Wenngren, Anna; Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
Aim: To investigate if pain area in patients with chronic pain could be measured by a computerized assessment on previously marked pain drawings on paper figures and to analyze the further application of the method. Methods: Seventy-two patients (54 women and 18 men) who were admitted to Umeå University Hospital during 2003 for assessment of chronic pain answered a set of questionnaires (pain intensity on the visual analog scale [VAS], disability on the Disability Rating Index [DRI], life satisfaction on the LiSat-11) and filled in pain drawings on paper figures of the human body. The pain drawings were later analyzed by using computerized assessment. Results: Women marked a greater pain area than men, but the difference was not significant (p =0.433). No significant difference was shown for the previous seven days between men and women on the VAS (p =0.914), DRI (p =0.493), or LiSat-11 (p =0.124). A statistically significant correlation was found between pain area and VAS for the previous seven days (r =0.250; p =0.046). Pain area was statistically significantly correlated to the DRI (r =0.336; p =0.014) and close to negatively correlated to the LiSat-11 (r =0.687; p =0.057). Conclusion: This pilot study shows that pain drawing area could be measured by a computerized assessment of pain drawings. The method points to the possibility of relating pain area with other instruments. In the present study, an association between the patients’ pain drawing area and pain intensity and between pain area and level of activity was shown. PMID:19721724
Spyridonis, Fotios; Ghinea, Gheorghita
Mobility impaired people constitute a significant portion of the adult population, which often experience back pain at some point during their lifetime. Such pain is usually characterized by severe implications reflected on both their personal lives, as well as on a country's health and economic systems. The traditional 2-D representations of the human body often used can be limited in their ability to efficiently visualize such pain for diagnosis purposes. Yet, patients have been shown to prefer such drawings. However, considering that pain is a feeling or emotion that is subjective in nature, the pain drawings could be consequently regarded as a subjective means of communicating such pain. As a result, the study described in this paper proposes an alternative, which encompasses a 3-D pain visualization solution, developed in a previous work of ours. This alternative is complemented with the upcoming technique of pressure mapping for more objectivity in the pain data collection. The results of this study have shown that the proposed approach is a promising solution for the purpose intended, and it could generally prove to be a significant complementary method in the area of medical practice for the mobility impaired community.
Latarjet, J; Choinère, M
While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.
Gerhardt, Andreas; Eich, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Tesarz, Jonas
Findings considering conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in chronic back pain (CBP) are contradictory. This might be because many patients with CBP report pain in further areas of the body, and altered CPM might influence spatial extent of pain rather than CBP per se. Therefore, we compared CPM in patients with CBP with different pain extent. Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), for whom CPM impairment is reported most consistently, were measured for comparison. Based on clinical evaluation and pain drawings, patients were categorized into chronic local back pain (CLP; n = 53), chronic widespread back pain (CWP; n = 32), and FMS (n = 92). Conditioned pain modulation was measured by the difference in pressure pain threshold (test stimuli) at the lower back before and after tonic heat pain (conditioning stimulus). We also measured psychosocial variables. Pressure pain threshold was significantly increased in CLP patients after tonic heat pain (P < 0.001) indicating induction of CPM. Conditioned pain modulation in CLP was significantly higher than that in CWP and FMS (P < 0.001), but CPM in CWP and FMS did not differ. Interestingly, a higher number of painful areas (0-10) were associated with lower CPM (r = 0.346, P = 0.001) in CBP but not in FMS (r = -0.013, P = 0.903). Anxiety and depression were more pronounced in FMS than in CLP or CWP (P values <0.01). Our findings suggest that CPM dysfunction is associated with CWP and not with FMS as suggested previously. FMS seems to differ from CWP without FMS by higher psychosocial burden. Moreover, patients with CBP should be stratified into CLP and CWP, and centrally acting treatments targeting endogenous pain inhibition seem to be more indicated the higher the pain extent.
Couch, Janet Beaujon
Examines the Mandala (circular) drawings of elderly patients diagnosed with dementia in order to explore the drawings' role in artmaking and patients' internal processes. Categorized drawings using the MARI Card Test (a projective psychological instrument). Describes the six MARI stages drawn most frequently and colors used most often. (RJM)
Dalton, Jo Ann; Higgins, Melinda K.; Miller, Andrew H.; Keefe, Francis J.; Khuri, Fadlo R.
Objective To explore biopsychosocial factors (beliefs, depression, catastrophizing cytokines) in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer and no pain in order to determine their relationship at diagnosis and across time and to determine whether these factors contribute to pain intensity or pain interference with function at pain onset. Methods A longitudinal, exploratory, pilot study was implemented in a private medical center and a VA medical center in the southeast. Twelve subjects not experiencing pain related to cancer of the lung or its treatment were recruited. A Karnofsky status of 40% and Hemoglobin of 8 grams were required. Five questionnaires were completed and 10 cc of blood was drawn at Baseline; 4 questionnaires and blood draws were repeated monthly for 5 months. One Baseline questionnaire and a pain assessment were added at Final. Demographic, clinical and questionnaire data were summarized; standardized scale scores were calculated. Results Biopsychosocial scores that were low at Baseline increased from T1-T4 but decreased slightly T5-T6. Individuals with higher pain intensity and higher pain interference at Final had higher psychosocial scores at Baseline than individuals with lower pain intensity and lower pain interference at Final. Conclusions Unrelated to disease stage, metastasis or treatment, unique, levels of biopsychosocial factors are observed in patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer who report higher levels of Pain Intensity and higher levels of Pain Interference at the time pain occurs. Replication studies are needed to validate this response pattern and determine the value of repeated individual assessments. PMID:24064756
Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Khan, Junad; Benoliel, Rafael; Feng, Changyong; Yarnitsky, David; Kuo, Fengshen; Hirschberg, Craig; Hartwell, Gary; Huang, Ching-Yu; Heir, Gary; Korczeniewska, Olga; Diehl, Scott R.; Eliav, Eli
Abstract Persistent pain may follow nerve injuries associated with invasive therapeutic interventions. About 3% to 7% of the patients remain with chronic pain after endodontic treatment, and these are described as suffering from painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PTTN). Unfortunately, we are unable to identify which patients undergoing such procedures are at increased risk of developing PTTN. Recent findings suggest that impaired endogenous analgesia may be associated with the development of postsurgical chronic pain. We hypothesized that patients with PTTN display pronociceptive pain modulation, in line with other chronic pain disorders. Dynamic (conditioned pain modulation, temporal summation) and static (response to mechanical and cold stimulation) psychophysical tests were performed intraorally and in the forearm of 27 patients with PTTN and 27 sex- and age-matched controls. The dynamic sensory testing demonstrated less efficient conditioned pain modulation, suggesting reduced function of the inhibitory endogenous pain-modulatory system, in patients with PTTN, mainly in those suffering from the condition for more than a year. The static sensory testing of patients with PTTN demonstrated forearm hyperalgesia to mechanical stimulation mainly in patients suffering from the condition for less than a year and prolonged painful sensation after intraoral cold stimulus mainly in patients suffering from the condition for more than a year. These findings suggest that PTTN is associated more with the inhibitory rather than the facilitatory arm of pain modulation and that the central nervous system has a role in PTTN pathophysiology, possibly in a time-dependent fashion. PMID:26098442
Keefe, Francis J.; And Others
Investigated the relation of pain coping strategies to pain, health status, and psychological distress in a group of osteoarthritis patients with chronic pain. Patients completed various questionnaires. Medical status variables were also used. The Pain Control and Rational Thinking factor derived from the Coping Strategies Questionnaire proved to…
Seixas, Daniela; Sá, Maria José; Galhardo, Vasco; Guimarães, Joana; Lima, Deolinda
Early reports often ignored pain as an important symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). Pain prevalence figures in MS from European countries other than Portugal range between 40 and 65%. To our knowledge there is no published data in English on pain in MS in Portugal. We describe the demographic and clinical characteristics, with an emphasis on pain, of 85 MS patients followed-up in a Portuguese hospital, contributing to pain epidemiology in MS. Patients were interviewed sequentially after their regular appointments at the MS clinic; patients with pain completed The Brief Pain Inventory and The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). The prevalence of pain found was 34%. Headache and back pain were the most common anatomical sites described, followed by upper and lower limbs. Intensity of pain in an 11-point scale was, for the maximum pain intensity 6.7 ± 1.8, for the minimum pain intensity 2.2 ± 2.0, for the mean pain intensity 4.5 ± 1.5, and for the actual pain intensity 2.4 ± 2.9. Pain interfered significantly with general activity, mood, work, social relations, and enjoyment of life. All MS patients with pain employed words from both the sensory and affective categories of the MPQ to describe it. Patient pain descriptions’ included the word “hot-burning” in 59% of the cases, common in the report of central pain, but neuropathic pain medications were only used by 10% of them. Pain is an important symptom in Portuguese patients with MS, not only because of the high prevalence found, concordant with other European countries, but also because of its interference with quality-of-life. PMID:21503136
Klug, Stefanie; Stefanie, Klug; Anderer, Peter; Peter, Anderer; Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda; Gerda, Saletu-Zyhlarz; Freidl, Marion; Marion, Freidl; Saletu, Bernd; Bernd, Saletu; Prause, Wolfgang; Wolfgang, Prause; Aigner, Martin; Martin, Aigner
To date, pain perception is thought to be a creative process of modulation carried out by an interplay of pro- and anti-nociceptive mechanisms. Recent research demonstrates that pain experience constitutes the result of top-down processes represented in cortical descending pain modulation. Cortical, mainly medial and frontal areas, as well as subcortical structures such as the brain stem, medulla and thalamus seem to be key players in pain modulation. An imbalance of pro- and anti-nociceptive mechanisms are assumed to cause chronic pain disorders, which are associated with spontaneous pain perception without physiologic scaffolding or exaggerated cortical activation in response to pain exposure. In contrast to recent investigations, the aim of the present study was to elucidate cortical activation of somatoform pain disorder patients during baseline condition. Scalp EEG, quantitative Fourier-spectral analyses and LORETA were employed to compare patient group (N = 15) to age- and sex-matched controls (N = 15) at rest. SI, SII, ACC, SMA, PFC, PPC, insular, amygdale and hippocampus displayed significant spectral power reductions within the beta band range (12-30 Hz). These results suggest decreased cortical baseline arousal in somatoform pain disorder patients. We finally conclude that obtained results may point to an altered baseline activity, maybe characteristic for chronic somatoform pain disorder.
Kwekkeboom, K L
Many people with cancer will experience pain when they are outside of structured care settings. Patients must provide their own self-care, drawing on instructions from healthcare providers and on independently developed plans for pain management. With growing interest in complementary therapies, the scope of nonpharmacologic interventions used by patients with cancer to manage pain may be very different than 10-15 years ago. The purpose of this study was to describe steps taken by patients with breast and gynecologic cancer to manage pain after discharge from a surgical hospitalization. A secondary analysis was completed using data from 34 women who participated in a randomized trial of guided imagery. Techniques used included positioning, distraction, relaxation, heat, and eating/drinking. Compared to results of previous studies, increased use of relaxation strategies (breathing, imagery, music, meditation) was noted in the current study. The majority of participants used nonpharmacologic strategies in addition to analgesic medications. Pain-related outcomes were similar among persons who used analgesic medications alone and those who used a combination of analgesics and nonpharmacologic strategies. Nurses may benefit from knowing which pain management strategies patients find helpful so that they can encourage their use and teach similar strategies to the patients who find them useful.
Yu, Seong Hun; Sim, Yong Hyeon; Kim, Myung Hoon; Bang, Ju Hee; Son, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Jae Woong; Kim, Hyun Jin
[Purpose] This study is designed to compare the effects of abdominal drawing-in exercise and myofascial release on pain, flexibility, and balance of elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly females aged 65 or older who had complained of low back pain for three months or longer were selected as the subjects. They were randomly and equally assigned to either an abdominal drawing-in group or a myofascial release group. The subjects conducted exercise three times per week, 40 minutes each time, for eight weeks. As evaluation tools, visual analogue scale for pain, remodified schober test for flexibility, and upright posture with eye opening on hard platform, upright posture with eye closing on hard platform, upright posture with eye opening on soft platform, upright posture with eye closing on soft platform using tetrax for balance were used. [Results] The abdominal drawing-in exercise group saw significant difference in pain and balance after the exercise compared to before the exercise. The myofascial release group saw significant difference in pain and flexibility after exercise compared to before the exercise. [Conclusion] The above study showed that abdominal drawing-in exercise affected elderly females regarding pain and balance and myofascial release influenced their pain and flexibility. PMID:27821941
Kjøgx, Heidi; Kasch, Helge; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels S; Vase, Lene
Pain catastrophizing (PC) has been related to pain levels in both patients experiencing acute or chronic pain and in healthy volunteers exposed to experimental pain. Still, it is unclear whether high levels of pain catastrophizing lead to high levels of pain or vice versa. We therefore tested whether levels of pain catastrophizing could be increased and decreased in the same participant through hypnotic suggestions and whether the altered level of situation-specific pain catastrophizing was related to increased and decreased pain levels, respectively. Using the spontaneous pain of 22 patients with chronic tension-type headache and experimentally induced pain in 22 healthy volunteers, participants were tested in 3 randomized sessions where they received 3 types of hypnotic suggestions: Negative (based on the 13 items in the Pain Catastrophizing Scale), Positive (coping-oriented reversion of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and Neutral (neutral sentence) hypnotic suggestions. The hypnotic suggestions significantly increased and decreased situation-specific PC in both patients and healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). Also, the levels of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were significantly altered in both patients and healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). Furthermore, regression analyses showed that changes in pain catastrophizing predicted changes in pain in patients (R = 0.204-0.304; P < 0.045) and in healthy volunteers (R = 0.328-0.252; P < 0.018). This is the first study to successfully manipulate PC in positive and negative directions in both patients with chronic pain and healthy volunteers and to show that these manipulations significantly influence pain levels. These findings may have important theoretical and clinical implications.
Szumita, Richard P; Szumita, Paul M; Just, Nancy
The specialty of oral and maxillofacial surgery has had at its core the foundations of anesthesia and pain and anxiety control. This article attempts to refamiliarize the reader with clinical pearls helpful in the management of patients with chronic pain conditions. The authors also hope to highlight the interplay of chronic pain and psychology as it relates to the oral and maxillofacial surgery patient. To that end, the article outlines and reviews the neurophysiology of pain, the definitions of pain, conditions encountered by the oral and maxillofacial surgeon that produce chronic pain, the psychological impact and comorbidities associated with patients experiencing chronic pain conditions, and concepts of multimodal treatment for patients experiencing chronic pain conditions.
Pawlik, Michael T; Ittner, Karl Peter
Post-operative pain therapy of chronic pain patients poses a challenge. Here we report the perioperative management of a 39-year-old male under chronic therapy with oxycodon, gabapentin and tolperison. Particular the pharmacointeractions regarding premedication and postoperative dose finding of opioids with intravenous PCIA are discussed.
Pala, Sai Priya; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Kamatham, Rekhalakshmi
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of drawings as a projective measure of pain and distress in children undergoing dental extractions. METHODS: Children in the age range of 4-13 years with existence of untreatable caries or over-retained primary teeth, indicated for extractions were included. Pain was assessed using one behavioral [faces, legs, activity, cry and consolability (FLACC)] scale; and a self report measure; faces pain scale-revised (FPS-R), at two points of time, after completion of local anesthetic administration and after extraction. The general behavior of children was assessed with Wright’s modification of Frankl rating scale. At the end of the session, children were instructed to represent, themselves along with the dentist and their experiences of the dental treatment through drawing. The drawings were scored utilizing Child drawing: Hospital scale (CD: H) manual and correlated with FLACC, FPS-R and Frankl using Pearson correlation test. RESULTS: A positive correlation, though statistically not significant, was observed between CD: H scores and all other considered parameters (Frankl, FPS-R and FLACC) in the present study. CONCLUSION: Drawings could not act as surrogate measure of child’s pain; however, they acted as a narrative of his/her experiences and reflection of inner emotions. Hence, drawings can be used as an additional dental armamentarium. PMID:26862509
Scott, Lori T.
Chronic pain syndrome appears to have certain dimensions which make it unique as a disabling condition. When pain persists, the resulting anxiety and depression, others' reactions to the patient's sick role behaviors, and situational variables such as disability benefits may all contribute to the pain syndrome and complicate the rehabilitation…
Darawad, Muhammad W; Al-Hussami, Mahmoud; Saleh, Ali M; Al-Sutari, Manal
Pain is still undertreated among hospitalized patients. Recently, patient satisfaction with pain management has received significant attention. This field has not yet been explored among Jordanian patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge regarding pain characteristics, beliefs, and satisfaction that can be included in planning pain management strategies and protocols within Jordanian hospitals. Using descriptive cross-sectional methodology, the American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire (APS-POQ) was used to survey 375 inpatients from Jordanian hospitals. Participants reported relatively severe pain and pain interferences while being hospitalized and seemed to be well informed regarding pain and pain management. Participants reported high levels of pain management satisfaction. Also, the Arabic version of the APS-POQ was found to be reliable among the Jordanian population. Findings of this study are similar to those reported by earlier studies in other countries and support the need for applying the caring attitude in managing patients' reports of having pain. This study is the first in Jordan, opening the door for future studies to be conducted in this important field.
Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Clark, Maresha; Chee, Wonshik
Although very little is known about African American cancer patients' pain experience, a few studies have indicated that their cancer pain experience is unique and somewhat different from that of other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore African American cancer patients' pain experience using an online forum. This study was a qualitative online forum designed from a feminist perspective and conducted among 11 African American cancer patients who were recruited through both Internet and real settings. Nine online forum topics were used to administer the 6-month online forum, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged through the data analysis process. First, participants viewed cancer as a challenge in life that they should fight against. Second, cancer pain was differentiated from ordinary pain because cancer was stigmatized in their culture. Third, participants viewed that African Americans, especially women, were culturally raised to be strong, and this African American cultural heritage inhibited cancer patients from expressing pain and seeking help for pain management. Finally, the findings indicated certain changes in perspectives among African American cancer patients during the disease process, which might make them tolerate pain through praying to God and reading the Bible. Based on the findings, we suggest further studies among diverse groups of African American cancer patients, with a focus on cultural attitudes toward cancer pain and influences of family on cancer pain experience.
Shaikh, Maliha; Östör, Andrew J K
In the UK, low back pain is the most common cause of disability in young adults and every year 6-9% of adults consult their GP about back pain. A thorough history and examination is required to exclude an alternative diagnosis, such as pain arising from the hip or trochanteric bursa and to categorise patients as having: serious spinal pathology, nerve root/radicular pain or non-specific back pain. Inflammatory back pain is often missed, particularly in the early stages when examination may be normal. The primary features are pain arising in patients under 40, thoracolumbar or sacroiliac pain and alternating buttock pain. Stiffness in the early morning and after rest is a hallmark of inflammatory back pain. There may also be peripheral joint involvement with evidence of inflammatory arthritis as well as extra-articular manifestations such as iritis, psoriasis and colitis. Sphincter disturbance leading to loss of bladder or bowel control should also be explored as it is a sign of spinal cord compression or cauda equina syndrome. Both of these are neurosurgical emergencies and need urgent referral for further investigation and possible intervention. The majority of patients with low back pain can be managed in primary care as the pain will usually be self-limiting. Patients with suspected inflammatory back pain should be referred to rheumatology as soon as possible in order to institute early management and prevent long-term deformity and disability. Patients with suspected serious spinal pathology should be referred urgently for further investigation. Red flag symptoms should raise concerns regarding a possible sinister cause such as malignancy and more than one red flag mandates urgent further investigation.
Sims-Williams, H; Jayson, M I; Baddeley, H
Small fractures in the posterior elements of the spine were identified by stereoscopic radiography in 7 patients suffering from back pain. The clinical data on these 7 patients are presented. Images PMID:150824
Magdelijns, Fabienne J H; van den Beuken-van Everdingen, Marieke H J; Courtens, Annemie M; Janssen, Daisy J A
Pain is common in patients with cancer (33-64%) and can be divided into background and breakthrough pain (BTP). BTP is a passing, acute pain that occurs despite the use of analgesia to control background pain. BTP may arise spontaneously or be provoked by certain movements or activities. It lasts 30-60 minutes and is generally self-limiting and is often undertreated. We describe 2 patients aged 68 and 57 years with metastatic disease who were admitted for pain management. BTP was inadequately managed during their hospital stay. Both patients had to wait too long before they received their BTP medication, causing the BTP to have passed its peak. After consultation with their nurses, both patients were allowed to have one dose of breakthrough medication in advance, which resulted in better treatment of their BTP. Every hospitalized patient with BTP should have one dose of breakthrough medication ready for taking in advance.
Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Khatibi, Ali; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariët
Attentional bias to pain among family caregivers of patients with pain may enhance the detection of pain behaviors in patients. However, both relatively high and low levels of attentional bias may increase disagreement between patients and caregivers in reporting pain behaviors. This study aims to provide further evidence for the presence of attentional bias to pain among family caregivers, to examine the association between caregivers' attentional bias to pain and detecting pain behaviors, and test whether caregivers' attentional bias to pain is curvilinearly related to patient and caregiver disagreement in reporting pain behaviors. The sample consisted of 96 caregivers, 94 patients with chronic pain, and 42 control participants. Caregivers and controls completed a dot-probe task assessing attention to painful and happy stimuli. Both patients and caregivers completed a checklist assessing patients' pain behavior. Although caregivers did not respond faster to pain congruent than pain incongruent trials, caregiver responses were slower in pain incongruent trials compared with happy incongruent trials. Caregivers showed more bias toward pain faces than happy faces, whereas control participants showed more bias toward happy faces than pain faces. Importantly, caregivers' attentional bias to pain was significantly positively associated with reporting pain behaviors in patients above and beyond pain severity. It is reassuring that attentional bias to pain was not related to disagreement between patients and caregivers in reporting pain behaviors. In other words, attentional bias does not seem to cause overestimation of pain signals.
van den Hout, J H; Vlaeyen, J W; Houben, R M; Soeters, A P; Peters, M L
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of non-pain-related failure experiences and pain-related fear on pain report, pain tolerance and pain avoidance in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Moreover, the mediating and moderating role of negative affectivity (trait-NA) in the relationship between failure experiences and pain was examined. Seventy-six patients were divided into high and low pain-related fear groups and within each group they were randomly assigned to the failure or success feedback condition. In the first part of the study patients completed a 'social empathy test' and experimenter 1 subsequently delivered false failure or success feedback. A second experimenter, who was blind for the condition, subsequently administered two lifting tasks in order to obtain measures of pain report, tolerance and avoidance. Failure feedback did have an effect on pain avoidance but unexpectedly, and not as hypothesized, pain avoidance was reduced instead of enhanced. With regard to pain report and pain tolerance similar patterns were found, but these were not statistically significant. The effect of failure feedback on pain avoidance was moderated by trait-NA. Only in the subgroup of patients who scored low on trait-NA did failure feedback decrease pain avoidance. State-NA did not mediate the effects of feedback. In line with previous findings, pain-related fear resulted in lower pain tolerance. Moreover, this study was the first to show that pain-related fear predicted higher pain report in CLBP patients. Pain-related fear did not predict pain avoidance when pre-lifting pain and gender were controlled for. Finally, pre-lifting pain turned out to be the strongest predictor with regard to all pain measures. The role of pain-related fear and unexpected findings with regard to feedback are discussed as well as some clinical implications.
Investigates patients' responses to drawing experiences while in a hemodialysis unit. It was postulated that patients would be stimulated to talk about issues and experiences and improve their confidence and self-esteem. Results indicate that all patients enjoyed the experience of drawing; they became focused on doing the drawings and the hours…
Dyson, Doris H
Pain exists; however, we can prevent it, and we can treat it. The fallacy that pain is protective and must be allowed to avoid risk for damage after surgery needs to be eradicated. Preoperative and postoperative analgesia is directed at aching pain, whereas sharp pain associated with inappropriate movements persists. Analgesia provides much more benefit than concern. This article provides suggestions for development of an analgesic plan from the point of admission to discharge. These guidelines can then be adjusted according to the patient's needs and responses.
Lynch, Kara L.; Shapiro, Brad J.; Coffa, Diana; Novak, Scott P.; Kral, Alex H.
Background Concomitant use of opioids and promethazine has been reported in various subpopulations, including methadone maintenance patients, injection drug users, and at-risk teenagers. Promethazine is thought to potentiate the “high” from opioids. However, to date, the prevalence of promethazine use has not been determined among patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain. Methods Urine samples from 921 patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain were analyzed for promethazine. Demographic data, toxicology results, and opioid prescription information were obtained through medical record abstraction. We assessed the prevalence and factors associated with promethazine use with bivariable and multivariable statistics. Results The prevalence of promethazine-positive urine samples among chronic pain patients was 9%. Only 50% of promethazine-positive patients had an active prescription for promethazine. Having benzodiazepine-positive urine with no prescription for a benzodiazepine was statistically associated with promethazine use. Also, having a prescription for methadone for pain or being in methadone maintenance for the treatment of opioid dependence were both statistically associated with promethazine use. Chronic pain patients prescribed only a long-acting opioid were more likely to have promethazine-positive urines than patients prescribed a short-acting opioid. Conclusions The study provides compelling evidence of significant promethazine use in chronic pain patients. Promethazine should be considered as a potential drug of abuse that could cause increased morbidity in opioid-using populations. PMID:25754939
A NASA light technology originally developed to aid plant growth experiments in space has proved to reduce the painful side effects resulting from chemotherapy and radiation treatment in bone marro...
Kleinke, C L; Spangler, A S
Sixty chronic back-pain patients were administered the audiovisual taxonomy of pain behavior during their first and last weeks in an inpatient multidisciplinary pain clinic. Audiovisual total score provided a useful index of pain behavior with a suitable frequency and reliability, while offering unique variance as a measure of treatment outcome. Patients' pain behaviors upon admission to the pain program were positively correlated with the following background variables: receiving worker's compensation, pounds overweight, and number of back surgeries. Patients' pain behaviors upon completion of the pain program were significantly correlated with their preferences for pain treatment modalities. High levels of pain behavior correlated with a preference for treatments of ice and heat. Low levels of pain behavior correlated with a preference for physical therapy, social work, lectures, and relaxation. It was suggested that treatment outcome in a multidisciplinary pain clinic is more immediately related to patients' coping styles and their choice of pain treatment modalities than to their demographics and personalities.
Glaviano, Neal R; Saliba, Susan
Patellofemoral pain is a common knee pathology that affects a wide range of active individuals. These individuals often seek medical care, with 25% of all patients seen in sports medicine clinics being treated for patellofemoral pain. While conservative treatment produce beneficial short-term results, individuals with patellofemoral pain often have long-term pain and decreased quality of life for many years following their diagnosis. One of the challenges for treating this chronic condition is the heterogeneous presentation of impairments across patients, ranging from soft tissue restriction, muscle weakness, altered movement patterns during functional tasks, and weak core stability. Clinicians need to identify these impairments and develop an individualized impairment-based model for treating patients with PFP. The aim of this review it to provide guidance and recommendations for clinicians who treat PFP in hopes to improve long-term outcomes for the conservative treatment of PFP.
Souza, Israel; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Caumo, Wolnei; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes
The aim of this study was to identify resilience profiles of patients with chronic pain. Using latent class analysis in a sample of 414 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, three profiles were identified: primary resilience (40%), consisting of individuals 40 years or younger with high education, who seek medical care, are not working, and without symptoms of psychological stress; secondary resilience (30%), consisting of women over 54 years of age with low schooling, who seek medical care, are not working, and with low likelihood of symptoms of psychological stress; tertiary resilience (29%), women with medium schooling, 40 to 54 years old, working, who do not seek medical care, and with a high likelihood of symptoms of psychological stress. The three profiles display different paths of resilience in chronic pain that are relevant to clinical practice, highlighting the importance of multidisciplinary care for patients with chronic pain.
Ritter, Alexander; Franz, Marcel; Puta, Christian; Dietrich, Caroline; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Weiss, Thomas
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in healthy controls (HC) and pain-free migraine patients found activations to pain-related words in brain regions known to be activated while subjects experience pain. The aim of the present study was to identify neural activations induced by pain-related words in a sample of chronic back pain (CBP) patients experiencing current chronic pain compared to HC. In particular, we were interested in how current pain influences brain activations induced by pain-related adjectives. Subjects viewed pain-related, negative, positive, and neutral words; subjects were asked to generate mental images related to these words during fMRI scanning. Brain activation was compared between CBP patients and HC in response to the different word categories and examined in relation to current pain in CBP patients. Pain-related words vs. neutral words activated a network of brain regions including cingulate cortex and insula in subjects and patients. There was stronger activation in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior midcingulate cortex in CPB patients than in HC. The magnitude of activation for pain-related vs. negative words showed a negative linear relationship to CBP patients’ current pain. Our findings confirm earlier observations showing that pain-related words activate brain networks similar to noxious stimulation. Importantly, CBP patients show even stronger activation of these structures while merely processing pain-related words. Current pain directly influences on this activation. PMID:27517967
Ojeda, Antonio; Moreno, Luis A
Pain management in patients with liver cirrhosis is a real challenge and is often inadequate due to a lack of therapeutic efficacy or the high incidence of adverse effects. The focus of treatment differs depending on whether the pain is acute or chronic and involves understanding the causative pathophysiological mechanism. Analgesics should be started with the minimum effective dose and should be titrated slowly with avoidance of polypharmacy. Adverse effects must be monitored, especially sedation and constipation, which predispose the patient to the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The first-line drug is paracetamol, which is safe at doses of 2-3g/day. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are contraindicated because they can cause acute renal failure and/or gastrointestinal bleeding. Tramadol is a safe option for moderate-severe pain. The opioids with the best safety profile are fentanyl and hydromorphone, with methadone as an alternative. Topical treatment can reduce oral drug consumption. In neuropathic pain the first-line therapeutic option is gabapentin. The use of antidepressants such as amitriptyline can be considered in some patients. Interventional techniques are a valuable tool in moderate to severe pain, since they allow a reduction in drug therapy and consequently its adverse effects. Psychological treatment, physical therapy and rehabilitation should be considered as part of multimodality therapy in the management of chronic pain.
Nesbitt, Julian; Moxham, Sian; Ramadurai, Gopinath; Williams, Lucy
Stroke patients can experience a variety of pain. Many stroke patients have co-morbidities such as osteoporosis, arthritis or diabetes causing diabetic neuropathy. As well as pain from other long term conditions, stroke patients can experience central post-stroke pain, headaches, and musculoskeletal issues such as hypertonia, contractures, spasticity, and subluxations. These stroke patients can also have communication difficulties in the form of expressive dysphasia and/or global aphasia. Communication difficulties can result in these patients not expressing their pain and therefore not having it assessed, leading to inadequate pain relief that could impact their rehabilitation and recovery. By implementing an observational measurement of pain such as the Abbey pain scale, patients with communication difficulties can have their pain assessed and recorded. Initially 30% of patients on the acute stroke ward did not have their pain assessed and adequately recorded and 15% of patients had inadequate pain relief. The patient was assessed if they were in pain and therefore not receiving adequate pain relief by measuring their pain on the Abbey pain scale. After introducing the Abbey pain scale and creating a nurse advocate, an improvement was shown such that only 5% of patients did not have their pain recorded and all had adequate pain relief.
Nesbitt, Julian; Moxham, Sian; ramadurai, gopinath; Williams, Lucy
Stroke patients can experience a variety of pain. Many stroke patients have co-morbidities such as osteoporosis, arthritis or diabetes causing diabetic neuropathy. As well as pain from other long term conditions, stroke patients can experience central post-stroke pain, headaches, and musculoskeletal issues such as hypertonia, contractures, spasticity, and subluxations. These stroke patients can also have communication difficulties in the form of expressive dysphasia and/or global aphasia. Communication difficulties can result in these patients not expressing their pain and therefore not having it assessed, leading to inadequate pain relief that could impact their rehabilitation and recovery. By implementing an observational measurement of pain such as the Abbey pain scale, patients with communication difficulties can have their pain assessed and recorded. Initially 30% of patients on the acute stroke ward did not have their pain assessed and adequately recorded and 15% of patients had inadequate pain relief. The patient was assessed if they were in pain and therefore not receiving adequate pain relief by measuring their pain on the Abbey pain scale. After introducing the Abbey pain scale and creating a nurse advocate, an improvement was shown such that only 5% of patients did not have their pain recorded and all had adequate pain relief. PMID:26732690
Danziger, Nicolas; Prkachin, Kenneth M; Willer, Jean-Claude
Empathy is a complex form of psychological inference that enables us to understand the personal experience of another person through cognitive/evaluative and affective processes. Recent findings suggest that empathy for pain may involve a 'mirror-matching' simulation of the affective and sensory features of others' pain. Despite such evidence for a shared representation of self and other pain at the neural level, the possible influence of the observer's own sensitivity to pain upon his perception of others' pain has not been investigated yet. The aim of this study was to explore how patients with congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP), who are largely deprived of common stimulus-induced pain experiences, perceive the pain of others. Ratings of verbally presented imaginary painful situations showed that CIP patients' semantic knowledge regarding the pain of others did not differ from control subjects. Moreover, the propensity to infer pain from facial expressions was very similar between CIP patients and control subjects. On the other hand, when asked to rate pain-inducing events seen in video clips in the absence of visible or audible pain-related behaviour, CIP patients showed more variable and significantly lower pain ratings, as well as a reduction in aversive emotional responses, compared with control subjects. Interestingly, pain judgements, inferred either from facial pain expressions or from pain-inducing events, were strongly related to inter-individual differences in emotional empathy among CIP patients, while such correlation between pain judgement and empathy was not found in control subjects. The results suggest that a normal personal experience of pain is not necessarily required for perceiving and feeling empathy for others' pain. In the absence of functional somatic resonance mechanisms shaped by previous pain experiences, others' pain might be greatly underestimated, however, especially when emotional cues are lacking, unless the observer is endowed
He, Chun-Hong; Yu, Feng; Jiang, Zhao-Cai; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei
Cognitive impairment plays a role in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Patients with painful disorders are reported to show attentional biases toward pain-related information. However, these findings are controversial, and rarely has any study examined whether chronic pain patients have attentional biases to pain-related conditioned stimuli (CS). In this study, twenty-one patients diagnosed with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) were recruited from the neurosurgical department of a large urban general hospital. Sixteen family members and twenty-one pain-free volunteers were included as two separate control groups. Pain ratings, pain-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depression were measured in all subjects using questionnaires. Two dot probe tests were performed, one that used pictures of painful versus neutral faces as cues, and another that presented three types of CS as cues that predicted certain, uncertain, or no pain. Our results demonstrate that the TN patients showed attentional biases towards painful faces and the CSs that signaled uncertain pain. Moreover, the ratings of negative emotion about their pain conditions correlated significantly with the presence of attentional biases. The patients' close family members, however, displayed biases towards uncertain-pain CS. This study demonstrates that patients with chronic pain have increased attention towards pain-related information, and the fearful thinking about pain was positively correlated with this phenomenon.
Martel, M O; Thibault, P; Sullivan, M J L
The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the temporal stability of communicative and protective pain behaviors in patients with chronic back pain. The study also examined whether the stability of pain behaviors could be accounted for by patients' levels of pain severity, catastrophizing, or fear of movement. Patients (n=70) were filmed on two separate occasions (i.e., baseline, follow-up) while performing a standardized lifting task designed to elicit pain behaviors. Consistent with previous studies, the results provided evidence for the stability of pain behaviors in patients with chronic pain. The analyses indicated that communicative and protective pain behavior scores did not change significantly from baseline to follow-up. In addition, significant test-retest correlations were found between baseline and follow-up pain behavior scores. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses further showed that pain behaviors remained stable over time even when accounting for patients' levels of pain severity. Regression analyses also showed that pain behaviors remained stable when accounting for patients' levels of catastrophizing and fear of movement. Discussion addresses the potential contribution of central neural mechanisms and social environmental reinforcement contingencies to the stability of pain behaviors. The discussion also addresses how treatment interventions specifically aimed at targeting pain behaviors might help to augment the overall impact of pain and disability management programs.
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; De Houwer, Jan; Van Bockstaele, Bram; Van Damme, Stefaan; De Schryver, Maarten; Crombez, Geert
Chronic pain often interferes with daily functioning, and may become a threat to an individual's sense of self. Despite the development of a recent theoretical account focussing upon the relationship between the presence of chronic pain and a person's self, research investigating this idea is limited. In the present study we aimed to (1) compare the strength of association between self- and pain schema in patients with chronic pain and healthy control subjects and (2) research whether the strength of association between self- and pain-schema is related to particular pain-related outcomes and individual differences of patients with chronic pain. Seventy-three patients with chronic pain (M(age) = 49.95; SD = 9.76) and 53 healthy volunteers (M(age) = 48.53; SD = 10.37) performed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess the strength of association between pain- and self-schema. Patients with chronic pain also filled out self-report measures of pain severity, pain suffering, disability, depression, anxiety, acceptance, and helplessness. Results indicated that the pain- and self-schema were more strongly associated in patients with chronic pain than in healthy control subjects. Second, results indicated that, in patients with chronic pain, a stronger association between self- and pain-schema, as measured with the IAT, is related to a heightened level of pain severity, pain suffering, anxiety, and helplessness. Current findings give first support for the use of an IAT to investigate the strength of association between self- and pain-schema in patients with chronic pain and suggest that pain therapies may incorporate techniques that intervene on the level of self-pain enmeshment.
Üçeyler, Nurcan; Magg, Barbara; Thomas, Phillip; Wiedmann, Silke; Heuschmann, Peter; Sommer, Claudia
Pain may be the earliest symptom in Fabry disease and presents with a distinct phenotype including triggerable pain attacks, evoked pain, pain crises, and chronic pain. Current pain questionnaires do not reflect the special phenotype of Fabry disease-associated pain, which hampers its systematic evaluation as the basis of correct diagnosis and effective treatment. A questionnaire specifically designed to assess Fabry disease-associated pain is thus urgently needed. At the Würzburg Fabry Center for Interdisciplinary Therapy (FAZIT), Germany, we developed and validated the first face-to-face Fabry Pain Questionnaire (FPQ) for adult patients. The initial version of the FPQ was tested in a pilot study with 20 consecutive Fabry disease patients. The performance of the revised FPQ was assessed in a first (n=56) and second (n=20) validation phase in consecutive Fabry disease patients. For this, patients were interviewed at baseline and 2 weeks later. We determined the test-retest reliability and validity of the FPQ in comparison to data obtained with the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory. The FPQ contains 15 questions on the 4 pain phenotypes of Fabry disease (pain attacks, pain crises, evoked pain, chronic pain) in childhood and adulthood, on pain development during life with and without enzyme replacement therapy, and on everyday life impairment due to pain. This first disease-specific questionnaire is a valuable tool for baseline and follow-up assessment of pain in Fabry disease patients and may guide treatment in this distinct pain phenotype.
Kovacs, Francisco M; Abraira, Víctor; Royuela, Ana; Corcoll, Josep; Alegre, Luis; Tomás, Miquel; Mir, María Antonia; Cano, Alejandra; Muriel, Alfonso; Zamora, Javier; del Real, María Teresa Gil; Gestoso, Mario; Mufraggi, Nicole
Background The minimal detectable change (MDC) and the minimal clinically important changes (MCIC) have been explored for nonspecific low back pain patients and are similar across different cultural settings. No data on MDC and MCIC for pain severity are available for neck pain patients. The objectives of this study were to estimate MDC and MCIC for pain severity in subacute and chronic neck pain (NP) patients, to assess if MDC and MCIC values are influenced by baseline values and to explore if they are different in the subset of patients reporting referred pain, and in subacute versus chronic patients. Methods Subacute and chronic patients treated in routine clinical practice of the Spanish National Health Service for neck pain, with or without pain referred to the arm, and a pain severity ≥ 3 points on a pain intensity number rating scale (PI-NRS), were included in this study. Patients' own "global perceived effect" over a 3 month period was used as the external criterion. The minimal detectable change (MDC) was estimated by means of the standard error of measurement in patients who self-assess as unchanged. MCIC were estimated by the mean value of change score in patients who self-assess as improved (mean change score, MCS), and by the optimal cutoff point in receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC). The effect on MDC and MCIC of initial scores, duration of pain, and existence of referred pain were assessed. Results 658 patients were included, 487 of them with referred pain. MDC was 4.0 PI-NRS points for neck pain in the entire sample, 4.2 for neck pain in patients who also had referred pain, and 6.2 for referred pain. MCS was 4.1 and ROC was 1.5 for referred and for neck pain, both in the entire sample and in patients who also complained of referred pain. ROC was lower (0.5 PI-NRS points) for subacute than for chronic patients (1.5 points). MCS was higher for patients with more intense baseline pain, ranging from 2.4 to 4.9 PI-NRS for neck pain and
Pathmawathi, Subramanian; Beng, Tan Seng; Li, Lee Mei; Rosli, Roshaslina; Sharwend, Supermanian; Kavitha, Rasaiah R; Christopher, Boey Chiong Meng
Breakthrough pain is a significant contributor to much suffering by patients. The experience of intense pain may interfere with, and affect, daily life functioning and has major consequences on patients' well-being if it is not well managed. The area of breakthrough pain has not been fully understood. This study thus aimed to explore the experiences of breakthrough pain among palliative patients. A qualitative study based on a series of open-ended interviews among 21 palliative patients suffering from pain at an urban tertiary hospital in Malaysia was conducted. Five themes were generated: (i) pain viewed as an unbearable experience causing misery in the lives of patients, (ii) deterioration of body function and no hope of recovery, (iii) receiving of inadequate pain management for pain, (iv) insensitivity of healthcare providers toward patients' pain experience, and (v) pain coping experiences of patients. The findings revealed that nonpharmacologic approaches such as psychosocial support should be introduced to the patients. Proper guidance and information should be given to healthcare providers to improve the quality of patient care. Healthcare providers should adopt a sensitive approach in caring for patients' needs. The aim is to meet the needs of the patients who want to be pain free or to attain adequate relief of their pain for breakthrough pain.
Karibe, Hiroyuki; Goddard, Greg; McNeill, Charles; Shih, Sandy Thai
The authors compared the pain intensity and difficulty experienced in performing activities of daily living (ADL) among 237 patients with orofacial pain. The patients underwent comprehensive examinations and recorded their subjective symptoms on a form (five items for pain intensity and six for ADL-related difficulty). On the basis of the primary diagnosis, the patients were divided into the temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJ), myofascial pain (MP), neuropathic pain (NP), and fibromyalgia (FM) groups. The intensity of pain in the jaw/face, tightness in the jaw/face, pain in the neck, and toothache significantly differed among the groups (p < 0.01, Kruskal-Wallis test). Compared to other patients, the FM and NP groups reported greater pain intensity, whereas those in the TMJ group reported lesser pain intensity. The ADL-related difficulty was not significantly different among the groups. Thus, compared to pain due to joint-related disorders, myalgic and neuropathic pain seem to be of higher intensity.
Huber, Alexa; Suman, Anna Lisa; Rendo, Carmela Anna; Biasi, Giovanni; Marcolongo, Roberto; Carli, Giancarlo
The use of unidimensional scales to measure pain intensity has been criticised because of the multidimensional nature of pain. We conducted multiple linear regression analyses to determine which dimensions of pain--sensory versus affective--predicted scores on unidimensional scales measuring pain intensity and emotions in 109 Italian women suffering from chronic, non-malignant musculoskeletal pain. We then compared the results with earlier findings in two groups of cancer patients suffering from acute post-operative pain and chronic cancer-related pain, respectively. Age, physical capacity and scores on the multidimensional affect and pain survey (MAPS) were used to predict patients' ratings on one visual analogue scale (VAS) and three numerical rating scales (NRS) measuring pain intensity, anxiety and depressed mood. Unidimensional pain intensity ratings were predicted better from sensory than from affective pain predictors, and the affective predictors made no unique contribution (NRS), or only a very small one (VAS). Both sensory and emotional pain aspects were unique predictors of NRS anxiety and depression. Therefore, in contrast to earlier findings in two different types of cancer patients, in subjects affected by chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain, the scores on unidimensional pain intensity scales mainly reflect sensory pain dimensions, supporting the discriminant validity of the NRS and VAS used. However, the patients had some difficulty in distinguishing between sensory and emotional information. For this reason, several unidimensional scales to rate pain intensity and emotions separately should be used to obtain a complete picture of the status and needs of any given patient.
Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Molino-Pagan, Diana; Parra-Perez, Paco; Valenzuela, Sara
OBJECTIVE : This study set out to identify the neuropathic component of pain experienced by burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients evaluated using painDETECT, a diagnostic tool that could easily be introduced into clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study included 64 patients (33 BMS and 31 suffering nociceptive pain). Each completed the painDETECT neuropathic pain questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and pain intensity was also measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). RESULTS : Pain among BMS patients (evaluated by VAS) was 6.1 ± 1.9, and 4.3 ± 1.7 among nociceptive patients (P < 0.001). PainDETECT obtained total scores ≥ 19 in 21% of BMS patients, indicating the presence of neuropathic pain. When painDETECT pain descriptors were analyzed comparing the BMS group with nociceptive pain subjects, statistically significant differences were found for burning sensation (P < 0.010), prickling (P < 0.001), electric shock-like sensation (P = 0.046), thermal sensation (P < 0.001), and numbness (P = 0.002). Logistic regression analysis found that VAS scoring was the strongest determinant predicting neuropathic pain. CONCLUSION : The present study suggests that almost a third of BMS patients present neuropathic pain, which is strongly associated with the intensity of pain measured using VAS. These data could provide the basis for further research.
Qin, Z; Lufei, H Q; Su, M F; Wang, Y X
In examining the ability of patients with unilateral brain lesion to copy simple drawings of a house and a human face, 18 apoplectic patients confirmed by CT scanning were studied. We found that their drawing of a house was inferior to that of a face in 19 tests (90.5%) of 17 patients (94.4%). Marked differences existed in nearly 90% of these tests. No difference was found between the right-hemisphere and left-hemisphere group, except that more patients of the right-hemisphere group showed contralateral neglect, but in the house drawings only.
Yazici Sayin, Yazile; Akyolcu, Neriman
Pain scale preferences may vary among patients. Providing a choice of which pain scale to use might be helpful for patients. The aim of this study was to determine patient pain scale preferences and compare the level of agreement among pain scales commonly used during postoperative pain assessment. A total of 621 patients during the early postoperative period were enrolled in this descriptive study. A questionnaire form, the faces pain scale (FPS), visual analog scale (VAS), numeric rating scale (NRS), verbal descriptor scale (VDS), thermometer pain scale (TPS), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SFMPQ), and Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) were used to collect data. Most patients reported that their pain was not measured with any of the pain scales. Patient preference for pain scales were as follows: 97.4% FPS, 88.6% NRS, 84.1% VDS, 78.1% TPS, 60.1% SFMPQ, 37.0% BPI, 11.4% VAS, and 10.5% MPQ. Education was an important factor in the preferences for all scales (p < .000). The level of pain determined by the VAS did not correlate with the level of pain identified by the NRS, TPS, FPS, and VDS (p < .05). There was no difference among the levels of pain for the NRS, TPS, FPS and VDS (p > .05), but there was for the VAS (p < .05). The pain scales chosen should be reliable, valid, and able to evaluate the effects of treatment. The results suggest that the NRS, TPS, FPS, and VDS were appropriate pain rating scales for the participants in this study, and that the VAS should be used in combination with one of these scales.
Women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) often present without obvious cause on imaging studies, laboratory values or physical exam. Dysfunctional sensory processing in the central nervous system (CNS) may explain pain of unclear origin. Central sensitization (CS), a mechanism of centrally mediated pain, describes this abnormal processing of sensory information. Women with CPP often present with several seemingly unrelated symptoms. This can be explained by co-existing chronic pain syndromes occurring in the same patient. Central sensitization occurs in all of these pain syndromes, also described as dysfunctional pain syndromes, and thus may explain why several often occur in the same patient. Six of the most common pain disorders that co-exist in CPP include endometriosis, painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cysitis, vulvodynia, myofascial pain/ pelvic floor hypertonus, irritable bowel syndrome, and primary dysmenorrhea. Central pain generators, (pain originating from CS) and peripheral pain generators, (pain from local tissue damage), can both occur in each of these six conditions. These pain generators will be described. Chronic pain, specifically dysfunctional sensory processing, is recognized as a systemic disease process like diabetes to be managed as opposed to a local problem to be "fixed" or cured. A multi-disciplinary approach to assessment and treatment with a focus on improving emotional, physical and social functioning instead of focusing strictly on pain reduction is more effective in decreasing disability. This is best achieved by determining the patient's needs and perspective through a patient-centered approach. Algorithms for such an approach to assessment and treatment are outlined.
Yildirim, Yasemin Kuzeyli; Cicek, Fadiloglu; Uyar, Meltem
The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to investigate the effect of a pain education program (PEP) on pain intensity, patients' satisfaction with pain treatment, and patient-related barriers to pain management among Turkish patients with cancer. The study was conducted in a sample of 40 patients who were hospitalized for cancer and experiencing pain. The patients were equally randomized to either a PEP or a control group. The data were collected by means of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Numeric Rating Scale, and the Barrier Questionnaire-Revised. After the completion of the questionnaires at the first interview, patients in the PEP group received pain education using a pain educational booklet and an explanatory slide program that discussed the booklet's content with the patients. Patients in the control group received routine clinical care. The questionnaires were reapplied to the patients in both groups after 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Participation in a PEP was associated with decreased pain intensity scores for "present" and "least pain" during weeks 2, 4, and 8 (p < .05). Similarly, there were significant differences between the groups with respect to weeks 2, 4, and 8 satisfaction with pain treatment (p < .05). At the end of second week, the total BQ-r score decreased significantly in the PEP group from 2.12 to 1.29 compared with 2.30 to 2.28 in the control group (p < .001). The findings suggest that the PEP decreases pain intensity, improves satisfaction with treatment, and decreases barriers about cancer pain management in cancer patients. Incorparation of PEP into the standard of care for cancer patients with pain may improve the quality of pain management.
Cheatle, Martin D; Foster, Simmie; Pinkett, Aaron; Lesneski, Matthew; Qu, David; Dhingra, Lara
Chronic pain is associated with symptoms that may impair a patient's quality of life, including emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. There is a high prevalence of concomitant pain and sleep disturbance. Studies support the hypothesis that sleep and pain have a bidirectional and reciprocal relationship. Clinicians who manage patients with chronic pain often focus on interventions that relieve pain, and assessing and treating sleep disturbance are secondary or not addressed. This article reviews the literature on pain and co-occurring sleep disturbance, describes the assessment of sleep disturbance, and outlines nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment strategies to improve sleep in patients with chronic pain.
