; Raymond, Jennifer K

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot was to implement an innovative group care model, "Team Clinic", for adolescents with type 1 diabetes and assess patient and provider perspectives. Ninety-one intervention patients and 87 controls were enrolled. Ninety-six percent of intervention adolescents endorsed increased support and perceived connecting with peers as important. The medical providers and staff also provided positive feedback stating Team Clinic allowed more creativity in education and higher quality of care. Team Clinic may be a promising model to engage adolescents and incorporate education and support into clinic visits in a format valued by patients and providers.

  15. Patient satisfaction with health care services provided at HIV clinics at Amana and Muhimbili hospitals in Dar es Salaam.

    PubMed

    Kagashe, G A B; Rwebangila, F

    2011-08-01

    Since the establishment of free HIV/AIDS care and treatment services in Tanzania a lot of research has been done to assess how health care providers discharge their duties in these clinics. Little research however has been done regarding satisfaction of HIV patients with free health care services provided. To determine satisfaction of HIV patients with health care services provided at the HIV clinics and specifically, to determine patients' satisfaction with the general physical environment of the clinic and with services offered by doctors, nurses, laboratory, and pharmacy. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) and Amana hospital. A total of 375 patients attending outpatient HIV clinics were selected randomly and interviewed using a questionnaire, after obtaining a verbal consent. Data collected was analyzed using Epi-info program version 6. Patients at Amana Hospital clinic were either very satisfied (44.3%) or satisfied (55.7%) and none were unsatisfied, while at MNH clinic 1.1% patients were very satisfied while (94.7%) were satisfied and (4.2%) were unsatisfied with health care services provided. Lack of privacy when consulting with doctors and the dispenser contributed to patients' unsatisfaction with the services. Most of the participants were satisfied with the services provided at the two clinics. However at MNH, a few patients were unsatisfied due to lack of privacy during consultation with doctors and with the pharmacy services.

  16. Clinical assessments and care interventions to promote oral hydration amongst older patients: a narrative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Oates, Lloyd L; Price, Christopher I

    2017-01-01

    Older patients in hospital may be unable to maintain hydration by drinking, leading to intravenous fluid replacement, complications and a longer length of stay. We undertook a systematic review to describe clinical assessment tools which identify patients at risk of insufficient oral fluid intake and the impact of simple interventions to promote drinking, in hospital and care home settings. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases and two internet search engines (Google and Google Scholar) were examined. Articles were included when the main focus was use of a hydration/dehydration risk assessment in an adult population with/without a care intervention to promote oral hydration in hospitals or care homes. Reviews which used findings to develop new assessments were also included. Single case reports, laboratory results only, single technology assessments or non-oral fluid replacement in patients who were already dehydrated were excluded. Interventions where nutritional intake was the primary focus with a hydration component were also excluded. Identified articles were screened for relevance and quality before a narrative synthesis. No statistical analysis was planned. From 3973 citations, 23 articles were included. Rather than prevention of poor oral intake, most focused upon identification of patients already in negative fluid balance using information from the history, patient inspection and urinalysis. Nine formal hydration assessments were identified, five of which had an accompanying intervention/ care protocol, and there were no RCT or large observational studies. Interventions to provide extra opportunities to drink such as prompts, preference elicitation and routine beverage carts appeared to support hydration maintenance, further research is required. Despite a lack of knowledge of fluid requirements and dehydration risk factors amongst staff, there was no strong evidence that increasing awareness alone would be beneficial for patients. Despite descriptions of

  17. Clinical Workflow Observations to Identify Opportunities for Nurse, Physicians and Patients to Share a Patient-centered Plan of Care

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Sarah A.; Gazarian, Priscilla; Stade, Diana; McNally, Kelly; Morrison, Conny; Ohashi, Kumiko; Lehmann, Lisa; Dalal, Anuj; Bates, David W.; Dykes, Patricia C.

    2014-01-01

    Patient- and Family-Centered Care (PFCC) is essential for high quality care in the critical and acute-specialty care hospital setting. Effective PFCC requires clinicians to form an integrated interprofessional team to collaboratively engage with the patient/family and contribute to a shared patient-centered plan of care. We conducted observations on a critical care and specialty unit to understand the plan of care activities and workflow documentation requirements for nurses and physicians to inform the development of a shared patient-centered plan of care to support patient engagement. We identified siloed plan of care documentation, with workflow opportunities to converge the nurses plan of care with the physician planned To-do lists and quality and safety checklists. Integration of nurses and physicians plan of care activities into a shared plan of care is a feasible and valuable step toward interprofessional teams that effectively engage patients in plan of care activities. PMID:25954345

  18. Evaluation of clinical pharmacy services offered for palliative care patients in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Wilby, Kyle John; Mohamad, Alaa Adil; AlYafei, Sumaya AlSaadi

    2014-09-01

    Palliative care is an emerging concept in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, a political and economic union of Arab states bordering the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Clinical pharmacy services have not yet been evaluated in this region. The objectives of this study were to create a baseline inventory of clinical pharmacy interventions in palliative care and to assess the perceived importance of interventions made. This was a prospective, single-center characterization study. Interventions were documented from September 30 to December 1, 2013. They were characterized into predetermined categories and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Physician acceptance rate and intervention rate per patient were calculated. Classification categories were sent to 10 practicing pharmacists in each of Qatar and Canada, who ranked the categories on the basis of perceived importance. A total of 96 interventions were documented, giving 3 interventions per patient and an acceptance rate of 81%. Discontinuing therapy (29%), initiating therapy (25%), and provision of education/counseling (13.5%) were most common. No differences were found between rankings from pharmacists in Qatar or Canada. Clinical pharmacy interventions are frequent, and those relating to alterations in drug therapy are most common. Interventions align with the perceived importance from pharmacists in both Qatar and Canada.

  19. Patient Safety Culture in Slovenian out-of-hours Primary Care Clinics.

    PubMed

    Klemenc-Ketiš, Zalika; Deilkås, Ellen Tveter; Hofoss, Dag; Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi

    2017-10-01

    Patient safety culture is a concept which describes how leader and staff interaction, attitudes, routines and practices protect patients from adverse events in healthcare. We aimed to investigate patient safety culture in Slovenian out-of-hours health care (OOHC) clinics, and determine the possible factors that might be associated with it. This was a cross-sectional study, which took place in Slovenian OOHC, as part of the international study entitled Patient Safety Culture in European Out-of-Hours Services (SAFE-EUR-OOH). All the OOHC clinics in Slovenia (N=60) were invited to participate, and 37 agreed to do so; 438 employees from these clinics were invited to participate. We used the Slovenian version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - an ambulatory version (SAQAV) to measure the climate of safety. Out of 438 invited participants, 250 answered the questionnaire (57.1% response rate). The mean overall score ± standard deviation of the SAQ was 56.6±16.0 points, of Perceptions of Management 53.6±19.6 points, of Job Satisfaction 48.5±18.3 points, of Safety Climate 59.1±22.1 points, of Teamwork Climate 72.7±16.6, and of Communication 51.5±23.4 points. Employees working in the Ravne na Koroškem region, employees with variable work shifts, and those with full-time jobs scored significantly higher on the SAQ-AV. The safety culture in Slovenian OOHC clinics needs improvement. The variations in the safety culture factor scores in Slovenian OOHC clinics point to the need to eliminate variations and improve working conditions in Slovenian OOHC clinics.

  20. Facing the dilemma of patient-centred psoriasis care: a qualitative study identifying patient needs in dermatological outpatient clinics.

    PubMed

    Khoury, L R; Skov, L; Møller, T

    2017-08-01

    Caregivers must be aware of patients' current needs by providing care responsive to patients' values and preferences and by identifying what approach improves and encourages patients to participate in their treatment and disease management. Patients with psoriasis healthcare needs perhaps change as medical knowledge improves, new drugs emerge and the healthcare system improves its efficiency as a result of constant structural development. To explore the unmet needs and health perceptions of people with psoriasis, regarding interaction with clinicians and the structure inherent to consultations in a hospital outpatient dermatological clinic. A qualitative investigation with data generated from semi-structured interviews. Transcriptions were subsequently analysed using the template analysis method. Sixteen patients with psoriasis were interviewed. Challenges and dilemmas of patient-centred psoriasis care were identified. Patients have a strong need to be met as individuals as the burden of living with psoriasis goes beyond the skin. Patients strive for efficient treatment and ultimately dream of being cured of psoriasis. They prefer individualized health education in order to adjust their knowledge and self-management skills. These central issues are as yet rarely addressed in clinical consultations. Consultations with a standardized structure do not match the individual challenges and healthcare needs of patients with psoriasis. In order to achieve a more patient-centred approach, health professionals should implement minor structural changes to dermatological services to meet patients' current needs and invite dialogue about the patients' emotional well-being and concerns that go beyond biomedical factors, as well as offer individualized health education. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Clinical inertia in the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes patients in primary care.

    PubMed

    Mata-Cases, Manel; Benito-Badorrey, Belén; Roura-Olmeda, Pilar; Franch-Nadal, Josep; Pepió-Vilaubí, Josep Maria; Saez, Marc; Coll-de-Tuero, Gabriel

    2013-11-01

    To assess clinical inertia, defined as failure to intensify antidiabetic treatment of patients who have not achieved the HbA1c therapeutic goal (≤7%). Multicenter cross-sectional study. Clinical inertia was assessed in a random sample of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients seen in primary care centers. A total of 2783 patients (51.3% males; mean age: 68 [±11.5] years; diabetes duration: 7.1 [±5.6] years; mean HbA1c: 6.8 [±1.5]) were analyzed. Of those, 997 (35.8%) had HbA1c >7%. Treatment was intensified in 66.8% and consisted of: dose increase (40.5%); addition of oral antidiabetic (45.8%); or insulin treatment initiation (3.7%). Mean HbA1c values in patients for whom treatment was intensified vs. non-intensified were 8.4% (±1.2) vs. 8.2% (±1.2), p < 0.05. Clinical inertia was detected in 33.2% of patients and diminished along with treatment complexity: lifestyle changes only (38.8%), oral monotherapy (40.3%), combined oral antidiabetics (34.5%), insulin monotherapy (26.1%) and combination of insulin and oral antidiabetics (21.4%). Clinical inertia decreased as HbA1c increased: 37.3% for HbA1c values ranging between 7.1%-8%; 29.4% for the 8.1%-9% HbA1c range and 27.1% for HbA1c ≥9%. Multivariate analysis confirmed that diabetes duration, step of treatment and HbA1c were related to inertia. For each unit of HbA1c increase clinical inertia decreased 47% (OR: 0.53). The retrospective design of the study precluded an accurate investigation about reasons for lack of intensification that could actually be justified by some patient conditions, especially patients' lack of adherence. Clinical inertia affected one third of T2DM patients with poor glycemic control and was greater in patients treated with only lifestyle changes or oral monotherapy. Treatment changes were performed when mean HbA1c values were 1.4 points above therapeutic goals.

  2. Retention in HIV care depends on patients' perceptions of the clinic experience.

    PubMed

    Wessinger, Matthew H; Hennink, Monique M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Mangal, Jed P; Gokhale, Runa H; Ruchin, Lauren; Moanna, Abeer; Rimland, David; Farber, Eugene W; Marconi, Vincent C

    2017-10-01

    Institutional barriers in HIV primary care settings can contribute substantially to disparities in retention in HIV treatment and HIV-related outcomes. This qualitative study compared the perceptions of clinic experiences of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in a Veterans Affairs HIV primary care clinic setting who were retained in care with the experiences of those who were not retained in care. Qualitative data from 25 in-depth interviews were analyzed to identify facilitators and barriers to retention in HIV care. Results showed that participants not retained in care experienced barriers to retention involving dissatisfaction with clinic wait times, low confidence in clinicians, and customer service concerns. For participants retained in care, patience with procedural issues, confidence in clinicians, and interpersonal connections were factors that enhanced retention despite the fact that these participants recognized the same barriers as those who were not retained in care. These findings can inform interventions aimed at improving retention in HIV care.

  3. Age of depressed patient does not affect clinical outcome in collaborative care management.

    PubMed

    Angstman, Kurt B; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Rasmussen, Norman H; DeJesus, Ramona S; Katzelnick, David J

    2011-09-01

    Clinical response and remission for the treatment of depression has been shown to be improved utilizing collaborative care management (CCM). Prior studies have indicated that the presence of mental health comorbidities noted by self-rated screening tools at the intake for CCM are associated with worsening outcomes; few have examined directly the impact of age on clinical response and remission. The hypothesis was that when controlling for other mental health and demographic variables, the age of the patient at implementation of CCM does not significantly impact clinical outcome, and that CCM shows consistent efficacy across the adult age spectrum. We performed a retrospective chart analysis of a cohort of 574 patients with a clinical diagnosis of major depression (not dysthymia) treated in CCM who had 6 months of follow-up data. Using the age group as a categorical variable in logistic regression models demonstrated that while maintaining control of all other variables, age grouping remained a nonsignificant predictor of clinical response (P ≥ 0.1842) and remission (P ≥ 0.1919) after 6 months of treatment. In both models, a lower Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 score and a negative Mood Disorder Questionnaire score were predictive of clinical response and remission. However, the initial Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score was a statistically significant predictor only for clinical remission (P = 0.0094), not for response (P = 0.0645), at 6 months. In a subset (n = 295) of the study cohort, clinical remission at 12 months was also not associated with age grouping (P ≥ 0.3355). The variables that were predictive of remission at 12 months were the presence of clinical remission at 6 months (odds ratio [OR], 7.4820; confidence interval [CI], 3.9301-14.0389; P < 0.0001), clinical response (with persistent symptoms) (OR, 2.7722; CI, 1.1950-6.4313; P = 0.0176), and a lower initial Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score (OR, 0.9121; CI, 0.8475-0.9816; P = 0.0140). Our

  4. Clinical and health care use characteristics of patients newly prescribed allopurinol, febuxostat and colchicine for gout

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seoyoung C.; Schmidt, Bernhard M.W.; Franklin, Jessica M.; Liu, Jun; Solomon, Daniel H.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Background Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis with the increasing prevalence in the developed countries. It is well-known that many patients with gout have significant comorbidities and high health care utilization. Methods Using US insurance claims data (2009–2011), a population-based cohort study was conducted to describe clinical characteristics and health care utilization patterns in patients with gout newly prescribed allopurinol, febuxostat or colchicine. Results There were 25,051 allopurinol, 4,288 febuxostat and 6,238 colchicine initiators. Mean age was 53 years and 83%–87% were male. More than half of patients had hypertension and hyperlipidemia, 20% had diabetes and 10% cardiovascular disease. The mean uric acid level (mg/dl) was similar at baseline ranging from 8.1 to 8.5 across the groups. Compared to allopurinol or colchicine initiators, febuxostat initiators had more comorbidities and greater health care uses including outpatient, inpatient or emergency room visits, both at baseline and during the follow-up. Use of gout related drugs, such as opioids, steroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, was most common in febuxostat and least common in colchicine initiators. The median daily dose at both start and end of treatment was 300mg for allopurinol, 40mg for febuxostat, and 1.2mg for colchicine. The dosage of allopurinol and febuxostat was rarely increased during the follow-up. Conclusion Patients who started allopurinol, febuxostat or colchicine for gout generally had hyperuricemia and multiple comorbidities. Febuxostat initiators had more comorbidities and greater use of health care resources and gout-related drugs than other groups. Overall, the dosages of allopurinol or febuxostat remained unchanged over time. PMID:23861232

  5. Frequent attenders without organic disease in a gastroenterology clinic. Patient characteristics and health care use.

    PubMed

    Bass, C; Bond, A; Gill, D; Sharpe, M

    1999-01-01

    We used a hospital computer to identify 50 patients (35 women, 15 men) satisfying research criteria for "frequent attenders" at a gastroenterology outpatient clinic (four or more visits to a general hospital clinic in the previous 12 months). Their mean duration of symptoms was 5 years, and 80% reported fatigue as a significant complaint. Thirteen (37%) of the women were also consulting a gynecologist, and in nine of these their status was normal. Seven (21%) of the 35 women who were interviewed had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and these patients reported significantly more lifetime somatic symptoms (9.7, SD = 3.8) than those without such a history (5.4, SD = 3.5, p = < 0.01). The 50 patients reported high levels of disability and psychological distress, and were more likely to rate the probability of their symptoms as being due to "bowel disease" than to "stress" or "other problems." Forty-five patients had at least one current psychiatric diagnosis and 24 at least two, with somatoform disorders being the most common. Nineteen (38%) reported infrequent panic attacks, but only three had somatization disorder. The mean number of lifetime somatic symptoms was 5.9 (SD = 3.6; range 1-14). Seventeen patients (35%) also satisfied criteria for frequent attending in primary care (> 12 visits over the previous 12 months), and the patients reported a mean number of 5.7 (SD = 2.1) specialist appointments in the previous year. There may be a case for using the hospital computer to identify frequent attenders proactively at an earlier stage of their hospital visits so that appropriate management can be instituted. If such patients can be identified in this way, their assessment and management might be more appropriately supervised in designated clinics by more experienced gastroenterology staff.

  6. Impact of Patient-Centered Care Innovations on Access to Providers, Ambulatory Care Utilization, and Patient Clinical Indicators in the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Lisa; Sohn, Min-Woong; Jordan, Neil; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Gampetro, Pamela; LaVela, Sherri L

    2016-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration piloted patient-centered care (PCC) innovations beginning in 2010 to improve patient and provider experience and environment in ambulatory care. We use secondary data to look at longitudinal trends, evaluate system redesign, and identify areas for further quality improvement. This was a retrospective, observational study using existing secondary data from multiple US Department of Veteran Affairs sources to evaluate changes in veteran and facility outcomes associated with PCC innovations at 2 innovation and matched comparison sites between FY 2008-2010 (pre-PCC innovations) and FY 2011-2012 (post-PCC innovations). Outcomes included access to primary care providers (PCPs); primary, specialty, and emergency care use; and clinical indicators for chronic disease. Longitudinal trends revealed a different story at each site. One site demonstrated better PCP access, decrease in emergency and primary care use, increase in specialty care use, and improvement in diabetic glucose control. The other site demonstrated a decrease in PCP access and primary care use, no change in specialty care use, and an increase in diastolic blood pressure in relation to the comparison site. Secondary data analysis can reveal longitudinal trends associated with system changes, thereby informing program evaluation and identifying opportunities for quality improvement.

  7. Veterans Health Administration Office of Nursing Services exploration of positive patient care synergies fueled by consumer demand: care coordination, advanced clinic access, and patient self-management.

    PubMed

    Wertenberger, Sydney; Yerardi, Ruth; Drake, Audrey C; Parlier, Renee

    2006-01-01

    The consumers who utilize the Veterans Health Administration healthcare system are older, and most are learning to live with chronic diseases. Their desires and needs have driven changes within the Veterans Health Administration. Through patient satisfaction initiatives and other feedback sources, consumers have made it clear that they do not want to wait for their care, they want a say in what care is provided to them, and they want to remain as independent as possible. Two interdisciplinary processes/models of healthcare are being implemented on the national level to address these issues: advanced clinic access and care coordination. These programs have a synergistic relationship and are integrated with patient self-management initiatives. Positive outcomes of these programs also meet the needs of our staff. As these new processes and programs are implemented nationwide, skills of both patients and nursing staff who provide their care need to be enhanced to meet the challenges of providing nursing care now and into the 21st century. Veterans Health Administration Office of Nursing Services Strategic Planning Work Group is defining and implementing processes/programs to ensure nurses have the knowledge, information, and skills to meet these patient care demands at all levels within the organization.

  8. Accessible medical equipment for patients with disabilities in primary care clinics: why is it lacking?

    PubMed

    Pharr, Jennifer

    2013-04-01

    Previous research has identified inaccessible medical equipment as a barrier to health care services encountered by people with disabilities. However, no research has been conducted to understand why medical practices lack accessible equipment. The purpose of this study was to examine practice administrators' knowledge of accessible medical equipment and cost of accessible medical equipment to understand why medical practices lack such equipment. Hypotheses were: 1) Practice administrators lacked knowledge about accessible medical equipment and 2) The cost of accessible medical equipment was too great compared to standard equipment for the clinic. This study was a mixed methods survey of primary care practice administrators. The sixty-three participates were members of a medical management organization. Data were collected between December 20, 2011 and January 17, 2012. Proportions, Guttman scalogram, and Spearman's Rho correlation analyses were utilized. For this sample, less than half of the administrators knew that accessible equipment existed and a fourth knew what accessible equipment existed. There was a significant (p < 0.01), positive correlation between knowledge of accessible equipment and pieces of accessible equipment in the clinics. Because less than half of the administrators had ever considered purchasing accessible equipment, it was inconclusive if cost of accessible equipment was too great. Practice administrators' lack of knowledge of accessible medical equipment emphasizes the need not only for more education about the availability of accessible equipment but also about the importance of accessible equipment for their patients with disabilities and for physicians who provide them care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Who attends Dunedin's free clinic? A study of patients facing cost barriers to primary health care access.

    PubMed

    Loh, Lik; Dovey, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Several methods of reducing the cost barrier to primary health care have been implemented in New Zealand, but research about free primary health care and the patients who use such services is scarce. To compare the characteristics of patients at Dunedin's free clinic with those at a traditional general practice clinic. A written survey was distributed to waiting room patients at the Free Clinic and a fee-charging clinic in close proximity. Patient records were accessed to determine health services utilisation rates at both clinics and the discounting rate at the traditional clinic. There were 126 patient surveys returned at the Traditional Clinic and 65 at the Free Clinic. There was a significantly greater proportion of Maori respondents at the Free Clinic than at the Traditional Clinic (24.1% versus 9.2%, p=0.011). The difference in deprivation profiles of Free Clinic and Traditional Clinic respondents was more marked for the individual deprivation measure (five or more NZiDep deprivation characteristics: 65.5% versus 13.3%, p<0.001) than for residential area deprivation (NZDep2006 quintile 5: 41.4% versus 15.8%, p<0.001). Emergency department presentation rates were high for Free Clinic patients, despite free primary care access and high general practitioner consultation rates. Among Traditional Clinic respondents, 31.7% reported deferring health care because of cost in the previous 12 months. The equivalent figure for Free Clinic respondents was 63.8%. This survey suggests that Dunedin's Free Clinic serves a vulnerable population, in whom levels of unmet health need and health service usage are high.

  10. What is next after transfer of care from hospital to home for stroke patients? Evaluation of a community stroke care service based in a primary care clinic

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Aznida Firzah Abdul; Aziz, Noor Azah Abd; Nordin, Nor Azlin Mohd; Ali, Mohd Fairuz; Sulong, Saperi; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Context: Poststroke care in developing countries is inundated with poor concordance and scarce specialist stroke care providers. A primary care-driven health service is an option to ensure optimal care to poststroke patients residing at home in the community. Aims: We assessed outcomes of a pilot long-term stroke care clinic which combined secondary prevention and rehabilitation at community level. Settings and Design: A prospective observational study of stroke patients treated between 2008 and 2010 at a primary care teaching facility. Subjects and Methods: Analysis of patients was done at initial contact and at 1-year post treatment. Clinical outcomes included stroke risk factor(s) control, depression according to Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), and level of independence using Barthel Index (BI). Statistical Analysis Used: Differences in means between baseline and post treatment were compared using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon-signed rank test. Significance level was set at 0.05. Results: Ninety-one patients were analyzed. Their mean age was 62.9 [standard deviation (SD) 10.9] years, mean stroke episodes were 1.30 (SD 0.5). The median interval between acute stroke and first contact with the clinic 4.0 (interquartile range 9.0) months. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased by 9.7 mmHg (t = 2.79, P = 0.007), while mean diastolic blood pressure remained unchanged at 80mmHg (z = 1.87, P = 0.06). Neurorehabilitation treatment was given to 84.6% of the patients. Median BI increased from 81 (range: 2−100) to 90.5 (range: 27−100) (Z = 2.34, P = 0.01). Median PHQ9 scores decreased from 4.0 (range: 0−22) to 3.0 (range: 0−19) though the change was not significant (Z= −0.744, P = 0.457). Conclusions: Primary care-driven long-term stroke care services yield favorable outcomes for blood pressure control and functional level. PMID:24347948

  11. Clinical relevance of herpes simplex virus viremia in Intensive Care Unit patients.

    PubMed

    Lepiller, Q; Sueur, C; Solis, M; Barth, H; Glady, L; Lefebvre, F; Fafi-Kremer, S; Schneider, F; Stoll-Keller, F

    2015-07-01

    To determine the clinical relevance of herpes simplex virus (HSV) viremia episodes in critically ill adult patients. 1556 blood samples obtained for HSV PCR analysis in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients over 4 years were retrospectively analyzed, focusing on the comprehensive analysis of 88 HSV-viremic patients. HSV DNA was detected in 11.8% of samples from the ICU. HSV viral loads remained below 5×10(2) copies/ml in 68.2% of patients and exceeded 10(4) copies/ml in 7.9%. Episodes of HSV-viremia correlated with immunosuppressed status and mechanical ventilation in 79.5% and 65.9% of patients, respectively. Only a subset of patients exhibited HSV-related organ damage, including pneumonia and hepatitis (10.2% and 2.3%, respectively). The mortality rate in HSV-viremic patients was not significantly increased compared to the overall mortality rate in the ICU (27.3% vs. 22.9%, p = 0.33). Only patients with high HSV viral loads tended to have a higher, though non-significant, death rate (57.1%, p = 0.14). Our results suggest HSV viremia is common in ICU patients, potentially favored by immunocompromised status and mechanical ventilation. The global impact of HSV-viremia on mortality in the ICU was low. Quantifying HSV DNA may help identifying patients at-risk of severe HSV-induced symptoms. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-care and quality of life of heart failure patients at a multidisciplinary heart function clinic.

    PubMed

    Seto, Emily; Leonard, Kevin J; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Masino, Caterina; Barnsley, Jan; Ross, Heather J

    2011-01-01

    Multidisciplinary heart function clinics aim to improve self-care through patient education and to provide clinical management. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the self-care and quality of life of patients attending a multidisciplinary heart function clinic and to explore the relationship between self-care and quality of life. One hundred outpatients attending a multidisciplinary heart function clinic were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Self-care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI) and the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire, which were used to assess self-care behavior and quality of life, respectively. Self-care practices and perceived barriers were also assessed through semistructured interviews with each patient. : The returned questionnaires (n = 94) were used to compute the following SCHFI maintenance, management, and confidence scores: 60.8 (SD, 19.3), 62.0 (SD, 20.7), and 55.9 (SD, 19.7), respectively. Higher SCHFI scores indicate better self-care. None of the self-care dimensions reached the self-care adequacy cut point of 70. The average score on the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire was 49.9 (SD, 25.4), indicating a moderate health-related quality of life. Lower ejection fraction, older age, and better quality of life were associated with better self-care. Determinants of better quality of life were older age, better functional capacity, higher self-care confidence, and fewer comorbidities. The patient interviews revealed that better quality of life is associated with higher self-care confidence and barriers to self-care caused anxiety to the patients. The self-care barriers were found to include lack of self-care education, financial constraints, lack of perceived benefit, and low self-efficacy. Patients attending a large multidisciplinary Canadian heart failure clinic do not perform adequate self-care as measured with the SCHFI and report only a moderate quality of life

  13. Clinical outcomes of patient mobility in a neuroscience intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Mulkey, Malissa; Bena, James F; Albert, Nancy M

    2014-06-01

    Patients treated in a neuroscience intensive care unit (NICU) are often viewed as too sick to tolerate physical activity. In this study, mobility status in NICU was assessed, and factors and outcomes associated with mobility were examined. Using a prospective design, daily mobility status, medical history, demographics, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III score, and clinical outcomes were collected by medical records and database review. Depression, anxiety, and hostility were assessed before NICU discharge. Analyses included comparative statistics and multivariable modeling. In 228 unique patients, median (minimum, maximum) age was 64.0 (20, 95) years, 66.4% were Caucasian, and 53.6% were men. Of 246 admissions, median NICU stay was 4 (1, 61) days; APACHE III score was 56 (16, 145). Turning, range of motion, and head of bed of >30° were uniformly applied (n = 241), but 94 patients (39%) never progressed; 94 (39%) progressed to head of bed of >45° or dangling legs, 29 (12%) progressed to standing or pivoting to chair, and 24 (10%) progressed to walking. Female gender (p = .019), mechanical ventilation (p < .001), higher APACHE score (p = .004), and 30-day mortality (p = .001) were associated with less mobility. In multivariable modeling, greater mobility was associated with longer unit stay (p < .001) and discharge to home (p < .001). Psychological profile characteristics were not associated with mobility level. Nearly 40% of patients never progressed beyond bed movement, and only 10% walked. Although limited mobility progression was not associated with many patient factors, it was associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Implementation and evaluation of a progressive mobility protocol are needed in NICU patients. For more insights from the authors, see Supplemental Digital Content 1, at http://link.lww.com/JNN/A10.

  14. Do patients and health care professionals view the communication processes of clinical research differently? A Rasch analysis from a survey.

    PubMed

    González-de Paz, Luis; Kostov, Belchin; Solans-Julian, Pilar; Navarro-Rubio, M Dolores; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni

    2015-10-01

    The increasing amount of the clinical research conducted in the primary health care has enabled extending research beyond traditional settings, but this transfer has implied some trade-offs. Health care professionals who conduct research with trusted patients require assuming the ethical standards of research and communication skills to enable patients' autonomy and freedom of choice. This study aims to measure the opinions of health professionals and patients on issues of communication in clinical research. A cross-sectional study with health care professionals and patients from primary health care centres in Barcelona (Spain). Each group completed a similar self-administered questionnaire. A Rasch model was fitted to data. After examination of goodness-of-fit, differences between groups were compared using analysis of variance, and patients' measures were calibrated to professionals' measures to compare overall mean measures. Professionals and patients found the ethical attitudes most difficult to endorse related to trust in clinical researchers and conflicts of interest. Patients' perceptions of professional ethical behaviour were significantly lower than professionals'. Different item functioning between nurses and family doctors was found in the item on seeking ethical collaboration when collaborating in clinical research. Effective knowledge of ethical norms was associated with greater perceived ethical values in clinical research and confidence in health care professionals among patients. Differences in the views of the communication process between patients and professionals could alert research boards, health care institutions and researchers to the need for greater transparency, trust and ethical instruction when patients are involved in clinical research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Multidisciplinary team approach to improved chronic care management for diabetic patients in an urban safety net ambulatory care clinic.

    PubMed

    Tapp, Hazel; Phillips, Shay E; Waxman, Dael; Alexander, Matthew; Brown, Rhett; Hall, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Since the care of patients with multiple chronic diseases such as diabetes and depression accounts for the majority of health care costs, effective team approaches to managing such complex care in primary care are needed, particularly since psychosocial and physical disorders coexist. Uncontrolled diabetes is a leading health risk for morbidity, disability and premature mortality with between 18-31% of patients also having undiagnosed or undertreated depression. Here we describe a team driven approach that initially focused on patients with poorly controlled diabetes (A1c > 9) that took place at a family medicare office. The team included: resident and faculty physicians, a pharmacist, social worker, nurses, behavioral medicine interns, office scheduler, and an information technologist. The team developed immediate integrative care for diabetic patients during routine office visits.

  16. Early return visits by pediatric primary care patients with otitis media: a retail nurse practitioner clinic versus standard medical office care.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, James E; Garrison, Gregory M; Angstman, Kurt B

    2012-01-01

    To compare outpatient return visits within 2 weeks experienced by pediatric patients diagnosed with otitis media using retail nurse practitioner clinics to similar patients using standard medical office clinics. The impact of retail clinics on return visit rates has not been extensively studied. Electronic medical records of pediatric primary care patients seen in a large group practice in Minnesota in 2009 for otitis media. Patients seen in retail walk-in clinics staffed by nurse practitioners (N = 627) or regular office clinics (N = 2353). A return visit to any site within 2 weeks. The percentage returning was higher in standard care patients than in retail medicine patients (21.0 vs 11.2, P < .001). The odds of a return visit within 2 weeks were higher in standard care patients than in retail medicine patients after adjusting for propensity to use services, age, and gender (odds ratio = 1.54, P < 0.01). In this group practice, the odds of return visits within 2 weeks for pediatric patients treated for otitis media were lower in retail medicine clinics than in standard office clinics.

  17. Medical Care in a Free Clinic: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Patient Experience, Incentives, and Barriers to Optimal Medical Care with Consideration of a Facility Fee.

    PubMed

    Birs, Antoinette; Liu, Xinwei; Nash, Bee; Sullivan, Sara; Garris, Stephanie; Hardy, Marvin; Lee, Michael; Simms-Cendan, Judith; Pasarica, Magdalena

    2016-02-19

    Free and charitable clinics are important contributors to the health of the United States population. Recently, funding for these clinics has been declining, and it is, therefore, useful to identify what qualities patients value the most in clinics in an effort to allocate funding wisely. In order to identify targets and incentives for improvement of patients' health, we performed a comprehensive analysis of patients' experience at a free clinic by analyzing a patient survey (N=94). The survey also assessed patient opinions of a small facility fee, which could be used to offset the decrease in funds. Interestingly, our patients believed it is appropriate to be charged a facility fee (78%) because it increases involvement in their care (r = 0.69, p < 0.001) and self-respect (r = 0.66, p < 0.001). Incentives to medical care include continuity of care, faith-based care, having a patient medical provider partnership, and charging a facility fee. Barriers include affordable housing, transportation, medication, and accessible information. In order to improve medical care in the uninsured population, our study suggested that we need to: 1) offer continuity of medical care; 2) offer affordable preventive health screenings; 3) support affordable transportation, housing, and medications; and 4) consider including a facility fee.

  18. Assessing the Use of Mobile Health Technology by Patients: An Observational Study in Primary Care Clinics.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Veronica; Johnson, Emily; Gonzalez, Cesar; Ramirez, Vanessa; Rubino, Barbara; Rossetti, Gina

    2016-04-19

    There is significant potential for mobile health technology to improve health outcomes for patients with chronic diseases. However, there is a need for further development of mobile health technology that would help to improve the health of lower-income communities. The study objective was to assess mobile phone and app usage among a culturally diverse patient population, and to determine whether patients would be interested in using mobile health technology to help manage their chronic diseases. An observational study was conducted with patients of the Internal Medicine resident primary care clinics of Los Angeles County and University of Southern California (LAC+USC) Medical Center. Self-reported information regarding demographics, current mobile phone usage, current mobile health app and social media usage, barriers to using mobile phones or mobile health apps, and interest in using a mobile health app was collected. Ninety-one percent of patients owned a mobile phone, with 76% (169/223) of these reporting having a mobile phone with Internet capability. Fifty-seven percent of subjects used mobile apps on their mobile phones, and 32% (41/130) of these used mobile apps related to their health. Eighty-six percent (207/241) of respondents voiced interest in using a mobile app to improve their health, and 40% (88/221) stated they would use such an app daily. Patients stated they would find the mobile health app most useful for nutrition, exercise, and obtaining general information on medical conditions. Despite the fact that the majority of our primary care patients were of lower socioeconomic status, they utilized mobile phones with Internet and mobile app capabilities to a great extent. There was substantial interest among our patients in using mobile health technology to both manage chronic disease and improve overall health. Given that cultural, educational, and socioeconomic disparities strongly correlate with higher rates of chronic diseases such as obesity

  19. Assessing the Use of Mobile Health Technology by Patients: An Observational Study in Primary Care Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Emily; Gonzalez, Cesar; Ramirez, Vanessa; Rubino, Barbara; Rossetti, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Background There is significant potential for mobile health technology to improve health outcomes for patients with chronic diseases. However, there is a need for further development of mobile health technology that would help to improve the health of lower-income communities. Objective The study objective was to assess mobile phone and app usage among a culturally diverse patient population, and to determine whether patients would be interested in using mobile health technology to help manage their chronic diseases. Methods An observational study was conducted with patients of the Internal Medicine resident primary care clinics of Los Angeles County and University of Southern California (LAC+USC) Medical Center. Self-reported information regarding demographics, current mobile phone usage, current mobile health app and social media usage, barriers to using mobile phones or mobile health apps, and interest in using a mobile health app was collected. Results Ninety-one percent of patients owned a mobile phone, with 76% (169/223) of these reporting having a mobile phone with Internet capability. Fifty-seven percent of subjects used mobile apps on their mobile phones, and 32% (41/130) of these used mobile apps related to their health. Eighty-six percent (207/241) of respondents voiced interest in using a mobile app to improve their health, and 40% (88/221) stated they would use such an app daily. Patients stated they would find the mobile health app most useful for nutrition, exercise, and obtaining general information on medical conditions. Conclusions Despite the fact that the majority of our primary care patients were of lower socioeconomic status, they utilized mobile phones with Internet and mobile app capabilities to a great extent. There was substantial interest among our patients in using mobile health technology to both manage chronic disease and improve overall health. Given that cultural, educational, and socioeconomic disparities strongly correlate with

  20. Adding ultrasound to clinical examination reduced frequency of enthesitis in primary care psoriasis patients with musculoskeletal complaints.

    PubMed

    van der Ven, Myrthe; Karreman, Maren C; Weel, Angelique E A M; Tchetverikov, Ilja; Vis, Marijn; Nijsten, Tamar E C; Hazes, Johanna M W; Luime, Jolanda J

    2016-01-01

    Part of the psoriasis patients with musculoskeletal complaints will have inflammation of the entheses. Entheseal inflammation is difficult to assess by clinical examination only. Therefore, we aimed to determine the frequency of clinically relevant ultrasound inflammation at the most commonly assessed entheses (MASEI; Madrid Sonographic Enthesis Index) in primary care psoriasis patients with one or more tender entheses. Adult primary care psoriasis patients with musculoskeletal complaints (tender enthesis or arthritis at physical examination) had an ultrasound examination of seven entheses according to the MASEI. Clinically relevant ultrasound inflammation was defined as active inflammation on ultrasound in combination with at least one clinical feature at the same enthesis. Active ultrasound inflammation contained positive power Doppler signal or in case of the plantar aponeurosis increased thickness. Structural changes entailed calcifications, enthesophytes, increased thickness, hypoechogeneicity indicating irregular fibre structure and erosions. Clinically, an enthesis was scored positive by a tender enthesis at clinical examination, reported pain in the history or self-reported pain in the questionnaires. Of 542 primary care psoriasis patient, 111 patients had tender entheses and/or arthritis. These patients were both clinically and ultrasonographically evaluated. Active ultrasound inflammation accompanied with pain or tenderness at the enthesis was found in 36% of the patients (n=40). Most common were inflammation at the knee (n=11) and at the plantar aponeurosis (n=10). Structural changes were observed in 95% of the psoriasis patients independent of their clinical manifestation. We found concurrent presence of ultrasound inflammatory changes and clinical symptoms in 36% of the primary care psoriasis patients who had tenderness at one or more entheseal sites.

  1. The role of technical advances in the adoption and integration of patient-reported outcomes in clinical care.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Roxanne E; Rothrock, Nan E; DeWitt, Esi M; Spiegel, Brennan; Tucker, Carole A; Crane, Heidi M; Forrest, Christopher B; Patrick, Donald L; Fredericksen, Rob; Shulman, Lisa M; Cella, David; Crane, Paul K

    2015-02-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are gaining recognition as key measures for improving the quality of patient care in clinical care settings. Three factors have made the implementation of PROs in clinical care more feasible: increased use of modern measurement methods in PRO design and validation, rapid progression of technology (eg, touchscreen tablets, Internet accessibility, and electronic health records), and greater demand for measurement and monitoring of PROs by regulators, payers, accreditors, and professional organizations. As electronic PRO collection and reporting capabilities have improved, the challenges of collecting PRO data have changed. To update information on PRO adoption considerations in clinical care, highlighting electronic and technical advances with respect to measure selection, clinical workflow, data infrastructure, and outcomes reporting. Five practical case studies across diverse health care settings and patient populations are used to explore how implementation barriers were addressed to promote the successful integration of PRO collection into the clinical workflow. The case studies address selecting and reporting of relevant content, workflow integration, previsit screening, effective evaluation, and electronic health record integration. These case studies exemplify elements of well-designed electronic systems, including response automation, tailoring of item selection and reporting algorithms, flexibility of collection location, and integration with patient health care data elements. They also highlight emerging logistical barriers in this area, such as the need for specialized technological and methodological expertise, and design limitations of current electronic data capture systems.

  2. Financial Incentives for Linkage to Care and Viral Suppression Among HIV-Positive Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial (HPTN 065).