Clark, Glenn T; Ram, Saravanan
Orofacial pain and altered nerve sensation may be the initial sign of oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal cancer. This article focuses on the most common orofacial pain conditions and neurosensory alterations that affect cancer patients, such as neuropathic pain, muscle spasm or contractures, mucositis, and increased or decreased sensory discrimination in the affected area. The various pharmacotherapeutic modalities for cancer pain management ranging from non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for mild pain to opioids for severe pain are discussed in detail.
Kothari, Simple Futarmal; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Oono, Yuka; Svensson, Peter
The pathophysiology and underlying pain mechanisms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are poorly understood. The aims were to assess somatosensory function at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) and to examine whether conditioned pain modulation (CPM) differs between TMD pain patients (n = 34) and healthy controls (n = 34). Quantitative sensory testing was used to assess the somatosensory function. Z-scores were calculated for patients based on reference data. Conditioned pain modulation was tested by comparing pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) before, during, and after the application of painful and nonpainful cold stimuli. Pressure pain thresholds were measured at the most painful TMJ and thenar muscle (control). Data were analyzed with analyses of variance. Most (85.3%) of the patients exhibited at least 1 or more somatosensory abnormalities at the most painful TMJ with somatosensory gain with regard to PPT and punctate mechanical pain stimuli, and somatosensory loss with regard to mechanical detection and vibration detection stimuli as the most frequent abnormalities. There was a significant CPM effect (increased PPT) at both test sites during painful cold application in healthy controls and patients (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the relative CPM effect during painful cold application between groups (P = 0.227). In conclusion, somatosensory abnormalities were commonly detected in TMD pain patients and CPM effects were similar in TMD pain patients and healthy controls.
Cole, Elaine; Lynch, Antonia; Cugnoni, Helen
Abdominal pain has many causes, from simple to complex presentations. Patients with abdominal pain may have a number of physiological and psychological needs. Nurses have a key role to play in patient assessment, history talking and management.
Qian, Ying; Chen, Xiao-nong; Shi, Hao; Xie, Jingyuan; Chen, Nan
Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) is a rare disorder. Failure of an early diagnosis may cause progressive intestinal ischemia, leading to abdominal pain, sepsis, and death. Patients with end-stage renal disease are among the highest risk populations for developing this lethal complication. The key to a correct diagnosis at an early stage is a high index of suspicion in predisposed patients. In our case, we present a 62-year-old female undergoing maintenance hemodialysis for 8 years; she complained of abdominal pain after hemodialysis in the last 3 months; NOMI was suspected after a CT angiography. She partially recovered after multiple clinical interventions such as decreased ultrafiltration, an increased dose of low molecular-weight heparin and the use of vasoactive drugs. In conclusion, NOMI can be reversible if it is diagnosed as early as possible and after the necessary diagnostic measurements are initiated. PMID:26266246
Abstract Objective To evaluate an a priori threshold for advanced imaging in patients with spinal pain. Design Patients with spinal pain in any region for 6 to 52 weeks were assessed to determine if radiologic studies beyond x-ray scans were indicated, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide bone scans. An a priori threshold was set before MRI, CT, or bone scans would be considered. Those who did not have MRI, CT, or bone scans ordered were followed for at least 1 year to determine if any of them went on to be diagnosed with a more serious spinal disorder (eg, infection, fracture, spondylitis, tumour, neurologic compression). Setting Four large primary care clinics in Edmonton, Alta. Participants A total of 1003 consecutively presenting patients with symptoms suspected to be related to the spine (for a duration of generally 6 to 52 weeks) who had not already undergone advanced imaging and did not have a diagnosis of nonbenign back pain. Main outcome measures Number of cases of nonbenign spinal disorder in participants who underwent advanced imaging and participants who did not undergo advanced imaging (ie, did not have any red flags). Results There were 399 women (39.8%) and 604 men (60.2%). The mean (SD) age of the group was 47.2 (14.6) years. The mean (SD) duration of symptoms was 15.1 (8.6) weeks. Of the 1003 participants, 110 met an a priori threshold for undergoing at least 1 of MRI, CT, or bone scan. In these 110 participants, there were newly diagnosed cases of radiculopathy (n = 12), including a case of cauda equina syndrome; spondyloarthropathy (n = 6); occult fracture (n = 2); solitary metastasis (n = 1); epidural lipomatosis (n = 1); osteomyelitis (n = 1), and retroperitoneal hematoma (n = 1), each of which was considered likely to be the cause of the patient’s spinal symptoms. The remaining 893 participants were followed for at least 1 year and none showed evidence of a nonbenign cause of his or her
Recht, Lawrence D
Objective: Chronic pain is a well-known morbidity associated with neurofibromatosis (NF) for which better therapies are needed. Surgery, radiation, and pain medications have been utilized, but often fail to relieve debilitating pain. One patient at our institution was noted to have near complete resolution of pain after treatment with bevacizumab for progressive neurologic deficit associated with NF2, suggesting its potential as an effective pain control method. We aim to better characterize the use of bevacizumab for pain control in this subset of patients. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 38 NF patients treated at our institution. Results: Of the 38 total NF patients, we found that 63% reported chronic pain, with 18% reporting chronic opiate usage. Nine patients with chronic pain were considered for bevacizumab treatment and five went on to receive infusions. Of these patients, four out of five had previous surgical debulking and two out of five had previous radiation for attempted pain control. One patient had a lesion not amenable to surgery or radiation. Patients received a median of 13 cycles of bevacizumab, and four out of five patients reported a decrease in subjective pain. All patients that had pain relief had a relapse of pain symptoms when the dose was reduced or infusions were paused. Seventy-five percent were able to decrease opiate use. No major complications were noted. All five patients have elected to continue infusions for pain control. Conclusion: Bevacizumab was, in general, well tolerated and should be considered as a treatment option in NF patients with chronic pain refractory or not amenable to surgical decompression and debulking, radiation, and pain medication. PMID:28123914
Tuling, Jeffrey R; Tunks, Eldon
In the elderly, pain of a widespread nature can often be debilitating. It is not uncommon to attribute this widespread pain to osteoarthritis within the spinal column structures and peripheral joints or to other musculoskeletal etiology. However, chiropractors should remain wary regarding pain experienced by the elderly, especially if pain is widespread and exhibits neuropathic features. Common features of neuropathic pain involve the presence of allodynia, hyperpathia and hyperalgesia. This characteristic widespread pain can sometimes be the sequelae of a central nervous system lesion such as a “Thalamic Pain Syndrome”, or “Central Post-Stroke Pain”, which are terms commonly used to describe pain that originates in the central nervous system. Following is the case of a 90-year-old patient presenting with widespread pain attributed to Thalamic Pain Syndrome or Central Post-Stroke Pain. Discussion of the characteristics of neuropathic pain and bedside testing techniques are presented to help the chiropractor identify a patient who may be presenting with Central Post-Stroke Pain.
Reidenberg, M M; Goodman, H; Erle, H; Gray, G; Lorenzo, B; Leipzig, R M; Meyer, B R; Drayer, D E
To better understand the use of narcotic analgesics, the hydromorphone concentration was measured in serum samples from 43 patients with chronic severe pain who were receiving this drug. At the time of blood sampling, pain intensity, mood, and cognitive performance were assessed. There was large individual variation in the dose-drug level relationship. Seven patients with bone or soft tissue pain and drug levels of greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml had good pain control, whereas 10 did not. None of 15 patients with levels less than 4 ng/ml had pain control, despite drug doses similar to those given patients with higher levels. Thus 60% of the patients without control of their pain had hydromorphone levels below the lowest level that produced pain control. No patient with pain from nerve infiltration or compression had good pain control, irrespective of the drug level or dose. Poor mood correlated with high pain intensity and low drug level. Impaired cognitive performance was not related to drug level. Knowing that there is a low concentration of narcotic in the blood of a patient with chronic severe pain who is receiving high drug doses and who shows lack of both efficacy and side effects may reassure health care professionals that further narcotic dosage escalation is appropriate.
Wasserman, Ronald A.; Brummett, Chad M.; Goesling, Jenna; Tsodikov, Alex; Hassett, Afton L.
Background and Objectives The use of self-report questionnaires to detect characteristics of altered central pain processing, as seen in centralized pain disorders such as fibromyalgia, allow for the epidemiological studies of pain patients. Here, we assessed the relationship between reporting high levels of pain while taking opioids and the presence of characteristics associated with centralized pain. Methods We evaluated 582 patients taking opioid medications using validated measures of clinical pain, neuropathic pain symptoms, mood, and functioning. A multivariate linear regression model was used to assess the association between levels of pain while taking opioids and presenting with characteristics consistent with having centralized pain. Results We found that 49% of patients taking opioids continued to report severe pain (≥ 7/10). In multivariate analysis, factors associated with having higher levels of pain in opioid users included higher fibromyalgia survey scores (P = 0.001), more neuropathic pain symptoms (P < 0.001), and higher levels of depression (P = 0.002). While only 3.2% were given a primary diagnosis of fibromyalgia by their physician, 40.8% met American College of Rheumatology survey criteria for fibromyalgia. Conclusions Our findings suggest that patients with persistently high pain scores despite opioid therapy are more likely than those with lower levels of pain to present with characteristics associated with having centralized pain. This study cannot determine whether these characteristics were present before (fibromyalgia-like patient) or after the initiation of opioids (opioid-induced hyperalgesia). Regardless, patients with a centralized pain phenotype are thought to be less responsive to opioids and may merit alternative approaches. PMID:24310048
Tengvall, Oili; Wickman, Marie; Wengström, Yvonne
Pain after burns is a major clinical problem and researchers continue to report that burn pain remains undertreated. Adequate pain management could contribute to the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder and can give a growing sense of patients' self-confidence and strength. Freedom from pain might be unrealistic, but the objective should be to reduce pain as much as possible. The purpose of this study was to describe burn patients' experiences and memories of pain during burn care and to acquire a deeper understanding of how patients cope with the experience. The study method was qualitative and interviews were conducted with 12 adult burn patients (eight men and four women) 6 to 12 months postburn (mean = 7 months). The mean burn size for the group was 10.6% mean of TBSA and the mean stay in hospital was 16 days. The interviews were analyzed using Kvales' method for structuring analysis. The patients' experiences and memories of pain during the trajectory of care were clearly described by the informants during the interviews. Four themes were identified for pain: becoming aware of pain, allowing oneself to feel pain, different pain experiences, and fragile body surface. Four themes were identified for coping: pragmatic coping, allowing someone to care for you, carrying the pain, and perspectives on the trauma. Both good and bad memories were recorded during the care trajectory, and it is evident that the patient has to carry the pain experience by themselves to a large extent.
Yuxiang, Li; Lingjun, Zhou; Lu, Tang; Mengjie, Liu; Xing, Ming; Fengping, Shen; Jing, Cui; Xianli, Meng; Jijun, Zhao
Pain is a major problem after burns and researchers continue to report that pain from burns remains undertreated. The inadequate pain control results in adverse sequalae physically and psychologically in the burn victims. A better understanding of a burn patient's experience is important in identifying the factors responsible for undertreated pain and establishing effective pain management guidelines or recommendation in the practice of pain relief for burn injuries. This study sought to explore and describe the experience that patients have about pain related to burn-injury during hospitalization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on eight patients with moderate to severe pain from burn injuries recruited from a Burn Centre in Northwest China. Data was collected by in-depth interviews and qualitative description after full transcription of each interview. Analysis involved the identification of themes and the development of a taxonomy of patients' experience of burn pain and its management. Three themes were indentified: (1) patients' experience of pain control, (2) patients' perception on burn pain management, and (3) patients' expectation of burn pain management. Findings from this study suggested that patients experience uncontrolled pain both physically and psychologically which may serve as an alert for awareness of health professionals to recognize and establish a multidisciplinary pain management team for burn victims, including surgeons, critical care specialists, anesthesiologists, nurses, psychologists, and social workers to accomplish safe and effective strategies for pain control to reach an optimal level of pain management in burn patients. It also provides insights and suggestions for future research directions to address this significant clinical problem.
Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann; Bostyn, Emma; Delemarre, Jolien; Lemahieu, Trees; Cagnie, Barbara
It is proposed that altered scapular muscle function can contribute to abnormal loading of the cervical spine. However, it is not clear if patients with idiopathic neck pain show altered activity of the scapular muscles. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature regarding the differences or similarities in scapular muscle activity, measured by electromyography ( = EMG), between patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain compared to pain-free controls. Case-control (neck pain/healthy) studies investigating scapular muscle EMG activity (amplitude, timing and fatigue parameters) were searched in Pubmed and Web of Science. 25 articles were included in the systematic review. During rest and activities below shoulder height, no clear differences in mean Upper Trapezius ( = UT) EMG activity exist between patients with idiopathic neck pain and a healthy control group. During overhead activities, no conclusion for scapular EMG amplitude can be drawn as a large variation of results were reported. Adaptation strategies during overhead tasks are not the same between studies. Only one study investigated timing of the scapular muscles and found a delayed onset and shorter duration of the SA during elevation in patients with idiopathic neck pain. For scapular muscle fatigue, no definite conclusions can be made as a wide variation and conflicting results are reported. Further high quality EMG research on scapular muscles (broader than the UT) is necessary to understand/draw conclusions on how scapular muscles react in the presence of idiopathic neck pain.
Worley, Matthew J; Heinzerling, Keith G; Shoptaw, Steven; Ling, Walter
The combination of prescription opioid dependence and chronic pain is increasingly prevalent and hazardous to public health. Variability in pain may explain poor prescription opioid addiction treatment outcomes in persons with chronic pain. This study examined pain trajectories and pain volatility in patients with chronic pain receiving treatment for prescription opioid addiction. We conducted secondary analyses of adults with chronic pain (n = 149) who received buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NLX) and counseling for 12 weeks in an outpatient, multisite clinical trial. Good treatment outcome was defined as urine-verified abstinence from opioids at treatment endpoint (Week 12) and during at least 2 of the previous 3 weeks. Pain severity significantly declined over time during treatment (b = -0.36, p < .001). Patients with greater pain volatility were less likely to have a good treatment outcome (odds ratio = 0.55, p < .05), controlling for baseline pain severity and rate of change in pain over time. A 1 standard deviation increase in pain volatility was associated with a 44% reduction in the probability of endpoint abstinence. The significant reduction in subjective pain during treatment provides observational support for the analgesic effects of BUP/NLX in patients with chronic pain and opioid dependence. Patients with greater volatility in subjective pain during treatment have increased risk of returning to opioid use by the conclusion of an intensive treatment with BUP/NLX and counseling. Future research should examine underlying mechanisms of pain volatility and identify related therapeutic targets to optimize interventions for prescription opioid addiction and co-occurring chronic pain.
Younger, Jarred; Barelka, Peter; Carroll, Ian; Kaplan, Kim; Chu, Larry; Prasad, Ravi; Gaeta, Ray; Mackey, Sean
Objective One potential consequence of chronic opioid analgesic administration is a paradoxical increase of pain sensitivity over time. Little scientific attention has been given to how cessation of opioid medication affects the hyperalgesic state. In this study, we examined the effects of opioid tapering on pain sensitivity in chronic pain patients. Design Twelve chronic pain patients on long-term opioid analgesic treatment were observed in a 7- to 14-day inpatient pain rehabilitation program, with cold pain tolerance assessed at admission and discharge. The majority of participants were completely withdrawn from their opioids during their stay. Outcome Measures We hypothesized that those patients with the greatest reduction in daily opioid use would show the greatest increases in pain tolerance, as assessed by a cold pressor task. Results A linear regression revealed that the amount of opioid medication withdrawn was a significant predictor of pain tolerance changes, but not in the direction hypothesized. Greater opioid reduction was associated with decreased pain tolerance. This reduction of pain tolerance was not associated with opioid withdrawal symptoms or changes in general pain. Conclusions These findings suggest that the withdrawal of opioids in a chronic pain sample leads to an acute increase in pain sensitivity. PMID:18564998
Bertozzi, Lucia; Rosso, Anna; Romeo, Antonio; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Guccione, Andrew A.; Pillastrini, Paolo; Vanti, Carla
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the accuracy of qualitative pain drawings (PDs) in identifying psychological distress in subacute and chronic low back pain (LBP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from searches of PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus, PsycINFO and ISI Web of Science from their inception to July 2014. Quality assessments of bias and applicability were conducted using the Quality of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2). [Results] The summary estimates were: sensitivity=0.45 (95% CI 0.34, 0.61), specificity=0.66 (95% CI 0.53, 0.82), positive likelihood ratio=1.23 (95% CI 0.93, 1.62), negative likelihood ratio=0.84 (95% CI 0.70, 1.01), and diagnostic odds ratio=1.46 (95% CI 0.79, 2.68). The area under the curve was 78% (CI, 57 to 99%). [Conclusion] The results of this systematic review do not show broad and unqualified support for the accuracy of PDs in detecting psychological distress in subacute and chronic LBP. PMID:26644701
Lee, M. C.; Tracey, I.
Summary Chronic pain is a state of physical suffering strongly associated with feelings of anxiety, depression and despair. Disease pathophysiology, psychological state, and social milieu can influence chronic pain, but can be difficult to diagnose based solely on clinical presentation. Here, we review brain neuroimaging research that is shaping our understanding of pain mechanisms, and consider how such knowledge might lead to useful diagnostic tools for the management of persistent pain in individual patients. PMID:23794647
Cunningham, Julie L; Craner, Julia R; Evans, Michele M; Hooten, W Michael
Objectives In the context of widespread opioid use, increased emphasis has been placed on the potentially deleterious effects of concurrent benzodiazepine (BZD) and opioid use. Although use of opioids in chronic pain has been a major focus, BZD use is equally concerning. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to determine the associations between BZD and opioid use in adults with chronic pain upon admission to an outpatient interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation (IPR) program. Methods The study cohort involved 847 consecutive patients admitted to a 3-week outpatient IPR program from January 2013 through December 2014. Study variables included baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the pain severity subscale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Results Upon admission, 248 (29%) patients were taking BZDs. Patients using BZDs were significantly more likely to use opioids and to be female. Additionally, patients using BZDs had significantly greater depression, pain catastrophizing, and pain severity scores. In univariable logistic regression analysis, opioid use, female sex, and greater scores of depression, pain catastrophizing, and pain severity were significantly associated with BZD use. In multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, pain duration, opioid use, depression, pain catastrophizing, and pain severity, only female sex and greater depression scores were significantly associated with BZD use. Discussion Among patients participating in an outpatient IPR program, female sex and greater depression scores were associated with BZD use. Results identify a high prevalence of BZD use in patients with chronic pain and reinforce the need to weigh the risks versus benefits when prescribing in this patient population. PMID:28223841
Cooper, B C; Alleva, M; Cooper, D L; Lucente, F E
Myofacial Pain Dysfunction (MPD) is a musculoskeletal dysfunction involving malrelationship among the neuromuscular system, temporomandibular joints, and dental occlusion. The illness affects children and adults of all ages and both sexes. Patients complain of pain and/or dysfunction in the mandible, temporomandibular joints, ears, oral cavity, head, and neck. Electronic measurement of mandibular movement and associated muscle function now provide reproducible data with which the parameters of this illness and therapy can be designed and monitored. In this study, data are presented on 476 MPD patients. Included are statistics on the most commonly occurring symptoms, clinical examination findings, and electronic test data before and following treatment. The mandibular kinesiograph (MKG) is used to track mandibular movement and compare the natural dental occlusal position and a neuromuscularly balanced position of occlusion. Electromyography (EMG) is used to analyze the resting status of mandibular muscles and the functioning in the occlusal position. The data show a positive correlation between the clinical symptoms of MPD and unhealthy mandibular position at occlusion, accompanied by specific unhealthy muscle activity. There is a strong positive correlation between a therapeutic change in the dental occlusion to a neuromuscularly healthy position using a precision orthotic appliance and the relief of symptoms within 1 month as expressed by 88% of the patients. A similar correlation exists at 3 months and long-term.
Ucuzal, Meral; Kanan, Nevin
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of foot massage on pain after breast surgery, and provide guidance for nurses in nonpharmacologic interventions for pain relief. This was a quasiexperimental study with a total of 70 patients who had undergone breast surgery (35 in the experimental group and 35 in the control group). Patients in the control group received only analgesic treatment, whereas those in the experimental group received foot massage in addition to analgesic treatment. Patients received the first dose of analgesics during surgery. As soon as patients came from the operating room, they were evaluated for pain severity. Patients whose pain severity scored ≥4 according to the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire were accepted into the study. In the experimental group, pain and vital signs (arterial blood pressure, pulse, and respiration) were evaluated before foot massage at the time patients complained about pain (time 0) and then 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after foot massage. In the control group, pain and vital signs were also evaluated when the patients complained about pain (time 0) and again at 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes, in sync with the times when foot massage was completed in the experimental group. A patient information form was used to collect descriptive characteristics data of the patients, and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire was used to determine pain severity. Data were analyzed for frequencies, mean, standard deviation, chi-square, Student t, Pillai trace, and Bonferroni test. The results of the statistical analyses showed that patients in the experimental group experienced significantly less pain (p ≤ .001). Especially notable, patients in the experimental group showed a decrease in all vital signs 5 minutes after foot massage, but patients in the control group showed increases in vital signs except for heart rate at 5 minutes. The data obtained showed that foot massage in breast surgery patients was
Lee, Jacques S.; Griffith, Lauren E.; Paquet, Jean; Chauny, Jean-Marc
Background. Validity of pain recall is questioned in research. Objective. To evaluate the reliability of pain intensity recall for seniors in an emergency department (ED). Methods. This study was part of a prospective multicenter project for seniors (≥65 years old) treated in an ED for minor traumatic injury. Pain intensity (0–10 numerical rating scale) was evaluated at the initial ED visit, at one week (baseline), and 3 months. At three months, patients were asked to recall the pain intensity they had at baseline. Results. 482 patients were interviewed (mean age 76.6 years, SD ± 7.3) and 72.8% were female. Intraclass correlation coefficient between pain at baseline and its recall was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.14–0.33). Senior patients tended to overestimate their pain intensity by a mean of 1.2 (95% CI: 0.9–1.5) units. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the variance of baseline pain recall at 3 months was explained by pain at ED visit (11%), pain at 3 months (7%), and pain at baseline (2%). Conclusion. The accuracy of pain intensity recall after three months is poor in seniors and seems to be influenced by the pain experienced at the time of injury. PMID:28260963
Idvall, Ewa; Bergqvist, Anna; Silverhjelm, Jenny; Unosson, Mitra
This study aimed to describe the perspectives of surgical patients towards postoperative pain management during their hospital stay. Thirty strategically chosen postoperative inpatients from different surgical wards in a university hospital in Sweden participated. A qualitative, descriptive approach using individual interviews was chosen. These were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed according to a qualitative content analysis. The patients' descriptions of postoperative pain management indicated that pain was a symptom that was always in focus, either because it was constantly present or because pain could appear abruptly during different activities and movements. Although the focus was on pain and an awareness that it should be relieved or avoided, the solutions were often routine, short-term, and involved the regular intake of drugs, plus additional medication if needed for an acute pain episode. From the patients' descriptions of their experience with postoperative pain management, we distinguished three categories: "patients' pain knowledge", "patients' pain management approaches", and "patients' views of health-care professionals". The findings from this study highlight important aspects of nursing care that should receive greater attention in postoperative pain management. The patients' narratives could be a valuable asset in the quality improvement of postoperative pain management as these narratives highlight episodes difficult to elicit in other ways.
Washio, M; Takasugi, S; Arai, Y
In April 1999, 75 elderly patients (mean age: 79 years old) with low back pain and/or knee pain visited an acupuncture and physical therapy unit in a geriatric hospital. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of acupuncture therapy on low back pain and/or knee pain in elderly patients. Among them, 60 patients answered that their pain diminished following their therapy. The proportion of patients who were treated with acupuncture therapy were higher in these 60 patients than the other 15 patients (55.5% vs. 26.7%, p = 0.05). The result suggests that acupuncture therapy may be able to relieve low back pain and/or knee pain in elderly patients. However, 46% of the patients with acupuncture therapy were also treated with other types of physical therapy. Further studies should be recommended to confirm the effects of acupuncture therapy on low back pain and/or knee pain.
Jensen, Mark P.; Turner, Judith A.; Romano, Joan M.
Little is known about how patient functioning changes after completion of multidisciplinary pain programs, and what factors are associated with such changes when they occur; for example, whether improvement or deterioration in functioning corresponds to changes in patient beliefs and coping during this period. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which changes in patient pain and functioning were associated with changes in beliefs and coping after multidisciplinary pain treatment. Patients with chronic pain (N = 141) completed outcome (pain, functioning) and process (beliefs, catastrophizing, coping) measures at the end of multidisciplinary pain treatment and 12 months posttreatment. On average, patients reported similar levels of pain at both times, but showed a small worsening in disability and depression outcomes between posttreatment and follow-up, which were associated significantly with concurrent changes in the process measures. In particular, increased belief in oneself as disabled by pain, catastrophizing, and increased use of resting, guarding and asking for assistance in response to pain were linked with increased disability and depression. Decreased perceived control over pain was also consistently associated with worsening of these outcomes. The results highlight the potential importance of specific pain-related beliefs and coping responses in long-term patient pain and adjustment. Research is needed to determine whether booster interventions after the end of intensive multidisciplinary treatment that target these beliefs and coping responses improve long-term outcomes. PMID:17250963
Freytag, A; Schiffhorst, G; Thoma, R; Strick, K; Gries, C; Becker, A; Treede, R-D; Müller-Schwefe, G; Casser, H-R; Luley, C; Höer, A; Ujeyl, M; Gothe, H; Kugler, J; Glaeske, G; Häussler, B
The ICD classification does not provide the opportunity to adequately identify pain patients. Therefore we developed an alternative method for the identification and classification of pain patients which is based on prescription and diagnoses data from the year 2006 of one nationwide sickness fund (DAK) and which is led by two main assumptions: 1. Beneficiaries without prescription of an analgetic drug but with a diagnosis pattern that is characteristic of patients who are treated with opioids are also likely to be pain patients. 2. Each combination of diagnosis groups can be traced back to one primary diagnosis out of a diagnosis group according to the patient classification system CCS (Clinical Classifications Software). The selection of this diagnosis group (CCS) allows for the allocation of the beneficiary to only one pain type. As a result we identified 65 combinations of CCS diagnosis groups--aggregated to nine "CCS pain types"--to which 77.1% of all patients with at least two opioid prescriptions can be allocated: 26.3% to pain due to arthrosis, 18.0% to pain due to intervertebral disc illnesses, 13.1% to other specific back pain, 6.7% to neuropathic pain, 4.5% to unspecific back pain, 4.2% to headache, 2.4% to pain after traumatic fractures, 1.3% to pain of multimorbid, high-maintenance patients, and 0.6% to cancer pain. Based on our method beneficiaries who have a high probability of suffering from moderate to strong pain can be identified and included in further claims data analyses of health care delivery and utilization pattern of pain-related disorders in Germany.
Wermeling, Daniel P; Berger, Joseph R
Ziconotide intrathecal infusion was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of intractable severe chronic pain. Patients with neuropathic pain make up a significant population among those who experience chronic pain for which there are less than optimal pharmacotherapeutic options. Published clinical trials provide a global view of ziconotide efficacy and safety. A subset of patients in clinical trials obtained complete pain relief, a remarkable finding given the history of drug treatment for neuropathic pain. To provide more information regarding those who respond to ziconotide therapy, we discuss three patients with neuropathic pain who received ziconotide infusion. Two patients with longstanding neuropathic pain, one with complex regional pain syndrome (formerly known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy) of the leg and one with lumbar radiculitis, achieved temporary but complete pain relief from single 5- and 10-microg epidural test doses. In the third case, a patient with longstanding bilateral leg and foot neuropathic pain from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and antiretroviral drug therapy achieved considerable pain relief from a long-term continuous intrathecal infusion. The patients who received a single dose had mild central nervous system adverse effects such as sedation, somnolence, nausea, headache, and lightheadedness. The patient who received the intrathecal infusion experienced mild-to-severe adverse effects depending on the rate of infusion; these effects included sedation, confusion, memory impairment, slurred speech, and double vision. This patient could sense impending adverse effects and made rate adjustments or suspended infusion to avert untoward symptoms. In all three cases, patients achieved considerable pain relief that was long-lasting and persisted well after dose administration or suspension of infusion.
Mediati, Rocco Domenico; Vellucci, Renato; Dodaro, Lucia
Summary Bone pain is one of the most frequent kinds of chronic pain, mainly in elderly patients. It causes a significant worsening of functional capacity and deterioration in the quality of life in people affected. Mechanisms of pain in osteoporosis are poorly known and often extrapolated by other pathologies or other experimental model. One of principal causes would be a “hyper-remodeling” of bone, that involves osteoclasts activity and pathological modifications of bone innervation. Several studies show that osteoclasts play a significant role in bone pain etiology. Pain in osteoporosis is mainly nociceptive, if it become persistent a sensitization of peripheral and central nervous system can occur, so underlining the transition to a chronic pain syndrome. Central sensitization mechanisms are complex and involve several neuromediators and receptors (Substance P, NMDA, etc.). Most common manifestations of osteoporosis are vertebral compression fractures that cause persistent pain, though to differentiate from pain originating in structures as joint or muscle. First manifestation can be an acute pain due to pathological fracture, those of hip often causes disability. Pain in osteoporosis is an important clinical challenge. Often its complications and consequences on patient quality of life are underestimated with not negligible social implications. A balanced and early multimodal pain therapy including opioids as necessary, even in cases of acute pain, improve the functional capacity of patients and helps to prevent neurological alterations that seems to contribute in significant way in causing irreversible pain chronic syndromes. PMID:25568647
Wood, Patrick B; Schweinhardt, Petra; Jaeger, Erik; Dagher, Alain; Hakyemez, Helene; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Bushnell, M Catherine; Chizh, Boris A
Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances. Accumulating evidence indicates that fibromyalgia may involve a dysfunction of modulatory systems in the brain. While brain dopamine is best known for its role in pleasure, motivation and motor control, recent evidence suggests that it is also involved in pain modulation. Because dopamine is implicated in both pain modulation and affective processing, we hypothesized that fibromyalgia may involve a disturbance of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Fibromyalgia patients and matched healthy control subjects were subjected to deep muscle pain produced by injection of hypertonic saline into the anterior tibialis muscle. In order to determine the endogenous release of dopamine in response to painful stimulation, we used positron emission tomography to examine binding of [(11)C]-raclopride (D2/D3 ligand) in the brain during injection of painful hypertonic saline and nonpainful normal saline. Fibromyalgia patients experienced the hypertonic saline as more painful than healthy control subjects. Control subjects released dopamine in the basal ganglia during the painful stimulation, whereas fibromyalgia patients did not. In control subjects, the amount of dopamine release correlated with the amount of perceived pain but in fibromyalgia patients no such correlation was observed. These findings provide the first direct evidence that fibromyalgia patients have an abnormal dopamine response to pain. The disrupted dopaminergic reactivity in fibromyalgia patients could be a critical factor underlying the widespread pain and discomfort in fibromyalgia and suggests that the therapeutic effects of dopaminergic treatments for this intractable disorder should be explored.
Zamorano, Anna M.; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M.; Montoya, Pedro
Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384
Cheatle, Martin D
Chronic pain affects nearly one-third of the American population. Chronic pain can lead to a variety of problems for a pain sufferer, including developing secondary medical problems, depression, functional and vocational disability, opioid abuse and suicide. Current pain care models are deficient in providing a necessary comprehensive approach. Most patients with chronic pain are managed by primary care clinicians who are typically ill prepared to effectively and efficiently manage these cases. A biopsychosocial approach to evaluate and treat chronic pain is clinically and economically efficacious, but unique delivery systems are required to meet the challenge of access to specialty care.
Perković, Ivana; Romić, Martina Knežević; Perić, Marina
Objectives to compare the level of anxiety reported by patients and assessed by dentists. Also, the expected and actual pain during the treatment perceived by the patient and dentist were assessed. Methods sixty six endodontic patients filled in two questionnaires, prior to and after the treatment, so did their therapists. The first set of questions for patients was regarding demographics, the frequency of dental visits, the level of anxiety and expectations about the level of pain. Before the treatment, dentists estimated the level of patients' anxiety and the expected intensity of pain. After the treatment, the patients evaluated the level of experienced pain and dentists' empathy during the treatment, while dentists reassessed the intensity of patients' pain.The data were statistically analysed by t-test for paired samples and by Spearmans's Rho correlation coefficient at level of significance set at 0.05. Results Patients' expectation of pain intensity was higher than the actual pain during the treatment (t-test=3.540, p=0.001). There was no difference in the level of pain which dentists expected and their perception of pain during the procedure. There was a statistically significant correlation between the patients' level of anxiety and recognition of it by dentists (Spearman Rho=0.460, p<0.001). A higher level of anxiety increased the expected intensity of pain (Spearman Rho=0.401, p=0.001). Actual intensity of pain was not significantly associated with dental anxiety (Spearman Rho=0.080, p=0.524). Conclusion Since the level of dental anxiety was associated with the increased intensity of expected pain, a vicious cycle of pain and anxiety may be terminated by giving positive information to the patient before and during endodontic procedures. PMID:27688374
Vitaliano, Peter P.; And Others
Examined relations between psychiatric disorder and coronary heart disease (CHD) in 77 patients with chest pain, and compared coping profiles of chest pain patients with and without psychiatric disorders and CHD. Psychiatric patients with no medical disease were also studied. Results are discussed in the context of illness behavior and…
Wijma, Amarins J; van Wilgen, C Paul; Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo
Pain neuroscience education (PNE) is increasingly used as part of a physical therapy treatment in patients with chronic pain. A thorough clinical biopsychosocial assessment is recommended prior to PNE to allow proper explanation of the neurophysiology of pain and the biopsychosocial interactions in an interactive and patient-centered manner. However, without clear guidelines, clinicians are left wondering how a biopsychosocial assessment should be administered. Therefore, we provided a practical guide, based on scientific research and clinical experience, for the biopsychosocial assessment of patients with chronic pain in physiotherapy practice. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of the Pain - Somatic factors - Cognitive factors - Emotional factors - Behavioral factors - Social factors - Motivation - model (PSCEBSM-model) during the intake, as well as a pain analysis sheet. This model attempts to clearly establish what the dominant pain mechanism is (predominant nociceptive, neuropathic, or non-neuropathic central sensitization pain), as well as to assess the provoking and perpetuating biopsychosocial factors in patients with chronic pain. Using this approach allows the clinician to specifically classify patients and tailor the plan of care, including PNE, to individual patients.
Israel, Jared I; White, Kamila S; Gervino, Ernest V
Illness-specific cognitions are associated with outcomes in numerous health conditions, however, little is known about their role in noncardiac chest pain (NCCP). NCCP is prevalent, impairing, and associated with elevated health care utilization. Our objective was to investigate the relations between illness perceptions, emotion, and pain in a sample of 196 adult patients diagnosed with NCCP. We found that negative illness perceptions were associated with greater anxiety, depression, chest pain, and pain-related life interference while controlling for the effects of demographic and pain-related variables. These results expand current NCCP theory and may inform future treatment development.
Pham, Phuong-Chi T.; Toscano, Edgar; Pham, Phuong-Mai T.; Pham, Phuong-Anh T.; Pham, Son V.; Pham, Phuong-Thu T.
Pain has been reported to be a common problem in the general population and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Although similar data for pre-ESRD patients are lacking, we recently reported that the prevalence of pain is also very high (>70%) among pre-ESRD patients at a Los Angeles County tertiary referral centre. The high prevalence of pain in the CKD population is particularly concerning because pain has been shown to be associated with poor quality of life. Of greater concern, poor quality of life, at least in dialysis patients, has been shown to be associated with poor survival. We herein discuss the pathophysiology of common pain conditions, review a commonly accepted approach to the management of pain in the general population, and discuss analgesic-induced renal complications and therapeutic issues specific for patients with reduced renal function. PMID:25949305
Patient satisfaction is currently used as a comparative measure to evaluate the quality of health care programs. This seems the best way to evaluate results although an important discordance might exist between patient's perception and doctor's opinion regarding satisfactory outcome after surgery, including that after joint replacement. Pain remains a major cause of dissatisfaction for many patients. To understand the meaning of pain, i.e. "why does pain hurt" in some patients but not in other ones, and to decipher patient's pain expression is a key feature of patient-doctor communication. Questionnaires based on patient's personality traits (integrated and comprehensive reflection of psychological traits) are still underused but might help the doctors to get closer to their patients and understand them better. Besides the source of the relationship, dysfunction should not be attributed only to the person with pain, as the lack of doctors' training to capture and understand the psycho-social dimensions of pain can be pointed out too. Failure to address the psycho-social dimensions of patient's pain and suffering, a skill which relies on patients-doctor communication, represents a major socio-economic problem as it may negatively impact postoperative outcome both in terms of poor management of treatment failure and in term of poor prediction of surgical outcome.
Davis, Mary C.; Affleck, Glenn; Zautra, Alex J.; Tennen, Howard
Action theory proposes that individuals actively shape and then respond to their environments, highlighting the role of stable person characteristics in the development and maintenance of life’s interpersonal difficulties. In this study, we adopted the action perspective in our examination of the daily lives of chronic pain patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Our evaluation of patients’ daily diary reports indicated that individuals played a more prominent role in shaping their positive versus their negative social worlds. The contribution of symptoms of ill health and demographic characteristics, as well as personality attributes were also examined as stable factors that predicted exposure to and appraisal of events. In addition to between-person measures, day to day variations in illness symptoms also played a key role in predicting their social experinces. Together, these findings suggest that stable person characteristics and within-person fluctuations in ill health are each tied to daily interpersonal experiences for those in chronic pain. More broadly, they point to the value of capturing the experiences of individuals intensively over time, an approach that can help to elaborate the contributions of both stable factors and circumstance in shaping our social contexts. PMID:16810668
Sherwood, Gwen; McNeill, Jeanette
Effective pain management continues to baffle clinicians in spite of numerous evidence-based guidelines and standards, focused clinical interventions and standardized assessments. Reflective practice is a mindful approach to practice that grounds clinicians in the moment with the individual patient to ask questions and then to listen to the patient's message about their pain experience. Reflective practice helps meld theoretical knowledge with lessons from experience to rethink mechanistic responses to patient pain. The subjective nature of pain means no two patients have the same experience, and, evidence based best practices are to be applied within the patient's preferences and context. The paper uses a case study to illustrate how to apply reflective practice to integrate the interprofessional quality and safety competencies to provide patient-centered pain management. Applying reflective questions throughout the care experience by all members of the healthcare team provides a mindful approach that focuses care on the individual patient.
Background Control over pain and pain coping strategies are associated with pain intensity as well as psychological status and subjective disability in patients experiencing pain. The present study assessed the clinical values of control over pain and pain coping strategies in surgical treatment for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis using mediation analysis. Methods Sixty-two patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (median age, 70 years; 34 men, 28 women) were evaluated before surgery. The pain intensity and area, psychological status/subjective disability (Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire), and control over pain/pain coping strategies (Coping Strategies Questionnaire) were assessed. Mediation analysis, which consisted of serial regression analyses, mainly tested whether (1) control over pain/pain coping strategies were predicted by pain characteristics and (2) control over pain/pain coping strategies predicted psychological status/subjective disability after controlling for pain characteristics. Results Control over pain was predicted by pain intensity (regression coefficient, -0.33; p = 0.01); moreover, it predicted walking ability (standardized partial regression coefficient, 0.31; p = 0.01) and social function (0.38; p = 0.00) after controlling for pain intensity. Although increasing activity level, one pain coping strategy, was predicted by pain intensity (regression coefficient, -0.30; p = 0.02), it did not predict walking ability (standardized partial regression coefficient, 0.07; p = 0.53) or social function (0.13; p = 0.33) when considering pain intensity. Conclusions In this cohort, mediation analysis demonstrated that pain intensity did not directly affect perceived walking ability or social function, but did affect control over pain; moreover, control over pain affected walking ability and social function. Clinical relevance These findings are useful for a deep understanding of the relationships between pain and
Tarter, Robin; Demiris, George; Pike, Kenneth; Washington, Karla; Oliver, Debra Parker
Introduction At the end of life, patients with dementia often experience high levels of pain due to complex interplay of disease processes and numerous barriers to symptom management. In the hospice setting, informal caregivers play an essential role in pain management. This study describes their experience managing pain in hospice patients with dementia. Methods We conducted a qualitative analysis of audio-recorded interviews with informal caregivers of hospice patients with dementia who had chosen pain as the challenge they wanted to work on within a problem-solving therapy intervention. Results The thematic analysis of sessions with 51 caregivers identified 4 themes: difficulty in communicating with patients, lack of consistent guidance from health-care professionals, perceived uncertainty about the etiology of pain, and secondary suffering. Discussion Our findings indicate the possible need for increased support for caregivers, including educational interventions targeting pain etiology and assessment, and improved communication with health-care professionals. PMID:27303062
Lautenbacher, Stefan; Bär, Karl-Juergen; Eisold, Patricia; Kunz, Miriam
Although depression is associated with more clinical pain complaints, psychophysical data sometimes point to hypoalgesic alterations. Studying the more reflex-like facial expression of pain in patients with depression may offer a new perspective. Facial and psychophysical responses to nonpainful and painful heat stimuli were studied in 23 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 23 matched control participants. As psychophysical data, pain thresholds, tolerance thresholds, and self-report were assessed. Facial responses were videotaped and subjected offline to Facial Action Coding System analysis. One of the key facial responses of pain, which is a known facial signal of negative affect (contraction of the eyebrows), was significantly increased in MDD patients. Moreover, facial expressions and pain ratings were strongly correlated in MDD patients, whereas these 2 response systems were-in line with established findings-only weakly related in healthy participants. Pain psychophysics was unaltered in MDD patients compared with healthy control participants. In conclusion, the facial expression of pain in MDD patients indicates rather hyper- than hypoalgesia, with enhanced affective pain processing. Moreover, the linkage between subjective and facial responses was much stronger in MDD patients, which may be due to a reduced influence of social display rules, which normally complicate this relationship.
Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D.
Abstract We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196
Shutty, M S; Cundiff, G; DeGood, D E
Chronic pain patients frequently report that weather conditions affect their pain; however, no standardized measures of weather sensitivity have been developed. We describe the development and use of the Weather and Pain Questionnaire (WPQ) which assess patient sensitivity to meteorologic variables defined by the National Weather Service (e.g., temperature, precipitation). Seventy chronic pain patients (59% females) with an average age of 43 years completed the WPQ. The instrument was revised using factor analysis to produce a Weather Sensitivity Index (WSI) (48% of variance) with high internal consistency (0.93) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.89). Reporting patterns suggested that patients could reliably identify which meteorologic variables influenced their pain but could not reliably determine which physical symptoms were consistently affected. The most frequently reported meteorologic variables which affect pain complaint were temperature (87%) and humidity (77%). The most frequently reported physical complaints associated with the weather were joint and muscle aches (82% and 79%, respectively). Patients labeled as being 'weather sensitive', defined by greater than median scores on the WPQ, reported significantly greater pain intensity, greater chronicity of pain problems, and more difficulties sleeping than patients with low scores on the WPQ. No differences in gender, education level, disability status, or global psychological distress were found. Results are discussed with respect to physiological and psychological mediating variables.
Ghizzani, Anna; Di Sabatino, Valentina; Suman, Anna Lisa; Biasi, Giovanni; Carli, Giancarlo
Objective. The aim of the study was to compare the pain symptoms of fibromyalgia patients exhibiting (FMS+PVD) and not exhibiting (FMS) comorbidity with provoked vulvodynia. Study Design. The case control study was performed in 39 patients who had been diagnosed with FMS and accepted to undergo gynaecological examination and in 36 healthy women (C). All patients completed standardized questionnaires for pain intensity, pain area, and psychological functioning. The gynaecological examination included vulvar pain pressure reactivity (Q-tip), pelvic tone assessment (Kegel manoeuver), and a semistructured interview collecting detailed information about pelvic symptoms and sexual function. Results. FMS+PVD patients displayed a higher number of associated symptoms than FMS patients. The vulvar excitability was significantly higher in FMS+PVD than in FMS and in both groups than in Controls. Half of FMS+PVD patients were positive to Kegel manoeuver and displayed higher scores in widespread pain intensity, STAI-Y2, and CESD levels than Kegel negative patients. Conclusions. The study reveals that increased vulvar pain excitability may occur in FMS patients independently of the presence of coital pain. Results suggest that coital pain develops in patients with higher FMS symptoms severity due to the cooperative effects of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms. PMID:24624294
An, Howard S; Moon, Seong Hwan; Lee, Hwan Mo; Suh, Seung Woo; Chen, Ding; Jeon, Jin Ho
Purpose To determine the prevalence and characteristics of neuropathic pain (NP) in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) according to subgroup analysis of symptoms. Materials and Methods We prospectively enrolled subjects with LSS (n=86) who were scheduled to undergo spinal surgery. The patients were divided into two groups according to a chief complaint of radicular pain or neurogenic claudication. We measured patient's pain score using the visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Leads Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS). According to LANSS value, the prevalence of NP component pain in patients with LSS was assessed. Statistical analysis was performed to find the relationship between LANSS scores and the other scores. Results From our sample of 86 patients, 31 (36.0%) had a NP component, with 24 (63.4%) in the radicular pain group having NP. However, only seven patients (15.6%) in the neurogenic claudication group had NP. The LANSS pain score was not significantly correlated with VAS scores for back pain, but did correlate with VAS scores for leg pain (R=0.73, p<0.001) and with ODI back pain scores (R=0.54, p<0.01). Conclusion One-third of the patients with LSS had a NP component. The presence of radicular pain correlated strongly with NP. The severity of leg pain and ODI score were also closely related to a NP component. This data may prove useful to understanding the pain characteristics of LSS and in better designing clinical trials for NP treatment in patients with LSS. PMID:26069129
Diener, Ina; Kargela, Mark; Louw, Adriaan
The interview of a patient attending physical therapy is the cornerstone of the physical examination, diagnosis, plan of care, prognosis, and overall efficacy of the therapeutic experience. A thorough, skilled interview drives the objective tests and measures chosen, as well as provides context for the interpretation of those tests and measures, during the physical examination. Information from the interview powerfully influences the treatment modalities chosen by the physical therapist (PT) and thus also impacts the overall outcome and prognosis of the therapy sessions. Traditional physical therapy focuses heavily on biomedical information to educate people about their pain, and this predominant model focusing on anatomy, biomechanics, and pathoanatomy permeates the interview and physical examination. Although this model may have a significant effect on people with acute, sub-acute or postoperative pain, this type of examination may not only gather insufficient information regarding the pain experience and suffering, but negatively impact a patient's pain experience. In recent years, physical therapy treatment for pain has increasingly focused on pain science education, with increasing evidence of pain science education positively affecting pain, disability, pain catastrophization, movement limitations, and overall healthcare cost. In line with the ever-increasing focus of pain science in physical therapy, it is time for the examination, both subjective and objective, to embrace a biopsychosocial approach beyond the realm of only a biomedical approach. A patient interview is far more than "just" collecting information. It also is a critical component to establishing an alliance with a patient and a fundamental first step in therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE) for patients in pain. This article highlights the interview process focusing on a pain science perspective as it relates to screening patients, establishing psychosocial barriers to improvement, and pain
Frey-Law, Laura A; Bohr, Nicole L; Sluka, Kathleen A; Herr, Keela; Clark, Charles R; Noiseux, Nicolas O; Callaghan, John J; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Rakel, Barbara A
The development of patient profiles to subgroup individuals on a variety of variables has gained attention as a potential means to better inform clinical decision making. Patterns of pain sensitivity response specific to quantitative sensory testing (QST) modality have been demonstrated in healthy subjects. It has not been determined whether these patterns persist in a knee osteoarthritis population. In a sample of 218 participants, 19 QST measures along with pain, psychological factors, self-reported function, and quality of life were assessed before total knee arthroplasty. Component analysis was used to identify commonalities across the 19 QST assessments to produce standardized pain sensitivity factors. Cluster analysis then grouped individuals who exhibited similar patterns of standardized pain sensitivity component scores. The QST resulted in 4 pain sensitivity components: heat, punctate, temporal summation, and pressure. Cluster analysis resulted in 5 pain sensitivity profiles: a "low pressure pain" group, an "average pain" group, and 3 "high pain" sensitivity groups who were sensitive to different modalities (punctate, heat, and temporal summation). Pain and function differed between pain sensitivity profiles, along with sex distribution; however, no differences in osteoarthritis grade, medication use, or psychological traits were found. Residualizing QST data by age and sex resulted in similar components and pain sensitivity profiles. Furthermore, these profiles are surprisingly similar to those reported in healthy populations, which suggests that individual differences in pain sensitivity are a robust finding even in an older population with significant disease.
Rost, Silke; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; Koval, Peter; Sütterlin, Stefan; Vögele, Claus; Crombez, Geert
Affective instability, conceptualized as fluctuations in mood over time, has been related to ill-health and psychopathology. In this study, we examined the role of affective instability on daily pain outcomes in 70 patients with chronic pain (Mage = 49.7 years; 46 females) using an end-of-day diary. During a baseline phase, patients completed self-reported questionnaires of pain severity, pain duration, disability, depression, and anxiety. During a subsequent diary phase, patients filled out an electronic end-of-day diary over 14 consecutive days assessing daily levels of pain severity, disability, cognitive complaints, negative affect (NA) and positive affect. Affective instability was operationalized as the mean square of successive differences in daily mood (separately for NA and positive affect), which takes into account the size of affective changes over consecutive days. Results indicated that NA instability was positively associated with daily disability, beyond the effects of daily pain severity. Furthermore, NA instability moderated the relationship between daily pain severity and daily disability and the relationship between daily pain severity and daily cognitive complaints. Positive affect instability, however, showed to be unrelated to all outcomes. Current findings extend previous results and reveal the putative role of affective instability on pain-related outcomes and may yield important clinical implications. Indeed, they suggest that targeting NA instability by improving emotion regulation skills may be a strategy to diminish disability and cognitive complaints in patients with chronic pain.
Jensen, Karin B; Regenbogen, Christina; Ohse, Margarete C; Frasnelli, Johannes; Freiherr, Jessica; Lundström, Johan N
In response to recent publications from pain neuroimaging experiments, there has been a debate about the existence of a primary pain region in the brain. Yet, there are few meta-analyses providing assessments of the minimum cerebral denominators of pain. Here, we used a statistical meta-analysis method, called activation likelihood estimation, to define (1) core brain regions activated by pain per se, irrelevant of pain modality, paradigm, or participants and (2) activation likelihood estimation commonalities and differences between patients with chronic pain and healthy individuals. A subtraction analysis of 138 independent data sets revealed that the minimum denominator for activation across pain modalities and paradigms included the right insula, secondary sensory cortex, and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Common activations for healthy subjects and patients with pain alike included the thalamus, ACC, insula, and cerebellum. A comparative analysis revealed that healthy individuals were more likely to activate the cingulum, thalamus, and insula. Our results point toward the central role of the insular cortex and ACC in pain processing, irrelevant of modality, body part, or clinical experience; thus, furthering the importance of ACC and insular activation as key regions for the human experience of pain.
Dezutter, Jessie; Robertson, Linda A; Luyckx, Koen; Hutsebaut, Dirk
Chronic pain (CP) is a stressful condition that severely impacts individuals' lives. Researchers have begun to explore the role of religion for CP patients, but the literature is scarce, especially for West European populations. Drawing from the transactional theory of stress, this study examined the associations between the religious meaning system and the life satisfaction for a group of CP patients who were members of a Flemish patients' association. To take into account the religious landscape of West European countries, the centrality of one's religious meaning system, rather than religious content, was the focus. Results from the questionnaires completed by 207 patients suggest that the centrality of a meaning system is an important factor in the promotion of life satisfaction for this group, above and beyond the influence of several control variables. Furthermore, the centrality of the religious meaning system moderated or buffered the detrimental influence of pain severity on life satisfaction.
Roditi, Daniela; Robinson, Michael E; Litwins, Nola
The present study measured the effects of catastrophizing self-statements and positive coping self-statements on cold pressor-induced pain. Participants were 58 adult chronic pain patients with current facial pain. It was hypothesized that catastrophizing would lead to a decrease in pain endurance whereas positive coping would lead to an increase in pain endurance. It was also hypothesized that catastrophizing would lead to an increase in peak pain intensity whereas positive coping would lead to a decrease in peak pain intensity. At pretest, participants submerged their nondominant hand in the cold pressor. Pain sensitivity ranges (PSR) were subsequently determined by calculating the difference between tolerance and threshold times. Ratings of peak pain intensity were measured using a pressure sensitive bladder/transducer. Participants underwent random assignment to either a catastrophizing group or a positive coping self-statement group. ANCOVA results revealed that on average, participants employing catastrophizing statements as a coping strategy experienced significantly lower PSR (M = 35.53, SD = 39.71) compared to participants employing positive coping self-statements (M = 73.70, SD = 86.14) when controlling for pretest PSR. Group assignment had no significant influence on peak pain intensity ratings. Thus, our results reveal that manipulation of coping causes changes in pain endurance.
Kleinböhl, Dieter; Görtelmeyer, Roman; Bender, Hans-Joachim; Hölzl, Rupert
We investigated if established psychophysical measures of enhanced experimental sensitization in chronic musculoskeletal pain can be reduced by adjuvant treatment with a N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, amantadine sulfate, and whether a reduction in sensitization might be accompanied by a concurrent improvement in clinical pain. Sensitization was evaluated by an experimental tonic heat model of short-term sensitization with concurrent subjective and behavioral psychophysical scaling. Twenty-six patients with chronic back pain were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and received daily dosages of either placebo or 100 mg of amantadine sulfate during a 1-wk treatment. Participants completed quantitative sensory testing of pain thresholds and experimental sensitization before and after treatment and clinical pain ratings before, during, and after treatment. Experimental sensitization and clinical pain were reduced in patients receiving verum. Initially, experimental sensitization was enhanced in patients, with early sensitization at nonpainful intensities of contact heat and enhanced sensitization at painful intensities, as shown previously. After 1 wk of treatment, experimental sensitization was reduced with amantadine sulfate but not with placebo. We conclude that adjuvant chronic pain treatment with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists might be beneficial for chronic pain if enhanced sensitization is involved and that the quantitative sensory test of temporal summation may be used to verify this.
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; Crombez, Geert; Goubert, Liesbet; De Houwer, Jan; Onraedt, Thomas; Van Damme, Stefaan
Theoretical accounts of chronic pain hypothesize that attentional bias towards pain-related information is a maintaining or exacerbating factor, fuelling further pain, disability, and distress. However, empirical research testing this idea is currently lacking. In the present study, we investigated whether attentional bias towards pain-related information predicts daily pain-related outcomes in a sample of chronic pain patients (n=69; M(age)=49.64 years; 46 females). During an initial laboratory session, attentional bias to pain-related information was assessed using a modified spatial cueing task. In advance, patients completed a number of self-report measures assessing current pain intensity, current disability, and pain duration. Subsequently, daily pain outcomes (self-reported pain severity, disability, avoidance behaviour, and distractibility) were measured for 2 weeks by means of an electronic diary. Results indicated that, although an attentional bias towards pain-related information was associated with the current level of disability and pain severity, it had no additional value above control variables in predicting daily pain severity, avoidance, distractibility, and disability. Attentional bias towards pain-related information did, however, moderate the relationship between daily pain severity and both daily disability and distractibility, indicating that, particularly in those patients with a strong attentional bias, increases in pain were associated with increased disability and distractibility. The use of interventions that diminish attentional bias may therefore be helpful to reduce daily disability and the level of distraction from current tasks despite the presence of pain in chronic pain patients.
Peerdeman, Kaya J; van Laarhoven, Antoinette I M; Keij, Sascha M; Vase, Lene; Rovers, Maroeska M; Peters, Madelon L; Evers, Andrea W M
Patients' expectations are important predictors of the outcome of analgesic treatments, as demonstrated predominantly in research on placebo effects. Three commonly investigated interventions that have been found to induce expectations (verbal suggestion, conditioning, and mental imagery) entail promising, brief, and easy-to-implement adjunctive procedures for optimizing the effectiveness of analgesic treatments. However, evidence for their efficacy stems mostly from research on experimentally evoked pain in healthy samples, and these findings might not be directly transferable to clinical populations. The current meta-analysis investigated the effects of these expectation inductions on patients' pain relief. Five bibliographic databases were systematically searched for studies that assessed the effects of brief verbal suggestion, conditioning, or imagery interventions on pain in clinical populations, with patients experiencing experimental, acute procedural, or chronic pain, compared with no treatment or control treatment. Of the 15,955 studies retrieved, 30 met the inclusion criteria, of which 27 provided sufficient data for quantitative analyses. Overall, a medium-sized effect of the interventions on patients' pain relief was observed (Hedges g = 0.61, I = 73%), with varying effects of verbal suggestion (k = 18, g = 0.75), conditioning (always paired with verbal suggestion, k = 3, g = 0.65), and imagery (k = 6, g = 0.27). Subset analyses indicated medium to large effects on experimental and acute procedural pain and small effects on chronic pain. In conclusion, patients' pain can be relieved with expectation interventions; particularly, verbal suggestion for acute procedural pain was found to be effective.
Choi, Young; Lee, Sang Hyeong; Chung, Chin Youb; Park, Moon Seok; Lee, Kyoung Min; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Won, Sung Hun; Lee, In Hyeok; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon
Background The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for anterior knee pain in patients with cerebral palsy. Methods This prospective study investigated the risk factors for anterior knee pain in 127 ambulatory patients with spastic cerebral palsy in terms of walking pain, resting pain, and provocative pain. Demographic data analysis and physical examination for measuring the knee flexion contracture and unilateral and bilateral popliteal angles were performed. Patellar height was measured on radiographs, and patella alta was identified. The risk factors for anterior knee pain were analyzed using multivariate analysis with a generalized estimating equation. Results Seventy-seven patients were found to have patella alta based on the radiographic measurements (60.6%). Overall, sixteen patients (12.6%) had either unilateral or bilateral anterior knee pain. Of these, 6 patients showed a visual analogue scale (VAS) ≤ 3, 9 patients showed 3 < VAS ≤ 7, and one patient showed a VAS > 7. Age was found to be a significant risk factor for walking pain and resting pain with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.14) and 1.09 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.15), respectively. In the multivariate analysis, knee flexion contracture was a significant protective factor with an OR of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.98). Conclusions Approximately 12.6% of ambulatory patients with spastic cerebral palsy were found to have anterior knee pain in our hospital-based cohort study. Age was found to be a significant risk factor for anterior knee pain while walking and resting. PMID:25436067
Lauridsen, Henrik H; Hartvigsen, Jan; Manniche, Claus; Korsholm, Lars; Grunnet-Nilsson, Niels
Background The choice of an evaluative instrument has been hampered by the lack of head-to-head comparisons of responsiveness and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in subpopulations of low back pain (LBP). The objective of this study was to concurrently compare responsiveness and MCID for commonly used pain scales and functional instruments in four subpopulations of LBP patients. Methods The Danish versions of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the 23-item Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ), the physical function and bodily pain subscales of the SF36, the Low Back Pain Rating Scale (LBPRS) and a numerical rating scale for pain (0–10) were completed by 191 patients from the primary and secondary sectors of the Danish health care system. Clinical change was estimated using a 7-point transition question and a numeric rating scale for importance. Responsiveness was operationalised using standardardised response mean (SRM), area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), and cut-point analysis. Subpopulation analyses were carried out on primary and secondary sector patients with LBP only or leg pain +/- LBP. Results RMQ was the most responsive instrument in primary and secondary sector patients with LBP only (SRM = 0.5–1.4; ROC = 0.75–0.94) whereas ODI and RMQ showed almost similar responsiveness in primary and secondary sector patients with leg pain (ODI: SRM = 0.4–0.9; ROC = 0.76–0.89; RMQ: SRM = 0.3–0.9; ROC = 0.72–0.88). In improved patients, the RMQ was more responsive in primary and secondary sector patients and LBP only patients (SRM = 1.3–1.7) while the RMQ and ODI were equally responsive in leg pain patients (SRM = 1.3 and 1.2 respectively). All pain measures demonstrated almost equal responsiveness. The MCID increased with increasing baseline score in primary sector and LBP only patients but was only marginally affected by patient entry point and pain location. The MCID of the percentage change score
Burri, Andrea; Blank Gebre, Michèle; Bodenmann, Guy
The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to test the associations between individual coping responses to pain, dyadic coping, and perceived social support, with a number of pain outcomes, including pain intensity, functional disability, and pain adjustment, in a sample of N = 43 patients suffering from chronic pain in Switzerland. In contrast to previous research, we were interested not only in specific pain coping but also in more general stress coping strategies and their potential influence on pain outcomes. Analyses were performed using correlation and regression analyses. “Praying and hoping” turned out to be an independent predictor of higher pain intensity and higher anxiety levels, whereas both “coping self-instructions” and “diverting attention” were associated with higher well-being, less feelings of helplessness, and less depression and anxiety. We further found a link between “focusing on and venting emotions” and “worse pain adjustment”. No significant relationship between dyadic coping and social support with any of our pain outcomes could be observed. Overall, our results indicate that individual coping strategies outweigh the effects of social support and dyadic coping on pain-related outcomes and pain adjustment. However, results need to be interpreted with caution given the small sample size. PMID:28331356
de Andrés, José; de la Calle, José-Luis; Pérez, María; López, Vanessa
Background. The aim of this report was to evaluate the clinical profile and previous management of patients with uncontrolled neuropathic pain who were referred to pain clinics. Methods. We included adult patients with uncontrolled pain who had a score of ≥4 in the DN4 questionnaire. In addition to sociodemographic and clinical data, we evaluated pain levels using a visual analog scale as well as anxiety, depression, sleep, disability, and treatment satisfaction employing validated tools. Results. A total of 755 patients were included in the study. The patients were predominantly referred to pain clinics by traumatologists (34.3%) and primary care physicians (16.7%). The most common diagnoses were radiculopathy (43%) and pain of oncological origin (14.3%). The major cause for uncontrolled pain was suboptimal treatment (88%). Fifty-three percent of the patients were depressed, 43% had clinical anxiety, 50% rated their overall health as bad or very bad, and 45% noted that their disease was severely or extremely interfering with their daily activities. Conclusions. Our results showed that uncontrolled neuropathic pain is a common phenomenon among the specialties that address these clinical entities and, regardless of its etiology, uncontrolled pain is associated with a dramatic impact on patient well-being.
de Andrés, José; de la Calle, José-Luis; Pérez, María; López, Vanessa
Background. The aim of this report was to evaluate the clinical profile and previous management of patients with uncontrolled neuropathic pain who were referred to pain clinics. Methods. We included adult patients with uncontrolled pain who had a score of ≥4 in the DN4 questionnaire. In addition to sociodemographic and clinical data, we evaluated pain levels using a visual analog scale as well as anxiety, depression, sleep, disability, and treatment satisfaction employing validated tools. Results. A total of 755 patients were included in the study. The patients were predominantly referred to pain clinics by traumatologists (34.3%) and primary care physicians (16.7%). The most common diagnoses were radiculopathy (43%) and pain of oncological origin (14.3%). The major cause for uncontrolled pain was suboptimal treatment (88%). Fifty-three percent of the patients were depressed, 43% had clinical anxiety, 50% rated their overall health as bad or very bad, and 45% noted that their disease was severely or extremely interfering with their daily activities. Conclusions. Our results showed that uncontrolled neuropathic pain is a common phenomenon among the specialties that address these clinical entities and, regardless of its etiology, uncontrolled pain is associated with a dramatic impact on patient well-being. PMID:24891950
Marchettini, P; Teloni, L; Formaglio, F; Lacerenza, M
Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is described as a superficial burning pain associated with other positive and/or negative sensory systems affecting the feet and lower extremities. It is one of the most commonly encountered neuropathic pain syndromes in clinical practice. Presentation may be complicated by multiple symptoms, including allodynia, hyperalgesia, other less well characterized dysesthesias, and serious disruption of social functioning and mood. Peripheral nerve function may deteriorate, which can account for patient reports of diminution of pain after several years of follow-up. Although current understanding holds that the pathogenesis of DPN is multifactorial in nature, long-term studies have shown that rigorous glycemic control is the most relevant factor in clinical intervention and can delay the onset and slow the progression of neuropathy. In addition to glycemic control, other treatment approaches must be examined in order to restore quality of life for patients experiencing painful DPN. Differential diagnosis is required to isolate DPN from other unexplained chronic pain. Neurologic testing in painful DPN is an area of active research and is used to assess the neurologic pathways giving rise to the pain, the degree of neural damage and the degree of subclinical damage. Current treatment options for DPN include mainly antidepressants and anticonvulsants, with other agents such as tramadol, dextromethorphan and memantine being employed or studied. This review article includes a case study of a patient with painful DPN to demonstrate the current management strategies for this neuropathic pain syndrome.
Louw, Adriaan; Puentedura, Emilio J; Zimney, Kory
Patients with low back pain (LBP) often display faulty beliefs and cognitions regarding their pain experience. Pain neuroscience education (PNE) aims to alter the pain experience by targeting these faulty beliefs and cognitions. One PNE strategy aims specifically to reframe commonly held beliefs about tissues by patients with LBP as the single source of pain. In line with this reasoning, it is hypothesized that physical therapists (PT) treating patients with LBP may indeed experience similar, if not worse, pain experiences while treating a patient with LBP. To date, this assumption has never been studied. A PT LBP questionnaire was developed, validated and distributed to a convenience sample of attendees of an international PT conference. One-hundred and ten PTs completed the questionnaire for a 71% response rate. Ninety percent of the PTs reported having experienced LBP, with 27% at the conference experiencing LBP at the time. Of the PTs that have experienced LBP 75% reported not having received any imaging; 81% no formal diagnoses, 58% no treatment and 86% not having missed work due to LBP. Eighty-six percent of therapists reported having experienced LBP while treating a patient with LBP, with 50% convinced their LBP was higher than the LBP experienced by the patient they were treating. The results from this study indicate PTs often treat patients with LBP while suffering LBP. It is suggested that this knowledge may potentially help patients with LBP reconceptualize their LBP experience leading to expedited recovery.
Longhurst, Mark F.
A patient's pain has lost its status as an expression of personal suffering and is seen by both physician and patient as a strictly physical attribute. Because of this, their communication may become oblique and subversive, effectively destroying a therapeutic relationship. The patient's failure to recover causes the physician to suffer unease and begin assuming pain-reducing postures of anger, indifference and assertiveness. The physician, to avoid this scenario, must acknowledge the existential component of the patient's pain, the reality of his own discomfort, and be open enough to give personal suffering a place in the relationship. PMID:21279065
Smith, S J; Ali, Z; Fowler, C J
Small nerve fibre sensory function was assessed by psychophysical estimates of cutaneous thermal thresholds in 30 patients who presented with the symptoms of painful burning feet. Thresholds were abnormal in 12 and normal in 18 patients although symptoms in the two groups were very similar. Various hypotheses for the mechanism of pain in small fibre neuropathy have been proposed previously and these are discussed, but the cause of symptoms in patients with normal thresholds, is unknown. The possibility exists that these patients have a neuropathic disorder which affects only those unmyelinated fibres involved with pain. PMID:1660531
van de Meent, Hendrik; Oerlemans, Margreet; Bruggeman, Almar; Klomp, Frank; van Dongen, Robert; Oostendorp, Rob; Frölke, Jan Paul
"Pain exposure" physical therapy (PEPT) is a new treatment for patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) that consists of a progressive-loading exercise program and management of pain-avoidance behavior without the use of specific CRPS-1 medication or analgesics. The aim of this study was to investigate primarily whether PEPT could be applied safely in patients with CRPS-1. Twenty patients with CRPS-1 were consecutively enrolled in the study after giving informed consent. The diagnosis of CRPS-1 was defined using the Bruehl and Harden/IASP diagnostic criteria. CRPS-1 was diagnosed between 3 and 18 months after the inciting event (trauma). According to a multiple single-case design (baseline [A1], treatment [B], follow-up [A2]), multiple baseline and follow-up measurements were performed to evaluate changes in CRPS signs and symptoms and to assess functional parameters. When comparing the baseline with the follow-up phase, patients improved significantly with respect to pain on the visual analogue scale (57%), pain intensity (48%), muscle strength (52%), arm/shoulder/hand disability (36%), 10-meter walking speed (29%), pain disability index (60%), kinesiophobia (18%), and the domains of perceived health change in the SF-36 survey (269%). Three patients initially showed increased vegetative signs but improved in all other CRPS parameters and showed good functional recovery at follow-up. We conclude that PEPT is a safe and effective treatment for patients with CRPS-1. A progressive-loading exercise program and management of pain-avoidance behavior without the use of specific medication ("pain exposure" physical therapy) is safe and effective for patients with complex regional pain syndrome.
Bakhshi, Mahin; Rezaei, Rezvan; Baharvand, Maryam
Background Referred craniofacial pain of cardiac origin might be the only symptom of ischemic heart accidents. This study aimed to determine the frequency of craniofacial pain in patients with ischemic heart disease. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study was accomplished on 296 patients who met the criteria of having ischemic heart disease. Data regarding demographics, medical history and referred craniofacial pain were recorded in data forms. In addition, patients underwent oral examination to preclude any source of dental origin. Chi-square test, Student’s t-test and backward regression model were used to analyze the data by means of SPSS software version 21. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 296 patients were studied comprising of 211 men (71%) and 85 women (29%) with the mean age of 55.8. Craniofacial pain was experienced by 53 patients out of 296, 35 (66%) of whom were male and 18 (34%) were female. None of the patients experienced craniofacial pain solely. The most common sites of craniofacial pain were occipital and posterior neck (52.8%), head (43.3%), throat and anterior neck (41.5%) respectively. We found no relationship between craniofacial pain of cardiac origin with age, diabetes, hypertension, and family history. On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between hyperlipidemia and smoking with craniofacial pain of cardiac origin. Conclusions Radiating pain to face and head can be expected quite commonly during a cardiac ischemic event. Dental practitioners should be thoroughly aware of this symptomatology to prevent misdirected dental treatment and delay of medical care. Key words:Craniofacial pain, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, referred pain. PMID:28149470
Gopalakrishnan, Raghavan; Burgess, Richard C; Lempka, Scott F; Gale, John T; Floden, Darlene P; Machado, Andre G
Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is characterized by hemianesthesia associated with unrelenting chronic pain. The final pain experience stems from interactions between sensory, affective, and cognitive components of chronic pain. Hence, managing CPSP will require integrated approaches aimed not only at the sensory but also the affective-cognitive spheres. A better understanding of the brain's processing of pain anticipation is critical for the development of novel therapeutic approaches that target affective-cognitive networks and alleviate pain-related disability. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to characterize the neural substrates of pain anticipation in patients suffering from intractable CPSP. Simple visual cues evoked anticipation while patients awaited impending painful (PS), nonpainful (NPS), or no stimulus (NOS) to their nonaffected and affected extremities. MEG responses were studied at gradiometer level using event-related fields analysis and time-frequency oscillatory analysis upon source localization. On the nonaffected side, significantly greater responses were recorded during PS. PS (vs. NPS and NOS) exhibited significant parietal and frontal cortical activations in the beta and gamma bands, respectively, whereas NPS (vs. NOS) displayed greater activation in the orbitofrontal cortex. On the affected extremity, PS (vs. NPS) did not show significantly greater responses. These data suggest that anticipatory phenomena can modulate neural activity when painful stimuli are applied to the nonaffected extremity but not the affected extremity in CPSP patients. This dichotomy may stem from the chronic effects of pain on neural networks leading to habituation or saturation. Future clinically effective therapies will likely be associated with partial normalization of the neurophysiological correlates of pain anticipation.
Henry, Richard; Cahill, Catherine M; Wood, Gavin; Hroch, Jennifer; Wilson, Rosemary; Cupido, Tracy; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth
BACKGROUND: Knee pain is one of the major sources of pain and disability in developed countries, particularly in aging populations, and is the primary indication for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). OBJECTIVES: To determine the presence of myofascial pain in OA patients waitlisted for TKA and to determine whether their knee pain may be alleviated by trigger point injections. METHODS: Following ethics approval, 25 participants were recruited from the wait list for elective unilateral primary TKA at the study centre. After providing informed consent, all participants were examined for the presence of active trigger points in the muscles surrounding the knee and received trigger point injections of bupivacaine. Assessments and trigger point injections were implemented on the first visit and at subsequent visits on weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8. Outcome measures included the Timed Up and Go test, Brief Pain Inventory, Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. RESULTS: Myofascial trigger points were identified in all participants. Trigger point injections significantly reduced pain intensity and pain interference, and improved mobility. All participants had trigger points identified in medial muscles, most commonly in the head of the gastrocnemius muscle. An acute reduction in pain and improved functionality was observed immediately following intervention, and persisted over the eight-week course of the investigation. CONCLUSION: All patients had trigger points in the vastus and gastrocnemius muscles, and 92% of patients experienced significant pain relief with trigger point injections at the first visit, indicating that a significant proportion of the OA knee pain was myofascial in origin. Further investigation is warranted to determine the prevalence of myofascial pain and whether treatment delays or prevents TKA. PMID:23061082
Bahremand, Mostafa; Saeidi, Mozhgan
Background Despite providing insufficient medical evidence of the existence of a real cardiac condition, patients with non-coronary chest pain still interpret their pain incorrectly. The present study, therefore, sought to compare the irrational beliefs in non-coronary patients with mild chest pain against those with severe chest pain. Methods A cross-sectional design was used. The statistical population comprised non-coronary patients who presented to the Heart Emergency Center of Kermanshah city, Iran. Using a matching method, 96 participants were selected and studied in two groups of 48. The instruments used were the Comorbidity Index, Brief Pain Index, and the Jones Irrational Beliefs Test (short-form). The multivariate analysis of variance, chi-square test, and t-test were used for data analysis. Results Controlling for the effects of age and comorbid conditions, the severity of three types of irrational beliefs, including emotional irresponsibility (P<0.001), hopelessness changes (P<0.001), and problem avoiding (P=0.002) was higher among patients with severe chest pain (according to effect level). However, in terms of demand for approval, no difference was seen between the two groups (P=0.180). Conclusion Non-coronary patients with severe chest pain showed a greater number of irrational beliefs in comparison to patients with mild pain. Irrational beliefs are common mental occurrences in patients with non-coronary chest pain, and they should be attended to by health professionals, especially in severe non-coronary chest pain. Further investigation to determine the association between irrational beliefs and non-coronary chest pain is necessary. PMID:26217482
Dion, Liza; Rodgers, Nancy; Cutshall, Susanne M.; Cordes, Mary Ellen; Bauer, Brent; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cha, Stephen
Background: Integrative therapies such as massage have gained support as interventions that improve the overall patient experience during hospitalization. Thoracic surgery patients undergo long procedures and commonly have postoperative back, neck, and shoulder pain. Purpose: Given the promising effects of massage therapy for alleviation of pain, we studied the effectiveness and feasibility of massage therapy delivered in the postoperative thoracic surgery setting. Methods: Patients who received massage in the postoperative setting had pain scores evaluated pre and post massage on a rating scale of 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible pain). Results: In total, 160 patients completed the pilot study and received massage therapy that was individualized. Patients receiving massage therapy had significantly decreased pain scores after massage (p ≤ .001), and patients’ comments were very favorable. Patients and staff were highly satisfied with having massage therapy available, and no major barriers to implementing massage therapy were identified. Conclusions: Massage therapy may be an important additional pain management component of the healing experience for patients after thoracic surgery. PMID:21847428
Sugimine, Satomi; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Obata, Hideaki; Saito, Shigeru
Background Neuropathic characteristics are highly involved in the development of chronic pain both physically and psychologically. However, little is known about the relationship between neuropathic characteristics and brain morphological alteration. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms of chronic pain development by examining the above-mentioned relationships by voxel-based morphometry in patients with chronic pain. Methods First, we assessed neuropathic characteristics using the painDETECT Questionnaire in 12 chronic pain patients. Second, to assess the gray matter volume changes by voxel-based morphometry, we conducted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. We applied multiregression analysis of these two assessment methods. Results There were significant positive correlations between painDETECT Questionnaire scores and the gray matter volume in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex and right posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions Our findings suggest that neuropathic characteristics strongly affect the brain regions related to modulation of pain in patients with chronic pain and, therefore, contribute to the severity of chronic pain. PMID:27284013
Shemory, Scott T; Pfefferle, Kiel J; Gradisar, Ian M
Low back pain is one of the most common reasons for physician visits in the United States and is a chief complaint frequently seen by orthopedic surgeons. Patients with chronic low back pain can experience recurring debilitating pain and disability, decreasing their quality of life. A commercially available software platform, Explorys (Explorys, Inc, Cleveland, Ohio), was used to mine a pooled electronic health care database consisting of the medical records of more than 26 million patients. According to the available medical history data, 1.2 million patients had a diagnosis of low back pain (4.54%). The information was used to determine the incidence of low back pain in patients with a history of nicotine dependence, obesity (body mass index, >30 kg/m(2)), depressive disorders, and alcohol abuse. Relative risk was then calculated for the defined modifiable risk factors. Patients with nicotine dependence, obesity, depressive disorders, and alcohol abuse had a relative risk of 4.489, 6.007, 5.511, and 3.326 for low back pain, respectively, compared with patients without the defined risk factor. A statistically significant difference was found in the incidence of low back pain between all 4 groups with the risk factors evaluated and the general population (P<.05). By determining treatable patient risk factors for low back pain, physicians can monitor at-risk patients and focus on prevention and control of debilitating disease. These approaches can decrease the number of patients with isolated low back pain who are seen by orthopedic surgeons. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e413-e416.].
Woodward, Tony M
Current standards of care in veterinary medicine dictate an adequate level of pain control for our patients. Effective pain control uses a proactive, multimode approach that starts with preoperative medications, includes the anesthetic protocol selected, and continues into the postoperative period. A basic understanding of the physiology of pain assists in selecting those agents and modalities best suited for individual patients. Analgesic drug selection and local anesthesia are both integral parts of pain control when performing surgery in the oral cavity. Local (regional) anesthesia plays an important part in the pain control of oral surgical patients. Regional anesthetic techniques are used for many common oral procedures, including extractions, periodontal flap surgery, treatment of traumatic injuries of the oral cavity, tumor removal, palatal surgery, periodontal therapy, and root canal therapy. This presentation will cover strategies for analgesia and the techniques and materials used in local/regional anesthesia in the oral cavity. Anatomic landmarks and guidelines for effective regional blocks will be covered.
Morgan, Betty D
The problem of inadequate pain management in hospitals is well documented. Patients who have substance use disorders (SUD) have many medical problems and are often in pain as a result of these problems. Nurses often lack knowledge of appropriate treatment of both pain and SUD, and have been identified as having negative attitudes toward patients with SUD. The negative attitudes may affect the quality of care delivered to patients with problems of pain and SUD. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore nurses' attitudes toward hospitalized patients with SUD who are in pain, to expand the knowledge about nurses' attitudes and interactions with patients with SUD in pain, and to generate theory that will contribute to a greater understanding of the problem. Grounded theory methodology was used to interview hospital-based nurses who work with patients with SUD who are in pain. Individual interviews, using a semistructured interview guide, were conducted with 14 nurses who worked with this population. Additionally, an expert addictions nurse was interviewed at the end of the study to validate the findings. Interviews were analyzed and coded with the use of grounded theory concepts. A model illustrating the categories and their relationships was developed based on the theory generated as a result of the study. The implications for nursing practice, education, research, and policy are discussed.
Yang, Jinmo; Lee, Byoungkwon; Kim, Changbeom
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to conduct cervical stability training and upper thoracic manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain and then investigate the changes of cervical proprioception and pain. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 30 workers with mechanical neck pain, who were randomly divided into an upper thoracic manipulation group and a cervical stability training group. Upper thoracic manipulation after cervical stability training was conducted for the upper thoracic manipulation group, and only stability training was conducted for the cervical stability training group. The intervention period was six weeks, and consisted of three sessions a week, each of which lasted for 30 minutes. For proprioception measurement, an electro-goniometer was used to measure reposition sense before and after the intervention. The visual analogue scale was used to assess pain. [Results] After the intervention, the error angle was significantly smaller in flexion and right left side-bending, and pain was significantly reduced in the upper thoracic manipulation group. According to the post intervention comparison of the two groups, there were significant differences in the proprioception and pain values. [Conclusion] Conducting both cervical stability training and upper thoracic manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain was more helpful for the improvement of proprioception and pain than cervical stability training alone.
Kew, Yueting; Tan, Cheng-Yin; Ng, Chong-Jing; Thang, Sue-Sien; Tan, Leong-Hooi; Khoo, Yvonne Khaii; Lim, Jun-Ni; Ng, Jia-Hui; Chan, Chris Yin-Wei; Kwan, Mun-Keong; Goh, Khean-Jin
The prevalence of neuropathic low back pain differs in different ethnic populations. The aims of the study are to determine its frequency and associations in a multi-ethnic cohort of Asian low back pain patients. This was a cross-sectional study of low back patients seen at the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Neuropathic low back pain patients were identified using the painDETECT questionnaire and compared with non-neuropathic (unclear or nociceptive) low back pain patients, in terms of socio-demographic and clinical factors, pain severity (numerical pain rating scale, NPRS), disability (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, RMDQ), as well as anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS). Of 210 patients, 26 (12.4%) have neuropathic low back pain. Neuropathic pain is associated with non-Chinese ethnicity, higher body mass index and pain radiation below the knee. Patients with neuropathic pain have significantly higher NPRS and RMDQ scores, and there are more subjects with anxiety on HADS. However, there are no differences between the groups in age, gender, pain duration or underlying diagnosis of low back pain. The prevalence of neuropathic low back pain in a multi-ethnic Malaysian cohort is lower than previously reported in other populations with possible differences between ethnic groups. It is associated with greater pain severity, disability and anxiety.
Marques, A P; Ferreira, E A G; Matsutani, L A; Pereira, C A B; Assumpção, A
The most typical symptom of fibromyalgia (FM) is diffuse pain, and pain at specific points-tender points-is crucial for its diagnosis. By comparing healthy individuals and FM patients, this study was aimed at assessing pain and quality of life of Brazilian females with FM, while seeking for a correlation between pain threshold and quality of life. A total of 178 women were evaluated: 124 were FM patients and 54 were healthy women. Pain threshold at tender points was quantified by dolorimetry, and diffuse pain by means of the visual analogue scale (VAS); the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was used to evaluate quality of life. Statistical treatment of the data allowed for proposing two indexes: a pain threshold index (PT) and a quality of life one (QOL). PT is the lowest value among all pain thresholds measured at the 18 tender points; QOL is the mean of responses to the FIQ and VAS. Both indexes were tested and showed significant differences between the test and control groups. By pairing pain threshold values of each tender point in the test and control groups, it was found that the most sensitive points matched between the two groups, that is, the most sensitive anatomic spots in a healthy individual are also likely to be the most sensitive points in a person with FM. This suggests that a stimulus that provokes slight discomfort to a healthy person may produce more pain in FM patients--which may bear implications for FM clinical treatment. In this sample of Brazilian women, FM patients had both lower pain threshold and worse quality of life than healthy women.
Voon, Pauline; Hayashi, Kanna; Milloy, M-J; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas
The complexity of treating concurrent pain and opioid dependence among many methadone-maintained individuals presents a major challenge in many clinical settings. Furthermore, recent expert guidelines have called for increased research on the safety of methadone in the context of chronic pain. This study explores the prevalence and correlates of pain among a prospective cohort of people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, who reported enrollment in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) between 2011 and 2014. Among the 823 participants eligible for this analysis, 338 (40.9%) reported moderate pain and 91 (11.1%) reported extreme pain at the first study visit. In multivariable, generalized, linear mixed model analyses, higher pain severity was positively and independently associated with self-managing pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.77-2.60), patient perception of methadone dose being too low (AOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.41-2.34), older age (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.13-1.51), having a physical disability (AOR 4.59, 95% CI 3.73-5.64), having ever been diagnosed with a mental illness (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.13-1.84), white ethnicity (AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10-1.83), and marijuana use (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.52). These findings suggest several areas for clinical intervention, particularly related to patient education and alternative analgesic approaches for MMT patients experiencing pain. Perspective: To better understand the complexity of concurrent pain and opioid dependency among individuals on methadone maintenance treatment, this article describes the prevalence and correlates of higher pain severity among methadone-maintained people who use illicit drugs. Patients on methadone with comorbid pain may benefit from education and alternative analgesic approaches.
Piva, Sara R.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Irrgang, James J.; Fritz, Julie M.; Wisniewski, Stephen; McGinty, Gerald T.; Childs, John D.; Domenech, Manuel A.; Jones, Scott; Delitto, Anthony
Objectives To explore whether impairment of muscle strength, soft tissue length, movement control, postural and biomechanic alterations, and psychologic factors are associated with physical function and pain in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Rehabilitation outpatient. Participants Seventy-four patients diagnosed with PFPS. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Measurements were self-reported function and pain; strength of quadriceps, hip abduction, and hip external rotation; length of hamstrings, quadriceps, plantar flexors, iliotibial band/tensor fasciae latae complex, and lateral retinaculum; foot pronation; Q-angle; tibial torsion; visual observation of quality of movement during a lateral step-down task; anxiety; and fear-avoidance beliefs. Results After controlling for age and sex, anxiety and fear-avoidance beliefs about work and physical activity were associated with function, while only fear-avoidance beliefs about work and physical activity were associated with pain. Conclusions Psychologic factors were the only associates of function and pain in patients with PFPS. Factors related to physical impairments did not associate to function or pain. Our results should be validated in other samples of patients with PFPS. Further studies should determine the role of other psychologic factors, and how they relate to anxiety and fear-avoidance beliefs in these patients. PMID:19236982
O'Brien, Erin M; Atchison, James W; Gremillion, Henry A; Waxenberg, Lori B; Robinson, Michael E
Somatic focus refers to the tendency to notice and report physical symptoms, and has been investigated in relation to chronically painful conditions. This study investigated the relationship between somatic focus, as measured by the Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness (PILL), negative affect and pain. A secondary purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in these relationships. Participants included 280 chronic pain patients (69.6% females, 88.9% Caucasian), who completed a battery of self-report measures on somatic focus, pain, negative affect, coping, and dysfunction. Results for the overall sample revealed that the PILL shares considerable variance with measures of negative affect, particularly with the physiological components of anxiety and depression. When the results were analyzed separately for male and female patients, it was found that several components of negative affect and cognitive factors play a stronger role in predicting somatic focus among men compared to women. Additional analyses then examined whether somatic focus was predictive of male and female patients' pain reports. Results indicated that somatic focus explained a small, but unique amount of variance in female patients' pain reports, which differed from the relationship observed among male patients.
Andrade, Regiane S.; Proctor, Julian W.; Slack, Robert; Marlowe, Ursula; Ashby, Karlotta R.; Schenken, Larry L.
Purpose: The incidence of painful bone metastases increases with longer survival times. Although external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is an effective palliative treatment, it often requires several days from the start of treatment to produce a measurable reduction in pain scores and a qualitative amelioration of patient pain levels. Meanwhile, the use of analgesics remains the best approach early on in the treatment course. We investigated the role of radiation therapists as key personnel for collecting daily pain scores to supplement assessments by physician and oncology nursing staff and manage pain more effectively during radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Daily pain scores were obtained by the radiation therapists for 89 patients undertaking a total of 124 courses of EBRT for bone metastases and compared with pretreatment pain scores. The majority of patients (71%) were treated to 30 Gy (range, 20-37.5) in 10 fractions (range, 8-15 fractions). Results: One hundred nineteen treatment courses (96%) were completed. Pain scores declined rapidly to 37.5%, 50%, and 75% of the pretreatment levels by Days 2, 4, and 10, respectively. Pain was improved in 91% of patients with only 4% of worse pain at the end of treatment. Improved pain scores were maintained in 83% of patients at 1-month follow-up, but in 35% of them, the pain was worse than at the end of treatment. Conclusions: Collection of daily pain scores by radiation therapists was associated with an effective reduction in pain scores early on during EBRT of painful osseous metastases.
Kenny, Dianna T; Faunce, Gavin
This study explored the impact of group singing on mood, coping, and perceived pain in chronic pain patients attending a multidisciplinary pain clinic. Singers participated in nine 30-minute sessions of small group singing, while comparisons listened to music while exercising. A short form of The Profile of Mood States (POMS) was administered before and after selected singing sessions to assess whether singing produced short-term elevations in mood. Results indicated that pre to post difference scores were significantly different between singing and control groups for only one of the 15 mood variables (i.e., uneasy). To test the longer term impacts of singing the Profile of Mood States, Zung Depression Inventory, Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Pain Rating Self-Statement, and Pain Disability Questionnaire were administered immediately before and after the singing sessions. All inventories other than the POMS were re-administered 6 months later. One-way ANCOVAs indicated that participants who attended the singing sessions showed evidence of postintervention improvements in active coping, relative to those who failed to attend, when preintervention differences in active coping were controlled for. While the singing group showed marked improvements from pre to postintervention on all mood, coping, and perceived pain variables, these improvements were also observed among comparison participants. The results of this study suggest that active singing may have some benefits, in terms of enhancing active coping, though the limitations of the study and small effect sizes observed suggest that further research is required to fully explore such effects.
Mansfield, Kathryn E.; Sim, Julius; Croft, Peter; Jordan, Kelvin P.
Abstract Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is common in the general population. It is unclear how people reporting this problem present in primary care; they may regularly consult for regional pains without being recognized as having a generalized condition. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of people consulting in primary care for musculoskeletal conditions in different body regions on different occasions (recurrent regional pain consultation), the proportion with diagnosed generalized pain and survey-reported widespread pain, and if they have features characteristic of CWP. Phase 1 used electronic records from 12 general practices in North Staffordshire (Consultations in Primary Care Archive) from 2005 to 2009. Phase 2 used linked self-reported health and primary health care data from 8286 people aged >50 years in 8 general practices (North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project) between 2002 and 2005. In Phase 1, 11% of registered patients fulfilled criteria for recurrent regional pain consultation. Three-quarters had no recorded CWP-related generalized pain condition (eg, fibromyalgia). In Phase 2, 53% of recurrent regional pain consulters had survey-reported widespread pain and 88% had consulted for somatic symptoms. Self-reported general health was worse in recurrent regional pain consulters than in single-region consulters and poorest in those who also reported persistent widespread pain. Recurrent regional pain consulters are a heterogeneous group of frequent consulters sharing features with CWP (eg, somatic symptoms) but including those less severely affected. They lie on the spectrum of polysymptomatic distress characteristic of CWP and represent a group whose needs may be better met by earlier diagnosis of multisite pain. PMID:27749607
Inadequate pain treatment in patients with cancer remains a significant problem and appears to be more frequent among minorities, according to a new study published online April 16, 2012, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
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Dance, Cassie; DeBerard, M. Scott; Gundy Cuneo, Jessica
Purpose Chronic low back pain is highly prevalent and often treatment recalcitrant condition, particularly among workers’ compensation patients. There is a need to identify psychological factors that may predispose such patients to pain chronicity. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether pain acceptance potentially mediated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and post-surgical outcomes in a sample of compensated lumbar fusion patients. Patients and methods Patients insured with the Workers Compensation Fund of Utah and who were at least 2 years post-lumbar fusion surgery completed an outcome survey. These data were obtained from a prior retrospective-cohort study that administered measures of pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, mental and physical health, and disability. Results Of the 101 patients who completed the outcome survey, 75.2% were male with a mean age of 42.42 years and predominantly identified as White (97.0%). The majority of the participants had a posterior lumbar interbody fusion surgery. Pain acceptance, including activity engagement and pain willingness, was significantly correlated with better physical health and mental health, and lower disability rates. Pain catastrophizing was inversely correlated with measures of pain acceptance (activity engagement r=−0.67, p<0.01, pain willingness r=−0.73, p<0.01) as well as the outcome measures: mental health, physical health, and disability. Pain acceptance significantly mediated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and both mental and physical health and also the relationship between pain catastrophizing and disability. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the relationship between pain catastrophizing and negative patient outcomes was potentially mediated by pain acceptance. Understanding this mediating relationship offers insight into how pain acceptance may play a protective role in patients’ pain and disability and has potential implications for pain
Jacobsen, Ramune; Samsanaviciene, Jurgita; Liubarskiene, Zita; Sjøgren, Per; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona; Sciupokas, Arunas; Hansen, Ole Bo
The prevalence of cancer-related pain is high despite available guidelines for the effective assessment and management of that pain. Barriers to the use of opioid analgesics partially cause undertreatment of cancer pain. The aim of this study was to compare pain management outcomes and patient-related barriers to cancer pain management in patient samples from Denmark and Lithuania. Thirty-three Danish and 30 Lithuanian patients responded to, respectively, Danish and Lithuanian versions of the Brief Pain Inventory pain scale, the Barriers Questionnaire II, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Specific Questionnaire On Pain Communication, and the Medication Adherence Report Scale. Emotional distress and patient attitudes toward opioid analgesics in cancer patient samples from both countries explained pain management outcomes in the multivariate regression models. Pain relief and pain medication adherence were better in Denmark, and the country of origin significantly explained the difference in the regression models for these outcomes. In conclusion, interventions in emotional distress and patient attitudes toward opioid analgesics may result in better pain management outcomes generally, whereas poor adherence to pain medication and poor pain relief appear to be more country-specific problems.
Shuman, Andrew G; Terrell, Jeffrey E; Light, Emily; Wolf, Gregory T; Bradford, Carol R; Chepeha, Douglas; Jiang, Yunyun; McLean, Scott; Ghanem, Tamer A; Duffy, Sonia A
OBJECTIVE To determine predictors of pain 1 year after the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. DESIGN Prospective, multisite cohort study. SETTING Three academically affiliated medical centers. PATIENTS The study population comprised 374 previously untreated patients with carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Participants were surveyed before treatment and 1 year thereafter. Multivariate analyses were conducted to determine predictors of the 36-Item Short-Form Instrument (SF-36) bodily pain score 1 year after diagnosis. RESULTS The mean SF-36 bodily pain score at 1 year was 65, compared with 61 at the time of diagnosis (P = .004), and 75, the population norm (lower scores indicate worse pain). Variables independently associated with pain included pretreatment pain score (P < .001), less education (P = .02), neck dissection (P = .001), feeding tube (P = .05), xerostomia (P < .001), depressive symptoms (P < .001), taking more pain medication (P < .001), less physical activity (P = .02), and poor sleep quality (P = .006). The association between head and neck cancer pain and current smoking and problem drinking did not reach significance (P = .07 and P = .08, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Aggressive pain management may be indicated for patients with head and neck cancer who undergo neck dissections, complain of xerostomia, require feeding tubes, and have medical comorbidities. Treatment of modifiable risk factors such as depression, poor sleep quality, tobacco use, and alcohol abuse may also reduce pain and improve quality of life among patients with head and neck cancer.
Viapiana, Ombretta; Gatti, Davide; de Terlizzi, Francesca; Adami, Silvano
Fragility vertebral fractures often are associated with chronic back pain controlled by analgesic compounds. Capacitive coupling electrical stimulation is a type of electrical stimulation technology approved by the US FDA to noninvasively enhance fracture repair and spinal fusion. These uses suggest it would be a possible treatment for patients with back pain attributable to vertebral fractures. We therefore randomized 51 postmenopausal women with multiple fractures and chronic pain to the use of one of two indistinguishable devices delivering either the standard capacitive coupling electrical stimulation by Osteospine™ (active group) or low intensity pulse (control group). Twenty patients of the active group and 21 of the control group (80%) completed the study for a total duration of 3 months. The mean visual analog scale values for pain and the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO) scores improved in both groups. We observed a relationship between hours of treatments and reductions in pain intensity only in the active group. Capacitive coupling electrical stimulation was not more effective than control treatment when comparing mean visual analog scale pain and QALEFFO scores in the two groups and when adjusting for the hours of treatment. However, the proportion of patients able to discontinue NSAIDs owing to elimination or reduction of pain was greater in the active group than in the control group. We interpret these findings as suggesting capacitive coupling electrical stimulation controls pain in some patients and reduces the use of NSAIDs. Level of Evidence: Level I, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19756902
Berglund, Lars; Aasa, Björn; Hellqvist, Jonas; Michaelson, Peter; Aasa, Ulrika
Recent studies have indicated that the deadlift exercise may be effective in decreasing pain intensity and increasing activity for most, but not all, patients with a dominating pattern of mechanical low back pain. This study aimed to evaluate which individual factors measured at baseline could predict activity, disability, and pain intensity in patients with mechanical low back pain after an 8-week training period involving the deadlift as a rehabilitative exercise. Thirty-five participants performed deadlift training under the supervision of a physical therapist with powerlifting experience. Measures of pain-related fear of movement, hip and trunk muscle endurance, and lumbopelvic movement control were collected at baseline. Measures of activity, disability, and pain intensity were collected at baseline and at follow-up. Linear regression analyses were used to create models to predict activity, disability, and pain intensity at follow-up. Results showed that participants with less disability, less pain intensity, and higher performance on the Biering-Sørensen test, which tests the endurance of hip and back extensor muscles, at baseline benefit from deadlift training. The Biering-Sørensen test was the most robust predictor because it was included in all predictive models. Pain intensity was the next best predictor as it was included in 2 predictive models. Thus, for strength and conditioning professionals who use the deadlift as a rehabilitative exercise for individuals with mechanical low back pain, it is important to ensure that clients have sufficient back extensor strength and endurance and a sufficiently low pain intensity level to benefit from training involving the deadlift exercise.
Lluch Girbés, Enrique; Nijs, Jo; Torres-Cueco, Rafael; López Cubas, Carlos
Osteoarthritis is one of the most frequent, disabling, and costly pathologies of modern society. Among the main aims of osteoarthritis management are pain control and functional ability improvement. The exact cause of osteoarthritis pain remains unclear. In addition to the pathological changes in articular structures, changes in central pain processing or central sensitization appear to be involved in osteoarthritis pain. The latter calls for a broader approach to the management of patients with osteoarthritis. Yet, the scientific literature offers scant information addressing the treatment of central sensitization, specifically in patients with osteoarthritis. Interventions such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and neuroscience education potentially target cognitive-emotional sensitization (and descending facilitation), and centrally acting drugs and exercise therapy can improve endogenous analgesia (descending inhibition) in patients with osteoarthritis. Future studies should assess these new treatment avenues.
Durham, Catherine O; Fowler, Terri; Donato, AnneMarie; Smith, Whitney; Jensen, Elizabeth
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common inflammatory conditions in the United States affecting approximately 1 million adults. This article briefly reviews the evidence-based diagnosis of RA, mainstays of treatment to prevent joint destruction, and pain management.
Akin Korhan, Esra; Uyar, Meltem; Eyigör, Can; Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Khorshid, Leyla
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reflexology on pain intensity in patients with fibromyalgia, using an experimental repeated-measures design, and a convenience sample of 30 fibromyalgia inpatients. Thirty patients aged 18 to 70 years with fibromyalgia and hospitalized in the algology clinic were taken as a convenience sample. Patients received a total of 12 60-minute sessions of reflexology over a period of 6 consecutive weeks. Reflexology was carried out bilaterally on the hands and feet of patients at the reflex points relating to their pain at a suitable intensity and angle. Subjects had pain scores taken immediately before the intervention (0 minute), and at the 60th minute of the intervention. Data were collected over a 10-month period in 2012. The patients' mean pain intensity scores were reduced by reflexology, and this decrease improved progressively in the first and sixth weeks of the intervention, indicating a cumulative dose effect. The results of this study implied that the inclusion of reflexology in the routine care of patients with fibromyalgia could provide nurses with an effective practice for reducing pain intensity in these patients.
Salaffi, F; Ciapetti, A; Carotti, M
Valid and reliable assessment of pain is fundamental for both clinical trials and effective pain management. The nature of pain makes objective measurement impossible. Chronic musculoskeletal pain assessment and its impact on physical, emotional and social functions require multidimensional qualitative tools and healthrelated quality of life instruments. The recommendations concerning outcome measurements for pain trials are useful for making routine assessments that should include an evaluation of pain, fatigue, disturbed sleep, physical functioning, emotional functioning, patient global ratings of satisfaction, and quality of life. Despite the growing availability of instruments and theoretical publications related to measuring the various aspects of chronic pain, there is still little agreement and no unified approach has been devised. There is, therefore, still a considerable need for the development of a core set of measurement tools and response criteria, as well as for the development and refinement of the related instruments, standardized assessor training, the cross-cultural adaptation of health status questionnaires, electronic data capture, and the introduction of valid, reliable and responsive standardized quantitative measurement procedures into routine clinical care. This article reviews a selection of the instruments used to assess chronic musculoskeletal pain, including validated newly developed and well-established screening instruments, and discusses their advantages and limitations.