    PubMed

    El-Sadr, Wafaa M; Donnell, Deborah; Beauchamp, Geetha; Hall, H Irene; Torian, Lucia V; Zingman, Barry; Lum, Garret; Kharfen, Michael; Elion, Richard; Leider, Jason; Gordin, Fred M; Elharrar, Vanessa; Burns, David; Zerbe, Allison; Gamble, Theresa; Branson, Bernard

    2017-08-01

    Achieving linkage to care and viral suppression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients improves their well-being and prevents new infections. Current gaps in the HIV care continuum substantially limit such benefits. To evaluate the effectiveness of financial incentives on linkage to care and viral suppression in HIV-positive patients. A large community-based clinical trial that randomized 37 HIV test and 39 HIV care sites in the Bronx, New York, and Washington, DC, to financial incentives or standard of care. Participants at financial incentive test sites who had positive test results for HIV received coupons redeemable for $125 cash-equivalent gift cards upon linkage to care. HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at financial incentive care sites received $70 gift cards quarterly, if virally suppressed. Linkage to care: proportion of HIV-positive persons at the test site who linked to care within 3 months, as indicated by CD4+ and/or viral load test results done at a care site. Viral suppression: proportion of established patients at HIV care sites with suppressed viral load (<400 copies/mL), assessed at each calendar quarter. Outcomes assessed through laboratory test results reported to the National HIV Surveillance System. A total of 1061 coupons were dispensed for linkage to care at 18 financial incentive test sites and 39 359 gift cards were dispensed to 9641 HIV-positive patients eligible for gift cards at 17 financial incentive care sites. Financial incentives did not increase linkage to care (adjusted odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.73-1.67; P = .65). However, financial incentives significantly increased viral suppression. The overall proportion of patients with viral suppression was 3.8% higher (95% CI, 0.7%-6.8%; P = .01) at financial incentive sites compared with standard of care sites. Among patients not previously consistently virally suppressed, the proportion virally suppressed was 4.9% higher (95% CI, 1

  3. Modifying the Curriculum: Teaching Clinical Students about Caring for Patients with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Ellen Richter

    2002-01-01

    Examines how the curricula of optometry programs can be modified to prepare graduates to meet the needs of patients from special populations. Addresses student attitudes and the clinical encounter, including the case history, clinical examination, clinical decision making and determination of patient management plans, and case discussion of the…

  4. Impact of pharmaceutical care on the quality of life of patients with Chagas disease and heart failure: randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sperandio da Silva, Gilberto M; Chambela, Mayara C; Sousa, Andrea S; Sangenis, Luiz Henrique C; Xavier, Sergio S; Costa, Andréa R; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel A A; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro M; Saraiva, Roberto M

    2012-12-27

    Pharmaceutical care is the direct interaction between pharmacist and patient, in order to improve therapeutic compliance, promote adequate pharmacotherapeutic follow-up, and improve quality of life. Pharmaceutical care may be effective in reducing complications and in improving the quality of life of patients with chronic diseases, like Chagas heart disease, while bringing a positive impact on health system costs. The morbidity and mortality indexes for patients with Chagas heart disease are high, especially if this heart disease is complicated by heart failure. In this setting, we hypothesize that pharmaceutical care might be an important tool for the clinical management of these patients by improving their quality of life, as a better compliance to their treatment and the avoidance and prompt correction of drug-related problems will minimize their symptoms, improve their functional class, and decrease the number of hospital admissions. Therefore, the aim of this trial is to evaluate the contribution of pharmaceutical care to clinical treatment of patients with Chagas heart disease complicated by heart failure. A prospective, single-center randomized clinical trial will be conducted in patients with Chagas heart disease complicated by heart failure. A total of 88 patients will be randomly assigned into two parallel groups: an intervention group will receive standard care and pharmaceutical care, and a control group will receive only standard care. Both groups will be subjected to a follow-up period of 12 months. The primary outcome of this trial is the evaluation of quality of life, measured by the 36-item short-form and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include drug-related problems, exercise tolerance as measured by the standard six-minute-walk test, and compliance. Patients with Chagas heart disease complicated by heart failure under pharmaceutical care are expected to improve their quality of life, present with a lower

  5. Provider perceptions of the value of same-day, electronic patient-reported measures for use in clinical HIV care

    PubMed Central

    Fredericksen, RJ; Tufano, J; Ralston, J; McReynolds, J; Stewart, M; Lober, WB; Mayer, K; Mathews, WC; Mugavero, M; Crane, PK; Crane, HM

    2016-01-01

    Strong evidence suggests that patient-reported outcomes (PROs) aid in managing chronic conditions, reduce omissions in care, and improve patient-provider communication. However, provider acceptability of PROs and their use in clinical HIV care is not well known. We interviewed providers (n=27) from four geographically diverse HIV and community care clinics in the U.S. that have integrated PROs into routine HIV care, querying perceived value, challenges, and use of PRO data. Perceived benefits included the ability of PROs to identify less-observable behaviors and conditions, particularly suicidal ideation, depression, and substance use; usefulness in agenda-setting prior to a visit; and reduction of social desirability bias in patient-provider communication. Challenges included initial flow integration issues and ease of interpretation of PRO feedback. Providers value same-day, electronic patient-reported measures for use in clinical HIV care with the condition that PROs are 1) tailored to be the most clinically relevant to their population; 2) well-integrated into clinic flow; 3) easy to interpret, highlighting chief patient concerns and changes over time. PMID:27237187

  6. An ontology-based personalization of health-care knowledge to support clinical decisions for chronically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Riaño, David; Real, Francis; López-Vallverdú, Joan Albert; Campana, Fabio; Ercolani, Sara; Mecocci, Patrizia; Annicchiarico, Roberta; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2012-06-01

    Chronically ill patients are complex health care cases that require the coordinated interaction of multiple professionals. A correct intervention of these sort of patients entails the accurate analysis of the conditions of each concrete patient and the adaptation of evidence-based standard intervention plans to these conditions. There are some other clinical circumstances such as wrong diagnoses, unobserved comorbidities, missing information, unobserved related diseases or prevention, whose detection depends on the capacities of deduction of the professionals involved. In this paper, we introduce an ontology for the care of chronically ill patients and implement two personalization processes and a decision support tool. The first personalization process adapts the contents of the ontology to the particularities observed in the health-care record of a given concrete patient, automatically providing a personalized ontology containing only the clinical information that is relevant for health-care professionals to manage that patient. The second personalization process uses the personalized ontology of a patient to automatically transform intervention plans describing health-care general treatments into individual intervention plans. For comorbid patients, this process concludes with the semi-automatic integration of several individual plans into a single personalized plan. Finally, the ontology is also used as the knowledge base of a decision support tool that helps health-care professionals to detect anomalous circumstances such as wrong diagnoses, unobserved comorbidities, missing information, unobserved related diseases, or preventive actions. Seven health-care centers participating in the K4CARE project, together with the group SAGESA and the Local Health System in the town of Pollenza have served as the validation platform for these two processes and tool. Health-care professionals participating in the evaluation agree about the average quality 84% (5.9/7.0) and

  7. Non-pharmacological care for patients with generalized osteoarthritis: design of a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-pharmacological treatment (NPT) is a useful treatment option in the management of hip or knee osteoarthritis. To our knowledge however, no studies have investigated the effect of NPT in patients with generalized osteoarthritis (GOA). The primary aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of two currently existing health care programs with different intensity and mode of delivery on daily functioning in patients with GOA. The secondary objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of both interventions. Methods/Design In this randomized, single blind, clinical trial with active controls, we aim to include 170 patients with GOA. The experimental intervention consist of six self-management group sessions provided by a multi-disciplinary team (occupational therapist, physiotherapist, dietician and specialized nurse). The active control group consists of two group sessions and four sessions by telephone, provided by a specialized nurse and physiotherapist. Both therapies last six weeks. Main study outcome is daily functioning during the first year after the treatment, assessed on the Health Assessment Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are health related quality of life, specific complaints, fatigue, and costs. Illness cognitions, global perceived effect and self-efficacy, will also be assessed for a responder analysis. Outcome assessments are performed directly after the intervention, after 26 weeks and after 52 weeks. Discussion This article describes the design of a randomized, single blind, clinical trial with a one year follow up to compare the costs and effectiveness of two non-pharmacological interventions with different modes of delivery for patients with GOA. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR2137 PMID:20594308

  8. ICU nurses and physicians dialogue regarding patients clinical status and care options-a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Kvande, Monica; Lykkeslet, Else; Storli, Sissel Lisa

    2017-12-01

    Nurses and physicians work side-by-side in the intensive care unit (ICU). Effective exchanges of patient information are essential to safe patient care in the ICU. Nurses often rate nurse-physician communication lower than physicians and report that it is difficult to speak up, that disagreements are not resolved and that their input is not well received. Therefore, this study explored nurses' dialogue with physicians regarding patients' clinical status and the prerequisites for effective and accurate exchanges of information. We adopted a qualitative approach, conducting three focus group discussions with five to six nurses and physicians each (14 total). Two themes emerged. The first theme highlighted nurses' contributions to dialogues with physicians; nurses' ongoing observations of patients were essential to patient care discussions. The second theme addressed the prerequisites of accurate and effective dialogue regarding care options, comprising three subthemes: nurses' ability to speak up and present clinical changes, establishment of shared goal and clinical understanding, and open dialogue and willingness to listen to each other. Nurses should understand their essential role in conducting ongoing observations of patients and their right to be included in care-related decision-making processes. Physicians should be willing to listen to and include nurses' clinical observations and concerns.

  9. Reports of chronic pain in childhood and adolescence among patients at a tertiary care pain clinic.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Afton L; Hilliard, Paul E; Goesling, Jenna; Clauw, Daniel J; Harte, Steven E; Brummett, Chad M

    2013-11-01

    Although chronic pain in childhood can last into adulthood, few studies have evaluated the characteristics of adults with chronic pain who report childhood chronic pain. Thus, 1,045 new patients (mean age, 49.5 ± 15.4) at an academic tertiary care pain clinic were prospectively evaluated using validated self-report questionnaires. Patients also responded to questions about childhood pain. We found that almost 17% (n = 176) of adult chronic pain patients reported a history of chronic pain in childhood or adolescence, with close to 80% indicating that the pain in childhood continues today. Adults reporting childhood chronic pain were predominantly female (68%), commonly reported widespread pain (85%), and had almost 3 times the odds of meeting survey criteria for fibromyalgia (odds ratio [OR] = 2.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.04-4.23) than those denying childhood chronic pain. Similarly, those with childhood pain had twice the odds of having biological relatives with chronic pain (OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.39-2.96) and almost 3 times the odds of having relatives with psychiatric illness (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.97-4.11). Lastly, compared to patients who did not report childhood chronic pain, those who did were more likely to use neuropathic descriptors for their pain (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.26-2.64), have slightly worse functional status (B = -2.12, t = -3.10, P = .002), and have increased anxiety (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.24-2.52). Our study revealed that 1 in 6 adult pain patients reported pain that dated back to childhood or adolescence. In such patients, evidence suggested that their pain was more likely to be widespread, neuropathic in nature, and accompanied by psychological comorbidities and decreased functional status. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Opening the Black Box of Clinical Collaboration in Integrated Care Models for Frail, Elderly Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Stampa, Matthieu; Vedel, Isabelle; Bergman, Howard; Novella, Jean-Luc; Lechowski, Laurent; Ankri, Joel; Lapointe, Liette

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand better the clinical collaboration process among primary care physicians (PCPs), case managers (CMs), and geriatricians in integrated models of care. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study with semistructured interviews. A purposive sample of 35 PCPs, 7 CMs, and 4 geriatricians was selected in…

  11. Educational Intervention for Nutrition Education in Patients Attending an Outpatient Wound Care Clinic: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Green, Lisa M; Ratcliffe, Desi; Masters, Kathleen; Story, Lachel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether nurses could use a structured intervention to educate patients with wounds about foods that promote healing and whether this educational intervention could be provided in a cost-effective manner. Cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted at an outpatient wound care center located on a hospital campus in the Southern United States; 3 full-time nurses and 2 nurses employed on part-time status delivered the intervention. A nutrition education intervention was developed through collaborative efforts of a registered dietitian and a nurse. A cross-sectional survey design was used to (1) evaluate nurses' perceptions of the intervention and (2) identify barriers to implementation of the intervention. Direct costs related to materials and nursing time required to deliver the intervention were calculated. Participants indicated they were competent to deliver the structured intervention, and all were willing to continue its use. Survey results indicated that nurses believed the intervention was beneficial to their patients and they indicated that patients were responsive to the intervention. The intervention was found to be low cost ($8.00 per teaching session); no barriers to implementation of the intervention were identified. The results of this exploratory study suggest that a structured nutrition education intervention can be provided by nurses in outpatient wound clinics at low cost. Further study is needed to determine the impact of this intervention on nutritional intake and wound healing.

  12. Early implant placement for a patient with ectodermal dysplasia: Thirteen years of clinical care.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Lisa A; Larsen, Peter E; Saponaro, Paola C; L'Homme-Langlois, Emilie

    2017-11-29

    Patients with ectodermal dysplasia have abnormalities of 2 or more structures that originate from the ectoderm. The oral manifestations often include the congenital absence of teeth and malformed teeth. This clinical report describes the interdisciplinary care from childhood through the definitive dental rehabilitation completed at skeletal maturation to replace the missing teeth in a patient with ectodermal dysplasia. Treatment began at 9 years of age with an implant-assisted mandibular overdenture to improve function and replace the missing mandibular teeth. Orthodontic treatment for the consolidation of space, composite resin restorations, and interim removable dental prostheses were provided to improve esthetics and replace the missing maxillary teeth. Skeletal growth was monitored, and orthognathic surgery was performed at the cessation of growth. The definitive rehabilitation consisted of a mandibular fixed dental prosthesis supported by dental implants and a maxillary removable dental prosthesis to restore the patient to esthetics and function. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Role of Technical Advances in the Adoption and Integration of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Roxanne E.; Rothrock, Nan E.; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Spiegel, Brennan; Tucker, Carole A.; Crane, Heidi M.; Forrest, Christopher B.; Patrick, Donald L.; Fredericksen, Rob; Shulman, Lisa M.; Cella, David; Crane, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are gaining recognition as key measures for improving the quality of patient care in clinical care settings. Three factors have made the implementation of PROs in clinical care more feasible: increased use of modern measurement methods in PRO design and validation, rapid progression of technology (e.g., touch screen tablets, Internet accessibility, and electronic health records (EHRs)), and greater demand for measurement and monitoring of PROs by regulators, payers, accreditors, and professional organizations. As electronic PRO collection and reporting capabilities have improved, the challenges of collecting PRO data have changed. Objectives To update information on PRO adoption considerations in clinical care, highlighting electronic and technical advances with respect to measure selection, clinical workflow, data infrastructure, and outcomes reporting. Methods Five practical case studies across diverse healthcare settings and patient populations are used to explore how implementation barriers were addressed to promote the successful integration of PRO collection into the clinical workflow. The case studies address selecting and reporting of relevant content, workflow integration, pre-visit screening, effective evaluation, and EHR integration. Conclusions These case studies exemplify elements of well-designed electronic systems, including response automation, tailoring of item selection and reporting algorithms, flexibility of collection location, and integration with patient health care data elements. They also highlight emerging logistical barriers in this area, such as the need for specialized technological and methodological expertise, and design limitations of current electronic data capture systems. PMID:25588135

  14. Do Professional Interpreters Improve Clinical Care for Patients with Limited English Proficiency? A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Karliner, Leah S; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Chen, Alice Hm; Mutha, Sunita

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine if professional medical interpreters have a positive impact on clinical care for limited English proficiency (LEP) patients. Data Sources A systematic literature search, limited to the English language, in PubMed and PsycINFO for publications between 1966 and September 2005, and a search of the Cochrane Library. Study Design Any peer-reviewed article which compared at least two language groups, and contained data about professional medical interpreters and addressed communication (errors and comprehension), utilization, clinical outcomes, or satisfaction were included. Of 3,698 references, 28 were found by multiple reviewers to meet inclusion criteria and, of these, 21 assessed professional interpreters separately from ad hoc interpreters. Data were abstracted from each article by two reviewers. Data were collected on the study design, size, comparison groups, analytic technique, interpreter training, and method of determining the participants' need for an interpreter. Each study was evaluated for the effect of interpreter use on four clinical topics that were most likely to either impact or reflect disparities in health and health care. Principal Findings In all four areas examined, use of professional interpreters is associated with improved clinical care more than is use of ad hoc interpreters, and professional interpreters appear to raise the quality of clinical care for LEP patients to approach or equal that for patients without language barriers. Conclusions Published studies report positive benefits of professional interpreters on communication (errors and comprehension), utilization, clinical outcomes and satisfaction with care. PMID:17362215

  15. ICU nurses and physicians dialogue regarding patients clinical status and care options—a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Kvande, Monica; Lykkeslet, Else; Storli, Sissel Lisa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nurses and physicians work side-by-side in the intensive care unit (ICU). Effective exchanges of patient information are essential to safe patient care in the ICU. Nurses often rate nurse-physician communication lower than physicians and report that it is difficult to speak up, that disagreements are not resolved and that their input is not well received. Therefore, this study explored nurses’ dialogue with physicians regarding patients’ clinical status and the prerequisites for effective and accurate exchanges of information. We adopted a qualitative approach, conducting three focus group discussions with five to six nurses and physicians each (14 total). Two themes emerged. The first theme highlighted nurses’ contributions to dialogues with physicians; nurses’ ongoing observations of patients were essential to patient care discussions. The second theme addressed the prerequisites of accurate and effective dialogue regarding care options, comprising three subthemes: nurses’ ability to speak up and present clinical changes, establishment of shared goal and clinical understanding, and open dialogue and willingness to listen to each other. Nurses should understand their essential role in conducting ongoing observations of patients and their right to be included in care-related decision-making processes. Physicians should be willing to listen to and include nurses’ clinical observations and concerns. PMID:28452605

  16. Knowledge, practices and expectations of preventive care: a qualitative study of patients attending government general outpatient clinics in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tam, Denise Y S; Lo, Yvonne Y C; Tsui, Wendy

    2018-05-09

    Evidence-based preventive care recommendations have been well established, but studies have persistently reported gaps between these recommendations and general practitioners' practices in providing preventive care. Many studies have explored factors that affect the delivery of preventive care from the perspectives of the practitioners, but relatively few have evaluated the patients' point of view. The purpose of this study was to explore patients' understanding of preventive care, the actions they were taking in terms of preventive health and their expectations from family doctors in providing preventive care. A qualitative study was conducted based on one-on-one in-depth interviews. Twenty-eight patients without chronic illnesses were purposively recruited from government general outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. The interviews took place between November 2013 and February 2014. The participants' knowledge of preventive care was limited, and their preventive practices were mostly restricted to healthy lifestyle practices. They rarely obtained individualised preventive care advice from doctors. Screening investigations were initiated after symptoms had already occurred, and the decision of what to check was arbitrary. Few of the participants knew what they wanted from their doctors in terms of preventive care. These findings show significant gaps between evidence-based preventive recommendations and patients' current knowledge and practice, and show the need for a wider spectrum of preventive care education and reliable sources to provide individualised and affordable preventive assessment and screening services. Most importantly, primary care providers must take a more proactive role to provide preventive services.

  17. Clinic flow for STI, HIV, and TB patients in an urban infectious disease clinic offering point-of-care testing services in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stime, Katrina J; Garrett, Nigel; Sookrajh, Yukteshwar; Dorward, Jienchi; Dlamini, Ntuthu; Olowolagba, Ayo; Sharma, Monisha; Barnabas, Ruanne V; Drain, Paul K

    2018-05-11

    Many clinics in Southern Africa have long waiting times. The implementation of point-of-care (POC) tests to accelerate diagnosis and improve clinical management in resource-limited settings may improve or worsen clinic flow and waiting times. The objective of this study was to describe clinic flow with special emphasis on the impact of POC testing at a large urban public healthcare clinic in Durban, South Africa. We used time and motion methods to directly observe patients and practitioners. We created patient flow maps and recorded individual patient waiting and consultation times for patients seeking STI, TB, or HIV care. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 clinic staff to ascertain staff opinions on clinic flow and POC test implementation. Among 121 observed patients, the total number of queues ranged from 4 to 7 and total visit times ranged from 0:14 (hours:minutes) to 7:38. Patients waited a mean of 2:05 for standard-of-care STI management, and approximately 4:56 for STI POC diagnostic testing. Stable HIV patients who collected antiretroviral therapy refills waited a mean of 2:42 in the standard queue and 2:26 in the fast-track queue. A rapid TB test on a small sample of patients with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and treatment initiation took a mean of 6:56, and 40% of patients presenting with TB-related symptoms were asked to return for an additional clinic visit to obtain test results. For all groups, the mean clinical assessment time with a nurse or physician was 7 to 9 min, which accounted for 2 to 6% of total visit time. Staff identified poor clinic flow and personnel shortages as areas of concern that may pose challenges to expanding POC tests in the current clinic environment. This busy urban clinic had multiple patient queues, long clinical visits, and short clinical encounters. Although POC testing ensured patients received a diagnosis sooner, it more than doubled the time STI patients spent at the clinic and did not result in same

  18. Curbing the urge to care: A Bourdieusian analysis of the effect of the caring disposition on nurse middle managers' clinical leadership in patient safety practices.

    PubMed

    Lalleman, P C B; Smid, G A C; Lagerwey, M D; Shortridge-Baggett, L M; Schuurmans, M J

    2016-11-01

    Nurse managers play an important role in implementing patient safety practices in hospitals. However, the influence of their professional background on their clinical leadership behaviour remains unclear. Research has demonstrated that concepts of Bourdieu (dispositions of habitus, capital and field) help to describe this influence. It revealed various configurations of dispositions of the habitus in which a caring disposition plays a crucial role. We explore how the caring disposition of nurse middle managers' habitus influences their clinical leadership behaviour in patient safety practices. Our paper reports the findings of a Bourdieusian, multi-site, ethnographic case study. Two Dutch and two American acute care, mid-sized, non-profit hospitals. A total of 16 nurse middle managers of adult care units. Observations were made over 560h of shadowing nurse middle managers, semi-structured interviews and member check meetings with the participants. We observed three distinct configurations of dispositions of the habitus which influenced the clinical leadership of nurse middle managers in patient safety practices; they all include a caring disposition: (1) a configuration with a dominant caring disposition that was helpful (via solving urgent matters) and hindering (via ad hoc and reactive actions, leading to quick fixes and 'compensatory modes'); (2) a configuration with an interaction of caring and collegial dispositions that led to an absence of clinical involvement and discouraged patient safety practices; and (3) a configuration with a dominant scientific disposition showing an investigative, non-judging, analytic stance, a focus on evidence-based practice that curbs the ad hoc repertoire of the caring disposition. The dispositions of the nurse middle managers' habitus influenced their clinical leadership in patient safety practices. A dominance of the caring disposition, which meant 'always' answering calls for help and reactive and ad hoc reactions, did not

  19. The smartphone in the memory clinic: A study of patient and care partner's utilisation habits.

    PubMed

    Benge, Jared F; Dinh, Kara L; Logue, Erin; Phenis, Richard; Dasse, Michelle N; Scullin, Michael K

    2018-04-16

    Smartphones have potential as cognitive aids for adults with cognitive impairments. However, little is known about how patients and their care partners utilise smartphones in their day-to-day lives. We collected self-reported smartphone utilisation data from patients referred for neuropsychological evaluations (N = 53), their care partners (N = 44), and an Amazon Mechanical Turk control sample (N = 204). Patient participants were less likely to own a smartphone than controls, with increasing age associated with less utilisation of smartphone features in all groups. Of the patients who owned smartphones, spontaneous use of cognitive aid features (e.g., reminders and calendars) occurred on only a monthly-to-weekly basis; by comparison, patients reported utilising social/general features (e.g., email and internet) on a weekly-to-daily basis. Individuals referred for geriatric cognitive disorder evaluations were less likely to own and use smartphones than individuals referred for other reasons. Care partners reported using their smartphones more frequently than control group adults, with 55% of care partners endorsing utilising their device in caring for the patient. Building upon existing smartphone use habits to increase the use of cognitive aid features may be a feasible intervention for some patients, and including care partners in such interventions is encouraged.

  20. Predictors of perceived asthma control among patients managed in primary care clinics.

    PubMed

    Eilayyan, Owis; Gogovor, Amede; Mayo, Nancy; Ernst, Pierre; Ahmed, Sara

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the extent to which symptom status, physical activity, beliefs about medications, self-efficacy, emotional status, and healthcare utilization predict perceived asthma control over a period of 16 months among a primary care population. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a longitudinal study that examined health outcomes of asthma among participants recruited from primary care clinics. Path analysis, based on the Wilson and Cleary and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health frameworks, was used to estimate the predictors of perceived asthma control. The path analysis identified initial perceived asthma control asthma (β = 0.43, p < 0.0001), symptoms (β = 0.35, p < 0.0001), physical activity (β = 0.27, p < 0.0001), and self-efficacy (β = 0.29, p < 0.0001) as significant predictors of perceived asthma control (total effects, i.e., direct and indirect), while emotional status (β = 0.08, p = 0.03) was a significant indirect predictor through physical activity. The model explained 24 % of the variance of perceived asthma control. Overall, the model fits the data well (χ (2) = 6.65, df = 6, p value = 0.35, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.02, Comparative Fit Index = 0.999, and weighted root-mean-square residual = 0.27). Initial perceived asthma control, current symptoms status, physical activity, and self-efficacy can be used to identify individuals likely to have good perceived asthma control in the future. Emotional status also has an impact on perceived asthma control mediated through physical activity and should be considered when planning patient management. Identifying these predictors is important to help the care team tailor interventions that will allow individuals to optimally manage their asthma, to prevent exacerbations, to prevent other respiratory-related chronic disease, and to maximize quality of life.

  1. Electronic Patient Registries Improve Diabetes Care and Clinical Outcomes in Rural Community Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Cecil; Bailey, Kelly A.; Petitte, Trisha; Baus, Adam; Swim, Mary; Hendryx, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Context: Diabetes care is challenging in rural areas. Research has shown that the utilization of electronic patient registries improves care; however, improvements generally have been described in combination with other ongoing interventions. The level of basic registry utilization sufficient for positive change is unknown. Purpose: The goal of…

  2. Factors predicting clinical nurses' willingness to care for Ebola virus disease-infected patients: A cross-sectional, descriptive survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Soo; Choi, Jeong Sil

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors predicting clinical nurses' willingness to care for Ebola virus disease (EVD)-infected patients. Data were collected from 179 nurses employed at 10 hospitals in Korea using self-reporting questionnaires. Only 26.8% of the participants were willing to care for EVD-infected patients. Factors predicting their willingness to provide care were their belief in public service, risk perception, and age. Nurses' willingness to provide care was high when their belief in public service was high, low when their risk perception was high, and low as their age increased. In order to strengthen nurses' willingness to care for EVD-infected patients, education that targets the enhancement of belief in public service should be included in nurse training. Efforts should be directed toward lowering EVD risk perception and developing systematic responses through government-led organized support. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Clinical assessment and patient-reported outcome measures in low-back pain - a survey among primary health care physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    Östhols, Sara; Boström, Carina; Rasmussen-Barr, Eva

    2018-05-09

    We aimed to map the physiotherapy practice in Sweden of clinical tests and patient-reported outcome measures in low-back pain (LBP), and to study advantages and barriers in using patient-reported outcome measures. An online survey was mailed to 4934 physiotherapists in primary health care in Sweden. Multiple choice questions investigated the use of clinical tests and patient-reported outcome measures in assessing patients with LBP. Open questions investigating the advantages and barriers to the use of patient-reported outcome measures were analyzed with content analysis. The response rate was 25% (n = 1217). Clinical tests were used "always/often" by >60% of the participants, while most patient-reported outcome measures were used by <15%. Advantages in using patient-reported outcome measures were: the clinical reasoning process, to increase the quality of assessment, to get the patient's voice, education and motivation of patients, and communication with health professionals. Barriers were lack of time and knowledge, administrative aspects, the interaction between physiotherapist and patient and, the applicability and validity of the patient-reported outcome measures. Our findings show that physiotherapists working in primary health care use clinical testing in LBP to a great extent, while various patient-reported outcome measures are used to a low-to-very-low extent. Several barriers to the use of patient-reported outcome measures were reported such as time, knowledge, and administrative issues, while important findings on advantages were to enhance the clinical reasoning process and to educate and motivate the patient. Barriers might be changed through education or organizational change-work. To enhance the use of patient-reported outcome measures and thus person-centered care in low-back pain, recommendation, and education on various patient-reported outcome measures need to be advocated. Implications for rehabilitation To increase the effects of

  4. Clinical features and outcomes in patients with disseminated toxoplasmosis admitted to intensive care: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Matthieu; Sonneville, Romain; Schnell, David; Bigé, Naike; Hamidfar, Rebecca; Mongardon, Nicolas; Castelain, Vincent; Razazi, Keyvan; Marty, Antoine; Vincent, François; Dres, Martin; Gaudry, Stephane; Luyt, Charles Edouard; Das, Vincent; Micol, Jean-Baptiste; Demoule, Alexandre; Mayaux, Julien

    2013-12-01

    Characteristics and outcomes of adult patients with disseminated toxoplasmosis admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) have rarely been described. We performed a retrospective study on consecutive adult patients with disseminated toxoplasmosis who were admitted from January 2002 through December 2012 to the ICUs of 14 university-affiliated hospitals in France. Disseminated toxoplasmosis was defined as microbiological or histological evidence of disease affecting >1 organ in immunosuppressed patients. Isolated cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis were excluded. Clinical data on admission and risk factors for 60-day mortality were collected. Thirty-eight patients were identified during the study period. Twenty-two (58%) had received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (median, 61 [interquartile range {IQR}, 43-175] days before ICU admission), 4 (10%) were solid organ transplant recipients, and 10 (27%) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (median CD4 cell count, 14 [IQR, 6-33] cells/µL). The main indications for ICU admission were acute respiratory failure (89%) and shock (53%). The 60-day mortality rate was 82%. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-5.35; P = .04) and systolic cardiac dysfunction (HR = 3.54; 95% CI, 1.60-8.10; P < .01) within 48 hours of ICU admission were associated with mortality. Severe disseminated toxoplasmosis leading to ICU admission has a poor prognosis. Recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant appear to have the highest risk of mortality. We identified systolic cardiac dysfunction as a major determinant of outcome. Strategies aimed at preventing this fatal opportunistic infection may improve outcomes.

  5. Healthcare in the New Vietnam: comparing patients' satisfaction with outpatient care in a traditional neighborhood clinic and a new, western-style clinic in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    Tat, Sonny; Barr, Donald

    2006-03-01

    As Vietnam opens its economy to privatization, its system of healthcare will face a series of crucial tests. Vietnam's system of private healthcare--once comprised only of individual physicians holding clinic hours in their homes--has come to also include larger customer-oriented clinics based on an American business model. As the two models compete in the expanding private market, it becomes increasingly important to understand patients' perceptions of the alternative models of care. This study reports on interviews with 194 patients in two different types of private-sector clinics in Vietnam: a western-style clinic and a traditional style, after-hours clinic. In bivariate and multivariate analyses, we found that patients at the western style clinic reported both higher expectations of the facility and higher satisfaction with many aspects of care than patients at the after-hours clinic. These different perceptions appear to be based on the interpersonal manner of the physician seen and the clinic's delivery methods rather than perceptions of the physician's technical skill and method of treatment. These findings were unaffected by the ethnicity of physician seen. These findings suggest that patients in Vietnam recognize and prefer more customer-oriented care and amenities, regardless of physician ethnicity and perceive no significant differences in technical skill between the private delivery models.

  6. Economic evaluation of a pharmaceutical care program for elderly diabetic and hypertensive patients in primary health care: a 36-month randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Obreli-Neto, Paulo Roque; Marusic, Srecko; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Baldoni, André de Oliveira; Renovato, Rogério Dias; Pilger, Diogo; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Pereira, Leonardo Régis Leira

    2015-01-01

    Most diabetic and hypertensive patients, principally the elderly, do not achieve adequate disease control and consume 5%-15% of annual health care budgets. Previous studies verified that pharmaceutical care is useful for achieving adequate disease control in diabetes and hypertension. To evaluate the economic cost and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) of pharmaceutical care in the management of diabetes and hypertension in elderly patients in a primary public health care system in a developing country. A 36-month randomized controlled clinical trial was performed with 200 patients who were divided into a control group (n = 100) and an intervention group (n = 100). The control group received the usual care offered by the Primary Health Care Unit (medical and nurse consultations). The intervention group received the usual care plus a pharmaceutical care intervention. The intervention and control groups were compared with regard to the direct costs of health services (i.e., general practitioner, specialist, nurse, and pharmacist appointments; emergency room visits; and drug therapy costs) and the ICER per QALY. These evaluations used the health system perspective. No statistically significant difference was found between the intervention and control groups in total direct health care costs ($281.97 ± $49.73 per patient vs. $212.28 ± $43.49 per patient, respectively; P = 0.089); pharmaceutical care added incremental costs of $69.60 (± $7.90) per patient. The ICER per QALY was $53.50 (95% CI = $51.60-$54.00; monetary amounts are given in U.S. dollars). Every clinical parameter evaluated improved for the pharmaceutical care group, whereas these clinical parameters remained unchanged in the usual care group. The difference in differences (DID) tests indicated that for each clinical parameter, the patients in the intervention group improved more from pre to post than the control group (P < 0.001). While pharmaceutical

  7. Appointment Wait Time, Primary Care Provider Status, and Patient Demographics are Associated With Nonattendance at Outpatient Gastroenterology Clinic.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Manish P; Hu, Chengcheng; Taleban, Sasha

    2016-09-22

    We intended to identify the factors associated with missed appointments at a gastroenterology (GI) clinic in an academic setting. Missed clinic appointments reduce clinic efficiency, waste resources, and increase costs. Limited data exist on subspecialty clinic attendance. We performed a case-control study using data from the electronic health record of patients scheduled for an appointment at the adult GI clinic at the Banner University Medical Center between March and October of 2014. Patients who missed their appointment during the study period served as cases. Controls were randomly selected from patients who completed their appointment during the study period. Analysis included univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of 2331 scheduled clinic appointments, 195 (8.4%) were missed appointments. Longer waiting time from referral to scheduled appointment was significantly associated with missed appointment (AOR=1.014; 95% CI, 1.01-1.02; P<0.001). Patients with primary care providers (PCPs) were less likely to miss their appointment than those without PCPs (AOR=0.35; 95% CI, 0.18-0.66; P=0.001). Among patient demographic characteristics, ethnicity and marital status were associated with missed appointment. Wait time, ethnicity, marital status, and PCP status were associated with missed GI clinic appointments. Further investigations are needed to assess the effects of intervention strategies directed at reducing appointment wait time and increasing PCP-based care.

  8. Patient safety culture in Norwegian primary care: a study in out-of-hours casualty clinics and GP practices.

    PubMed

    Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi; Hofoss, Dag; Hansen, Elisabeth Holm; Deilkås, Ellen Catharina Tveter

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate patient safety attitudes amongst health care providers in Norwegian primary care by using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, in both out-of-hours (OOH) casualty clinics and GP practices. The questionnaire identifies five major patient safety factors: Teamwork climate, Safety climate, Job satisfaction, Perceptions of management, and Working conditions. Cross-sectional study. Statistical analysis included multiple linear regression and independent samples t-tests. Seven OOH casualty clinics and 17 GP practices in Norway. In October and November 2012, 510 primary health care providers working in OOH casualty clinics and GP practices (316 doctors and 194 nurses) were invited to participate anonymously. To study whether patterns in patient safety attitudes were related to professional background, gender, age, and clinical setting. The overall response rate was 52%; 72% of the nurses and 39% of the doctors answered the questionnaire. In the OOH clinics, nurses scored significantly higher than doctors on Safety climate and Job satisfaction. Older health care providers scored significantly higher than younger on Safety climate and Working conditions. In GP practices, male health professionals scored significantly higher than female on Teamwork climate, Safety climate, Perceptions of management and Working conditions. Health care providers in GP practices had significant higher mean scores on the factors Safety climate and Working conditions, compared with those working in the OOH clinics. Our study showed that nurses scored higher than doctors, older health professionals scored higher than younger, male GPs scored higher than female GPs, and health professionals in GP practices scored higher than those in OOH clinics - on several patient safety factors.

  9. Randomized clinical trial to assess the effectiveness of remote patient monitoring and physician care in reducing office blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Nyun; Shin, Dong Gu; Park, Sungha; Lee, Chang Hee

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of remote patient monitoring and physician care for the treatment of hypertension has not been demonstrated in a randomized clinical trial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of remote patient monitoring with or without remote physician care in reducing office blood pressure in patients with hypertension. A total of 374 hypertensive patients over 20 years of age were randomized into the following three groups: group (1) control, the patients received usual clinical care with home BP monitoring; group (2) the patients were remotely monitored and received office follow-up; and group (3) the patients received remote monitoring without physician office care using the remote monitoring device. For each group, in-office follow-up care was scheduled every 8 weeks for 24 weeks. The primary end point was the difference in sitting SBP at the 24-week follow-up. No difference between the three groups was observed in the primary end point (adjusted mean sitting SBP was as follows: group 1: -8.9±15.5 mm Hg, group 2: -11.3±15.9 mm Hg, group 3: -11.6±19.8 mm Hg, (NS). Significant differences in achieving the target BP at the 24th week of follow-up were observed between groups 1 and 2. The subjects over 55-years old had a significant decrease in the adjusted mean sitting SBP in groups 2 and 3 compared with that of the control group. Remote monitoring alone or remote monitoring coupled with remote physician care was as efficacious as the usual office care for reducing blood pressure with comparable safety and efficacy in hypertensive patients.

  10. Wireless clinical alerts and patient outcomes in the surgical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Major, Kevin; Shabot, M Michael; Cunneen, Scott

    2002-12-01

    Errors in medicine have gained public interest since the Institute of Medicine published its 1999 report on this subject. Although errors of commission are frequently cited, errors of omission can be equally serious. A computerized surgical intensive care unit (SICU) information system when coupled to an event-driven alerting engine has the potential to reduce errors of omission for critical intensive care unit events. Automated alerts and patient outcomes were prospectively collected for all patients admitted to a tertiary-care SICU for a 2-year period. During the study period 3,973 patients were admitted to the SICU and received 13,608 days of care. A total of 15,066 alert pages were sent including alerts for physiologic condition (6,163), laboratory data (4,951), blood gas (3,774), drug allergy (130), and toxic drug levels (48). Admission Simplified Acute Physiology Score and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, SICU lengths of stay, and overall mortality rates were significantly higher in patients who triggered the alerting system. Patients triggering the alert paging system were 49.4 times more likely to die in the SICU compared with patients who did not generate an alert. Even after transfer to floor care the patients who triggered the alerting system were 5.7 times more likely to die in the hospital. An alert page identifies patients who will stay in the SICU longer and have a significantly higher chance of death compared with patients who do not trigger the alerting system.

  11. Virtual interactive musculoskeletal system (VIMS) in orthopaedic research, education and clinical patient care

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Edmund YS; Armiger, Robert S; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Lim, Jonathan; Haraguchi, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    The ability to combine physiology and engineering analyses with computer sciences has opened the door to the possibility of creating the "Virtual Human" reality. This paper presents a broad foundation for a full-featured biomechanical simulator for the human musculoskeletal system physiology. This simulation technology unites the expertise in biomechanical analysis and graphic modeling to investigate joint and connective tissue mechanics at the structural level and to visualize the results in both static and animated forms together with the model. Adaptable anatomical models including prosthetic implants and fracture fixation devices and a robust computational infrastructure for static, kinematic, kinetic, and stress analyses under varying boundary and loading conditions are incorporated on a common platform, the VIMS (Virtual Interactive Musculoskeletal System). Within this software system, a manageable database containing long bone dimensions, connective tissue material properties and a library of skeletal joint system functional activities and loading conditions are also available and they can easily be modified, updated and expanded. Application software is also available to allow end-users to perform biomechanical analyses interactively. Examples using these models and the computational algorithms in a virtual laboratory environment are used to demonstrate the utility of these unique database and simulation technology. This integrated system, model library and database will impact on orthopaedic education, basic research, device development and application, and clinical patient care related to musculoskeletal joint system reconstruction, trauma management, and rehabilitation. PMID:17343764

  12. Virtual Interactive Musculoskeletal System (VIMS) in orthopaedic research, education and clinical patient care.

    PubMed

    Chao, Edmund Y S; Armiger, Robert S; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Lim, Jonathan; Haraguchi, Naoki

    2007-03-08

    The ability to combine physiology and engineering analyses with computer sciences has opened the door to the possibility of creating the "Virtual Human" reality. This paper presents a broad foundation for a full-featured biomechanical simulator for the human musculoskeletal system physiology. This simulation technology unites the expertise in biomechanical analysis and graphic modeling to investigate joint and connective tissue mechanics at the structural level and to visualize the results in both static and animated forms together with the model. Adaptable anatomical models including prosthetic implants and fracture fixation devices and a robust computational infrastructure for static, kinematic, kinetic, and stress analyses under varying boundary and loading conditions are incorporated on a common platform, the VIMS (Virtual Interactive Musculoskeletal System). Within this software system, a manageable database containing long bone dimensions, connective tissue material properties and a library of skeletal joint system functional activities and loading conditions are also available and they can easily be modified, updated and expanded. Application software is also available to allow end-users to perform biomechanical analyses interactively. Examples using these models and the computational algorithms in a virtual laboratory environment are used to demonstrate the utility of these unique database and simulation technology. This integrated system, model library and database will impact on orthopaedic education, basic research, device development and application, and clinical patient care related to musculoskeletal joint system reconstruction, trauma management, and rehabilitation.

  13. Total-Body PET: Maximizing Sensitivity to Create New Opportunities for Clinical Research and Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Simon R; Jones, Terry; Karp, Joel S; Qi, Jinyi; Moses, William W; Badawi, Ramsey D

    2018-01-01

    PET is widely considered the most sensitive technique available for noninvasively studying physiology, metabolism, and molecular pathways in the living human being. However, the utility of PET, being a photon-deficient modality, remains constrained by factors including low signal-to-noise ratio, long imaging times, and concerns about radiation dose. Two developments offer the potential to dramatically increase the effective sensitivity of PET. First by increasing the geometric coverage to encompass the entire body, sensitivity can be increased by a factor of about 40 for total-body imaging or a factor of about 4-5 for imaging a single organ such as the brain or heart. The world's first total-body PET/CT scanner is currently under construction to demonstrate how this step change in sensitivity affects the way PET is used both in clinical research and in patient care. Second, there is the future prospect of significant improvements in timing resolution that could lead to further effective sensitivity gains. When combined with total-body PET, this could produce overall sensitivity gains of more than 2 orders of magnitude compared with existing state-of-the-art systems. In this article, we discuss the benefits of increasing body coverage, describe our efforts to develop a first-generation total-body PET/CT scanner, discuss selected application areas for total-body PET, and project the impact of further improvements in time-of-flight PET. © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  14. Foresight and awareness of incipient changes in a patient' clinical conditions--Perspectives of intensive care nurses.

    PubMed

    Kvande, Monica; Delmar, Charlotte; Lykkeslet, Else; Storli, Sissel Lisa

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the phenomenon of becoming aware of incipient changes in patient condition from the perspectives and experiences of intensive care nurses. This study involved close observations of and in-depth interviews with 11 experienced intensive care nurses. The text was analysed using a hermeneutic phenomenological method that was inspired by van Manen. This study was undertaken at two different high-technology intensive care units (ICUs) in Norwegian university hospitals. Nurses formed images of individual patients composed of signs (of changes in a patient's condition) that were sensory, measurable, and manifested as the mood of the nurse. The signs may be viewed as separate from and opposed to one another, but they are tightly interwoven and interact with one another. Care situations are powerful stimuli for the patient, and it is of great importance for nurses to become aware of signs in these situations. Nurses also ascribe that following the patient over time is important for becoming aware of signs. An awareness of incipient changes in patient clinical condition requires understanding the ever-changing dynamics of patient condition and dialogic images composed of signs. Care situations and the following of patients through shifts are essential in enabling nurses to detect these signs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Is there an increased clinical severity of patients with eating disorders under managed care?