Westbrook, Kelly W.; Kimmick, Gretchen G.; Shelby, Rebecca A.; Abernethy, Amy P.; Keefe, Francis J.
Psychosocial pain management interventions are efficacious for cancer pain but are underutilized. Recent advances in mobile health (mHealth) technologies provide new opportunities to decrease barriers to access psychosocial pain management interventions. The objective of this study was to gain information about the accessibility and efficacy of mobile pain coping skills training (mPCST) intervention delivered to cancer patients with pain compared to traditional in-person pain coping skills training intervention. This study randomly assigned participants (N = 30) to receive either mobile health pain coping skills training intervention delivered via Skype or traditional pain coping skills training delivered face-to-face (PCST-trad). This pilot trial suggests that mPCST is feasible, presents low burden to patients, may lead to high patient engagement, and appears to be acceptable to patients. Cancer patients with pain in the mPCST group reported decreases in pain severity and physical symptoms as well as increases in self-efficacy for pain management that were comparable to changes in the PCST-trad group (p's < 0.05). These findings suggest that mPCST, which is a highly accessible intervention, may provide benefits similar to an in-person intervention and shows promise for being feasible, acceptable, and engaging to cancer patients with pain. PMID:27891252
Muñoz-García, Daniel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; López-López, Almudena; Lopez-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; La Touche, Roy; Fernández-Carnero, Josué
Background. Neck pain (NP) is strongly associated with cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP). The primary aim of the present study was to compare the neck pain-related disability, pain catastrophizing, and cervical and mandibular ROM between patients with chronic mechanical NP and patients with CCFP, as well as asymptomatic subjects. Methods. A total of 64 participants formed three groups. All participants underwent a clinical examination evaluating the cervical range of motion and maximum mouth opening, neck disability index (NDI), and psychological factor of Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Results. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with NP and CCFP for NDI and PCS (P > 0.05). One- way ANOVA revealed significant differences for all ROM measurements. The post hoc analysis showed no statistically significant differences in cervical extension and rotation between the two patient groups (P > 0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis shows a moderate positive association between NDI and the PCS for the group of patients with NP and CCFP. Conclusion. The CCFP and NP patient groups have similar neck disability levels and limitation in cervical ROM in extension and rotation. Both groups had positively correlated the NDI with the PCS.
Muñoz-García, Daniel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; López-López, Almudena; Lopez-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; La Touche, Roy; Fernández-Carnero, Josué
Background. Neck pain (NP) is strongly associated with cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP). The primary aim of the present study was to compare the neck pain-related disability, pain catastrophizing, and cervical and mandibular ROM between patients with chronic mechanical NP and patients with CCFP, as well as asymptomatic subjects. Methods. A total of 64 participants formed three groups. All participants underwent a clinical examination evaluating the cervical range of motion and maximum mouth opening, neck disability index (NDI), and psychological factor of Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Results. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with NP and CCFP for NDI and PCS (P > 0.05). One- way ANOVA revealed significant differences for all ROM measurements. The post hoc analysis showed no statistically significant differences in cervical extension and rotation between the two patient groups (P > 0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis shows a moderate positive association between NDI and the PCS for the group of patients with NP and CCFP. Conclusion. The CCFP and NP patient groups have similar neck disability levels and limitation in cervical ROM in extension and rotation. Both groups had positively correlated the NDI with the PCS. PMID:27119020
Pickering, Gisèle; Pereira, Bruno; Dufour, Elodie; Soule, Sylvie; Dubray, Claude
BACKGROUND: The efficiency of inhibitory pain descending pathways (evaluated using conditioned pain modulation [CPM]) has not been studied in postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). OBJECTIVE: To compare CPM in PHN patients with healthy controls. METHODS: Nine PHN patients and nine control individuals were matched according to age and sex. Amplitudes of cortical thermal-evoked potentials were recorded on the surface of the scalp; clinical pain and thermal pain were evaluated on a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale, at baseline and at intervals during the 6 min after CPM (elicited by a cold pressor test, 8°C). A battery of cognitive tests was performed. Amplitude differences, percentages and related areas under the curve (AUCCPM) were calculated and all data were compared between both groups; P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: AUCCPM0–6 min was significantly lower in PHN patients compared with controls (−39±51 μV/min versus −144±66 μV/min; P=0.0012) and correlated (P=0.04) with clinical pain intensity. Pain ratings before CPM were similar in both groups but were significantly lower in the control group 3 min after the cold pressor test. Cognitive test results were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: Psychophysical and electrophysiological approaches have shown that patients with PHN exhibit a deficiency of pain inhibition modulation, which could signal a predisposing factor to developing chronic pain. This deficiency was not linked to the cognitive performance but rather to subtle in situ cognitivoemotional adaptations, which remain to be investigated. PMID:24427769
Alparslan, Güler Balcı; Babadağ, Burcu; Özkaraman, Ayşe; Yıldız, Pınar; Musmul, Ahmet; Korkmaz, Cengiz
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic syndrome characterized by diffuse musculoskeletal system pain and painful tender points in certain areas of the body. The aim of the investigation was to determine the effects of music on pain in fibromyalgia patients. This randomized clinical trial was carried out with 37 fibromyalgia outpatients as an experimental group (n = 21) and control group (n = 16) at a University Hospital Internal Medicine and Rheumatology Clinic between 1 June and 1 December 2014. The research instruments used were descriptive characteristics questionnaire, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), music CD which includes water and wave sounds recommended by the Turkish Psychological Association for psychological relaxation, and pain evaluation form. According to the findings, the average age of patients was 43.59 years ± 10.30, 94.6 % were women and 81.1 % were married. The fibromyalgia patients had the disease ranged from 1 month to 20 years, the average of disease duration was 23.6 ± 45.5 months, and the average of pain intensity was 6.89 ± 1.64 on the VAS. Average pain was reported in the experimental group in VAS on day 1 (5.45 ± 2.73), day 7 (4.57 ± 2.71), and day 14 (4.14 ± 2.45), and significant reduction in pain in the listening music group was seen (p = 0.026). A repeated measure analysis of variance controlling for differences between days demonstrated a significant decrease in pain between day 1 and day 14 (p = 0.022). There was no significant decrease in pain among control group participants. The effect of music has been found to control pain in fibromyalgia patients. Music therapy should be suggested in pain management for fibromyalgia patients as an non-pharmacologic nursing intervention.
Martel, MO; Wasan, AD; Edwards, RR
Objectives To examine the temporal stability of conditioned pain modulation (CPM), formerly termed diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC), among a sample of patients with chronic pain. The study also examined the factors that might be responsible for the stability of CPM. Design & subjects, and methods In this test-retest study, patients underwent a series of standardized psychophysical pain testing procedures designed to assess CPM on two separate occasions (i.e., baseline, follow-up). Patients also completed self-report measures of catastrophizing (PCS) and negative affect (NA). Results Overall, results provided evidence for the stability of CPM among patients with chronic pain. Results, however, revealed considerable sex differences in the stability of CPM. For women, results revealed a significant test-retest correlation between baseline and follow-up CPM scores. For men, however, the test-retest correlation between baseline and follow-up CPM scores was not significant. Results of a Fisher’s Z-test revealed that the stability of CPM was significantly greater for women than for men. Follow-up analyses revealed that the difference between men and women in the stability of CPM could not be accounted for by any demographic (e.g., age) and/or psychologic factors (PCS, NA). Conclusions Our findings suggest that CPM paradigms possess sufficient reliability to be incorporated into bedside clinical evaluation of patients with chronic pain, but only among women. The lack of CPM reproducibility/stability observed among men places limits on the potential use of CPM paradigms in clinical settings for the assessment of men’s endogenous pain-inhibitory function. PMID:23924369
Jorge, Liliana L; Feres, Caroline C; Teles, Vitor EP
There has been an increasing focus on development of new routes of drug administration to provide tailored treatments for patients, without decreasing efficacy of analgesia, in proportion to the progression of the knowledge of pain mechanisms. While acute pain acts as an alarm, chronic pain is a syndrome requiring meticulous selection of analgesic drugs of high bioavailability for long-term use. Such criteria are challenges that topical medications aim to overcome, allowing progressive delivery of active component, maintaining stable plasma levels, with a good safety profile. This review presents recent findings regarding topical formulations of the most widely used drugs for pain treatment, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, anesthetics, and capsaicin, and the role of physical agents as delivery enhancers (phonophoresis and iontophoresis). Although the number of topical agents is limited for use in peripheral conditions, increasing evidence supports the efficacy of these preparations in blocking nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Patient adherence to medical treatment is also a challenge, especially in chronic painful conditions. It is known that reduction of treatment complexity and pill burden are good strategies to increase patient compliance, as discussed here. However, the role of topical presentations, when compared to traditional routes, has not yet been fully explored and thus remains unclear. PMID:21386951
Röling, Maarten A; Pilot, Peter; Krekel, Peter R; Bloem, Rolf M
Femoroacetabular impingement is a diagnosis that is often missed in patients with chronic groin pain. The condition often appears in young athletes. An anatomic deformity of the femoral head and the acetabular ridge causes an impingement that damages the subchondral tissue. This damage can result in sharp pain in the groin during specific hip movements and the acetabular labrum may also be ruptured. Diagnosing femoroacetabular impingement and a labral tear can be a challenge. We present the case of a 19-year-old male who twisted his right hip joint during a game of football. Physiotherapy only aggravated the pain. Further diagnostics showed femoroacetabular impingement and a labral tear. Arthroscopic intervention in the hip joint by an orthopedic surgeon lead to immediate pain relief, and two years after surgery the patient is still free of pain and has returned playing sport at his previous level. Femoroacetabular impingement can be a cause of chronic groin pain in young athletes. Hip arthroscopy is a safe and effective treatment, enabling the patient to return to playing sport at their previous level.
Lyons, Karen S; Bennett, Jill A; Nail, Lillian M; Fromme, Erik K; Dieckmann, Nathan; Sayer, Aline G
Drawing on the Developmental-Contextual Model (Berg & Upchurch, 2007), we examined the association between changes in patient physical health (pain severity and physical function) and changes in depressive symptoms in couples with lung cancer over a 12-month period. Patients and their spouses or partners (n = 77) were recruited using rapid case ascertainment and completed five waves of data collection (baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months). Multilevel modeling was used to examine aggregate and time-varying effects of patient physical health on depressive symptoms. Results indicated that for patients and spouses, patient-rated mean pain severity was significantly positively associated with patient and spouse depressive symptoms and patient-rated mean physical function was significantly negatively associated with patient and spouse depressive symptoms. More importantly, increases in patient pain severity and declines in patient physical function were significantly associated with increases in patient depressive symptoms. However, only declines in patient physical function were significantly associated with increases in spouse depressive symptoms. These time-varying effects remained even when controlling for patient gender, patient age, patient stage of disease, spouse physical health, and relationship quality. Findings suggest the importance of examining the changing illness context on the couple as a unit and the complexity of interpersonal processes in the presence of a life-threatening illness.
Píriz-Campos, Rosa María; Martín-Espinosa, Noelia María; Cobo-Cuenca, Ana Isabel
This is a summary of a presentation made in the symposium "Improved Continuous Quality Care in Patients with Pressure Ulcers and Chronic Injuries", which was held in Toledo in 2009. A 76 year old woman had been assessed (she belonged to the age group that frequently suffers this condition). She lived in a social healthcare centre and had a III stage sacral pressure ulcer. Using Gordon's Functional Health Patterns for assessing "Acute pain", a nursing diagnosis is described and the nursing care plan has been presented according to NANDA, NIC, NOC taxonomy. The aim of this article is to show the importance of considering the pain in patients who suffer from this type of lesion, which, although almost always present, it is often undervalued by nursing staff, resulting in an even worse quality of life for the patient, due to both physical and psychological effects. This case shows how to assess pain in a patient with ulcers, and helps establish an individualised care plan with a priority on pain treatment and relief. As as result of the interventions carried out, a better perception of pain is achieved, thus helping to improve patient's mobility and night rest.
Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Herman, Debra S.; Bailey, Genie L.; Pinkston, Megan M.; Stein, Michael D.
Objective Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV has become a chronic disease for most individuals in developed countries. Chronic pain is a common occurrence for HIV –infected patients and has an impact on quality of life and antiretroviral adherence. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between chronic pain and depression, substance use, mental health treatment, and pain treatment in HIV-infected patients. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Three primary care sites where HIV+ patients receive treatment. Subjects 238 HIV-infected primary care patients. Methods We collected self-report and chart-review information on demographics, HIV clinical status, chronic pain, depression, substance use, mental health treatment, and pain treatment. We collected data between October 2012 and November 2013. Results Of the patients enrolled in this study, 107 reported no chronic pain, 24 reported mild chronic pain, and 107 reported moderate-severe chronic pain. Participants in the moderate-severe pain group were more likely to have high levels of depressive symptoms than those in the no chronic pain group. Similarly, there was a significant relationship between chronic pain status and interference with life activities due to pain. Participants with moderate-severe chronic pain were more likely to be taking an antidepressant medication than those with mild chronic pain, and more likely to be taking a prescription opioid than the other two groups. We did not find a significant relationship between problematic substance use and chronic pain status. Conclusions Despite pharmacologic treatment, moderate-severe chronic pain and elevated depression symptoms are common among HIV-infected patients and frequently co-occur. PMID:26119642
Tang, Nicole K.Y.; Goodchild, Claire E.; Sanborn, Adam N.; Howard, Jonathan; Salkovskis, Paul M.
Objectives: Because insomnia is a common comorbidity of chronic pain, scientific and clinical interest in the relationship of pain and sleep has surged in recent years. Although experimental studies suggest a sleep-interfering property of pain and a pain-enhancing effect of sleep deprivation/fragmentation, the temporal association between pain and sleep as experienced by patients is less understood. The current study was conducted to examine the influence of presleep pain on subsequent sleep and sleep on pain reports the next day, taking into consideration other related psychophysiologic variables such as mood and arousal. Design: A daily process study, involving participants to monitor their pain, sleep, mood, and presleep arousal for 1 wk. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the data. Setting: In the patients' natural living and sleeping environment. Patients: One hundred nineteen patients (73.9% female, mean age = 46 years) with chronic pain and concomitant insomnia. Measurement: An electronic diary was used to record patients' self-reported sleep quality/efficiency and ratings of pain, mood, and arousal at different times of the day; actigraphy was also used to provide estimates of sleep efficiency. Results: Results indicated that presleep pain was not a reliable predictor of subsequent sleep. Instead, sleep was better predicted by presleep cognitive arousal. Although sleep quality was a consistent predictor of pain the next day, the pain-relieving effect of sleep was only evident during the first half of the day. Conclusions: These findings challenge the often-assumed reciprocal relationship between pain and sleep and call for a diversification in thinking of the daily interaction of these 2 processes. Citation: Tang NKY; Goodchild CE; Sanborn AN; Howard J; Salkovskis PM. Deciphering the temporal link between pain and sleep in a heterogeneous chronic pain patient sample: a multilevel daily process study. SLEEP 2012;35(5):675-687. PMID:22547894
Loggia, Marco L; Chonde, Daniel B; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Edwards, Robert R; Hill, Elena; Hsu, Shirley; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ji, Ru-Rong; Riley, Misha; Wasan, Ajay D; Zürcher, Nicole R; Albrecht, Daniel S; Vangel, Mark G; Rosen, Bruce R; Napadow, Vitaly; Hooker, Jacob M
Although substantial evidence has established that microglia and astrocytes play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of persistent pain in animal models, the role of glial cells in human pain disorders remains unknown. Here, using the novel technology of integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging and the recently developed radioligand (11)C-PBR28, we show increased brain levels of the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of glial activation, in patients with chronic low back pain. As the Ala147Thr polymorphism in the TSPO gene affects binding affinity for (11)C-PBR28, nine patient-control pairs were identified from a larger sample of subjects screened and genotyped, and compared in a matched-pairs design, in which each patient was matched to a TSPO polymorphism-, age- and sex-matched control subject (seven Ala/Ala and two Ala/Thr, five males and four females in each group; median age difference: 1 year; age range: 29-63 for patients and 28-65 for controls). Standardized uptake values normalized to whole brain were significantly higher in patients than controls in multiple brain regions, including thalamus and the putative somatosensory representations of the lumbar spine and leg. The thalamic levels of TSPO were negatively correlated with clinical pain and circulating levels of the proinflammatory citokine interleukin-6, suggesting that TSPO expression exerts pain-protective/anti-inflammatory effects in humans, as predicted by animal studies. Given the putative role of activated glia in the establishment and or maintenance of persistent pain, the present findings offer clinical implications that may serve to guide future studies of the pathophysiology and management of a variety of persistent pain conditions.
Bennett, Genevieve L
Many disorders of the liver, gallbladder, and biliary tree may cause right upper quadrant pain and clinical diagnosis may be challenging. Imaging plays a key role in establishing a prompt diagnosis and guiding appropriate management. Although ultrasonography is the initial imaging modality of choice for most hepatobiliary disorders, radionuclide imaging, computed tomography (CT), and MR imaging also play important roles. Acute cholecystitis may be associated with many complications that have characteristic imaging features. MR cholangiopancreatography achieves high accuracy in diagnosis of choledocholithiasis and allows for noninvasive imaging when ultrasonography and CT are indeterminate.
Castel, Liana D.; Freburger, Janet K.; Holmes, George M.; Scheinman, Rachael P.; Jackman, Anne M.; Carey, Timothy S.
Study Design Cross-sectional survey. Objective Our primary objective was to describe spine and pain clinics serving North Carolina residents with respect to organizational characteristics. Our secondary objective was to assess the multidisciplinary nature of the clinics surveyed. Summary of Background Data Pain clinics have become common in the United States, and patients with chronic back pain have increasingly been seeking services at these clinics. Little is known about the organizational characteristics of spine and pain clinics. Methods We identified and surveyed spine and pain clinics serving North Carolina residents with chronic back and neck pain. Practice managers at 46 clinics completed a 20-minute questionnaire about the characteristics of their clinic, including providers on staff and services offered. Descriptive and exploratory analyses were conducted to summarize the data. Several variables were constructed to assess the multidisciplinary nature of the clinics. Results The response rate was 75%. There was marked heterogeneity among the clinics surveyed. Fifty-nine percent of practices were free-standing (n = 27) and 61% were physician-owned (n = 28). Twenty-five clinics (54%) had an anesthesiologist. Other common physician providers were physiatrists and surgeons. Less than one third of sites had mental health providers (n = 12; 26%); only 26% employed physical therapists. Seventy-six percent of sites offered epidural injections, 74% long-term narcotic prescriptions, and 67% antidepressants. The majority of clinics (30 of 33) prescribing narcotics provided monitoring of therapy using periodic urine toxicology testing. Forty-eight percent of sites (n = 22) offered exercise instruction. Few clinics were multidisciplinary in nature. Only 3 (7%) met the criteria of having a medical physician, registered nurse, physical therapist, and mental health specialist. Conclusion Clinics varied widely in their organizational characteristics, including providers
Puri, Aditi; Haywood, Carlton; Beach, Mary Catherine; Guidera, Mark; Lanzkron, Sophie; Valenzuela-Araujo, Doris; Rothman, Richard E.; Dugas, Andrea Freyer
Background Provider biases and negative attitudes are recognized barriers to optimal pain management in sickle cell disease, particularly in the emergency department (ED). Measures This prospective cohort measures pre- and post-intervention provider attitudes towards patients with sickle pain crises using a validated survey instrument. Intervention ED providers viewed an eight-minute online video that illustrated challenges in sickle cell pain management, perspectives of patients and providers as well as misconceptions and stereotypes of which to be wary. Outcomes Ninety-six ED providers were enrolled. Negative attitude scoring decreased, with a mean difference -11.5 from baseline, and positive attitudes improved, with a mean difference +10. Endorsement of red-flag behaviors similarly decreased (mean difference -12.8). Results were statistically significant and sustained on repeat testing three months post-intervention. Conclusions/Lessons Learned Brief video-based educational interventions can improve emergency provider attitudes towards patients with sickle pain crises, potentially curtailing pain crises early, improving health outcomes and patient satisfaction scores. PMID:26596878
Logan, Deirdre E; Rose, John B
The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in anticipatory emotional distress, coping strategies, post-operative pain perception, and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) use among adolescent surgical patients. One hundred and two 12-18-year-old adolescents undergoing surgeries with overnight hospital stay were recruited. Participants completed pre-operative measures of anxiety and anticipated pain. Post-operatively, they reported on coping skills, post-operative anxiety, and pain. Data on PCA use were recorded from medical records. Girls reported higher levels of pre-operative state anxiety and anticipated more pain. After surgery, girls and boys differed on their lowest daily pain ratings and average daily pain ratings, with girls reporting more pain in both cases. Reports of highest daily pain were similar across genders. Gender was found to moderate the relationship between anticipatory distress and post-operative pain, such that higher anticipatory distress before surgery predicted more post-operative pain for girls, but not for boys. Patterns of PCA use did not vary by gender on post-operative days 0 or 1. Findings suggest that adolescent boys' and girls' pain experiences are different in several important respects, although somewhat less divergent than has been reported in samples of adult males and females. Results have implications for the development of targeted intervention strategies to help adolescents cope effectively with acute post-operative pain.
Laing, F C; Federle, M P; Jeffrey, R B; Brown, T W
To define the role of ultrasound in evaluating acute right upper quadrant pain, a prospective study was performed on 52 patients having clinically suspected acute cholecystitis. Ultrasonographic determination of acute or chronic cholecystitis, or diagnosis of a normal gallbladder, was based on analysis of location of tenderness, calculi, sludge, and wall thickness. The diagnosis of acute cholecystitis (34.6% of patients) was based on the highly significant observations of focal gallbladder tenderness and calculi. Sludge and wall thickening were also statistically significant, but to a lesser degree. Cholelithiasis allowed differentiation of patients with chronic cholecystitis (32.7%) from patients with normal gallbladders (32.7%). Neither of these two groups had significant focal gallbladder tenderness, sludge, or thickened walls. Because acute cholecystitis is found in the minority of patients with acute right upper quadrant pain, and because ultrasound is rapid, accurate, and noninvasive, it should be the initial modality used to evaluate these patients.
Philbrick, T H; Kaude, J V; McInnis, A N; Wright, P G
Ultrasonography was performed as the first imaging procedure in 100 patients who presented with acute right upper quadrant pain suggestive of cholecystitis or cholelithiasis. In the final analysis 46 patients were found to have gallbladder disease (40 patients with cholelithiasis, 5 with acalculous cholecystitis, and 1 with a cholesterol polyp in the gallbladder). In 22 of 54 patients with a normal gallbladder, other abdominal disease was found. The error rate for ultrasound was 5%, and in 4 patients ultrasound was not the suitable procedure for the diagnosis. In 91 patients the ultrasonographic diagnosis was correct.
Maruta, T; Swanson, D W; Swenson, W M
Thirty-one patients with low back pain resistant to medical and surgical treatment were studied. On admission to the psychiatric service, these patients revealed apparent features of conversion and hysterical personality, as characterized also by the MMPI profile. During hospitalization, however, there was increased appearance and recognition of anxious-depressive features. We suggest that these patients should be treated by the combined approach of supportive psychotherapy and physiotherapy, with appropriate use of antidepressants.
Lauche, Romy; Wübbeling, Klaus; Lüdtke, Rainer; Cramer, Holger; Choi, Kyung-Eun; Rampp, Thomas; Michalsen, Andreas; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav J
Gua Sha is a traditional East Asian healing technique where the body surface is "press-stroked" with a smooth-edged instrument to raise therapeutic petechiae that last 2-5 days. The technique is traditionally used in the treatment of both acute and chronic neck and back pain. This study aimed to measure the effects of Gua Sha therapy on the pain ratings and pressure pain thresholds of patients with chronic neck pain (CNP) and chronic low back pain (CLBP). A total of 40 patients with either CNP or CLBP (mean age 49.23 ± 10.96 years) were randomized to either a treatment group (TG) or a waiting list control group (WLC). At baseline assessment (T1), all patients rated their pain on a 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS). Patients' pressure pain thresholds (PPT) at a site of maximal pain (pain-maximum) and an adjacent (pain-adjacent) site were also established. The treatment group then received a single Gua Sha treatment. Post-intervention measurements were taken for both groups at T2, seven days after baseline assessment (T1), using the same VAS and PPT measurements in precisely the same locations as at T1. Final analysis were conducted with 21 patients with CNP and 18 patients with CLBP. The study groups were equally distributed with regard to randomization. Patients in both the CNP and the CLBP treatment groups reported pain reduction (p < 0.05) and improved health status from their one Gua Sha treatment, as compared to the waiting list group. Pain sensitivity improved in the TG in CNP, but not in CLBP patients, possibly due to higher pressure sensitivity in the neck area. No adverse events were reported. These results suggest that Gua Sha may be an effective treatment for patients with chronic neck and low back pain. Further study of Gua Sha is warranted.
Raphael, Karen G.; Janal, Malvin N.; Ananthan, Sowmya; Cook, Dane B.; Staud, Roland
Aims One possible mechanism underlying myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is altered central nervous system processing of painful stimuli. The current study aimed to compare TMD cases to controls on two measures of central processing, i.e., temporal summation of heat pain and decay of subsequent aftersensations, following thermal stimulation in both a trigeminal and extratrigeminal area. Methods Using a “wind-up” (WU) protocol, 19 female TMD patients and 17 controls were exposed to 15 heat stimuli at a rate of 0.3 Hz. Numeric pain ratings were elicited after the 1st, 5th, 10th and 15th stimulus presentation and every 15 seconds after final presentation (aftersensations), for up to 2 minutes. In separate trials, the thermode was placed on the thenar eminence of the hand and the skin overlying the masseter muscle. Results Groups did not differ with respect to the slope of WU when stimulated at either anatomic site, although asymptote occurred sooner for TMD patients than controls. In analysis of aftersensations, a significant group x site x time interaction was detected, in which TMD patients experienced more prolonged painful aftersensations than controls when stimulated on the skin overlying the masseter muscles. Conclusions These results are consistent with the presence of enhanced central sensitivity in TMD and suggest that this sensitivity may be largely confined to the region of clinical pain. This contrasts with conditions such as fibromyalgia, where central sensitivity appears to be widespread. PMID:19264036
Neziri, Alban Y; Bersinger, Nick A; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mueller, Michael D; Curatolo, Michele
Translational research has not yet elucidated whether alterations in central pain processes are related to peripheral inflammatory processes in chronic pain patients. We tested the hypothesis that the concentration of cytokines in the peritoneal fluid of endometriosis patients with chronic pain correlate with parameters of hyperexcitability of the nociceptive system. The concentrations of 15 peritoneal fluid cytokines were measured in 11 patients with chronic pelvic pain and a diagnosis of endometriosis. Six parameters assessing central pain processes were recorded. Positive correlations between concentration of some cytokines in the peritoneal fluid and amplification of central pain processing were found. The results suggest that inflammatory mechanisms may be important in the pathophysiology of altered central pain processes and that cytokines produced in the environment of endometriosis could act as mediators between the peripheral lesion and changes in central nociceptive processes.
Children are drawing inventors. Their art is certainly not what most adults think of as drawing. Almost instinctively, kids know that drawing is everywhere--that they can draw with almost anything, and that innumerable surfaces can be converted for art use. Teaching drawing is showing interest and enthusiasm for kids' drawing inventions--instead…
Brorson, Hanna; Plymoth, Henrietta; Örmon, Karin; Bolmsjö, Ingrid
Patients with dementia receive suboptimal palliative care, and this patient group is at risk to have pain at the end of life. Because communicative impairments are common in this patient group, nurses play an important caregiver role in identifying, assessing, and relieving patients' pain. This study aimed to describe nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia. This descriptive exploratory qualitative study was based on seven semistructured interviews. Burnard's content analysis inspired the data analysis. Two main categories were identified: (1) nurses' experience of difficulties concerning pain relief and (2) nurses' experience of resources concerning pain relief. Nurses experienced difficulties, such as feeling of powerlessness because of difficulties in obtaining adequate prescriptions for analgesics, ethical dilemmas, feeling of inadequacy because analgesia did not have the desired effect, and a feeling of not being able to connect with the patient. Factors, including knowledge about the patient, professional experience, utilization of pain assessment tools, interpersonal relationships, and interprofessional cooperation, served as resources and enabled end-of-life pain relief. The results of this study highlight the complexity of pain relief in patients with dementia at the end of life from a nursing perspective. The inability of patients with dementia to verbally communicate their pain makes them a vulnerable patient group, dependent on their caregivers. Knowing the life story of the patient, professional experience, teamwork based on good communication, and use of a pain assessment tool were reported by the nurses to improve pain relief at the end of life for patients with dementia.
Hernández-Puiggròs, Patricia; Tesedo Nieto, Javier; Acín Lázaro, María Pilar; Carrera González, Alfredo; Soler, Miguel José Arranz; Maldonado Vega, Sergio
Chronic pain is a serious problem in Spain. This multicenter, epidemiological 3-month follow-up study investigates pain management efficacy in Spanish centers using patient satisfaction criteria. 3,414 eligible adult patients (65,6% female) with moderate to severe chronic pain from 146 pain centers were included. Patient satisfaction was assessed based onto question 18 of Spanish healthcare barometer-CSI. Pain evolution (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) and visual analog scale (VAS)), quality of life/EuroQol-5, and pain control expectations fulfillment were also assessed. Mean age was 61.3 years. 64.4% of participating centers employed multidisciplinary pain management approach. After 3 months, mean patient satisfaction was 7.8 (1–10) on the CIS barometer. Medical staff received the highest scores, whereas waiting for tests, appointment request to appointment date time, and waiting times at the center the lowest. Mean pain decreased from 7.4 to 4.0; BPI-SF intensity decreased from 6.5 to 3.8; pain control expectations were met in 78.7% of patients; EuroQoL-5D utility index increased from 0.37 to 0.62, p < 0.001, and health status (VAS) from 40.6 to 61.9, p < 0.001. Chronic pain patients (90%) are satisfied with Spanish centers care; 80% had their pain control expectations met. Quality of life improved remarkably: 71% felt moderately to significantly better. However, waiting times need improvement. PMID:27516902
Howie, J. G.; Heaney, D. J.; Maxwell, M.
OBJECTIVE--To compare quality of care between 1990 and 1992 in patients with self diagnosed joint pain. DESIGN--Questionnaire and record based study. SUBJECTS--Patients identified at consecutive consultations during two weeks in 1990, 1991, and 1992. SETTING--Six practice groups in pilot fundholding scheme in Scotland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Length of consultation; numbers referred or investigated or prescribed drugs; responses to questions about enablement and satisfaction. RESULTS--About 15% of patients consulted with joint pain each year. 25% (316) of them had social problems in 1990 and 37% (370) in 1992; about a fifth wanted to discuss their social problems. Social problems were associated with a raised general health questionnaire score. The mean length of consultation for patients with pain was 7.6 min in 1990 and 7.7 min in 1992. Patients wishing to discuss social problems received longer consultations (8.5 min 1990; 10.4 min 1992); but other patients with social problems received shorter consultations (7.4 min; 7.2 min). The level of prescribing was stable but the proportion of patients having investigations or attending hospital fell significantly from 1990 to 1992 (31% to 24%; 31% to 13% respectively). Fewer patients responded "much better" to six questions about enablement in 1992 than in 1990. Enablement was better after longer than shorter consultations for patients with social problems. CONCLUSIONS--Quality of care for patients with pain has been broadly maintained in terms of consultation times. The effects of lower rates of investigation and referral need to be investigated further. PMID:7950524
Lake, David A.; Wofford, Nancy H.
Context: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common orthopaedic condition for which operative and nonoperative treatments have been used. Therapeutic modalities have been recommended for the treatment of patients with PFPS—including cold, ultrasound, phonophoresis, iontophoresis, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, electrical stimulation for pain control, electromyographic biofeedback, and laser. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of therapeutic modalities for the treatment of patients with PFPS. Data Sources: In May and August 2010, Medline was searched using the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science Citation Index, Science Direct, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health, and Your Journals@OVID. Study Selection: Selected studies were randomized controlled trials that used a therapeutic modality to treat patients with PFPS. The review included articles with all outcome measures relevant for the PFPS patient: knee extension and flexion strength (isokinetic and isometric), patellofemoral pain assessment during activities of daily life, functional tests (eg, squats), Kujala patellofemoral score, and electromyographic recording from knee flexors and extensors and quadriceps femoris cross-sectional areas. Data Extraction: Authors conducted independent quality appraisals of studies using the PEDro Scale and a system designed for analysis of studies on interventions for patellofemoral pain. Results: Twelve studies met criteria: 1 on the effects of cold and ultrasound together, ice alone, iontophoresis, and phonophoresis; 3, neuromuscular electrical stimulation; 4, electromyographic biofeedback; 3, electrical stimulation for control of pain; and 1, laser. Discussion: Most studies were of low to moderate quality. Some reported that therapeutic modalities, when combined with other treatments, may be of some benefit for pain management or other symptoms. There was no consistent evidence of any beneficial effect when a therapeutic modality was used alone
Schumacher, Christie; Glosner, Scott E
OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), evaluate the impact of DPN on patients' function and quality of life, and assess patient satisfaction with their current DPN treatment. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Patient-centered medical home model at an internal medicine clinic in Chicago, from November 1, 2011, through November 1, 2012. PARTICIPANTS 71 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes aged 45 to 85 years and receiving diabetes education and medication management from the clinic pharmacist. INTERVENTION Paper survey administered to patients during clinic visits. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES DPN history; DPN impact on activity level, sleep, and quality of life; and satisfaction with current DPN treatment. RESULTS Of the 71 participants, 22% (n = 15) reported a diagnosis of DPN from their providers; however, 54% (n = 37) reported burning, aching, or tenderness in their hands, arms, legs, or feet. More than 50% of patients with these symptoms had experienced them for more than 1 year. Fewer than one in five patients (14% [n = 5]) reporting symptoms indicative of painful DPN were receiving treatment. CONCLUSION DPN may be underdiagnosed and undertreated in this patient population, which represents a potential opportunity for pharmacists to help patients with diabetes meet their quality of care goals.
Baastrup, Sidsel; Schultz, Rikke; Brødsgaard, Inger; Moore, Rod; Jensen, Troels S; Vase Toft, Lene; Bach, Flemming W; Rosenberg, Raben; Gormsen, Lise
Patients suffering from chronic pain may benefit from learning adaptive coping strategies. Consensus on efficient strategies for this group of patients is, however, lacking, and previous studies have shown inconsistent results. The present study has examined coping strategies in two distinctly different groups of chronic pain patients and a group of healthy controls. Thirty neuropathic pain (NP) patients, 28 fibromyalgia (FM) patients, and 26 pain-free healthy controls completed the Coping Strategy Questionnaire (CSQ-48/27) and rated their daily pain. The results showed that FM and NP patients did not cope differently with pain. The only difference between the groups was that FM patients felt more in control of their pain than NP patients. Both patient groups used more maladaptive/passive coping strategies, but surprisingly also more adaptive/active coping strategies than healthy controls. However, FM patients with high levels of passive strategies felt less in control than FM patients with low levels of passive strategies. This was not seen in NP patients. An important implication for clinical practice is therefore that passive coping strategies should be restructured into active ones, especially for FM patients. Otherwise, the same psychological treatment model can be applied to both groups since they use similar coping styles.
Kadimpati, Sandeep; Zale, Emily L; Hooten, Michael W; Ditre, Joseph W; Warner, David O
Several cognitive-affective constructs, including pain catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety, have been implicated in the onset and progression of chronic pain, and both constructs have been identified as key targets for multidisciplinary pain treatment. Both neuroticism and depression have been linked to these constructs (and to each other), but how each may contribute to the pain experience is unknown. This study tested associations between neuroticism, depression, and indices of catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety among persons seeking treatment for chronic non-malignant pain. We hypothesized, as a higher-order personality trait, neuroticism would remain uniquely associated with both pain catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety, even after accounting for current symptoms of depression. A retrospective study design assessed depression (as measured by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale), neuroticism (measured with the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Pain Anxiety Symptom Score in a consecutive series of patients (n=595) admitted to a 3-week outpatient pain treatment program from March 2009 through January 2011. Hierarchical regression indicated that neuroticism was independently associated with greater pain catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety, above-and-beyond the contributions of sociodemographic characteristics, pain severity, and depression. A depression by neuroticism interaction was not observed, suggesting that associations between neuroticism and cognitive-affective pain constructs remained stable across varying levels of current depression. These findings represent an early but important step towards the clarification of complex associations between trait neuroticism, current depression, and tendencies toward catastrophic and anxiety-provoking appraisals of pain among persons seeking treatment for chronic pain.
Simone, Charles B. Vapiwala, Neha; Hampshire, Margaret K.; Metz, James M.
Purpose: Pain is a common symptom among cancer patients, yet many patients do not receive adequate pain management. Few data exist quantifying analgesic use by radiation oncology patients. This study evaluated the causes of pain in cancer patients and investigated the reasons patients fail to receive optimal analgesic therapy. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved, Internet-based questionnaire assessing analgesic use and pain control was posted on the OncoLink (available at (www.oncolink.org)) Website. Between November 2005 and April 2006, 243 patients responded. They were predominantly women (73%), white (71%), and educated beyond high school (67%) and had breast (38%), lung (6%), or ovarian (6%) cancer. This analysis evaluated the 106 patients (44%) who underwent radiotherapy. Results: Of the 106 patients, 58% reported pain from their cancer treatment, and 46% reported pain directly from their cancer. The pain was chronic in 51% and intermittent in 33%. Most (80%) did not use medication to manage their pain. Analgesic use was significantly less in patients with greater education levels (11% vs. 36%, p = 0.002), with a trend toward lower use by whites (16% vs. 32%, p 0.082) and women (17% vs. 29%, p = 0.178). The reasons for not taking analgesics included healthcare provider not recommending medication (87%), fear of addiction or dependence (79%), and inability to pay (79%). Participants experiencing pain, but not taking analgesics, pursued alternative therapies for relief. Conclusions: Many radiation oncology patients experience pain from their disease and cancer treatment. Most study participants did not use analgesics because of concerns of addiction, cost, or failure of the radiation oncologist to recommend medication. Healthcare providers should have open discussions with their patients regarding pain symptoms and treatment.
Altawil, Reem; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Wedrén, Sara; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars
Objective To investigate the frequency of remaining pain in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after 3 months of treatment with methotrexate as the only disease modifying antirheumatic drug, with a special focus on patients with a good clinical response. Methods The study base was cases reported to a population‐based early RA cohort who had followup data from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register (n = 1,241). The Disease Activity Score in 28 joints European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria were used to evaluate clinical response to treatment as good, moderate, and no response. The primary end point was remaining pain at the 3‐months followup visit, defined as pain >20 mm on a 100‐mm visual analog scale (VAS). Results Remaining pain in spite of a EULAR good response at followup was associated with higher baseline disability, using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.2 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.4–3.4] per unit increase), and less baseline inflammation, using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (adjusted OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.70–0.93] per 10‐mm increase). Similar associations were detected for remaining pain at followup in spite of low inflammatory activity, defined as a C‐reactive protein level <10. Increase in VAS pain during the treatment period was observed in 19% of the whole cohort, with frequencies in the EULAR response groups of 9% (good response), 15% (moderate response), and 45% (no response). Conclusion These results are in line with the hypothesis that a subgroup of early RA patients exhibits pain that is not inflammatory mediated, where alternative treatment strategies to traditional antiinflammatory medications need to be considered. PMID:26784398
Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung
[Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness of various core strength training strategies for patients with chronic low back pain. [Methods] We searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. Subsequently, we evaluated their quality by analyzing the reported data. [Results] We compared four methods of evaluating core strength training: trunk balance, stabilization, segmental stabilization, and motor control exercises. According to the results of various scales and evaluation instruments, core strength training is more effective than typical resistance training for alleviating chronic low back pain. [Conclusion] All of the core strength training strategies examined in this study assist in the alleviation of chronic low back pain; however, we recommend focusing on training the deep trunk muscles to alleviate chronic low back pain.
Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung
[Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness of various core strength training strategies for patients with chronic low back pain. [Methods] We searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. Subsequently, we evaluated their quality by analyzing the reported data. [Results] We compared four methods of evaluating core strength training: trunk balance, stabilization, segmental stabilization, and motor control exercises. According to the results of various scales and evaluation instruments, core strength training is more effective than typical resistance training for alleviating chronic low back pain. [Conclusion] All of the core strength training strategies examined in this study assist in the alleviation of chronic low back pain; however, we recommend focusing on training the deep trunk muscles to alleviate chronic low back pain. PMID:25931693
Cheatle, Martin; Wunsch, Martha; Skoufalos, Alexis; Reddy, Yeshwant
Abstract Clinicians may face pragmatic, ethical, and legal issues when treating addicted patients. Equal pressures exist for clinicians to always address the health care needs of these patients in addition to their addiction. Although controversial, mainly because of the lack of evidence regarding their long-term efficacy, the use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain management is widespread. Their use for pain management in the addicted population can present even more challenges, especially when evaluating the likelihood of drug-seeking behavior. As the misuse and abuse of opioids continues to burgeon, clinicians must be particularly vigilant when prescribing chronic opioid therapy. The purpose of this article is to summarize recommendations from a recent meeting of experts convened to recommend how primary care physicians should approach treatment of chronic pain for addicted patients when an addiction specialist is not available for a referral. As there is a significant gap in guidelines and recommendations in this specific area of care, this article serves to create a foundation for expanding chronic pain guidelines in the area of treating the addicted population. This summary is designed to be a practical how-to guide for primary care physicians, discussing risk assessment, patient stratification, and recommended therapeutic approaches. (Population Health Management 2014;17:79–89) PMID:24138341
subjects (36%) had cholecystectomies, one subject (9%) had an appendectomy, one subject (9%) had a hysterectomy, four subjects (36%) had tubal ligations ...hysterectomies, three subjects (30%) had tubal ligations or fulgarations, five subjects (50%) had diagnostic laparoscopies, and one subject (10%) was classified...muscle relaxation could decrease pain perception, analgesic use, and anxiety in post -operative abdominal surgery patients. Review of demographic data
Minkalis, Amy L.; Vining, Robert D.
Background: Low back pain is a common symptom arising from many possible sources and includes the possibility of the contribution of remote pathology. This report describes a patient with bilateral osteonecrosis of the femoral heads presenting with a primary symptom of low back pain. Case presentation: A 37-year-old male presented for evaluation of dominant pain that existed for approximately 6–12 months and was located in the right low back. Milder pain was also reported in the right hip. Low back and hip pain were both aggravated by weight-bearing activities. An evidence-based diagnostic evaluation revealed little indication for a primary pain source originating from low back structures. Radiographs revealed bilateral osteonecrosis with evidence of left femoral head collapse. Conclusion: Hip osteonecrosis may have contributed to an atypical presentation of low back pain due to aberrant localization of pain and/or combined with altered biomechanical loading of musculoskeletal structures. PMID:26500365
Somers, Tamara J.; Abernethy, Amy P.; Edmond, Sara N.; Kelleher, Sarah A.; Wren, Anava A.; Samsa, Greg P.; Keefe, Francis J.
Context Pain coping skills training (PCST) interventions have shown efficacy for reducing pain and providing other benefits in patients with cancer. However, their reach is often limited because of a variety of barriers (e.g., travel, physical burden, cost, time). Objectives This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a brief PCST intervention delivered to patients in their homes using mobile health (mHealth) technology. Pre-to-post intervention changes in pain, physical functioning, physical symptoms, psychological distress, self-efficacy for pain management, and pain catastrophizing also were examined. Methods Patients with a diagnosis of breast, lung, prostate, or colorectal cancer who reported persistent pain (N=25) participated in a four-session intervention delivered using mHealth technology (video-conferencing on a tablet computer). Participants completed measures of pain, physical functioning, physical symptoms, psychological distress, self-efficacy for pain management, and pain catastrophizing. We also assessed patient satisfaction. Results Participants completed an average of 3.36 (SD=1.11) of the four intervention sessions for an overall session completion rate of 84%. Participants reported that the program was of excellent quality and met their needs. Significant pre- to post-intervention differences were found in pain, physical symptoms, psychological distress, and pain catastrophizing. Conclusion The use of mHealth technology is a feasible and acceptable option for delivery of PCST for patients with cancer. This delivery mode is likely to dramatically increase intervention access for cancer patients with pain compared to traditional in-person delivery. Preliminary data also suggest that the program is likely to produce pre- to post-treatment decreases in pain and other important outcomes. PMID:26025279
Chung, I. S.; Sim, W. S.; Kim, G. S.; Park, S. H.; Park, Y. S.; Cha, K. J.; Park, Y. S.; Lim, Y. J.; Lee, S. C.; Kim, Y. C.
This study was designed to evaluate whether the nurses' assessment of postoperative pain can be an alternative to patients' self-reporting. We examined 187 patients receiving postoperative intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. The nurses assessed the patients' pain with three pain indices (therapeutic efficacy, pain intensity, and facial pain expression) 8 hr after operation. The patients recorded their resting and movement pain using 100-mm visual analog scales immediately following the nurses' assessment. There was an acceptable correlation between overall pain measurement assessed by patients and that assessed by nurses (canonical correlation coefficient=0.72, p=0.0001). The resting pain was more reliably reflected than the movement pain in overall measurement assessed both by nurses and by patients. Among the three pain indices assessed by nurses, the pain intensity most reliably reflected the patients' self-reports. The pain intensity assessed with a simple verbal descriptor scale therefore is believed to be an effective alternative to the patients' self-reports of postoperative pain at rest. However, it mirrored the patients' self-reports during movement less reliably. Therapeutic efficacy and facial pain expression indices were not effective alternatives to patients' self-reporting. PMID:11748363
Gupta, Vishal; Moshiree, Baharak; Verne, G Nicholas
Irritable bowel syndrome represents a common gastrointestinal disorder that significantly impacts patients' lives. It is defined by Rome II criteria and characterized by abdominal pain and bloating associated with changes in bowel habit. Visceral hypersensitivity is currently considered a biological marker for the disease. Current therapeutic treatments include the use of fiber supplements, antidiarrheal agents, laxatives, antispasmodics, tricyclic antidepressants and serotonergic agents. Through a proper understanding of the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology and treatment options, this disorder can be treated effectively in many patients.
Claudon, B; Poussel, M; Billon-Grumillier, C; Beyaert, C; Paysant, J
Patellofemoral pain is likely due to compressive force acting on the patella related in turn to knee extension moment. The latter variable was assumed to be (i) reduced during short-distance free walking in case of patellofemoral pain syndrome and (ii) increased after therapeutic pain reduction. Peak knee extension moment at beginning of stance phase was recorded by three-dimensional gait analysis in 22 controls and in 23 patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome before and after rehabilitation of knee extensors and flexors to reduce the pain. Pain would occur mainly in stressful activities such as stair negotiation or squatting and was quantified by the anterior knee pain scale. Peak knee extension moment was significantly reduced in all the patients before treatment (n=23) compared to controls, although no one had pain during free walking. In the 17 patients who experienced significant post-rehabilitation pain reduction in their stressful activities, the peak knee extension moment was significantly reduced before treatment compared to controls and significantly increased after treatment, reaching values similar to control values. The peak knee extension moment during free walking appears to be a good kinetic variable related to a compensatory mechanism limiting or avoiding anterior knee pain and may be of interest in assessing knee dynamics alteration in patients with PFPS.
Perret, Danielle; Chang, Eric Y; Pang, Winnie; Shinada, Shuntaro; Panush, Richard S
SUMMARY Medical progress is measured by advances in science and technology. The pace of discovery will surely accelerate. We are increasingly challenged not only to assimilate new information, but also to reconcile our learning with our art. We present the common clinical problem of managing pain in osteoarthritis as a paradigm for this dilemma in contemporary patient care. We do not yet have the understanding and interventions to do this optimally for all with osteoarthritis, leaving us with uncertainties as we struggle to care for these patients. In a world of growing complexity and sophistication we must not overlook the person who is our patient. It is easy to be seduced by electronic and informational advances, to be entranced by machinery, and to forget the unique individuality and needs of each patient. Osler taught that “the practice of medicine is an art, based on science”. This doesn't change. PMID:24654815
Lackner, Jeffrey M.; And Others
Tested the predictive power of self-efficacy expectations of physical capabilities, expectations of pain, and expectations of reinjury on physical function in chronic back pain patients. Before assessment of function, patients rated their abilities to perform essential job tasks--functional self-efficacy (FSE)--and the likelihood working would…
Boyden, Sean D; Hossain, Imtiyaz N; Wohlfahrt, Alyssa; Lee, Yvonne C
Although pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is frequently thought to be inflammatory in nature, the association between measures of inflammation and pain intensity is low. This observation is likely due to the multifactorial nature of pain. In addition to pain from joint inflammation, RA patients may also have pain due to structural damage or central etiologies, such as aberrancies in the central nervous system (CNS) pain regulatory pathways. These CNS pathways include mechanisms that facilitate pain, as well as mechanisms that inhibit pain. Other factors, such as sleep disturbances, depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing, may also impact the perception of pain in RA patients. Since pain is frequently used as a proxy for inflammation in the assessment of RA disease activity, it is important that patients and physicians recognize that not all pain is inflammatory, and alternative management strategies, other than escalating disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatment, may need to be considered.
Dunn, Kelly E.; Finan, Patrick H.; Tompkins, D. Andrew; Fingerhood, Michael; Strain, Eric C.
Background Chronic pain is common among patients receiving opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) for opioid use disorder. To aid development of treatment recommendations for coexisting pain and opioid use disorder, it is necessary to characterize pain treatment needs and assess whether needs differ as a function of OMT medication. Methods A point-prevalence survey assessing pain and engagement in coping strategies was administered to 179 methadone and buprenorphine-maintained patients. Results Forty-two percent of participants were categorized as having chronic pain. Methadone patients had greater severity of pain relative to buprenorphine patients, though both groups reported high levels of interference with daily activities, and participants with pain attended the emergency room more frequently relative to participants without pain. Only 2 coping strategies were being utilized by more than 50% of participants (over-the-counter medication, prayer). Conclusions Results indicate that pain among OMT patients is common, severe, and of significant impairment. Methadone patients reported greater severity pain, particularly worse pain in the past 24 hours, though interference from pain in daily activities did not vary as a function of OMT. Most participants with pain were utilizing few evidenced-based pain coping strategies. Increasing OMT patient access to additional pain treatment strategies is an opportunity for immediate intervention, and similarities across OMT type suggest interventions do not need to be customized to methadone vs. buprenorphine patients. PMID:26518253
Spoor, A B; Öner, F C
Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 85%. The pathophysiology of LBP can be various depending on the underlying problem. Only in about 10% of the patients specific underlying disease processes can be identified. Patients with scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, herniated discs, adjacent disc disease, disc degeneration, failed back surgery syndrome or pseudoartrosis all have symptoms of LBP in different ways. Chronic low back pain patients are advised to stay active, however, there is no strong evidence that exercise therapy is significantly different than other nonsurgical therapies. Not every patient with symptoms of LBP is an appropriate candidate for surgery. Even with thorough systematic reviews, no proof can be found for the benefit of surgery in patients with low back pain, without serious neurologic deficit. And subjects like psychologic and socio-demographic factors also seem to be influencing a patients perception of back pain, expectations of treatment, and outcomes of treatment. Open lumbar fusion procedures are typically lengthy procedures and require a long exposure, which may result in ischemic necrosis of the paraspinal musculature, atrophy, and prolonged back pain. Minimally invasive spine surgery needed to take care of a decrease in muscle injuries due to retraction and avoidance of disruption of the osseotendineous complex of the paraspinal muscles, especially the multifidus attachment to the spinous process and superior articular process. Therefore, effort has been made to develop percutaneous fusion, as well as fixation methods, which avoid the negative effects of open surgery. Several minimally invasive fusion strategies have been described, like anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and two lateral approaches (XLIF and DLIF), all with pro's and con's compared to open surgery and each other. The effect of MIS of all type is
Ak, Melike; Müller-Mottet, Séverine; Scharl, Sylvie; Biedermann, Luc; Fournier, Nicolas; Frei, Pascal; Pittet, Valerie; Scharl, Michael; Fried, Michael
Background Pain is a common symptom related to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition to abdominal pain, pain can also be an extraintestinal manifestation of IBD. Pain treatment is challenging and a substantial part of IBD patients are treated with opioids. Therefore, a better knowledge on pain symptoms is crucial for a better therapeutic approach to this clinical problem. Methods Patients of the Swiss IBD Cohort Study (SIBDCS) (n = 2152) received a questionnaire regarding pain intensity, pain localization and impact of pain on daily life and social activities. Furthermore, the questionnaire investigated the use of pain-specific medication. Results A vast majority of patients (71%) experienced pain during the disease course. For a substantial part of patients (49% in UC and 55% in CD) pain is a longstanding problem (>5 years). Pain in UC was of shorter duration compared to CD (p < 0.01). Abdominal pain (59.5%) and back pain (38.3%) were the main pain localizations. 67% of patients took pain medication; 24% received no pain treatment. The general quality of life was significantly lower in patients suffering of pain compared to those without pain (38 vs. 77; (-100 very bad; 100 very good) p<0.0001). Conclusions Prevalence of pain is high in patients of the SIBDCS. It is a longstanding problem for the majority of the patients affected. Pain was found to be undertreated in the SIBDCS and was significantly associated with health-related quality of life. Thus, an increased awareness is mandatory to address this frequent complication in the course of IBD. PMID:27332879
Astrup, Guro Lindviksmoen; Rustøen, Tone; Miaskowski, Christine; Paul, Steven M; Bjordal, Kristin
Pain is a common symptom in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) that is associated with significant decrements in physical and psychological functioning. Only 4 studies have evaluated for changes in and predictors of different pain characteristics in these patients. In this longitudinal study of patients with HNC, changes in pain intensity (i.e., average pain, worst pain), pain interference with function, and pain relief were evaluated from the initiation of radiotherapy and through the following 6 months. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to evaluate for changes over time in these 4 pain characteristics, as well as to identify predictors of interindividual variability in each characteristic. Overall, pain intensity and interference with function scores were in the mild-to-moderate range, while pain relief scores were in the moderate range. The occurrence of pain, as well as scores for each pain characteristic, increased from the initiation to the completion of radiotherapy, followed by a gradual decrease to near pretreatment levels at 6 months. However, interindividual variability existed in patients' ratings of each pain characteristic. Predictors of more severe pain characteristic scores were more comorbidities, worse physical functioning, not having surgery before radiotherapy, difficulty swallowing, mouth sores, sleep disturbance, fatigue, more energy, and less social support. Patients with more depressive symptoms had better pain relief. Although some of the predictors cannot be modified (e.g., rrence of surgery), other predictors (e.g., symptoms) can be treated. Therefore, information about these predictors may result in decreased pain in patients with HNC.
Rambod, Masoume; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Khair, Kate
ABSTRACT Background: Pain, as a crucial subsequence of joint hemorrhages in hemophilia patients, is chronic, debilitating, and distracting. This study aimed to describe and interpret pain experiences of hemophilia patients in their lives. Methods: This qualitative study with hermeneutic phenomenological approach was conducted on fourteen hemophilia patients who had been referred to a hemophilia center affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The study question was “what is the meaning of pain in hemophilia patients’ lives? The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and field notes through purposeful sampling. Then, thematic analysis with van Manen’s six-step methodological framework was used. MAX.QDA qualitative software package, 2010, was used to analyze the data. Results: The three main themes that emerged in this study were “alteration in physical health”, “engagement in psychological problems”, and “impairment in social relationships”. Alteration in physical health consisted of three subthemes, namely “impairment of physical function”, “change in body physics”, and “disturbance in sleep quality”. In addition, two subthemes including “nostalgia of pain in adults with hemophilia” and “psychological distress” emerged from engagement in psychological problems. Finally, “loss of social activity” and “change in relationships” were related to impairment in social relationships. Conclusion: The present study highlighted alteration in physical health, engagement in psychological problems, and impairment in social relationship as a result of pain in hemophilia patients. Thus, healthcare providers and family members have to pay special attention to these problems. Besides, providing complementary therapy interventions is suggested for reducing these issues. PMID:27713894
McCarley, Tracey H.
The dying patient reacts emotionally to the problems encountered in the terminal period according to his established pattern of response to stress. The nature of this pattern will play a part in his experience of pain. Some of the types of reaction include the bizarre misinterpretation of bodily sensation of the psychotic, the development of conversion symptoms, the increase in pain through muscle tension in the anxious but overcontrolled person, and the stoical acceptance by guilt-ridden patients. Physicians are sometimes reluctant to devote full attention to the care of the terminally ill for a number of reasons, including the attitude that “curing” is the only worthwhile activity of a doctor of medicine. Observers have found that the physician's attention to the day to day anxieties of the patient in a terminal stage may contribute substantially to his comfort. PMID:18732651
Kortlever, Joost T.P.; Janssen, Stein J.; Molleman, Jeroen; Hageman, Michiel G.J.S.; Ring, David
Background: Nonspecific symptoms are common in all areas of medicine. Patients and caregivers can be frustrated when an illness cannot be reduced to a discrete pathophysiological process that corresponds with the symptoms. We therefore asked the following questions: 1) Which demographic factors and psychological comorbidities are associated with change from an initial diagnosis of nonspecific arm pain to eventual identification of discrete pathophysiology that corresponds with symptoms? 2) What is the percentage of patients eventually diagnosed with discrete pathophysiology, what are those pathologies, and do they account for the symptoms? Methods: We evaluated 634 patients with an isolated diagnosis of nonspecific upper extremity pain to see if discrete pathophysiology was diagnosed on subsequent visits to the same hand surgeon, a different hand surgeon, or any physician within our health system for the same pain. Results: There were too few patients with discrete pathophysiology at follow-up to address the primary study question. Definite discrete pathophysiology that corresponded with the symptoms was identified in subsequent evaluations by the index surgeon in one patient (0.16% of all patients) and cured with surgery (nodular fasciitis). Subsequent doctors identified possible discrete pathophysiology in one patient and speculative pathophysiology in four patients and the index surgeon identified possible discrete pathophysiology in four patients, but the five discrete diagnoses accounted for only a fraction of the symptoms. Conclusion: Nonspecific diagnoses are not harmful. Prospective randomized research is merited to determine if nonspecific, descriptive diagnoses are better for patients than specific diagnoses that imply pathophysiology in the absence of discrete verifiable pathophysiology. PMID:27517064
Aboud, Frances E; Hiwot, Mismay G; Arega, Adefris; Molla, Mesfin; Samson, S; Seyoum, Nebyou; Ressom, Shewangizaw; Worku, Solomon; Mulatu, Mesfin; Egale, Tewedros
This paper presents for the first time an Amharic translation of the McGill Pain Questionnaire developed by Melzack and used in many countries around the world. It allows for a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the intensity, location, and nature of experienced pain, as well as conditions that relieve pain. Data collected from one hundred patients attending the Zwai Health Center indicated that 81% reported pain at the time, one-quarter of whom were in severe pain. The most commonly chosen descriptors were: burning, stabbing, sore, gnawing, aching, and cramping. Descriptors were often associated with certain diagnoses: burning with gastrointestinal problems, stabbing with respiratory diseases, and gnawing or aching with myalgia/neuralgia. Approximately 40% of those in pain had previously sought relief from a clinic or pharmacy and were attending the center because the pain persisted. Analgesics were more likely to be prescribed for those in mild pain, while other medication without analgesics were prescribed for those in severe pain. The McGill Pain Questionnaire--Amharic (MPQ-Am) could be a useful tool for future studies of illness-specific pain, and of the effectiveness of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical strategies for pain management.
van Dam van Isselt, Eléonore F; Groenewegen-Sipkema, Karin H; Spruit-van Eijk, Monica; Chavannes, Niels H; de Waal, Margot W M; Janssen, Daisy J A; Achterberg, Wilco P
Objectives To systematically investigate the prevalence of pain, factors related with pain and pain management interventions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and study eligibility criteria PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychINFO from 1966 to December 2013. Studies were included if they presented clinical data on pain or symptom burden in patients with COPD, or pain as a domain of quality of life (QoL). All types of study designs were included. Results Of the 1571 articles that were identified, 39 met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Fourteen studies focused on pain and symptom burden (including pain) in patients with COPD and 25 studies focused on QoL using a questionnaire that included a separate pain domain. Reported pain prevalence in high-quality studies ranged from 32 to 60%. Included studies report that pain is more prevalent in patients with COPD compared to participants from the general population. Comorbidity, nutritional status, QoL and several symptoms were related to pain. None of the included studies reported a significant relationship between lung function and pain prevalence or severity. However, studies investigating pain in patients with moderate COPD reported higher pain prevalence compared to studies in patients with severe of very severe COPD. Conclusions Although literature on this topic is limited and shows substantial heterogeneity, pain seems to be a significant problem in patients with COPD and is related to several other symptoms, comorbidity and QoL. Data synthesis suggests that pain is more prevalent in patients with moderate COPD compared to patients with severe or very severe COPD. Further research is needed and should focus on determining a more accurate pain prevalence, investigating the relationship between pain prevalence, disease severity and comorbidity and explore implementation and efficacy of pain management
Carli, Giancarlo; Suman, Anna Lisa; Biasi, Giovanni; Marcolongo, Roberto
In this study, we evaluated pain sensitivity in patients with fibromyalgia or other types of chronic, diffuse musculoskeletal pain to establish whether fibromyalgia represents the end of a continuum of dysfunction in the nociceptive system. One hundred and forty five patients and 22 healthy subjects (HS) completed an epidemiological questionnaire to provide information about fatigue, stiffness, sleep, the intensity of pain (VAS 0-100) and its extent both at onset and at present. Algometry was performed at all American College of Rheumatology (ACR) tender points and at ten control points. Patients were divided into five main groups: fibromyalgia (FS) patients, secondary-concomitant fibromyalgia (SCFS) patients, patients with widespread pain (WP) but not reaching the ACR criterion of 11 tender points, patients with diffuse multiregional pain (MP) not reaching the ACR criteria (widespread pain, tender point counts), and patients with multiregional pain associated with at least 11 tender points (MPTE). von Frey monofilaments were used to assess superficial punctate pressure pain thresholds. Heat and cold pain thresholds were determined with a thermal stimulator. Ischemic pain was assessed by the cold pressure test and the submaximal effort tourniquet test. The scores for stiffness and present pain intensity gradually increased concomitantly with the increase in tender point count and pain extent. The pressure pain thresholds for positive tender and positive control points were significantly lower in the SCFS, FS and MPTE groups than in HS, MP and WP groups, the latter three groups displaying similar values. In all groups, there were no differences in pain thresholds between positive tender and positive control points. The heat pain threshold and the pain threshold in the cold pressure test were lower in the FS and SCFS groups than in HS. The cold pressure tolerance was lower in patients with widespread pain than in HS. In the von Frey test, all patient groups except MP
Chang, C B; Cho, W S
In a prospective multicentre study we investigated variations in pain management used by knee arthroplasty surgeons in order to compare the differences in pain levels among patients undergoing total knee replacements (TKR), and to compare the effectiveness of pain management protocols. The protocols, peri-operative levels of pain and patient satisfaction were investigated in 424 patients who underwent TKR in 14 hospitals. The protocols were highly variable and peri-operative pain levels varied substantially, particularly during the first two post-operative days. Differences in levels of pain were greatest during the night after TKR, when visual analogue scores ranged from 16.9 to 94.3 points. Of the methods of managing pain, the combined use of peri-articular infiltration and nerve blocks provided better pain relief than other methods during the first two post-operative days. Patients managed with peri-articular injection plus nerve block, and epidural analgesia were more likely to have higher satisfaction at two weeks after TKR. This study highlights the need to establish a consistent pain management strategy after TKR.
Arai, Young-Chang P.; Makino, Izumi; Aono, Shuichi; Yasui, Hiromichi; Isai, Hideya; Nishihara, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Noboru; Kawai, Takashi; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Inoue, Shinsuke; Ushida, Takahiro
There are patients who suffer from persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder (PDAP) which is a pain of the teeth, either dentoalveolar pain or nonodontogenic toothache, and its cause has not yet been identified. An effective intervention for PDAP has not yet been established. Interventions for patients with PDAP are generally pharmacological treatments such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and pregabalin. However, these medicines are not always effective for patients. The pain disorder in the orofacial region including temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and PDAP was effectively treated with our original exercise therapy. However, we did observe some intractable cases of PDAP even when our original exercise therapy was used. This paper presents our findings in which Kamishoyosan improved the pain intensity in 14 out of 15 PDAP patients refractory to our original exercise therapy. PMID:26495024
Wasserman, A.G.; Katz, R.J.; Varghese, P.J.; Leiboff, R.H.; Bren, G.G.; Schlesselman, S.; Varma, V.M.; Reba, R.C.; Ross, A.M.
The effectiveness of exercise-treadmill testing in diagnosing coronary-artery disease in hypertensive patients is limited by a high rate of false positivity. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography, however, relies on different criteria (ejection fraction and wall motion), and we have evaluated this procedure in 37 hypertensive and 109 normotensive patients with chest pain, using coronary arteriography as an indicator of coronary disease. In the hypertensive cohort there was no difference in the ejection fraction at rest between the 17 patients with coronary disease and the 20 without it. Neither group had a significant mean (+/- S.E.M.) change in ejection fraction from rest to exercise (-1.9 +/- 2 and 1.4 +/- 1%, respectively). A wall-motion abnormality developed during exercise in 5 of the 17 hypertensive patients with coronary disease (29%) and in 4 of the 20 without it (20%) (P = not significant). In the normotensive cohort, however, the peak-exercise ejection fractions were significantly different. The 71 patients with coronary disease had a mean decrease of 3.6 +/- 1%, in contrast to the patients without coronary disease, who had an increase of +/- 1% (P < 0.001). An exercise-induced wall-motion abnormality was seen in 35 of the 71 patients with coronary disease (48%), as compared with 3 of the 38 without it (8%) (P < 0.001). We conclude that exercise radionuclide ventriculography is inadequate as a screening test for coronary atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients with chest pain. 28 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.
Ramprakash, Stalin; Fishman, Daniel
Juvenile fibromyalgia in children with sickle cell disease has not been reported in the literature. We report an adolescent patient with sickle cell whose pain symptoms progressed from having recurrent acute sickle cell pain crisis episodes to a chronic pain syndrome over several years. He was eventually diagnosed with juvenile fibromyalgia based on the clinical history and myofascial tender points and his pain symptoms responded better to multidisciplinary strategies for chronic fibromyalgia pain. Chronic pain in sickle cell disease is an area of poor research, and in addition there is inconsistency in the definition of chronic pain in sickle cell disease. Central sensitisation to pain is shown to occur after recurrent painful stimuli in a genetically vulnerable individual. In a chronic pain condition such as fibromyalgia central sensitisation is thought to play a key role. Fibromyalgia should be considered as one of the main differential diagnosis in any sickle cell patient with chronic pain.
Caraceni, Augusto; Davies, Andrew; Poulain, Philippe; Cortés-Funes, Hernán; Panchal, Sunil J; Fanelli, Guido
The moral imperative to adequately manage pain is being increasingly recognized worldwide. A comprehensive pain management approach that addresses the various presentations of pain in patients with cancer is required, including appropriate management of breakthrough pain. Breakthrough pain commonly occurs in patients with advanced cancer and is disabling to the individual and burdensome to society, yet it is often inadequately managed. Because pain is heterogeneous, the best management of an individual's pain, including breakthrough pain in cancer, requires a thorough assessment to tailor the treatment strategies. Recently developed guidelines support this approach and recommend treating breakthrough pain using rapid- or short-acting opioids with pharmacodynamics that mirror the rapid onset and short duration of the presenting pain. This approach should be part of a comprehensive strategy to treat pain within the context of the primary disease trajectory, offering continuity of care and access to specialized palliative care when appropriate.
Aytekin, Ebru; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Komut, Ece Akyol; Okur, Sibel Caglar; Burnaz, Ozer; Caglar, Nil Sayiner; Demiryontar, Dilay Yilmaz
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to assess the relationship between sleep disorder and pain, quality of life, and disability. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four patients were included in the study and classified as having mild, moderate, or severe obstructive sleep apnea. Chronic widespread pain, quality of life, and disability were evaluated. [Results] Forty-one patients (55.4%) had chronic widespread pain. Female patients had a higher incidence of chronic pain, and female patients with chronic pain had higher body mass indexes, pain levels, and disability scores than did male patients. Physical component scores of female patients with chronic pain were lower than those of male patients. No correlation was observed between the degree of sleep disorder and severity of pain, pain duration, disability, or quality of life in obstructive sleep apnea patients with pain. [Conclusion] This study showed a 55.4% prevalence of chronic widespread pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a greater risk of chronic pain in female than in male patients. Female patients with obstructive sleep apnea and chronic pain have higher pain and disability levels and a lower quality of life. PMID:26504332
DeGood, Douglas E.; And Others
Examined group differences in self-reporting anxiety for one hundred chronic pain patients, an equal number of college students, and two smaller comparison samples. Pain patients, relative to nonpatients, acknowledged dramatically fewer total signs of anxiety. Also, pain patients endorsed significantly more somatic than cognitive indicators of…
Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Lin, Guo-Hong; Hsu, Ar-Tyan
In this study, a portable electromyogram (EMG) system and a stimulator are developed for patellofemoral pain syndrome patients, with the objective of reducing the pain experienced by these patients; the patellar pain is caused by an imbalance between the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and the vastus lateralis (VL). The EMG measurement circuit and the electrical stimulation device proposed in this study are specifically designed for the VMO and the VL; they are capable of real-time waveform recording, possess analyzing functions, and can upload their measurement data to a computer for storage and analysis. The system can calculate and record the time difference between the EMGs of the VMO and the VL, as well as the signal strengths of both the EMGs. As soon as the system detects the generation of the EMG of the VL, it quickly calculates and processes the event and stimulates the VMO as feedback through electrical stimulation units, in order to induce its contraction. The system can adjust the signal strength, time length, and the sequence of the electrical stimulation, both manually and automatically. The output waveform of the electrical stimulation circuit is a dual-phase asymmetrical pulse waveform. The primary function of the electrical simulation circuit is to ensure that the muscles contract effectively. The performance of the device can be seen that the width of each pulse is 20-1000 μs, the frequency of each pulse is 10-100 Hz, and current strength is 10-60 mA.
Danziger, Nicolas; Faillenot, Isabelle; Peyron, Roland
Theories of empathy differ regarding the relative contributions of automatic resonance and perspective taking in understanding others' emotions. Patients with the rare syndrome of congenital insensitivity to pain cannot rely on "mirror matching" (i.e., resonance) mechanisms to understand the pain of others. Nevertheless, they showed normal fMRI responses to observed pain in anterior mid-cingulate cortex and anterior insula, two key regions of the so-called "shared circuits" for self and other pain. In these patients (but not in healthy controls), empathy trait predicted ventromedial prefrontal responses to somatosensory representations of others' pain and posterior cingulate responses to emotional representations of others' pain. These findings underline the major role of midline structures in emotional perspective taking and understanding someone else's feeling despite the lack of any previous personal experience of it--an empathic challenge frequently raised during human social interactions.
Martínez, María Pilar; Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Miró, Elena; Medina, Ana; Lami, María José
This study examined the relationship between several cognitive-affective factors of the fear-avoidance model of pain, the big five model of personality, and functional impairment in fibromyalgia (FM). Seventy-four FM patients completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20, the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire, and the Impairment and Functioning Inventory. Results indicated that the cognitive-affective factors of pain are differentially associated with personality traits. Neuroticism and conscientiousness were significant predictors of pain catastrophizing, and neuroticism, openness, and agreeableness were significant predictors of pain anxiety. Personality traits did not contribute significantly to vigilance to pain. The effect of neuroticism upon pain anxiety was mediated by pain catastrophizing, and neuroticism showed a trend to moderate the relationship between impairment and pain anxiety. Results support the fear-avoidance model of pain. Implications of the findings for the understanding and management of FM are discussed.
Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; van Wijhe, Marten
Due to the lack of a specific diagnostic tool for neuropathic pain, a grading system to categorize pain as ‘definite’, ‘probable’, ‘possible’ and ‘unlikely’ neuropathic was proposed. Somatosensory abnormalities are common in neuropathic pain and it has been suggested that a greater number of abnormalities would be present in patients with ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ grades. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the presence of somatosensory abnormalities by means of Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of neuropathic pain and correlated the number of sensory abnormalities and sensory profiles to the different grades. Of patients who were clinically diagnosed with neuropathic pain, only 60% were graded as ‘definite’ or ‘probable’, while 40% were graded as ‘possible’ or ‘unlikely’ neuropathic pain. Apparently, there is a mismatch between a clinical neuropathic pain diagnosis and neuropathic pain grading. Contrary to the expectation, patients with ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ grades did not have a greater number of abnormalities. Instead, similar numbers of somatosensory abnormalities were identified for each grade. The profiles of sensory signs in ‘definite’ and ‘probable’ neuropathic pain were not significantly different, but different from the ‘unlikely’ grade. This latter difference could be attributed to differences in the prevalence of patients with a mixture of sensory gain and loss and with sensory loss only. The grading system allows a separation of neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain based on profiles but not on the total number of sensory abnormalities. Our findings indicate that patient selection based on grading of neuropathic pain may provide advantages in selecting homogenous groups for clinical research. PMID:22927981
Haas, Mitchell; Nyiendo, Joanne; Aickin, Mikel
Clinicians use patients' recall of pain and disability relief as indicators of therapeutic effectiveness. Recall can change over time, however, and is influenced by factors other than true relief, including current health status. We have determined the trend in the relative contribution of current pain/disability and actual relief (current-baseline score) to relief recall over the course of 1 year. Self-referred patients (n=1182) seeking treatment from primary-care medical doctors and chiropractors in community-based clinics were asked to record present pain and disability, as well as perceived relief at five follow-up time points from 2 weeks to 12 months after initial consultation for acute and chronic low back pain (LBP). Multiple regression analysis was performed at each time point and over the five follow-up time points. We found a clear logarithmic time trend of increasing dependence of pain relief recall on present pain (P<0.0001) and a concomitant pattern of decreasing dependence on actual pain relief (P<0.0001). The patterns are fairly consistent for acute and chronic patients. The principal independent predictor of perceived pain/disability relief appears to be present pain/disability with actual relief playing a smaller role at all time points (P<0.0001) except for disability relief recall at 2 weeks (P=0.103). The findings are robust in LBP sufferers. Complaint characteristics including LBP chronicity, sciatica, LBP history, and comorbidity; psychosocial variables including stress, depression, and well being; sociodemographics; and treating provider type are not important independent predictors of pain and disability relief recall in ambulatory LBP patients. Perceived relief is too weakly related to present pain and disability to be accurate enough for use as a clinical assessment tool for individual patients. Physicians may need to use objective relief data to give the patient a realistic idea of actual improvement.
Packman, Wendy L.; Crittenden, Mary R.; Fischer, Jodie B. Rieger; Cowan, Morton J.; Long, Janet K.; Gruenert, Carol; Schaeffer, Evonne; Bongar, Bruce
Utilizes the Kinetic Family Drawings-Revised (KFD-R) to measure siblings' (N=44) feelings and attitudes toward bone marrow transplants. Data from drawings and discussions with siblings underscore that not all children are affected by stress in the same way. How a particular child responds depends on factors such as life history, personality,…
Rash, Joshua A; Prkachin, Kenneth M; Campbell, Tavis S
BACKGROUND: Top-down characteristics of an observer influence the detection and estimation of a sufferer’s pain. A comprehensive understanding of these characteristics is important because they influence observer helping behaviours and the sufferer’s experience of pain. OBJECTIVES: To examine the hypothesis that individuals who score high in trait anxiety would perceive more intense pain in others, as indicated by a larger negative response bias, and that this association would persist after adjusting for pain catastrophizing. METHODS: Healthy young adult participants (n=99; 50 male) watched videos containing excerpts of facial expressions taken from patients with shoulder pain and were asked to rate how much pain the patient was experiencing using an 11-point numerical rating scale. Sensitivity and response bias were calculated using signal detection methods. RESULTS: Trait anxiety was a predictor of response bias after statistically adjusting for pain catastrophizing and observer sex. More anxious individuals had a proclivity toward imputing greater pain to a sufferer. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals scoring higher on trait anxiety were more likely to impute pain to a sufferer. Anxious caregivers may be better able to respond with appropriate intervention once pain behaviour is detected, or they may exacerbate symptoms by engaging in excessive palliative care and solicitous behaviour. PMID:25299592
Hori, Natsuki; Konishi, Toshiro
For relief from cancer pain, we developed critical pathway (CP) as an effective strategy for the medical staff treating cancer patients. This CP was made out of Microsoft Excel, and was used on personal computers. "Good sleeping" was set as the first goal and the second was "No pain in rest position." To achieve this, physicians and nurses evaluate medical efficacy and complications including nausea/vomiting, constipation, somnolence and hallucination everyday using controlled release oxycodone in addition to NSAIDs and prochlorperazine, stool softener and peristaltic stimulant for adverse effects. These outcomes lead to the medication change the next day by calculation using visual basic function due to opioid titration theory. In twelve patients this CP was acceptable, and all of them achieved the second goal within a week without severe adverse effects except constipation.
Mejersjö, Christina; Näslund, Ingrid
With the aim of studying frequency of aural symptoms and associations with symptoms of TMD new patients referred to the Orofacial Pain Clinic, Odontologen, Göteborg, were asked, at their first appointment and before meeting a specialist, to report any symptoms regarding pain or fullness/swelling of the ear, impaired hearing, sensitivity to sound, and irritation/itching of the ear. They also answered a standardized questionnaire regarding temporomandibular pain and/or dysfunction, and classified their degree of TMD symptoms on a five-point verbal scale and a visual analogue scale. 108 consecutive patients were included in the study, they completed the questionnaires and were examined and diagnosed by different specialists at the clinic. Any ear symptoms were reported by 68% of the patients, fullness of ear by 44% and impaired hearing by 37%. 38% of the patients had previously consulted a physician, and most of them had had pharmacological treatment due to their ear symptoms. Females reported more pain in the ear (P = 0.034) and more sensitivityto sound (P = 0.046) than men. No significant association was found between age and aural symptoms. The degree of TMD- symptoms, as reported by the five grade scale, showed significant association with aural symptoms (P < 0.001), as did the clinical dysfunction index of Helkimo (P = 0.005). The diagnoses of myalgia, arthralgia, arthritis and headache showed significant association with aural symptoms, while no association with crepitus (osteoartrosis) and disc displacement. Itching in the ear was frequently reported (24%) and was associated with myalgia (P = 0.003) and tension headache (P = 0.018). A medical examination by an ear-nose-throat specialist of 19 patients reporting a sensation of fullness of ear, did not reveal any objectifiable ear disease. To conclude, aural symptoms are common in patients with temporomandibular pain and/or dysfunction, are associated with TMD-symptoms and should be regarded as possible symptoms
Crowell, Michael S; Wofford, Nancy H
Objectives: A recent clinical prediction rule (CPR) identified characteristics that may predict an immediate reduction in pain following lumbopelvic manipulation in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. The purpose of this single-arm cohort study was to replicate the proposed CPR in a different population and investigate changes in self-reported pain, hip range of motion, strength, and function immediately following lumbopelvic manipulation. Methods: Forty-four subjects (63·6% female; mean age 27·4 years) met inclusion criteria. Hip internal rotation range of motion, lower extremity strength using a handheld dynamometer, and single/triple hop tests were assessed prior to and immediately following a spinal manipulation. A global rating of change questionnaire was administered after testing and telephonically at 1 week. Paired t-tests compared pre- and post-manipulation range of motion, strength, and hop test limb symmetry indices (α = 0·05). Results: Fifty-seven percent of subjects had a successful outcome measured by the numerical pain rating scale immediately following manipulation. Twenty-five of subjects experienced a successful outcome as measured by the global rating of change questionnaire at 1 week. No single individual or combination of predictor variables predicted a positive outcome immediately following the lumbopelvic manipulation (+likelihood ratio 0·7 with three of five predictor variables present). Statistically significant differences (P<0·05) were found in hip extension and abduction strength and hip internal rotation symmetry post-manipulation, but do not appear to be clinically meaningful. Discussion: The previously identified CPR was not able to be replicated and no clinically meaningful changes in range of motion, strength, or function were apparent. Future research should focus on a comprehensive impairment-based treatment approach in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:23904749
Kyle, B N; McNeil, D W; Weaver, B; Wilson, T
Dental patients generally recall more pain than they originally report, with ratings of pain related to state anxiety and dental fear, but the role of depression in recall of dental pain remains uncertain. This study examined the relative contributions of different variables in explaining dental pain recalled after tooth extraction. Patients presenting for tooth extraction, prior to extraction, rated their current dental pain and state anxiety, prediction of pain and state anxiety during extraction, depression, and dental fear. Immediately postprocedure and then 1 mo later, patients rated their pain and state anxiety during extraction. Hierarchical linear regression equations were used to explain variance in recalled pain and state anxiety. In addition, patients were divided into high and low dental fear and depression groups and compared on ratings of pain and state anxiety across time. In a final sample of 157 patients, the most important predictors of recalled pain were pain reported during extraction (β = .53) and recalled state anxiety (β = .52). Dental fear and depression had a significant interaction: only when patients reported less depression did those patients who reported more dental fear also report more pain than patients who reported less dental fear (P < 0.05, ω(2) = .07). Patients who reported more depression entered the dental operatory reporting more pain, but all patients generally reported less pain during extraction than they predicted or recalled. Memory of state anxiety and pain reported during tooth extraction, not depression or state anxiety at the time of extraction, were critical factors in memory of the pain associated with the procedure. At higher levels of depression, patients higher and lower in dental fear did not differ in report of pain. Future studies are needed to further clarify interactions of depression and dental fear over time.
Goesling, Jenna; Brummett, Chad M.; Meraj, Taha S.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Hassett, Afton L.; Ditre, Joseph W.
Objective As smoking impacts physiological pathways in the central nervous system, it is important to consider the association between smoking and fibromyalgia, a pain condition caused predominantly by central nervous system dysfunction. The objectives were to assess the prevalence of current smoking among treatment-seeking chronic pain patients with (FM+) and without (FM−) a fibromyalgia-like phenotype; test the individual and combined influence of smoking and fibromyalgia on pain severity and interference; and examine depression as a mediator of these processes. Methods Questionnaire data from 1566 patients evaluated for a range of conditions at an outpatient pain clinic were used. The 2011 Survey Criteria for Fibromyalgia were used to assess the presence of symptoms associated with fibromyalgia. Results Current smoking was reported by 38.7% of FM+ patients compared to 24.7% of FM− patients. FM+ smokers reported higher pain and greater interference compared to FM+ nonsmokers, FM− smokers, and FM− nonsmokers. There was no interaction between smoking and fibromyalgia. Significant indirect effects of fibromyalgia and smoking via greater depression were observed for pain severity and interference. Conclusions Current smoking and positive fibromyalgia status were associated with greater pain and impairment among chronic pain patients, possibly as a function of depression. Although FM+ smokers report the most negative clinical symptomatology (i.e., high pain, greater interference) smoking does not appear to have a unique association with pain or functioning in FM+ patients, rather the effect is additive. The 38.7% smoking rate in FM+ patients is high, suggesting FM+ smokers present a significant clinical challenge. PMID:25801019
Bookout, Michelle L; Staffileno, Beth A; Budzinsky, Christine M
Patient-centered care is a key driver for the nation's health system, yet patient experience surveys indicate that hospitals are far from achieving favorable outcomes. Partnering with patients and families through a patient and family advisory council (PFAC) advances the practice of patient-centered care to improve outcomes and experiences. This article describes the process of implementing a PFAC and presents outcomes related to patients' perception of pain management in the acute care hospital setting.
Jonsdottir, Thorbjorg; Gunnarsdottir, Sigridur; Oskarsson, Gudmundur K; Jonsdottir, Helga
Pain is a personal experience and patient-provider communication therefore an essential part of diagnosis and treatment where the patient's perspective needs to be central. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to investigate chronic-pain-related patient-provider communication in the context of sociodemographic variables, pain variables, perceived outcome of care, and satisfaction with health care providers. A postal questionnaire measuring socio-demographic variables, pain characteristics, pain-related health care utilization and patient-provider communication was sent to a sample of 4,500 individuals randomly drawn from the national population of Iceland. A subsample reporting chronic pain and having visited a health care provider for pain the previous six months (n = 401) was analyzed. Relationships between patient-provider communication and other measured variables were tested using bivariate and multivariate statistics. The more chronic pain impaired health-related quality of life, the more provider control the patients perceived in the patient-provider communication. There was also a strong negative relationship between patients' perception of providers' support and openness to discussing symptoms, and satisfaction with health care provider. Patients' perception of their own control in patient-provider communication and involvement in decisions regarding care was related to sociodemographic variables (specifically, education and residence) but not to pain related variables. This study highlights the importance of assessing chronic pain in a broad spectrum, listening, and giving patients time and support to communicate chronic pain and how it affects their life situation. The more interfering the pain is, the more important this is.
Citaker, Seyit; Kaya, Defne; Yuksel, Inci; Yosmaoglu, Baran; Nyland, John; Atay, Ozgur Ahmet; Doral, Mahmut Nedim
Background: The relationship between one-leg static standing balance (OLSSB) and patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is unknown. Hypothesis: OLSSB decreases in patients with PFPS. Design: Prospective case series. Methods: Fifty-two women with unilateral PFPS were enrolled in this study. OLSSB was evaluated with a stabilometer. Q angle was measured with a lengthened-arm universal goniometer. Lower extremity alignment was analyzed with full-length standing anteroposterior teleroentgenograms. Quadriceps and hamstring strength was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer. Results: There were significant differences in OLSSB, Q angle, and strength of quadriceps and hamstring between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides. There was a correlation between the strength of the quadriceps and hamstring and OLSSB, while there was no correlation between OLSSB and the severity of pain, lower extremity alignment, and Q angle on the symptomatic side. Conclusions: OLSSB and quadriceps and hamstring strength decreased and Q angle increased on the symptomatic side in PFPS patients. A relationship between OLSSB and pain, Q angle, and lower extremity alignment was not detected, while there was a correlation between the strength of the quadriceps and hamstring and OLSSB. Clinical Relevance: A quadriceps and hamstring strengthening may be beneficial to improve OLSSB in patients with PFPS. PMID:23016053
López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Beltran-Alacreu, Hector; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Angulo-Díaz-Parreño, Santiago; La Touche, Roy
Objectives This cross-sectional correlation study explored the relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with chronic cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP). Moreover, we investigated the test–retest intrarater reliability of two craniocervical posture measurements: head posture (HP) and the sternomental distance (SMD). Methods Fifty-three asymptomatic subjects and 60 CCFP patients were recruited. One rater measured HP and the SMD using a cervical range of motion device and a digital caliper, respectively. The Spanish versions of the neck disability index and the craniofacial pain and disability inventory were used to assess pain-related disability (neck disability and craniofacial disability, respectively). Results We found no statistically significant correlations between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability variables (HP and neck disability [r=0.105; P>0.05]; HP and craniofacial disability [r=0.132; P>0.05]; SMD and neck disability [r=0.126; P>0.05]; SMD and craniofacial disability [r=0.195; P>0.05]). A moderate positive correlation was observed between HP and SMD for both groups (asymptomatic subjects, r=0.447; CCFP patients, r=0.52). Neck disability was strongly positively correlated with craniofacial disability (r=0.79; P<0.001). The test–retest intrarater reliability of the HP measurement was high for asymptomatic subjects and CCFP patients (intraclass correlation coefficients =0.93 and 0.81, respectively) and for SMD (intra-class correlation coefficient range between 0.76 and 0.99); the test–retest intrarater reliability remained high when evaluated 9 days later. The HP standard error of measurement range was 0.54–0.75 cm, and the minimal detectable change was 1.27–1.74 cm. The SMD standard error of measurement was 2.75–6.24 mm, and the minimal detectable change was 6.42–14.55 mm. Independent t-tests showed statistically significant differences between the asymptomatic individuals and CCFP
Saulino, M; Burton, A W; Danyo, D A; Frost, S; Glanzer, J; Solanki, D R
Seven cases of combination of intrathecal (IT) ziconotide and baclofen therapy in patients with refractory neuropathic pain and spasticity were reviewed. Five of the seven adult patients were receiving IT baclofen treatment when ziconotide was initiated. All five patients had experienced at least one previous failed IT treatment regimen. Pain intensity scores improved by a mean of 50.3% with the use of ziconotide-baclofen therapy. Mean time to onset of pain relief was 15 weeks, at a mean ziconotide dose of 3.7 microg/day. Within this group of patients, adverse events were observed in one patient, but they were not considered to be ziconotide related and subsequently resolved. The remaining two patients were receiving ziconotide treatment when baclofen was initiated. Pain intensity scores improved by 75% and 30%, respectively. Pain relief was evident at two weeks and one week, with corresponding ziconotide doses of 2.4 microg/day and 14.4 microg/day, respectively. One patient in this group reported adverse events, but all resolved during continued treatment with the study drugs. Treatment regimens varied between patients in these case series; each regimen used a different titration strategy and different concentrations of ziconotide and baclofen. Combination IT ziconotide and baclofen therapy may be a treatment option for patients with neuropathic pain and spasticity. Future studies are warranted to determine the optimal dosing and titration schedules for ziconotide-baclofen usage.
Brito, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de; Sohsten, Ana Karla Arraes von; Leitão, Clezio Cordeiro de Sá; Brito, Rita de Cássia Coelho Moraes de; Valadares, Lilian David De Azevedo; Fonte, Caroline Araújo Magnata da; Mesquita, Zelina Barbosa de; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio; Luz, Kleber; Leão, Helena Maria Carneiro; Brito, Cecília Moraes de; Frutuoso, Lívia Carla Vinhal
From the arrival of Chikungunya virus in the Americas in 2013 until March 2016, approximately two million cases of the disease have been reported. In Brazil, the virus was identified in 2014 and thousands of people have been affected. The disease has high attack rates, infecting 50% of a population within a few months. Approximately 50% of infected people develop chronic symptoms lasting for months or years. Joint involvement is the main clinical manifestation of Chikungunya. It is characterized by swelling and intense pain that is poorly responsive to analgesics, both in the acute and chronic phase of the disease. This significantly compromises quality of life and may have immeasurable psychosocial and economic repercussions, constituting therefore, a serious public health problem requiring a targeted approach. Physicians are often not familiar with how to approach the management of pain, frequently prescribing limited analgesics, such as dipyrone, in sub-therapeutic doses. In addition, there are few published studies or guidelines on the approach to the treatment of pain in patients with Chikungunya. Some groups of specialists from different fields have thus developed a protocol for the pharmacologic treatment of Chikungunya-associated acute and chronic joint pain; this will be presented in this review.
Channer, K S; James, M A; Papouchado, M; Rees, J R
Seventy-two patients with chest pain and negative exercise tests were observed. Twenty-one (29 per cent) became pain free but 51 (71 per cent) continued to complain of chest pain. Patients with persistent pain were significantly more anxious and depressed at presentation and later compared with those who had become pain free. Anxiety and particularly depression, at presentation and later, were significantly associated with severe symptoms. Patients with chest pain associated with neurosis and depression are not reassured by physiological stress testing because their physical symptoms are a feature of underlying psychiatric disease.
Burgess, Ann W.; Hartman, Carol R.
This paper reviews the literature on projective drawing tests and child sexual abuse, focusing on children's drawings as an associative tool for memory. The use of the event drawing series, which is a series of seven drawings by a child that graphically present the child's thinking about a specific event, is discussed. (JDD)
Duong, Vicky; Maher, Chris G; Steffens, Daniel; Li, Qiang; Hancock, Mark J
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various weather parameters on pain intensity levels in patients with acute low back pain (LBP). We performed a secondary analysis using data from the PACE trial that evaluated paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the treatment of acute LBP. Data on 1604 patients with LBP were included in the analysis. Weather parameters (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and air pressure) were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Pain intensity was assessed daily on a 0-10 numerical pain rating scale over a 2-week period. A generalised estimating equation analysis was used to examine the relationship between daily pain intensity levels and weather in three different time epochs (current day, previous day, and change between previous and current days). A second model was adjusted for important back pain prognostic factors. The analysis did not show any association between weather and pain intensity levels in patients with acute LBP in each of the time epochs. There was no change in strength of association after the model was adjusted for prognostic factors. Contrary to common belief, the results demonstrated that the weather parameters of precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and air pressure did not influence the intensity of pain reported by patients during an episode of acute LBP.
Omori, Shigeki; Isose, Sagiri; Misawa, Sonoko; Watanabe, Keisuke; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Beppu, Minako; Amino, Hiroshi; Kuwabara, Satoshi
Neuropathic pain can result from neuronal hyperexcitability and complex interactions of the nociceptive pathways. Intraepidermal electrical stimulation (IES) is a novel technique that can selectively activate Aδ and C fibers. To investigate patterns of changes in Aδ- and C-mediated brain responses in patients with neuropathic pain using IES, we recorded pain-related evoked potential (PREP) after IES of Aδ and C fibers in 20 patients with neuropathic pain and 15 age-matched healthy volunteers. We evaluated PREP latencies, amplitudes, and amplitude ratios of PREPs after C/Aδ-fiber stimulation. PREP amplitudes after Aδ-fiber stimulation tended to be smaller in the patient group, whereas there were no significant differences in amplitudes after C-fiber stimulation between the patient and normal control groups. PREP amplitude ratios after C/Aδ-fiber stimulation were significantly greater in the patient group than in the control group, and the higher ratio tended to be associated with a greater visual analog scale score. Patients with neuropathic pain had a tendency towards decreased Aδ amplitudes and significantly increased C/Aδ PREP amplitude ratios and this ratio appeared to be associated with the intensity of pain. Our findings suggest that decreased inhibition of the Aδ to C nociceptive systems is associated with generation of neuropathic pain.
Nino-Murcia, M; Jeffrey, R B
A variety of high-resolution imaging techniques are currently available for the evaluation of patients with RUQ pain. In these patients, an imaging approach that is based on identifying the presence of certain clinical signs and symptoms can aid in choosing the appropriate imaging modality and establishing the diagnosis. For patients presenting with a positive Murphy sign, sonography and biliary scintigraphy are the most useful initial imaging techniques. In patients with fever and a negative Murphy sign, a combination of sonography and contrast-enhanced CT can establish the diagnosis in most cases. And finally, in patients without fever or a positive Murphy sign, CT and MR are appropriate first-line imaging techniques.
Altman, Roy; Daniels, Stephen; Young, Clarence L
Although frequently prescribed to relieve acute pain in patients, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with dose-related gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal complications. Investigational, submicron particle NSAIDs are being developed that could provide effective pain relief at lower doses than currently available oral NSAIDs. This is the first phase 3 study evaluating the analgesic efficacy and safety of lower-dose indomethacin submicron particle capsules in patients following elective surgery. This multicenter, double-blind study enrolled patients aged 18 to 68 years who underwent bunionectomy under regional anesthesia. Patients with a pain intensity rating of ≥40 mm on a 100-mm Visual Analog Scale were randomized to receive indomethacin submicron particle capsules (40 mg 3 times daily [TID], 40 mg twice daily [BID], or 20 mg TID), celecoxib (400 mg loading dose, then 200 mg BID), or placebo. The primary efficacy parameter was the overall (summed) pain intensity difference measured by a Visual Analog Scale during a period of 48 hours. Scheduled assessments measured secondary efficacy parameters such as patient pain intensity differences. Indomethacin submicron particle capsules 40 mg 3 times daily (509.6 ± 91.9 overall [summed] pain intensity difference), 40 mg twice daily (328.0 ± 92.9 overall [summed] pain intensity difference), and 20 mg 3 times daily (380.5 ± 92.9 overall [summed] pain intensity difference) reduced pain intensity from 0 to 48 hours (P ≤ 0.046 for all 3 groups) compared with placebo (67.8 ± 91.4 overall [summed] pain intensity difference). There was some evidence of patient analgesia for celecoxib (279.4 ± 91.9 overall [summed] pain intensity difference; P = 0.103). Some evidence of pain control was observed in patients as early as 2 hours following administration of indomethacin submicron particle capsules and was sustained throughout the treatment period. Indomethacin submicron particle capsules were
Ito, Kenyu; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Sadayuki; Harada, Atsushi
Study Design Preliminary study. Purpose To assess the association of neuropathic pain with chronic low back pain (LBP) and the effect of pregabalin on neuropathic pain in the elderly. Overview of Literature Of those with chronic LBP, 37% were predominantly presenting with neuropathic pain in young adults. Pregabalin is effective for pain in patients with diabetic neuropathy and peripheral neuralgia. No study has reported on the effects of pregabalin for chronic LBP in elderly patients yet. Methods Pregabalin was administered to 32 patients (age, ≥65 years) with chronic LBP for 4 weeks. Pain and activities of daily living were assessed using the Neuropathic Pain Screening Questionnaire (NePSQ), the pain DETECT questionnaire, visual analog scale, the Japanese Orthopedic Association score, the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Modic change and spinal canal stenosis were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Altogether, 43.3% of patients had neuropathic pain according to the NePSQ and 15.6% patients had pain according to the pain DETECT. The efficacy rate of pregabalin was 73.3%. A significant effect was observed in patients with neuropathic pain after 4 weeks of administration. Conclusions Neuropathic pain was slightly less frequently associated with chronic LBP in the elderly. Pregabalin was effective in reducing pain in patients with chronic LBP accompanied with neuropathic pain. Lumbar spinal stenosis and lower limb symptoms were observed in patients with neuropathic pain. We recommend the use of pregabalin for patients after evaluating a screening score, clinical symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging studies. PMID:25901238
Rayner, Lauren; Hotopf, Matthew; Petkova, Hristina; Matcham, Faith; Simpson, Anna; McCracken, Lance M
This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and impact of depression on health care costs in patients with complex chronic pain. The sample included 1204 patients attending a tertiary pain management service for people with chronic disabling pain, unresponsive to medical treatment. As part of routine care, patients completed a web-based questionnaire assessing mental and physical health, functioning, and service use in the preceding 3 months. Depression was assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Self-report health care utilisation was measured across 4 domains: general practitioner contacts, contacts with secondary/tertiary care doctors, accident and emergency department visits, and days hospitalised. The participation rate was 89%. Seven hundred and thirty-two patients (60.8%; 95% CI 58.0-63.6) met criteria for probable depression, and 407 (33.8%) met the threshold for severe depression. Patients with depression were more likely to be unable to work because of ill health and reported greater work absence, greater pain-related interference with functioning, lower pain acceptance, and more generalised pain. Mean total health care costs per 3-month period were £731 (95% CI £646-£817) for patients with depression, compared with £448 (95% CI £366-£530) for patients without depression. A positive association between severe depression and total health care costs persisted after controlling for key demographic, functional, and clinical covariates using multiple linear regression models. These findings reveal the extent, severity, and impact of depression in patients with chronic pain and make evident a need for action. Effective treatment of depression may improve patient health and functioning and reduce the burden of chronic pain on health care services.
Bahouq, H; Allali, F; Rkain, H; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N
This study aims to explore patient's concerns when discussing sexual problems caused by chronic low back pain with their healthcare provider. It also aims to identify factors influencing and limiting such communication. A cross-sectional analysis of 100 consenting chronic low back pain sexually active patients was carried out. Patients answered questions on their disease characteristics and sex life. They also mentioned prohibitions of discussing sex with their healthcare provider and their expectations of such discussion. Factors influencing patient's experiences were analyzed. Median of chronic low back pain duration was 36 (24-72) months and back pain intensity using visual analogical scale (0-100 mm) was 50 ± 10.7 mm. Eighty-one percent of our patients complained of sexual problems, 66 % have never discussed the subject with their healthcare provider. Barriers which prevent discussion on sex include the taboo character of the topic, inappropriateness of visit conditions, and patient disinterest in sex. Ninety-three percent of patients expressed the need of sexual problems' management in chronic low back pain consulting. Seventy-four percent expected information and advice from their healthcare provider about recommended intercourse positions so as to avoid pain. Thirty-three percent of patients wanted their partner to be involved in the discussion and 81 % preferred talking with a healthcare provider of the same gender. Ability to communicate on the topic was associated with the decrease of patient sexual satisfaction and limited by patient illiteracy. Our study evidences that sex discussion between patient and healthcare provider is restricted by several barriers and that patients expect more involvement from their healthcare provider on the subject. Illiteracy and level of sexual satisfaction seem to be the strongest factors influencing this communication.
Merlin, Jessica S.; Walcott, Melonie; Ritchie, Christine; Herbey, Ivan; Kertesz, Stefan G.; Chamot, Eric; Saag, Michael; Turan, Janet M.