    PubMed

    Bravender, T; Robertson, L; Woods, E R; Gordon, C M; Forman, S

    1999-06-01

    We sought to examine possible differences in medical status at presentation in 1996, compared to 1991, of adolescents with eating disorders (EDs) at a hospital-based multidisciplinary care program to reflect the increasing market penetration of managed care. Charts were reviewed for all new patients scheduled in a hospital-based outpatient ED program in 1996 and 1991. The 92-item standardized data extraction form included information on demographics, indicators of illness severity at the first visit, and subsequent hospitalization. The need for primary care referral was verified using billing records. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test, Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Mann-Whitney U tests using SPSS 7.5. Of the 153 total patients, 133 kept their intake appointment and 130 (98%) of these had charts available for review. The age, racial/ethnic characteristics, and average length of disordered eating behaviors were not significantly different over the 5-year period. Referral from a primary care clinician was more commonly required in 1996 than 1991 (59% vs. 11%; p < .0001). Eighteen percent of the patients seen in 1996 were admitted from the initial appointment for medical stabilization, compared to 1.5% in 1991 (p = .002). Comparing 1996 to 1991, a similar number of patients had symptoms consistent with anorexia nervosa, whereas fewer patients in 1996 gave a history of bingeing and purging (22% vs. 40%; p = .027). There were no significant differences in indicators of illness severity, treatment by primary care clinician prior to referral, or hospitalization rates for those patients with and without managed care. Patients in 1996 were more likely to require referrals, were less likely to have symptoms consistent with bulimia nervosa, and were more likely to be admitted for medical stabilization. There were no differences in patient presentation characteristics or initial hospitalization rates based on their managed care status. Further research is needed to

  16. A Comparison of Health Plan- and Provider-Delivered Chronic Care Management Models on Patient Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhehui; Chen, Qiaoling; Annis, Ann M; Piatt, Gretchen; Green, Lee A; Tao, Min; Holtrop, Jodi Summers

    2016-07-01

    The real world implementation of chronic care management model varies greatly. One aspect of this variation is the delivery mode. Two contrasting strategies include provider-delivered care management (PDCM) and health plan-delivered care management (HPDCM). We aimed to compare the effectiveness of PDCM vs. HPDCM on improving clinical outcomes for patients with chronic diseases. We used a quasi-experimental two-group pre-post design using the difference-in-differences method. Commercially insured patients, with any of the five chronic diseases-congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, diabetes, or asthma, who were outreached to and engaged in either PDCM or HPDCM were included in the study. Outreached patients were those who received an attempted or actual contact for enrollment in care management; and engaged patients were those who had one or more care management sessions/encounters with a care manager. Effectiveness measures included blood pressure, low density lipoprotein (LDL), weight loss, and hemoglobin A1c (for diabetic patients only). Primary endpoints were evaluated in the first year of follow-up. A total of 4,000 patients were clustered in 165 practices (31 in PDCM and 134 in HPDCM). The PDCM approach demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in the proportion of outreached patients whose LDL was under control: the proportion of patients with LDL < 100 mg/dL increased by 3 % for the PDCM group (95 % CI: 1 % to 6 %) and 1 % for the HPDCM group (95 % CI: -2 % to 5 %). However, the 2 % difference in these improvements was not statistically significant (95 % CI: -2 % to 6 %). The HPDCM approach showed 3 % [95 % CI: 2 % to 6 %] improvement in overall diabetes care among outreached patients and significant reduction in obesity rates compared to PDCM (4 %, 95 % CI: 0.3 % to 8 %). Both care management delivery modes may be viable options for improving care for patients with chronic

  17. A clinical perspective on electronically collecting patient-reported outcomes at the point-of-care for overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Desantis, Darren; Baverstock, Richard J.; Civitarese, Andrea; Crump, R. Trafford; Carlson, Kevin V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Collecting patient-reported outcomes (PROs) can inform the treatment and management of overactive bladder (OAB). However, collecting these data at the point-of-care can be time-consuming and have a negative impact on a clinic’s workflow. The purpose of this study was to pilot a digital system for collecting PROs at the point-of-care and qualitatively assess clinicians’ perspectives in terms of the system’s impact on the delivery of care for OAB. Methods Patients visiting a urology clinic for OAB completed several PRO instruments using a tablet while awaiting assessment. Clinicians reviewed their responses using a digital dashboard during clinical encounters. Qualitative interviews were conducted with the clinicians, to assess the collection system’s impact in terms of: 1) logistics, 2) workflow; 3) patient communication; 4) influence on clinical decisions; 5) user experiences; and 6) the care model. Results Six interviews were conducted and thematic saturation was met, with several themes emerging. All participants were generally positive regarding the use of the digital collecting system. Participants felt that the dashboard improved workflow and enhanced communication with patients, but it was not thought to be any more influential on clinical decision-making than conventional collection methods. Several aspects of the digital PRO collection system were identified as needing improvement. Conclusions The digital PRO collection system used at the point-of-care had a positive impact on the delivery of care for OAB. The results from this study could provide insight to other urologists who are interested in collecting PROs in their clinic. PMID:27942273

  18. [Healthcare management of an epilepsy clinic: factors involved in the demand for health care and clinical situation of patients].

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Guillermina; Martín-Reyes, Guillermina; Dawid-Milner, Marc Stefan; Chamorro-Muñoz, M Isabel; Pérez-Errazquin, Francisco; Romero-Acebal, Manuel

    2013-05-16

    Epilepsy is a chronic illness that requires a long-term periodic follow-up of the patient and this means that as time goes by the number of patients attended increases, with the ensuing added cost for the healthcare system. To determine the factors involved in the time until an epileptic patient's next visit. Our sample consisted of a selection of patients who visited the epilepsy clinic at our hospital consecutively during one year. Their clinical situation and relationship with the medical advice they were given, together with the factors involved in the time elapsed until the next visit, were analysed by means of predictive econometric models. There is a clear association between the patient's clinical situation and the modification of the treatment proposed by the neurologist in the previous visit. The factors involved in the time until the next visit were the frequency of seizures, adverse side effects from medicines -above all those that affect cognition- and the medical advice given to the patient. Polytherapy, psychoaffective disorders or the patient's social situation were not found to be significant. Follow-up visits in a specific epilepsy clinic improves the patient's situation. This is the first analysis of the demand for healthcare in patients with epilepsy conducted by means of econometric methods and from a mixed physician-patient perspective. Since the factors that determine the time until the next visit can be modified, the number of visits per year could be reduced, thus improving patients' clinical situation. We suggest a greater amount of time should be spent per visit so as to be able to have a bearing on it and thereby cut costs in the long term.

  19. Retention of antiretroviral naïve patients registered in HIV care in a program clinic in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Ghate, Manisha V.; Zirpe, Sunil S.; Gurav, Nilam P.; Rewari, Bharat B.; Gangakhedkar, Raman R.; Paranjape, Ramesh S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Retention in HIV care ensures delivery of services like secondary prevention, timely initiation of treatment, support, and care on a regular basis. The data on retention in pre antiretroviral therapy (ART) care in India is scanty. Materials and Methods: Antiretroviral naïve HIV-infected adult patients registered between January 2011 and March 2012 in HIV care (pre-ART) were included in the study. The follow-up procedures were done as per the national guidelines. Patients who did not report to the clinic for 1 year were considered as pre-ART lost to follow-up (pre-ART LFU). They were contacted either telephonically or by home visits. Logistic regression analysis was done to find out factors associated with pre-ART loss to follow-up. Results: A total of 689 antiretroviral naïve adult patients were registered in the HIV care. Fourteen (2%) patients died and 76 (11%) were LFU till March 2013. The multivariate analysis showed that baseline CD4 count >350 cells/mm3 (P < 0.01) and illiteracy (P = 0.044) were significantly associated with LFU. Of the total pre-ART LFUs, 35 (46.1%) informed that they would visit the clinic at their convenient time. NGOs that referred 16 female sex workers (FSWs) who were LFU (21.1%) informed that they would make efforts to refer them to the clinic. Conclusion: Higher CD4 count and illiteracy were significantly associated with lower retention in pre-ART care. Developing effective “retention package” for patients and strengthening linkage strategies between key sub-population such as FSWs and ART programming will help to plug the leaky cascade in HIV care. PMID:26396447

  20. [Human resources requirements for diabetic patients healthcare in primary care clinics of the Mexican Institute of Social Security].

    PubMed

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Ramírez-Sánchez, Claudine; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    To estimate the requirements of human resources (HR) of two models of care for diabetes patients: conventional and specific, also called DiabetIMSS, which are provided in primary care clinics of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). An evaluative research was conducted. An expert group identified the HR activities and time required to provide healthcare consistent with the best clinical practices for diabetic patients. HR were estimated by using the evidence-based adjusted service target approach for health workforce planning; then, comparisons between existing and estimated HRs were made. To provide healthcare in accordance with the patients' metabolic control, the conventional model required increasing the number of family doctors (1.2 times) nutritionists (4.2 times) and social workers (4.1 times). The DiabetIMSS model requires greater increase than the conventional model. Increasing HR is required to provide evidence-based healthcare to diabetes patients.

  1. Service quality and patient experiences of ambulatory care in a specialized clinic vs. a general hospital.

    PubMed

    De Regge, Melissa; De Groote, Hélène; Trybou, Jeroen; Gemmel, Paul; Brugada, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    Health care organizations are constantly looking for ways to establish a differential advantage to attract customers. To this end, service quality has become an important differentiator in the strategy of health care organizations. In this study, we compared the service quality and patient experience in an ambulatory care setting of a physician-owned specialized facility with that of a general hospital. A comparative case study with a mixed method design was employed. Data were gathered through a survey on health service quality and patient experience, completed with observations, walkthroughs, and photographic material. Service quality and patient experiences are high in both the investigated health care facilities. A significant distinction can be made between the two facilities in terms of interpersonal quality (p = 0.001) and environmental quality (P ≤ 0.001), in favor of the medical center. The difference in environmental quality is also indicated by the scores given by participants who had been in both facilities. Qualitative analysis showed higher administrative quality in the medical center. Environmental quality and patient experience can predict the interpersonal quality; for environmental quality, interpersonal quality and age are significant predictors. Service quality and patient experiences are high in both facilities. The medical center has higher service quality for interpersonal and environmental service quality and is more process-centered.

  2. Self-management in patients with COPD: theoretical context, content, outcomes, and integration into clinical care.

    PubMed

    Kaptein, Ad A; Fischer, Maarten J; Scharloo, Margreet

    2014-01-01

    In this narrative review, we put self-management in the context of a 50-year history of research about how patients with COPD respond to their illness. We review a definition of self-management, and emphasize that self-management should be combined with disease management and the chronic care model in order to be effective. Reviewing the empirical status of self-management in COPD, we conclude that self-management is part and parcel of modern, patient-oriented biopsychosocial care. In pulmonary rehabilitation programs, self-management is instrumental in improving patients' functional status and quality of life. We conclude by emphasizing how studying the way persons with COPD make sense of their illness helps in refining self-management, and thereby patient-reported outcomes in COPD.

  3. Clinical coaching in primary care: Capable of improving control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus?

    PubMed

    González-Guajardo, Eduardo Enrique; Salinas-Martínez, Ana María; Botello-García, Antonio; Mathiew-Quiros, Álvaro

    2016-06-01

    Few clinical coaching studies are both endorsed by real cases and focused on reducing suboptimal diabetes control. We evaluated the effectiveness of coaching on improving type 2 diabetes goals after 3 years of implementation in primary care. A cross-sectional study with follow up was conducted during 2008-2011. Coaching consisted of guiding family doctors to improve their clinical abilities, and it was conducted by a medical doctor trained in skill building, experiential learning, and goal setting. Effectiveness was assessed by means of fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin outcomes. The main analysis consisted of 1×3 and 2×3 repeated measures ANOVAs. A significant coaching×time interaction was observed, indicating that the difference in glucose between primary care units with and without coaching increased over time (Wilks' lambda multivariate test, P<0.0001). Coaching increased 1.4 times (95%CI 1.3, 1.5) the possibility of reaching the fasting glucose goal after controlling for baseline values. There was also a significant improvement in glycosylated hemoglobin (Bonferroni-corrected p-value for pairwise comparisons, P<0.0001). A correctible and even preventable contributing component in diabetes care corresponds to physicians' performance. After 3 years of implementation, coaching was found to be worth the effort to improve type 2 diabetes control in primary care. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of pharmaceutical care on the quality of life of patients with Chagas disease and heart failure: randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical care is the direct interaction between pharmacist and patient, in order to improve therapeutic compliance, promote adequate pharmacotherapeutic follow-up, and improve quality of life. Pharmaceutical care may be effective in reducing complications and in improving the quality of life of patients with chronic diseases, like Chagas heart disease, while bringing a positive impact on health system costs. The morbidity and mortality indexes for patients with Chagas heart disease are high, especially if this heart disease is complicated by heart failure. In this setting, we hypothesize that pharmaceutical care might be an important tool for the clinical management of these patients by improving their quality of life, as a better compliance to their treatment and the avoidance and prompt correction of drug-related problems will minimize their symptoms, improve their functional class, and decrease the number of hospital admissions. Therefore, the aim of this trial is to evaluate the contribution of pharmaceutical care to clinical treatment of patients with Chagas heart disease complicated by heart failure. Methods/design A prospective, single-center randomized clinical trial will be conducted in patients with Chagas heart disease complicated by heart failure. A total of 88 patients will be randomly assigned into two parallel groups: an intervention group will receive standard care and pharmaceutical care, and a control group will receive only standard care. Both groups will be subjected to a follow-up period of 12 months. The primary outcome of this trial is the evaluation of quality of life, measured by the 36-item short-form and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include drug-related problems, exercise tolerance as measured by the standard six-minute-walk test, and compliance. Discussion Patients with Chagas heart disease complicated by heart failure under pharmaceutical care are expected to improve their

  5. Improving the Care of Dual Eligible Patients in Rural Federally Qualified Health Centers: The Impact of Care Coordinators and Clinical Pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Daniel; Emmett, Mary; Crist, Amber; Robinson, Craig; Grome, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Dual eligible persons are those covered by both Medicare and Medicaid. There were 9.6 million dual eligible persons in the United States and 82 000 in West Virginia in 2010. Dual eligibles are poorer, sicker, and more burdened with serious mental health conditions than Medicare or Medicaid patients as a whole. Their health care costs are significantly higher and they are more likely to receive fragmented ineffective care. To improve the care experience and health care outcomes of dual eligible patients by the expanded use of care coordinators and clinical pharmacists. During 2012, 3 rural federally qualified community health centers in West Virginia identified 200 dual eligible patients each. Those with hospitalizations received more frequent care coordinator contacts. Those on more than 15 chronic medications had drug utilization reviews with recommendations to primary care providers. Baseline measures included demographics, chronic diseases, total medications and Beers list medications, hospitalization, and emergency room (ER) use in the previous year. Postintervention measures included hospitalization, ER use, total medications, and Beers list medications. Out of 556 identified patients, 502 were contacted and enrolled. Sixty-five percent were female. The median age was 69 years, with a range of 29 to 93 years. Nineteen percent (19%) of patients were on 15 or more medications, 56% on psychotropic medication, and 33% on chronic opiates. One site showed reductions of 34% in hospitalizations and 25% in ER visits during the intervention year. For all sites combined, there was a 5.5% reduction in total medications and a 14.8% reduction in Beers list medications. A modest investment in care coordination and clinical pharmacy review can produce significant reductions in hospitalization and harmful polypharmacy for community dwelling dual eligible patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. QUEST‐RA: quantitative clinical assessment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis seen in standard rheumatology care in 15 countries

    PubMed Central

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Kautiainen, Hannu; Toloza, Sergio; Mäkinen, Heidi; Verstappen, Suzan M M; Hetland, Merete Lund; Naranjo, Antonio; Baecklund, Eva; Herborn, Gertraud; Rau, Rolf; Cazzato, Massimiliano; Gossec, Laure; Skakic, Vlado; Gogus, Feride; Sierakowski, Stanislaw; Bresnihan, Barry; Taylor, Peter; McClinton, Catherine; Pincus, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Objective To conduct a cross‐sectional review of non‐selected consecutive outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as part of standard clinical care in 15 countries for an overview of the characteristics of patients with RA. Methods The review included current disease activity using data from clinical assessment and a patient self‐report questionnaire, which was translated into each language. Data on demographic, disease and treatment‐related variables were collected and analysed using descriptive statistics. Variation in disease activity on DAS28 (disease activity score on 28‐joint count) within and between countries was graphically analysed. A median regression model was applied to analyse differences in disease activity between countries. Results Between January 2005 and October 2006, the QUEST‐RA (Quantitative Patient Questionnaires in Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis) project included 4363 patients from 48 sites in 15 countries; 78% were female, >90% Caucasian, mean age was 57 years and mean disease duration was 11.5 years. More than 80% of patients had been treated with methotrexate in all but three countries. Overall, patients had an active disease with a median DAS28 of 4.0, with a significant variation between countries (p<0.001). Among 42 sites with >50 patients included, low disease activity of DAS28 ⩽3.2 was found in the majority of patients in seven sites in five countries; in eight sites in five other countries, >50% of patients had high disease activity of DAS28 >5.1. Conclusions This international multicentre cross‐sectional database provides an overview of clinical status and treatments of patients with RA in standard clinical care in 2005–6 including countries that are infrequently involved in clinical research projects. PMID:17412740

  7. Physical Parameters for Monitoring Patient Care--A New Direction in Clinical Pharmacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, George E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Since the inception of the PharmD program at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science in 1967, curriculum changes have been made. A new addition in 1975 was a course in the assessment of physical parameters for monitoring patient care. Course characteristics, outline, and lecture outline are provided. (LBH)

  8. Influenza-like-illness and clinically diagnosed flu: disease burden, costs and quality of life for patients seeking ambulatory care or no professional care at all.

    PubMed

    Bilcke, Joke; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever), a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics) and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5-6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86-91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51-€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries.

  9. Self-management in patients with COPD: theoretical context, content, outcomes, and integration into clinical care

    PubMed Central

    Kaptein, Ad A; Fischer, Maarten J; Scharloo, Margreet

    2014-01-01

    In this narrative review, we put self-management in the context of a 50-year history of research about how patients with COPD respond to their illness. We review a definition of self-management, and emphasize that self-management should be combined with disease management and the chronic care model in order to be effective. Reviewing the empirical status of self-management in COPD, we conclude that self-management is part and parcel of modern, patient-oriented biopsychosocial care. In pulmonary rehabilitation programs, self-management is instrumental in improving patients’ functional status and quality of life. We conclude by emphasizing how studying the way persons with COPD make sense of their illness helps in refining self-management, and thereby patient-reported outcomes in COPD. PMID:25214777

  10. Implementation of a pharmaceutical care programme for patients receiving new molecular-targeted agents in a clinical trial unit.

    PubMed

    Riu, G; Gaba, L; Victoria, I; Molas, G; do Pazo, F; Gómez, B; Creus, N; Vidal, L

    2018-01-01

    A pharmaceutical care programme was implemented at our hospital in early 2013. The main objectives were to analyse and describe the pharmaceutical interventions made, to calculate adherence, interventions and to evaluate patient satisfaction with the care programme. We performed a single-centre descriptive and prospective intervention in cancer patients who received oral chemotherapy as part of a clinical trial in 2013. Eighty-three patients were included. Median age was 58 years (range, 31-80) and 42 patients (50.6%) were men. We recorded 23 interventions, 13 of which were associated with drug interactions. The mean percentage of adherence was 98.9%. The interview with the pharmacist was considered to be very important by 84.6% of the respondents. A total of 92.3% said that they would like to speak to the pharmacist at subsequent visits. The doubts detected during the visits enable us to conclude that the information patients receive with respect to their study medication is usually incomplete. An integrated pharmaceutical care programme for cancer patients participating in clinical trials with oral cytostatic drugs was successful in terms of adherence and patient satisfaction and makes it possible to guarantee the safety and effectiveness of treatment on an individual basis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Varying ethics rules in clinical research and routine patient care – research ethics committee chairpersons’ views in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To present empirical data on how the variation in regulating clinical research and patient care was perceived in Finland between 2009 and 2012. Methods Notes of interviews with 22 research ethics committee (REC) chairpersons were analyzed to identify whether differences in the regulation of clinical research and patient care were addressed. REC chairpersons’ opinions on three imaginary cases of clinical research projects challenging current research ethics rules (vignettes) were requested with a questionnaire; 18 of the 22 interviewed chairpersons responded. Results Based on REC chairpersons’ interviews, the differences between care and research regulation were not considered important issues in Finland. In the vignettes, REC chairpersons’ assumptions on how their REC would decide varied in regard to allowing research without informed consent, while solutions that are not allowed by current law were even anticipated. Mostly, but not always, the chairpersons’ own personal view agreed with their REC. Conclusions The distinction between care and research regulation has not been publicly challenged by Finnish RECs, even though it is a challenge when research relevant to health care is carried out. There is a need for debate and changes in laws and practices. PMID:24666735

  12. Hypertension risk and clinical care in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia; a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ayerbe, Luis; Forgnone, Ivo; Addo, Juliet; Siguero, Ana; Gelati, Stefano; Ayis, Salma

    2018-01-01

    A higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been observed in patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) or schizophrenia, partly due to an increased risk of hypertension (HTN), or a less effective care of it. This systematic review and meta-analysis, presents a critical appraisal and summary of the studies addressing the risk of HTN, or the differences in its care, for those with schizophrenia or BPD. Prospective studies were searched in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, and the Web of Science, from database inception to June 2017. A meta-analysis was undertaken to obtain pooled estimates of the risk of HTN. Five studies reporting the risk of HTN, and five studies presenting differences in its clinical care, were identified. An increased risk of HTN was observed for BPD patients, with an overall Incidence Rate Ratio 1.27(1.15-1.40). The pooled Incidence Rate Ratio of HTN for those with schizophrenia was 0.94 (0.75 - 1.14). A poorer care of HTN (lower rates of screening, prescription, and adherence) was reported in four studies of schizophrenia, and two of BPD patients, compared to people without these conditions. reduced number of studies on risk and care of HTN on patients with BPD or schizophrenia. Limited evidence suggests that patients with BPD have a higher risk of HTN. Patients with schizophrenia and BPD receive poor care of HTN. Understanding the risk of HTN, and the differences in its care, is essential for clinicians to reduce the cardiovascular morbidity and overall mortality of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical ethics and patient advocacy: the power of communication in health care.

    PubMed

    Emrich, Inken Annegret; Fröhlich-Güzelsoy, Leyla; Bruns, Florian; Friedrich, Bernd; Frewer, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, the rights of patients have assumed a more pivotal role in international discussion. Stricter laws on the protection of patients place greater priority on the perspective and the status of patients. The purpose of this study is to emphasize ethical aspects in communication, the role of patient advocates as contacts for the concerns and suggestions of patients, and how many problems of ethics disappear when communication is highlighted. We reviewed 680 documented cases of consultation in a 10-year period of patient advocates' activity at a big German university hospital with 1,300 beds. On the basis of this extensive material, the article will focus on the intersection of the advocate's work with the problems of patients in hospitals. Deficits in the level of communication between health care professionals and patients were frequently uncovered. Patients primarily complain about the lack of dialogue and empathy. Middle-aged patients consulted the patients' advocate disproportionately more often. Measured against this baseline, the group of 65 and older complained less frequently. Besides complaints the advocate was asked in more than one-third of all cases for information about medical matters, hospital regulations or administrative problems. Patients obviously see the advocate as a well-connected and ideally unbiased contact person for uncertainties concerning their malady or a potential stay in hospital. Those seeking help often set hope in the information given by the voluntary patient representative. It should be highly recommended for every German hospital to establish the position of a patient advocate. Furthermore, patients can profit from regular exchange between the advocate and the Ethics Committee, also, to help ensure that their rights are taken into account and implemented in an ethically desirable context.

  14. Elbow Room for Best Practice? Montgomery, Patients' values, and Balanced Decision-Making in Person-Centred Clinical Care.

    PubMed

    Herring, Jonathan; Fulford, Kmw; Dunn, Michael; Handa, Ashoki

    2017-11-01

    The UK Supreme Court Montgomery judgment marks a decisive shift in the legal test of duty of care in the context of consent to treatment, from the perspective of the clinician (as represented by Bolam rules) to that of the patient. A majority of commentators on Montgomery have focused on the implications of the judgment for disclosure of risk. In this article, we set risk disclosure in context with three further elements of the judgment: benefits, options, and dialogue. These elements, we argue, taken together with risk disclosure, reflect the origins of the Montgomery ruling in a model of consent based on autonomy of patient choice through shared decision-making with their doctor. This model reflects recent developments in both law and medicine and is widely regarded (by the General Medical Council and others) as representing best practice in contemporary person-centred medicine. So understood, we suggest, the shift marked by Montgomery in the basis of duty of care is a shift in underpinning values: it is a shift from the clinician's interpretation about what would be best for patients to the values of (to what is significant or matters from the perspective of) the particular patient concerned in the decision in question. But the values of the particular patient do not thereby become paramount. The Montgomery test of duty of care requires the values of the particular patient to be balanced alongside the values of a reasonable person in the patient's position. We illustrate some of the practical challenges arising from the balance of considerations required by Montgomery with examples from surgical care. These examples show the extent to which Montgomery, in mirroring the realities of clinical decision-making, provides elbowroom for best practice in person-centred clinical care. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Feasibility and Acceptability of Implementing Indirect Calorimetry Into Routine Clinical Care of Patients With Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Hannah; Atresh, Sridhar; Kemp, Irene; Simmons, Joshua; Vivanti, Angela; Hickman, Ingrid J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the absence of reliable predictive equations, indirect calorimetry (IC) remains the gold standard for assessing energy requirements after spinal cord injury (SCI), but it is typically confined to a research setting. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of implementing IC into routine clinical care in an Australian SCI rehabilitation facility. Methods: Bedside IC (canopy hood) was performed, and patients completed an IC acceptability questionnaire (open-ended; yes/no; 5-point Likert scale). Fasted resting energy expenditure (REE) steady-state criteria were applied to assess data quality, and adherence to a test ≥20 minutes was recorded. Staff were surveyed to assess impact of IC on usual care. Results: Of 35 eligible patients, 9 declined (7 reported claustrophobia). One patient could not be tested before discharge and 25 underwent IC (84% male, injury level C2-L2, AIS A-D). Anxiety prevented one patient from completing IC, while another failed to fast. The remaining 23 patients achieved a steady-state REE (≥5 consecutive minutes with ≤10% coefficient of variation for VO2 and VCO2). Test-retest (n = 5) showed <10% variation in REE. Patients deemed the procedure acceptable, with 88% reporting a willingness to repeat IC. Eighty percent of patients and 90% of staff agreed it was acceptable for IC to be integrated into usual care. Conclusion: This study found that IC is a feasible and acceptable addition to the routine clinical care of patients recovering from SCI and may serve to improve accuracy of nutrition interventions for this patient population. PMID:29339868

  16. Effectiveness of a clinical practice guideline implementation strategy for patients with anxiety disorders in primary care: cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Tello-Bernabé, Eugenia; Sanz-Cuesta, Teresa; del Cura-González, Isabel; de Santiago-Hernando, María L; Jurado-Sueiro, Montserrat; Fernández-Girón, Mercedes; García-de Blas, Francisca; Pensado-Freire, Higinio; Góngora-Maldonado, Francisco; de la Puente-Chamorro, María J; Rodríguez-Pasamontes, Carmen; Martín-Iglesias, Susana

    2011-12-01

    Anxiety is a common mental health problem seen in primary care. However, its management in clinical practice varies greatly. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have the potential to reduce variations and improve the care received by patients by promoting interventions of proven benefit. However, uptake and adherence to their recommendations can be low. This study involves a community based on cluster randomized trial in primary healthcare centres in the Madrid Region (Spain). The project aims to determine whether the use of implementation strategy (including training session, information, opinion leader, reminders, audit, and feed-back) of CPG for patients with anxiety disorders in primary care is more effective than usual diffusion. The number of patients required is 296 (148 in each arm), all older than 18 years and diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and panic attacks by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). They are chosen by consecutive sampling. The main outcome variable is the change in two or more points into Goldberg anxiety scale at six and twelve months. Secondary outcome variables include quality of life (EuroQol 5D), and degree of compliance with the CPG recommendations on treatment, information, and referrals to mental health services. Main effectiveness will be analyzed by comparing the patients percentage improvement on the Goldberg scale between the intervention group and the control group. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. There is a need to identify effective implementation strategies for CPG for the management of anxiety disorders present in primary care. Ensuring the appropriate uptake of guideline recommendations can reduce clinical variation and improve the care patients receive. ISRCTN: ISRCTN83365316.

  17. Effectiveness of a clinical practice guideline implementation strategy for patients with anxiety disorders in primary care: cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anxiety is a common mental health problem seen in primary care. However, its management in clinical practice varies greatly. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have the potential to reduce variations and improve the care received by patients by promoting interventions of proven benefit. However, uptake and adherence to their recommendations can be low. Method/design This study involves a community based on cluster randomized trial in primary healthcare centres in the Madrid Region (Spain). The project aims to determine whether the use of implementation strategy (including training session, information, opinion leader, reminders, audit, and feed-back) of CPG for patients with anxiety disorders in primary care is more effective than usual diffusion. The number of patients required is 296 (148 in each arm), all older than 18 years and diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and panic attacks by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). They are chosen by consecutive sampling. The main outcome variable is the change in two or more points into Goldberg anxiety scale at six and twelve months. Secondary outcome variables include quality of life (EuroQol 5D), and degree of compliance with the CPG recommendations on treatment, information, and referrals to mental health services. Main effectiveness will be analyzed by comparing the patients percentage improvement on the Goldberg scale between the intervention group and the control group. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. Discussion There is a need to identify effective implementation strategies for CPG for the management of anxiety disorders present in primary care. Ensuring the appropriate uptake of guideline recommendations can reduce clinical variation and improve the care patients receive. Trial

  18. Consent, Refusal, and Waivers in Patient-Centered Dysphagia Care: Using Law, Ethics, and Evidence to Guide Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Horner, Jennifer; Modayil, Maria; Chapman, Laura Roche; Dinh, An

    2016-11-01

    When patients refuse medical or rehabilitation procedures, waivers of liability have been used to bar future lawsuits. The purpose of this tutorial is to review the myriad issues surrounding consent, refusal, and waivers. The larger goal is to invigorate clinical practice by providing clinicians with knowledge of ethics and law. This tutorial is for educational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. The authors use a hypothetical case of a "noncompliant" individual under the care of an interdisciplinary neurorehabilitation team to illuminate the ethical and legal features of the patient-practitioner relationship; the elements of clinical decision-making capacity; the duty of disclosure and the right of informed consent or informed refusal; and the relationship among noncompliance, defensive practices, and iatrogenic harm. We explore the legal question of whether waivers of liability in the medical context are enforceable or unenforceable as a matter of public policy. Speech-language pathologists, among other health care providers, have fiduciary and other ethical and legal obligations to patients. Because waivers try to shift liability for substandard care from health care providers to patients, courts usually find waivers of liability in the medical context unenforceable as a matter of public policy.

  19. Enhanced Personal Contact With HIV Patients Improves Retention in Primary Care: A Randomized Trial in 6 US HIV Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Lytt I.; Giordano, Thomas P.; Marks, Gary; Wilson, Tracey E.; Craw, Jason A.; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Keruly, Jeanne C.; Rodriguez, Allan E.; Malitz, Faye; Moore, Richard D.; Bradley-Springer, Lucy A.; Holman, Susan; Rose, Charles E.; Girde, Sonali; Sullivan, Meg; Metsch, Lisa R.; Saag, Michael; Mugavero, Michael J.; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Ferreira, Cintia; Koppelman, Lisa; McDoom, Maya; Naisteter, Michal; Osella, Karina; Ruiz, Glory; Skolnik, Paul; Sullivan, Meg; Gibbs-Cohen, Sophia; Desrivieres, Elana; Frederick, Mayange; Gravesande, Kevin; Holman, Susan; Johnson, Harry; Taylor, Tonya; Wilson, Tracey; Cheever, Laura; Malitz, Faye; Mills, Robert; Craw, Jason; Gardner, Lytt; Girde, Sonali; Marks, Gary; Batey, Scott; Gaskin, Stephanie; Mugavero, Michael; Murphree, Jill; Raper, Jim; Saag, Michael; Thogaripally, Suneetha; Willig, James; Zinski, Anne; Arya, Monisha; Bartholomew, David; Biggs, Tawanna; Budhwani, Hina; Davila, Jessica; Giordano, Tom; Miertschin, Nancy; Payne, Shapelle; Slaughter, William; Jenckes, Mollie; Keruly, Jeanne; McCray, Angie; McGann, Mary; Moore, Richard; Otterbein, Melissa; Zhou, Liming; Garzon, Carolyn; Jean-Simon, Jesline; Mercogliano, Kathy; Metsch, Lisa; Rodriguez, Allan; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Shika, Marvin; Bradley-Springer, Lucy; Corwin, Marla

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to determine whether enhanced personal contact with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients across time improves retention in care compared with existing standard of care (SOC) practices, and whether brief skills training improves retention beyond enhanced contact. Methods. The study, conducted at 6 HIV clinics in the United States, included 1838 patients with a recent history of inconsistent clinic attendance, and new patients. Each clinic randomized participants to 1 of 3 arms and continued to provide SOC practices to all enrollees: enhanced contact with interventionist (EC) (brief face-to-face meeting upon returning for care visit, interim visit call, appointment reminder calls, missed visit call); EC + skills (organization, problem solving, and communication skills); or SOC only. The intervention was delivered by project staff for 12 months following randomization. The outcomes during that 12-month period were (1) percentage of participants attending at least 1 primary care visit in 3 consecutive 4-month intervals (visit constancy), and (2) proportion of kept/scheduled primary care visits (visit adherence). Results. Log-binomial risk ratios comparing intervention arms against the SOC arm demonstrated better outcomes in both the EC and EC + skills arms (visit constancy: risk ratio [RR], 1.22 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.09–1.36] and 1.22 [95% CI, 1.09–1.36], respectively; visit adherence: RR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.05–1.11] and 1.06 [95% CI, 1.02–1.09], respectively; all Ps < .01). Intervention effects were observed in numerous patient subgroups, although they were lower in patients reporting unmet needs or illicit drug use. Conclusions. Enhanced contact with patients improved retention in HIV primary care compared with existing SOC practices. A brief patient skill-building component did not improve retention further. Additional intervention elements may be needed for patients reporting illicit

  20. Clinical characteristics of pneumonia in bedridden patients receiving home care: a 3-year prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Tadashi; Tachibana, Hiromasa; Ito, Akihiro; Ikeda, Satoshi; Furuta, Kenjiro; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Noyama, Maki; Tokioka, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Arita, Machiko

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, antimicrobial treatment, and outcomes of bedridden pneumonia patients receiving home healthcare. A 3-year prospective observational study of poor performance status (PS) 3-4 patients receiving long-term home healthcare and hospitalized at a single center with pneumonia between October 2010 and September 2013 was conducted, and their clinical characteristics were compared with non-bedridden community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. A total of 131 CAP patients with PS 3-4, and 400 CAP patients with PS 0-2 were evaluated. The PS 3-4 patients were older, and exhibited a higher frequency of underlying diseases. Aspiration was thought to be associated with pneumonia in 77.1% of the PS 3-4 patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the leading pathogen in both groups, whereas the frequency of streptococci and polymicrobial infections was higher in the PS 3-4 group. The incidence of multidrug-resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was lower than in previous healthcare-associated pneumonia reports. The in-hospital mortality and recurrence rates were significantly higher in the PS 3-4 group than in the good PS group (17.6% vs. 6.0%, p < 0.001 and 15.3% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.008, respectively). The clinical characteristics of pneumonia in poor PS patients were similar to healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), except for the frequency of drug-resistant pathogens. Hence, it might be beneficial to categorize pneumonia in home residents with poor PS separately from pneumonia in CAP patients who were previously healthy or experienced mild comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effectiveness of holistic diabetic management between Siriraj Continuity of Care clinic and medical out-patient department.

    PubMed

    Chalermsri, Chalobol; Paisansudhi, Supalerg; Kantachuvesiri, Pitchaporn; Pramyothin, Pornpoj; Washirasaksiri, Chaiwat; Srivanichakorn, Weerachai; Nopmaneejumruslers, Cherdchai; Chouriyagune, Charoen; Pandejpong, Denla; Phisalprapa, Pochamana

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diseases in the Thai population, and it is well known that diabetic complications could be prevented with appropriate management. Despite published guidelines, most Thai patients with diabetes do not achieve treatment goals. Siriraj Continuity of Care clinic (CC clinic) was recently established in order to provide training for medical students and internal medicine residents. It is possible that the training component in the CC clinic may contribute to better overall outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) patients when compared with usual care at the medical out-patient department (OPD). To compare the effectiveness of diabetic management in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who attended the CC clinic and the medical OPD. Retrospective chart review was performed in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who were treated at either clinic at Siriraj Hospital in 2007-2011. Baseline demographics, treatment strategies and outcomes, and participation in an appropriate health maintenance program were assessed in both groups. Seven hundred and fifty seven medical records were reviewed, including 383 patients in the CC clinic group and 374 in the OPD group. Mean HbA1c was significantly lower in the CC clinic group compared with the OPD group (7.3 +/- 0.9% and 7.8 +/- 1.3%, respectively, < 0.001). The number of patients who achieved goal HbA1c of less than 7% in CC clinic group was 123 (32.1%) compared with 91 (24.3%) in the OPD group (p = 0.039). More patients were screened for diabetic complications in the CC clinic group compared with the OPD group, including screening for diabetic neuropathy (57.4% vs. 2.1%, p < 0.001), diabetic retinopathy (56.7% vs. 36.6%, p < 0.001), and diabetic nephropathy (80.9% vs. 36.9%, p < 0.001). Patients in the CC clinic group had a higher rate of age-appropriate cancer screening than those in the OPD group (54.2% vs. 13.3%, p < 0.001 for breast cancer; 24.0% vs. 0.9%, p < 0.001 for cervical

  2. Somatic awareness in the clinical care of patients with body distress symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bakal, Donald; Coll, Patrick; Schaefer, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide primary care physicians and medical specialists with an experiential psychosomatic framework for understanding patients with body distress symptoms. The framework relies on somatic awareness, a normal part of consciousness, to resolve the dualism inherent in conventional multidisciplinary approaches. Somatic awareness represents a guiding healing heuristic which acknowledges the validity of the patient's physical symptoms and uses body sensations to identify the psychological, physiological, and social factors needed for symptom self-regulation. The experiential approach is based on psychobiologic concepts which include bodily distress disorder, central sensitization, dysfunctional breathing, and contextual nature of mood. PMID:18291028

  3. Caring for caregivers and patients: Research and clinical priorities for informal cancer caregiving.

    PubMed

    Kent, Erin E; Rowland, Julia H; Northouse, Laurel; Litzelman, Kristin; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Shelburne, Nonniekaye; Timura, Catherine; O'Mara, Ann; Huss, Karen

    2016-07-01

    Informal/family caregivers are a fundamental source of care for cancer patients in the United States, yet the population of caregivers and their tasks, psychosocial needs, and health outcomes are not well understood. Changes in the nature of cancer care and its delivery, along with the growing population of survivors and their caregivers, warrant increased attention to the roles and demands of caregiving. This article reviews current evidence presented at a 2-day meeting examining the state of the science of informal cancer caregiving that was convened by the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Nursing Research. The meeting sought to define who is an informal cancer caregiver, summarize the state of the science in informal cancer caregiving, and describe both the kinds of interventions developed to address caregiving challenges and the various outcomes used to evaluate their impact. This article offers recommendations for moving science forward in 4 areas: 1) improving the estimation of the prevalence and burden of informal cancer caregiving; 2) advancing the development of interventions designed to improve outcomes for cancer patients, caregivers, and patient-caregiver dyads; 3) generating and testing strategies for integrating caregivers into formal health care settings; and 4) promoting the use of technology to support informal cancer caregivers. Cancer 2016;122:1987-95. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. Employing clinical decision support to attain our strategic goal: the safe care of the surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Magid, Steven K; Pancoast, Paul E; Fields, Theodore; Bradley, Diane G; Williams, Robert B

    2007-01-01

    Clinical decision support can be employed to increase patient safety and improve workflow efficiencies for physicians and other healthcare providers. Physician input into the design and deployment of clinical decision support systems can increase the utility of the alerts and reduce the likelihood of "alert fatigue." The Hospital for Special Surgery is a 146-bed orthopedic facility that performs approximately 18,000 surgeries a year Efficient work processes are a necessity. The facility began implementing a new electronic health record system in June 2005 and plan to go live in summer 2007. This article reports on some of the clinical decision support rules and alerts being incorporated into the facility's system in the following categories--high-risk, high-frequency scenarios, rules that provide efficiencies and value from the presciber perspective, and rules that relate to patient safety.