Objective Chronic pain is common in HIV-infected individuals. Understanding HIV-infected patients’ chronic pain experience not just from a biological, but also from a psychological perspective, is a critical first step toward improving care for this population. Our objective was to explore HIV-infected patients’ perspectives on psychological aspects of chronic pain using in-depth qualitative interviews. Methods Investigators engaged in an iterative process of independent and group coding until theme saturation was reached. Results Of the 25 patients with chronic pain interviewed, 20 were male, 15 were younger than age 50, and 15 were African-American. Key themes that emerged included the close relationship between mood and pain; mood and pain in the context of living with HIV; use of alcohol/drugs to self-medicate for pain; and the challenge of receiving prescription pain medications while dealing with substance use disorders. Conclusions The results suggest that psychological approaches to chronic pain treatment may be well received by HIV-infected patients. PMID:25365306
Willigenburg, Nienke W; Kingma, Idsart; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H
Motor control is challenged in tasks with high precision demands. In such tasks, signal-dependent neuromuscular noise causes errors and proprioceptive feedback is required for optimal performance. Pain may affect proprioception, muscle activation patterns and resulting kinematics. Therefore, we investigated precision control of trunk movement in 18 low back pain (LBP) patients and 13 healthy control subjects. The subjects performed a spiral-tracking task requiring precise trunk movements, in conditions with and without disturbance of proprioception by lumbar muscle vibration. Tracking task performance and trunk muscle electromyography were recorded. In conditions without lumbar muscle vibration, tracking errors were 27.1% larger in LBP patients compared to healthy controls. Vibration caused tracking errors to increase by 10.5% in healthy controls, but not in LBP patients. These results suggest that reduced precision in LBP patients might be explained by proprioceptive deficits. Ratios of antagonistic over agonistic muscle activation were similar between groups. Tracking errors increased trunk inclination, but no significant relation between tracking error and agonistic muscle activation was found. Tracking errors did not decrease when antagonistic muscle activation increased, so, neither healthy subjects nor LBP patients appear to counteract trunk movement errors by increasing co-contraction.
Tang, Nicole K Y
Chronic pain and insomnia often occur simultaneously, with the vast majority of chronic pain patients complaining of interrupted or poor quality sleep. The need to improve sleep in these patients is clear, given increasing evidence that sleep disturbance is associated with heightened pain sensitivity and elevated disability. This article evaluates the efficacy of pain management programs (PMPs) based on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) principles and CBT for primary insomnia (CBT-I) in treating pain-related insomnia. Although PMPs effectively enhance pain management skills in patients, they do not adequately address insomnia. CBT-I has demonstrated strong efficacy in treating pain-related insomnia, but sleep improvement is not followed by pain reduction. As both CBT approaches involve strengths and limitations, a hybrid form of treatment is needed that simultaneously addresses pain and sleep.
Michaels, Teresa King; Hubbartt, Elizabeth; Carroll, Suzanne A; Hudson-Barr, Diane
Pain assessment is a multifaceted process. A common assumption is that all nurses have the same baseline knowledge about pain, a potentially erroneous assumption that influences clinical practice. Nurses have varied experiences in education and pain management. This article describes a research project conducted by the hospital's clinical nurse specialist group to evaluate the effects of a nursing education program on pain assessment and pain management of hospitalized patients in an 841-bed academic medical center.
Gunnarsson, Helena; Grahn, Birgitta; Agerström, Jens
Background and aims Patients with pain have shown cognitive impairment across various domains. Although the pain qualities vary among patients, research has overlooked how cognitive performance is affected by the duration and persistence of pain. The current study sought to fill this gap by examining how qualitatively different pain states relate to the following cognitive functions: sustained attention, cognitive control, and psychomotor ability. Patients and methods Patients with musculoskeletal pain in primary care were divided into three pain groups: acute pain (duration <3 months), regularly recurrent pain (duration >3 months), and persistent pain (duration >3 months). These groups were then compared with healthy controls. The MapCog Spectra Test, the Color Word Test, and the Grooved Pegboard Test were used to measure sustained attention, cognitive control, and psychomotor ability, respectively. Results Patients with persistent pain showed significantly worse sustained attention and psychomotor ability compared with healthy controls. The acute pain group showed a significant decrease in psychomotor ability, and the regularly recurrent pain group showed a significant decrease in sustained attention. These results remained unchanged when age, education, and medication were taken into account. Conclusion Persistent musculoskeletal pain seems to impair performance on a wider range of cognitive tasks than acute or regularly recurrent pain, using pain-free individuals as a benchmark. However, there is some evidence of impairment in psychomotor ability among patients with acute pain and some impairment in sustained attention among patients with regularly recurrent pain. Implications Caregivers may need to adjust communication methods when delivering information to cognitively impaired patients. PMID:27799814
Rauck, Richard L; North, James; Eisenach, James C
Chronic pain may be accompanied by hyperalgesia and allodynia, and analgesic interventions may reduce these hypersensitivity phenomena. Preclinical data suggest that intrathecal clonidine and adenosine reduce hypersensitivity, but only clonidine reduces pain; therefore, we tested the effects of these interventions in patients with chronic pain. Twenty-two subjects with pain and hyperalgesia in a lower extremity from complex regional pain syndrome were recruited in a double-blind crossover study to receive intrathecal clonidine, 100 μg, or adenosine, 2 mg. Primary outcome measure was proportion with ≥30% reduction in pain 2 hours after injection, and secondary measures were pain report, areas of hypersensitivity, and temporal summation to heat stimuli. Treatments did not differ in the primary outcome measure (10 met success criterion after clonidine administration and 5 after adenosine administration), although they did differ in pain scores over time, with clonidine having a 3-fold greater effect (P = 0.014). Both drugs similarly reduced areas of hyperalgesia and allodynia by approximately 30% and also inhibited temporal summation. The percentage change in pain report did not correlate with the percentage change in areas of hyperalgesia (P = 0.09, r = 0.08) or allodynia (P = 0.24, r = 0.24) after drug treatment. Both intrathecal clonidine and adenosine acutely inhibit experimentally induced and clinical hypersensitivity in patients with chronic regional pain syndrome. Although these drugs do not differ in analgesia by the primary outcome measure, their difference in effect on pain scores over time and lack of correlation between effect on pain and hypersensitivity suggest that analgesia does not parallel antihyperalgesia with these treatments.
Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Al Saif, Amer; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah; Mamdouh, Khaled A
[Purpose] Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a frequent musculoskeletal disorder, which can result from core muscles instability that can lead to pain and altered dynamic balance. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of core muscle strengthening on pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female patients with age ranging from 16 to 40 years with patellofemoral pain syndrome were divided into study (N=10) and control (N=10) groups. Both groups were given 4 weeks of conventional physical therapy program and an additional core muscle strengthening for the study group. The tools used to assess the outcome were Visual Analogue Scale and Star Excursion Balance Test. [Results] The results of the study show that participants in the study group revealed a significantly greater improvement in the intensity of pain and dynamic balance as compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Adding a core muscle-strengthening program to the conventional physical therapy management improves pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:27313363
Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Al Saif, Amer; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah; Mamdouh, Khaled A
[Purpose] Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a frequent musculoskeletal disorder, which can result from core muscles instability that can lead to pain and altered dynamic balance. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of core muscle strengthening on pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female patients with age ranging from 16 to 40 years with patellofemoral pain syndrome were divided into study (N=10) and control (N=10) groups. Both groups were given 4 weeks of conventional physical therapy program and an additional core muscle strengthening for the study group. The tools used to assess the outcome were Visual Analogue Scale and Star Excursion Balance Test. [Results] The results of the study show that participants in the study group revealed a significantly greater improvement in the intensity of pain and dynamic balance as compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Adding a core muscle-strengthening program to the conventional physical therapy management improves pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.
Yang, Jinmo; Seo, Dongkwon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of whole body vibration (WBV) on static balance, spinal curvature, pain, and the disability of patients with chronic lower back pain. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were of 40 patients, who were randomly assigned to WBV and control groups. Twenty-five minutes of lumbar stability training and 5 minutes of WBV were conducted for the WBV group, and 30 minutes of lumbar stability training was conducted for the control group. The training was conducted three times per week for a total of 6 weeks. Static balance, spinal curvature, pain, and disability were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] After the intervention, the WBV group showed a significant differences in static balance, spinal curvature, pain, and disability. The control group presented significant differences in pain, and disability. In the comparison of the two groups, the WBV group showed more significant improvements in the fall index and pain. [Conclusion] WBV can be recommended for the improvement of the balance ability and pain of chronic lower back pain patients.
Yang, Jinmo; Seo, Dongkwon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of whole body vibration (WBV) on static balance, spinal curvature, pain, and the disability of patients with chronic lower back pain. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were of 40 patients, who were randomly assigned to WBV and control groups. Twenty-five minutes of lumbar stability training and 5 minutes of WBV were conducted for the WBV group, and 30 minutes of lumbar stability training was conducted for the control group. The training was conducted three times per week for a total of 6 weeks. Static balance, spinal curvature, pain, and disability were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] After the intervention, the WBV group showed a significant differences in static balance, spinal curvature, pain, and disability. The control group presented significant differences in pain, and disability. In the comparison of the two groups, the WBV group showed more significant improvements in the fall index and pain. [Conclusion] WBV can be recommended for the improvement of the balance ability and pain of chronic lower back pain patients. PMID:25931735
Stephens, Helen E; Lehman, Erik; Raheja, Divisha; Yang, Chengwu; Walsh, Susan; Mcarthur, Donna B; Simmons, Zachary
Our objective was to better understand the experience and impact of pain on ALS patients in the U.S., and to survey ALS physicians on their pain assessment and management practices. Individuals with ALS were invited to complete an online survey of pain in ALS. ALS specialist physicians were sent an e-mail survey about their experiences in evaluating and managing patients' pain. Nearly 75% of patients with ALS reported significant pain, and most thought that ALS was the source of at least some of this pain. Pain intensity scores (mean 3.9/10) and pain interference scores (mean 4.3/10) were moderate on average, but nearly 80% of participants were using pain medication, including 22% using opioids. Nearly 25% of patients thought they needed stronger pain medication than they were receiving. Physicians generally assess and manage pain in ALS patients, but few use standardized assessment tools. Nearly two-thirds felt that there is a need for better pain management practices and more than one-third felt better training was needed. In conclusion, pain in patients with ALS is not always well controlled. Improvement in care may be facilitated by a more standardized approach to evaluation, and by additional education and training of ALS health care professionals.
Bridges, Elizabeth; Dukes, Susan; Serres, Jennifer
Pain management is vitally important to injured patients being evacuated from the warzone. A prospective assessment of real-time ratings of pain acceptability, intensity, and satisfaction of a convenience sample of 114 less severely ill and injured U.S. military patients being evacuated on Aeromedical Evacuation (AE) missions from Ramstein Air Field, Germany, to Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland, was conducted. Data were collected before and during 12 AE flights in December 2012 and May 2013. Acceptable pain intensity was a median of 6/10 (range 2-9), with 76% of patients indicating an acceptable pain intensity greater than 4. During AE transport, 75% of patients reported at least one pain score≥4. Despite these high pain ratings, there was documentation of administration for only 58% of routine and 48% for as-needed analgesics/adjuvants. Over 47% of patients experienced pain that exceeded their acceptable intensity level, but of those patients with pain that was more severe than acceptable, only 10% rated their satisfaction with their pain management as poor or fair. This is the first study to provide real-time concurrent assessment of pain and pain management during en route care. The worst pain was reported for the hospital to aircraft arrival, suggesting the need for interventions to safely optimize pain management during this handoff period.
Background Increased postural sway is well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby a linear relationship between higher pain intensities and increasing postural sway has been described. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate whether this relationship is maintained if pain levels change in adults with non-specific low back pain. Methods Thirty-eight patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Postural sway was measured by three identical static bipedal standing tasks of 90 sec duration with eyes closed in narrow stance on a firm surface. The perceived pain intensity was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS-11). The patients received three manual interventions (e.g. manipulation, mobilization or soft tissue techniques) at 3-4 day intervals, postural sway measures were obtained at each occasion. Results A clinically relevant decrease of four NRS scores in associated with manual interventions correlated with a significant decrease in postural sway. In contrast, if no clinically relevant change in intensity occurred (≤ 1 level), postural sway remained similar compared to baseline. The postural sway measures obtained at follow-up sessions 2 and 3 associated with specific NRS level showed no significant differences compared to reference values for the same pain score. Conclusions Alterations in self-reported pain intensities are closely related to changes in postural sway. The previously reported linear relationship between the two variables is maintained as pain levels change. Pain interference appears responsible for the altered sway in pain sufferers. This underlines the clinical use of sway measures as an objective monitoring tool during treatment or rehabilitation. PMID:22436337
Neziri, Alban Y; Dickenmann, Martina; Scaramozzino, Pasquale; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Dickenson, Anthony H; Curatolo, Michele
The activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT-3) receptors in spinal cord can enhance intrinsic spinal mechanisms of central hypersensitivity, possibly leading to exaggerated pain responses. Clinical studies suggest that 5-HT-3 receptor antagonists may have an analgesic effect. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study tested the hypothesis that the 5-HT-3 receptor antagonist tropisetron attenuates pain and central hypersensitivity in patients with chronic low back pain. Thirty patients with chronic low back pain, 15 of whom were women (aged 53 ± 14 years) and 15 men (aged 48 ± 14 years), were studied. A single intravenous injection of 0.9% saline solution, tropisetron 2mg, and tropisetron 5mg was administrated in 3 different sessions, in a double-blind crossover manner. The main outcome was the visual analogue scale (VAS) score of spontaneous low back pain before, and 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after drug administration. Secondary outcomes were nociceptive withdrawal reflexes to single and repeated electrical stimulation, area of reflex receptive fields, pressure pain detection and tolerance thresholds, conditioned pain modulation, and area of clinical pain. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and panel multiple regressions. All 3 treatments reduced VAS scores. However, there was no statistically significant difference between tropisetron and placebo in VAS scores. Compared to placebo, tropisetron produced a statistically significant increase in pain threshold after single electrical stimulation, but no difference in all other secondary outcomes was found. A single-dose intravenous administration of tropisetron in patients with chronic low back pain had no significant specific effect on intensity of pain and most parameters of central hypersensitivity.
Howard, Matthew A.; Krause, Kristina; Khawaja, Nadine; Massat, Nathalie; Zelaya, Fernando; Schumann, Gunter; Huggins, John P.; Vennart, William; Williams, Steven C. R.; Renton, Tara F.
Development of treatments for acute and chronic pain conditions remains a challenge, with an unmet need for improved sensitivity and reproducibility in measuring pain in patients. Here we used pulsed-continuous arterial spin-labelling [pCASL], a relatively novel perfusion magnetic-resonance imaging technique, in conjunction with a commonly-used post-surgical model, to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow [rCBF] associated with the experience of being in ongoing pain. We demonstrate repeatable, reproducible assessment of ongoing pain that is independent of patient self-report. In a cross-over trial design, 16 participants requiring bilateral removal of lower-jaw third molars underwent pain-free pre-surgical pCASL scans. Following extraction of either left or right tooth, repeat scans were acquired during post-operative ongoing pain. When pain-free following surgical recovery, the pre/post-surgical scanning procedure was repeated for the remaining tooth. Voxelwise statistical comparison of pre and post-surgical scans was performed to reveal rCBF changes representing ongoing pain. In addition, rCBF values in predefined pain and control brain regions were obtained. rCBF increases (5–10%) representing post-surgical ongoing pain were identified bilaterally in a network including primary and secondary somatosensory, insula and cingulate cortices, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, midbrain and brainstem (including trigeminal ganglion and principal-sensory nucleus), but not in a control region in visual cortex. rCBF changes were reproducible, with no rCBF differences identified across scans within-session or between post-surgical pain sessions. This is the first report of the cerebral representation of ongoing post-surgical pain without the need for exogenous tracers. Regions of rCBF increases are plausibly associated with pain and the technique is reproducible, providing an attractive proposition for testing interventions for on-going pain that do not rely
Smart, Keith M; Blake, Catherine; Staines, Anthony; Thacker, Mick; Doody, Catherine
As a mechanisms-based classification of pain 'peripheral neuropathic pain' (PNP) refers to pain arising from a primary lesion or dysfunction in the peripheral nervous system. Symptoms and signs associated with an assumed dominance of PNP in patients attending for physiotherapy have not been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to identify symptoms and signs associated with a clinical classification of PNP in patients with low back (± leg) pain. Using a cross-sectional, between-subjects design; four hundred and sixty-four patients with low back (± leg) pain were assessed using a standardised assessment protocol. Patients' pain was assigned a mechanisms-based classification based on experienced clinical judgement. Clinicians then completed a clinical criteria checklist specifying the presence or absence of various clinical criteria. A binary logistic regression analysis with Bayesian model averaging identified a cluster of two symptoms and one sign predictive of PNP, including: 'Pain referred in a dermatomal or cutaneous distribution', 'History of nerve injury, pathology or mechanical compromise' and 'Pain/symptom provocation with mechanical/movement tests (e.g. Active/Passive, Neurodynamic) that move/load/compress neural tissue'. This cluster was found to have high levels of classification accuracy (sensitivity 86.3%, 95% CI: 78.0-92.3; specificity 96.0%, 95% CI: 93.4-97.8; diagnostic odds ratio 150.9, 95% CI: 69.4-328.1). Pattern recognition of this empirically-derived cluster of symptoms and signs may help clinicians identify an assumed dominance of PNP mechanisms in patients with low back pain disorders in a way that might usefully inform subsequent patient management.
Lebovits, A H; Lefkowitz, M; McCarthy, D; Simon, R; Wilpon, H; Jung, R; Fried, E
In light of the lack of any prior systematic evaluations of the prevalence and types of pain syndromes and treatments found in patients with AIDS, a chart review study was undertaken to evaluate this issue. Fifty-two of 96 charts reviewed (54%) had at least one note on nonprocedural pain or analgesic prescription. Although chest pain was the most prevalent pain location (22%), presumably because of the high incidence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, other possible AIDS-related entities, such as peripheral neuropathy and thrombophlebitis, were also found. No specific AIDS syndromes could be identified that were related to a higher incidence of pain. Nearly one-third of patients with pain received codeine (31%), others received acetaminophen (27%), and 17% of patients received acetaminophen and oxycodone HCl. Specific pain management interventions must be evaluated and applied to control the nontrivial occurrence of pain in patients who have AIDS symptoms that may be overlooked by the physician given the overwhelming disease process.
Reynolds, Caleb J; Carpenter, Ryan W; Tragesser, Sarah L
Although borderline personality disorder (BPD) features consistently show strong relations with chronic pain, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. BPD is characterized by dysregulated emotion. Given previously observed relationships between emotion dysregulation and pain, we hypothesized that components of this dysregulation-elevated and labile negative affect and emotion sensitivity-would account for the relationship between BPD features and various pain complaints in a chronic pain patient sample. Specifically, we hypothesized that negative affect would indirectly predict pain through higher emotion sensitivity to pain, operationalized as pain anxiety sensitivity. To test these hypotheses, we administered a series of self-report measures to 147 patients at a chronic pain treatment facility. As expected, BPD features predicted pain severity (β = .19, p = .029), activity interference from pain (β = .22, p = .015), and affective interference from pain (β = .41, p < .001). Using path analyses, we found that the associations between BPD features and pain severity and interference were accounted for by serial indirect pathways through affective lability then pain anxiety and, to a lesser extent, through trait anxiety then pain anxiety. This is the first study to demonstrate roles for affective lability and pain anxiety sensitivity in the association between BPD features and chronic pain complaints in a chronic pain sample. We discuss implications for the relationship between dysregulated emotion and pain as well as for psychologically-focused treatment interventions for pain. (PsycINFO Database Record
Shankland, Wesley E
Those engaged in any type of pain practice will encounter patients who have seen many practitioners. This is especially true for clinicians who treat craniofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders. In this retrospective study of 300 patients seeking treatment for various types of craniofacial pain, the average age was 43.05 years. A mean average of 3.92 clinicians was consulted with the range of practitioners being one to 26. The average time of pain was 4.15 years. Most of the subjects (210) were in the age groups 21 years to 60 years old. Females comprised 85.30% of the subjects with a mean average age of 43.43 years; 14.70% were male with a mean average age of 41.02 years.
Rantala, Maija; Kankkunen, Päivi; Kvist, Tarja; Hartikainen, Sirpa
This paper reports a study of the perceptions of nursing staff regarding barriers to postoperative pain management in hip fracture patients with dementia, their expectations, and facilitators offered by their employers to overcome these barriers. Patients with dementia are at high risk for insufficient postoperative pain treatment, mainly owing to inability to articulate or convey their pain experience. Nursing staff have an essential role in the treatment and care of patients who are vulnerable, and therefore unable to advocate for their own pain treatment. Questionnaires with both structured and open-ended questions were used to collect data from nursing staff members in seven university hospitals and ten city-center hospitals from March to May 2011. The response rate was 52% (n = 331). According to nursing staff, the biggest barrier in pain management was the difficulty in assessing pain owing to a patient's cognitive impairment (86%). Resisting care and restlessness among patients with dementia can lead to use of restraints, although these kinds of behavioral changes can point to the occurrence of pain. There were statistically significant differences between the sufficiency of pain management and barriers. Those who expected pain management to be insufficient identified more barriers than those who expected pain management to be sufficient (p < .001). Further updating education for nursing staff in pain detection and management is needed so that nursing staff are also able to recognize behavioral symptoms as potential signs of pain and provide appropriate pain management.
Patients with sickle cell disease have high morbidity and healthcare utilization due to repeated painful crises. Some coexisting conditions which cause pain similar to sickle cell disease may go undiagnosed in these patients. We report two adults with concurrent hyperparathyroidism who experienced significant improvement in sickle cell pain following parathyroidectomy thereby pointing to hyperparathyroidism as the principal causative factor for their pain. Meticulous evaluation for parathyroid disorders can be rewarding in sickle cell disease. PMID:27579039
Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin
Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, p<0.001, sr(2)=0.32). Together, these predictors accounted for 65% of variance in disability (R(2)=0.65 p<0.001). The current investigation revealed that neuromuscular adaptations are independent from clinical pain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations.
Spitoni, Grazia Fernanda; Pireddu, Giorgio; Galati, Gaspare; Sulpizio, Valentina; Paolucci, Stefano; Pizzamiglio, Luigi
Central post-stroke pain is a neuropathic syndrome characterized by intolerable contralesional pain and, in rare cases, somatic delusions. To date, there is limited evidence for the effective treatments of this disease. Here we used caloric vestibular stimulation to reduce pain and somatoparaphrenia in a 57-year-old woman suffering from central post-stroke pain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the neurological effects of this treatment. Following vestibular stimulation we observed impressive improvements in motor skills, pain, and somatic delusions. In the functional connectivity study before the vestibular stimulation, we observed differences in the patient's left thalamus functional connectivity, with respect to the thalamus connectivity of a control group (N = 20), in the bilateral cingulate cortex and left insula. After the caloric stimulation, the left thalamus functional connectivity with these regions, which are known to be involved in the cortical response to pain, disappeared as in the control group. The beneficial use of vestibular stimulation in the reduction of pain and somatic delusion in a CPSP patient is now documented by behavioral and imaging data. This evidence can be applied to theoretical models of pain and body delusions.
Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Miyagi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Inoue, Gen; Takahashi, Kazuhisa
Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose To determine whether symptoms predict surgical outcomes for patients with discogenic low back pain (DLBP). Overview of Literature Specific diagnosis of DLBP remains difficult. Worsening of pain on flexion is a reported symptom of DLBP. This study sought to determine whether symptoms predict surgical outcomes for patients with DLBP. Methods We investigated 127 patients with low back pain (LBP) and no dominant radicular pain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to select patients with disc degeneration at only one level. If pain was provoked during discography, we performed fusion surgery (87 patients). Visual analogue scale score and responses to a questionnaire regarding symptoms including worsening of pain on flexion or extension were assessed. Symptom sites before surgery were categorized into LBP alone, or LBP plus referred inguinal or leg pain. We followed 77 patients (average 3.0 years) and compared symptoms before surgery with surgical outcome. Results Sixty-three patients with a good outcome showed postsurgical pain relief (≥60% pain relief) and 14 patients with a poor outcome did not (<60% pain relief). In patients with good outcomes, worsening of LBP was evident in 65% of cases on flexion and in 35% on extension. However, these findings were not significantly different from those in patients with poor outcomes. The percentage of patients with LBP alone was significantly lower and the percentage of patients with LBP plus referred inguinal or leg pain was significantly higher in the group with good surgical outcome compared with patients in the group with poor surgical outcome (p<0.05). Conclusions Worsening of pain on extension may be a symptom of DLBP. Surgical outcomes were superior in patients with both LBP and either referred inguinal or leg pain compared with those having LBP alone. PMID:27340531
Huprich, Steven K; Hoban, Patrick; Boys, Ashley; Rosen, Alexandra
This study examined the association among healthy and maladaptive aspects of interpersonal dependency and the management of pain in physical therapy outpatients. Ninety-eight patients were administered the Relationship Profile Test, West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Results indicated that Destructive Overdependence was positively associated with an increased number of office visits, pain interference in one's daily life, pain severity, affective distress, and receiving positive partner responses. Dysfunctional Detachment was associated with affective distress, pain interference in one's daily life, and rumination about pain. Healthy Dependency was only associated with receiving distracting responses from others. Believing that a spouse/partner is supportive and caring about one's pain partially mediated the relationship between overdependency and pain interfering in one's life. These results support the clinical utility of assessing interpersonal dependency for its relationship to managing one's pain and health care utilization.
Wermeling, Daniel; Drass, Michael; Ellis, David; Mayo, Martha; McGuire, Dawn; O'Connell, Damian; Hale, Victoria; Chao, Stella
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ziconotide were assessed over a 48-hour period following intrathecal (i.t.) administration (1, 5, 7.5, or 10 micrograms) to 22 patients with chronic, nonmalignant pain. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were obtained over a 24-hour period. Analgesic efficacy was monitored using Visual Analog Scale of Pain Intensity (VASPI) and Category Pain Relief Scores (CPRS) measurements. Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were calculated by noncompartmental methods. Plasma ziconotide data were insufficient for PK calculations. In CSF, the median half-life of ziconotide was 4.5 hours. The median CSF clearance and volume of distribution were 0.26 mL/min and 99 mL, respectively. CSF pharmacokinetics of ziconotide were linear, based on cumulative exposure and peak CSF concentrations. A dose-related analgesia was observed. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic efficacy and safety analyses showed that higher CSF ziconotide concentrations were generally associated with analgesia and increased incidence of nervous system adverse events following a 1-hour i.t. infusion.
Di Paolo, Carlo; Serritella, Emanuela; Panti, Fabrizio; Falisi, Giovanni; Manna, Fedele
Summary Aims The aim of this research is to verify the quality and quantity of heavy metals (HM) of dental origin in TMD patients. Methods A population of 100 subject was studied and divided in two homogeneous groups: Study Group (SG) and Control Group (CG). Organism heavy metals were tested by a spot sampling method in which the first urine of the day, through Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), were analyzed. The results obtained were compared with reference values (RV) of Italian people. Descriptive statistical analysis and student’s t-test has been applied (statistical significance for p > 0.05). Results The SG presented the absolute highest levels of HM compared to the CG (p=0.787). As regards the relation between pain and HM, the subjects that refer “severe/very severe” values of pain present the highest levels of HM in urines. Conclusions The obtained results seem to highlight a possible direct proportionality between the level of pain the increase of the concentration of heavy metals in all the examined groups and subgroups. PMID:25002917
Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Balenzuela, Pablo; Fraiman, Daniel; Chialvo, Dante R.
Recent brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that chronic back pain (CBP) alters brain dynamics beyond the feeling of pain. In particular, the response of the brain default mode network (DMN) during an attention task was found abnormal. In the present work similar alterations are demonstrated for spontaneous resting patterns of fMRI brain activity over a population of CBP patients (n=12, 29–67 years old, mean=51.2). Results show abnormal correlations of three out of four highly connected sites of the DMN with bilateral insular cortex and regions in the middle frontal gyrus (p<0.05), in comparison with a control group of healthy subjects (n=20, 21–60 years old, mean=38.4). The alterations were confirmed by the calculation of triggered averages, which demonstrated increased coactivation of the DMN and the former regions. These findings demonstrate that CBP disrupts normal activity in the DMN even during the brain resting state, highlighting the impact of enduring pain over brain structure and function. PMID:20800649
Liu, Janet C; Ma, Joseph D; Morello, Candis M; Atayee, Rabia S; Best, Brookie M
Naltrexone is effective in treating opioid dependence by blocking µ, κ and δ opiate receptors. Naltrexone is mainly metabolized to an active metabolite 6β-naltrexol by dihydrodiol dehydrogenase enzymes. Concomitant opioids will not be effective while patients are taking this antagonist. This was a retrospective analysis of urinary excretion data collected from patients being treated with pain between November 2011 and May 2012. Naltrexone, 6β-naltrexol and concomitant opiate concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Interpatient variability was calculated from first-visit specimens, and intrapatient variability was calculated from patients with two or more visits. Relationships of the metabolic ratio (MR; 6β-naltrexol/naltrexone) with age, gender and urinary pH were also explored. From 88 first-visit patient specimens, the median MR was 3.28 (range 0.73-17.42). The MR was higher in women than men (5.00 vs. 3.14, P< 0.05). The MR showed no association based on age and urinary pH. Eighteen of 88 patients taking oral naltrexone tested positive for concomitant opiate use. Urinary MRs of 6β-naltrexol/naltrexone were highly variable, which may contribute to variability in efficacy, toxicity and patient willingness to take naltrexone as directed. Twenty percent of patients tested positive for opiates and naltrexone, thus showing the importance of monitoring patients taking naltrexone.
Vetter, Thomas R.; McGwin, Gerald; Bridgewater, Cynthia L.; Madan-Swain, Avi; Ascherman, Lee I.
Background. Pediatric chronic pain is considered to be a multidimensional construct that includes biological, psychological, and social components. Methods. The 99 enrolled study patients (mean age 13.2 years, 71% female, 81% Caucasian) and an accompanying parent completed a series of health-related questionnaires at the time of their initial appointment in a pediatric chronic pain medicine clinic. Results. Significant correlations (r ≥ 0.30, P < 0.05) were observed between pediatric chronic pain intensity and patient anxiety, patient depression, patient pain coping, parent chronic pain intensity, and parent functional disability. Pediatric chronic pain intensity was significantly associated with patient anxiety (P = 0.002). Significant correlations (r ≥ 0.30, P < 0.05) were observed between pediatric functional disability and patient chronic pain intensity, patient anxiety, patient depression, patient pain coping, parent chronic pain intensity, parent functional disability, parent anxiety, parent depression, and parent stress. Pediatric functional disability was significantly associated with patient chronic pain intensity (P = 0.025), patient anxiety (P = 0.021), patient pain coping (P = 0.009), and parent functional disability (P = 0.027). Conclusions. These findings provide empirical support of a multidimensional Biobehavioral Model of Pediatric Pain. However, the practical clinical application of the present findings and much of the similar previously published data may be tenuous. PMID:24251035
Park, J W; Clark, G T; Kim, Y K; Chung, J W
This study evaluated differences in pain sensitivities and psychological profiles among different temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain subtypes. Evaluation was done on 36 normal subjects and 39 TMD patients with high Graded Chronic Pain scale scores. TMD patients were placed in three pain subgroups (myogenous, arthrogenous, mixed) using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) axis I guidelines. RDC/TMD axis II profiles including depression and somatization were analysed. Cold pain threshold (CPT), heat pain threshold (HPT), and heat pain tolerance threshold (HPTT) were measured on three facial regions (anterior temporalis, masseter, TMJ) and a leg region (anterior tibialis). The arthrogenous pain subgroup showed significantly higher CPT and lower HPT and HPTT in the facial region, and lower HPTT in the anterior tibialis region compared with normal and myogenous pain subgroups. The myogenous pain subgroup had significantly higher somatization scores than normal and arthrogenous pain subgroups, and higher depression scores than normal subjects. The results suggest that peripheral and/or central sensitization are present in chronic arthrogenous pain more so than in myogenous pain, and this phenomenon appears to take place regardless of the patient's psychological profiles. These results may explain the underlying mechanism that aggravates TMD pain.
Klein, Sandra E.; Dale, Ann Marie; Hayes, Marcie Harris; Johnson, Jeffrey E.; McCormick, Jeremy J.; Racette, Brad A.
Background Plantar heel pain is a common disorder of the foot for which patients seek medical treatment. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between duration of symptoms in plantar fasciitis patients and demographic factors, the intensity and location of pain, extent of previous treatment and self reported pain and function. Methods The charts of patients presenting with plantar heel pain between June 2008 and October 2010 were reviewed retrospectively and 182 patients with a primary diagnosis of plantar fasciitis were identified. Patients with symptoms less than 6 months were identified as acute and patients with symptoms greater than or equal to six months were defined as having chronic symptoms. Comparisons based on duration of symptoms were performed for age, gender, BMI, comorbidities, pain location and intensity, and a functional score measured by the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM). Results The two groups were similar in age, BMI, gender, and comorbidities. Pain severity, as measured by a VAS, was not statistically significant between the two groups (6.6 and 6.2). The acute and chronic groups of patients reported similar levels of function on both the activity of daily living (62 and 65) and sports (47 and 45) subscales of the FAAM. Patients in the chronic group were more likely to have seen more providers and tried more treatment options for this condition. Conclusion As plantar fasciitis symptoms extend beyond 6 months, patients do not experience increasing pain intensity or functional limitation. No specific risk factors have been identified to indicate a risk of developing chronic symptoms. PMID:22995253
Akesson, Nina; Oien, Rut Frank; Forssell, Henrik; Fagerström, Cecilia
The aim of this study was to compare venous leg ulcer patients with and without ulcer pain to see whether ulcer pain affected the use of antibiotic treatment and compression therapy throughout healing. A total of 431 patients with venous leg ulcers were included during the study period. Every patient was registered in a national quality registry for patients with hard-to-heal leg, foot, and pressure ulcers. A high incidence of ulcer pain (57%) was found when the patients entered the study. Patients with ulcer pain had been treated more extensively with antibiotics both before and during the study period. Throughout healing there was a significant reduction of antibiotic use among patients in the 'no pain' group, from 44% to 23% (P=0.008). There was no significant difference between the two groups concerning compression therapy (85% vs. 88%), but 12% of patients in the 'pain' group did not get their prescribed compression compared with 6% of patients in the 'no pain' group. The groups did not differ significantly in terms of ulcer duration, ulcer size or healing time. This study shows a high incidence of ulcer pain, confirming that pain has a great impact on patients with venous leg ulcers. Results further suggest that the presence of ulcer pain increases the prescription of antibiotics but does not affect the use of compression therapy. Several advantages were found from using a national quality registry. The registry is a valuable clinical tool showing the importance of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.
Lannersten, Lisa; Kosek, Eva
The aim of this study was to investigate how exercise influenced endogenous pain modulation in healthy controls, shoulder myalgia patients and fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Twenty-one healthy subjects, 20 shoulder myalgia patients and 20 FM patients, all females, participated. They performed standardized static contractions, that is, outward shoulder rotation (m. infraspinatus) and knee extension (m. quadriceps). Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were determined bilaterally at m. infraspinatus and m. quadriceps. During contractions PPTs were assessed at the contracting muscle, the resting homologous contralateral muscle and contralaterally at a distant site (m. infraspinatus during contraction of m. quadriceps and vice versa). Myalgia patients had lower PPTs compared to healthy controls at m. infraspinatus bilaterally (p<0.01), but not at m. quadriceps. FM patients had lower PPTs at all sites compared to healthy controls (p<0.001) and myalgia patients (p<0.001). During contraction of m. infraspinatus PPTs increased compared to baseline at the end of contraction in healthy controls (all sites: p<0.003), but not in myalgia or FM patients. During contraction of m. quadriceps PPTs increased compared to baseline at the end of contraction in healthy controls (all sites: p<0.001) and myalgia patients (all sites: p<0.02), but not in FM patients. In conclusion, we found a normal activation of endogenous pain regulatory mechanisms in myalgia patients during contraction of the non-afflicted m. quadriceps, but a lack of pain inhibition during contraction of the painful m. infraspinatus. FM patients failed to activate their pain inhibitory mechanisms during all contractions.
Mehling, Wolf E.; Ebell, Mark H.; Avins, Andrew L.; Hecht, Frederick M.
Background Context Primary care clinicians need to identify candidates for early interventions to prevent patients with acute pain from developing chronic pain. Purpose We conducted a 2-year prospective cohort study of risk factors for the progression to chronic pain and developed and internally validated a clinical decision rule (CDR) that stratifies patients into low, medium and high-risk groups for chronic pain. Study Design/Setting Prospective cohort study in primary care. Patient Sample Patients with acute low back pain (LBP; ≤30 days duration) Outcome measures Self-reported perceived non-recovery and chronic pain. Methods Patients were surveyed at baseline, 6 months and 2 years. We conducted bivariate and multivariate regression analyses of demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables for chronic pain outcomes, developed a CDR and assessed its performance by calculating the bootstrapped areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and likelihood ratios. This study was supported by NIH/NCCAM grants K23 AT002298, R21 AT004467, NIH/NCCAM K24 AT007827, the Research Evaluation and Allocation Committee (REAC) of the University of California San Francisco, and the Mount Zion Health Fund, San Francisco. The funding agencies played no role in design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. The authors report no conflict of interests. Results 605 patients enrolled. 13% had chronic pain at 6 months, 19% at 2 years. An eight-item CDR was most parsimonious for classifying patients into three risk levels. Bootstrapped AUC was 0.76 (0.70–0.82) for the 6-month CDR. Each 10-point score increase (60-point range) was associated with an odds ratio of 11.1 (10.8–11.4) for developing chronic pain. Using a <5% probability of chronic pain as the cutoff for low risk and a >40% probability for high risk, likelihood ratios were 0.26 (0.14–0.48) and 4
Introduction: Acute low back pain is one of the most common health problems especially in industrialized countries where 75 per cent of the population develop it at least once during their life. This study examined the efficacy of thermotherapy and cryotherapy, alongside a routine pharmacologic treatment, on pain relief in patients with acute low back pain referring an orthopedic clinic in Shahrekord, Iran. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 87 patients randomly assigned to three (thermotherapy and cryotherapy as intervention, and naproxen as control) groups of 29 each. The first (thermotherapy) group underwent treatment with hot water bag and naproxen, the second (cryotherapy) group was treated with ice and naproxen, and the naproxen group was only treated with naproxen, all for one week. All patients were examined on 0, 3rd, 8th, and 15th day after the first visit and the data gathered by McGill Pain Questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using paired t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square. Results: In this study, mean age of the patients was 34.48 (20–50) years and 51.72 per cent were female. Thermotherapy patients reported significantly less pain compared to cryotherapy and control (p≤0.05). In thermotherapy and cryotherapy groups, mean pain in the first visit was 12.70±3.7 and 12.06±2.6, and on the 15th day after intervention 0.75±0.37 and 2.20±2.12, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that the application of thermo–therapy and cryotherapy accompanied with a pharmacologic treatment could relieve pain in the patients with acute low back pain. PMID:25386469
Broderick, Joan E; Keefe, Francis J; Bruckenthal, Patricia; Junghaenel, Doerte U; Schneider, Stefan; Schwartz, Joseph E; Kaell, Alan T; Caldwell, David S; McKee, Daphne; Reed, Shelby; Gould, Elaine
A multisite, randomized, controlled clinical effectiveness trial was conducted for osteoarthritis patients with chronic pain of the knee or hip. Adult health nurse practitioners provided a 10-session intervention, pain coping skills training (PCST), in patients' doctors' offices (N=129 patients); the control group received usual care (N=127 patients). Primary outcomes assessed at baseline, posttreatment, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up were: pain intensity, physical functioning, psychological distress, self-efficacy, catastrophizing, use of coping strategies, and quality of life. Secondary measures included fatigue, social functioning, health satisfaction, and use of pain medication. Methods favoring external validity, consistent with pragmatic, effectiveness research, were utilized. Primary ITT and secondary per-protocol analyses were conducted. Attrition was within the expected range: 11% at posttreatment and 29% at 12-month follow-up; rates did not differ between groups. Omnibus ITT analyses across all assessment points indicated significant improvement for the PCST group compared with the control group for pain intensity, physical functioning, psychological distress, use of pain coping strategies, and self-efficacy, as well as fatigue, satisfaction with health, and reduced use of pain medication. Treatment effects were robust to covariates (demographics and clinical sites). Trends in the outcomes across the assessments were examined. All outcomes, except for self-efficacy, were maintained through the 12-month follow-up; effects for self-efficacy degraded over time. Per-protocol analyses did not yield greater effect sizes. Comparisons of PCST patients who were more vs less treatment adherent suggested greater effectiveness for patients with high adherence. Results support the effectiveness of nurse practitioner delivery of PCST for chronic osteoarthritis pain.
Cho, Young-Ki; Kim, Dae-Young; Jung, Sun-Young; Seong, Jun-Hyuk
[Purpose] The present study examined the influence of treadmill exercise added to a low back pain rehabilitation program on low back extensor strength, pain, and dysfunction in chronic low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty men aged 22–36 years with chronic low back pain were randomly divided into experimental and control groups of 10 patients each. Both groups underwent a low back pain rehabilitation program lasting 30 min each, thrice/week for 8 weeks. The experimental group was prescribed an additional 30 min of treadmill exercise without a slope at a speed of 3.0–3.5 km/h, at which patients could walk comfortably. Low back extensor strength was tested using the Medx lumbar extension machine, pain level was tested, using the visual analog scale, and dysfunction was tested, using the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire. [Results] Changes in low back extensor strength by angle showed significant interaction effects between measurement time and group at 12°, 24°, and 36°. The results of the visual analog scale and Oswestry Questionnaire showed a decreasing trend after the experiment in both groups. However, there was no interaction effect of the additional treadmill exercise in the experimental group. [Conclusion] The combination of a low back pain rehabilitation program and treadmill exercise has a synergistic effect, to some extent, on the improvement of low back extensor strength and should be considered for treatment and rehabilitation of low back pain patients. PMID:25995585
Napadow, Vitaly; Edwards, Robert R; Cahalan, Christine M; Mensing, George; Greenbaum, Seth; Valovska, Assia; Li, Ang; Kim, Jieun; Maeda, Yumi; Park, Kyungmo; Wasan, Ajay D.
Objective Previous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) studies have demonstrated anti-nociceptive effects, and recent non-invasive approaches; termed transcutaneous-VNS, or t-VNS, have utilized stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve in the ear. The dorsal medullary vagal system operates in tune with respiration, and we propose that supplying vagal afferent stimulation gated to the exhalation phase of respiration can optimize t-VNS. Design counterbalanced, crossover study. Patients patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) due to endometriosis in a specialty pain clinic. Interventions/Outcomes We evaluated evoked pain analgesia for Respiratory-gated Auricular Vagal Afferent Nerve Stimulation (RAVANS) compared with Non-Vagal Auricular Stimulation (NVAS). RAVANS and NVAS were evaluated in separate sessions spaced at least one week apart. Outcome measures included deep tissue pain intensity, temporal summation of pain, and anxiety ratings, which were assessed at baseline, during active stimulation, immediately following stimulation, and 15 minutes after stimulus cessation. Results RAVANS demonstrated a trend for reduced evoked pain intensity and temporal summation of mechanical pain, and significantly reduced anxiety in N=15 CPP patients, compared to NVAS, with moderate to large effect sizes (eta2>0.2). Conclusion Chronic pain disorders such as CPP are in great need of effective, non-pharmacological options for treatment. RAVANS produced promising anti-nociceptive effects for QST outcomes reflective of the noted hyperalgesia and central sensitization in this patient population. Future studies should evaluate longer-term application of RAVANS to examine its effects on both QST outcomes and clinical pain. PMID:22568773
Caglar, Nil Sayiner; Akin, Turkan; Aytekin, Ebru; Komut, Ece Akyol; Ustabasioglu, Fatma; Okur, SibelCaglar; Dogan, YaseminPekin; Erdem, Halil İbrahim; Ataoglu, Emine; Yalcinkaya, EbruYilmaz
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, type, and location of pain in hemiplegic patients and the effects on rehabilitation results in our inpatient rehabilitation unit. [Subjects and Methods] Patients rehabilitated between January 2010 and July 2012 were investigated retrospectively. Properties of pain were recorded. Pre- and post-rehabilitation motor evaluation and achievement in daily activities were considered, and differences in scores between groups classified as with and without pain were examined. [Results] The number of patients included in the study was 156. The mean age was 64.28 ± 12.45 years, the mean disease duration was 11.10 months, and the gender distribution was 75 males (48%) and 81 females (52%). Fortysix (29.5%) patients had pain complaints. The nociceptive pain ratio was 86.7%, and the neuropathic pain ratio was 13.3%. Pain was mostly localized at the shoulder joint, with the proportion being 86.9%. In the pain group, statistically significant improvement was found in pain scores after the treatment. There was no significant difference between groups in the pre- and post-rehabilitation Brunnstrom motor evaluation and functional independence measurement scores. [Conclusion] Nociceptive pain is more common than neuropathic pain in patients with hemiplegia, and the shoulder joint is the most frequent location of nociceptive pain. PMID:27134349
Pedroni, Cristiane Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani; Bérzin, Fausto
Objective: The purpose of the present pilot study was to describe pain complaints of TMD patients and cervical spine dysfunction. Methods: Fourteen women with myogenous TMD, cervical motion limitation and rotation of at least one of the three first cervical vertebrae evidenced by radiographic examination participated in this study. The multidimensional pain evaluation was accomplished by a Brazilian version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Results: The results showed that the most painful body site mentioned was cervical spine, followed by scapular region and temporomandibular joint. More than half of the volunteers reported temporal pain pattern as rhythmic, periodic and, or still, intermittent. The majority of the patients classified the pain intensity assessed at the moment of the evaluation as mild to discomforting. Absolute agreement was not observed among volunteers regarding word dimensions used to describe their pain, although a great number of patients chose the descriptor related to tension as the better expression to describe their painful complaint. Conclusion: Pain characteristics of TMD patients with cervical spine dysfunction showed cervical spine as a common painful region reported and words related to affective and emotional dimensions of pain perception can be used by these patients to qualify their pain complain. PMID:19089063
Packman, Wendy L.; Beck, Vanessa L.; VanZutphen, Kelly H.; Long, Janet K.; Spengler, Gisele
There is little research on the psychological impact of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on family members. This study uses the Human Figure Drawing (HFD) to measure siblings' emotional distress toward BMT. Among the siblings, feelings of isolation, anger, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem emerged as major themes. Findings indicate the…
Etoz, Osman A; Ataoglu, Hanife; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Herken, Emine Nur; Bayazit, Yildirim Ahmet
We aimed to find out the association of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) with generalized pressure pain thresholds (PPT) of patients with myofacial pain dysfunction (MPD). PPT scores of patients with MPD (n = 37) and healthy individuals (n = 43) were measured on the hypothenar region of the hand using a mechanical algometer. Serum samples were collected and TAC and TOS were measured by novel methods. The TAC of patients was significantly lower than that of the control subjects. The difference between the TOS measurements of patients and control subjects was not significant. The PPT scores of the patients were significantly lower than that of control subjects. There may be an association between serum antioxidant capacity and MPD. Low serum TAC might also be related with pain perception.
Craig, Angela R; Otani, Koichiro; Herrmann, Patrick A
The authors evaluated whether a patient's perceived pain control influenced the relationships between four attributes (nursing, physician, staff, and environment) and patient satisfaction. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine overall satisfaction and intention to recommend, controlling for race, gender, age, and education. The authors found that no matter the level of pain control, nursing was always the most influential attribute in patient satisfaction. The influence of the other attributes varied, depending on the patients' pain control. Hospital managers may improve patient satisfaction by focusing on pain management nursing care.
Price, Patricia E; Fagervik-Morton, Hilde; Mudge, Elizabeth J; Beele, Hilde; Ruiz, Jose Contreras; Nystrøm, Theis Huldt; Lindholm, Christina; Maume, Sylvie; Melby-Østergaard, Britta; Peter, Yolanda; Romanelli, Marco; Seppänen, Salla; Serena, Thomas E; Sibbald, Gary; Soriano, Jose Verdú; White, Wendy; Wollina, Uwe; Woo, Kevin Y; Wyndham-White, Carolyn; Harding, Keith G
This cross-sectional international survey assessed patients' perceptions of their wound pain. A total of 2018 patients (57% female) from 15 different countries with a mean age of 68.6 years (SD = 15.4) participated. The wounds were categorised into ten different types with a mean wound duration of 19.6 months (SD = 51.8). For 2018 patients, 3361 dressings/compression systems were being used, with antimicrobials being reported most frequently (n= 605). Frequency of wound-related pain was reported as 32.2%, 'never' or 'rarely', 31.1%, 'quite often' and 36.6%, 'most' or 'all of the time', with venous and arterial ulcers associated with more frequent pain (P= 0.002). All patients reported that 'the wound itself' was the most painful location (n= 1840). When asked if they experienced dressing-related pain, 286 (14.7%) replied 'most of the time' and 334 (17.2%) reported pain 'all of the time'; venous, mixed and arterial ulcers were associated with more frequent pain at dressing change (P < 0.001). Eight hundred and twelve (40.2%) patients reported that it took <1 hour for the pain to subside after a dressing change, for 449 (22.2%) it took 1-2 hours, for 192 (9.5%) it took 3-5 hours and for 154 (7.6%) patients it took more than 5 hours. Pain intensity was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) (0-100) giving a mean score of 44.5 (SD = 30.5, n= 1981). Of the 1141 who reported that they generally took pain relief, 21% indicated that they did not feel it was effective. Patients were asked to rate six symptoms associated with living with a chronic wound; 'pain' was given the highest mean score of 3.1 (n= 1898). In terms of different types of daily activities, 'overdoing things' was associated with the highest mean score (mean = 2.6, n= 1916). During the stages of the dressing change procedure; 'touching/handling the wound' was given the highest mean score of 2.9, followed by cleansing and dressing removal (n= 1944). One thousand four hundred and eighty-five (80
Verma, Sneha K.; Chun, Sophia; Liu, Brent J.
Pain is a common complication after spinal cord injury with prevalence estimates ranging 77% to 81%, which highly affects a patient's lifestyle and well-being. In the current clinical setting paper-based forms are used to classify pain correctly, however, the accuracy of diagnoses and optimal management of pain largely depend on the expert reviewer, which in many cases is not possible because of very few experts in this field. The need for a clinical decision support system that can be used by expert and non-expert clinicians has been cited in literature, but such a system has not been developed. We have designed and developed a stand-alone tool for correctly classifying pain type in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, using Bayesian decision theory. Various machine learning simulation methods are used to verify the algorithm using a pilot study data set, which consists of 48 patients data set. The data set consists of the paper-based forms, collected at Long Beach VA clinic with pain classification done by expert in the field. Using the WEKA as the machine learning tool we have tested on the 48 patient dataset that the hypothesis that attributes collected on the forms and the pain location marked by patients have very significant impact on the pain type classification. This tool will be integrated with an imaging informatics system to support a clinical study that will test the effectiveness of using Proton Beam radiotherapy for treating spinal cord injury (SCI) related neuropathic pain as an alternative to invasive surgical lesioning.