  5. Experiences of a student-run clinic in primary care: a mixed-method study with students, patients and supervisors

    PubMed Central

    Fröberg, Maria; Leanderson, Charlotte; Fläckman, Birgitta; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik; Björklund, Karin; Nilsson, Gunnar H.; Stenfors, Terese

    2018-01-01

    Objective To explore how a student-run clinic (SRC) in primary health care (PHC) was perceived by students, patients and supervisors. Design A mixed methods study. Clinical learning environment, supervision and nurse teacher evaluation scale (CLES + T) assessed student satisfaction. Client satisfaction questionnaire-8 (CSQ-8) assessed patient satisfaction. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with supervisors. Setting Gustavsberg PHC Center, Stockholm County, Sweden. Subjects Students in medicine, nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and psychology and their patients filled in questionnaires. Supervisors in medicine, nursing and physiotherapy were interviewed. Main outcome measures Mean values and medians of CLES + T and CSQ-8 were calculated. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis. Results A majority of 199 out of 227 student respondents reported satisfaction with the pedagogical atmosphere and the supervisory relationship. Most of the 938 patient respondents reported satisfaction with the care given. Interviews with 35 supervisors showed that the organization of the SRC provided time and support to focus on the tutorial assignment. Also, the pedagogical role became more visible and targeted toward the student’s individual needs. However, balancing the student’s level of autonomy and the own control over care was described as a challenge. Many expressed the need for further pedagogical education. Conclusions High student and patient satisfaction reported from five disciplines indicate that a SRC in PHC can be adapted for heterogeneous student groups. Supervisors experienced that the SRC facilitated and clarified their pedagogical role. Simultaneously their need for continuous pedagogical education was highlighted. The SRC model has the potential to enhance student-centered tuition in PHC. Key Points Knowledge of student-run clinics (SRCs) as learning environments within standard primary health care (PHC) is limited. We report

  6. Experiences of a student-run clinic in primary care: a mixed-method study with students, patients and supervisors.

    PubMed

    Fröberg, Maria; Leanderson, Charlotte; Fläckman, Birgitta; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik; Björklund, Karin; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Stenfors, Terese

    2018-03-01

    To explore how a student-run clinic (SRC) in primary health care (PHC) was perceived by students, patients and supervisors. A mixed methods study. Clinical learning environment, supervision and nurse teacher evaluation scale (CLES + T) assessed student satisfaction. Client satisfaction questionnaire-8 (CSQ-8) assessed patient satisfaction. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with supervisors. Gustavsberg PHC Center, Stockholm County, Sweden. Students in medicine, nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and psychology and their patients filled in questionnaires. Supervisors in medicine, nursing and physiotherapy were interviewed. Mean values and medians of CLES + T and CSQ-8 were calculated. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis. A majority of 199 out of 227 student respondents reported satisfaction with the pedagogical atmosphere and the supervisory relationship. Most of the 938 patient respondents reported satisfaction with the care given. Interviews with 35 supervisors showed that the organization of the SRC provided time and support to focus on the tutorial assignment. Also, the pedagogical role became more visible and targeted toward the student's individual needs. However, balancing the student's level of autonomy and the own control over care was described as a challenge. Many expressed the need for further pedagogical education. High student and patient satisfaction reported from five disciplines indicate that a SRC in PHC can be adapted for heterogeneous student groups. Supervisors experienced that the SRC facilitated and clarified their pedagogical role. Simultaneously their need for continuous pedagogical education was highlighted. The SRC model has the potential to enhance student-centered tuition in PHC. Key Points Knowledge of student-run clinics (SRCs) as learning environments within standard primary health care (PHC) is limited. We report experiences from the perspectives of students, their patients and supervisors

  7. Outpatient rehabilitation care process factors and clinical outcomes among patients discharged home following unilateral total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Gerard P; Fritz, Julie M; Houck, L T C Kevin M; Hunter, Stephen J

    2015-05-01

    Research examining care process variables and their relationship to clinical outcomes after total knee arthroplasty has focused primarily on inpatient variables. Care process factors related to outpatient rehabilitation have not been adequately examined. We conducted a retrospective review of 321 patients evaluating outpatient care process variables including use of continuous passive motion, home health physical therapy, number of days from inpatient discharge to beginning outpatient physical therapy, and aspects of outpatient physical therapy (number of visits, length of stay) as possible predictors of pain and disability outcomes of outpatient physical therapy. Only the number of days between inpatient discharge and outpatient physical therapy predicted better outcomes, suggesting that this may be a target for improving outcomes after total knee arthroplasty for patients discharged directly home. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Algorithmic Approach With Clinical Pathology Consultation Improves Access to Specialty Care for Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Welsh, Kerry J; Chang, Brian; Kidd, Laura; Kott, Marylee; Zare, Mohammad; Carroll, Kelley; Nguyen, Andy; Wahed, Amer; Tholpady, Ashok; Pung, Norin; McKee, Donna; Risin, Semyon A; Hunter, Robert L

    2016-09-01

    Harris Health System (HHS) is a safety net system providing health care to the underserved of Harris County, Texas. There was a 6-month waiting period for a rheumatologist consult for patients with suspected systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The objective of the intervention was to improve access to specialty care. An algorithmic approach to testing for SLE was implemented initially through the HHS referral center. The algorithm was further offered as a "one-click" order for physicians, with automated reflex testing, interpretation, and case triaging by clinical pathology. Data review revealed that prior to the intervention, 80% of patients did not have complete laboratory workups available at the first rheumatology visit. Implementation of algorithmic testing and triaging of referrals by pathologists resulted in decreasing the waiting time for a rheumatologist by 50%. Clinical pathology intervention and case triaging can improve access to care in a county health care system. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A Healthy New World: Emergent Opportunities for Clinical Psychologists in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Manderscheid, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is radically transforming the health and mental health care landscape. Emergent opportunities exist for clinical psychologists to redefine their role in healthcare. We reflect on the Chor and colleagues article (this issue) elucidating key issues for psychologists, and present additional recommendations for consideration. Specifically, we highlight three points: (1) moving beyond just training and hoping; (2) recovery, not just symptom reduction; and (3) it’s a healthy new world. Under each of these points, we suggest tactics for how to achieve these goals. PMID:24954983

  10. Clinical trial of a novel surface cooling system for fever control in neurocritical care patients.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Stephan A; Kowalski, Robert G; Presciutti, Mary; Ostapkovich, Noeleen D; McGann, Elaine; Fitzsimmons, Brian-Fred; Yavagal, Dileep R; Du, Y Evelyn; Naidech, Andrew M; Janjua, Nazli A; Claassen, Jan; Kreiter, Kurt T; Parra, Augusto; Commichau, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of a novel water-circulating surface cooling system with conventional measures for treating fever in neuro-intensive care unit patients. Prospective, unblinded, randomized controlled trial. Neurologic intensive care unit in an urban teaching hospital. Forty-seven patients, the majority of whom were mechanically ventilated and sedated, with fever > or =38.3 degrees C for >2 consecutive hours after receiving 650 mg of acetaminophen. Subjects were randomly assigned to 24 hrs of treatment with a conventional water-circulating cooling blanket placed over the patient (Cincinnati SubZero, Cincinnati OH) or the Arctic Sun Temperature Management System (Medivance, Louisville CO), which employs hydrogel-coated water-circulating energy transfer pads applied directly to the trunk and thighs. Diagnoses included subarachnoid hemorrhage (60%), cerebral infarction (23%), intracerebral hemorrhage (11%), and traumatic brain injury (4%). The groups were matched in terms of baseline variables, although mean temperature was slightly higher at baseline in the Arctic Sun group (38.8 vs. 38.3 degrees C, p = .046). Compared with patients treated with the SubZero blanket (n = 24), Arctic Sun-treated patients (n = 23) experienced a 75% reduction in fever burden (median 4.1 vs. 16.1 C degrees -hrs, p = .001). Arctic Sun-treated patients also spent less percent time febrile (T > or =38.3 degrees C, 8% vs. 42%, p < .001), spent more percent time normothermic (T < or =37.2 degrees C, 59% vs. 3%, p < .001), and attained normothermia faster than the SubZero group median (2.4 vs. 8.9 hrs, p = .008). Shivering occurred more frequently in the Arctic Sun group (39% vs. 8%, p = .013). The Arctic Sun Temperature Management System is superior to conventional cooling-blanket therapy for controlling fever in critically ill neurologic patients.

  11. Beyond the Basics of Clinical Outcomes Assessment: Selecting Appropriate Patient-Rated Outcomes Instruments for Patient Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valier, Alison R.; Lam, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    The fifth edition of the "Athletic Training Education Competencies" emphasizes the concepts of clinical outcomes assessment. In athletic training, clinical outcomes assessment, especially as it relates to patient-rated outcomes (PRO) instruments, is new, which produces uncertainty with regard to how to integrate PROs into athletic…

  12. Enhanced personal contact with HIV patients improves retention in primary care: a randomized trial in 6 US HIV clinics.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Lytt I; Giordano, Thomas P; Marks, Gary; Wilson, Tracey E; Craw, Jason A; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Keruly, Jeanne C; Rodriguez, Allan E; Malitz, Faye; Moore, Richard D; Bradley-Springer, Lucy A; Holman, Susan; Rose, Charles E; Girde, Sonali; Sullivan, Meg; Metsch, Lisa R; Saag, Michael; Mugavero, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether enhanced personal contact with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients across time improves retention in care compared with existing standard of care (SOC) practices, and whether brief skills training improves retention beyond enhanced contact. The study, conducted at 6 HIV clinics in the United States, included 1838 patients with a recent history of inconsistent clinic attendance, and new patients. Each clinic randomized participants to 1 of 3 arms and continued to provide SOC practices to all enrollees: enhanced contact with interventionist (EC) (brief face-to-face meeting upon returning for care visit, interim visit call, appointment reminder calls, missed visit call); EC + skills (organization, problem solving, and communication skills); or SOC only. The intervention was delivered by project staff for 12 months following randomization. The outcomes during that 12-month period were (1) percentage of participants attending at least 1 primary care visit in 3 consecutive 4-month intervals (visit constancy), and (2) proportion of kept/scheduled primary care visits (visit adherence). Log-binomial risk ratios comparing intervention arms against the SOC arm demonstrated better outcomes in both the EC and EC + skills arms (visit constancy: risk ratio [RR], 1.22 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.09-1.36] and 1.22 [95% CI, 1.09-1.36], respectively; visit adherence: RR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.05-1.11] and 1.06 [95% CI, 1.02-1.09], respectively; all Ps < .01). Intervention effects were observed in numerous patient subgroups, although they were lower in patients reporting unmet needs or illicit drug use. Enhanced contact with patients improved retention in HIV primary care compared with existing SOC practices. A brief patient skill-building component did not improve retention further. Additional intervention elements may be needed for patients reporting illicit drug use or who have unmet needs. CDCHRSA9272007. Published by

  13. Screening for important unwarranted variation in clinical practice: a triple-test of processes of care, costs and patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Partington, Andrew; Chew, Derek P; Ben-Tovim, David; Horsfall, Matthew; Hakendorf, Paul; Karnon, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Objective Unwarranted variation in clinical practice is a target for quality improvement in health care, but there is no consensus on how to identify such variation or to assess the potential value of initiatives to improve quality in these areas. This study illustrates the use of a triple test, namely the comparative analysis of processes of care, costs and outcomes, to identify and assess the burden of unwarranted variation in clinical practice. Methods Routinely collected hospital and mortality data were linked for patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndromes at the emergency departments of four public hospitals in South Australia. Multiple regression models analysed variation in re-admissions and mortality at 30 days and 12 months, patient costs and multiple process indicators. Results After casemix adjustment, an outlier hospital with statistically significantly poorer outcomes and higher costs was identified. Key process indicators included admission patterns, use of invasive diagnostic procedures and length of stay. Performance varied according to patients' presenting characteristics and time of presentation. Conclusions The joint analysis of processes, outcomes and costs as alternative measures of performance inform the importance of reducing variation in clinical practice, as well as identifying specific targets for quality improvement along clinical pathways. Such analyses could be undertaken across a wide range of clinical areas to inform the potential value and prioritisation of quality improvement initiatives. What is known about the topic? Variation in clinical practice is a long-standing issue that has been analysed from many different perspectives. It is neither possible nor desirable to address all forms of variation in clinical practice: the focus should be on identifying important unwarranted variation to inform actions to reduce variation and improve quality. What does this paper add? This paper proposes the

  14. Factors influencing patients seeking oral health care in the oncology dental support clinic at an urban university dental school setting.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Dale M; Walker, Mary P; Liu, Ying; Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors and/or factors associated with medically compromised patients seeking dental care in the oncology dental support clinic (ODSC) at the University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) School of Dentistry. An 18-item survey was mailed to 2,541 patients who were new patients to the clinic from 2006 to 2011. The response rate was approximately 18% (n = 450). Analyses included descriptive statistics of percentages/frequencies as well as predictors based on correlations. Fifty percent of participants, 100 females and 119 males, identified their primary medical diagnosis as cancer. Total household income (p < .001) and the importance of receiving dental care (p < .001) were significant factors in relation to self-rated dental health. Perceived overall health (p < .001) also had a significant association with cancer status and the need for organ transplants. This study provided the ODSC at UMKC and other specialty clinics with vital information that can contribute to future planning efforts. © 2013 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients1

    PubMed Central

    Bridi, Adriana Carla; Louro, Thiago Quinellato; da Silva, Roberto Carlos Lyra

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to identify the number of electro-medical pieces of equipment in a coronary care unit, characterize their types, and analyze implications for the safety of patients from the perspective of alarm fatigue. METHOD: this quantitative, observational, descriptive, non-participatory study was conducted in a coronary care unit of a cardiology hospital with 170 beds. RESULTS: a total of 426 alarms were recorded in 40 hours of observation: 227 were triggered by multi-parametric monitors and 199 were triggered by other equipment (infusion pumps, dialysis pumps, mechanical ventilators, and intra-aortic balloons); that is an average of 10.6 alarms per hour. CONCLUSION: the results reinforce the importance of properly configuring physiological variables, the volume and parameters of alarms of multi-parametric monitors within the routine of intensive care units. The alarms of equipment intended to protect patients have increased noise within the unit, the level of distraction and interruptions in the workflow, leading to a false sense of security. PMID:25591100

  16. Adult onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: clinical profile of 39 patients from a tertiary care centre

    PubMed Central

    Prashanth, L K; Taly, A B; Ravi, V; Sinha, S; Arunodaya, G R

    2006-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory characteristics of 39 patients with adult onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) are described and compared to those of juvenile onset patients regarding preceding measles, age at onset, gender, interval between onset and diagnosis, clinical profile, and course during follow up. Diagnosis was based on clinical and electroencephalographic findings and raised anti‐measles antibody titres in cerebrospinal fluid. Mean age at SSPE symptom onset was 20.9±4.9 years and mean interval from onset to diagnosis was 6.3±9.6 months. Referral diagnosis was accurate in only 12 patients. Presenting symptoms included myoclonus, behavioural changes, seizures, and cognitive, visual, and extrapyramidal disturbance. All patients received symptomatic therapy; 19 also received disease modifying agents. Five of seven pregnant women had successful deliveries. The follow‐up period varied widely (maximum 60 months, median 9 months). The profile of adult onset SSPE did not differ from the rest of the cohort, except for a longer interval between measles infection and symptom onset (p<0.0001). SSPE in adults poses diagnostic challenges for clinicians. A high index of suspicion and appropriate investigations are necessary for early diagnosis and counselling. PMID:16464898

  17. Using Big Data in oncology to prospectively impact clinical patient care: A proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Dougoud-Chauvin, Vérène; Lee, Jae Jin; Santos, Edgardo; Williams, Vonetta L; Battisti, Nicolò M L; Ghia, Kavita; Sehovic, Marina; Croft, Cortlin; Kim, Jongphil; Balducci, Lodovico; Kish, Julie A; Extermann, Martine

    2018-04-17

    Big Data is widely seen as a major opportunity for progress in the practice of personalized medicine, attracting the attention from medical societies and presidential teams alike as it offers a unique opportunity to enlarge the base of evidence, especially for older patients underrepresented in clinical trials. This study prospectively assessed the real-time availability of clinical cases in the Health & Research Informatics Total Cancer Care™ (TCC) database matching community patients with cancer, and the impact of such a consultation on treatment. Patients aged 70 and older seen at the Lynn Cancer Institute (LCI) with a documented malignancy were eligible. Geriatric screening information and the oncologist's pre-consultation treatment plan were sent to Moffitt. A search for similar patients was done in TCC and additional information retrieved from Electronic Medical Records. A report summarizing the data was sent and the utility of such a consultation was assessed per email after the treatment decision. Thirty one patients were included. The geriatric screening was positive in 87.1% (27) of them. The oncogeriatric consultation took on average 2.2 working days. It influenced treatment in 38.7% (12), and modified it in 19.4% (6). The consultation was perceived as "somewhat" to "very useful" in 83.9% (26). This study establishes a proof of concept of the feasibility of real time use of Big Data for clinical practice. The geriatric screening and the consultation report influenced treatment in 38.7% of cases and modified it in 19.4%, which compares very well with oncogeriatric literature. Additional steps are needed to render it financially and clinically viable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Care coordination between convenient care clinics and healthcare homes.

    PubMed

    Carney Moore, Jeanne Marie; Dolansky, Mary; Hudak, Christine; Kenneley, Irena

    2015-05-01

    Patient care coordination is foundational to high-quality health care and is a national priority. Since its inception, convenient health care has been criticized for its potential to decrease patient care coordination. The purpose of this study is to investigate care coordination between convenient care clinics and healthcare homes. The care coordination practices of Minute Clinic, which represents over 40% of the convenient care industry, were studied. Patient identification of healthcare homes and consent to transmit visit records were abstracted from the health records of 1,014,249 patients dated July 1 to December 31, 2012. The completeness of record content and timeliness of record transmission were assessed by means of interviewing Minute Clinic's Director of Quality and reviewing patient electronic health records. Minute Clinic attempts to coordinate care with healthcare homes, but opportunities for improved care coordination exist. Increased vigilance on the part of providers, patients, and healthcare systems is needed to mitigate barriers to care coordination. Future research is needed to examine care coordination from multiple convenient care operators and explore how to increase care coordination with healthcare homes. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  19. Factors Associated With Smoking Status among HIV-Positive Patients in Routine Clinical Care.

    PubMed

    Zyambo, Cosmas M; Willig, James H; Cropsey, Karen L; Carson, April P; Wilson, Craig; Tamhane, Ashutosh R; Westfall, Andrew O; Burkholder, Greer A

    2015-07-01

    Treatment-related reductions in morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients have been attenuated by cigarette smoking, which increases risk of cardiovascular, respiratory, and neoplastic diseases. This study investigated factors associated with smoking status among HIV-positive patients. This cross-sectional study included 2,464 HIV-positive patients attending the HIV Clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham between April 2008 and December 2013. Smoking status (current, former, never), psychosocial factors, and clinical characteristics were assessed. Multinomial logistic regression was used to obtain unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of the various factors with smoking status. Among HIV-positive patients (mean age 45 years, 75% male, 55% African-American), the majority reported a history of smoking (39% current and 22% former smokers). In adjusted models, patient characteristics associated with increased odds of current smoking were male gender (OR for heterosexual men, 1.8 [95% CI: 1.3-2.6]; for men who have sex with men, 1.5 [1.1-1.9]), history of respiratory diseases (1.5 [1.2-1.9]), unsuppressed HIV viral load (>50 copies/mL) (1.5 [1.1-1.9]), depression (1.6 [1.3-2.0]), anxiety (1.6 [1.2-2.1]), and prior and current substance abuse (4.7 [3.6-6.1] and 8.3 [5.3-13.3] respectively). Male gender, anxiety, and substance abuse were also associated with being a former smoker. Smoking was common among HIV-positive patients, with several psychosocial factors associated with current and former smoking. This suggests smoking cessation programs in HIV clinic settings may achieve greater impact by integrating interventions that also address illicit substance abuse and mental health.

  20. Ethical challenges in integrating patient-care with clinical research in a resource-limited setting: perspectives from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In resource-limited settings where healthcare services are limited and poverty is common, it is difficult to ethically conduct clinical research without providing patient-care. Therefore, integration of patient-care with clinical research appears as an attractive way of conducting research while providing patient-care. In this article, we discuss the ethical implications of such approach with perspectives from Papua New Guinea. Discussion Considering the difficulties of providing basic healthcare services in developing countries, it may be argued that integration of clinical research with patient-care is an effective, rational and ethical way of conducting research. However, blending patient-care with clinical research may increase the risk of subordinating patient-care in favour of scientific gains; therapeutic misconception and inappropriate inducement; and the risk of causing health system failures due to limited capacity in developing countries to sustain the level of healthcare services sponsored by the research. Nevertheless, these ethical and administrative implications can be minimised if patient-care takes precedence over research; the input of local ethics committees and institutions are considered; and funding agencies acknowledge their ethical obligation when sponsoring research in resource-limited settings. Summary Although integration of patient-care with clinical research in developing countries appears as an attractive way of conducting research when resources are limited, careful planning and consideration on the ethical implications of such approach must be considered. PMID:23885908

  1. Ethical challenges in integrating patient-care with clinical research in a resource-limited setting: perspectives from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Laman, Moses; Pomat, William; Siba, Peter; Betuela, Inoni

    2013-07-26

    In resource-limited settings where healthcare services are limited and poverty is common, it is difficult to ethically conduct clinical research without providing patient-care. Therefore, integration of patient-care with clinical research appears as an attractive way of conducting research while providing patient-care. In this article, we discuss the ethical implications of such approach with perspectives from Papua New Guinea. Considering the difficulties of providing basic healthcare services in developing countries, it may be argued that integration of clinical research with patient-care is an effective, rational and ethical way of conducting research. However, blending patient-care with clinical research may increase the risk of subordinating patient-care in favour of scientific gains; therapeutic misconception and inappropriate inducement; and the risk of causing health system failures due to limited capacity in developing countries to sustain the level of healthcare services sponsored by the research. Nevertheless, these ethical and administrative implications can be minimised if patient-care takes precedence over research; the input of local ethics committees and institutions are considered; and funding agencies acknowledge their ethical obligation when sponsoring research in resource-limited settings. Although integration of patient-care with clinical research in developing countries appears as an attractive way of conducting research when resources are limited, careful planning and consideration on the ethical implications of such approach must be considered.

  2. [Electronic medical records: Evolution of physician-patient relationship in the Primary Care clinic].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Santonja, T; Gómez-Paredes, L; Álvarez-Montero, S; Cabello-Ballesteros, L; Mombiela-Muruzabal, M T

    2017-04-01

    The introduction of electronic medical records and computer media in clinics, has influenced the physician-patient relationship. These modifications have many advantages, but there is concern that the computer has become too important, going from a working tool to the centre of our attention during the clinical interview, decreasing doctor interaction with the patient. The objective of the study was to estimate the percentage of time that family physicians spend on computer media compared to interpersonal communication with the patient, and whether this time is modified depending on different variables such as, doctor's age or reason for the consultation. An observational and descriptive study was conducted for 10 weeks, with 2 healthcare centres involved. The researchers attended all doctor- patient interviews, recording the patient time in and out of the consultation. Each time the doctor fixed his gaze on computer media the time was clocked. A total of 436 consultations were collected. The doctors looked at the computer support a median 38.33% of the total duration of an interview. Doctors of 45 years and older spent more time fixing their eyes on computer media (P<.05). Family physicians used almost 40% of the consultation time looking at computer media, and depends on age of physician, number of queries, and number of medical appointments. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. [Description of the clinical complexity of patients admitted to long term care hospitals in Catalonia during 2003-2009].

    PubMed

    Salvà, Antoni; Roqué, Marta; Vallès, Elisabeth; Bustins, Montse; Rodó, Montse; Sanchez, Pau

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the clinical complexity of patients admitted to long term care hospitals between 2003 and 2009. Cross-sectional analysis of Minimum Basic Dataset for Social and Healthcare Units information system data for 47,855 admissions. Outcomes assessed were functional and cognitive status, Resource Utilization Groups III (RUG-III), resource use categories, coverage and intensity of therapies, diagnosis, comorbidities, and medical procedures. Descriptive analyses were performed by year of admission. Dementia and acute cerebrovascular disease were the most frequent primary diagnoses, and showed a steady decline over time (8.8% and 2.3% decline), while family respite admissions and fractures increased (7.7% and 1.9%, respectively). The average functional and cognitive status of the treated population was similar across all years, although individuals with dependence in each Activity of Daily Living increased. The most frequent resource use categories were rehabilitation, reduced physical function, clinically complex care, and special care. A sharp increase in rehabilitation was observed during the study period (20.3%), while the other categories decreased. Increasingly more patients received rehabilitation therapy during their hospital stay (20.8%). Coverage increased particularly for physiotherapy (25.4%) and occupational therapy (17.4%). The clinical complexity faced by long term care hospitals increased during 2003- 2009. The use of resources and provision of therapies show an increasing rehabilitation effort, possibly as a response to changes in the clinical complexity of the treated population, the standards of care, or the established information reporting practices. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Caring for Caregivers and Patients: Research and Clinical Priorities for Informal Cancer Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Erin E.; Rowland, Julia H.; Northouse, Laurel; Litzelman, Kristin; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Shelburne, Nonniekaye; Timura, Catherine; O’Mara, Ann; Huss, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Informal/family caregivers are a fundamental source of care for cancer patients in the United States, yet the population of caregivers, their tasks, psychosocial needs and health outcomes are not well understood. Changes in the nature of cancer care and its delivery, along with the growing population of survivors and by consequence, their caregivers, warrant increased attention to the roles and demands of caregiving. This paper reviews current evidence presented in a two-day meeting to examine the state of the science of informal cancer caregiving convened by the National Cancer Institute and National Institute for Nursing Research. The meeting sought to define who is an informal cancer caregiver, summarize the state of the science in informal cancer caregiving, and describe both the kinds of interventions developed to address caregiving challenges and the various outcomes used to evaluate their impact. This paper offers recommendations for moving science forward in four areas: (1) improve estimation of the prevalence and burden of informal cancer caregiving; (2) advance development of interventions designed to improve outcomes in cancer patients, caregivers, and patient-caregiver dyads; (3) generate and test strategies to integrate caregivers into formal healthcare settings; and (4) promote use of technology to support informal cancer caregivers. PMID:26991807

  5. The Vital Role of Patient Feedback in the Critical Assessment of a Patient-Centered Care Objective Structured Clinical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentfro, Allison Carothers

    2011-01-01

    Priorities in medical education have increasingly emphasized teaching skills and fostering attitudes related to patient-centered care (Beckman & Frankel, 2003; Haidet & Paterniti, 2003). The challenge for academic medical centers is to implement these competencies into their curriculum and assess the outcomes. Using a qualitative single…

  6. Effect of Combined Patient Decision Aid and Patient Navigation vs Usual Care for Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Vulnerable Patient Population: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Reuland, Daniel S; Brenner, Alison T; Hoffman, Richard; McWilliams, Andrew; Rhyne, Robert L; Getrich, Christina; Tapp, Hazel; Weaver, Mark A; Callan, Danelle; Cubillos, Laura; Urquieta de Hernandez, Brisa; Pignone, Michael P

    2017-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is underused, especially among vulnerable populations. Decision aids and patient navigation are potentially complementary interventions for improving CRC screening rates, but their combined effect on screening completion is unknown. To determine the combined effect of a CRC screening decision aid and patient navigation compared with usual care on CRC screening completion. In this randomized clinical trial, data were collected from January 2014 to March 2016 at 2 community health center practices, 1 in North Carolina and 1 in New Mexico, serving vulnerable populations. Patients ages 50 to 75 years who had average CRC risk, spoke English or Spanish, were not current with recommended CRC screening, and were attending primary care visits were recruited and randomized 1:1 to intervention or control arms. Intervention participants viewed a CRC screening decision aid in English or Spanish immediately before their clinician encounter. The decision aid promoted screening and presented colonoscopy and fecal occult blood testing as screening options. After the clinician encounter, intervention patients received support for screening completion from a bilingual patient navigator. Control participants viewed a food safety video before the encounter and otherwise received usual care. The primary outcome was CRC screening completion within 6 months of the index study visit assessed by blinded medical record review. Characteristics of the 265 participants were as follows: their mean age was 58 years; 173 (65%) were female, 164 (62%) were Latino; 40 (15%) were white non-Latino; 61 (23%) were black or of mixed race; 191 (78%) had a household income of less than $20 000; 101 (38%) had low literacy; 75 (28%) were on Medicaid; and 91 (34%) were uninsured. Intervention participants were more likely to complete CRC screening within 6 months (68% vs 27%); adjusted-difference, 40 percentage points (95% CI, 29-51 percentage points). The intervention was

  7. Clinician perceptions and patient experiences of antiretroviral treatment integration in primary health care clinics, Tshwane, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mathibe, Maphuthego D; Hendricks, Stephen J H; Bergh, Anne-Marie

    2015-10-02

    Primary Health Care (PHC) clinicians and patients are major role players in the South African antiretroviral treatment programme. Understanding their perceptions and experiences of integrated care and the management of people living with HIV and AIDS in PHC facilities is necessary for successful implementation and sustainability of integration. This study explored clinician perceptions and patient experiences of integration of antiretroviral treatment in PHC clinics. An exploratory, qualitative study was conducted in four city of Tshwane PHC facilities. Two urban and two rural facilities following different models of integration were included. A self-administered questionnaire with open-ended items was completed by 35 clinicians and four focus group interviews were conducted with HIV-positive patients. The data were coded and categories were grouped into sub-themes and themes. Workload, staff development and support for integration affected clinicians' performance and viewpoints. They perceived promotion of privacy, reduced discrimination and increased access to comprehensive care as benefits of service integration. Delays, poor patient care and patient dissatisfaction were viewed as negative aspects of integration. In three facilities patients were satisfied with integration or semi-integration and felt common queues prevented stigma and discrimination, whilst the reverse was true in the facility with separate services. Single-month issuance of antiretroviral drugs and clinic schedule organisation was viewed negatively, as well as poor staff attitudes, poor communication and long waiting times. Although a fully integrated service model is preferable, aspects that need further attention are management support from health authorities for health facilities, improved working conditions and appropriate staff development opportunities.

  8. The impact of emotional intelligence in health care professionals on caring behaviour towards patients in clinical and long-term care settings: Findings from an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Suzanne; Spiby, Helen; Sheen, Kayleigh; Slade, Pauline

    2018-04-01

    Over recent years there has been criticism within the United Kingdom's health service regarding a lack of care and compassion, resulting in adverse outcomes for patients. The impact of emotional intelligence in staff on patient health care outcomes has been recently highlighted. Many recruiters now assess emotional intelligence as part of their selection process for health care staff. However, it has been argued that the importance of emotional intelligence in health care has been overestimated. To explore relationships between emotional intelligence in health care professionals, and caring behaviour. To further explore any additional factors related to emotional intelligence that may impact upon caring behaviour. An integrative review design was used. Psychinfo, Medline, CINAHL Plus, Social Sciences Citation Index, Science Citation Index, and Scopus were searched for studies from 1995 to April 2017. Studies providing quantitative or qualitative exploration of how any healthcare professionals' emotional intelligence is linked to caring in healthcare settings were selected. Twenty two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Three main types of health care professional were identified: nurses, nurse leaders, and physicians. Results indicated that the emotional intelligence of nurses was related to both physical and emotional caring, but emotional intelligence may be less relevant for nurse leaders and physicians. Age, experience, burnout, and job satisfaction may also be relevant factors for both caring and emotional intelligence. This review provides evidence that developing emotional intelligence in nurses may positively impact upon certain caring behaviours, and that there may be differences within groups that warrant further investigation. Understanding more about which aspects of emotional intelligence are most relevant for intervention is important, and directions for further large scale research have been identified. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Effect of supportive nursing care on self esteem of patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Navidian, Ali; Keykha, Roghaieh

    2014-06-01

    Self-esteem is an important potential indicator in etiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with severe mental illness. ECT is a popular treatment for these patients that can effect on their self-esteem and reinforce their problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of supportive nursing care in increasing self esteem of patients receiving ECT. This clinical trial was conducted in the Baharan psychiatric hospital of Zahedan. A total of 70 cases of patients who received ECT were randomly allocated to control (n=35) and intervention (n=35) groups. The data were collected by demographic characteristics questionnaire and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). Intervention group received the supportive nursing care. The control group received only routine treatment. Self esteem level was measured and compared before and after intervention for two groups. The data was analyzed by SPSS using the χ(2), t-test and ANCOVA. RESULTS showed that both groups were homogeneous on the socio- demographic characteristics. The mean self esteem in the intervention group compared with the control group was significantly increased. While controlling the effects of individual and social variables, the result shows significant differences between two groups in the mean scores of self esteem after the intervention. The results suggest that supportive nursing care can have positive effect on self esteem of patients receiving ECT. It is recommended to use this method for increasing self esteem of these patients.

  10. Epidemiology and clinical analysis of critical patients with child maltreatment admitted to the intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Lee, En-Pei; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Huang, Jing-Long; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Chan, Oi-Wa; Lin, Chia-Ying; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Chang, Yu-Ching; Chou, I-Jun; Lo, Fu-Song; Lee, Jung; Hsin, Yi-Chen; Chan, Pei-Chun; Hu, Mei-Hua; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Wu, Han-Ping

    2017-06-01

    Children with abuse who are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) may have high mortality and morbidity and commonly require critical care immediately. It is important to understand the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of these critical cases of child maltreatment.We retrospectively evaluated the data for 355 children with maltreatments admitted to the ICU between 2001 and 2015. Clinical factors were analyzed and compared between the abuse and the neglect groups, including age, gender, season of admission, identifying settings, injury severity score (ISS), etiologies, length of stay (LOS) in the ICU, clinical outcomes, and mortality. In addition, neurologic assessments were conducted with the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) scale.The most common type of child maltreatments was neglect (n = 259), followed by physical abuse (n = 96). The mean age of the abuse group was less than that of the neglect group (P < .05). Infants accounted for the majority of the abuse group, and the most common etiology of abuse was injury of the central nervous system (CNS). In the neglect group, most were of the preschool age and the most common etiologies of abuse were injury of the CNS and musculoskeletal system (P < .001). The mortality rate in the ICU was 9.86%. The ISS was significantly associated with mortality in both the 2 groups (both P < .05), whereas the LOS in the ICU and injuries of the CNS, musculoskeletal system, and respiratory system were all associated with mortality in the neglect group (all P < .05). The PCPC scale showed poor prognosis in the abuse group as compared to the neglect group (P < .01).In the ICU, children in the abuse group had younger age, higher ISS, and worse neurologic outcome than those in the neglect group. The ISS was a predictor for mortality in the abuse and neglect groups but the LOS in the ICUs, injuries of the CNS, musculoskeletal system, and respiratory system were indicators for

  11. The risks of opioid treatment: Perspectives of primary care practitioners and patients from safety-net clinics

    PubMed Central

    Hurstak, Emily E.; Kushel, Margot; Chang, Jamie; Ceasar, Rachel; Zamora, Kara; Miaskowski, Christine; Knight, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with a history of substance use are more likely than those without substance use to experience chronic noncancer pain (CNCP), to be prescribed opioids, and to experience opioid misuse or overdose. Primary care practitioners (PCPs) in safety-net settings care for low-income patients with CNCP and substance use, usually without specialist consultation. To inform communication related to opioid risk, we explored PCPs’ and patients’ perceptions of the risks of chronic opioid therapy. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews with 23 PCPs and 46 of their patients, who had a history of CNCP and substance use. We recruited from 6 safety-net health care settings in the San Francisco Bay Area. We transcribed interviews verbatim and analyzed transcripts using grounded theory methodology. Results (1) PCPs feared harming patients and the community by opioid prescribing. PCPs emphasized fear of opioid overdose. (2) Patients did not highlight concerns about the adverse health consequences of opioids, except for addiction. (3) Both patients and PCPs were concerned about PCPs’ medicolegal risks related to opioid prescribing. (4) Patients reported feeling stigmatized by policies aimed at reducing opioid misuse. Conclusion We identified differences in how clinicians and patients perceive opioid risk. To improve the informed consent process for opioid therapy, patients and PCPs need to have a shared understanding of the risks of opioids and engage in discussions that promote patient autonomy and safety. As clinics implement opioid prescribing policies, clinicians must develop effective communication strategies in order to educate patients about opioid risks and decrease patients’ experiences of stigma and discrimination. PMID:28394752

  12. Clinical outcomes in managed-care patients with coronary heart disease treated aggressively in lipid-lowering disease management clinics: the alliance study.

    PubMed

    Koren, Michael J; Hunninghake, Donald B

    2004-11-02

    This study sought to determine if an aggressive, focused low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering strategy was superior to usual care for coronary heart disease (CHD) patients enrolled in health maintenance organization or Veterans Administration settings. Statin therapy benefits are well established. No prospective, randomized studies have tested strategies to optimize these benefits in a "real-world" setting. A total of 2,442 CHD patients with hyperlipidemia were randomized to either an aggressive treatment arm using atorvastatin or usual care and followed for 51.5 months on average. Atorvastatin-group patients were titrated to LDL-C goals of <80 mg/dl (2.1 mmol/l) or a maximum atorvastatin dose of 80 mg/day. Usual-care patients received any treatment deemed appropriate by their regular physicians. End point assessments were complete in 958 atorvastatin-group and 941 usual-care patients. Partial assessments occurred in 259 patients in the atorvastatin group and 284 patients in the usual care group who did not complete four years of study participation because of adverse events, withdrawn consent, or follow-up loss. The primary efficacy parameter was time to first cardiovascular event. A total of 289 (23.7%) patients in the atorvastatin group compared with 333 (27.7%) patients in the usual care group experienced a primary outcome (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.97, p = 0.02). This reduction in morbidity was largely due to fewer non-fatal myocardial infarctions (4.3% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.0002). Levels of LDL-C were reduced more (34.3% vs. 23.3%, p < 0.0001) and National Cholesterol Education Program goals (LDL-C <100 mg/dl) more likely met at end-of-study visits (72.4% vs. 40.0%) in patients receiving atorvastatin compared with those receiving usual care. An aggressive, focused statin therapy management strategy outperformed usual care in health maintenance organization and Veterans Administration clinic patients with CHD.

  13. Implementation strategies of Systems Medicine in clinical research and home care for cardiovascular disease patients.

    PubMed

    Montecucco, Fabrizio; Carbone, Federico; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Fiuza, Manuela; Pinto, Fausto J; Martelli, Antonietta; Palombo, Domenico; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Mach, François; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2014-11-01

    Insights from the "-omics" science have recently emphasized the need to implement an overall strategy in medical research. Here, the development of Systems Medicine has been indicated as a potential tool for clinical translation of basic research discoveries. Systems Medicine also gives the opportunity of improving different steps in medical practice, from diagnosis to healthcare management, including clinical research. The development of Systems Medicine is still hampered however by several challenges, the main one being the development of computational tools adequate to record, analyze and share a large amount of disparate data. In addition, available informatics tools appear not yet fully suitable for the challenge because they are not standardized, not universally available, or with ethical/legal concerns. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a very promising area for translating Systems Medicine into clinical practice. By developing clinically applied technologies, the collection and analysis of data may improve CV risk stratification and prediction. Standardized models for data recording and analysis can also greatly broaden data exchange, thus promoting a uniform management of CVD patients also useful for clinical research. This advance however requires a great organizational effort by both physicians and health institutions, as well as the overcoming of ethical problems. This narrative review aims at providing an update on the state-of-art knowledge in the area of Systems Medicine as applied to CVD, focusing on current critical issues, providing a road map for its practical implementation. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient involvement in decision-making: a cross-sectional study in a Malaysian primary care clinic

    PubMed Central

    Ambigapathy, Ranjini; Ng, Chirk Jenn

    2016-01-01

    Objective Shared decision-making has been advocated as a useful model for patient management. In developing Asian countries such as Malaysia, there is a common belief that patients prefer a passive role in clinical consultation. As such, the objective of this study was to determine Malaysian patients’ role preference in decision-making and the associated factors. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Study was conducted at an urban primary care clinic in Malaysia in 2012. Participants Patients aged >21 years were chosen using systematic random sampling. Methods Consenting patients answered a self-administered questionnaire, which included demographic data and their preferred and actual role before and after consultation. Doctors were asked to determine patients’ role preference. The Control Preference Scale was used to assess patients’ role preference. Primary outcome Prevalence of patients’ preferred role in decision-making. Secondary outcomes (1) Actual role played by the patient in decision-making. (2) Sociodemographic factors associated with patients’ preferred role in decision-making. (3) Doctors’ perception of patients’ involvement in decision-making. Results The response rate was 95.1% (470/494). Shared decision-making was preferred by 51.9% of patients, followed by passive (26.3%) and active (21.8%) roles in decision-making. Higher household income was significantly associated with autonomous role preference (p=0.018). Doctors’ perception did not concur with patients’ preferred role. Among patients whom doctors perceived to prefer a passive role, 73.5% preferred an autonomous role (p=0.900, κ=0.006). Conclusions The majority of patients attending the primary care clinic preferred and played an autonomous role in decision-making. Doctors underestimated patients’ preference to play an autonomous role. PMID:26729393

  15. Diagnostic characteristics and prognoses of primary-care patients referred for clinical exercise testing: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Gunnar; Mooe, Thomas; Stenlund, Hans; Samuelsson, Eva

    2014-04-18

    Evaluation of angina symptoms in primary care often includes clinical exercise testing. We sought to identify clinical characteristics that predicted the outcome of exercise testing and to describe the occurrence of cardiovascular events during follow-up. This study followed patients referred to exercise testing for suspected coronary disease by general practitioners in the County of Jämtland, Sweden (enrolment, 25 months from February 2010). Patient characteristics were registered by pre-test questionnaire. Exercise tests were performed with a bicycle ergometer, a 12-lead electrocardiogram, and validated scales for scoring angina symptoms. Exercise tests were classified as positive (ST-segment depression >1 mm and chest pain indicative of angina), non-conclusive (ST depression or chest pain), or negative. Odds ratios (ORs) for exercise-test outcome were calculated with a bivariate logistic model adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, and previous cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular events (unstable angina, myocardial infarctions, decisions on revascularization, cardiovascular death, and recurrent angina in primary care) were recorded within six months. A probability cut-off of 10% was used to detect cardiovascular events in relation to the predicted test outcome. We enrolled 865 patients (mean age 63.5 years, 50.6% men); 6.4% of patients had a positive test, 75.5% were negative, 16.4% were non-conclusive, and 1.7% were not assessable. Positive or non-conclusive test results were predicted by exertional chest pain (OR 2.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.69-3.59), a pathologic ST-T segment on resting electrocardiogram (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.44-3.63), angina according to the patient (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.13-2.55), and medication for dyslipidaemia (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.02-2.23). During follow-up, cardiovascular events occurred in 8% of all patients and 4% were referred to revascularization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 52.7%, 18.3%, and 2% of patients with

  16. Clinical review: Ethics and end-of-life care for critically ill patients in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Li Bin

    2013-12-04

    Critical care medicine in China has made great advances in recent decades. This has led to an unavoidable issue: end-of-life ethics. With advances in medical technology and therapeutics allowing the seemingly limitless maintenance of life, the exact time of death of an individual patient is often determined by the decision to limit life support. How to care for patients at the end of life is not only a medical problem but also a social, ethical, and legal issue. A lot of factors, besides culture, come into play in determining a person's ethical attitudes or behaviors, such as experience, education, religion, individual attributes, and economic considerations. Chinese doctors face ethical problems similar to those of their Western counterparts; however, since Chinese society is different from that of Western countries in cultural traditions, customs, religious beliefs, and ethnic backgrounds, there is a great difference between China and the Western world in regard to ethics at the end of life, and there is also a huge controversy within China.

  17. Clinical review: Ethics and end-of-life care for critically ill patients in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Critical care medicine in China has made great advances in recent decades. This has led to an unavoidable issue: end-of-life ethics. With advances in medical technology and therapeutics allowing the seemingly limitless maintenance of life, the exact time of death of an individual patient is often determined by the decision to limit life support. How to care for patients at the end of life is not only a medical problem but also a social, ethical, and legal issue. A lot of factors, besides culture, come into play in determining a person’s ethical attitudes or behaviors, such as experience, education, religion, individual attributes, and economic considerations. Chinese doctors face ethical problems similar to those of their Western counterparts; however, since Chinese society is different from that of Western countries in cultural traditions, customs, religious beliefs, and ethnic backgrounds, there is a great difference between China and the Western world in regard to ethics at the end of life, and there is also a huge controversy within China. PMID:24313980

  18. Implementing patient-reported outcome measures in palliative care clinical practice: a systematic review of facilitators and barriers.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Bárbara; Harding, Richard; Higginson, Irene J

    2014-02-01

    Many patient-reported outcome measures have been developed in the past two decades, playing an increasingly important role in palliative care. However, their routine use in practice has been slow and difficult to implement. To systematically identify facilitators and barriers to the implementation of patient-reported outcome measures in different palliative care settings for routine practice, and to generate evidence-based recommendations, to inform the implementation process in clinical practice. Systematic literature review and narrative synthesis. Medline, PsycInfo, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase and British Nursing Index were systematically searched from 1985. Hand searching of reference lists for all included articles and relevant review articles was performed. A total of 3863 articles were screened. Of these, 31 articles met the inclusion criteria. First, data were integrated in the main themes: facilitators, barriers and lessons learned. Second, each main theme was grouped into either five or six categories. Finally, recommendations for implementation on outcome measures at management, health-care professional and patient levels were generated for three different points in time: preparation, implementation and assessment/improvement. Successful implementation of patient-reported outcome measures should be tailored by identifying and addressing potential barriers according to setting. Having a coordinator throughout the implementation process seems to be key. Ongoing cognitive and emotional processes of each individual should be taken into consideration during changes. The educational component prior to the implementation is crucial. This could promote ownership and correct use of the measure by clinicians, potentially improving practice and the quality of care provided through patient-reported outcome measure data use in clinical decision-making.