Campero, Mario; Campero, Sebastián
Painful polyneuropathy may result from selective impairment of small diameter nerve fibers, while tactile and motor functions are preserved. In these patients clinical and electrophysiological assessment is usually unrevealing. We report three patients with a pure painful polyneuropathy. One of them had neurogenic pruritus additionally. Quantitative sensory analysis disclosed a slight warm hypoesthesia (3/3) and paradoxical hot sensation (2/3) in the feet. Intraneural recordings from the peroneal nerve demonstrated abnormal spontaneous activity in 8 of 17 nociceptive afferents. One of them displayed double firing reflecting impulse multiplication. These results support the notion that patients with pain or pruritus with a distal distribution similar to a polyneuropathy, could have small diameter afferent fiber damage, despite normal function of large diameter fibers.
Background Chronic musculoskeletal (MS) pain is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing haemodialysis. However, epidemiological data for chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- or late-stage CKD who are not undergoing dialysis are limited. Method A cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- and late-stage CKD who were not undergoing dialysis, was conducted. In addition, the distribution of pain severity among patients with different stages of CKD was evaluated. Results Of the 456 CKD patients studied, 53.3% (n = 243/456) had chronic MS pain. Chronic MS pain was independently and significantly associated with hyperuricemia as co-morbidity, as well as with the calcium × phosphate product levels. In CKD patients with hyperuricemia, chronic MS pain showed a negative, independent significant association with diabetes mellitus as a co-morbidity (odds ratio: 0.413, p = 0.020). However, in the CKD patients without hyperuricemia as a co-morbidity, chronic MS pain showed an independent significant association with the calcium × phosphate product levels (odds ratio: 1.093, p = 0.027). Furthermore, stage-5 CKD patients seemed to experience more severe chronic MS pain than patients with other stages of CKD. Conclusion Chronic MS pain is common in CKD patients. Chronic MS pain was independently and significantly associated with hyperuricemia as co-morbidity, and with the calcium × phosphate product levels in early- and late-stage CKD patients who were not on dialysis. PMID:24400957
Central post-stroke pain is a neuropathic syndrome characterized by intolerable contralesional pain and, in rare cases, somatic delusions. To date, there is limited evidence for the effective treatments of this disease. Here we used caloric vestibular stimulation to reduce pain and somatoparaphrenia in a 57-year-old woman suffering from central post-stroke pain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the neurological effects of this treatment. Following vestibular stimulation we observed impressive improvements in motor skills, pain, and somatic delusions. In the functional connectivity study before the vestibular stimulation, we observed differences in the patient’s left thalamus functional connectivity, with respect to the thalamus connectivity of a control group (N = 20), in the bilateral cingulate cortex and left insula. After the caloric stimulation, the left thalamus functional connectivity with these regions, which are known to be involved in the cortical response to pain, disappeared as in the control group. The beneficial use of vestibular stimulation in the reduction of pain and somatic delusion in a CPSP patient is now documented by behavioral and imaging data. This evidence can be applied to theoretical models of pain and body delusions. PMID:27028404
Edrington, Janet; Miaskowski, Christine; Dodd, Marylin; Wong, Candice; Padilla, Geraldine
Over 2 million new cases of cancer are diagnosed annually in China. In addition, cancer is the leading cause of death in China. Because cancer is often diagnosed in more advanced stages in China, a higher percentage of patients will experience pain related to their disease or treatment. This article presents a review and critique of the studies that examined the experience of pain in Chinese cancer patients. Because pain is a subjective experience with multiple dimensions, this review used the multiple dimensions of cancer pain to describe the pain experience in adult Chinese patients with cancer. The results from 24 studies of cancer pain in Chinese patients are summarized. Most of these descriptive correlational studies evaluated the physiologic and sensory dimensions of the pain experience. Most of the patients reported moderate to severe pain and that pain interfered with their normal activities and mood. In contrast, little information is available about the impact of cancer pain on the cognitive and sociocultural dimensions of the pain experience for Chinese patients.
Internationally, it is agreed that pain management is a central component of nursing care. Although much has been written about pain prevalence among patients after surgery, research is scant on patients' experiences of nursing pain management and factors involved. This study explores patients' experiences of nursing pain management in Jordan and identifies contributing factors. A qualitative research design was used. Data were collected through focus group discussions (n = 4). A total of 31 patients were purposively selected. Two main themes emerged. The first theme was living in pain and comprised two categories: from sleep disturbances to the fear of addiction and from dependence to uncertainty. The second theme was about barriers that affect nursing pain management. Patients' experiences of nursing pain management were not up to their expectations; their needs were largely ignored and were dealt with in a mechanistic way. Barriers precipitating this situation were referred to in this study as the three "nots," including not being well-informed, not being believed, and not being privileged. The study concluded that patients' experiences of nursing pain management are a complex world that goes beyond medically orientated care. Nurses, therefore, are urged to look beyond standardized assessment tools and use patients' experiences and voices as valuable evidence contributing to more effective pain management. Unless this occurs in their daily encounters with patients, another decade will pass with little change in the practice of pain management.
van Dijk, Jacqueline F M; van Wijck, Albert J M; Kappen, Teus H; Peelen, Linda M; Kalkman, Cor J; Schuurmans, Marieke J
Guidelines for postoperative pain treatment are based on patients' pain scores. Patients with an intermediate Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score of 5 or 6 may consider their pain as either bearable or unbearable, which makes it difficult to decide on pain treatment because guidelines advise professionals to treat pain at NRS > 4. Educating patients in using an NRS score for pain might improve adequate pain treatment. A quasi-randomized controlled trial was conducted in which 194 preoperative patients watched the educational film and 183 the control film. Pain scores were considered discordant when patients reported an NRS ≤ 4 and wanted additional opioids or when patients reported an NRS > 4 and did not want additional opioids. Beliefs, fear, and knowledge of pain; pain assessment; and pain treatment were measured by questionnaires. No significant differences in discordant pain scores between the groups were found: relative risk (RR) 0.73, confidence interval (CI) 0.47-1.15 at rest and RR 0.96, CI 0.72-1.28 at movement. Patients in the intervention group had lower NRS pain scores than patients in the control group. In the intervention group, patients had significantly more knowledge and lower barriers to pain management compared with the control group. We did not find a statistically significant reduction in discordant pain scores when comparing the intervention group with the control group. However, patients in the intervention group had significantly lower pain scores, lower barriers, and more knowledge of pain treatment than patients in the control group.
Chon, Seung-Chul; You, Joshua H.; Saliba, Susan A.
Context The abdominal draw-in maneuver (ADIM) with cocontraction has been shown to be a more effective method of activating the transversus abdominis (TrA) in healthy adults than the ADIM alone. Whether such an augmented core stabilization exercise is effective in managing low back pain (LBP) remains uncertain. Objective To determine the effect of 2 weeks of ADIM and cocontraction training on abdominal muscle thickness and activation timing and to monitor pain and function in patients with LBP. Design Case-control study. Setting Local orthopaedic clinic and research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Twenty patients with mechanical LBP (age = 27.20 ± 6.46 years, height = 166.25 ± 8.70 cm, mass = 58.10 ± 11.81 kg) and 20 healthy, age-matched people (age = 24.25 ± 1.59 years, height = 168.00 ± 8.89 cm, mass = 60.65 ± 11.99 kg) volunteered for the study. Intervention(s) Both the LBP and control groups received ten 30-minute sessions of ADIM and cocontraction training of the tibialis anterior (TA) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles over a 2-week period. Main Outcome Measure(s) A separate, mixed-model analysis of variance was computed for the thicknesses of the TrA, internal oblique (IO), and external oblique muscles. The differences in mean and peak electromyographic (EMG) amplitudes, onset time, and latency were compared between the groups. The visual analog pain scale, Pain Disability Index, and LBP rating scale were used to assess pain in the LBP group before and after the intervention. Results We found an interaction between the LBP and control groups and a main effect from pretest to posttest for only TrA muscle thickness change (F1,38 = 6.57, P = .01). Reductions in all pain measures were observed after training (P < .05). Group differences in peak and mean EMG amplitudes and onset time values for TrA/IO and TA were achieved (P < .05). The RF peak (t38 = −3.12, P = .003) and mean (t38 = −4.12, P = .001) EMG amplitudes were different, but no group
Lux, E A; Rasche, D
We report on the intrathecal use of ziconotide in three patients with idiopathic facial pain after surgery of the mouth, jaw or face and one patient with neuropathic pain after damage of the lingual nerve. The therapy was successful in three patients but one patient with idiopathic facial pain had pain relief only during the test phase of ziconotide with an external pump and not after implanting the Synchromed® pump. With intrathecal morphine therapy this patient achieved good pain relief. We recommend that patients with neuropathic facial pain should be treated with ziconotide after implementation of guideline-based therapy. In the test phase the ziconotide dose should be increased by 0.6 µg/day per week after an initial dose of 0.6-1.2 µg/day to avoid side-effects.
Alaloul, Fawwaz; Williams, Kimberly; Myers, John; Jones, Kayla Dlauren; Logsdon, M Cynthia
Pain is a common complaint among hospitalized patients no matter the diagnosis. Pain has a negative effect on many aspects of a patient's life, including quality of life, sleep, and activities of daily living as well as increased health care expenses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention (script-based communication, use of white boards, and hourly rounding) related to pain management on patient satisfaction with nurses' management of pain. A prospective, quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used. Data were collected from two units that provided care for patients with a variety of medical-surgical diagnoses in a hospital located in an academic health sciences center in the southern United States. When nurses used clear and consistent communication with patients in pain, a positive effect was seen in patient satisfaction with pain management over time. This intervention was simple and effective. It could be replicated in a variety of health care organizations.
Danziger, N; Willer, J-C
Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by dramatic impairment of pain perception since birth and is generally caused by a hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) with loss of the small-calibre, nociceptive nerve fibres. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with CIP and a presumptive diagnosis of HSAN type V, who experienced physical pain for the first and unique time in her life shortly after the sudden loss of her brother. This patient had sustained innumerable painless injuries during childhood, including bone fractures and severe burns. The only pain she ever felt consisted in an intense headache, which took place in a context of strong emotional overload and anxiety, 3 weeks after her younger brother died suddenly in a car accident. The description of this inaugural episode of headache fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of episodic tension-type headache. This case strongly suggests that the transcription of the grief of bereavement into physical pain may sometimes occur independently of the peripheral mechanisms of nociception and despite the lack of previous pain experience. In the light of recent experimental data showing that the same neural mechanisms that regulate physical pain may also control the expression of separation distress and the feeling of social exclusion, this unique case helps to better understand why some patients may feel physically hurt after the loss of someone they love.
Pastore, Elizabeth Anne; Katzman, Wendy B.
Myofascial pelvic pain (MFPP) is a major component of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and often is not properly identified by healthcare providers. The hallmark diagnostic indicator of MFPP is myofascial trigger points in the pelvic floor musculature that refer pain to adjacent sites. Effective treatments are available to reduce MFPP, including myofascial trigger point release, PMID:22862153
Soulen, Michael C.
This case presented challenging diagnostic and management issues in a young healthy man who presented with abdominal pain and new-onset hypertension. The differential diagnosis evolved over the course of the clinical presentation. The patient had severe vascular involvement of his renal and basal cerebral arteries that initially was assumed to be due to a vasculitic process or hypercoagulable state. Finally it became apparent that the patient did not have a systemic illness but rather a localized vascular disease most likely due to segmental arterial mediolysis, a rare, under-recognized condition that can potentially be fatal. This condition is often difficult to distinguish from fibromuscular dysplasia. It is important to recognize and correctly diagnose the condition, particularly in the acute phase of the disease, because delay in diagnosis can contribute to morbidity and mortality. PMID:25583291
Cohen, Debbie L; Soulen, Michael C
This case presented challenging diagnostic and management issues in a young healthy man who presented with abdominal pain and new-onset hypertension. The differential diagnosis evolved over the course of the clinical presentation. The patient had severe vascular involvement of his renal and basal cerebral arteries that initially was assumed to be due to a vasculitic process or hypercoagulable state. Finally it became apparent that the patient did not have a systemic illness but rather a localized vascular disease most likely due to segmental arterial mediolysis, a rare, under-recognized condition that can potentially be fatal. This condition is often difficult to distinguish from fibromuscular dysplasia. It is important to recognize and correctly diagnose the condition, particularly in the acute phase of the disease, because delay in diagnosis can contribute to morbidity and mortality.
Nemati, Shadman; Okhovvat, S Ahmadreza; Naghavi, S Ebrahim; Shakiba, Maryam; Mikaeeli, Saman
Chronic postoperative pain may lead to physical disability and psychosocial distress. In this longitudinal observational study, for the first time we evaluated the relative frequency of chronic postoperative pain in patients operated for chronic otitis media (COM) at two university hospitals. Patients were questioned about pain at the site of the surgical incision 3-6 months after the operation, and again 3 months after the first visit. Pain intensity was quantified by visual analogue scale (VAS). T test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were used for analyzing data and multivariate analysis. In 155 patients (42 male, 113 female, mean age: 38.57 ± 10.66 years), chronic postoperative pain was observed in 50 cases (32.3 %). A significant decrease in the average score of VAS was observed from 5.18 to 2.64 within 3 months (P = 0.0001). Statistically significant correlation was observed between chronic postoperative pain and age, sex, acute postoperative pain and history of Irritable Bowel Syndrome or migraine, but after multivariate analysis, only the age group and severe acute post-operation pain were effective on incidence of chronic post-operative pain. In conclusion, surgery for COM is followed by chronic pain in about 32 % of patients, and some risk factors for the development of chronic postoperative pain after this surgery exist, including age and severe acute post-operation pain.
Cordts, Grace A; Grant, Marian S; Brandt, Lynsey E; Mears, Simon C
Despite advances in pain management, little formal teaching is given to practitioners and nurses in its use for postoperative orthopedic patients. The goal of our study was to determine the educational needs for orthopedic pain management of our residents, nurses, and physical therapists using a quantitative and qualitative assessment. The needs analysis was conducted in a 10-bed orthopedic unit at a teaching hospital and included a survey given to 20 orthopedic residents, 9 nurses, and 6 physical therapists, followed by focus groups addressing barriers to pain control and knowledge of pain management. Key challenges for nurses included not always having breakthrough pain medication orders and the gap in pain management between cessation of patient-controlled analgesia and ordering and administering oral medications. Key challenges for orthopedic residents included treating pain in patients with a history of substance abuse, assessing pain, and determining when to use long-acting vs short-acting opioids. Focus group assessments revealed a lack of training in pain management and the need for better coordination of care between nurses and practitioners and improved education about special needs groups (the elderly and those with substance abuse issues). This needs assessment showed that orthopedic residents and nurses receive little formal education on pain management, despite having to address pain on a daily basis. This information will be used to develop an educational program to improve pain management for postoperative orthopedic patients. An integrated educational program with orthopedic residents, nurses, and physical therapists would promote understanding of issues for each discipline.
Loggia, Marco L.; Berna, Chantal; Kim, Jieun; Cahalan, Christine M.; Martel, Marc-Olivier; Gollub, Randy L.; Wasan, Ajay D.; Napadow, Vitaly; Edwards, Robert R.
While high levels of negative affect and cognitions have been associated in chronic pain conditions with greater pain sensitivity, the neural mechanisms mediating the hyperalgesic effect of psychological factors in patients with pain disorders are largely unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that 1) catastrophizing modulates brain responses to pain anticipation, and that 2) anticipatory brain activity mediates the hyperalgesic effect of different levels of catastrophizing, in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, we scanned the brains of 31 FM patients exposed to visual cues anticipating the onset of moderately intense deep-tissue pain stimuli. Our results indicated the existence of a negative association between catastrophizing and pain-anticipatory brain activity, including in the right lateral prefrontal cortex (IPFC). A bootstrapped mediation analysis revealed that pain-anticipatory activity in lateral prefrontal cortex (IPFC) mediates the association between catastrophizing and pain sensitivity. These findings highlight the role of IPFC in the pathophysiology of FM related hyperalgesia, and suggest that deficits in the recruitment of pain-inhibitory brain circuitry during pain-anticipatory periods may play an important contributory role in the association between various degrees of widespread hyperalgesia in FM and levels of catastrophizing, a well validated measure of negative cognitions and psychological distress. Perspective This article highlights the presence of alterations in pain-anticipatory brain activity in FM. These findings provide the rationale for the development of psychological or neurofeedback-based techniques aimed at modifying patients' negative affect and cognitions towards pain. PMID:25937162
Parsons, Bruce; Li, Chunming
Objective To compare the therapeutic response to pregabalin in patients with moderate or severe painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN). Research design and methods Data were pooled from 11 placebo-controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of pregabalin flexible or fixed dose (150, 300 or 600 mg/day) in pDPN patients with mean baseline pain scores of ≥4 to <7 (moderate) or ≥7 to ≤10 (severe). Last observation carried forward imputation was used. Study number/ClinicalTrials.gov identifier 1008-014/-, 1008-029/-, 1008-040/-, 1008-131/-, 1008-149/-, 1008-000-155/-, A0081030/NCT00156078, A0081060/NCT00159679, A0081071/NCT00143156, A0081081/NCT00301223, A0081163/NCT00553475. Main outcome measures Pregabalin-mediated change in pain, pain-related sleep interference (PRSI) and patient global impression of change (PGIC) were compared versus placebo and between moderate and severe pain cohorts. Adverse events (AEs) were reported. Results At baseline, 1816 patients had moderate pain (pregabalin, n = 1189) and 1119 patients had severe pain (pregabalin, n = 720). Pregabalin significantly reduced pain scores at endpoint compared with placebo when patients of all pain levels were combined (all doses; p < 0.05). In the moderate and severe pain cohorts, pregabalin treatment (300, 600 mg/day or flexible) significantly reduced mean pain scores at endpoint compared with placebo (p < 0.01). Pain reduction was greatest in patients with severe baseline pain compared with moderate baseline pain (pregabalin 300, 600 mg/day or flexible; p < 0.0001). Pregabalin improved PRSI and PGIC in the moderate and severe cohorts compared with placebo. The greatest improvement in PRSI also occurred in the severe cohort. Treatment-emergent AEs, most commonly dizziness, somnolence and peripheral edema, occurred more frequently in patients treated with pregabalin compared with placebo. Conclusions Pregabalin was effective in pDPN patients with both moderate and severe
Study Design Single-center retrospective cohort study. Purpose To clarify the prognostic value of preoperative coping strategies for pain due to compressive cervical myelopathy. Overview of Literature Preoperative physical function, imaging and electrophysiological findings are known predictors of surgical outcomes. However, coping strategies for pain have not been considered. Methods Postoperative questionnaires, concerning health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and daily living activities, were sent to 78 patients with compressive cervical myelopathy who had suffered from neuropathic pain before laminoplasty, and been preoperatively assessed with respect to their physical and mental status and coping strategies for pain. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to clarify the extent to which the patient's preoperative coping strategies could explain the variance in postoperative HRQOL and activity levels. Results Forty-two patients with residual neuropathic pain after laminoplasty were analyzed by questionnaires (28 men, 14 women; mean age, 62.7±10.2 years; symptom duration, 48.0±66.0 months). The valid response rate was 53.8%. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that preoperative coping strategies, which involved coping self-statements, diverting attention, and catastrophizing, were independently associated with postoperative HRQOL and activity level, and could explain 7% to 11% of their variance. Combinations of the coping strategies for pain and upper/lower motor functions could explain 26% to 36% of the variance in postoperative HRQOL and activity level. Conclusions Preoperative coping strategies for pain are good predictors of postoperative HRQOL and activities of daily living in patients with postoperative residual neuropathic pain due to compressive cervical myelopathy. PMID:26435783
Trail-Mahan, Tracy; Heisler, Scott; Katica, Mary
In this quality improvement project, our health system developed a comprehensive, patient-centered approach to improving inpatient pain management and assessed its impact on patient satisfaction across 21 medical centers. Using human-centered design principles, a bundle of 6 individual and team nursing practices was developed. Patient satisfaction with pain management, as measured by the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems pain composite score, increased from the 25th to just under the 75th national percentile.
Riedel, Oliver; Klotsche, Jens; Förstl, Hans; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich
Despite the wide use of clock drawing tests (CDTs) for screening cognitive impairment, their use in patients having Parkinson disease (PD) with dementia has not been systematically investigated until date. In this cross-sectional study, neurological and neuropsychiatric statuses of 1449 outpatients having PD with and without dementia were comprehensively assessed. The CDT revealed cognitive impairment in 42.7% of the 1383 patients whose drawings were available. Overall, CDT sensitivity and specificity were 70.7% and 68.9%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 48.0% and 85.3%, respectively. In patients with depression, CDT specificity dropped significantly to 55.8% (71.3% in nondepressed patients, P < .001). Classification performance was not impacted by motor symptoms. The estimated classification performances and predictive values correspond to those reported previously for non-PD populations. Our results indicate that CDT is a suitable screening instrument in patients with PD, but test results from patients with depression warrant careful consideration.
Griffioen, Mari A; Johantgen, Meg; Von Rueden, Kathryn; Greenspan, Joel D.; Dorsey, Susan G.; Renn, Cynthia L.
Background Up to 62% of patients report chronic pain at the injury site 6-12 months after blunt trauma, with pain from lower extremity fractures exceeding that from other sites. High pain intensity at time of injury is a risk factor for chronic pain, but it is not clear what patient characteristics influence the pain intensity level during the immediate hospitalization following injury. Aim The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of collecting pain scores from medical records, to calculate pain trajectories, and to determine whether it is possible to examine patient characteristics by classifying them into those whose pain improved and those whose pain did not improve. Design This descriptive study retrospectively reviewed medical records of 18 randomly chosen patients admitted to an academic trauma center. Methods Patient characteristics and pain scores were collected form electronic and handwritten medical records. Results The pain trajectories calculated from routinely collected pain scores during the in-patient stay showed that for 44% of the patients the pain improved during the hospitalization, for 39% the pain remained the same and for 17% the pain worsened. Variables age, smoking, weight, abbreviated injury scores, length of hospital stay, mean pain score and opioid equianalgesic dose differed based on pain trajectory. Conclusion While patient characteristics differed based on pain trajectory, any significant effects seen from individual tests should be considered tentative, given the number of analyses conducted on this data set. However, feasibility and significance of conducting a larger study has been established. PMID:26545732
Bailis, Karen L.
Chronic pain is a syndrome which forces many changes upon the patient and upon the family system. To examine the relationship between patients' and their spouses' psychosocial functioning, questionnaire data were collected from 28 male and 18 female patients referred for evaluation to an outpatient pain management program. The Minnesota…
Moon, Jong Hoon; Jung, Jin-Hwa; Won, Young Sik; Cho, Hwi-Young
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of Graston Technique on hamstring extensibility and pain intensity in patients with nonspecific low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four patients with nonspecific low back pain (27–46 years of age) enrolled in the study. All participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Graston technique group (n=12) and a static stretching group (n=12). The Graston Technique was used on the hamstring muscles of the experimental group, while the static stretching group performed static stretching. Hamstring extensibility was recorded using the sit and reach test, and a visual analog scale was used to measure pain intensity. [Results] Both groups showed a significant improvement after intervention. In comparison to the static stretching group, the Graston technique group had significantly more improvement in hamstring extensibility. [Conclusion] The Graston Technique is a simple and effective intervention in nonspecific low back pain patients to improve hamstring extensibility and lower pain intensity, and it would be beneficial in clinical practice. PMID:28265144
Regenbogen, Scott E.; Mullard, Andrew J.; Peters, Nanette; Brooks, Shannon; Englesbe, Michael J.; Campbell, Darrell A.; Hendren, Samantha
Objective The aim of the study was to characterize patient-reported outcomes of analgesia practices in a population-based surgical collaborative. Background Pain control among hospitalized patients is a national priority and effective multimodal pain management is an essential component of postoperative recovery, but there is little understanding of the degree of variation in analgesia practice and patient-reported pain between hospitals. Methods We evaluated patient-reported pain scores after colorectal operations in 52 hospitals in a state-wide collaborative. We stratified hospitals by quartiles of average pain scores, identified hospital characteristics, pain management practices, and clinical outcomes associated with highest and lowest case-mix-adjusted pain scores, and compared against Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems pain management metrics. Results Hospitals with the lowest pain scores were larger (503 vs 452 beds; P<0.001), higher volume (196 vs 112; P=0.005), and performed more laparoscopy (37.7% vs 27.2%; P<0.001) than those with highest scores. Their patients were more likely to receive local anesthesia (31.1% vs 12.9%; P<0.001), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (33.5% vs 14.4%; P<0.001), and patient-controlled analgesia (56.5% vs 22.8%; P<0.001). Adverse postoperative outcomes were less common in hospitals with lowest pain scores, including complications (20.3% vs 26.4%; P<0.001), emergency department visits (8.2% vs 15.8%; P<0.001), and readmissions (11.3% vs 16.2%; P=0.01). Conclusions Pain management after colorectal surgery varies widely and predicts significant differences in patient-reported pain and clinical outcomes. Enhanced postoperative pain management requires dissemination of multimodal analgesia practices. Attention to patient-reported outcomes often omitted from surgical outcomes registries is essential to improving quality from the patient's perspective. PMID:26756749
da Cunha, Brooke Faria
Patients with substance abuse history make up 14% of inpatient admissions to acute care units, where it has been reported a great deal of patient pain is unrelieved (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration [SAMHSA], 2009. Definitions of substance abuse terms including tolerance, dependence, addiction, and pseudoaddiction are essential to a nurse's understanding of pain medication administration in patients with substance abuse history. Pain management is one of the nurse's main responsibilities, and using the principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice can guide the nurse to making appropriate pain management decisions for and with these patients. Nursing implications and resources for more information are discussed.
Dogan, Sebnem Koldas; Ay, Saime; Oztuna, Derya; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Evcik, Deniz
This study was planned to investigate the utility of the vertical Faces Pain Scale (FPS) in the assessment of pain in stroke patients using the shoulder pain model and to assess its utility in the Turkish patient population. The secondary aim was to analyze the association of FPS with the quality of life and depression in the study population.…
Lotfi, Ahmed; Abdel-Nasser, Ahmed M; Hamdy, Ahmed; Omran, Ahmed A; El-Rehany, Mahmoud A
Chronic low back pain (LBP) is an extremely common problem in practice, where it is often labeled idiopathic. No sufficient studies have been conducted to analyze the contribution of hypovitaminosis D to the etiology of chronic LBP in populations wherein vitamin D deficiency is endemic. The present study was, therefore, carried out to examine hypovitaminosis D and its determinants in female patients with chronic LBP during the childbearing period. Sixty female patients complaining of LBP lasting more than 3 months were clinically studied rheumatologically and neurologically. Questionnaires and indices quantifying risk factors associated with vitamin D deficiency were utilized. Biochemical assays of serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), parathormone (PTH), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 OHD) were performed and compared to those of 20 matched healthy controls. The determinants of vitamin D levels in patients were examined by stepwise regression. Patients with LBP had significantly lower 25 OHD levels (p < 0.05) and significantly higher PTH (p < 0.05) and ALP (p < 0.001) than controls, although there were no significant group differences in calcium and phosphorus. Hypovitaminosis D (25 OHD < 40 ng/ml) was found in 49/60 patients (81%) and 12/20 (60%) of controls, with an odds ratio of 2.97. Although many risk factors related to sun exposure, clothing, diet, and pregnancy were significantly correlated with vitamin D levels in patients, only limited duration of sun exposure, contributing 55% to the variance of 25 OHD, limited areas of skin exposed (13%), and increased number of pregnancies (2%), were significant determinants of vitamin D levels in patients. Despite the sunny climate, hypovitaminosis D is prevalent among Egyptian women in the childbearing period, especially those presenting with chronic LBP, where it is associated with hyperphosphatasia and hyperparathyroidism, without alterations in serum calcium. The major determinant of hypovitaminosis D
Martel, Marc O; Finan, Patrick H; Dolman, Andrew J; Subramanian, Subu; Edwards, Robert R; Wasan, Ajay D; Jamison, Robert N
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the association between self-reports of medication side effects and pain-related activity interference in patients with chronic pain. The potential moderators of the association between reports of side effects and pain-related activity interference were also examined. A total of 111 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain were asked to provide, once a month for a period of 6 months, self-reports of medication use and the presence of any perceived side effects (eg, nausea, dizziness, headaches) associated with their medications. At each of these time points, patients were also asked to provide self-reports of pain intensity, negative affect, and pain-related activity interference. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that month-to-month increases in perceived medication side effects were associated with heightened pain-related activity interference (P < 0.05). Importantly, multilevel models revealed that perceived medication side effects were associated with heightened pain-related activity interference even after controlling for the influence of patient demographics, pain intensity, and negative affect. This study provides preliminary evidence that reports of medication side effects are associated with heightened pain-related activity interference in patients with chronic pain beyond the influence of other pain-relevant variables. The implications of our findings for clinical practice and the management of patients with chronic pain conditions are discussed.
Mehta, Jaideep H; Gibson, Mary Elizabeth; Amaro-Driedger, David; Hussain, Mahammad N
Management of nonobstetric pain in the pregnant patient presents unique challenges related to transplacental fetal exposure to opioids and the subsequent risk of neonatal withdrawal syndrome. We present the case of a pregnant patient suffering from the pain of a progressively enlarging thoracoabdominal sarcoma. Epidural analgesia (using local anesthetics with minimal opioid) was utilized over a span of weeks to manage oncologic pain, limiting fetal opioid exposure and culminating in the birth of a healthy infant. While nonobstetric abdominal pain during pregnancy is not that uncommon, neoplastic abdominal pain does appear to be rare. Combined local anesthetic and opioid continuous epidural infusion should be considered a viable option in the pain management approach to obstetric patients with nonobstetric pain associated with malignancy. PMID:27358573
Jimenez-Rodríguez, Irene; Garcia-Leiva, Juan Miguel; Jimenez-Rodriguez, Beatriz M; Condés-Moreno, Emilia; Rico-Villademoros, Fernando; Calandre, Elena P
Fibromyalgia is associated with an increased rate of mortality from suicide. In fact, this disease is associated with several characteristics that are linked to an increased risk of suicidal behaviors, such as being female and experiencing chronic pain, psychological distress, and sleep disturbances. However, the literature concerning suicidal behaviors and their risk factors in fibromyalgia is sparse. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence of suicidal ideation and the risk of suicide in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia compared with a sample of healthy subjects and a sample of patients with chronic low-back pain. We also aimed to evaluate the relevance of pain intensity, depression, and sleep quality as variables related to suicidal ideation and risks. Logistic regression was applied to estimate the likelihood of suicidal ideation and the risk of suicide adjusted by age and sex. We also used two logistic regression models using age, sex, pain severity score, depression severity, sleep quality, and disease state as independent variables and using the control group as a reference. Forty-four patients with fibromyalgia, 32 patients with low-back pain, and 50 controls were included. Suicidal ideation, measured with item 9 of the Beck Depression Inventory, was almost absent among the controls and was low among patients with low-back pain; however, suicidal ideation was prominent among patients with fibromyalgia (P<0.0001). The risk of suicide, measured with the Plutchik Suicide Risk Scale, was also higher among patients with fibromyalgia than in patients with low-back pain or in controls (P<0.0001). The likelihood for suicidal ideation and the risk of suicide were higher among patients with fibromyalgia (odds ratios of 26.9 and 48.0, respectively) than in patients with low-back pain (odds ratios 4.6 and 4.7, respectively). Depression was the only factor associated with suicidal ideation or the risk of suicide. PMID:24790444
Boonstra, Anne M; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R; Balk, Gerlof A; Stewart, Roy E
The aim of this study was to find the cut-off points on the visual analogue scale (VAS) to distinguish among mild, moderate, and severe pain, in relation to the following: pain-related interference with functioning; verbal description of the VAS scores; and latent class analysis for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. A total of 456 patients were included. Pain was assessed using the VAS and verbal rating scale; functioning was assessed using the domains of the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36). Eight cut-off point schemes were tested using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), ordinal logistic regression, and latent class analysis. The study results showed that VAS scores ⩽ 3.4 corresponded to mild interference with functioning, whereas 3.5 to 6.4 implied moderate interference, and ⩾ 6.5 implied severe interference. VAS scores ⩽ 3.4 were best described for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain as mild pain, 3.5 to 7.4 as moderate pain, and ⩾ 7.5 as severe pain. Latent class analysis found that a 3-class solution fitted best, resulting in the classes 0.1 to 3.8, 3.9 to 5.7, and 5.8 to 10 cm. Findings from our study agree with those of some other studies, although many other studies found different optimal cut-off point schemes. As there appear to be no universally accepted cut-off points, and in view of the low-to-moderate associations between VAS scores and functioning and between VAS and verbal rating scale scores, the correct classification of VAS scores as mild, moderate. or severe in clinical practice seems doubtful.
Swart, Nynke M; van Linschoten, Robbart; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; van Middelkoop, Marienke
The aim of the study is to determine "the additional effect of... function" for patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The additional effect of orthotic devices over exercise therapy on pain and function. A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane and PEDro. Randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials of patients diagnosed with PFPS evaluating a clinically relevant outcome were included. Treatment had to include exercise therapy combined with orthotics, compared with an identical exercise programme with or without sham orthotics. Data were summarised using a best evidence synthesis. Eight trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of which three had a low risk of bias. There is moderate evidence for no additive effectiveness of knee braces to exercise therapy on pain (effect sizes (ES) varied from -0.14 to 0.04) and conflicting evidence on function (ES -0.33). There is moderate evidence for no difference between knee braces and exercise therapy versus placebo knee braces and exercise therapy on pain and function (ES -0.1-0.10). More studies of high methodological quality are needed to draw definitive conclusions.
Solhi, Hassan; Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein; Solhi, Sadra; Azizi Nadian, Mohammad Ali; Gharibi, Morteza; Sadeghi Sedeh, Bahman
The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of morphine and meperidine (pethidine) as pain relief in opioid-dependent patients with acute pain. A total of 122 opioid-dependent patients with acute pain were included in the study. Their pain severity was assessed, using visual analog scale (VAS) scores ranging from 0 to 10. The patients randomly received intravenous morphine (up to 0.15 mg/kg) or meperidine (up to 1.5 mg/kg) for pain control by patient control analgesia (PCA) pump. The clinical opioid withdrawal scale (COWS) was employed for the assessment of withdrawal symptoms. The pain relief and the emergence of withdrawal symptoms were measured at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after drug administration. The patients who received morphine reported a better pain control compared to those who received meperidine (mean ± standard deviation [SD] VAS scores 4.11±1.90 vs 5.85±2.08 at the end of the study; P<0.001). On the other hand, the patients who received meperidine indicated prominent withdrawal symptoms (mean ± SD COWS scores 4.80±2.18 vs. 1.98±0.82 at the end of the study; P<0.001). Our findings revealed that morphine can be recommended in acute pain management of opioid-dependent patients. In addition, emergency physicians should ask their patients about any drug dependence before selecting the appropriate drug for their acute pain management. PMID:27621675
Louise Howarth, Michelle; Haigh, Carol
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the extent of patient centrality within integrated chronic back pain management services and compare policy rhetoric with practice reality. Context Integrated chronic back pain management services. Data sources We have drawn on theories of integration and context specific journals related to integration and pain management between 1966 and 2006 to identify evidence of patient centrality within integrated chronic pain management services. Discussions Despite policy rhetoric and guidelines which promote ‘patient centrality’ within multidisciplinary services, we argue that evaluations of these services are scant. Many papers have focussed on the assessment of pain in multidisciplinary services as opposed to the patients' experience of these services. Conclusions A latent measure of the reality of its magnitude needs to be captured through analysis of the patient's perspectives. Capturing patients' thoughts about integrated services will promote patient centrality and support the reality rather than endorse the rhetoric. PMID:17786176
Sin, Wai Man; Chow, Ka Ming
Unrelieved postoperative pain may have a negative impact on the physiological and psychological well-being of patients. Pharmacological methods are currently used to relieve such pain in gynecological patients; however, inadequate pain control is still reported, and the use of nonpharmacological pain-relieving methods is increasingly being advocated, one of which is music therapy. The purpose of this literature review was to identify, summarize, and critically appraise current evidence on music therapy and postoperative pain management among gynecological patients. A systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, and Allied and Complementary Medicine was conducted using the search terms music, gynecological, pain, surgery, operative, and post-operative to identify relevant articles in English from 1995 to the present. All identified articles were assessed independently for inclusion into review. A total of 7 articles were included after removal of duplicates and exclusion of irrelevant studies. All the included studies assessed the effects of music therapy on postoperative pain intensity, and three of them measured pain-related physiological symptoms. The findings indicated that music therapy, in general, was effective in reducing pain intensity, fatigue, anxiety, and analgesic consumption in gynecological patients during the postoperative period. It is recommended as an adjunct to pharmacological pain-relieving methods in reducing postoperative pain. Future researches on music therapy to identify the most effective application and evaluate its effect by qualitative study are recommended.
Leo, Michael C.; Chang, Michael F.; Zucker, Betsy L.; Sasaki, Anna
This prospective descriptive study investigated pain characteristics in 20 outpatients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) approaching end of life, described variability in pain between and within patients, and described pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain management strategies used. The instruments utilized were: the Wisconsin Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and the Self-Care Behavior Log for Pain (SCB). Data were collected once a month over a 6-month period. BPI severity of and interference from pain mean scores ranged from 5.52 to 6.03 and 5.36 to 6.64, respectively. The top three behaviors for relieving pain patients reported were “taking pain medication,” “taking a nap,” and “asking for help.” Pain medication intake differed between patients who were pursuing a liver transplant and those who were not eligible for transplantation. To effectively improve care for ESLD, it is essential to understand the ways in which these patients experience pain and the pain management strategies they employ. PMID:24826441
Kim, Jun Ho; Lee, Han Suk; Park, Sun Wook
[Purpose] To compare the influences of the active release technique (ART) and joint mobilization (JM) on the visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, pressure pain threshold (PPT), and neck range of motion (ROM) of patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects] Twenty-four individuals with chronic neck pain were randomly and equally assigned to 3 groups: an ART group, a joint mobilization (JM) group, and a control group. Before and after the intervention, the degree of pain, PPT, and ROM of the neck were measured using a VAS, algometer, and goniometer, respectively. [Results] The ART group and JM group demonstrated significant changes in VAS and ROM between pre and post-intervention, while no significant change was observed in the control group. Significant differences in the PPT of all muscles were found in the ART group, while significant differences in all muscles other than the trapezius were found in the JM group. No significant difference in PPT was observed in any muscle of the control group. The posthoc test indicated no statistically significant difference between the ART and JM group, but the differences of variation in VAS, PPT, and ROM were greater in the ART group than in the JM and control groups. [Conclusion] ART for the treatment of chronic neck pain may be beneficial for neck pain and movement. PMID:26357426
Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Oh, Jae-Seop
[Purpose] Clinicians have reported the effects of various instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) in patients. The purpose of this study was to investigated the effects of the Graston technique and general exercise on pain and range of motion (ROM) in patients with CLBP. [Subjects and Methods] 30 patients with CLBP participated in the study (Graston technique: 15; Control: 15). Before and after the 4-week intervention program, pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Lumbar ROM was measured using a smartphone. The main effects and interaction were analyzed by two-way repeated ANOVA. [Results] A significant time-by-group interaction was observed for the VAS and ROM. A post hoc paired t-test showed that pain decreased significantly post-intervention within the Graston group. The lumbar ROM significantly increased post-intervention in both groups. [Conclusion] The Graston technique and general exercise resulted in pain relief and increased ROM. However, the Graston group showed significantly increased VAS and ROM more than control group. These findings suggest that the Graston technique can be useful as a pain decrease and ROM increase for patients with CLBP. PMID:27390432
Meier, Michael L.; Stämpfli, Philipp; Vrana, Andrea; Humphreys, Barry K.; Seifritz, Erich; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina
Fear of movement (FOM) can be acquired by a direct aversive experience such as pain or by social learning through observation and instruction. Excessive FOM results in heightened disability and is an obstacle for recovery from acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain (cLBP). FOM has further been identified as a significant explanatory factor in the Fear Avoidance (FA) model of cLBP that describes how individuals experiencing acute back pain may become trapped into a vicious circle of chronic disability and suffering. Despite a wealth of evidence emphasizing the importance of FOM in cLBP, to date, no related neural correlates in patients were found and this therefore has initiated a debate about the precise contribution of fear in the FA model. In the current fMRI study, we applied a novel approach encompassing: (1) video clips of potentially harmful activities for the back as FOM inducing stimuli; and (2) the assessment of FOM in both, cLBP patients (N = 20) and age- and gender-matched pain-free subjects (N = 20). Derived from the FA model, we hypothesized that FOM differentially affects brain regions involved in fear processing in patients with cLBP compared to pain-free individuals due to the recurrent pain and subsequent avoidance behavior. The results of the whole brain voxel-wise regression analysis revealed that: (1) FOM positively correlated with brain activity in fear-related brain regions such as the amygdala and the insula; and (2) differential effects of FOM between patients with cLBP and pain-free subjects were found in the extended amygdala and in its connectivity to the anterior insula. Current findings support the FOM component of the FA model in cLBP. PMID:27507941
Juckett, David A.; Davis, Fred N.; Gostine, Mark; Kasten, Eric P.; Reed, Philip L.; Gardiner, Joseph; Risko, Rebecca
We examined the consistency of pain reporting by patients in a community pain management practice in Michigan. We compared pain levels (range 0-10) entered by patients in questionnaires versus those provided during their face-to-face physician encounter on the same day. Both of these values were available for approximately 10,000 encounters during the study period (2010–2014). Two subpopulations of patients were identifiable. One was consistent in reporting worst or least pain levels on the questionnaire and during the provider encounter. The other was discordant. Factor analysis had previously identified severity scales for patient biopsychosocial characteristics derived from the full questionnaire. The two subpopulations differed in their factor profiles even though they had similar demographics. In general, pain reported directly to physicians was more correlated to biopsychosocial indicators. Pain self-reporting using questionnaires has often been assumed to be ground truth, but those obtained during the physician encounter may be more reliable. PMID:28269863
Minicozzi, Salvatore J.; Russell, Brent S.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Struebing, Alessandria Y.; Owens, Edward F.
Objective The aim of this study was to look for differences between patients with an increased pain response as compared with those with a decreased pain response. Methods Data were collected from consecutive new patients with lumbar or lumbopelvic pain in a chiropractic clinic. A pelvic tilt exercise was included in the initial examination, and pain response was noted. Analysis was made of pain and disability severity, as well as symptom location, chronicity, and other characteristics, before and after a course of chiropractic care. Results Patients with an increased pain response to pelvic tilt (n = 12) had higher levels of pain and disability at baseline than patients without (n = 34). There were no between-group differences in other aspects of their complaints; in age, sex, or body mass; or in the types of care they received (eg, manipulation, stretching, exercise instruction). On the average, both groups of patients showed improvement with chiropractic care, and there was no detectable difference in improvement between groups. Conclusions This study found that patients experiencing pain in response to a pelvic tilt maneuver may have a poorer precare status than patients with a decreased pain response. PMID:27069429
Mingarelli, A; Casagrande, M; Di Pirchio, R; Nizzi, S; Parisi, C; Loy, B C; Solano, L; Rampello, A; Di Paolo, C
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are functional diseases of the masticatory system; their symptoms are clicking, difficulty opening the mouth wide, ear pain, facial pain and headaches. The relationships among distress, emotional factors and TMD are well known. It was shown that patients with TMD have little awareness of their inner states and emotions, and it was found that those reporting oro-facial pain presented higher alexithymia than did asymptomatic people. Other authors confirmed that alexithymia was higher in the painful TMD group than controls. This study was aimed to evaluate whether alexithymia and its components can be considered as predisposing factors for pain severity, poor health and greater social difficulties in patients with TMD. One hundred thirty-three patients received a diagnosis of TMD and completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Multiple stepwise regressions showed that alexithymia and age explained 10% of the pain and 31% of poor health and also that alexithymia explained 7% of social difficulty. A direct comparison of patients with TMD based on alexithymia revealed a higher presence of pain in alexithymic patients with TMD than in those characterised by moderate or no alexithymia. In conclusion, alexithymia partly predicts pain, poor health and social difficulties in patients with TMD. Furthermore, alexithymic patients have more pain than those with moderate or low alexithymia.
Saramma, P P; Mathew, Rikku
Pain assessment and its management in patients undergoing craniotomy, especially those with communication barriers, continue to present challenges to nurses. The present study was undertaken to assess the level of post-operative pain suffered by patients after craniotomy, to identify the activities that increase/relieve pain and to find out association between pain score of patients and selected variables. A self-prepared validated questionnaire and Wong Bakers Faces pain scale were used as the tools. The post-operative pain was mild to moderate and decreased from first to third postoperative day. Pain relief was adequate with the combination therapy of non-narcotic analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The study revealed that there was no significant difference between the pain perception and age or gender of the patient. The activities that increased pain were surgical dressing removal and position changing. Nursing staff should focus on assessing and managing post-operative pain to improve quality of nursing care in order to improve the comfort of craniotomy patients.
Martin, Wilhelmus JJM; Ashton-James, CE; Skorpil, NE; Heymans, MW; Forouzanfar, T
BACKGROUND: For patients with surgical third molar removal, it is unknown what constitutes a clinically important change in patients’ visual analogue scale (VAS) reports of pain intensity. OBJECTIVES: To determine what constitutes a clinically important change in pain intensity on a VAS following surgical removal of the third molar. METHODS: The study population consisted of patients participating in three randomized trials. Patients were asked to rate their pain three times per day over a period of seven days on a 100 mm VAS after surgical removal of the third molar. Global Perceived Effect was measured on day 1 and day 7 and was used as the external criterion for assessing clinically important pain reduction. Global Perceived Effect scores of 6 (‘much improved’) or higher were classified as clinically ‘successful’, and scores of 5 (‘slightly improved’) or below were classified as clinically ‘unsuccessful’. For each trial, the mean absolute and relative changes in VAS scores were calculated for both ‘successful’ and ‘unsuccessful’ treatments. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed. RESULTS: The patients who reported ‘successful’ pain reduction showed a relative pain reduction of ≥69% and an absolute pain reduction >2.5 cm on the VAS, whereas patients who classified their pain reduction as ‘unsuccessful’ had a relative pain reduction of ≥18.5% and an absolute pain reduction <0.5 cm on the VAS. Furthermore, sensitivity and specificity analyses showed that a cut-off point of ≥50% relative pain reduction exhibited the best balance of sensitivity and specificity. CONCLUSION: Relative pain reduction of ≥50% and an absolute pain reduction of ≥2.5 cm on the VAS were most accurate in predicting a successful pain reduction after a given treatment. PMID:23957018
Chronic pain occurs most frequently in the elderly. Unfortunately, most pain clinics are located in large urban areas and are not readily accessible to the rural elderly. Recent advances in behavioral medicine have provided pain relief techniques that can be used by a wide variety of professional and paraprofessional workers who do not have…
Lanctôt, H.; Beaudet, N.; Boulanger, A.; Bourgault, P.; Cloutier, C.; De Koninck, Y.; Dion, D.; Dolbec, P.; Germain, L.; Sarret, P.; Shir, Y.; Taillefer, M.-C.; Trépanier, A.; Truchon, R.
The Quebec Pain Registry (QPR) is a large research database of patients suffering from various chronic pain (CP) syndromes who were referred to one of five tertiary care centres in the province of Quebec (Canada). Patients were monitored using common demographics, identical clinical descriptors, and uniform validated outcomes. This paper describes the development, implementation, and research potential of the QPR. Between 2008 and 2013, 6902 patients were enrolled in the QPR, and data were collected prior to their first visit at the pain clinic and six months later. More than 90% of them (mean age ± SD: 52.76 ± 4.60, females: 59.1%) consented that their QPR data be used for research purposes. The results suggest that, compared to patients with serious chronic medical disorders, CP patients referred to tertiary care clinics are more severely impaired in multiple domains including emotional and physical functioning. The QPR is also a powerful and comprehensive tool for conducting research in a “real-world” context with 27 observational studies and satellite research projects which have been completed or are underway. It contains data on the clinical evolution of thousands of patients and provides the opportunity of answering important research questions on various aspects of CP (or specific pain syndromes) and its management. PMID:28280406
Malik, Z; Bayman, L; Valestin, J; Rizvi-Toner, A; Hashmi, S; Schey, R
Noncardiac chest pain is associated with poor quality of life and high care expenditure. The majority of noncardiac chest pain is either gastresophageal reflux disease related or due to esophageal motility disorders, and the rest are considered functional chest pain (FCP) due to central and peripheral hypersensitivity. Current treatment of FCP improves 40-50% of patients. Cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1 ) and 2 (CB2 ) modulate release of neurotransmitters; CB1 is located in the esophageal epithelium and reduces excitatory enteric transmission and potentially could reduce esophageal hypersensitivity. We performed a prospective study to evaluate its effects on pain threshold, frequency, and intensity in FCP. Subjects with FCP received dronabinol (5 mg, twice daily; n = 7; average age, 44 years; mean body mass index, 26.7) or placebo (n = 6; average age, 42 years; mean body mass index, 25.9) for 28 days (4 weeks). Chest pain, general health, and anxiety/depression questionnaires were assessed at baseline and at 4 weeks. Subjects underwent an esophageal balloon distention test prior to treatment and on last day of the study. Dronabinol increased pain thresholds significantly (3.0 vs. 1.0; P = 0.03) and reduced pain intensity and odynophagia compared to placebo (0.18 vs. 0.01 and 0.12 vs. 0.01, respectively, P = 0.04). Depression and anxiety scores did not differ between the groups at baseline or after treatment. No significant adverse effects were observed. In this novel study, dronabinol increased pain threshold and reduced frequency and intensity of pain in FCP. Further, large scale studies are needed to substantiate these findings.