  19. Computerized clinical decision support systems for primary preventive care: a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review of effects on process of care and patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Souza, Nathan M; Sebaldt, Rolf J; Mackay, Jean A; Prorok, Jeanette C; Weise-Kelly, Lorraine; Navarro, Tamara; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2011-08-03

    Computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs) are claimed to improve processes and outcomes of primary preventive care (PPC), but their effects, safety, and acceptance must be confirmed. We updated our previous systematic reviews of CCDSSs and integrated a knowledge translation approach in the process. The objective was to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of CCDSSs for PPC on process of care, patient outcomes, harms, and costs. We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews Database, Inspec, and other databases, as well as reference lists through January 2010. We contacted authors to confirm data or provide additional information. We included RCTs that assessed the effect of a CCDSS for PPC on process of care and patient outcomes compared to care provided without a CCDSS. A study was considered to have a positive effect (i.e., CCDSS showed improvement) if at least 50% of the relevant study outcomes were statistically significantly positive. We added 17 new RCTs to our 2005 review for a total of 41 studies. RCT quality improved over time. CCDSSs improved process of care in 25 of 40 (63%) RCTs. Cumulative scientifically strong evidence supports the effectiveness of CCDSSs for screening and management of dyslipidaemia in primary care. There is mixed evidence for effectiveness in screening for cancer and mental health conditions, multiple preventive care activities, vaccination, and other preventive care interventions. Fourteen (34%) trials assessed patient outcomes, and four (29%) reported improvements with the CCDSS. Most trials were not powered to evaluate patient-important outcomes. CCDSS costs and adverse events were reported in only six (15%) and two (5%) trials, respectively. Information on study duration was often missing, limiting our ability to assess sustainability of CCDSS effects. Evidence supports the effectiveness of CCDSSs for screening and

  20. A randomized clinical trial of an intervention to relieve thirst and dry mouth in intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Puntillo, Kathleen; Arai, Shoshana R; Cooper, Bruce A; Stotts, Nancy A; Nelson, Judith E

    2014-09-01

    To test an intervention bundle for thirst intensity, thirst distress, and dry mouth, which are among the most pervasive, intense, distressful, unrecognized, and undertreated symptoms in ICU patients, but for which data-based interventions are lacking. This was a single-blinded randomized clinical trial in three ICUs in a tertiary medical center in urban California. A total of 252 cognitively intact patients reporting thirst intensity (TI) and/or thirst distress (TD) scores ≥3 on 0-10 numeric rating scales (NRS) were randomized to intervention or usual care groups. A research team nurse (RTN#1) obtained patients' pre-procedure TI and TD scores and reports of dry mouth. She then administered a thirst bundle to the intervention group: oral swab wipes, sterile ice-cold water sprays, and a lip moisturizer, or observed patients in the usual care group. RTN#2, blinded to group assignment, obtained post-procedure TI and TD scores. Up to six sessions per patient were conducted across 2 days. Multilevel linear regression determined that the average decreases in TI and TD scores from pre-procedure to post-procedure were significantly greater in the intervention group (2.3 and 1.8 NRS points, respectively) versus the usual care group (0.6 and 0.4 points, respectively) (p < 0.05). The usual care group was 1.9 times more likely than the intervention group to report dry mouth for each additional session on day 1. This simple, inexpensive thirst bundle significantly decreased ICU patients' thirst and dry mouth and can be considered a practice intervention for patients experiencing thirst.

  1. Clinical Presentation and Care of Patients with Ebola Virus Disease in the China Ebola Treatment Unit, Liberia.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xiaoping; Ren, Weizheng; Zhou, Feihu

    2017-01-24

    In order to evaluate the clinical characteristics of confirmed Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) patients admitted to the China Ebola Treatment Unit (China ETU) between January 2015 and March 2015, we retrospectively analyzed clinical symptoms, treatment, and epidemiologic features of 5 patients with confirmed EVD, and reviewed the relevant medical literature. Of these, 3 patients survived, and 2 died. The time interval from the onset of symptoms to the negative PCR test for Ebola virus in the 3 survivors was 14-18 days. All survivors reported direct contact with confirmed EVD patients up to 21 days prior to admission. All patients developed a fever, fatigue, and anorexia. Fever was generally the first symptom to develop, followed by a gastrointestinal phase characterized by vomiting/nausea (3 cases, 60%), diarrhea (3 cases), and abdominal pain (4 cases, 80%). Three patients (60%) reported joint pain, muscle pain, and conjunctival hemorrhage, respectively, and 2 patients (40%) developed a headache. We concluded that strict isolation and interruption of the route of transmission were required for suspected or confirmed EVD patients. The main treatment strategies were supportive care, maintenance of blood volume and electrolyte balance, and the prevention of complications.

  2. Does abdominal massage improve gastrointestinal functions of intensive care patients with an endotracheal tube?: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Mahlagha; Fatehi Poor, Amanollah; Mehdipoor, Roghayeh; Ahmadinejad, Mehdi

    2018-02-01

    Gastrointestinal dysfunction is one of the most common problems among patients hospitalized in intensive care units. Currently, medicinal and non-medicinal methods are being used to prevent gastrointestinal problems. Among non-medicinal methods, abdominal massage is considered as a relatively acceptable method. The present study aims to examine the effect of abdominal massage on gastrointestinal functions of the intensive care patients with an endotracheal tube. In this clinical trial, 70 intensive care patients with an endotracheal tube were chosen by convenience sampling and allocated to an intervention or a control group randomly. In the intervention group, a 15-min abdominal massage was conducted twice a day for three days, while the control group received only routine cares. The abdominal circumference, gastric residual volume, times of defecation, and frequency of constipation were measured. Gastric residual volume decreased significantly in the intervention group and increased significantly in the control group; however, there was no significant difference between two groups (P = .15). There was a significant difference between two groups regarding abdominal circumference and it was decreased in the intervention group (P < .001). The defecation times significantly increased in the intervention group (P = .002). After the intervention, the prevalence of constipation was significantly decreased in the intervention group (P = .008). The results revealed that abdominal massage could improve gastrointestinal functions in enterally fed patients with an endotracheal tube. It is suggested to use abdominal massage as an adjunct therapy for improving gastrointestinal functions in intensive care patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An audit of clinical resources available for the care of head and neck cancer patients in England.

    PubMed

    Bradley, P J; Zutshi, B; Nutting, C M

    2005-08-01

    To undertake a postal survey of cancer networks to define the services available for the diagnosis, treatment and support of patients with head and neck cancer in England. Thirty-four cancer networks are now responsible for the delivery of head and neck cancer services in England and 52 cancer units responded to our questionnaire. Multidisciplinary team working was evident in all centres. However such team working was not always fully staffed, especially in areas of national staff shortages such as pathology, radiology, dietetics and speech therapy. Rapid referral pathways were present for initial assessment of patients but clinically significant delays were identified in the provision of complex investigations, in access to intensive care beds and for oncological care--especially radiotherapy. Major changes in service configuration are likely to be required if the current national targets of time to diagnosis and treatment are to be met.

  4. The effect of a diabetes collaborative care management program on clinical and economic outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    McAdam-Marx, Carrie; Dahal, Arati; Jennings, Brandon; Singhal, Mukul; Gunning, Karen

    2015-06-01

    Clinical pharmacy services (CPS) in the primary care setting have been shown to help patients attain treatment goals and improve outcomes. However, the availability of CPS in community-based primary care is not widespread. One reason is that current fee-for-service models offer limited reimbursement opportunities for CPS in the community setting. Furthermore, data demonstrating the value of CPS in this setting are limited, making it difficult for providers to determine the feasibility and sustainability of incorporating CPS into primary care practice. To (a) evaluate the association between a pharmacist-led, diabetes collaborative drug therapy management program and patient outcomes, including glycemic control and health care costs, and (b) assess short-term economic outcomes in a primary care setting. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted using medical record data. This study was conducted using patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2DM), defined as HbA1c ≥ 7.0%. Outcomes were compared between patients referred to a diabetes collaborative care management (DCCM) intervention from 2009-2012 and patients who did not participate in the DCCM program. To illustrate the difference in HbA1c between the 2 cohorts over the follow-up period, mean time adjusted HbA1c values were estimated using a panel-type random effects regression model, with results plotted at 90-day intervals from index date through the end of the study period. To help control for confounding by other factors, multivariate regression models were run. A difference-in-difference model was employed to estimate the effect of the program on resource utilization and all-cause charges. A total of 303 DCCM and 394 comparison patients were included. Mean (95% CI) age was 57.4 years (55.963, 58.902) versus 59.9 years (58.613, 61.276; P < 0.001) with 48% and 44% female for DCCM and comparison patients, respectively (P = 0.49). Mean baseline HbA1c was higher for DCCM (10.3%; 10.10, 10.53) than

  5. Gender differences in the clinical management of patients with angina pectoris: a cross-sectional survey in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Crilly, Mike; Bundred, Peter; Hu, Xiyuan; Leckey, Lisa; Johnstone, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that women admitted to hospital with acute myocardial infarction (MI) are managed less intensively than men. Chronic stable angina is the commonest clinical manifestation of coronary heart disease in the community, but little information is available concerning its contemporary clinical management. The aim of this study is to assess the extent of gender differences in the clinical management of angina pectoris in primary care. Methods A cross-sectional survey undertaken in 8 sentinel centres serving 63,724 individuals in the city of Liverpool (15% of the city population). Aspects of clinical care assessed included: risk factor recording (smoking, cholesterol, blood pressure, body mass index); secondary prevention (aspirin, beta-blocker, statin); cardiac investigation (exercise ECG, perfusion scanning, angiography); and revascularisation (percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting). Male-to-female adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were calculated (adjusted for age, angina duration, age at diagnosis and previous MI) using logistic regression. Results 1,162 patients (610 men; 552 women) with angina were identified. Women were older than men (71 vs 67 years), with a shorter duration of angina (6 vs 7 years), and a lower prevalence of previous MI (25% vs 43%). Men were significantly more likely than women to undergo detailed risk factor assessment (AOR = 1.35, 95%CI 1.06 to 1.73); receive 'triple' secondary prevention with aspirin, beta-blockers and statins (AOR = 1.47, 95%CI 1.07 to 2.02); access exercise ECG testing (AOR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.68); angiography (AOR = 1.61, 95%CI 1.23 to 2.12); and undergo coronary revascularisation (AOR = 1.93, 95%CI 1.39 to 2.68). Conclusion Systematic gender differences exist in the comprehensive clinical management of patients with angina in primary care. PMID:17784961

  6. The complexity of fetal imaging: reconciling clinical care with patient entertainment.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Sara Ellis; Branch, D Ware; Rose, Nancy C

    2008-12-01

    Currently in the United States, pregnant women may obtain both medical fetal ultrasonography for screening and commercial fetal ultrasonography for entertainment purposes. The proliferation of commercial fetal ultrasonography suggests that medical screening alone does not satisfy patient expectations regarding fetal imaging. We investigated the prevalence of nonmedical fetal imaging and patient experiences and perceptions with both medical and nonmedical ultrasonography in our metropolitan area. We initiate a dialogue to explore the distinctions between medical and nonmedical fetal ultrasound imaging and the role of entertainment imaging in the medical setting. Concerns about safety, false reassurance, and unnecessary anxiety that might be generated by nonmedical ultrasonography should prompt us to examine the expectations of women regarding entertainment imaging, current clinical practice, and the potential for regulation of this commercial industry.

  7. Regional differences in clinical care among patients with type 1 diabetes in Brazil: Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study Group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the characteristics of clinical care offered to type 1 diabetic patients across the four distinct regions of Brazil, with geographic and contrasting socioeconomic differences. Glycemic control, prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, screening for chronic complications and the frequency that the recommended treatment goals were met using the American Diabetes Association guidelines were evaluated. Methods This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted from December 2008 to December 2010 in 28 secondary and tertiary care public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities in north/northeast, mid-west, southeast and south regions. The data were obtained from 3,591 patients (56.0% females and 57.1% Caucasians) aged 21.2 ± 11.7 years with a disease duration of 9.6 ± 8.1 years (<1 to 50 years). Results Overall, 18.4% patients had HbA1c levels <7.0%, and 47.5% patients had HbA1c levels ≥ 9%. HbA1c levels were associated with lower economic status, female gender, age and the daily frequency of self-blood glucose monitoring (SBGM) but not with insulin regimen and geographic region. Hypertension was more frequent in the mid-west (32%) and north/northeast (25%) than in the southeast (19%) and south (17%) regions (p<0.001). More patients from the southeast region achieved LDL cholesterol goals and were treated with statins (p<0.001). Fewer patients from the north/northeast and mid-west regions were screened for retinopathy and nephropathy, compared with patients from the south and southeast. Patients from the south/southeast regions had more intensive insulin regimens than patients from the north/northeast and mid-west regions (p<0.001). The most common insulin therapy combination was intermediate-acting with regular human insulin, mainly in the north/northeast region (p<0.001). The combination of insulin glargine with lispro and glulisine was more frequently used in the mid-west region (p<0.001). Patients from the north/northeast region were younger

  8. Spirituality in African-American Breast Cancer Patients: Implications for Clinical and Psychosocial Care.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Vanessa B; Walker, Robin; Phillips, Winifred; Hudson, Victoria; Xu, Hanfei; Cabling, Mark L; He, Jun; Sutton, Arnethea L; Hamilton, Jill

    2018-04-07

    Spirituality has been shown to be important to many individuals dealing with a cancer diagnosis. While African-American breast cancer survivors have been reported to have higher levels of spirituality compared to White women, little is known about how levels of spirituality may vary among African-American breast cancer survivors. The aims of this study were to examine factors associated with spirituality among African-American survivors and test whether spirituality levels were associated with women's attitudes about treatment or health care. The primary outcome, spirituality, was nine-item scale (Cronbach's α = .99). Participants completed standardized telephone interviews that captured sociocultural, healthcare process, and treatment attitudes. Medical records were abstracted post-adjuvant therapy for treatment and clinical information. In bivariate analysis, age was not correlated with spirituality (p = .40). Married/living as married women had higher levels of spirituality (m = 32.1) than single women (m = 30.1). Contextual factors that were associated with higher levels spirituality were: collectivism (r = .44; p < 0.0001, Afrocentric worldview (r = .185; p = .01), and self-efficacy scale (r = .17; p = .02). In multivariable analysis, sociodemographic factors were not significant. Collectivism remained a robust predictor (p < 0.0001). Attitudes about the efficacy of cancer treatment were not associated with spirituality. The high levels of spirituality in African-American survivors suggest consideration of integrating spiritual care within the delivery of cancer treatment. Future studies should consider how spirituality may contribute to positive coping and/or behaviors in African-American women with high levels of spirituality.

  9. Melanoma survivors at high risk of developing new primary disease: a qualitative examination of the factors that contribute to patient satisfaction with clinical care.

    PubMed

    McLoone, J K; Watts, K J; Menzies, S W; Barlow-Stewart, K; Mann, G J; Kasparian, N A

    2013-09-01

    Providing ongoing clinical care that adequately addresses patients' medical, psychosocial and information needs is challenging, particularly for patient groups at increased risk of developing life-threatening disease such as malignant melanoma. This study examined a model of clinical care developed by the High Risk Clinic (HRC) of the Sydney Melanoma Diagnostic Centre in relation to patient satisfaction. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted and analyzed using the framework of Miles and Huberman, and themes were organized using the qualitative software package, QSR NVivo8. Twenty HRC patients participated in the study (nine men, 11 women; mean age 57.6 years, age range 34-74 years; response rate 91%). Satisfaction with clinical care at the HRC was high. Factors contributing to patient satisfaction included: rapid and regular access to physicians who were perceived by participants as experts, the development of confidence and trust in one's treating doctor, and a sense of being cared about and understood by one's healthcare team. Although one-third of the participants reported some inconveniences in attending the clinic, these were viewed as minor difficulties and not significant barriers to care. Formal psychological support was not sought or expected by participants, although many expressed long-standing melanoma-related fears and concerns. Accessible, expert medical attention, delivered in a patient-centered manner was integral to melanoma survivors' satisfaction with clinical management. Appropriate referrals to psychological support may further increase satisfaction with clinical care. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Clinical assessment of the oral cavity of patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit of an emergency hospital

    PubMed Central

    da Cruz, Maristela Kapitski; de Morais, Teresa Márcia Nascimento; Trevisani, Deny Munari

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the oral health status of patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit. Methods Clinical assessment of the oral cavity was performed in 35 patients at two time-points (up to 48 hours after admission and 72 hours after the first assessment) and recorded in data collection forms. The following data were collected: plaque index, condition of the mucosa, presence or absence of dental prosthesis, number of teeth present, and tongue coating index. Results The prevalence of nosocomial infection was 22% (eight patients), with 50% respiratory tract infections. All patients exhibited oral biofilm, and 20 (57%) showed biofilm visible to the naked eye; tongue coating was present on more than two thirds of the tongue in 24 patients (69%) and was thick in most cases. A significant increase in plaque index (p=0.007) occurred after 72 hours, although the tongue coating index was p<0.001 regarding the area and p=0.5 regarding the thickness. Conclusion The plaque and tongue coating indices increased with the length of hospital stay at the intensive care unit. PMID:25607267

  11. The Effect of Orem's Self-Care Model on Quality of Life in Patients with Migraine: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudzadeh Zarandi, Fatemeh; Raiesifar, Afsaneh; Ebadi, Abbas

    2016-03-01

    Many aspects of the lives of migraineurs are commonly affected by the condition, including occupational affairs, social and family life, responsibilities and ultimately the quality of life. This study was designed to determine the effect of orem's self-care nursing model on quality of life in patients with a migraine. This study was carried out in Tehran, Iran. According to the pre-post design of the randomized clinical trial, 88 patients were selected. After obtaining approval from the ethics committee of the Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University's Research Deputy; Patients who signed the informed consent aged 20-55 years and without any more disease or disability affecting the quality of life were selected and randomly assigned to a group. Data collection tools were a demographic questionnaire, general health survey short form (SF36), and Orem cognition form and self-care checklist. Self-care model were held as four 30-45 minutes training sessions based on self-care deficit needs for the experimental group. The quality of life scores was measured in two stages, before and three months after intervention then were compared in both groups. Data were analyzed with statistical software SPSS and use of descriptive analysis tests, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney u and Wilcoxon. The final analysis was performed on 43 experimental and 40 controls. No significant difference was detected in the two groups in terms of demographic variables (P>0.05). All dimensions of quality of life including physical functioning, physical role limitation, body pain, general health, vitality, social functioning and emotional role limitation and mental health in the experimental group showed a significant increase after intervention compared to the control group (P<0.05). It was concluded that performing Orem's self-care nursing model improves function and overall quality of life and reduces the high cost of a migraine and migraine-related disability to individuals and society.

  12. Clinical practice guidelines for support of the family in the patient-centered intensive care unit: American College of Critical Care Medicine Task Force 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Judy E; Powers, Karen; Hedayat, Kamyar M; Tieszen, Mark; Kon, Alexander A; Shepard, Eric; Spuhler, Vicki; Todres, I David; Levy, Mitchell; Barr, Juliana; Ghandi, Raj; Hirsch, Gregory; Armstrong, Deborah

    2007-02-01

    To develop clinical practice guidelines for the support of the patient and family in the adult, pediatric, or neonatal patient-centered ICU. A multidisciplinary task force of experts in critical care practice was convened from the membership of the American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) and the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) to include representation from adult, pediatric, and neonatal intensive care units. The task force members reviewed the published literature. The Cochrane library, Cinahl, and MedLine were queried for articles published between 1980 and 2003. Studies were scored according to Cochrane methodology. Where evidence did not exist or was of a low level, consensus was derived from expert opinion. The topic was divided into subheadings: decision making, family coping, staff stress related to family interactions, cultural support, spiritual/religious support, family visitation, family presence on rounds, family presence at resuscitation, family environment of care, and palliative care. Each section was led by one task force member. Each section draft was reviewed by the group and debated until consensus was achieved. The draft document was reviewed by a committee of the Board of Regents of the ACCM. After steering committee approval, the draft was approved by the SCCM Council and was again subjected to peer review by this journal. More than 300 related studies were reviewed. However, the level of evidence in most cases is at Cochrane level 4 or 5, indicating the need for further research. Forty-three recommendations are presented that include, but are not limited to, endorsement of a shared decision-making model, early and repeated care conferencing to reduce family stress and improve consistency in communication, honoring culturally appropriate requests for truth-telling and informed refusal, spiritual support, staff education and debriefing to minimize the impact of family interactions on staff health, family presence at both

  13. Oropharyngeal flora in patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit: clinical factors and acid suppressive therapy.

    PubMed

    Frandah, Wesam; Colmer-Hamood, Jane; Mojazi Amiri, Hoda; Raj, Rishi; Nugent, Kenneth

    2013-05-01

    Acid suppression therapy in critically ill patients significantly reduces the incidence of stress ulceration and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding; however, recent studies suggest that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) increase the risk of pneumonia. We wanted to test the hypothesis that acid suppressive therapy promotes alteration in the bacterial flora in the GI tract and leads to colonization of the upper airway tract with pathogenic species, potentially forming the biological basis for the observed increased incidence of pneumonia in these patients. This was a prospective observational study on patients (adults 18 years or older) admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) at a tertiary care centre. Exclusion criteria included all patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia at admission, with infection in the upper airway, or with a history of significant dysphagia. Oropharyngeal cultures were obtained on day 1 and days 3 or 4 of admission. We collected data on demographics, clinical information, and severity of the underlying disease using APACHE II scores. There were 110 patients enrolled in the study. The mean age was 49±16 years, 50 were women, and the mean APACHE II score was 9.8 ± 6.5. Twenty per cent of the patients had used a PPI in the month preceding admission. The first oropharyngeal specimen was available in 110 cases; a second specimen at 72-96 h was available in 68 cases. Seventy-five per cent of the patients admitted to the MICU had abnormal flora. In multivariate logistic regression, diabetes mellitus and PPI use were associated with abnormal oral flora on admission. Chronic renal failure and a higher body mass index reduced the frequency of abnormal oral flora on admission. Most critically ill patients admitted to our MICU have abnormal oral flora. Patients with diabetes and a history of recent PPI use are more likely to have abnormal oral flora on admission.

  14. Patient Care Coordinator | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    We are looking for a Patient Care Coordinator to join our thoracic and gastrointestinal oncology clinical team to help us coordinate care for patients enrolled on our clinical research protocols. Duties include scheduling appointments, coordinating new patients, obtaining patient records, attending weekly clinic meetings, and data base entry.  Be part of our mission to solve

  15. Patient Care Coordinator | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    We are looking for a Patient Care Coordinator to join our clinical team to help us coordinate care for patients enrolled on our clinical research protocols. Duties include scheduling appointments, coordinating new patients, obtaining patient records, attending weekly clinic meetings, and data base entry. Be part of our mission to solve the most important, challenging and

  16. Patient Care Coordinator | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    We are looking for a Patient Care Coordinator to join our women's malignancies clinical team to help us coordinate care for patients enrolled on our clinical research protocols. Duties include scheduling appointments, coordinating new patients, obtaining patient records, attending weekly clinic meetings, and data base entry. Be part of our mission to solve the most important,

  17. Effect of a Collaborative Care Intervention vs Usual Care on Health Status of Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: The CASA Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bekelman, David B; Allen, Larry A; McBryde, Connor F; Hattler, Brack; Fairclough, Diane L; Havranek, Edward P; Turvey, Carolyn; Meek, Paula M

    2018-04-01

    Many patients with chronic heart failure experience reduced health status despite receiving conventional therapy. To determine whether a symptom and psychosocial collaborative care intervention improves heart failure-specific health status, depression, and symptom burden in patients with heart failure. A single-blind, 2-arm, multisite randomized clinical trial was conducted at Veterans Affairs, academic, and safety-net health systems in Colorado among outpatients with symptomatic heart failure and reduced health status recruited between August 2012 and April 2015. Data from all participants were included regardless of level of participation, using an intent-to-treat approach. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive the Collaborative Care to Alleviate Symptoms and Adjust to Illness (CASA) intervention or usual care. The CASA intervention included collaborative symptom care provided by a nurse and psychosocial care provided by a social worker, both of whom worked with the patients' primary care clinicians and were supervised by a study primary care clinician, cardiologist, and palliative care physician. The primary outcome was patient-reported heart failure-specific health status, measured by difference in change scores on the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (range, 0-100) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included depression (measured by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire), anxiety (measured by the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire), overall symptom distress (measured by the General Symptom Distress Scale), specific symptoms (pain, fatigue, and shortness of breath), number of hospitalizations, and mortality. Of 314 patients randomized (157 to intervention arm and 157 to control arm), there were 67 women and 247 men, mean (SD) age was 65.5 (11.4) years, and 178 (56.7%) had reduced ejection fraction. At 6 months, the mean Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score improved 5.5 points in the intervention arm and 2.9 points in the control

  18. Clinical and health care use characteristics of patients newly starting allopurinol, febuxostat, and colchicine for the treatment of gout.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seoyoung C; Schmidt, Bernhard M W; Franklin, Jessica M; Liu, Jun; Solomon, Daniel H; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    Gout is a common form of inflammatory arthritis with an increasing prevalence in developed countries. It is well known that many patients with gout have significant comorbidities and high health care utilization. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and health care utilization patterns in patients with gout who were newly prescribed allopurinol, febuxostat, or colchicine. We used US insurance claims data (2009-2011) to conduct a population-based cohort study. There were 25,051 allopurinol, 4,288 febuxostat, and 6,238 colchicine initiators. The mean age was 53 years and 83-87% were men. More than one-half of the patients had hypertension and hyperlipidemia, 20% had diabetes mellitus, and 10% had cardiovascular disease. The mean uric acid level was similar across the groups at baseline, ranging from 8.1-8.5 mg/dl. Compared with allopurinol or colchicine initiators, febuxostat initiators had more comorbidities and greater health care utilization, including outpatient, inpatient, or emergency room visits, both at baseline and during followup. Use of gout-related drugs such as opioids, steroids, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs was most common in febuxostat initiators and least common in colchicine initiators. The median daily doses at both the start and end of treatment were 300 mg for allopurinol, 40 mg for febuxostat, and 1.2 mg for colchicine. The doses of allopurinol and febuxostat were rarely increased during followup. Patients who started allopurinol, febuxostat, or colchicine for gout generally had hyperuricemia and multiple comorbidities. Febuxostat initiators had more comorbidities and greater use of health care resources and gout-related drugs than the other groups. Overall, the doses of allopurinol or febuxostat remained unchanged over time. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Innovation at the Intersection of Clinical Trials and Real-World Data Science to Advance Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Swift, Brandon; Jain, Lokesh; White, Craig; Chandrasekaran, Vasu; Bhandari, Aman; Hughes, Dyfrig A; Jadhav, Pravin R

    2018-05-16

    While efficacy and safety data collected from randomized clinical trials are the evidentiary standard for determining market authorization, this alone may no longer be sufficient to address the needs of key stakeholders (regulators, providers, and payers) and guarantee long-term success of pharmaceutical products. There is a heightened interest from stakeholders on understanding the use of real-world evidence (RWE) to substantiate benefit-risk assessment and support the value of a new drug. This review provides an overview of real-world data (RWD) and related advances in the regulatory framework, and discusses their impact on clinical research and development. A framework for linking drug development decisions with the value proposition of the drug, utilizing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-pharmacoeconomic models, is introduced. The summary presented here is based on the presentations and discussion at the symposium entitled Innovation at the Intersection of Clinical Trials and Real-World Data to Advance Patient Care at the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT) 2017 Annual Meeting. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  20. Impact of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on academic radiology departments' clinical, research, and education missions.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, Bahar; Vidal, Lorenna L; Applegate, Kimberly; Rawson, James V; Novak, Ronald D; Ros, Pablo R

    2013-10-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) generated significant media attention since its inception. When the law was approved in 2010, the U.S. health care system began facing multiple changes to adapt and to incorporate measures to meet the new requirements. These mandatory changes will be challenging for academic radiology departments (ARDs) since they will need to promote a shift from a volume-focused to a value-focused practice. This will affect all components of the mission of ARDs, including clinical practice, education, and research. A unique key element to success in this transition is to focus on both quality and safety, thus improving the value of radiology in the post-ACA era. Given the changes ARDs will face during the implementation of ACA, suggestions are provided on how to adapt ARDs to this new environment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Engaging patients and families to create a feasible clinical trial integrating palliative and heart failure care: results of the ENABLE CHF-PC pilot clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bakitas, Marie; Dionne-Odom, J Nicholas; Pamboukian, Salpy V; Tallaj, Jose; Kvale, Elizabeth; Swetz, Keith M; Frost, Jennifer; Wells, Rachel; Azuero, Andres; Keebler, Konda; Akyar, Imatullah; Ejem, Deborah; Steinhauser, Karen; Smith, Tasha; Durant, Raegan; Kono, Alan T

    2017-08-31

    Early palliative care (EPC) is recommended but rarely integrated with advanced heart failure (HF) care. We engaged patients and family caregivers to study the feasibility and site differences in a two-site EPC trial, ENABLE CHF-PC (Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends Comprehensive Heartcare for Patients and Caregivers). We conducted an EPC feasibility study (4/1/14-8/31/15) for patients with NYHA Class III/IV HF and their caregivers in academic medical centers in the northeast and southeast U.S. The EPC intervention comprised: 1) an in-person outpatient palliative care consultation; and 2) telephonic nurse coach sessions and monthly calls. We collected patient- and caregiver-reported outcomes of quality of life (QOL), symptom, health, anxiety, and depression at baseline, 12- and 24-weeks. We used linear mixed-models to assess baseline to week 24 longitudinal changes. We enrolled 61 patients and 48 caregivers; between-site demographic differences included age, race, religion, marital, and work status. Most patients (69%) and caregivers (79%) completed all intervention sessions; however, we noted large between-site differences in measurement completion (38% southeast vs. 72% northeast). Patients experienced moderate effect size improvements in QOL, symptoms, physical, and mental health; caregivers experienced moderate effect size improvements in QOL, depression, mental health, and burden. Small-to-moderate effect size improvements were noted in patients' hospital and ICU days and emergency visits. Between-site demographic, attrition, and participant-reported outcomes highlight the importance of intervention pilot-testing in culturally diverse populations. Observations from this pilot feasibility trial allowed us to refine the methodology of an in-progress, full-scale randomized clinical efficacy trial. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03177447 (retrospectively registered, June 2017).

  2. 'It's a matter of patient safety': understanding challenges in everyday clinical practice for achieving good care on the surgical ward - a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Jangland, Eva; Nyberg, Berit; Yngman-Uhlin, Pia

    2017-06-01

    Surgical care plays an important role in the acute hospital's delivery of safe, high-quality patient care. Although demands for effectiveness are high in surgical wards quality of care and patient safety must also be secured. It is therefore necessary to identify the challenges and barriers linked to quality of care and patient safety with a focus on this specific setting. To explore situations and processes that support or hinder good safe patient care on the surgical ward. This qualitative study was based on a strategic sample of 10 department and ward leaders in three hospitals and six surgical wards in Sweden. Repeated reflective interviews were analysed using systematic text condensation. Four themes described the leaders' view of a complex healthcare setting that demands effectiveness and efficiency in moving patients quickly through the healthcare system. Quality of care and patient safety were often hampered factors such as a shift of care level, with critically ill patients cared for without reorganisation of nurses' competencies on the surgical ward. There is a gap between what is described in written documents and what is or can be performed in clinical practice to achieve good care and safe care on the surgical ward. A shift in levels of care on the surgical ward without reallocation of the necessary competencies at the patient's bedside show consequences for quality of care and patient safety. This means that surgical wards should consider reviewing their organisation and implementing more advanced nursing roles in direct patient care on all shifts. The ethical issues and the moral stress on nurses who lack the resources and competence to deliver good care according to professional values need to be made more explicit as a part of the patient safety agenda in the surgical ward. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Visual query tool for finding patient cohorts from a clinical data warehouse of the partners HealthCare system

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, SN; Barnett, GO; Chueh, HC

    2000-01-01

    The patient base of the Partners HealthCare System in Boston exceeds 1.8 million. Many of these patients are desirable for participation in research studies. To facilitate their discovery, we developed a data warehouse to contain clinical characteristics of these patients. The data warehouse contains diagnosis and procedures from administrative databases. The patients are indexed across institutions and their demographics provided by an Enterprise Master Patient Indexing service. Characteristics of the diagnoses and procedures such as associated providers, dates of service, inpatient/outpatient status, and other visit-related characteristics are also fed from the administrative systems. The targeted users of this system are research clinician s interested in finding patient cohorts for research studies. Their data requirements were analyzed and have been reported elsewhere. We did not expect the clinicians to become expert users of the system. Tools for querying healthcare data have traditionally been text based, although graphical interfaces have been pursued. In order to support the simple drag and drop visual model, as well as the identification and distribution of the patient data, a three-tier software architecture was developed. The user interface was developed in Visual Basic and distributed as an ActiveX object embedded in an HTML page. The middle layer was developed in Java and Microsoft COM. The queries are represented throughout their lifetime as XML objects, and the Microsoft SQL7 database is queried and managed in standard SQL. PMID:11080028

  4. Visual query tool for finding patient cohorts from a clinical data warehouse of the partners HealthCare system

    PubMed

    Murphy; Barnett; Chueh

    2000-01-01

    The patient base of the Partners HealthCare System in Boston exceeds 1.8 million. Many of these patients are desirable for participation in research studies. To facilitate their discovery, we developed a data warehouse to contain clinical characteristics of these patients. The data warehouse contains diagnosis and procedures from administrative databases. The patients are indexed across institutions and their demographics provided by an Enterprise Master Patient Indexing service. Characteristics of the diagnoses and procedures such as associated providers, dates of service, inpatient/outpatient status, and other visit-related characteristics are also fed from the administrative systems. The targeted users of this system are research clinician s interested in finding patient cohorts for research studies. Their data requirements were analyzed and have been reported elsewhere. We did not expect the clinicians to become expert users of the system. Tools for querying healthcare data have traditionally been text based, although graphical interfaces have been pursued. In order to support the simple drag and drop visual model, as well as the identification and distribution of the patient data, a three-tier software architecture was developed. The user interface was developed in Visual Basic and distributed as an ActiveX object embedded in an HTML page. The middle layer was developed in Java and Microsoft COM. The queries are represented throughout their lifetime as XML objects, and the Microsoft SQL7 database is queried and managed in standard SQL.

  5. The secret of the care of the patient is in knowing and applying the evidence about effective clinical communication.

    PubMed

    Frankel, R M; Sherman, H B

    2015-11-01

    American physicians and dentists conduct approximately 140 000-160 000 patient interviews in a practice lifetime, making the interview the most frequently performed medical procedure. Over the past 75 years, a steadily growing stream of scientific research has confirmed the fact that patient-clinician communication affects the course, direction, and both biomedical and functional outcomes of care. The field of clinical communication research has matured from anecdotes and aphorisms about 'bedside manner' to sophisticated randomized control trials and evidence-based outcomes that have been translated into reliable practice guidelines. Several key skills or habits of practice have been identified and studied in terms of their efficacy and effectiveness. These include the importance of agenda-setting, eliciting patients' perspectives about the nature of their ailments, communicating caring and concern, and testing for patient comprehension and agreement with proposed treatments. In addition to being effective, interpersonal communication can be deeply satisfying as well as offering a lower probability of law suits in the event of an adverse outcome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A cluster randomized trial to assess the effect of clinical pathways for patients with stroke: results of the clinical pathways for effective and appropriate care study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical pathways (CPs) are used to improve the outcomes of acute stroke, but their use in stroke care is questionable, because the evidence on their effectiveness is still inconclusive. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether CPs improve the outcomes and the quality of care provided to patients after acute ischemic stroke. Methods This was a multicentre cluster-randomized trial, in which 14 hospitals were randomized to the CP arm or to the non intervention/usual care (UC) arm. Healthcare workers in the CP arm received 3 days of training in quality improvement of CPs and in use of a standardized package including information on evidence-based key interventions and indicators. Healthcare workers in the usual-care arm followed their standard procedures. The teams in the CP arm developed their CPs over a 6-month period. The primary end point was mortality. Secondary end points were: use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, implementation of organized care, length of stay, re-admission and institutionalization rates after discharge, dependency levels, and complication rates. Results Compared with the patients in the UC arm, the patients in the CP arm had a significantly lower risk of mortality at 7 days (OR = 0.10; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.95) and significantly lower rates of adverse functional outcomes, expressed as the odds of not returning to pre-stroke functioning in their daily life (OR = 0.42; 95 CI 0.18 to 0.98). There was no significant effect on 30-day mortality. Compared with the UC arm, the hospital diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were performed more appropriately in the CP arm, and the evidence-based key interventions and organized care were more applied in the CP arm. Conclusions CPs can significantly improve the outcomes of patients with ischemic patients with stroke, indicating better application of evidence-based key interventions and of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. This study tested a new hypothesis and provided

  7. Quantifying Risk of Adverse Clinical Events With One Set of Vital Signs Among Primary Care Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, William M; Brunt, Margaret; Kesterson, Joseph; Zhou, Xiao-Hua; L’Italien, Gil; Lapuerta, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hypertension is often uncontrolled. One reason might be physicians’ reticence to modify therapy in response to single office measurements of vital signs. METHODS Using electronic records from an inner-city primary care practice, we extracted information about vital signs, diagnoses, test results, and drug therapy available on the first primary care visit in 1993 for patients with hypertension. We then identified multivariable predictors of subsequent vascular complications in the ensuing 5 years. RESULTS Of 5,825 patients (mean age 57 years) previously treated for hypertension for 5.6 years, 7% developed myocardial infarctions, 17% had strokes, 24% developed ischemic heart disease, 22% had heart failure, 12% developed renal insufficiency, and 13% died in 5 years. Controlling for other clinical data, a 10-mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure was associated with 13% increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 6%–21%) of renal insufficiency, 9% (95% CI, 3%–15%) increased risk of ischemic heart disease, 7% (95% CI, 3%–11%) increased risk of stroke, and 6% (95% CI, 2%–9%) increased risk of first stroke or myocardial infarction. A 10-mmHg elevation in mean blood pressure predicted a 12% (95% CI, 5%–20%) increased risk of heart failure. An increase in heart rate of 10 beats per minute predicted a 16% (95% CI, 2%–5%) increased risk of death. Diastolic blood pressure predicted only a 13% (95% CI, 4%–23%) increased risk of first stroke. CONCLUSIONS Vital signs—especially systolic blood pressure—recorded routinely during a single primary care visit had significant prognostic value for multiple adverse clinical events among patients treated for hypertension and should not be ignored by clinicians. PMID:15209196

  8. Quantifying risk of adverse clinical events with one set of vital signs among primary care patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tierney, William M; Brunt, Margaret; Kesterson, Joseph; Zhou, Xiao-Hua; L'Italien, Gil; Lapuerta, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    Hypertension is often uncontrolled. One reason might be physicians' reticence to modify therapy in response to single office measurements of vital signs. Using electronic records from an inner-city primary care practice, we extracted information about vital signs, diagnoses, test results, and drug therapy available on the first primary care visit in 1993 for patients with hypertension. We then identified multivariable predictors of subsequent vascular complications in the ensuing 5 years. Of 5,825 patients (mean age 57 years) previously treated for hypertension for 5.6 years, 7% developed myocardial infarctions, 17% had strokes, 24% developed ischemic heart disease, 22% had heart failure, 12% developed renal insufficiency, and 13% died in 5 years. Controlling for other clinical data, a 10-mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure was associated with 13% increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 6%-21%) of renal insufficiency, 9% (95% CI, 3%-15%) increased risk of ischemic heart disease, 7% (95% CI, 3%-11%) increased risk of stroke, and 6% (95% CI, 2%-9%) increased risk of first stroke or myocardial infarction. A 10-mmHg elevation in mean blood pressure predicted a 12% (95% CI, 5%-20%) increased risk of heart failure. An increase in heart rate of 10 beats per minute predicted a 16% (95% CI, 2%-5%) increased risk of death. Diastolic blood pressure predicted only a 13% (95% CI, 4%-23%) increased risk of first stroke. Vital signs-especially systolic blood pressure-recorded routinely during a single primary care visit had significant prognostic value for multiple adverse clinical events among patients treated for hypertension and should not be ignored by clinicians.

  9. Disease patterns and clinical outcomes of patients admitted in intensive care units of tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sawe, Hendry R; Mfinanga, Juma A; Lidenge, Salum J; Mpondo, Boniventura C T; Msangi, Silas; Lugazia, Edwin; Mwafongo, Victor; Runyon, Michael S; Reynolds, Teri A

    2014-09-23

    In sub-Saharan Africa the availability of intensive care unit (ICU) services is limited by a variety of factors, including lack of financial resources, lack of available technology and well-trained staff. Tanzania has four main referral hospitals, located in zones so as to serve as tertiary level referral centers. All the referral hospitals have some ICU services, operating at varying levels of equipment and qualified staff. We analyzed and describe the disease patterns and clinical outcomes of patients admitted in ICUs of the tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania. This was a retrospective analysis of ICU patient records, for three years (2009 to 2011) from all tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania, namely Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), Mbeya Referral Hospital (MRH) and Bugando Medical Centre (BMC). MNH is the largest of the four referral hospitals with 1300 beds, and MRH is the smallest with 480 beds. The ratio of hospital beds to ICU beds is 217:1 at MNH, 54:1 at BMC, 39:1 at KCMC, and 80:1 at MRH. KCMC had no infusion pumps. None of the ICUs had a point-of-care (POC) arterial blood gas (ABG) analyzer. None of the ICUs had an Intensive Care specialist or a nutritionist. A masters-trained critical care nurse was available only at MNH. From 2009-2011, the total number of patients admitted to the four ICUs was 5627, male to female ratio 1.4:1, median age of 34 years. Overall, Trauma (22.2%) was the main disease category followed by infectious disease (19.7%). Intracranial injury (12.5%) was the leading diagnosis in all age groups, while pneumonia (11.7%) was the leading diagnosis in pediatric patients (<18 years). Patients with tetanus (2.4%) had the longest median length ICU stay: 8 (5,13) days. The overall in-ICU mortality rate was 41.4%. The ICUs in tertiary referral hospitals of Tanzania are severely limited in infrastructure, personnel, and resources, making it difficult or impossible to provide optimum care

  10. Effect of Endobronchial Coils vs Usual Care on Exercise Tolerance in Patients With Severe Emphysema: The RENEW Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sciurba, Frank C; Criner, Gerard J; Strange, Charlie; Shah, Pallav L; Michaud, Gaetane; Connolly, Timothy A; Deslée, Gaëtan; Tillis, William P; Delage, Antoine; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Krishna, Ganesh; Kalhan, Ravi; Ferguson, J Scott; Jantz, Michael; Maldonado, Fabien; McKenna, Robert; Majid, Adnan; Rai, Navdeep; Gay, Steven; Dransfield, Mark T; Angel, Luis; Maxfield, Roger; Herth, Felix J F; Wahidi, Momen M; Mehta, Atul; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    Preliminary clinical trials have demonstrated that endobronchial coils compress emphysematous lung tissue and may improve lung function, exercise tolerance, and symptoms in patients with emphysema and severe lung hyperinflation. To determine the effectiveness and safety of endobronchial coil treatment. Randomized clinical trial conducted among 315 patients with emphysema and severe air trapping recruited from 21 North American and 5 European sites from December 2012 through November 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to continue usual care alone (guideline based, including pulmonary rehabilitation and bronchodilators; n = 157) vs usual care plus bilateral coil treatment (n = 158) involving 2 sequential procedures 4 months apart in which 10 to 14 coils were bronchoscopically placed in a single lobe of each lung. The primary effectiveness outcome was difference in absolute change in 6-minute-walk distance between baseline and 12 months (minimal clinically important difference [MCID], 25 m). Secondary end points included the difference between groups in 6-minute walk distance responder rate, absolute change in quality of life using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (MCID, 4) and change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1; MCID, 10%). The primary safety analysis compared the proportion of participants experiencing at least 1 of 7 prespecified major complications. Among 315 participants (mean age, 64 years; 52% women), 90% completed the 12-month follow-up. Median change in 6-minute walk distance at 12 months was 10.3 m with coil treatment vs -7.6 m with usual care, with a between-group difference of 14.6 m (Hodges-Lehmann 97.5% CI, 0.4 m to ∞; 1-sided P = .02). Improvement of at least 25 m occurred in 40.0% of patients in the coil group vs 26.9% with usual care (odds ratio, 1.8 [97.5% CI, 1.1 to ∞]; unadjusted between-group difference, 11.8% [97.5% CI, 1.0% to ∞]; 1-sided P = .01). The between-group difference in

  11. Impact of pharmaceutical care interventions on glycemic control and other health-related clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: Randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wishah, Ruba A; Al-Khawaldeh, Omar A; Albsoul, Abla M

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmaceutical care interventions on glycemic control and other health-related clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes patients in Jordan. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 106 patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes seeking care in the diabetes clinics at Jordan University Hospital. Patients were randomly allocated into control and intervention group. The intervention group patients received pharmaceutical care interventions developed by the clinical pharmacist in collaboration with the physician while the control group patients received usual care without clinical pharmacist's input. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were measured at the baseline, at three months, and six months intervals for both intervention and control groups. After the six months follow-up, mean of HbA1c and FBS of the patients in the intervention group decreased significantly compared to the control group patients (P<0.05). Also, the results indicated that mean scores of patients' knowledge about medications, knowledge about diabetes and adherence to medications and diabetes self-care activities of the patients in the intervention group increased significantly compared to the control group (P<0.05). This study demonstrated an improvement in HbA1c, FBS, and lipid profile, in addition to self-reported medication adherence, diabetes knowledge, and diabetes self-care activities in patients with type 2 diabetes who received pharmaceutical care interventions. The results suggest the benefits of integrating clinical pharmacist services in multidisciplinary healthcare team and diabetes management in Jordan. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Feasibility of Extracting Key Elements from ClinicalTrials.gov to Support Clinicians’ Patient Care Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heejun; Bian, Jiantao; Mostafa, Javed; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Clinicians need up-to-date evidence from high quality clinical trials to support clinical decisions. However, applying evidence from the primary literature requires significant effort. Objective: To examine the feasibility of automatically extracting key clinical trial information from ClinicalTrials.gov. Methods: We assessed the coverage of ClinicalTrials.gov for high quality clinical studies that are indexed in PubMed. Using 140 random ClinicalTrials.gov records, we developed and tested rules for the automatic extraction of key information. Results: The rate of high quality clinical trial registration in ClinicalTrials.gov increased from 0.2% in 2005 to 17% in 2015. Trials reporting results increased from 3% in 2005 to 19% in 2015. The accuracy of the automatic extraction algorithm for 10 trial attributes was 90% on average. Future research is needed to improve the algorithm accuracy and to design information displays to optimally present trial information to clinicians. PMID:28269867

  13. Feasibility of Extracting Key Elements from ClinicalTrials.gov to Support Clinicians' Patient Care Decisions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejun; Bian, Jiantao; Mostafa, Javed; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Clinicians need up-to-date evidence from high quality clinical trials to support clinical decisions. However, applying evidence from the primary literature requires significant effort. Objective: To examine the feasibility of automatically extracting key clinical trial information from ClinicalTrials.gov. Methods: We assessed the coverage of ClinicalTrials.gov for high quality clinical studies that are indexed in PubMed. Using 140 random ClinicalTrials.gov records, we developed and tested rules for the automatic extraction of key information. Results: The rate of high quality clinical trial registration in ClinicalTrials.gov increased from 0.2% in 2005 to 17% in 2015. Trials reporting results increased from 3% in 2005 to 19% in 2015. The accuracy of the automatic extraction algorithm for 10 trial attributes was 90% on average. Future research is needed to improve the algorithm accuracy and to design information displays to optimally present trial information to clinicians.

  14. Warfarin Patients With Anemia Show Trend of Out-of-Range International Normalized Ratio Frequency With Point-of-Care Testing in an Anticoagulation Clinic.

    PubMed

    DeRemer, Christina E; McMichael, Bliss; Young, Henry N

    2018-01-01

    Many factors influence international normalized ratio (INR); however, few studies have examined the impact of anemia in warfarin patients. The primary objective of this study was to explore the relationship between in-clinic anemia and the control of INR within an anticoagulation clinic. A retrospective chart review was performed on a random sample of patients seen in an academic medical center pharmacy-managed anticoagulation clinic. Hemochron® Signature Elite machine was utilized to monitor point-of-care (POC) INR. In-clinic anemia was defined as hematocrit <32%. Statistical analyses were conducted using STATA MP a webbased platform ( https://www.stata.com/statamp/ ). Of the 300 patients analyzed, 45 (15%) patients had in-clinic anemia. Patients with in-clinic anemia were more likely to be younger ( P < .05), female ( P < .05), and have a diagnosis of sickle cell disease or anemia ( P < .05). In the unadjusted logistic regression model, patients with in-clinic anemia were less likely to have an in-range INR ( OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.27-0.98). The adjusted regression model did not show significance. Study results suggest that in-clinic anemia may be more prevalent among younger, female patients prescribed warfarin, and patients diagnosed with in-clinic anemia may be a risk factor for out-of-range INR. Pharmacists practicing in anticoagulation clinics can incorporate this information into patient care practice in efforts to maintain optimal management.

  15. Clinical diagnostic model for sciatica developed in primary care patients with low back-related leg pain

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinou, Kika; Ogollah, Reuben; Hay, Elaine M.; Dunn, Kate M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Identification of sciatica may assist timely management but can be challenging in clinical practice. Diagnostic models to identify sciatica have mainly been developed in secondary care settings with conflicting reference standard selection. This study explores the challenges of reference standard selection and aims to ascertain which combination of clinical assessment items best identify sciatica in people seeking primary healthcare. Methods Data on 394 low back-related leg pain consulters were analysed. Potential sciatica indicators were seven clinical assessment items. Two reference standards were used: (i) high confidence sciatica clinical diagnosis; (ii) high confidence sciatica clinical diagnosis with confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging findings. Multivariable logistic regression models were produced for both reference standards. A tool predicting sciatica diagnosis in low back-related leg pain was derived. Latent class modelling explored the validity of the reference standard. Results Model (i) retained five items; model (ii) retained six items. Four items remained in both models: below knee pain, leg pain worse than back pain, positive neural tension tests and neurological deficit. Model (i) was well calibrated (p = 0.18), discrimination was area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.95 (95% CI 0.93, 0.98). Model (ii) showed good discrimination (AUC 0.82; 0.78, 0.86) but poor calibration (p = 0.004). Bootstrapping revealed minimal overfitting in both models. Agreement between the two latent classes and clinical diagnosis groups defined by model (i) was substantial, and fair for model (ii). Conclusion Four clinical assessment items were common in both reference standard definitions of sciatica. A simple scoring tool for identifying sciatica was developed. These criteria could be used clinically and in research to improve accuracy of identification of this subgroup of back pain patients. PMID:29621243

  16. Trends in Occupations and Work Sectors Among Patients With Work-Related Asthma at a Canadian Tertiary Care Clinic.

    PubMed

    Gotzev, Simeon; Lipszyc, Joshua C; Connor, Dale; Tarlo, Susan M

    2016-10-01

    Work-related asthma (WRA) is the most common chronic occupational lung disease in the developed world. Several factors including sociodemographic status and occupation/industry increase the risks of developing WRA. In this study, we sought to identify changes in patterns and characteristics among patients with WRA over a 15-year period in an occupational lung disease clinic. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with WRA charts at the Occupational Lung Disease Clinic of a University Hospital in Toronto, Canada. Patients were divided into two periods classified by first attendance at the clinic 2000 through 2007 and 2008 through 2015. Comparisons between the two periods included: sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status, occupations, exposures, and submitted workers' compensation claims. Fewer occupational asthma cases were seen in the more recent period vs the earlier period (40 vs 74 cases), with a smaller reduction in work-exacerbated asthma cases (40 vs 58). The recent period included a significantly smaller proportion employed in the manufacturing industry and isocyanate-induced cases compared with the earlier period. An increased proportion were employed in health-care and education industries (primarily cleaners and teachers) in the recent period, consistent with a corresponding increased frequency of cleaning agents and dust exposures. The changes observed in work sectors in the patients with WRA in this clinic in Toronto are consistent with reductions reported in Ontario workers' compensation claims for occupational asthma and may relate to preventive measures. Cleaners and teachers should be a focus of further intervention measures for work-related asthma. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical and socio-demographic determinants of self-care behaviours in patients with heart failure and diabetes mellitus: A multicentre cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ausili, Davide; Rebora, Paola; Di Mauro, Stefania; Riegel, Barbara; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Paturzo, Marco; Alvaro, Rosaria; Vellone, Ercole

    2016-11-01

    Self-care is vital for patients with heart failure to maintain health and quality of life, and it is even more vital for those who are also affected by diabetes mellitus, since they are at higher risk of worse outcomes. The literature is unclear on the influence of diabetes on heart failure self-care as well as on the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors on self-care. (1) To compare self-care maintenance, self-care management and self-care confidence of patients with heart failure and diabetes versus those heart failure patients without diabetes; (2) to estimate if the presence of diabetes influences self-care maintenance, self-care management and self-care confidence of heart failure patients; (3) to identify socio-demographic and clinical determinants of self-care maintenance, self-care management and self-care confidence in patients with heart failure and diabetes. Secondary analysis of data from a multicentre cross-sectional study. Outpatient clinics from 29 Italian provinces. 1192 adults with confirmed diagnosis of heart failure. Socio-demographic and clinical data were abstracted from patients' medical records. Self-care maintenance, self-care management and self-care confidence were measured with the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index Version 6.2; each scale has a standardized score from 0 to 100, where a score <70 indicates inadequate self-care. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Of 1192 heart failure patients, 379 (31.8%) had diabetes. In these 379, heart failure self-care behaviours were suboptimal (means range from 53.2 to 55.6). No statistically significant differences were found in any of the three self-care measures in heart failure patients with and without diabetes. The presence of diabetes did not influence self-care maintenance (p=0.12), self-care management (p=0.21) or self-care confidence (p=0.51). Age (p=0.04), number of medications (p=0.01), presence of a caregiver (p=0.04), family income (p=0.009) and self-care

  18. Quality of care in patients with psoriasis: an initial clinical study of an international disease management programme.

    PubMed

    de Korte, J; Van Onselen, J; Kownacki, S; Sprangers, M A G; Bos, J D

    2005-01-01

    Patients with psoriasis have to cope with their disease for many years or even throughout their entire life. To provide optimal care, a disease management programme was developed. This programme consisted of disease education, disease management training, and psychological support, together with topical treatment. To test a disease management programme in dermatological practice, to assess patients' satisfaction with this programme, and adherence to topical treatment. Additionally, disease severity and quality of life were assessed. An initial clinical investigation was conducted in 10 European treatment centres. A total of 330 patients were included. Patient satisfaction, adherence, disease severity and quality of life were measured with study-specific and standardized self-report questionnaires. Patients reported a high degree of satisfaction with the programme, and a high degree of adherence to topical treatment. Disease severity and quality of life significantly improved. The programme was well received by the participating professionals. The disease management programme was found to be a useful tool in the management of psoriasis, providing patients with relief from the burden of psoriasis in everyday life. A full-scale evaluation is recommended.

  19. A conceptual framework of clinical nursing care in intensive care.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rafael Celestino; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção; Apostolidis, Thémistoklis; Brandão, Marcos Antônio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    to propose a conceptual framework for clinical nursing care in intensive care. descriptive and qualitative field research, carried out with 21 nurses from an intensive care unit of a federal public hospital. We conducted semi-structured interviews and thematic and lexical content analysis, supported by Alceste software. the characteristics of clinical intensive care emerge from the specialized knowledge of the interaction, the work context, types of patients and nurses characteristic of the intensive care and care frameworks. the conceptual framework of the clinic's intensive care articulates elements characteristic of the dynamics of this scenario: objective elements regarding technology and attention to equipment and subjective elements related to human interaction, specific of nursing care, countering criticism based on dehumanization.

  20. Insurance Enrollment at a Student-Run Free Clinic After the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    McGeehan, Megan; DeMaria, Rebecca; Charney, Pamela; Batavia, Ashita S

    2017-08-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) aims to increase insurance coverage through government subsidies. Medical student-run free clinics (SRFC) are an important entry point into the healthcare system for the uninsured. SRFCs do not have a standardized approach for navigating the complexities of enrollment. The Weill Cornell Community Clinic (WCCC) developed a unique enrollment model that may inform other SRFCs. Our objective is to describe enrollment processes at SRFCs throughout New York City, and to evaluate enrollment outcomes and persistent barriers to coverage at WCCC. We surveyed SRFC leadership throughout NYC to understand enrollment processes. We evaluated enrollment outcomes at WCCC through chart review and structured phone interviews. Subjects included WCCC patients seen in clinic between October 1, 2013 and September 30, 2015 (N = 140). Demographic information, method of insurance enrollment, and qualitative description of enrollment barriers were collected. SRFCs in New York City have diverse enrollment processes. 48% (N = 42) of WCCC patients obtained health insurance. Immigration status was a barrier to coverage in 21% of patients. Failure to gain coverage was predicted by larger household size (p = 0.02). Gender and employment status were not associated with remaining uninsured. The main barriers to enrollment were inability to afford premiums and lack of interest. Insurance enrollment processes at SRFCs in New York City are mostly ad hoc and outcomes are rarely tracked. Following implementation of the ACA, WCCC stands out for its structured approach, with approximately half of eligible WCCC patients gaining coverage during the study period.

  1. Early Physical Therapy vs Usual Care in Patients With Recent-Onset Low Back Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Julie M; Magel, John S; McFadden, Molly; Asche, Carl; Thackeray, Anne; Meier, Whitney; Brennan, Gerard

    2015-10-13

    Low back pain (LBP) is common in primary care. Guidelines recommend delaying referrals for physical therapy. To evaluate whether early physical therapy (manipulation and exercise) is more effective than usual care in improving disability for patients with LBP fitting a decision rule. Randomized clinical trial with 220 participants recruited between March 2011 and November 2013. Participants with no LBP treatment in the past 6 months, aged 18 through 60 years (mean age, 37.4 years [SD, 10.3]), an Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score of 20 or higher, symptom duration less than 16 days, and no symptoms distal to the knee in the past 72 hours were enrolled following a primary care visit. All participants received education. Early physical therapy (n = 108) consisted of 4 physical therapy sessions. Usual care (n = 112) involved no additional interventions during the first 4 weeks. Primary outcome was change in the ODI score (range: 0-100; higher scores indicate greater disability; minimum clinically important difference, 6 points) at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in the ODI score at 4-week and 1-year follow-up, and change in pain intensity, Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) score, fear-avoidance beliefs, quality of life, patient-reported success, and health care utilization at 4-week, 3-month, and 1-year follow-up. One-year follow-up was completed by 207 participants (94.1%). Using analysis of covariance, early physical therapy showed improvement relative to usual care in disability after 3 months (mean ODI score: early physical therapy group, 41.3 [95% CI, 38.7 to 44.0] at baseline to 6.6 [95% CI, 4.7 to 8.5] at 3 months; usual care group, 40.9 [95% CI, 38.6 to 43.1] at baseline to 9.8 [95% CI, 7.9 to 11.7] at 3 months; between-group difference, -3.2 [95% CI, -5.9 to -0.47], P = .02). A significant difference was found between groups for the ODI score after 4 weeks (between-group difference, -3.5 [95% CI, -6.8 to -0.08], P = .045

  2. A Study of Clinical Profile and Quality of Life in Patients with Scabies at a Rural Tertiary Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita Vipul; Jivani, Nidhi B; Gandhi, Shailee S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Scabies is a contagious disease primarily related to poverty and overcrowding, it rapidly spreads from person to person specially in people with poor hygiene. We come across many patients from rural areas with scabies. In India the incidence ranges from 13% to 59% in rural and urban areas. Many people complain of sleep disturbances and affection of work and leisure activities due to itching. Very few studies are done in India about the affection of quality of life in such patients. Aim To study the demographic details, clinical profile and quality of life in patients with scabies. Materials and Methods A prospective, observational and cross-sectional study conducted at Department of Dermatology and Venereology, rural based tertiary care centre, Gujarat for a period of 6 months from March to August 2015, after ethical approval from the institute. Study included all patients with clinical features suggestive of scabies. The data including age, sex, occupation, education, socioeconomic status, complaints, past history, family history and clinical features along with the questionnaire for affection of quality of life were recorded in predesigned proforma and detailed analysis was done. Total of 102 newly diagnosed scabies patients attending skin OPD were included in the study. Results Out of 102 patients, 50.98% were males. The most common age group affected was 21-40 years, in 44.11% patients. Students were commonly affected with 41.17% followed by housewives with 20.58% cases. Most common lesion seen was papules in 84.3% followed by excoriations in 82.3% cases. Maximum 51.6% adults had small effect on quality of life while 62.5% children reported minimal effect on quality of life. Conclusion Scabies is an important and commonly encountered health problem which is highly contagious and if not attended timely and adequately can affect the quality of life in the form of work affection, sleep disturbances and psychosocial problems in patients as well as its

  3. A Study of Clinical Profile and Quality of Life in Patients with Scabies at a Rural Tertiary Care Centre.

    PubMed

    Nair, Pragya Ashok; Vora, Rita Vipul; Jivani, Nidhi B; Gandhi, Shailee S

    2016-10-01

    Scabies is a contagious disease primarily related to poverty and overcrowding, it rapidly spreads from person to person specially in people with poor hygiene. We come across many patients from rural areas with scabies. In India the incidence ranges from 13% to 59% in rural and urban areas. Many people complain of sleep disturbances and affection of work and leisure activities due to itching. Very few studies are done in India about the affection of quality of life in such patients. To study the demographic details, clinical profile and quality of life in patients with scabies. A prospective, observational and cross-sectional study conducted at Department of Dermatology and Venereology, rural based tertiary care centre, Gujarat for a period of 6 months from March to August 2015, after ethical approval from the institute. Study included all patients with clinical features suggestive of scabies. The data including age, sex, occupation, education, socioeconomic status, complaints, past history, family history and clinical features along with the questionnaire for affection of quality of life were recorded in predesigned proforma and detailed analysis was done. Total of 102 newly diagnosed scabies patients attending skin OPD were included in the study. Out of 102 patients, 50.98% were males. The most common age group affected was 21-40 years, in 44.11% patients. Students were commonly affected with 41.17% followed by housewives with 20.58% cases. Most common lesion seen was papules in 84.3% followed by excoriations in 82.3% cases. Maximum 51.6% adults had small effect on quality of life while 62.5% children reported minimal effect on quality of life. Scabies is an important and commonly encountered health problem which is highly contagious and if not attended timely and adequately can affect the quality of life in the form of work affection, sleep disturbances and psychosocial problems in patients as well as its family members. This could be easily prevented if the

  4. Long-term follow-up in optimally treated and stable heart failure patients: primary care vs. heart failure clinic. Results of the COACH-2 study.

    PubMed

    Luttik, Marie Louise A; Jaarsma, Tiny; van Geel, Peter Paul; Brons, Maaike; Hillege, Hans L; Hoes, Arno W; de Jong, Richard; Linssen, Gerard; Lok, Dirk J A; Berge, Marjolein; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J

    2014-11-01

    It has been suggested that home-based heart failure (HF) management in primary care may be an alternative to clinic-based management in HF patients. However, little is known about adherence to HF guidelines and adherence to the medication regimen in these home-based programmes. The aim of the current study was to determine whether long-term follow-up and treatment in primary care is equally effective as follow-up at a specialized HF clinic in terms of guideline adherence and patient adherence, in HF patients initially managed and up-titrated to optimal treatment at a specialized HF clinic. We conducted a multicentre, randomized, controlled study in 189 HF patients (62% male, age 72 ± 11 years), who were assigned to follow-up either in primary care (n = 97) or in a HF clinic (n = 92). After 12 months, no differences between guideline adherence, as estimated by the Guideline Adherence Indicator (GAI-3), and patient adherence, in terms of the medication possession ratio (MPR), were found between treatment groups. There was no difference in the number of deaths (n = 12 in primary care and n = 8 in the HF clinic; P = 0.48), and hospital readmissions for cardiovascular (CV) reasons were also similar. The total number of unplanned non-CV hospital readmissions, however, tended to be higher in the primary care group (n = 22) than in the HF clinic group (n = 10; P = 0.05). Patients discharged after initial management in a specialized HF clinic can be discharged to primary care for long-term follow-up with regard to maintaining guideline adherence and patient adherence. However, the complexity of the HF syndrome and its associated co-morbidities requires continuous monitoring. Close collaboration between healthcare providers will be crucial in order to provide HF patients with optimal, integrated care. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  5. Phase of Illness in palliative care: Cross-sectional analysis of clinical data from community, hospital and hospice patients.

    PubMed

    Mather, Harriet; Guo, Ping; Firth, Alice; Davies, Joanna M; Sykes, Nigel; Landon, Alison; Murtagh, Fliss Em

    2018-02-01

    Phase of Illness describes stages of advanced illness according to care needs of the individual, family and suitability of care plan. There is limited evidence on its association with other measures of symptoms, and health-related needs, in palliative care. The aims of the study are as follows. (1) Describe function, pain, other physical problems, psycho-spiritual problems and family and carer support needs by Phase of Illness. (2) Consider strength of associations between these measures and Phase of Illness. Secondary analysis of patient-level data; a total of 1317 patients in three settings. Function measured using Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale. Pain, other physical problems, psycho-spiritual problems and family and carer support needs measured using items on Palliative Care Problem Severity Scale. Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale and Palliative Care Problem Severity Scale items varied significantly by Phase of Illness. Mean function was highest in stable phase (65.9, 95% confidence interval = 63.4-68.3) and lowest in dying phase (16.6, 95% confidence interval = 15.3-17.8). Mean pain was highest in unstable phase (1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.36-1.51). Multinomial regression: psycho-spiritual problems were not associated with Phase of Illness ( χ 2  = 2.940, df = 3, p = 0.401). Family and carer support needs were greater in deteriorating phase than unstable phase (odds ratio (deteriorating vs unstable) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.49). Forty-nine percent of the variance in Phase of Illness is explained by Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale and Palliative Care Problem Severity Scale. Phase of Illness has value as a clinical measure of overall palliative need, capturing additional information beyond Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale and Palliative Care Problem Severity Scale. Lack of significant association between psycho-spiritual problems and Phase of Illness

  6. Phase of Illness in palliative care: Cross-sectional analysis of clinical data from community, hospital and hospice patients

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Harriet; Guo, Ping; Firth, Alice; Davies, Joanna M; Sykes, Nigel; Landon, Alison; Murtagh, Fliss EM

    2017-01-01

    Background: Phase of Illness describes stages of advanced illness according to care needs of the individual, family and suitability of care plan. There is limited evidence on its association with other measures of symptoms, and health-related needs, in palliative care. Aims: The aims of the study are as follows. (1) Describe function, pain, other physical problems, psycho-spiritual problems and family and carer support needs by Phase of Illness. (2) Consider strength of associations between these measures and Phase of Illness. Design and setting: Secondary analysis of patient-level data; a total of 1317 patients in three settings. Function measured using Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale. Pain, other physical problems, psycho-spiritual problems and family and carer support needs measured using items on Palliative Care Problem Severity Scale. Results: Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale and Palliative Care Problem Severity Scale items varied significantly by Phase of Illness. Mean function was highest in stable phase (65.9, 95% confidence interval = 63.4–68.3) and lowest in dying phase (16.6, 95% confidence interval = 15.3–17.8). Mean pain was highest in unstable phase (1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.36–1.51). Multinomial regression: psycho-spiritual problems were not associated with Phase of Illness (χ2 = 2.940, df = 3, p = 0.401). Family and carer support needs were greater in deteriorating phase than unstable phase (odds ratio (deteriorating vs unstable) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval = 1.01–1.49). Forty-nine percent of the variance in Phase of Illness is explained by Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale and Palliative Care Problem Severity Scale. Conclusion: Phase of Illness has value as a clinical measure of overall palliative need, capturing additional information beyond Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale and Palliative Care Problem Severity Scale. Lack of significant

  7. Resource use and costs of type 2 diabetes patients receiving managed or protocolized primary care: a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Amber A W A; de Bruijne, Martine C; Feenstra, Talitha L; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Baan, Caroline A; Bosmans, Judith E; Bot, Sandra D M; Donker, Gé A; Nijpels, Giel

    2014-06-25

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes is associated with increased health care use and costs. Innovations to improve the quality of care, manage the increasing demand for health care and control the growth of health care costs are needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the care process and costs of managed, protocolized and usual care for type 2 diabetes patients from a societal perspective. In two distinct regions of the Netherlands, both managed and protocolized diabetes care were implemented. Managed care was characterized by centralized organization, coordination, responsibility and centralized annual assessment. Protocolized care had a partly centralized organizational structure. Usual care was characterized by a decentralized organizational structure. Using a quasi-experimental control group pretest-posttest design, the care process (guideline adherence) and costs were compared between managed (n = 253), protocolized (n = 197), and usual care (n = 333). We made a distinction between direct health care costs, direct non-health care costs and indirect costs. Multivariate regression models were used to estimate differences in costs adjusted for confounding factors. Because of the skewed distribution of the costs, bootstrapping methods (5000 replications) with a bias-corrected and accelerated approach were used to estimate 95% confidence intervals (CI) around the differences in costs. Compared to usual and protocolized care, in managed care more patients were treated according to diabetes guidelines. Secondary health care use was higher in patients under usual care compared to managed and protocolized care. Compared to usual care, direct costs were significantly lower in managed care (€-1.181 (95% CI: -2.597 to -334)) while indirect costs were higher (€ 758 (95% CI: -353 to 2.701), although not significant. Direct, indirect and total costs were lower in protocolized care compared to usual care (though not significantly). Compared to usual care, managed

  8. Resource use and costs of type 2 diabetes patients receiving managed or protocolized primary care: a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of diabetes is associated with increased health care use and costs. Innovations to improve the quality of care, manage the increasing demand for health care and control the growth of health care costs are needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the care process and costs of managed, protocolized and usual care for type 2 diabetes patients from a societal perspective. Methods In two distinct regions of the Netherlands, both managed and protocolized diabetes care were implemented. Managed care was characterized by centralized organization, coordination, responsibility and centralized annual assessment. Protocolized care had a partly centralized organizational structure. Usual care was characterized by a decentralized organizational structure. Using a quasi-experimental control group pretest-posttest design, the care process (guideline adherence) and costs were compared between managed (n = 253), protocolized (n = 197), and usual care (n = 333). We made a distinction between direct health care costs, direct non-health care costs and indirect costs. Multivariate regression models were used to estimate differences in costs adjusted for confounding factors. Because of the skewed distribution of the costs, bootstrapping methods (5000 replications) with a bias-corrected and accelerated approach were used to estimate 95% confidence intervals (CI) around the differences in costs. Results Compared to usual and protocolized care, in managed care more patients were treated according to diabetes guidelines. Secondary health care use was higher in patients under usual care compared to managed and protocolized care. Compared to usual care, direct costs were significantly lower in managed care (€-1.181 (95% CI: -2.597 to -334)) while indirect costs were higher (€758 (95% CI: -353 to 2.701), although not significant. Direct, indirect and total costs were lower in protocolized care compared to usual care (though not

  9. Relationship Between Using Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pain Treatment and Physicians' Training and Attitudes Toward Patients and the Effects on Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Dueñas, María; Salazar, Alejandro; Sánchez, Modesto; De Sola, Helena; Ojeda, Begoña; Failde, Inmaculada

    2018-01-01

    To determine the use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for chronic pain (CP) management; analyze the effects of training in pain and the attitudes of physicians toward pain and CP patients on the adherence to these CPGs; and assess the impact of adherence to CPGs on patient care. This was a cross-sectional study in a sample of physicians involved in CP patient management. Information on the use of CPGs for CP management, their training in pain, and their attitudes toward pain, patients, and patient care was collected. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed, and a multinomial logistic regression model was constructed to analyze factors associated with the use of CPGs. Of the 257 physicians surveyed, 46.6% were physiatrists, 26.7% were general practitioners, and 26.7% were medical oncologists. Although 96.5% claimed to have received training in pain, only 10.1% had received college training, and 76.3% expressed having gaps in their knowledge; 53.9% stated they applied CPGs often/always, and 12.5% rarely/never. Limited knowledge on pain, reduced involvement in training activities, more negative attitudes toward patients, and having experienced CP were the factors related to reduced adherence to CPGs, especially among the youngest respondents. The greater the use of CPGs, the better the patient care was. Access to scientific information and specialized training are factors related to the use of CPGs for pain treatment. Therefore, the inclusion of CP training in university and during medical specialty training will be essential measures to improve adherence to CPG, thereby improving patient care and pain control. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  10. International Classification of Primary Care-2 coding of primary care data at the general out-patients' clinic of General Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olagundoye, Olawunmi Abimbola; van Boven, Kees; van Weel, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Primary care serves as an integral part of the health systems of nations especially the African continent. It is the portal of entry for nearly all patients into the health care system. Paucity of accurate data for health statistics remains a challenge in the most parts of Africa because of inadequate technical manpower and infrastructure. Inadequate quality of data systems contributes to inaccurate data. A simple-to-use classification system such as the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) may be a solution to this problem at the primary care level. To apply ICPC-2 for secondary coding of reasons for encounter (RfE), problems managed and processes of care in a Nigerian primary care setting. Furthermore, to analyze the value of selected presented symptoms as predictors of the most common diagnoses encountered in the study setting. Content analysis of randomly selected patients' paper records for data collection at the end of clinic sessions conducted by family physicians at the general out-patients' clinics. Contents of clinical consultations were secondarily coded with the ICPC-2 and recorded into excel spreadsheets with fields for sociodemographic data such as age, sex, occupation, religion, and ICPC elements of an encounter: RfE/complaints, diagnoses/problems, and interventions/processes of care. Four hundred and one encounters considered in this study yielded 915 RfEs, 546 diagnoses, and 1221 processes. This implies an average of 2.3 RfE, 1.4 diagnoses, and 3.0 processes per encounter. The top 10 RfE, diagnoses/common illnesses, and processes were determined. Through the determination of the probability of the occurrence of certain diseases beginning with a RfE/complaint, the top five diagnoses that resulted from each of the top five RfE were also obtained. The top five RfE were: headache, fever, pain general/multiple sites, visual disturbance other and abdominal pain/cramps general. The top five diagnoses were: Malaria, hypertension

  11. Efficacy of Oral Risperidone, Haloperidol, or Placebo for Symptoms of Delirium Among Patients in Palliative Care: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Agar, Meera R; Lawlor, Peter G; Quinn, Stephen; Draper, Brian; Caplan, Gideon A; Rowett, Debra; Sanderson, Christine; Hardy, Janet; Le, Brian; Eckermann, Simon; McCaffrey, Nicola; Devilee, Linda; Fazekas, Belinda; Hill, Mark; Currow, David C

    2017-01-01

    Antipsychotics are widely used for distressing symptoms of delirium, but efficacy has not been established in placebo-controlled trials in palliative care. To determine efficacy of risperidone or haloperidol relative to placebo in relieving target symptoms of delirium associated with distress among patients receiving palliative care. A double-blind, parallel-arm, dose-titrated randomized clinical trial was conducted at 11 Australian inpatient hospice or hospital palliative care services between August 13, 2008, and April 2, 2014, among participants with life-limiting illness, delirium, and a delirium symptoms score (sum of Nursing Delirium Screening Scale behavioral, communication, and perceptual items) of 1 or more. Age-adjusted titrated doses of oral risperidone, haloperidol, or placebo solution were administered every 12 hours for 72 hours, based on symptoms of delirium. Patients also received supportive care, individualized treatment of delirium precipitants, and subcutaneous midazolam hydrochloride as required for severe distress or safety. Improvement in mean group difference of delirium symptom score (severity range, 0-6) between baseline and day 3. Five a priori secondary outcomes: delirium severity, midazolam use, extrapyramidal effects, sedation, and survival. Two hundred forty-seven participants (mean [SD] age, 74.9 [9.8] years; 85 women [34.4%]; 218 with cancer [88.3%]) were included in intention-to-treat analysis (82 receiving risperidone, 81 receiving haloperidol, and 84 receiving placebo). In the primary intention-to-treat analysis, participants in the risperidone arm had delirium symptom scores that were significantly higher than those among participants in the placebo arm (on average 0.48 Units higher; 95% CI, 0.09-0.86; P = .02) at study end. Similarly, for those in the haloperidol arm, delirium symptom scores were on average 0.24 Units higher (95% CI, 0.06-0.42; P = .009) than in the placebo arm. Compared with placebo, patients in both

  12. Managing Psychiatrist-Patient Relationships in the Digital Age: a Summary Review of the Impact of Technology-enabled Care on Clinical Processes and Rapport.

    PubMed

    Parish, Michelle Burke; Fazio, Sarina; Chan, Steven; Yellowlees, Peter M

    2017-10-27

    Participatory medicine and the availability of commercial technologies have given patients more options to view and track their health information and to communicate with their providers. This shift in the clinical process may be of particular importance in mental healthcare where rapport plays a significant role in the therapeutic process. In this review, we examined literature related to the impact of technology on the clinical workflow and patient-provider rapport in the mental health field between January 2014 and June 2017. Thirty three relevant articles, of 226 identified articles, were summarized. The use of technology clinically has evolved from making care more accessible and efficient to leveraging technology to improve care, communication, and patient-provider rapport. Evidence exists demonstrating that information and communication technologies may improve care by better connecting patients and providers and by improving patient-provider rapport, although further research is needed.

  13. Undetected psychiatric morbidity among HIV/AIDS patients attending Comprehensive Care Clinic (CCC) in Nairobi Kenya: towards an integrated mental health care.

    PubMed

    Ng'ang'a, Pauline W; Mathai, Muthoni; Obondo, Anne; Mutavi, Teresia; Kumar, Manasi

    2018-01-01

    Psychiatric morbidity is commonly associated with HIV disease and may have adverse effects. This aspect may be overlooked at comprehensive HIV care centers in Low and Middle-Income Countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undetected psychiatric morbidity among HIV/AIDS adult patients attending Comprehensive Care Centre in a semi-urban clinic, in Nairobi, Kenya. Descriptive cross-sectional study of adult HIV patients not receiving any psychiatric treatment was conducted. The participants consisted of consecutive sample of adults ( n  = 245) attending HIV Comprehensive Care Clinic at Kangemi Health Centre, Nairobi. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered to screen for undetected psychiatric morbidity. Socio-demographic characteristics were recorded in a questionnaire. Sample descriptive analysis was performed and prevalence of undetected psychiatric morbidity calculated. Chi-square test for independence was used to examine the associations between patient characteristics and undetected morbidity. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent predictors of undetected psychiatric morbidity. The mean age of our participants was 37.3 years (SD 9.2) Three-quarters (75.9%) of participants were females and median duration of HIV illness was 5 years. The prevalence of (previously undetected) psychiatric morbidity was 71.4% (95% CI 65.3-77). The leading psychiatric disorders were MDD (32.2%), PTSD (18.4%), Dysthymia (17.6%), and OCD (17.6%). Overall psychiatric morbidity was associated with low income (patients remains high and

  14. Evaluation of clinically significant adverse events in patients discharged from a tertiary-care emergency department in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lee-Min; How, Chorng-Kuang; Yang, Ming-Chin; Su, Syi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the reasons for the occurrence of clinically significant adverse events (CSAEs) in emergency department-discharged patients through emergency physicians' (EPs) subjective reasoning and senior EPs' objective evaluation. Design This was a combined prospective follow-up and retrospective review of cases of consecutive adult non-traumatic patients who presented to a tertiary-care emergency department in Taiwan between 1 September 2005 and 31 July 2006. Data were extracted from ‘on-duty EPs' subjective reasoning for discharging patients with CSAEs (study group) and without CSAEs (control group)’ and ‘objective evaluation of CSAEs by senior EPs, using clinical evidences such as recording history, physical examinations, laboratory/radiological examinations and observation of inadequacies in the basic management process (such as recording history, physical examinations, laboratory/radiological examinations and observation) as the guide’. Subjective reasons for discharging patients’ improvement of symptoms, and the certainty of safety of the discharge were compared in the two groups using χ2 statistics or t test. Results Of the 20 512 discharged cases, there were 1370 return visits (6.7%, 95% CI 6.3% to 7%) and 165 CSAEs due to physicians' factors (0.82%, 95% CI 0.75% to 0.95%). In comparisons between the study group and the control group, only some components of discharge reasoning showed a significant difference (p<0.001). Inadequacies in the basic management process were the main cause of CSAEs (164/165). Conclusion The authors recommended that EP follow-up of the basic management processes (including history record, physical examination, laboratory and radiological examinations, clinical symptoms/signs and treatment) using clinical evidence as a guideline should be made mandatory. PMID:22433586

  15. Mayo Clinic Care Network: A Collaborative Health Care Model.

    PubMed

    Wald, John T; Lowery-Schrandt, Sherri; Hayes, David L; Kotsenas, Amy L

    2018-01-01

    By leveraging its experience and expertise as a consultative clinical partner, the Mayo Clinic developed an innovative, scalable care model to accomplish several strategic goals: (1) create and sustain high-value relationships that benefit patients and providers, (2) foster relationships with like-minded partners to act as a strategy against the development of narrow health care networks, and (3) increase national and international brand awareness of Mayo Clinic. The result was the Mayo Clinic Care Network. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical Profile, Quality of Care, and Recurrence in Arab-American and Caucasians Prostate Cancer Patients in Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Moussawi, Ahmad H.; Yassine, May; Dey, Subhojit

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States with striking differences in incidence and mortality among ethnic groups. Michigan has one of the largest concentrations of Arab Americans (AAs) in the U.S. and little is known about this ethnic minority with respect to prostate cancer. This study investigated differences in clinical profile, quality of care, and recurrence among prostate cancer survivors comparing AAs and Caucasian Americans (CAs). Participants in this study included 2499 prostate cancer survivors from the Michigan Cancer Registry from 1985 to 2004. Participants completed surveys regarding health-seeking behavior, post-treatment symptoms, quality of care and recurrence. Ethnicity was self-reported and AAs and CAs were compared with respect to clinical profile, quality of care, and recurrence. There were 52 AAs and 1886 CAs patients with AAs being younger (x̄ age 68.3 ± SD 21.4 years, x̄ age 72.3 ± SD 14.1 years, for AAs and CAs, respectively) (P = 0.05). AAs had lower socioeconomic standard than CAs (34 vs. 10.6 %, <$20,000 yearly income/year; for AAs vs. CAs, respectively) (P < 0.0001). AAs reported poorer health than AAs (7.7 vs. 3.0 % for AAs vs. CAs, respectively) (P < 0.0001). AAs were more likely to visit specialists for prostate follow-up (44.5 vs. 19.7 % visited a specialist, for AAs vs. CAs respectively) (P < 0.0001) and received supplementary healthcare workers (13 % of AAs vs. 3.1 % CAs) (P = 0.032). In addition, AAs reported higher occurrence of urinary incontinence compared to CAs (67.4 vs. 60.4 %, for AAs vs. CAs, respectively) (P = 0.001). Ethnic background was not a predictor of recurrence [(Odds ratio (OR) = 1.1 (95 % confidence intervals CI = 0.40, 2.9)] (P = 0.873) even after adjusting for age, PSA levels within the last 2 years, metastasis and hormonal therapy. While AAs prostate cancer patients were different from CAs in age, income, seeking medical care, and health reporting, ethnic background was

  17. Identifying cases of undiagnosed, clinically significant COPD in primary care: qualitative insight from patients in the target population

    PubMed Central

    Leidy, Nancy K; Kim, Katherine; Bacci, Elizabeth D; Yawn, Barbara P; Mannino, David M; Thomashow, Byron M; Barr, R Graham; Rennard, Stephen I; Houfek, Julia F; Han, Meilan K; Meldrum, Catherine A; Make, Barry J; Bowler, Russ P; Steenrod, Anna W; Murray, Lindsey T; Walsh, John W; Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are diagnosed only after significant loss of lung function or during exacerbations. Aims: This study is part of a multi-method approach to develop a new screening instrument for identifying undiagnosed, clinically significant COPD in primary care. Methods: Subjects with varied histories of COPD diagnosis, risk factors and history of exacerbations were recruited through five US clinics (four pulmonary, one primary care). Phase I: Eight focus groups and six telephone interviews were conducted to elicit descriptions of risk factors for COPD, recent or historical acute respiratory events, and symptoms to inform the development of candidate items for the new questionnaire. Phase II: A new cohort of subjects participated in cognitive interviews to assess and modify candidate items. Two peak expiratory flow (PEF) devices (electronic, manual) were assessed for use in screening. Results: Of 77 subjects, 50 participated in Phase I and 27 in Phase II. Six themes informed item development: exposure (smoking, second-hand smoke); health history (family history of lung problems, recurrent chest infections); recent history of respiratory events (clinic visits, hospitalisations); symptoms (respiratory, non-respiratory); impact (activity limitations); and attribution (age, obesity). PEF devices were rated easy to use; electronic values were significantly higher than manual (P<0.0001). Revisions were made to the draft items on the basis of cognitive interviews. Conclusions: Forty-eight candidate items are ready for quantitative testing to select the best, smallest set of questions that, together with PEF, can efficiently identify patients in need of diagnostic evaluation for clinically significant COPD. PMID:26028486

  18. Impact of clinical registries on quality of patient care and health outcomes: protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul; Kumari, Varuni; Ruseckaite, Rasa; Romero, Lorena; Evans, Sue M

    2016-04-26

    Many developed countries have regional and national clinical registries aimed at improving health outcomes of patients diagnosed with particular diseases or cared for in particular healthcare settings. Clinical quality registries (CQRs) are clinical registries established with the purpose of monitoring quality of care and providing feedback to improve health outcomes. The aim of this systematic review is to understand the impact of CQRs on (1) mortality/survival; (2) measures of outcome that reflect a process or outcome of healthcare; (3) healthcare utilisation and (4) costs. The PRISMA-P methodology, checklist and standard strategy using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and structured data abstraction tools will be followed. A search of the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and CINAHL will be undertaken, in addition to Google Scholar and grey literature, to identify studies in English covering the period January 1980 to December 2014. Case-control, cohort, randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials which describe the registry as an intervention will be eligible for inclusion. Narrative synthesis of study findings will be conducted, guided by a conceptual framework developed to analyse the outcome measure of the registry using defined criteria. If sufficient studies are identified with a similar outcome of interest and measure using the same comparator and time of interval, results will be pooled for random-effects meta-analysis. Test for heterogeneity and sensitivity analysis will be conducted. To identify reporting bias, forest plots and funnel plots will be created and, if required, Egger's test will be conducted. Ethical approval is not required as primary data will not be collected. Review results will be published as a part of thesis, peer-reviewed journal and conferences. CRD42015017319. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  19. Barriers to a healthy lifestyle among patients attending primary care clinics at a university hospital in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    AlQuaiz, Aljoharah M; Tayel, Salwa A

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence and progress of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is associated with unhealthy lifestyles and behaviors. Modification of barriers to healthy lifestyle can produce great benefits. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to physical activity and healthy eating among patients attending primary health care clinics in Riyadh city. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh city. Four hundred and fifty participants attending primary health care clinics (PHCC) from 1 March to 30 April 2007 were randomly selected. A questionnaire about barriers to physical activity and healthy eating was adapted from the CDC web site. The prevalence of physical inactivity among the Saudi population in the study was 82.4% (371/450). Females were more physically inactive (87.6%, 268/306) compared to males (71.5%, 103/144) (P<.001). The most common barrier to physical activity was lack of resources (80.5%, 326/405), which was significantly higher among females than males and among the lower income versus the higher income group. The most common barrier to healthy diet was lack of willpower. More than four-fifths (80.3%, 354/441) of the study group stated that they did not have enough will to stick to a diet. Lack of resources was the most important barrier for physical activity, while lack of willpower and social support were both barriers for adherence to physical activity and a healthy diet.

  20. Building a clinical leadership community to drive improvement: a multi-case educational study to inform 21st century clinical commissioning, professional capability and patient care.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Marion; Verner, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The new NHS requires transformational leadership; people with the knowledge and motivation to make effective change combined with an understanding of the system they work in. The aim of the Practice Leaders' Programme (PLP) is to generate the conditions needed to focus the energy and collaborative creativity required for innovation to enhance leadership skills across the health economy improving patient care. The PLP engaged 60 local leaders from central England in a new approach enabling them to influence others. It has informed educational policy and practice and helped change professional behaviours. Each participant implemented improvements in care and participated in six action learning sets (ALS) and up to six coaching sessions. Evidence of progress, learning and impact was identified in project reports, reflective diaries and evaluations. The ALS brought together key individuals from clinical and management disciplines across a diverse organisation to redesign a system by developing a shared vision for improving the quality of patient care. The links forged, the projects initiated, and the skills cultivated through the PLP produced ongoing benefits and outcomes beyond the course itself. Coaching sessions helped participants focus their efforts to achieve maximum impact and to become resilient in managing service change effectively. The programme has evolved over four years, building on recommendations from external evaluation which identified statistically significant increases in leadership competences. Further enhancement of this programme secured an International Health Improvement Award. Three key findings of positive impact have emerged; personal growth, service improvement, and legacy and sustainability.

  1. Mind-body medicine and lifestyle modification in supportive cancer care: A cohort study on a day care clinic program for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jeitler, Michael; Jaspers, Jessica; von Scheidt, Christel; Koch, Barbara; Michalsen, Andreas; Steckhan, Nico; Kessler, Christian S

    2017-12-01

    We developed an integrative day care clinic program for cancer patients focusing on mind-body techniques and health-promoting lifestyle modification (7-hour once-per-week group sessions over 12 weeks). A cohort study design with a waiting group was implemented. Outcome parameters were assessed at the beginning, at the end of the active program, and at a 6-month follow-up. Patients waiting >4 and <12 weeks before treatment start were allocated to the waiting group and additionally assessed at the start of their day care program. Outcome measures included quality of life (FACT-G, FACT-B/C, WHO-5), fatigue (FACIT-F), depression/anxiety (HADS), and mood states (ASTS). A per protocol analysis using mixed linear models was performed. One hundred patients were screened on-site for eligibility. Eighty-six cancer survivors (83% female; mean age 53.7 ± 9.7 years; 49% breast cancer) were included into the study. Sixty-two patients were allocated to the intervention group and 24 patients, to the waiting group (mean waiting time 5 ± 1 weeks). Sixty-six data sets were included in the final analysis. Significant improvements were observed in favor of the intervention group after 12 weeks compared with the waiting group at the end of the waiting period for quality of life, anxiety/depression, and fatigue. Results from the 6-month follow-up for the whole study population showed lasting improvement of quality of life. The program can be considered as an effective means to improve quality of life, fatigue, and mental health of cancer patients. Moreover, it appears to have a sustainable effect, which has to be proved in randomized trials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Harmonizing and consolidating the measurement of patient-reported information at health care institutions: a position statement of the Mayo Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Eton, David T; Beebe, Timothy J; Hagen, Philip T; Halyard, Michele Y; Montori, Victor M; Naessens, James M; Sloan, Jeff A; Thompson, Carrie A; Wood, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) capture how patients perceive their health and their health care; their use in clinical research is longstanding. Today, however, PROs increasingly are being used to inform the care of individual patients, and document the performance of health care entities. We recently wrote and internally distributed an institutional position statement titled “Harmonizing and Consolidating the Measurement of Patient-Reported Outcomes at Mayo Clinic: A Position Statement for the Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery”. The statement is meant to educate clinicians, clinical teams, and institutional administrators about the merits of using PROs in a systematic manner for clinical care and quality measurement throughout the institution. The present article summarizes the most important messages from the statement, describing PROs and their use, identifying practical considerations for implementing them in routine practice, elucidating potential barriers to their use, and formulating strategies to overcome these barriers. The lessons learned from our experience – including pitfalls, challenges, and successes – may inform other health care institutions that are interested in systematically using PROs in health care delivery science and practice. PMID:24550683

  3. Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Use of Integrative Therapies as Supportive Care in Patients Treated for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Balneaves, Lynda G.; Carlson, Linda E.; Cohen, Misha; Deng, Gary; Hershman, Dawn; Mumber, Matthew; Perlmutter, Jane; Seely, Dugald; Sen, Ananda; Zick, Suzanna M.; Tripathy, Debu

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of breast cancer patients use complementary and/or integrative therapies during and beyond cancer treatment to manage symptoms, prevent toxicities, and improve quality of life. Practice guidelines are needed to inform clinicians and patients about safe and effective therapies. Methods Following the Institute of Medicine’s guideline development process, a systematic review identified randomized controlled trials testing the use of integrative therapies for supportive care in patients receiving breast cancer treatment. Trials were included if the majority of participants had breast cancer and/or breast cancer patient results were reported separately, and outcomes were clinically relevant. Recommendations were organized by outcome and graded based upon a modified version of the US Preventive Services Task Force grading system. Results The search (January 1, 1990–December 31, 2013) identified 4900 articles, of which 203 were eligible for analysis. Meditation, yoga, and relaxation with imagery are recommended for routine use for common conditions, including anxiety and mood disorders (Grade A). Stress management, yoga, massage, music therapy, energy conservation, and meditation are recommended for stress reduction, anxiety, depression, fatigue, and quality of life (Grade B). Many interventions (n = 32) had weaker evidence of benefit (Grade C). Some interventions (n = 7) were deemed unlikely to provide any benefit (Grade D). Notably, only one intervention, acetyl-l-carnitine for the prevention of taxane-induced neuropathy, was identified as likely harmful (Grade H) as it was found to increase neuropathy. The majority of intervention/modality combinations (n = 138) did not have sufficient evidence to form specific recommendations (Grade I). Conclusions Specific integrative therapies can be recommended as evidence-based supportive care options during breast cancer treatment. Most integrative therapies require further investigation via well

  4. Clinical practice guidelines on the use of integrative therapies as supportive care in patients treated for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Heather; Balneaves, Lynda G; Carlson, Linda E; Cohen, Misha; Deng, Gary; Hershman, Dawn; Mumber, Matthew; Perlmutter, Jane; Seely, Dugald; Sen, Ananda; Zick, Suzanna M; Tripathy, Debu

    2014-11-01

    The majority of breast cancer patients use complementary and/or integrative therapies during and beyond cancer treatment to manage symptoms, prevent toxicities, and improve quality of life. Practice guidelines are needed to inform clinicians and patients about safe and effective therapies. Following the Institute of Medicine's guideline development process, a systematic review identified randomized controlled trials testing the use of integrative therapies for supportive care in patients receiving breast cancer treatment. Trials were included if the majority of participants had breast cancer and/or breast cancer patient results were reported separately, and outcomes were clinically relevant. Recommendations were organized by outcome and graded based upon a modified version of the US Preventive Services Task Force grading system. The search (January 1, 1990-December 31, 2013) identified 4900 articles, of which 203 were eligible for analysis. Meditation, yoga, and relaxation with imagery are recommended for routine use for common conditions, including anxiety and mood disorders (Grade A). Stress management, yoga, massage, music therapy, energy conservation, and meditation are recommended for stress reduction, anxiety, depression, fatigue, and quality of life (Grade B). Many interventions (n = 32) had weaker evidence of benefit (Grade C). Some interventions (n = 7) were deemed unlikely to provide any benefit (Grade D). Notably, only one intervention, acetyl-l-carnitine for the prevention of taxane-induced neuropathy, was identified as likely harmful (Grade H) as it was found to increase neuropathy. The majority of intervention/modality combinations (n = 138) did not have sufficient evidence to form specific recommendations (Grade I). Specific integrative therapies can be recommended as evidence-based supportive care options during breast cancer treatment. Most integrative therapies require further investigation via well-designed controlled trials with meaningful

  5. BostonBreathes: Improving pediatric asthma care with a home-based interactive website for patient education, monitoring, and clinical teamwork

    PubMed Central

    Wiecha, John M.; Adams, William G.

    2006-01-01

    The BostonBreathes (BB) system is an interactive website enabling physician-physician and physician-patient communication, monitoring (peak-flow, medication use, symptoms) of asthma patients in the home, and patient and family asthma education. The system helps primary care physicians to function in team relationships with asthma specialists and nurses. Patients and families can interact with their health professionals online as members of the care team. BB uniquely combines patient education, monitoring, and clinical teamwork functions into one integrated web environment. PMID:17238763

  6. Hepatitis C virus infection in patients and family members attending two primary care clinics in Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-Colombo, Aurelio; Meléndez-Mena, Daniel; Sedeño-Monge, Virginia; Camacho-Hernández, José R; Vázquez-Cruz, Eduardo; Morales-Hernández, Eduardo R; Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Márquez-Domínguez, Luis; Santos-López, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 180 million persons (~2.8%) globally are estimated to be infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV prevalence in Mexico has been estimated to be between 1.2 and 1.4%. The aim of present work was to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in patients and family members attending two primary care clinics in Puebla, Mexico. Patients and their accompanying family members in two clinics were invited to participate in this study between May and September 2010. A total of 10,214 persons were included in the study; 120 (1.17%) persons were anti-HCV reactive. Of the reactive subjects, detection of viral RNA was determined in 114 subjects and 36 were positive (31%). The more frequent risk factors were having a family history of cirrhosis (33.1%) and having a blood transfusion prior to 1995 (29%). After a multiple logistic regression analysis only transfusion prior to 1995 resulted significant to HCV transmission (p = 0.004). The overall detected HCV genotypes were as follows: 1a (29%), 1b (48.5%), 2/2b (12.8%), and 3a (6.5%). The HCV prevalence in this population is in agreement with previous studies in other regions of Mexico.

  7. Design and methodology of the COACH-2 (Comparative study on guideline adherence and patient compliance in heart failure patients) study: HF clinics versus primary care in stable patients on optimal therapy.

    PubMed

    Luttik, M L A; Brons, M; Jaarsma, T; Hillege, H L; Hoes, A; de Jong, R; Linssen, G; Lok, D J; Berger, M; van Veldhuisen, D J

    2012-08-01

    Since the number of heart failure (HF) patients is still growing and long-term treatment of HF patients is necessary, it is important to initiate effective ways for structural involvement of primary care services in HF management programs. However, evidence on whether and when patients can be referred back to be managed in primary care is lacking. To determine whether long-term patient management in primary care, after initial optimisation of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment in a specialised HF clinic, is equally effective as long-term management in a specialised HF clinic in terms of guideline adherence and patient compliance. The study is designed as a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial. Two-hundred patients will be randomly assigned to be managed and followed in primary care or in a HFclinic. Patients are eligible to participate if they are (1) clinically stable, (2) optimally up-titrated on medication (according to ESC guidelines) and, (3) have received optimal education and counselling on pre-specified issues regarding HF and its treatment. Furthermore, close cooperation between secondary and primary care in terms of back referral to or consultation of the HF clinic will be provided.The primary outcome will be prescriber adherence and patient compliance with medication after 12 months. Secondary outcomes measures will be readmission rate, mortality, quality of life and patient compliance with other lifestyle changes. The results of the study will add to the understanding of the role of primary care and HF clinics in the long-term follow-up of HF patients.

  8. Protocolized sedation vs usual care in pediatric patients mechanically ventilated for acute respiratory failure: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Curley, Martha A Q; Wypij, David; Watson, R Scott; Grant, Mary Jo C; Asaro, Lisa A; Cheifetz, Ira M; Dodson, Brenda L; Franck, Linda S; Gedeit, Rainer G; Angus, Derek C; Matthay, Michael A

    2015-01-27

    Protocolized sedation improves clinical outcomes in critically ill adults, but its effect in children is unknown. To determine whether critically ill children managed with a nurse-implemented, goal-directed sedation protocol experience fewer days of mechanical ventilation than patients receiving usual care. Cluster randomized trial conducted in 31 US pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). A total of 2449 children (mean age, 4.7 years; range, 2 weeks to 17 years) mechanically ventilated for acute respiratory failure were enrolled in 2009-2013 and followed up until 72 hours after opioids were discontinued, 28 days, or hospital discharge. Intervention PICUs (17 sites; n = 1225 patients) used a protocol that included targeted sedation, arousal assessments, extubation readiness testing, sedation adjustment every 8 hours, and sedation weaning. Control PICUs (14 sites; n = 1224 patients) managed sedation per usual care. The primary outcome was duration of mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes included time to recovery from acute respiratory failure, duration of weaning from mechanical ventilation, neurological testing, PICU and hospital lengths of stay, in-hospital mortality, sedation-related adverse events, measures of sedative exposure (wakefulness, pain, and agitation), and occurrence of iatrogenic withdrawal. Duration of mechanical ventilation was not different between the 2 groups (intervention: median, 6.5 [IQR, 4.1-11.2] days; control: median, 6.5 [IQR, 3.7-12.1] days). Sedation-related adverse events including inadequate pain and sedation management, clinically significant iatrogenic withdrawal, and unplanned endotracheal tube/invasive line removal were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Intervention patients experienced more postextubation stridor (7% vs 4%; P = .03) and fewer stage 2 or worse immobility-related pressure ulcers (<1% vs 2%; P = .001). In exploratory analyses, intervention patients had fewer days of opioid administration

  9. From the galleries to the clinic: applying art museum lessons to patient care.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alexa; Grohe, Michelle; Khoshbin, Shahram; Katz, Joel T

    2013-12-01

    Increasingly, medical educators integrate art-viewing into curricular interventions that teach clinical observation-often with local art museum educators. How can cross-disciplinary collaborators explicitly connect the skills learned in the art museum with those used at the bedside? One approach is for educators to align their pedagogical approach using similar teaching methods in the separate contexts of the galleries and the clinic. We describe two linked pedagogical exercises--Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) in the museum galleries and observation at the bedside--from "Training the Eye: Improving the Art of Physical Diagnosis," an elective museum-based course at Harvard Medical School. It is our opinion that while strategic interactions with the visual arts can improve skills, it is essential for students to apply them in a clinical context with faculty support-requiring educators across disciplines to learn from one another.

  10. Clinical and metabolic profile of patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults in specialized care in Madrid.

    PubMed

    Arranz Martín, Alfonso; Lecumberri Pascual, Edurne; Brito Sanfiel, Miguel Ángel; Andía Melero, Víctor; Nattero Chavez, Lia; Sánchez López, Iván; Cánovas Molina, Gloria; Arrieta Blanco, Francisco; González Perez Del Villar, Noemí

    2017-01-01

    To report the clinical characteristics of patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), and to ascertain their metabolic control and associated chronic complications. Patients with DM attending specialized medical care in Madrid who met the following criteria: age at diagnosis of DM >30years, initial insulin independence for at least 6months and positive GAD antibodies were enrolled. Clinical profiles, data on LADA diagnosis, associated autoimmunity, C-peptide levels, therapeutic regimen, metabolic control, and presence of chronic complications were analyzed. Number of patients; 193; 56% females. Family history of DM: 62%. Age at DM diagnosis: 49years. Delay in confirmation of LADA: 3.5years. Insulin-independence time: 12months. Baseline serum C-peptide levels: 0.66ng/ml. Basal-bolus regimen: 76.7%. Total daily dose: 35.1U/day, corresponding to 0.51U/Kg. With no associated oral antidiabetic drugs: 33.5%. Other autoimmune diseases: 57%. Fasting plasma glucose: 160.5mg/dL. HbA1c: 7.7%. BMI: 25.4kg/m 2 (overweight, 31.5%; obesity, 8%). Blood pressure: 128/75. HDL cholesterol: 65mg/dL. LDL cholesterol: 96mg/dL. Triglycerides: 89mg/dL. Known chronic complications: 28%. Recognition of LADA may be delayed by several years. There is a heterogeneous pancreatic insulin reserve which is negative related to glycemic parameters. Most patients are poorly controlled despite intensive insulin therapy. They often have overweight, but have adequate control of BP and lipid profile and a low incidence of macrovascular complications. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality of life in patients with visual impairment in Ibadan: a clinical study in primary care.

    PubMed

    Adigun, Kehinde; Oluleye, Tunji S; Ladipo, Modupe Ma; Olowookere, Samuel Anu

    2014-01-01

    Visual function is important for optimal orientation in functional and social life, and has an effect on physical and emotional well-being. Visual impairment, therefore, leads to restrictions in all aspects of daily living and is related to quality of life. The aim of this study was to provide information on the causes of visual impairment in patients presenting to their family physician, the spectrum of impairment, and its impact on quality of life for these patients. This descriptive cross-sectional study of 375 adult patients with ocular symptoms was performed in the general outpatient department of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, from July to September, 2009. After checking their presenting visual acuity, the patients were interviewed using the Vision-Related Quality of Life questionnaire to determine the impact of visual impairment on their quality of life. Ophthalmic examinations were performed to determine the causes of visual impairment. The results were analyzed using proportions and percentages. The main causes of visual impairment were cataracts (58.7%), refractive error (19.4%), and glaucoma (2.9%). Visual impairment was found to be associated with advancing age, low education, and unemployment (P<0.001). Most patients (85.1%) were found to have good quality of life overall. Quality of life was found to be poor in the domains of visual function (64.2%) and social interaction (50.9%). Quality of life was found to be related to the degree of visual impairment, ie, blind patients reported poor quality of life (41.4%) when compared with those having low vision (8.6%) or near normal vision (2.4%, P<0.001). This study identified poor quality of life in patients with a higher degree of visual impairment. Family physicians need to identify these visually impaired patients early and make timely referrals.

  12. Development and implementation of a navigator-facilitated care coordination algorithm to improve clinical outcomes of underserved Latino patients with uncontrolled diabetes.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Heather Brennan; Eldridge, Barbara Hoffman; Truong, Hoai-An

    2013-11-01

    Development and implementation of an interprofessional navigator-facilitated care coordination algorithm (NAVCOM) for low-income, uninsured patients with uncontrolled diabetes at a safety-net clinic resulted in improvement of disease control as evidenced by improvement in hemoglobin A1C. This report describes the process and lessons learned from the development and implementation of NAVCOM and patient success stories.

  13. Group Patient Education: Effectiveness of a Brief Intervention in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Health Care in Greece: A Clinically Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merakou, K.; Knithaki, A.; Karageorgos, G.; Theodoridis, D.; Barbouni, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of a brief patient group education intervention in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The sample, 193 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were patients at the diabetic clinic of a primary health care setting in Attica, was assigned to two groups, intervention (138 individuals) and control group (55…

  14. SnoMAP: Pioneering the Path for Clinical Coding to Improve Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Lawley, Michael; Truran, Donna; Hansen, David; Good, Norm; Staib, Andrew; Sullivan, Clair

    2017-01-01

    The increasing demand for healthcare and the static resources available necessitate data driven improvements in healthcare at large scale. The SnoMAP tool was rapidly developed to provide an automated solution that transforms and maps clinician-entered data to provide data which is fit for both administrative and clinical purposes. Accuracy of data mapping was maintained.

  15. Clinical Profile of Cardiac Arrhythmias in Children Attending the Out Patient Department of a Tertiary Paediatric Care Centre in Chennai

    PubMed Central

    Sundararajan, Premkumar; Sangaralingam, Thangavelu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The presentation of symptoms of paediatric arrhythmias vary depending on the age and underlying heart disease. Physical examination of children with important arrhythmias may be entirely normal. Aim Aim is to study the characteristics of cardiac arrhythmias in paediatric patients in a tertiary paediatric care centre in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods The participants (n=60) were from birth to 12 years of age. Patients with sinus arrhythmias, sinus tachycardia and sinus bradycardia were excluded. Proportions of various parameters of interest like clinical features, age and sex distribution and underlying heart disease of children presenting with cardiac arrhythmias were arrived. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0. Results Ventricular ectopics were the most common type of arrhythmias observed in the present study followed by Sinus Node Dysfunction (SND). The most common type of SND was sino atrial arrest. Supra ventricular tachycardia was the most frequently sustained tachyarrhythmia in the present study. An increased association of WPW (Wolf Parkinson White Syndrome) with specific congenital cardiac defects was noted. Conclusion Cardiac arrhythmias in children can present at anytime from fetal life to adolescence and their recognition requires high index of suspicion. While majority of children with arrhythmias have structurally normal heart, they are frequently encountered in children with underlying heart disease. Treatment of paediatric arrhythmias should be guided by the severity of the patient, the structure and function of the heart. PMID:28208963

  16. Enhanced Patient-Centred Care: Physiotherapists' Perspectives on the Impact of International Clinical Internships on Canadian Practice.

    PubMed

    Mesaroli, Giulia; Bourgeois, Anne-Marie; McCurry, Ellen; Condren, Allison; Petropanagos, Peter; Fraser, Michelle; Nixon, Stephanie A

    2015-01-01

    To explore the perspectives of physiotherapists who participated in an international clinical internship (ICI) in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) during their physiotherapy (PT) training in a Canadian PT programme regarding the ICI's impact on their PT practice in Canada. This qualitative descriptive study used in-depth semi-structured interviews. Data were organized using NVivo; inductive and deductive coding were used to analyze data and develop broader themes. The 13 practising Canadian physiotherapists interviewed described three enhanced capacities: (1) critical reflection on culture, values and practice; (2) communication skills; and (3) creativity and resourcefulness. These capacities were perceived to transfer to Canadian practice by enhancing participants' ability to deliver patient-centred care, specifically through an enhanced understanding of patients' values and social determinants of health, regardless of the Canadian setting or patient population. For PT students considering an ICI, the study findings provide insight into the perceived impact of ICIs on Canadian practice. For PT academic programmes, the findings can guide decisions on the extent of investment in ICIs as learning opportunities that will enhance practice in Canada.

  17. Biofilm formation, antibiotic susceptibility and RAPD genotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains isolated from single centre intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Vaněrková, Martina; Mališová, Barbora; Kotásková, Iva; Holá, Veronika; Růžička, Filip; Freiberger, Tomáš

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse genotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and serotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains, including the clonal dissemination of particular strains throughout various intensive care units in one medical centre. Using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) and P. aeruginosa antisera, 22 different genotypes and 8 serotypes were defined among 103 isolates from 48 patients. No direct association between P. aeruginosa strain genotypes and serotypes was observed. RAPD typing in strains with the same serotype revealed different genotypes and, on the contrary, most strains with a different serotype displayed the same amplification pattern. The resulting banding patterns showed a high degree of genetic heterogeneity among all isolates from the patients examined, suggesting a non-clonal relationship between isolates from these patients. A higher degree of antibiotic resistance and stronger biofilm production in common genotypes compared to rare ones and genetic homogeneity of the most resistant strains indicated the role of antibiotic pressure in acquiring resistant and more virulent strains in our hospital. In conclusion, genetic characterisation of P. aeruginosa strains using RAPD method was shown to be more accurate in epidemiological analyses than phenotyping.

  18. "It can be challenging, it can be scary, it can be gratifying": Obstetricians' narratives of negotiating patient choice, clinical experience, and standards of care in decision-making.

    PubMed

    Diamond-Brown, Lauren

    2018-05-01

    This paper examines obstetricians' perceptions of standards of care and patient-centered care in clinical decision-making in childbirth. Patient-centered care and standardization of medicine are two social movements that seek to change how physicians make clinical decisions. Sociologists question if these limit physician discretion and weaken their social power; the degree to which this occurs in everyday practice is up for debate. Of additional concern is how physicians deal with observed tensions between these ideals. These questions are answered through in-depth interviews with 50 self-selected obstetricians from Massachusetts, Louisiana, and Vermont collected between 2013 and 2015. Interview data was analyzed using a grounded theory and template approach. The author problematizes obstetricians' attitudes about standards of care and shared decision-making, mechanisms that encourage or discourage these approaches to decision-making, and how obstetricians negotiate tensions between patient choice, clinical experience, and standards. The key findings are that most obstetricians feel they have the authority to interpret the appropriateness of standards and patient choice on a case-by-case basis. They feel empowered and/or constrained by pressures to practice patient-centered care and standards depending upon their style of practice and the organizational context. Following standards of care is encouraged through organizational mechanisms such as pressure from colleagues, malpractice threat, hospital policy, and payer restrictions. Practicing shared decision-making is challenged when the patient wants something that violates the physician's clinical experience and/or standards of care. When obstetricians prioritize patient choice over experience and/or standards this is done for moral reasons, less so because of organizational pressures. These findings have implications for theorizing the social status of medical professionals, understanding how physicians deal with

  19. New-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus among patients receiving HIV care at Newlands Clinic, Harare, Zimbabwe: retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Chimbetete, Cleophas; Mugglin, Catrina; Shamu, Tinei; Kalesan, Bindu; Bertisch, Barbara; Egger, Matthias; Keiser, Olivia

    2017-07-01

    To assess the incidence and associated factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Zimbabwe. We analysed data of all HIV-infected patients older than 16 years who attended Newlands Clinic between March 1, 2004 and April 29, 2015. The clinic considers patients whose random blood sugar is higher than 11.1 mmol/l and which is confirmed by a fasting blood sugar higher than 7.0 mmol/l to have T2DM. T2DM is also diagnosed in symptomatic patients who have a RBS >11.0 mmol/l. Risk factors for developing T2DM were identified using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for confounding. Missing baseline BMI data were multiply imputed. Results are presented as adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Data for 4,110 participants were included: 67.2% were women; median age was 37 (IQR: 31-43) years. Median baseline CD4 count was 197 (IQR: 95-337) cells/mm 3 . The proportion of participants with hypertension at baseline was 15.5% (n=638). Over a median follow-up time of 4.7 (IQR: 2.1-7.2) years, 57 patients developed T2DM; the overall incidence rate was 2.8 (95% CI: 2.1-3.6) per 1000 person-years of follow-up. Exposure to PIs was associated with T2DM (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.04-3.09). In the multivariable analysis, obesity (BMI>30 kg/m 2 ) (aHR=2.26, 95% CI: 1.17-4.36), age >40 years (aHR=2.16, 95% CI: 1.22-3.83) and male gender, (aHR=2.13, 95% CI: 1.22-3.72) were independently associated with the risk of T2DM. HIV-related factors (baseline CD4 cell count and baseline WHO clinical stage) were not independent risk factors for developing T2DM. Although the incidence of T2DM in this HIV cohort was lower than that has been observed in others, our results show that risk factors for developing T2DM among HIV-infected people are similar to those of the general population. HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa need a comprehensive approach to care that includes better health services for prevention, early

  20. The effectiveness of clinical networks in improving quality of care and patient outcomes: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bernadette Bea; Patel, Cyra; McInnes, Elizabeth; Mays, Nicholas; Young, Jane; Haines, Mary

    2016-08-08

    Reorganisation of healthcare services into networks of clinical experts is increasing as a strategy to promote the uptake of evidence based practice and to improve patient care. This is reflected in significant financial investment in clinical networks. However, there is still some question as to whether clinical networks are effective vehicles for quality improvement. The aim of this systematic review was to ascertain the effectiveness of clinical networks and identify how successful networks improve quality of care and patient outcomes. A systematic search was undertaken in accordance with the PRISMA approach in Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PubMed for relevant papers between 1 January 1996 and 30 September 2014. Established protocols were used separately to examine and assess the evidence from quantitative and qualitative primary studies and then integrate findings. A total of 22 eligible studies (9 quantitative; 13 qualitative) were included. Of the quantitative studies, seven focused on improving quality of care and two focused on improving patient outcomes. Quantitative studies were limited by a lack of rigorous experimental design. The evidence indicates that clinical networks can be effective vehicles for quality improvement in service delivery and patient outcomes across a range of clinical disciplines. However, there was variability in the networks' ability to make meaningful network- or system-wide change in more complex processes such as those requiring intensive professional education or more comprehensive redesign of care pathways. Findings from qualitative studies indicated networks that had a positive impact on quality of care and patients outcomes were those that had adequate resources, credible leadership and efficient management coupled with effective communication strategies and collaborative trusting relationships. There is evidence that clinical networks can improve the delivery of healthcare though there are few high quality quantitative

  1. The costs, resource use and cost-effectiveness of Clinical Nurse Specialist–led interventions for patients with palliative care needs: A systematic review of international evidence

    PubMed Central

    Salamanca-Balen, Natalia; Seymour, Jane; Caswell, Glenys; Whynes, David; Tod, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patients with palliative care needs do not access specialist palliative care services according to their needs. Clinical Nurse Specialists working across a variety of fields are playing an increasingly important role in the care of such patients, but there is limited knowledge of the extent to which their interventions are cost-effective. Objectives: To present results from a systematic review of the international evidence on the costs, resource use and cost-effectiveness of Clinical Nurse Specialist–led interventions for patients with palliative care needs, defined as seriously ill patients and those with advanced disease or frailty who are unlikely to be cured, recover or stabilize. Design: Systematic review following PRISMA methodology. Data sources: Medline, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane Library up to 2015. Studies focusing on the outcomes of Clinical Nurse Specialist interventions for patients with palliative care needs, and including at least one economic outcome, were considered. The quality of studies was assessed using tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Results: A total of 79 papers were included: 37 randomized controlled trials, 22 quasi-experimental studies, 7 service evaluations and other studies, and 13 economic analyses. The studies included a wide variety of interventions including clinical, support and education, as well as care coordination activities. The quality of the studies varied greatly. Conclusion: Clinical Nurse Specialist interventions may be effective in reducing specific resource use such as hospitalizations/re-hospitalizations/admissions, length of stay and health care costs. There is mixed evidence regarding their cost-effectiveness. Future studies should ensure that Clinical Nurse Specialists’ roles and activities are clearly described and evaluated. PMID:28655289

  2. Microbiological characterization of Delftia acidovorans clinical isolates from patients in an intensive care unit in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Ferreira, Adriano Martison; Javaroni, Edvaldo; Reis, Brígida Aparecida Rosa; Bueno, Maria Fernanda Campagnari; Francisco, Gabriela Rodrigues; Gallo, Juliana Failde; Garcia, Doroti de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Delftia acidovorans is an opportunistic agent in several types of infections, both in immunocompromised and immune-competent individuals; its resistance to aminoglycosides and polymyxin, choice drugs for empirical treatment of Gram-negative infections, is remarkable. We report the antimicrobial susceptibility and the genetic relatedness of 24 D. acidovorans strains recovered from tracheal aspirates of 21 adult inpatients hospitalized in an intensive care unit at a Brazilian hospital, from 2012 to 2013. All of the isolates were recovered as pure cultures and in counts above 1,000,000 CFU/mL. None of them were susceptible to polymyxin B, amikacin, gentamicin, or tobramycin; quinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole presented varied activities against the isolates, while β-lactam resistance was not detected. Four clusters were verified in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, and a major pulsotype comprised 10 strains. A possible, but undetermined common source, can be responsible for this strain dissemination, underscoring the need of reinforcing the adherence to disinfection and infection control standard techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Physiotherapy in Primary Care Triage - the effects on utilization of medical services at primary health care clinics by patients and sub-groups of patients with musculoskeletal disorders: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bornhöft, Lena; Larsson, Maria E H; Thorn, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Primary Care Triage is a patient sorting system used in some primary health care clinics (PHCCs) in Sweden where patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are triaged directly to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sorting/triaging patients seeking a PHCC for MSD directly to physiotherapists affects their utilization of medical services at the clinic for the MSD and to determine whether the effects of the triaging system vary for different sub-groups of patients. A retrospective case-control study design was used at two PHCCs. At the intervention clinic, 656 patients with MSD were initially triaged to physiotherapists. At the control clinic, 1673 patients were initially assessed by general practitioners (GPs). The main outcome measures were the number of patients continuing to visit GPs after the initial assessment, the number of patients receiving referrals to specialists/external examinations, doctors' notes for sick-leave or prescriptions for analgesics during one year, all for the original MSD. Significantly fewer patients triaged to physiotherapists required multiple GP visits for the MSD or received MSD-related referrals to specialists/external examinations, sick-leave recommendations or prescriptions during the following year compared to the GP-assessed group. This applies to all sub-groups except for the group with lower extremity disorders, which did not reach significance for either multiple GP visits or sick-leave recommendations. The reduced utilization of medical services by patients with MSD who were triaged to physiotherapists at a PHCC is likely due to altered management of MSD with initial assessment by physiotherapists.

  4. Directing clinical care using lower extremity biomechanics in patients with ankle osteoarthritis and ankle arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Queen, Robin

    2017-11-01

    Ankle osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease with approximately 50,000 new cases per year leading to skeletal deformity, severe and recurrent pain, cartilage breakdown, and gait dysfunction limiting patient mobility and well-being. Although many treatments (total ankle arthroplasty [TAA], ankle fusion [arthrodesis], and ankle distraction arthroplasty) relieve pain, it is not clear that these procedures significantly improve patient mobility. The goal of the research presented here is to summarize what is presently known about lower extremity gait mechanics and outcomes and to quantify the impact of ankle osteoarthritis and TAA have on these measures using an explicitly holistic and mechanistic approach. Our recent studies have explored physical performance and energy recovery and revealed unexpected patterns and sequelae to treatment including incomplete restoration of gait function. These studies demonstrated for the first time the extreme levels and range of gait and balance dysfunction present in ankle osteoarthritis patients as well as quantifying the ways in which the affected joint alters movement and loading patterns not just in the painful joint, but throughout both the ipsilateral and contralateral lower extremity. Through this work, we determined that relieving pain alone through TAA is not enough to restore normal walking mechanics and balance due to underlying causes including limited ankle range of motion and balance deficits leading to long-term disability despite treatment. The results indicate the need to consider additional therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring balance, ankle range of motion, and movement symmetry in order to improve long-term health and function. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2345-2355, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Optimizing drug therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease: the impact of pharmacist-managed pharmacotherapy clinics in a primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Geber, Jean; Parra, David; Beckey, Nick P; Korman, Lisa

    2002-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of pharmacist-managed pharmacotherapy clinics in implementing and maximizing therapy with agents known to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. This was a retrospective chart review of 150 patients who were treated for coronary artery disease in primary care clinics. Appropriate treatment of hypercholesterolemia occurred in 96% of patients referred to a clinical pharmacy specialist, compared with 68% of those followed by primary care providers alone (p<0.0001). Eighty-five percent and 50%, respectively, achieved goal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) values below 105 mg/dl (p<0.0001). Appropriate therapy with aspirin or other antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs was prescribed in 97% and 92%, respectively (p=0.146). As appropriate therapy with these agents was high in both groups, the ability to detect a difference between groups was limited. Among patients with an ejection fraction below 40%, appropriate therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or acceptable alternative was 89% and 69%, respectively (p<0.05). Twenty-seven cardiac events were documented in the clinical pharmacy group, versus 22 in the primary care group (p=0.475). Despite the relatively high percentage of patients reaching goal LDL in the primary care group, referral to clinical pharmacy specialists resulted in statistically significant increases in the number of patients appropriately treated for hypercholesterolemia and achieving goal LDL.

  6. Clinical governance in pre-hospital care.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson-Steel, I; Edwards, S; Gough, M

    2001-01-01

    This article seeks to discover and recognize the importance of clinical governance within a new and emerging quality National Health Service (NHS) system. It evaluates the present state of prehospital care and recommends how change, via clinical governance, can ensure a paradigm shift from its currently fragmented state to a seamless ongoing patient care episode. Furthermore, it identifies the drivers of a quality revolution, examines the monitoring and supervision of quality care, and evaluates the role of evidence-based practice. A frank and open view of immediate care doctors is presented, with recommendations to improve the quality of skill delivery and reduce the disparity that exists. Finally, it reviews the current problems with pre-hospital care and projects a future course for quality and patient care excellence. PMID:11383428

  7. Strict glycaemic control in patients hospitalised in a mixed medical and surgical intensive care unit: a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    De La Rosa, Gisela Del Carmen; Donado, Jorge Hernando; Restrepo, Alvaro Humberto; Quintero, Alvaro Mauricio; González, Luis Gabriel; Saldarriaga, Nora Elena; Bedoya, Marisol; Toro, Juan Manuel; Velásquez, Jorge Byron; Valencia, Juan Carlos; Arango, Clara Maria; Aleman, Pablo Henrique; Vasquez, Esdras Martin; Chavarriaga, Juan Carlos; Yepes, Andrés; Pulido, William; Cadavid, Carlos Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Critically ill patients can develop hyperglycaemia even if they do not have diabetes. Intensive insulin therapy decreases morbidity and mortality rates in patients in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) and decreases morbidity in patients in a medical ICU. The effect of this therapy on patients in a mixed medical/surgical ICU is unknown. Our goal was to assess whether the effect of intensive insulin therapy, compared with standard therapy, decreases morbidity and mortality in patients hospitalised in a mixed ICU. Methods This is a prospective, randomised, non-blinded, single-centre clinical trial in a medical/surgical ICU. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either intensive insulin therapy to maintain glucose levels between 80 and 110 mg/dl (4.4 to 6.1 mmol/l) or standard insulin therapy to maintain glucose levels between 180 and 200 mg/dl (10 and 11.1 mmol/l). The primary end point was mortality at 28 days. Results Over a period of 30 months, 504 patients were enrolled. The 28-day mortality rate was 32.4% (81 of 250) in the standard insulin therapy group and 36.6% (93 of 254) in the intensive insulin therapy group (Relative Risk [RR]: 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85 to 1.42). The ICU mortality in the standard insulin therapy group was 31.2% (78 of 250) and 33.1% (84 of 254) in the intensive insulin therapy group (RR: 1.06; 95%CI: 0.82 to 1.36). There was no statistically significant reduction in the rate of ICU-acquired infections: 33.2% in the standard insulin therapy group compared with 27.17% in the intensive insulin therapy group (RR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.63 to 1.07). The rate of hypoglycaemia (≤ 40 mg/dl) was 1.7% in the standard insulin therapy group and 8.5% in the intensive insulin therapy group (RR: 5.04; 95% CI: 1.20 to 21.12). Conclusions IIT used to maintain glucose levels within normal limits did not reduce morbidity or mortality of patients admitted to a mixed medical/surgical ICU. Furthermore, this therapy increased the

  8. Continuity of care: an Italian clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Tarquini, Roberto; Coletta, Davide; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2013-10-01

    Recently, there is a growing interest in the concept of "continuity of care," since patients, being older and more complex, are increasingly seen by an array of providers in a wide variety of organizations and places. Different models of continuity of care have been proposed, yet no single model of care coordination has been proven to be universally applicable across patient (and disease) populations. In the present paper, we introduce a novel model of continuity of care, the Ospedale Santa Verdiana, in Castelfiorentino (Tuscany, Italy), and its first period (1 year) of implementation, since January 2010. There are two main cornerstones: (a) the clinical and urgent need to bridge the gap between primary care and hospital care; and (b) the development and implementation of a model of continuity and coordination of care, which target the so-called complex patient. It is not specific for a single disease but it works "across diseases." There are three driving forces: (a) "primary care" since one of the two Hospital Coordinators is a primary care physician; (b) "hospital care" since patients in the decompensated phase often require hospitalization; and (c) the "University of Florence", which is the "glue". The duties of the Hospital Coordinator, who is an assistant professor at University of Florence, are to guarantee an efficacious and dynamic communication between primary care physicians and hospitalists, and by creating a school for practitioners of the continuity and coordination of care, to make this model exportable.

  9. Clinical validity of a relocation stress scale for the families of patients transferred from intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Oh, HyunSoo; Lee, Seul; Kim, JiSun; Lee, EunJu; Min, HyoNam; Cho, OkJa; Seo, WhaSook

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to develop a family relocation stress scale by modifying the Son's Relocation Stress Syndrome Scale, to examine its clinical validity and reliability and to confirm its suitability for measuring family relocation stress. The transfer of ICU patients to general wards is a significant anxiety-producing event for family members. However, no relocation stress scale has been developed specifically for families. A nonexperimental, correlation design was adopted. The study subjects were 95 family members of 95 ICU patients at a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. Face and construct validities of the devised family relocation stress scale were examined. Construct validity was examined using factor analysis and by using a nomological validity test. Reliability was also examined. Face and content validity of the scale were verified by confirming that its items adequately measured family relocation stress. Factor analysis yielded four components, and the total variance explained by these four components was 63·0%, which is acceptable. Nomological validity was well supported by significant relationships between relocation stress and degree of preparation for relocation, patient self-care ability, family burden and satisfaction with the relocation process. The devised scale was also found to have good reliability. The family relocation stress scale devised in this study was found to have good validity and reliability, and thus, is believed to offer a means of assessing family relocation stress. The findings of this study provide a reliable and valid assessment tool when nurses prepare families for patient transfer from an ICU to a ward setting, and may also provide useful information to those developing an intervention programme for family relocation stress management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Clinical caring science as a scientific discipline.

    PubMed

    Rehnsfeldt, Arne; Arman, Maria; Lindström, Unni Å

    2017-09-01

    Clinical caring science will be described from a theory of science perspective. The aim of this theoretical article to give a comprehensive overview of clinical caring science as a human science-based discipline grounded in a theory of science argumentation. Clinical caring science seeks idiographic or specific variations of the ontology, concepts and theories, formulated by caring science. The rationale is the insight that the research questions do not change when they are addressed in different contexts. The academic subject contains a concept order with ethos concepts, core and basic concepts and practice concepts that unites systematic caring science with clinical caring science. In accordance with a hermeneutic tradition, the idea of the caring act is based on the degree to which the theory base is hermeneutically appropriated by the caregiver. The better the ethos, essential concepts and theories are understood, the better the caring act can be understood. In order to understand the concept order related to clinical caring science, an example is given from an ongoing project in a disaster context. The concept order is an appropriate way of making sense of the essence of clinical caring science. The idea of the concept order is that concepts on all levels need to be united with each other. A research project in clinical caring science can start anywhere on the concept order, either in ethos, core concepts, basic concepts, practice concepts or in concrete clinical phenomena, as long as no parts are locked out of the concept order as an entity. If, for example, research on patient participation as a phenomenon is not related to core and basic concepts, there is a risqué that the research becomes meaningless. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  11. Managing ethical issues in patient care and the need for clinical ethics support.

    PubMed

    Doran, Evan; Fleming, Jennifer; Jordens, Christopher; Stewart, Cameron L; Letts, Julie; Kerridge, Ian H

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the range, frequency and management of ethical issues encountered by clinicians working in hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of a convenience sample of 104 medical, nursing and allied health professionals in two NSW hospitals. Some respondents did not provide data for some questions, therefore the denominator is less than 105 for some items. Sixty-two (62/104; 60%) respondents reported occasionally to often having ethical concerns. Forty-six (46/105; 44%) reported often to occasionally having legal concerns. The three most common responses to concerns were: talking to colleagues (96/105; 91%); raising the issue in a group forum (68/105; 65%); and consulting a relevant guideline (64/105; 61%). Most respondents were highly (65/99; 66%) or moderately (33/99; 33%) satisfied with the ethical environment of the hospital. Twenty-two (22/98; 22%) were highly satisfied with the ethical environment of their department and 74 (74/98; 76%) were moderately satisfied. Most (72/105; 69%) respondents indicated that additional support in dealing with ethical issues would be helpful. Clinicians reported frequently experiencing ethical and legal uncertainty and concern. They usually managed this by talking with colleagues. Although this approach was considered adequate, and the ethics of their hospital was reported to be satisfactory, most respondents indicated that additional assistance with ethical and legal concerns would be helpful. Clinical ethics support should be a priority of public hospitals in NSW and elsewhere in Australia.

  12. A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients treated in US EDs and ambulatory care clinics with sexually transmitted infections from 2001 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Ware, Chelsea E; Ajabnoor, Yasser; Mullins, Peter M; Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Pines, Jesse M; May, Larissa

    2016-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are commonly seen in the ambulatory health care settings such as emergency departments (EDs) and outpatient clinics. Our objective was to assess trends over time in the incidence and demographics of STIs seen in the ED and outpatient clinics compared with office-based clinics using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. This study was conducted using 10 years of National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data (2001-2010). We compared data from 2001-2005 to data from 2006-2010. Patients were included in analyses if they were 15 years and older and had an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code consistent with cervicitis, urethritis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, or trichomonas. We analyzed 82.4 million visits for STIs, with 16.5% seen in hospital-based EDs and 83.5% seen in office-based clinics between 2001 and 2010. Compared with patients seen in office-based clinics, ED patients were younger (P< .05), more likely to be male (P< .001) and nonwhite (P< .001), and less likely to have private insurance (P< .05). We found a significant increase in adolescent (15-18 years) ED visits (P< .05) from 2001-2015 to 2006-2010 and a decrease in adolescent and male STI visits in office-based settings (P< .05). Although patients with STI are most commonly seen in office-based clinics, EDs represent an important site of care. In particular, ED patients are relatively younger, male, and nonwhite, and less likely to be private insured. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical outcomes and cost effectiveness of accelerated diagnostic protocol in a chest pain center compared with routine care of patients with chest pain.

    PubMed

    Asher, Elad; Reuveni, Haim; Shlomo, Nir; Gerber, Yariv; Beigel, Roy; Narodetski, Michael; Eldar, Michael; Or, Jacob; Hod, Hanoch; Shamiss, Arie; Matetzky, Shlomi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare in patients presenting with acute chest pain the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of an accelerated diagnostic protocol utilizing contemporary technology in a chest pain unit versus routine care in an internal medicine department. Hospital and 90-day course were prospectively studied in 585 consecutive low-moderate risk acute chest pain patients, of whom 304 were investigated in a designated chest pain center using a pre-specified accelerated diagnostic protocol, while 281 underwent routine care in an internal medicine ward. Hospitalization was longer in the routine care compared with the accelerated diagnostic protocol group (p<0.001). During hospitalization, 298 accelerated diagnostic protocol patients (98%) vs. 57 (20%) routine care patients underwent non-invasive testing, (p<0.001). Throughout the 90-day follow-up, diagnostic imaging testing was performed in 125 (44%) and 26 (9%) patients in the routine care and accelerated diagnostic protocol patients, respectively (p<0.001). Ultimately, most patients in both groups had non-invasive imaging testing. Accelerated diagnostic protocol patients compared with those receiving routine care was associated with a lower incidence of readmissions for chest pain [8 (3%) vs. 24 (9%), p<0.01], and acute coronary syndromes [1 (0.3%) vs. 9 (3.2%), p<0.01], during the follow-up period. The accelerated diagnostic protocol remained a predictor of lower acute coronary syndromes and readmissions after propensity score analysis [OR = 0.28 (CI 95% 0.14-0.59)]. Cost per patient was similar in both groups [($2510 vs. $2703 for the accelerated diagnostic protocol and routine care group, respectively, (p = 0.9)]. An accelerated diagnostic protocol is clinically superior and as cost effective as routine in acute chest pain patients, and may save time and resources.

  14. Clinical Outcomes and Cost Effectiveness of Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol in a Chest Pain Center Compared with Routine Care of Patients with Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Elad; Reuveni, Haim; Shlomo, Nir; Gerber, Yariv; Beigel, Roy; Narodetski, Michael; Eldar, Michael; Or, Jacob; Hod, Hanoch; Shamiss, Arie; Matetzky, Shlomi

    2015-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to compare in patients presenting with acute chest pain the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of an accelerated diagnostic protocol utilizing contemporary technology in a chest pain unit versus routine care in an internal medicine department. Methods and Results Hospital and 90-day course were prospectively studied in 585 consecutive low-moderate risk acute chest pain patients, of whom 304 were investigated in a designated chest pain center using a pre-specified accelerated diagnostic protocol, while 281 underwent routine care in an internal medicine ward. Hospitalization was longer in the routine care compared with the accelerated diagnostic protocol group (p<0.001). During hospitalization, 298 accelerated diagnostic protocol patients (98%) vs. 57 (20%) routine care patients underwent non-invasive testing, (p<0.001). Throughout the 90-day follow-up, diagnostic imaging testing was performed in 125 (44%) and 26 (9%) patients in the routine care and accelerated diagnostic protocol patients, respectively (p<0.001). Ultimately, most patients in both groups had non-invasive imaging testing. Accelerated diagnostic protocol patients compared with those receiving routine care was associated with a lower incidence of readmissions for chest pain [8 (3%) vs. 24 (9%), p<0.01], and acute coronary syndromes [1 (0.3%) vs. 9 (3.2%), p<0.01], during the follow-up period. The accelerated diagnostic protocol remained a predictor of lower acute coronary syndromes and readmissions after propensity score analysis [OR = 0.28 (CI 95% 0.14–0.59)]. Cost per patient was similar in both groups [($2510 vs. $2703 for the accelerated diagnostic protocol and routine care group, respectively, (p = 0.9)]. Conclusion An accelerated diagnostic protocol is clinically superior and as cost effective as routine in acute chest pain patients, and may save time and resources. PMID:25622029

  15. Challenges and opportunities in the care of international patients: clinical and health services issues for academic medical centers.

    PubMed

    Martin, Don R

    2006-02-01

    International visitors who travel to the United States for the express purpose of receiving medical care constitute a small, but unique and important, subset of patients in this country. These visitors have traditionally sought care at what are widely regarded as the premier U.S. academic medical centers. Their care may prove challenging due to logistical, medical, language, and cross-cultural issues, and has the potential to distract from the educational and research missions of these medical centers. The author reflects on how one academic medical center, the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, has experienced and responded to these challenges. Specific issues include scheduling and evaluation challenges, language and cultural differences, and arranging continuity care. The author concludes that when an institution invests the resources necessary to address these issues, and enlists physicians stimulated by this challenging group of patients, the arrangement is mutually beneficial to the international patients and the institution. Scholarly evaluation of this phenomenon has been virtually nonexistent, due to both the unique niche occupied by these programs and institutional competition for this group of patients. However, collaborative evaluation of international patient programs will provide the opportunity to assess similarities, differences, and effectiveness, benefiting both those providing and those receiving care by improving the appropriateness and quality of care.

  16. Standardized cardiovascular data for clinical research, registries, and patient care: a report from the Data Standards Workgroup of the National Cardiovascular Research Infrastructure project.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H Vernon; Weintraub, William S; Radford, Martha J; Kremers, Mark S; Roe, Matthew T; Shaw, Richard E; Pinchotti, Dana M; Tcheng, James E

    2013-05-07

    Relatively little attention has been focused on standardization of data exchange in clinical research studies and patient care activities. Both are usually managed locally using separate and generally incompatible data systems at individual hospitals or clinics. In the past decade there have been nascent efforts to create data standards for clinical research and patient care data, and to some extent these are helpful in providing a degree of uniformity. Nonetheless, these data standards generally have not been converted into accepted computer-based language structures that could permit reliable data exchange across computer networks. The National Cardiovascular Research Infrastructure (NCRI) project was initiated with a major objective of creating a model framework for standard data exchange in all clinical research, clinical registry, and patient care environments, including all electronic health records. The goal is complete syntactic and semantic interoperability. A Data Standards Workgroup was established to create or identify and then harmonize clinical definitions for a base set of standardized cardiovascular data elements that could be used in this network infrastructure. Recognizing the need for continuity with prior efforts, the Workgroup examined existing data standards sources. A basic set of 353 elements was selected. The NCRI staff then collaborated with the 2 major technical standards organizations in health care, the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium and Health Level Seven International, as well as with staff from the National Cancer Institute Enterprise Vocabulary Services. Modeling and mapping were performed to represent (instantiate) the data elements in appropriate technical computer language structures for endorsement as an accepted data standard for public access and use. Fully implemented, these elements will facilitate clinical research, registry reporting, administrative reporting and regulatory compliance, and patient care

  17. Impact of an Automatically Generated Cancer Survivorship Care Plan on Patient-Reported Outcomes in Routine Clinical Practice: Longitudinal Outcomes of a Pragmatic, Cluster Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Nicolaije, Kim A H; Ezendam, Nicole P M; Vos, M Caroline; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; Boll, Dorry; Boss, Erik A; Hermans, Ralph H M; Engelhart, Karin C M; Haartsen, Joke E; Pijlman, Brenda M; van Loon-Baelemans, Ingrid E A M; Mertens, Helena J M M; Nolting, Willem E; van Beek, Johannes J; Roukema, Jan A; Zijlstra, Wobbe P; Kruitwagen, Roy F P M; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to longitudinally assess the impact of an automatically generated survivorship care plan (SCP) on patient-reported outcomes in routine clinical practice. Primary outcomes were patient satisfaction with information and care. Secondary outcomes included illness perceptions and health care use. Twelve hospitals were randomly assigned to SCP care or usual care in a pragmatic, cluster randomized trial. Newly diagnosed patients with endometrial cancer completed questionnaires after diagnosis (n = 221; 75% response), 6 months (n = 158), and 12 months (n = 147). An SCP application was built in the Web-based ROGY (Registration System Oncological Gynecology). By clicking the SCP button, a patient-tailored SCP was generated. In the SCP care arm, 74% of patients received an SCP. They reported receiving more information about their treatment (mean [M] = 57, standard deviation [SD] = 20 v M = 47, SD = 24; P = .03), other services (M = 35, SD = 22 v M = 25, SD = 22; P = .03), and different places of care (M = 27, SD = 25 v M = 23, SD = 26; P = .04) than the usual care arm (scales, 0 to 100). However, there were no differences regarding satisfaction with information or care. Patients in the SCP care arm experienced more symptoms (M = 3.3, SD = 2.0 v M = 2.6, SD = 1.6; P = .03), were more concerned about their illness (M = 4.4, SD = 2.3 v M = 3.9, SD = 2.1; P = .03), were more affected emotionally (M = 4.0, SD = 2.2 v M = 3.7, SD = 2.2; P = .046), and reported more cancer-related contact with their primary care physician (M = 1.8, SD = 2.0 v M = 1.1, SD = 0.9; P = .003) than those in the usual care arm (scale, 1 to 10). These effects did not differ over time. The present trial showed no evidence of a benefit of SCPs on satisfaction with information and care. Furthermore, SCPs increased patients' concerns, emotional impact, experienced symptoms, and the amount of cancer-related contact with the primary care physician. Whether this may ultimately lead to more

  18. Increasing incidence of syphilis among patients engaged in HIV care in Alberta, Canada: a retrospective clinic-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lang, Raynell; Read, Ron; Krentz, Hartmut B; Ramazani, Soheil; Peng, Mingkai; Gratrix, Jennifer; Gill, M John

    2018-03-13

    Syphilis is a global health concern disproportionately affecting HIV-infected populations. In Alberta, Canada, the incidence of syphilis in the general population has recently doubled with 25% of these infections occurring in HIV-infected patients. The Southern Alberta HIV Clinic (SAC) and Calgary STI Program (CSTI) analyzed the epidemiologic characteristics of incident syphilis infections in our well-defined, HIV-infected population over 11 years. Since 2006, as routine practice of both the Southern Alberta Clinic (SAC) and Calgary STI Programs (CSTI), syphilis screening has accompanied HIV viral load measures every four months. All records of patients who, while in HIV care, either converted from being syphilis seronegative to a confirmed seropositive or were re-infected as evidenced by a four-fold increase in rapid plasma reagin (RPR) after past successful treatment, were reviewed. Incident syphilis was identified 249 times in 194 HIV-infected individuals. There were 36 individuals with repeated infections (28.5% of episodes). Following a prior decline in annual incident syphilis rates, the rates have tripled from 8.08/1000 patient-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.14-14.75) in 2011, to 27.04 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 19.45-36.76) in 2016. Half of the syphilis episodes were asymptomatic. Patients diagnosed with syphilis were twice as likely not to be taking ART and had a higher likelihood of having plasma HIV RNA viral loads > 1000 copies/mL (19%). Incident syphilis was seen predominantly in Caucasians (72%, P < 0.001), males (94%, P < 0.001) and men who have sex with men (MSM) as their HIV risk activity (75%, P < 0.001). We have highlighted the importance of a regular syphilis screening program in HIV-infected individuals demonstrated by increasing rates of incident syphilis in our region. Targeted preventative strategies should be directed towards HIV-infected populations identified at highest risk, including; MSM, prior alcohol abuse

  19. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY COMPREHENSIVE CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR MEDICAL CARE OF PATIENTS WITH OBESITY.

    PubMed

    Garvey, W Timothy; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Brett, Elise M; Garber, Alan J; Hurley, Daniel L; Jastreboff, Ania M; Nadolsky, Karl; Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Plodkowski, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    Development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and the American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres to published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Recommendations are based on diligent review of clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors. There are 9 broad clinical questions with 123 recommendation numbers that include 160 specific statements (85 [53.1%] strong [Grade A]; 48 [30.0%] intermediate [Grade B], and 11 [6.9%] weak [Grade C], with 16 [10.0%] based on expert opinion [Grade D]) that build a comprehensive medical care plan for obesity. There were 133 (83.1%) statements based on strong (best evidence level [BEL] 1 = 79 [49.4%]) or intermediate (BEL 2 = 54 [33.7%]) levels of scientific substantiation. There were 34 (23.6%) evidence-based recommendation grades (Grades A-C = 144) that were adjusted based on subjective factors. Among the 1,790 reference citations used in this CPG, 524 (29.3%) were based on strong (evidence level [EL] 1), 605 (33.8%) were based on intermediate (EL 2), and 308 (17.2%) were based on weak (EL 3) scientific studies, with 353 (19.7%) based on reviews and opinions (EL 4). The final recommendations recognize that obesity is a complex, adiposity-based chronic disease, where management targets both weight-related complications and adiposity to improve overall health and quality of life. The detailed evidence-based recommendations allow for nuanced clinical decision-making that addresses real-world medical care of patients with obesity, including screening, diagnosis, evaluation, selection of therapy, treatment goals, and individualization of care. The goal is to facilitate high-quality care of patients with obesity and provide a rational, scientific approach to management that optimizes health outcomes and safety. A1C = hemoglobin A1c AACE = American

  20. Confronting the caring crisis in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fang; Li, Jiping; Zhu, Dan; Bai, Yangjuan; Song, Jianhua

    2013-10-01

    In light of the call for humanistic caring in the contemporary health care system globally and in China, the issue of improving the caring skills that are essential to student success, high-quality nursing practice and positive patient outcomes is at the forefront of nursing education. The aim of this mixed-methods quantitative and qualitative study was to investigate baccalaureate nursing students' caring ability in the context of China and to explore the role of clinical practice learning in the development of students' caring skills. A two-phase, descriptive study utilising a mixed methodology consisting of a caring ability survey and focus group interviews was conducted. In the quantitative phase, 598 baccalaureate nursing students at two colleges in Yunnan Province in southwest China were surveyed using the Caring Ability Inventory (CAI). In the qualitative phase, 16 of the students who had participated in the quantitative phase were interviewed. Students obtained lower scores on the CAI than have been reported elsewhere by other researchers. In addition, students in the clinical stage of training scored lower than students in the pre-clinical stage. Three themes concerning facilitation by and three themes concerning the obstructive effects of clinical practice learning in the development of caring ability were identified. Themes pertaining to facilitation were: (i) promoting a sense of professional responsibility and ethics; (ii) providing an arena in which to practise caring, and (iii) learning from positive role models. Themes pertaining to obstruction were: (i) a critical practice learning environment; (ii) encountering inappropriate clinical teachers, and (iii) experiencing shock at the contrast between an idealised and the real environment. The key to developing students' ability to care lies in highlighting caring across the entire health care system. By diminishing exposure to negative role models, and adopting appropriate pedagogical ideas about

  1. How Can We Improve Outcomes for Patients and Families Under Palliative Care? Implementing Clinical Audit for Quality Improvement in Resource Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Selman, Lucy; Harding, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Palliative care in India has made enormous advances in providing better care for patients and families living with progressive disease, and many clinical services are well placed to begin quality improvement initiatives, including clinical audit. Clinical audit is recognized globally to be essential in all healthcare, as a way of monitoring and improving quality of care. However, it is not common in developing country settings, including India. Clinical audit is a cyclical activity involving: identification of areas of care in need of improvement, through data collection and analysis utilizing an appropriate questionnaire; setting measurable quality of care targets in specific areas; designing and implementing service improvement strategies; and then re-evaluating quality of care to assess progress towards meeting the targets. Outcome measurement is an important component of clinical audit that has additional advantages; for example, establishing an evidence base for the effectiveness of services. In resource limited contexts, outcome measurement in clinical audit is particularly important as it enables service development to be evidence-based and ensures resources are allocated effectively. Key success factors in conducting clinical audit are identified (shared ownership, training, managerial support, inclusion of all members of staff and a positive approach). The choice of outcome measurement tool is discussed, including the need for a culturally appropriate and validated measure which is brief and simple enough to incorporate into clinical practice and reflects the holistic nature of palliative care. Support for clinical audit is needed at a national level, and development and validation of an outcome measurement tool in the Indian context is a crucial next step. PMID:20859465

  2. Reliability of clinical impact grading by healthcare professionals of common prescribing error and optimisation cases in critical care patients.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Richard S; Shulman, Rob; Tomlin, Mark; Borthwick, Mark; Berry, Will; Mills, Gary H

    2017-04-01

    To identify between and within profession-rater reliability of clinical impact grading for common critical care prescribing error and optimisation cases. To identify representative clinical impact grades for each individual case. Electronic questionnaire. 5 UK NHS Trusts. 30 Critical care healthcare professionals (doctors, pharmacists and nurses). Participants graded severity of clinical impact (5-point categorical scale) of 50 error and 55 optimisation cases. Case between and within profession-rater reliability and modal clinical impact grading. Between and within profession rater reliability analysis used linear mixed model and intraclass correlation, respectively. The majority of error and optimisation cases (both 76%) had a modal clinical severity grade of moderate or higher. Error cases: doctors graded clinical impact significantly lower than pharmacists (-0.25; P < 0.001) and nurses (-0.53; P < 0.001), with nurses significantly higher than pharmacists (0.28; P < 0.001). Optimisation cases: doctors graded clinical impact significantly lower than nurses and pharmacists (-0.39 and -0.5; P < 0.001, respectively). Within profession reliability grading was excellent for pharmacists (0.88 and 0.89; P < 0.001) and doctors (0.79 and 0.83; P < 0.001) but only fair to good for nurses (0.43 and 0.74; P < 0.001), for optimisation and error cases, respectively. Representative clinical impact grades for over 100 common prescribing error and optimisation cases are reported for potential clinical practice and research application. The between professional variability highlights the importance of multidisciplinary perspectives in assessment of medication error and optimisation cases in clinical practice and research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Efficacy of mummy on healing of pressure ulcers: A randomized controlled clinical trial on hospitalized patients in intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Moghadari, Masoud; Rezvanipour, Mozafar; Mehrabani, Mitra; Ahmadinejad, Mehdi; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem

    2018-01-01

    Background Mummy is a mineral substance which according to Persian medicine texts, may be useful in treatment of chronic ulcers. Objective The present study was performed with the aim of determining the effect of mummy on healing of pressure in male patients who had been hospitalized due to cerebrospinal injury in the Intensive Care Unit. Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 75 patients who had pressure ulcer at Shahid Bahonar Hospital in Kerman, Iran, from September 2016 to March 2017. The control group received normal saline and routine wound dressing, while the intervention group received mummy water solution 20% in addition to normal saline and routine wound dressing on a daily basis. Data was recorded based on the PUSH method. In both groups, ulcers were evaluated on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 for the variables of ulcer surface area, the amount of exudate and type of tissue. Data analysis was done through SPSS 21 and using t-test, Repeated Measure Analysis, Cox Regression and Chi-square. Results Both groups showed reduction in the average ulcer surface area (3.26 to 0.53 in the intervention group and 5.1 to 3.46 in the control group), the average exudate amount (1.26 to 0.26 in the intervention group and 1.83 to 1.06 in the control group) and the average tissue score (1.36 to 0.23 in the intervention group and 2.13 to 1.26 in the control group). Over the entire study period, the intervention group showed more acceptable signs of healing compared to the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion The healing process was more prominent in the intervention group than the control group. Clinical trial registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with registered NO. (IRCT2014042917494N1) (29/04/2014). Funding No financial support for the research. PMID:29588812

  4. Primary Care Clinics and Accountable Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chiung-Ya; Lin, Yi-Ling; Masri, Maysoun D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Accountable Care Organization (ACO) is one of the new models of health care delivery in the United States. To date, little is known about the characteristics of health care organizations that have joined ACOs. We report on the findings of a survey of primary care clinics, the objective of which was to investigate the opinions of clinic management about participation in ACOs and the characteristics of clinic organizational structure that may contribute to joining ACOs or be willing to do so. Methods: A 27-item survey questionnaire was developed and distributed by mail in 3 annual waves to all Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) in 9 states. Two dependent variables—participation in ACOs and willingness to join ACOs—were created and analyzed using a generalized estimating equation approach. Results: A total of 257 RHCs responded to the survey. A small percentage (5.2%) of the respondent clinics reported that they were participating in ACOs. Rural Health Clinics in isolated areas were 78% less likely to be in ACOs (odds ratio = 0.22, P = .059). Nonprofit RHCs indicated a higher willingness to join an ACO than for-profit RHCs (B = 1.271, P = .054). There is a positive relationship between RHC size and willingness to join an ACO (B = 0.402, P = .010). Conclusion: At this early stage of ACO development, many RHC personnel are unfamiliar with the ACO model. Rural providers’ limited technological and human resources, and the lack of ACO development in rural areas, may delay or prevent their participation in ACOs. PMID:26900587

  5. Time and cost involved in the care of newly registered patients with diabetes mellitus and other lifestyle diseases at diabetes clinics in Japan (JDDM 4).

    PubMed

    Oishi, M; Yokoyama, H; Abe, N; Iwasaki, K; Okuguchi, F; Kawai, K; Sugimoto, H; Takamura, H; Takeda, H; Doi, K; Hirao, K; Ikeda, S

    2007-10-01

    To study the time and cost involved in the care of newly registered outpatients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), compared with patients with hypertension and/or hyperlipidaemia (HTL). A total of 313 patients with DM and 58 patients with HTL without diabetes were registered on their first visits to 11 diabetes clinics across Japan. The time and cost involved in their care was recorded over the following 5 months. In the first 3 months, there was an extensive time commitment to both groups. The time spent by physicians was 1.5 times longer for DM than for HTL. The total care time spent by all the care providers for DM was twice that for HTL. The cost of DM care was twice that for HTL, with the cost of medicines excluded. However, half of the cost for DM was for laboratory tests. When these were excluded, and the remaining cost divided by the time spent, the amount for DM was half of that for HTL. Over the 5 months, mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) in DM patients improved from 8.0% to 6.5%, and 72% of DM patients achieved the glycaemic target of HbA(1c) < or = 6.5%. DM care in a diabetes clinic requires a great deal more time and resources than HTL to achieve the best outcome. An educational system for self care, presently lacking in the primary care setting in Japan, would improve glycaemic control for DM patients in the community.

  6. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of obstetric patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit: a 10-year retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Leung, N Y W; Lau, A C W; Chan, K K C; Yan, W W

    2010-02-01

    To review the characteristics and health-related quality-of-life outcomes of obstetric patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Retrospective cohort study. A regional hospital in Hong Kong. Consecutive obstetric patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital from January 1998 to December 2007. Fifty obstetric patients (mean [standard deviation] age, 31 [6] years; mean gestational age, 34 [9] weeks) were analysed. The most common obstetric cause of admission was postpartum haemorrhage (n=19, 38%), followed by pregnancy-associated hypertension (n=7, 14%). The commonest non-obstetric cause of admission was sepsis (n=7, 14%). The commonest intervention was arterial line insertion (n=33, 66%) and mechanical ventilation (n=29, 58%). Maternal mortality was 6% (n=3), while the perinatal mortality rate was 8% (n=4). The average Short Form-36 Health Survey scores of our patients were lower than the norm for the Hong Kong population of the same age and gender. Postpartum haemorrhage and pregnancy-associated hypertension were the most common causes of admission to our Intensive Care Unit. Overall mortality was low. Long-term health-related quality of life in discharged patients was lower than the norm of the Hong Kong population. Appropriate antenatal care is important in preventing obstetric complications. Continued psychosocial follow-up of discharged patients has to be implemented.

  7. The clinical and cost-effectiveness of stratified care for patients with sciatica: the SCOPiC randomised controlled trial protocol (ISRCTN75449581).

    PubMed

    Foster, Nadine E; Konstantinou, Kika; Lewis, Martyn; Ogollah, Reuben; Dunn, Kate M; van der Windt, Danielle; Beardmore, Ruth; Artus, Majid; Bartlam, Bernadette; Hill, Jonathan C; Jowett, Sue; Kigozi, Jesse; Mallen, Christian; Saunders, Benjamin; Hay, Elaine M

    2017-04-26

    Sciatica has a substantial impact on patients, and is associated with high healthcare and societal costs. Although there is variation in the clinical management of sciatica, the current model of care usually involves an initial period of 'wait and see' for most patients, with simple measures of advice and analgesia, followed by conservative and/or more invasive interventions if symptoms fail to resolve. A model of care is needed that does not over-treat those with a good prognosis yet identifies patients who do need more intensive treatment to help with symptoms, and return to everyday function including work. The aim of the SCOPiC trial (SCiatica Outcomes in Primary Care) is to establish whether stratified care based on subgrouping using a combination of prognostic and clinical information, with matched care pathways, is more effective than non-stratified care, for improving time to symptom resolution in patients consulting with sciatica in primary care. We will also assess the impact of stratified care on service delivery and evaluate its cost-effectiveness compared to non-stratified care. Multicentre, pragmatic, parallel arm randomised trial, with internal pilot, cost-effectiveness analysis and embedded qualitative study. We will recruit 470 adult patients with sciatica from general practices in England and Wales, over 24 months. Patients will be randomised to stratified care or non-stratified care, and treated in physiotherapy and spinal specialist services, in participating NHS services. The primary outcome is time to first resolution of sciatica symptoms, measured on a 6-point ordered categorical scale, collected using text messaging. Secondary outcomes include physical function, pain intensity, quality of life, work loss, healthcare use and satisfaction with treatment, and will be collected using postal questionnaires at 4 and 12-month follow-up. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with a subsample of participants and clinicians will explore the

  8. Clinical outcomes of patients requiring ventilatory support in Brazilian intensive care units: a multicenter, prospective, cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Contemporary information on mechanical ventilation (MV) use in emerging countries is limited. Moreover, most epidemiological studies on ventilatory support were carried out before significant developments, such as lung protective ventilation or broader application of non-invasive ventilation (NIV). We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, outcomes and risk factors for hospital mortality and failure of NIV in patients requiring ventilatory support in Brazilian intensive care units (ICU). Methods In a multicenter, prospective, cohort study, a total of 773 adult patients admitted to 45 ICUs over a two-month period requiring invasive ventilation or NIV for more than 24 hours were evaluated. Causes of ventilatory support, prior chronic health status and physiological data were assessed. Multivariate analysis was used to identifiy variables associated with hospital mortality and NIV failure. Results Invasive MV and NIV were used as initial ventilatory support in 622 (80%) and 151 (20%) patients. Failure with subsequent intubation occurred in 54% of NIV patients. The main reasons for ventilatory support were pneumonia (27%), neurologic disorders (19%) and non-pulmonary sepsis (12%). ICU and hospital mortality rates were 34% and 42%. Using the Berlin definition, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was diagnosed in 31% of the patients with a hospital mortality of 52%. In the multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio (OR), 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.03), comorbidities (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.28 to 3.17), associated organ failures (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.20), moderate (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.35) to severe ARDS (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 4.41), cumulative fluid balance over the first 72 h of ICU (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.39 to 4.28), higher lactate (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.50), invasive MV (OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.32 to 5.39) and NIV failure (OR, 3.95; 95% CI, 1.74 to 8.99) were independently associated with hospital mortality

  9. Clinicians' perspectives on patient satisfaction in adult congenital heart disease clinics--a dimension of health care quality whose time has come.

    PubMed

    Rozenblum, Ronen; Gianola, Ann; Ionescu-Ittu, Raluca; Verstappen, Amy; Landzberg, Michael; Gurvitz, Michelle; Jenkins, Kathy; Bates, David W; Marelli, Ariane J

    2015-01-01

    Patient-centered care and patient satisfaction represent key dimensions of health care quality. This is relevant for the growing number of patients with life-long conditions. In the present study, our goal was to examine clinicians' attitudes and behavior with respect to patient satisfaction in adult congenital heart disease outpatient clinics. A 34-question survey was developed to assess adult congenital heart disease clinicians' awareness, attitudes, and behavior relative to patient satisfaction and administered in-person or online to clinicians from the largely U.S.-based Adult Congenital Heart Association's database of adult congenital heart disease health care providers. Overall, 267 questionnaires were filled out: 108 were collected in person (79% response rate) and 159 online (17.5% response rate). Responses were received from physicians (161); nurses (73); physician assistants (20); and others (13). Although 85% of clinicians believed it was important to inquire about patient satisfaction, only 28% reported routinely inquiring about this dimension of care. Only 34% claimed they had adequate training to cope with varying levels of patient satisfaction, 44% stated that their department utilized patient satisfaction surveys, and 37% received feedback from the hospital management in the preceding 12 months. In multivariate analyses, clinicians that received feedback from the hospital management and had adequate training were more likely to inquire about patient satisfaction. Although patient satisfaction is perceived as an important dimension of quality care by adult congenital heart disease clinicians, most of them reported insufficient institutional support to achieve this. Our findings suggest that clinicians would benefit from health care organizations engaging them in the delivery of this dimension of health care quality. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Using an electronic self-management tool to support patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD): a CKD clinic self-care model.

    PubMed

    Ong, Stephanie W; Jassal, Sarbjit V; Porter, Eveline; Logan, Alexander G; Miller, Judith A

    2013-01-01

    New healthcare delivery models are needed to enhance the patient experience and improve quality of care for individuals with chronic conditions such as kidney disease. One potential avenue is to implement self-management strategies. There is growing evidence that self-management interventions help optimize various aspects of chronic disease management. With the increasing use of information technology (IT) in health care, chronic disease management programs are incorporating IT solutions to support patient self-management practices. IT solutions have the ability to promote key principles of self-management, namely education, empowerment, and collaboration. Positive clinical outcomes have been demonstrated for a number of chronic conditions when IT solutions were incorporated into self-management programs. There is a paucity of evidence for self-management in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Furthermore, IT strategies have not been tested in this patient population to the same extent as other chronic conditions (e.g., diabetes, hypertension). Therefore, it is currently unknown if IT strategies will promote self-management behaviors and lead to improvements in overall patient care. We designed and developed an IT solution called My KidneyCare Centre to support self-management strategies for patients with CKD. In this review, we discuss the rationale and vision of incorporating an electronic self-management tool to support the care of patients with CKD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The utility of pre-test clinical scoring for clinical diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in cardiac surgery patients of a tertiary care centre in north India.

    PubMed

    Sachan, D; Gupta, N; Agarwal, P; Chaudhary, R

    2011-08-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) should be diagnosed clinically as well as by laboratory assays for timely recognition, prevention and management of complications. To evaluate the clinical utility of pre-test clinical scoring system in combination with two immunoassays for the diagnosis of HIT in cardiac surgery patients. A total of 100 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery were studied. Pre-test clinical scoring was carried out in patients with thrombocytopenia and further tested by two immunoassays, i.e., Heparin platelet factor 4 (H-PF4) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and particle gel immunoassay (PaGIA). Of the 100 patients studied, 42 patients developed thrombocytopenia post-operatively. On pre-test clinical scoring, low T-score was observed in 6 patients, intermediate in 28 and high score in 8 patients, whereas 19 patients (45.2%) were positive by H-PF4 ELISA and 10 (23.8%) by PaGIA for H-PF4 antibody. The difference in the incidence of clinically significant HIT antibodies in the three categories was statistically significant. A good correlation was also observed with ELISA optical density, T-scoring and PaGIA. Pre-test clinical scoring correlates well with the development of H-PF4 antibodies which are incriminated in the causation of thrombotic complications in patients with HIT. We also propose a protocol for diagnosing patients with clinical suspicion of HIT using pre-test clinical scoring and immunoassay. © 2011 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2011 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  12. Impact of Direct-to-Consumer Predictive Genomic Testing on Risk Perception and Worry Among Patients Receiving Routine Care in a Preventive Health Clinic

    PubMed Central

    James, Katherine M.; Cowl, Clayton T.; Tilburt, Jon C.; Sinicrope, Pamela S.; Robinson, Marguerite E.; Frimannsdottir, Katrin R.; Tiedje, Kristina; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) predictive genomic risk information on perceived risk and worry in the context of routine clinical care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients attending a preventive medicine clinic between June 1 and December 18, 2009, were randomly assigned to receive either genomic risk information from a DTC product plus usual care (n=74) or usual care alone (n=76). At intervals of 1 week and 1 year after their clinic visit, participants completed surveys containing validated measures of risk perception and levels of worry associated with the 12 conditions assessed by the DTC product. RESULTS: Of 345 patients approached, 150 (43%) agreed to participate, 64 (19%) refused, and 131 (38%) did not respond. Compared with those receiving usual care, participants who received genomic risk information initially rated their risk as higher for 4 conditions (abdominal aneurysm [P=.001], Graves disease [P=.04], obesity [P=.01], and osteoarthritis [P=.04]) and lower for one (prostate cancer [P=.02]). Although differences were not significant, they also reported higher levels of worry for 7 conditions and lower levels for 5 others. At 1 year, there were no significant differences between groups. CONCLUSION: Predictive genomic risk information modestly influences risk perception and worry. The extent and direction of this influence may depend on the condition being tested and its baseline prominence in preventive health care and may attenuate with time. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00782366 PMID:21964170

  13. Effect of Patient Navigation and Financial Incentives on Smoking Cessation Among Primary Care Patients at an Urban Safety-Net Hospital: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Lasser, Karen E; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Truong, Ve; Xuan, Ziming; Murillo, Jennifer; Jean, Cheryl; Pbert, Lori

    2017-12-01

    While the proportion of adults who smoke cigarettes has declined substantially in the past decade, socioeconomic disparities in cigarette smoking remain. Few interventions have targeted low socioeconomic status (SES) and minority smokers in primary care settings. To evaluate a multicomponent intervention to promote smoking cessation among low-SES and minority smokers. For this prospective, unblinded, randomized clinical trial conducted between May 1, 2015, and September 4, 2017, adults 18 years and older who spoke English, smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day in the past week, were contemplating or preparing to quit smoking, and had a primary care clinician were recruited from general internal medicine and family medicine practices at 1 large safety-net hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. Patients were randomized to a control group that received an enhancement of usual care (n = 175 participants) or to an intervention group that received up to 4 hours of patient navigation delivered over 6 months in addition to usual care, as well as financial incentives for biochemically confirmed smoking cessation at 6 and 12 months following enrollment (n = 177 participants). The primary outcome determined a priori was biochemically confirmed smoking cessation at 12 months. Among 352 patients who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 50.0 [11.0] years; 191 women [54.3%]; 197 participants who identified as non-Hispanic black [56.0%]; 40 participants who identified as Hispanic of any race [11.4%]), all were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At 12 months following enrollment, 21 participants [11.9%] in the navigation and incentives group, compared with 4 participants [2.3%] in the control group, had quit smoking (odds ratio, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.9-17.1; number needed to treat, 10.4; P < .001). In prespecified subgroup analyses, the intervention was particularly beneficial for older participants (19 [19.8%] vs 1 [1.0%]; P < .001), women (17 [16.8%] vs 2 [2.2%]; P

  14. Prison Health Care Governance: Guaranteeing Clinical Independence

    PubMed Central

    Pont, Jörg; Enggist, Stefan; Stöver, Heino; Williams, Brie; Greifinger, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Clinical independence is an essential component of good health care and health care professionalism, particularly in correctional settings (jails, prisons, and other places of detention), where the relationship between patients and caregivers is not based on free choice and where the punitive correctional setting can challenge optimal medical care. Independence for the delivery of health care services is defined by international standards as a critical element for quality health care in correctional settings, yet many correctional facilities do not meet these standards because of a lack of awareness, persisting legal regulations, contradictory terms of employment for health professionals, or current health care governance structures. We present recommendations for the implementation of independent health care in correctional settings. PMID:29470125

  15. Anger in palliative care: a clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Philip, J; Gold, M; Schwarz, M; Komesaroff, P

    2007-01-01

    Anger in patients and families is a common problem in the care of persons with advanced disease. Whereas it is widely accepted that anger may be a justifiable reaction to significant illness and loss, it frequently creates difficulties for the doctors involved in care. In particular, there is often a personal impact on the doctor at whom anger is directed. This paper examines results of qualitative research with palliative care workers in the context of the broader published literature and the authors' clinical experiences. The ability to interact effectively with angry patients is a skill that is often learned with experience and is extremely useful in both transforming the patients' reaction into a more creative emotion and in developing a therapeutic relationship. Despite conscientious efforts, however, a few patients continue to be angry. A practical approach to anger, useful for the clinician directly involved in care, is outlined along with some strategies to adopt in the face of persistent anger.

  16. Care of Pediatric Neurosurgical Patients in Iraq in 2007: Clinical and Ethical Experience of a Field Hospital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    epidural abscess from a prior craniotomy for trauma at our facility. Patient Care Of the 42 pediatric patients seen in consultation, 28 required surgical...bifrontal craniotomy for the repair of an anterior skull base inju- ry (3 cases), decompressive craniectomy (5 cases), local debridement and wound closure...for PHI (10 cases), ICP monitoring only (4 cases), spinal instrumentation (1 case), spinal exploration/debridement with lumbar drainage for

  17. Improving correctional healthcare providers’ ability to care for transgender patients: Development and evaluation of a theory-driven cultural and clinical competence intervention

    PubMed Central

    White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Clark, Kirsty A.; Altice, Frederick L.; Reisner, Sari L.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Pachankis, John E.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Correctional healthcare providers’ limited cultural and clinical competence to care for transgender patients represents a barrier to care for incarcerated transgender individuals. Objective The present study aimed to adapt, deliver, and evaluate a transgender cultural and clinical competence intervention for correctional healthcare providers. Method In the summer of 2016, a theoretically-informed, group-based intervention to improve transgender cultural and clinical competence was delivered to 34 correctional healthcare providers in New England. A confidential survey assessed providers’ cultural and clinical competence to care for transgender patients, selfefficacy to provide hormone therapy, subjective norms related to transgender care, and willingness to provide gender-affirming care to transgender patients before and after (immediately and 3-months) the intervention. Linear mixed effects regression models were fit to assess change in study outcomes over time. Qualitative exit interviews assessed feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Results Providers’ willingness to provide gender-affirming care improved immediately post-intervention (β = 0.38; SE = 0.41, p < 0.001) and from baseline to 3-months post-intervention (β = 0.36; SE = 0.09; p < 0.001; omnibus test of fixed effects χ2 = 23.21; p < 0.001). On average, transgender cultural competence (χ2 = 22.49; p < 0.001), medical gender affirmation knowledge (χ2 = 11.24; p = 0.01), self-efficacy to initiate hormones for transgender women, and subjective norms related to transgender care (χ2 = 14.69; p = 0.001) all significantly increased over time. Providers found the intervention to be highly acceptable and recommended that the training be scaled-up to other correctional healthcare providers and expanded to custody staff. Conclusion The intervention increased correctional healthcare providers’ cultural and clinical competence, selfefficacy, subjective norms, and willingness to

  18. Customer service vs patient care.

    PubMed

    Khouzam, Hani Raoul

    2002-03-01

    Though hospital administrators may impose a customer satisfaction mandate, it need not alter the status of "patients" redefined as "customers." It is the duty of all health care providers to remember that the practice of medicine is not chiefly a business and is not purely a science. In its mission is the art of encouraging the individuality of each provider of medical care to interact with the individuality of his/her patients. The medical profession in antiquity was linked with religion and the treating physician with special acquired knowledge and clinical experience was often able to accomplish a "miracle" when TLC (tender loving care) was the essential element of medical practice. If TLC is reintroduced into 21st century medical practice, "customer satisfaction" will be the result rather than the goal of medical care.

  19. Clinical care management and workflow by episodes.

    PubMed Central

    Claus, P. L.; Carpenter, P. C.; Chute, C. G.; Mohr, D. N