Knight, Julie; Puet, Brandi L; DePriest, Anne; Heltsley, Rebecca; Hild, Cheryl; Black, David L; Robert, Timothy; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J
Surveys of current trends indicate heroin abuse is associated with nonmedical use of pain relievers. Consequently, there is an interest in evaluating the presence of heroin-specific markers in chronic pain patients who are prescribed controlled substances. A total of 926,084 urine specimens from chronic pain patients were tested for heroin/diacetylmorphine (DAM), 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), 6-acetylcodeine (6AC), codeine (COD), and morphine (MOR). Heroin and markers were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Opiates were analyzed following hydrolysis using LC-MS-MS. The prevalence of heroin use was 0.31%, as 2871 were positive for one or more heroin-specific markers including DAM, 6AM, or 6AC (a known contaminant of illicit heroin). Of these, 1884 were additionally tested for the following markers of illicit drug use: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methamphetamine (MAMP), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetracannabinol (THCCOOH), and benzoylecgonine (BZE); 654 (34.7%) had positive findings for one or more of these analytes. The overall prevalence of heroin markers were as follows: DAM 1203 (41.9%), 6AM 2570 (89.5%), 6AC 1082 (37.7%). MOR was present in 2194 (76.4%) and absent (
Weiss, Roger D; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Griffin, Margaret L; McHugh, R Kathryn; Haller, Deborah; Jacobs, Petra; Gardin, John; Fischer, Dan; Rosen, Kristen D
The number of individuals seeking treatment for prescription opioid dependence has increased dramatically, fostering a need for research on this population. The aim of this study was to examine reasons for prescription opioid use among 653 participants with and without chronic pain, enrolled in the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study, a randomized controlled trial of treatment for prescription opioid dependence. Participants identified initial and current reasons for opioid use. Participants with chronic pain were more likely to report pain as their primary initial reason for use; avoiding withdrawal was rated as the most important reason for current use in both groups. Participants with chronic pain rated using opioids to cope with physical pain as more important, and using opioids in response to social interactions and craving as less important, than those without chronic pain. Results highlight the importance of physical pain as a reason for opioid use among patients with chronic pain.
Aleksandrovskiĭ, Iu A; Iakhno, N N; Avedisova, A S; Chakhava, K O; Ershova, E M; Protasenko, T V; Alekseev, V V; Podchufarova, E V
We examined 143 patients, aged 18-65 years, with chronic low back pain, in 78 of patients diagnosed as chronic somatoform pain disorder (CSPD)--ICD-10 F45.4--and in 65 as chronic pain syndrome (CPS) caused by spine pathology (M48.0, M51.1, M54.4). Depressive symptoms predominated in CSPD patients, who exhibited more pronounced psychopathological disturbances and two-fold higher frequency of personality disorders, comparing to those with CPS. In CSPD patients pain severity and reaction to pain syndrome were significantly higher than in CPS patients. Psychodiagnostic study revealed higher expressed anxiety and depression as well as socio-psychological maladaptation in CSPD patients as compared to CPS ones. After neurological examination, significant between-group differences were found in the frequency of muscular-tonic myofacial, syndrome and iliosacral joint dysfunction.
Stoicea, Nicoleta; Russell, Daric; Weidner, Greg; Durda, Michael; Joseph, Nicholas C.; Yu, Jeffrey; Bergese, Sergio D.
Chronic pain patients receiving opioid drugs are at risk for opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), wherein opioid pain medication leads to a paradoxical pain state. OIH involves central sensitization of primary and secondary afferent neurons in the dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion, similar to neuropathic pain. Gabapentin, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analog anticonvulsant used to treat neuropathic pain, has been shown in animal models to reduce fentanyl hyperalgesia without compromising analgesic effect. Chronic pain patients have also exhibited lower opioid consumption and improved pain response when given gabapentin. However, few human studies investigating gabapentin use in OIH have been performed in recent years. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms that underlie OIH and provide a critical overview of interventional therapeutic strategies, especially the clinically-successful drug gabapentin, which may reduce OIH. PMID:26074817
Price, Christopher; Wong, Alison L.; Chokotho, Tilinde
Introduction: There has been a recent interest in injecting large body and face areas with local anesthetic in a minimally painful manner. The method includes adherence to minimal pain injection details as well feedback from the patient who counts the number of times he feels pain during the injection process. This article describes the successes and limitations of this technique as applied to primary cleft lip/nasal repair in grown patients. Methods: Thirty-two primary cleft lip patients were injected with local anesthesia by 3 surgeons and then underwent surgical correction of their deformity. At the beginning of the injection of the local anesthetic, patients were instructed to clearly inform the injector each and every time they felt pain during the entire injection process. Results: The average patient felt pain only 1.6 times during the injection process. This included the first sting of the first 27-gauge needle poke. The only pain that 51% of the patients felt was that first poke of the first needle; 24% of the patients only felt pain twice during the whole injection process. The worst pain score occurred in a patient who felt pain 6 times during the injection process. Ninety-one percent of the patients felt no pain at all after the injection of the local anesthetic and did not require a top-up. Conclusion: It is possible to successfully and reliably inject local anesthesia in a minimally painful manner for cleft lip and nasal repair in the fully grown cleft patient. PMID:25289364
Aşkın, Ayhan; Özkan, Ayten; Tosun, Aliye; Demirdal, Ümit Seçil; İsnaç, Fethi
The aim of this study was to examine the neuropathic pain component of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and to investigate the relationship between neuropathic pain, disease stage, functional state, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. This study included 60 patients with knee OA. All demographic data and radiological results were recorded. Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Timed Up and Go Test, Chair Stand Test, Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), PainDETECT questionnaire, DN4 questionnaire, Short form-36 questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale were performed for each patient. Neuropathic pain was detected in 66.7% of patients based on the PainDETECT scale and in 46.7% of patients based on DN4 scale. VAS-resting, OA grade, WOMAC scores, and SF-scores showed a significant difference in patients that detected neuropathic pain with PainDETECT (p<0.05). Based on the DN4 scale, patients with neuropathic pain had significantly higher WOMAC scores and significantly lower SF-36 scores (p<0.05). The PainDETECT questionnaire scores showed positive correlations with Timed Up-and-go Test, VAS-resting, WOMAC scores, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale scores, and a negative correlation with all SF-36 scores (p<0.05). DN4 questionnaire scores showed a negative correlation with SF-36 scores and positive correlation with WOMAC scores (p<0.05). To conclude, it should be kept in mind that patients with knee OA who describe intense pain may have a neuropathic component involved in the clinical condition. Quality of life and functional capacity are adversely affected in patients with knee OA who have neuropathic pain. This should be taken into account while planning the treatment of these patients.
Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Park, Hun-Kyung; Park, Jung-Sub; Park, Hye-Sang
The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of isometric exercise types on low back pain (LBP) patients. Isometric exercise types were mat exercise and I-Zer exercise. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: LBP control group, LBP mat exercise group, and LBP I-Zer exercise group in 23–25 aged men. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and electromyography (EMG) were used to evaluate the degree of pain and the muscle activity in LBP patients. Root mean square (RMS), median frequency (MDF), and mean frequency (MNF) were checked by EMG power spectrum analysis on longissimus thoracic (LT), iliocostalis lumborum (IL), mulitifidus (M), and rectus abdominis (RA). LBP mat exercise program and LBP I-Zer exercise program were conducted 5 sets once time, 3 times per week during 6 weeks. The two-way ANOVA with repeated measure was used to check the pain degree and muscle activity. The present results showed that muscle activity in the LBP I-Zer exercise group was increased compared to the LBP mat exercise group and LBP control group (P<0.05). LBP I-Zer exercise group and LBP mat exercise group showed increased mean frequency in LT, IL, M, and RA muscles than the LBP control group. Therefore, LBP patients performed isometric exercise may have positive effect to reduce pain degree and to increase muscle activity. Especially, LBP I-Zer exercise type showed more effectiveness in reducing pain degree and enhancing muscle activity. PMID:26331136
Aquino, Rafaela L; Caires, Priscila M; Furtado, Fernanda C; Loureiro, Aline V; Ferreira, Paulo H; Ferreira, Manuela L
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of applying joint mobilization at symptomatic and asymptomatic cervical levels in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain. Forty-eight patients aged between 18 and 65 years and presenting nonspecific neck pain with a minimum duration of 3 months were recruited for the study. Included patients were randomized to one of two treatment groups: (i) control group: the most symptomatic vertebral level was mobilized; (ii) experimental group: a randomly selected vertebral level was chosen and mobilized. All patients received one treatment session. Pain intensity in resting position during the most painful active cervical movement as well as during vertebral palpation was quantified using an 11-point pain scale. Follow-up measures were taken immediately after intervention by a blinded assessor. The results showed no significant difference in pain intensity immediately after treatment between groups (symptomatic level treated vs. randomly chosen cervical vertebral level treated) during resting position, painful active movement, or vertebral palpation. Within-group comparisons showed significant pain relief after treatment during the most painful active movement as well as during vertebral palpation for both groups, but not during resting position. Significant change in immediate pain intensity during painful active movement and vertebral palpation was achieved after vertebral mobilization. however, both groups presented similar pain reductions suggesting that pain reduction due to joint mobilization is not specific to the vertebral level being mobilized. PMID:20046551
McGregor, N R; Butt, H L; Zerbes, M; Klineberg, I J; Dunstan, R H; Roberts, T K
A visual analog pain scale and scalar responses to 13 pain/symptom indicator Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) questions were used to assess symptom prevalence and pain severity in 43 chronic orofacial muscle pain patients and 40 control subjects. The orofacial muscle pain group reported pain in an axial skeletal distribution; neurocognitive, gastrogenitourinary, and musculoskeletal symptoms; infectious events at or preceding onset; similar symptoms in sexual partners; and low prevalence of trauma. Sudden onset was reported by 30.2% of pain patients. Strong associations were found between chronic orofacial muscle pain and (1) onset-related infectious-like events (67.4%); (2) a higher prevalence of history of respiratory and gastrogenitourinary infectious events; and (3) high prevalences of similar pain symptoms in long-term sexual partners. The SCL-90-R somatization scores (> 62) had a higher prevalence in the chronic pain group. No prevalence differences or associations with pain/symptom indicators were found for depression or anxiety dimension scores. These data suggest that patients with recurrent systemic infectious events have a higher prevalence of reporting of chronic orofacial muscle pain compared with control subjects, and these infectious events are associated with the onset of chronic orofacial muscle pain in 67% of patients.
Wiest, Katharina L.; Asphaug, Victoria J.; Carr, Kathryn E.; Gowen, Emily A.; Hartnett, Timothy T.
Background: Chronic pain is a common cause of health care utilization and high levels of pain are pronounced in individuals engaged in methadone maintenance treatment. Although massage has been demonstrated to alleviate chronic pain symptoms, its use as an adjunctive therapy to modify pain during opioid-replacement treatment is absent from the literature. Purpose: To consider the efficacy of Swedish massage in reducing pain in opioid-dependent patients with chronic pain receiving methadone treatment. Setting: Trial was conducted at a nonprofit methadone treatment center serving low-income patients. Research Design: A randomized clinical trial with randomized to either 1) massage plus treatment-as-usual (TAU) (n = 27) or 2) TAU (n = 24). Durability of treatment effect was evaluated at Week 12. Intervention: Eight weekly 50-minute Swedish massage sessions plus TAU or TAU alone. Main Outcome Measures: Pain, anxiety, depression, physical functioning, decreased substance use, and improvement in treatment engagement. Results: Randomized participants were comparable at Baseline for demographic, pain, physical, and emotional variables. Massage group reported improved pain scores; worst pain had a clinically significant 2-point improvement while the other pain scores did not. Overall improvements were not observed in treatment engagement or levels of anxiety, depression, or physical functioning. A subgroup of the participants, who felt they could be pain-free, consistently reported improvements in pain from Baseline to Week 8, and this was most pronounced and clinically significant in the massage group. Conclusions: These preliminary findings do not support an overall clinically significant positive effect of Swedish massage on reduction in pain ratings or improvement in anxiety, depression, or treatment engagement in a substance-using, opioid-dependent population with chronic pain. Future nonpharmacologic pain research in marginalized substance-using populations may wish
Background Factors associated with abdominal pain in gastroparesis are incompletely evaluated and comparisons of pain versus other symptoms are limited. This study related pain to clinical factors in gastroparesis and contrasted pain/discomfort- with nausea/vomiting-predominant disease. Methods Clinical and scintigraphy data were compared in 393 patients from 7 centers of the NIDDK Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium with moderate-severe (Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders Symptoms [PAGI-SYM] score ≥3) vs. none-mild (PAGI-SYM <3) upper abdominal pain and predominant pain/discomfort vs. nausea/vomiting. Key Results Upper abdominal pain was moderate-severe in 261 (66%). Pain/discomfort was predominant in 81 (21%); nausea/vomiting was predominant in 172 (44%). Moderate-severe pain was more prevalent with idiopathic gastroparesis and with lack of infectious prodrome (P≤0.05) and correlated with scores for nausea/vomiting, bloating, lower abdominal pain/discomfort, bowel disturbances, and opiate and antiemetic use (P<0.05) but not gastric emptying or diabetic neuropathy or control. Gastroparesis severity, quality of life, and depression and anxiety were worse with moderate-severe pain (P≤0.008). Factors associated with moderate-severe pain were similar in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Compared to predominant nausea/vomiting, predominant pain/discomfort was associated with impaired quality of life, greater opiate, and less antiemetic use (P<0.01), but similar severity and gastric retention. Conclusions & Inferences Moderate-severe abdominal pain is prevalent in gastroparesis, impairs quality of life, and is associated with idiopathic etiology, lack of infectious prodrome, and opiate use. Pain is predominant in one fifth of gastroparetics. Predominant pain has at least as great an impact on disease severity and quality of life as predominant nausea/vomiting. PMID:23414452
Background Shoulder pain is a common complaint in primary health care and has an unfavourable outcome in many patients. The objectives were to identify predictors for pain and disability (SPADI) and work status in patients with subacromial shoulder pain. Methods Secondary analyses of data from a randomized clinical controlled trial were performed. Outcome measures were the absolute values of the combined Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and work status 1 year after treatment with supervised exercises (SE) or radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy (rESWT). Predictors of outcome were investigated using multiple linear regression (SPADI) and logistic regression (work status). Results 104 patients were included. Low education (≤ 12 years), previous shoulder pain, and a high baseline SPADI score predicted poor results with these variables explaining 29.9% of the variance in SPADI score at 1 year. Low education and poor self-reported health status predicted a work status of "not working": Odds Ratio, OR = 4.3(95% CI (1.3 to 14.9)), p = 0.02 for education, and OR = 1.06 (95% CI (1.0 to 1.1)), p = 0.001 for self-reported health status, respectively. Adjustments for age, gender, and treatment group were performed, but did not change the results. Conclusion Education was the most consistent predictor of pain and disability, and work status at 1 year follow-up. Also, baseline SPADI score, previous shoulder pain and self-reported health status predicted outcome. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00653081 PMID:20863369
Merz, Erin L.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Assassi, Shervin; Nair, Deepthi K.; Graham, Tiffany A.; Yellman, Brayden P.; Estrada-Y-Martin, Rosa M.; Mayes, Maureen D.
Objective Despite being a common problem in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), the extant literature on pain has primarily focused on biomedical correlates, or bivariate relationships with a few psychological characteristics. There is a need to investigate the more heuristic biopsychosocial model, which incorporates the simultaneous contributions of medical, psychological, and social variables in understanding pain. Methods Patients with SSc (N = 333) received clinical exams and completed self-report surveys at enrollment to the Genetics versus ENvironment In Scleroderma Outcome Study (GENISOS). Latent profile analysis was used to derive biopsychosocial profiles of patients using skin thickening, percent predicted forced vital lung capacity, perceived physical health, health worry, mental health, and social support. The profiles were examined in relation to pain and pain medication usage. Results A 3-profile solution provided the best fit to the data. Based on the biopsychosocial indicators, the profiles were characterized as Managing (n = 217), Resilient (n = 86), and Distressed (n = 30). Between-group differences for pain emerged, with the Distressed group, whose disease was less severe than the Resilient group, reporting the highest pain and the greatest utilization of pain medication. Conclusion Clinicians should consider biopsychosocial characteristics as contributing factors to the experience of pain in patients with SSc. Patients who are similar to those in the Distressed profile may be at an increased risk for pain and would likely benefit from a referral to a behavioral health or other ancillary service provider for pain management, rather than relying solely on pharmacological therapies. PMID:24106135
Sharp, T J; Nicholas, M K
Contemporary reviews of psychological models of chronic pain have favoured behavioural and cognitive-behavioural formulations. These have often assumed that pain behaviours are maintained by environmental reinforcers. One of the most commonly hypothesized sources of reinforcement has been patients' significant others. Further, it has often been recognized that significant others may also be affected by pain behaviours and that they may experience changes in their lifesyles and in their mood as a consequence of living with someone who has pain. Somewhat surprisingly, relatively little clinical research has been published investigating significant others and their relationships with pain patients. Among other things, one of the limiting factors has been the lack of measurement tools available for assessing the relevant variables thought to be important with regards to significant others (such as their responses to, and perceptions of, chronic pain). This study attempted to remedy this situation by developing and testing the psychometric properties of a number of questionnaires specifically designed for significant others of chronic pain patients. The questionnaires have been selected to assess both significant others' (behavioural and cognitive) responses to pain as well as the extent to which pain impacts on their lives. Although not all of the questionnaires were found to possess equally strong psychometric properties, the availability of several solid measures opens the way for more empirical analyses of significant others and their interactions with chronic pain patients.
Campagna, Sara; Antonielli D'Oulx, Maria Delfina; Paradiso, Rosetta; Perretta, Laura; Re Viglietti, Silvia; Berchialla, Paola; Dimonte, Valerio
Background. Because of economic reasons, day surgery rates have steadily increased in many countries and the trend is to perform around 70% of all surgical procedures as day surgery. Literature shows that postoperative pain treatment remains unfulfilled in several fields such as orthopedic and general surgery patients. In Italy, the day surgery program is not yet under governmental authority and is managed regionally by local practices. Aim. To investigate the trends in pain intensity and its relation to type of surgeries and pain therapy protocols, in postoperative patients, discharged from three different Ambulatory Surgeries located in North West Italy (Piedmont region). Method. The present study enrolled 276 patients who undergone different surgical procedures in ambulatory regimen. Patients recorded postoperative pain score twice a day, compliance with prescribed drugs, and pain related reasons for contacting the hospital. Monitoring lasted for 7 days. Results. At discharge, 72% of patients were under weak opioids, 12% interrupted the treatment due to side effects, 17% of patients required extra drugs, and 15% contacted the hospital reporting pain problems. About 50% of patients experienced moderate pain during the first day after surgery. Results from our study show that most of the patients experienced avoidable pain after discharge.
Krein, Sarah L.; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D.; Butchart, Amy; Kerr, Eve A.
Purpose: Many older patients with common chronic conditions also experience chronic pain. We examined how chronic pain affects patients' difficulty with recommended self-management activities and the potential intervening role of self-efficacy (the level of confidence in one's own ability to perform a specific task). Design and Methods: We…
Khan, Fary; Pallant, Julie F.; Amatya, Bhasker; Young, Kevin; Gibson, Steven
The aim of this study was to replicate, in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), the three-cluster cognitive-behavioral classification proposed by Turk and Rudy. Sixty-two patients attending a tertiary MS rehabilitation center completed the Pain Impact Rating questionnaire measuring activity interference, pain intensity, social support, and…
Antonielli D'Oulx, Maria Delfina; Paradiso, Rosetta; Perretta, Laura; Dimonte, Valerio
Background. Because of economic reasons, day surgery rates have steadily increased in many countries and the trend is to perform around 70% of all surgical procedures as day surgery. Literature shows that postoperative pain treatment remains unfulfilled in several fields such as orthopedic and general surgery patients. In Italy, the day surgery program is not yet under governmental authority and is managed regionally by local practices. Aim. To investigate the trends in pain intensity and its relation to type of surgeries and pain therapy protocols, in postoperative patients, discharged from three different Ambulatory Surgeries located in North West Italy (Piedmont region). Method. The present study enrolled 276 patients who undergone different surgical procedures in ambulatory regimen. Patients recorded postoperative pain score twice a day, compliance with prescribed drugs, and pain related reasons for contacting the hospital. Monitoring lasted for 7 days. Results. At discharge, 72% of patients were under weak opioids, 12% interrupted the treatment due to side effects, 17% of patients required extra drugs, and 15% contacted the hospital reporting pain problems. About 50% of patients experienced moderate pain during the first day after surgery. Results from our study show that most of the patients experienced avoidable pain after discharge. PMID:28115878
Pellecchia, Geraldine L.
Data were collected retrospectively from insurance information forms and histories of 111 patients (ages 14-84) referred to physical therapy for evaluation of back and/or neck pain. Analysis indicated that patients with compensable (work-related or motor vehicle accident) injuries infrequently acknowledged prior episodes of back or neck pain. (JDD)
Orrey, Danielle C.; Bortsov, Andrey V.; Hoskins, Janelle M.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Jones, Samuel W.; Cicuto, Bryan J.; Hwang, James; Jordan, Marion H.; Holmes, James H.; Haith, Linwood R.; Roane, Brandon M.; Diatchenko, Luda; Cairns, Bruce A.; McLean, Samuel A.
Background Increasing evidence suggests that stress system activation after burn injury may contribute to burn-related pain. If this is the case, then genetic variations influencing the function of important stress system components, such as the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), may predict pain severity after thermal burn injury. Methods We evaluated the association between COMT genotype and pain intensity in 57 individuals hospitalized after thermal burn injury. Consenting participants at four burn centers were genotyped and completed daily 0-10 numeric rating scale pain assessments on two consecutive days including evaluation of waking, least, and worst pain. The association between COMT genotype and individual pain outcomes was calculated using a linear mixed model adjusting for sociodemographic and burn injury characteristics. Results Overall pain (combination of least, worst, and waking pain scores) was significantly higher in patients with a COMT pain vulnerable genotype (6.3 (.4) vs. 5.4 (.4), p=.037). Individuals with a COMT pain vulnerable genotype also had significantly higher “least pain” scores (3.8 (.5) vs. 2.6 (.4), p=.017) and significantly higher pain on awakening (6.8 (.5) vs. 5.3 (.4), p=.004). Differences in worst pain according to genotype group were not significant. COMT pain vulnerable genotype was a stronger predictor of overall pain severity than burn size, burn depth, or time from admission to pain interview assessment. Conclusions These findings suggest that genetic factors influencing stress system function may have an important influence on pain severity after burn injury. Further studies of genetic predictors of pain after burn injury are needed. PMID:22210062
Scheele, Jantine; Enthoven, Wendy T M; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Peul, Wilco C; van Tulder, Maurits W; Bohnen, Arthur M; Berger, Marjolein Y; Koes, Bart W; Luijsterburg, Pim A J
The aim of the current study was to determine the course of back pain in older patients and identify prognostic factors for non-recovery at 3 months' follow-up. We conducted a prospective cohort study (the BACE study) of patients aged >55 years visiting a general practitioner (GP) with a new episode of back pain in the Netherlands. The course of back pain was described in terms of self-perceived recovery, pain severity, disability, pain medication, and GP visits at 6 weeks' and 3 months' follow-up. Prognostic factors for non-recovery at 3 months' follow-up were derived from the baseline questionnaire and physical examination. Variables with a prognostic value were identified with multivariable logistic regression analysis (method backward), and an area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was calculated for the prognostic model. A total of 675 back pain patients (mean age 66.4 (SD 7.6) years) participated in the BACE cohort study. At 6 weeks' follow-up 64% of the patients reported non-recovery from back pain. At 3 months' follow-up 61% still reported non-recovery, but only 26% of these patients had revisited the GP. Longer duration of the back pain, severity of back pain, history of back pain, absence of radiating pain in the leg below the knee, number of comorbidities, patients' expectation of non-recovery, and a longer duration of the timed 'Up and Go' test were significantly associated with non-recovery in a multiple regression model (AUC 0.79). This information can help GPs identify older back pain patients at risk for non-recovery.
Valeberg, Berit T; Høvik, Lise H; Gjeilo, Kari H
Background and purpose This was a prospective cohort study assessing data from 71 adult patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) following a standardized fast-track program between January and July 2013. The objective was to examine the relationship between self-rated pain sensitivity, as measured by the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ), and postoperative pain after TKA. Methods The baseline questionnaires, PSQ and Brief Pain Inventory, were given to the patients for self-administration at the presurgical evaluation (1–2 weeks prior to surgery). The follow-up questionnaire, Brief Pain Inventory, was administered at the first follow-up, 8 weeks after surgery. Results A statistically significant association was found between average preoperative pain and average pain 8 weeks after surgery (P=0.001). The PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with average pain only for patients younger than 70 years (P=0.03). Interpretation This is the first study to examine the relationship between pain sensitivity measured by PSQ and postoperative pain in patients after TKA. We found that a lower score on the PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with patients’ pain 8 weeks after TKA surgery, but only for younger patients. Further research is needed to explore whether the PSQ could be a useful screening tool for patients’ pain sensitivity in clinical settings. PMID:27660489
Signorelli, Andreza Aparecida Felix; Ribeiro, Sonia Beatriz Felix; Moraes-Souza, Helio; de Oliveira, Lucas Felix; Ribeiro, João Batista; da Silva, Sheron Hellen; de Oliveira, Daniel Fachinelli Felix; Ribeiro, Matheus Fernando Felix
Objective The aim of this exploratory, cross-sectional study was to evaluate pain in sickle cell disease patients and aspects related to primary healthcare. Methods Data were obtained through home interviews. The assessment instruments (body diagram, Numerical Pain Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire) collected information on the underlying disease and on pain. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences program for Windows. Associations between the subgroups of sickle cell disease patients (hemoglobin SS, hemoglobin SC, sickle β-thalassemia and others) and pain were analyzed using contingency tables and non-parametric tests of association (classic chi-square, Fisher's and Kruskal-Wallis) with a level of 5% (p-value < 0.05) being set for the rejection of the null hypothesis. Results Forty-seven over 18-year-old patients with sickle cell disease were evaluated. Most were black (78.7%) and female (59.6%) and the mean age was 30.1 years. The average number of bouts of pain annually was 7.02; pain was predominantly reported by individuals with sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin SS). The intensity of pain (Numeric Pain Scale) was 5.5 and the quantitative index (McGill) was 35.9. This study also shows that patients presented a high frequency of moderately painful crises in their own homes. Conclusion According to these facts, it is essential that pain related to sickle cell disease is properly identified, quantified, characterized and treated at the three levels of healthcare. In primary healthcare, accurate measurement of pain combined with better care may decrease acute painful episodes and consequently minimize tissue damage, thus improving the patient's overall health. PMID:24106446
Müller, Monika; Biurrun Manresa, José A; Treichel, Fabienne; Agten, Christoph A; Heini, Paul; Andersen, Ole K; Curatolo, Michele; Jüni, Peter
Low back pain has a life time prevalence of 70% to 85%. Approximately 10% to 20% of all patients experience recurrent episodes or develop chronic low back pain. Sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics explain the transition from acute to chronic low back pain only to a limited extent. Altered central pain processing may be a contributing mechanism. The measurement of reflex receptive fields (RRF) is a novel method to assess altered central pain processing. The RRF area denotes the area of the foot sole from which spinal nociceptive reflexes can be elicited. It was shown to be enlarged in patients with acute and chronic low back pain compared with pain-free individuals. The aim of the study was to explore the discriminative ability of the RRF to distinguish patients with acute and chronic low back pain with the hypothesis that enlarged RRF are associated with chronic low back pain. We included 214 patients with either acute or chronic low back pain and compared RRF between groups in both univariable and multivariable analyses adjusted for different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics possibly associated with the transition to chronic pain. We found a mean difference between patients with acute and chronic low back pain of -0.01 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.06 to 0.04) in the crude, -0.02 (95% CI, -0.08 to 0.04) in the age and sex adjusted, and -0.02 (95% CI, -0.09 to 0.05) in the fully adjusted model. Our results suggest that the enlargement of RRF area may not be associated with the transition from acute to chronic low back pain.
Grønning, M; Ertzgaard, P; Myrseth, E
About 50% of patients with spinal cord injury suffer from persistent central neurogenic pain. The authors review the case of a patient with traumatic paraplegia who developed persistent central neurogenic pain. The pain was described as burning in the buttock area, icing in the rectum area and as lancinating pain to the lower extremities. The combination of amitryptilin and morphine had a slight, short-term effect, but the pain did not respond to treatment with simple analgetica, dextropropoxyphen or ketobemidone, neither administered alone nor in combination with tricyclic antidepressants, carbamazepine or baclophen. Transcutanous nerve stimulation and acupuncture had no effect. The patient was operated on by means of the computer-assisted dorsal root entry zone (DREZ)-microcoagulation technique 2.5 years after the trauma. This technique is described in brief. The prevalence and classification of neurogenic pain, and possible medical and surgical treatment, are also discussed.
de Moraes Maia, Mila Leite; Ribeiro, Maria Amália Gonzaga; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Stuginski-Barbosa, Juliana; Costa, Yuri Martins; Porporatti, André Luís; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi
This study investigated the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the masticatory performance (MP), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pain intensity in patients with myofascial pain. Twenty-one subjects, with myofascial pain according to Research Diagnostic Criteria/temporomandibular dysfunction, were divided into laser group (n = 12) and placebo group (n = 9) to receive laser therapy (active or placebo) two times per week for 4 weeks. The measured variables were: (1) MP by analysis of the geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the chewed particles using Optocal test material, (2) PPT by a pressure algometer, and (3) pain intensity by the visual analog scale (VAS). Measurements of MP and PPT were obtained at three time points: baseline, at the end of treatment with low-level laser and 30 days after (follow-up). VAS was measured at the same times as above and weekly throughout the laser therapy. The Friedman test was used at a significance level of 5% for data analysis. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Sergipe (CAAE: 0025.0.107.000-10). A reduction in the GMD of crushed particles (p < 0.01) and an increase in PPT (p < 0.05) were seen only in the laser group when comparing the baseline and end-of-treatment values. Both groups showed a decrease in pain intensity at the end of treatment. LLLT promoted an improvement in MP and PPT of the masticatory muscles.
Grosse, A; Grosse, C
The objective of this article is the description of imaging techniques for the evaluation of patients with acute flank pain and suspicion of urolithiasis and the impact of these techniques in the therapy management of patients with calculi.
The complaints and dietary habits of sixteen patients with gastritis and fourteen with undefined abdominal pain were studied by recording method. The results showed that the symptoms of the patients with gastritis and undefined abdominal pain were similar and mostly postprandial and they can be regarded as local (abdominal pain, meteorism, discomfort and heartburn) and/or general (sweating, nausea and faintness). The patients have variations of the symptomatic and asymptomatic periods. The symptomatic patients with gastritis have significantly higher number of daily meals than the asymptomatic patients with gastritis. The daily intake of food, energy and nutrients are low especially in the symptomatic patients with gastritis. It is concluded that the symptoms experienced by the patients with gastritis or undefined abdominal pain are related to the eating so that the daily dietary habits are disturbed. The produced a low intake of food, energy and nutrients especially in the patients with symptomatic gastritis.
Ezenwa, Miriam O; Yao, Yingwei; Molokie, Robert E; Wang, Zaijie Jim; Mandernach, Molly W; Suarez, Marie L; Wilkie, Diana J
To evaluate the pain coping strategies of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) who experience healthcare injustice from either physicians or nurses during medical visits for pain management. It is unknown how patients' coping with pain relates to their experiences of healthcare injustice from physicians or nurses. This descriptive comparative study included adult outpatients with SCD who completed the PAINReportIt(®), Healthcare Justice Questionnaire(©), and Coping Strategies Questionnaire-SCD. Data were analyzed using independent t tests. Frequent coping strategies of patients who experienced healthcare justice from physicians were praying-hoping and from nurses were praying-hoping, calming self-statements, diverting attention, and increasing behavioral activity. In contrast, frequent coping strategies of patients who experienced healthcare injustice from physicians were catastrophizing and isolation and from nurses were isolation. Patients who experienced healthcare justice used different sets of pain coping strategies than those who experienced healthcare injustice during medical visits for pain management.
Derbyshire, Stuart W G
The majority of commentary on foetal pain has looked at the maturation of neural pathways to decide a lower age limit for foetal pain. This approach is sensible because there must be a minimal necessary neural development that makes pain possible. Very broadly, it is generally agreed that the minimal necessary neural pathways for pain are in place by 24 weeks gestation. Arguments remain, however, as to the possibility of foetal pain before or after 24 weeks. Some argue that the foetus can feel pain earlier than 24 weeks because pain can be supported by subcortical structures. Others argue that the foetus cannot feel pain at any stage because it is maintained in a state of sedation in the womb and lacks further neural and conceptual development necessary for pain. Much of this argument rests on the definition of terms such as 'wakefulness' and 'pain'. If a behavioural and neural reaction to a noxious stimulus is considered sufficient for pain, then pain is possible from 24 weeks and probably much earlier. If a conceptual subjectivity is considered necessary for pain, however, then pain is not possible at any gestational age. Regardless of how pain is defined, it is clear that pain for conceptual beings is qualitatively different than pain for non-conceptual beings. It is therefore a mistake to draw an equivalence between foetal pain and pain in the older infant or adult.
Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen; Esteve, Rosa; López, Alicia E
This study analyses the relationships between patients' dispositional optimism and pessimism and the coping strategies they use. In addition, the coping strategies repercussions on adjustment to chronic pain were studied. Ninety-eight patients with heterogeneous chronic pain participated. The assessment tools were as follows: Life Orientation Test (LOT), the Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory (VPMI), the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Impairment and Functioning Inventory for Chronic Pain Patients (IFI). The hypothetical model establishes positive relationships between optimism and the use of active coping strategies, whereas pessimism is related to the use of passive coping. Active coping is associated with low levels of pain, anxiety, depression and impairment and high levels of functioning. However, passive coping is related to high levels of pain, anxiety, depression and impairment and low levels of functioning. The hypothetical model was empirically tested using the LISREL 8.20 software package and the unweighted least squares method. The results support the hypotheses formulated regarding the relations among optimism, pessimism, coping and adjust of chronic pain patients. By analysing optimism among chronic pain patients, clinicians could make better predictions regarding coping and adjustment.
Burns, John W; Peterson, Kristina M; Smith, David A; Keefe, Francis J; Porter, Laura S; Schuster, Erik; Kinner, Ellen
Chronic musculoskeletal pain can strain marriages, perhaps even to the point of engendering spouse criticism and hostility directed toward patients. Such negative spouse responses may have detrimental effects on patient well-being. While results of cross-sectional studies support this notion, we extended these efforts by introducing expressed emotion (EE) and interpersonal theoretical perspectives, and by using electronic diary methods to capture both patient and spouse reports in a prospective design. Patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and their spouses (N = 105 couples) reported on perceived spouse behavior and patient pain 5 times/day for 14 days using Personal Data Assistants (PDAs). Concurrent and lagged within-couple associations between patient's perceptions of spouse criticism/hostility and patient self-reported pain and spouses' observations of patient pain behaviors revealed that (1) patient perceived spouse criticism and hostility were correlated significantly with pain intensity, and spouse observed patient pain behavior was related significantly with patient perceived hostility at the same time point; (2) patient perceived spouse hostility significantly predicted patient pain intensity 3 hours later, and spouse observed pain behaviors significantly predicted patient perceived spouse hostility 3 hours later. Results support both EE and interpersonal models, and imply that a comprehensive model would combine these conceptualizations to fully illustrate how spouse criticism/hostility and patient pain interact to produce a negative spiral. Given that marital interactions are amenable to clinical intervention, improved insight into how spouse behavior and patient pain are tightly linked will encourage productive translational efforts to target this neglected area.
Gaikwad, Manasi; Vanlint, Simon; Moseley, G Lorimer; Mittinty, Murthy N; Stocks, Nigel
Background It is widely recognized that both doctors and patients report discontent regarding pain management provided and received. The impact of chronic pain on an individual’s life resonates beyond physical and mental suffering; equal or at times even greater impact is observed on an individual’s personal relationships, ability to work, and social interactions. The degree of these effects in each individual varies, mainly because of differences in biological factors, social environment, past experiences, support, and belief systems. Therefore, it is equally possible that these individual patient characteristics could influence their treatment outcome. Research shows that meeting patient expectations is a major challenge for health care systems attempting to provide optimal treatment strategies. However, patient perspectives and expectations in chronic pain management have not been studied extensively. The aim of this study is to investigate the views, perceptions, beliefs, and expectations of individuals who experience chronic pain on a daily basis, and the strategies used by them in managing chronic pain. This paper describes the study protocol to be used in a cross sectional survey of chronic pain patients. Methods and analysis The study population will comprise of individuals aged ≥18 years, who have experienced pain for ≥3 months with no restrictions of sex, ethnicity, or region of residence. Ethics approval for our study was obtained from Humans research ethics committees, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. Multinomial logistic regression will be used to estimate the effect of duration and character of pain, on patient’s perception of time to recovery and supplement intake. Logistic regression will also be used for estimating the effect of patient-provider relationship and pain education on patient-reported recovery and pain intensity. Discussion Knowledge about the perceptions and beliefs of patients with chronic pain could
Ciaramitaro, Palma; Mondelli, Mauro; Logullo, Francesco; Grimaldi, Serena; Battiston, Bruno; Sard, Arman; Scarinzi, Cecilia; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Faccani, Giuliano; Cocito, Dario
The objectives of this study were (1) epidemiological analysis of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries; (2) assessment of neuropathic pain and quality of life in patients affected by traumatic neuropathies. All consecutive patients with a diagnosis of traumatic neuropathies from four Italian centres were enrolled. Electromyography confirmed clinical level and site diagnosis of peripheral nerve injury. All patients were evaluated by disability scales, pain screening tools, and quality of life tests. 158 consecutive patients for a total of 211 traumatic neuropathies were analysed. The brachial plexus was a frequent site of traumatic injury (36%) and the radial, ulnar, and peroneal were the most commonly involved nerves with 15% of iatrogenic injuries. Seventy-two percent of the traumatic neuropathies were painful. Pain was present in 66% and neuropathic pain in 50% of all patients. Patients had worse quality of life scores than did the healthy Italian population. Moreover, there was a strong correlation between the quality of life and the severity of the pain, particularly neuropathic pain (Short Form-36 [SF-36] p < 0.005; Beck Depression Inventory [BDI] p < 0.0001). Traumatic neuropathies were more frequent in young males after road accidents, mainly in the upper limbs. Severe neuropathic pain and not only disability contributed to worsening the quality of life in patients with traumatic neuropathies.
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Saulino, Michael; Kim, Philip S; Shaw, Erik
Chronic pain continues to pose substantial and growing challenges for patients, caregivers, health care professionals, and health care systems. By the time a patient with severe refractory pain sees a pain specialist for evaluation and management, that patient has likely tried and failed several nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to pain treatment. Although relegated to one of the interventions of "last resort", intrathecal drug delivery can be useful for improving pain control, optimizing patient functionality, and minimizing the use of systemic pain medications in appropriately selected patients. Due to its clinical and logistical requirements, however, intrathecal drug delivery may fit poorly into the classic pain clinic/interventional model and may be perceived as a "critical mass" intervention that is feasible only for large practices that have specialized staff and appropriate office resources. Potentially, intrathecal drug delivery may be more readily adopted into larger practices that can commit the necessary staff and resources to support patients' needs through the trialing, initiation, monitoring, maintenance, and troubleshooting phases of this therapy. Currently, two agents - morphine and ziconotide - are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for long-term intrathecal delivery. The efficacy and safety profiles of morphine have been assessed in long-term, open-label, and retrospective studies of >400 patients with chronic cancer and noncancer pain types. The efficacy and safety profiles of ziconotide have been assessed in three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of 457 patients, and safety has been assessed in 1,254 patients overall, with severe chronic cancer, noncancer, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pain types. Both agents are highlighted as first-line intrathecal therapy for the management of neuropathic or nociceptive pain. The purpose of this review is to discuss practical considerations for intrathecal
Roh, Hee Sook; Cho, Won Je; Ryu, Won Jong; Park, Seung Jin; An, Chang Sik
[Purpose] This study was conducted to quantify the effect of sling exercise therapy in the recovery of lumbosacral sagittal alignment (LSA) and in the control of low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 102 chronic low back pain patients were divided into two groups, a physical therapy group and a sling exercise group. In both groups, programs were conducted thrice a week for twelve weeks. With respect to LSA, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), and pelvic incidence (PI) were measured with plain radiography. Pain was measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS). [Results] Differences were found in visual analogue scale, delta score of visual analogue scale, pelvic tilt, delta score of pelvic tilt, and delta score of pelvic incidence between sling exercise therapy and physical therapy groups. VAS, pelvic tilt, and pelvic incidence was positively changed after sling exercise. However, only the visual analogue scale was found to be improved after physical therapy. [Conclusion] Sling exercise therapy and physical therapy were effective in reducing pain. However, pelvic tilt and pelvic incidence were positively changed after sling exercise therapy for Lumbosacral Sagittal Alignment, but were unchanged after physical therapy. Therefore, sling exercise therapy is more effective than physical therapy for the recovery of Lumbosacral Sagittal Alignment in patients with chronic low back pain. PMID:27821936
Wheeler, Daniel W; Lee, Michael C H; Harrison, E Katherine; Menon, David K; Woods, C Geoffrey
We report a unique case of a woman with Channelopathy-associated Insensitivity to Pain (CIP) Syndrome, who developed features of neuropathic pain after sustaining pelvic fractures and an epidural hematoma that impinged on the right fifth lumbar (L5) nerve root. Her pelvic injuries were sustained during painless labor, which culminated in a Cesarean section. She had been diagnosed with CIP as child, which was later confirmed when she was found to have null mutations of the SCN9A gene that encodes the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7. She now complains of troubling continuous buzzing in both legs and a vice-like squeezing in the pelvis on walking. Quantitative sensory testing showed that sensory thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the dorsum of both feet had increased more than 10-fold on both sides compared with tests performed before her pregnancy. These findings fulfill the diagnostic criteria for neuropathic pain. Notably, she mostly only experiences the negative symptoms (such as numbness and tingling, but also electric shocks), and she has not reported sharp or burning sensations, although the value of verbal descriptors is somewhat limited in a person who has never felt pain before. However, her case strongly suggests that at least some of the symptoms of neuropathic pain can persist despite the absence of the Nav1.7 channel. Pain is a subjective experience and this case sheds light on the transmission of neuropathic pain in humans that cannot be learned from knockout mice.
Pons, Tracey; Shipton, Edward A
There are no comparative randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy modalities for chronic low back and radicular pain associated with multilevel fusion. Physiotherapy-based rehabilitation to control pain and improve activation levels for persistent pain following multilevel fusion can be challenging. This is a case report of a 68-year-old man who was referred for physiotherapy intervention 10 months after a multilevel spinal fusion for spinal stenosis. He reported high levels of persistent postoperative pain with minimal activity as a consequence of his pain following the surgery. The physiotherapy interventions consisted of three phases of rehabilitation starting with pool exercise that progressed to land-based walking. These were all combined with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) that was used consistently for up to 8 hours per day. As outcome measures, daily pain levels and walking distances were charted once the pool programme was completed (in the third phase). Phase progression was determined by shuttle test results. The pain level was correlated with the distance walked using linear regression over a 5-day average. Over a 5-day moving average, the pain level reduced and walking distance increased. The chart of recorded pain level and walking distance showed a trend toward decreased pain with the increased distance walked. In a patient undergoing multilevel lumbar fusion, the combined use of TENS and a progressive walking programme (from pool to land) reduced pain and increased walking distance. This improvement was despite poor medication compliance and a reported high level of postsurgical pain.
White, Kamila S.; Raffa, Susan D.; Jakle, Katherine R.; Stoddard, Jill A.; Barlow, David H.; Brown, Timothy A.; Covino, Nicholas A.; Ullman, Edward; Gervino, Ernest V.
The present study examined current and lifetime psychiatric morbidity, chest pain, and health care utilization in 229 patients with noncardiac chest pain (NCCP), angina-like pain in the absence of cardiac etiology. Diagnostic interview findings based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV"; American…
Lahr, Christopher J.; Griffith, James; Subramony, Charu; Halley, Lindsey; Adams, Kristen; Paine, Elizabeth R.; Schmieg, Robert; Islam, Saleem; Salameh, Jay; Spree, Danielle; Kothari, Truptesh; Kedar, Archana; Nikitina, Yana; Abell, Thomas
Abdominal pain physiology may be better understood studying electrophysiology, histology, and symptom scores in patients with the symptoms of gastroparesis (Gp) treated with gastric electrical stimulation (GES). Ninety-five Gp patients’ symptoms were recorded at baseline and during temporary and permanent GES. Gastric-emptying times and cutaneous, mucosal, and serosal electrogastrograms were obtained. S100-stained, full-thickness gastric biopsies were compared with autopsy controls. Sixty-eight patients reported severe pain at baseline. Severe pain patients’ mean pain scores decreased with temporary GES from 3.62 to 1.29 (P < 0.001) and nonsevere pain from 1.26 to 0.67 (P = 0.01). With permanent GES, severe mean pain scores fell to 2.30 (P < 0.001); nonsevere pain changed to 1.60 (P = 0.221). Mean follow-up was 275 days. Mean cutaneous, mucosal, and serosal frequencies and frequency-to-amplitude ratios were markedly higher than literature controls. For patients with Gp overall and subdivided by etiology and severity of pain, S-100 neuronal fibers were significantly reduced in both muscularis propria layers. GES improved severe pain associated with symptoms of Gp. This severe pain is associated with abnormal electrogastrographic activity and loss of S100 neuronal fibers in the stomach’s inner and outer muscularis propria and, therefore, could be the result of gastric neuropathy. PMID:23635579
Gutke, Annelie; Hansson, Eva Roos; Zetherström, Gunilla; Ostgaard, Hans Christian
The classification of pelvic girdle pain can only be reached after lumbar causes have been excluded by a clinical examination. During clinical examination, the posterior pelvic pain provocation test is a well-established method for verifying pelvic girdle pain. However, a criticism of pelvic pain provocation tests is that they may have an effect on lumbar structures, thus yielding false-positive results. The posterior pelvic pain provocation test was performed with four groups of patients: patients with computed tomography-verified disc herniations (1) on the waiting list for surgery (14 women; 9 men); (2) 6 weeks after disc surgery (18 women, 12 men); (3) pregnant women seeking care for pelvic girdle pain (n = 25); and (4) women with persistent pelvic girdle pain after delivery (n = 32). The sensitivity of the posterior pelvic pain provocation test was 0.88 and the specificity was 0.89. The positive predictive value was 0.89 and the negative predictive value was 0.87. Analysis of only women showed similar results. In our study, the posterior pelvic pain provocation test was negative in patients with a well-defined lumbar diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation, both before and after disc surgery. Our results are an important step toward the more accurate classification of lumbopelvic pain.
Klapow, J C; Slater, M A; Patterson, T L; Doctor, J N; Atkinson, J H; Garfin, S R
Individuals with persisting pain often present a constellation of symptoms that includes pain, health-related impairment and dysphoric mood. It is now widely accepted that comprehensive assessment must address each of these dimensions. Despite recognition of the value of multidimensional assessment, no empirical efforts have validated the construct of a multidimensional clinical outcome presentation based on the dimensions of pain, impairment and dysphoric mood. We employed cluster analytic procedures on standard measures of pain, impairment and depression in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients (n = 96) attending a general orthopedic clinic in order to empirically characterize multidimensional clinical outcomes. Results indicated that 3 groups could be identified reliably: (1) 'Chronic Pain Syndrome' (n = 25; high levels of pain, impairment and depression), (2) 'Positive Adaptation to Pain' (n = 24; high levels of pain with low levels of impairment and depression) and (3) 'Good Pain Control' (n = 47; low levels of pain, impairment and depression). The reliability of this cluster solution was supported by several tests of internal consistency. Discriminability of the clusters was examined across both the outcome measures themselves and several additional independent variables. The cluster solution was then cross-validated in an independent sample of pain clinic CLBP patients (n = 180) to test its generalizability. Finally the stability of the cluster dimensions over time was tested by re-assessing 36 CLBP patients 6 months after they initially were characterized into 1 of the 3 outcome groups on the same measures. MANOVA results indicated that the outcome groups were differentiated statistically across assessments. The multiple outcome measures did not change significantly across time, nor did the outcome groups change differentially across time on these measures. We conclude that the outcome dimensions of pain, impairment and depression are relatively stable
Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Fukuma, Ryohei; Seymour, Ben; Hosomi, Koichi; Kishima, Haruhiko; Shimizu, Takeshi; Yokoi, Hiroshi; Hirata, Masayuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Saitoh, Youichi
The cause of pain in a phantom limb after partial or complete deafferentation is an important problem. A popular but increasingly controversial theory is that it results from maladaptive reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex, suggesting that experimental induction of further reorganization should affect the pain, especially if it results in functional restoration. Here we use a brain–machine interface (BMI) based on real-time magnetoencephalography signals to reconstruct affected hand movements with a robotic hand. BMI training induces significant plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex, manifested as improved discriminability of movement information and enhanced prosthetic control. Contrary to our expectation that functional restoration would reduce pain, the BMI training with the phantom hand intensifies the pain. In contrast, BMI training designed to dissociate the prosthetic and phantom hands actually reduces pain. These results reveal a functional relevance between sensorimotor cortical plasticity and pain, and may provide a novel treatment with BMI neurofeedback. PMID:27807349
San Martin-Lopez, Alma Luz; Garrigos-Esparza, Luis David; Torre-Delgadillo, Gabriela; Gordillo-Moscoso, Antonio; Hernandez-Sierra, Juan Francisco; de Pozos-Guillen, Amaury Jesus
The purpose of this study was to evaluate pain perception rates in pediatric patients by comparing computerized injection device and traditional injection procedure. In a clinical trial, by using a crossover design, sixty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive, in consecutive sessions, dental anesthetic techniques with either traditional or computerized device. Visual Analogue Scale qualification and heart rate monitoring as physiologic indicator of pain response were used for the evaluation. Results showed that traditional syringe injections were more painful than computerized injection device (p < 0.001). Results suggested that computerized injection device reduces pain perception compared to the traditional syringe during the dental anesthetic management.
Truini, A; Biasiotta, A; Di Stefano, G; Leone, C; La Cesa, S; Galosi, E; Piroso, S; Pepe, A; Giordano, C; Cruccu, G
The different neuropathic pain types (e.g., ongoing burning pain and allodynia) are frequent and disabling complaints in patients with peripheral neuropathies. Although the reference standard technique for diagnosing painful small-fibre neuropathies is nerve fibre density assessment by skin biopsy, the relationship between the epidermal nerve fibre (ENF) density and neuropathic pain is still unclear. In a clinical and skin biopsy study designed to investigate whether changes in ENF density are directly related to pain, we enrolled 139 consecutive patients with distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy. All patients underwent clinical examination. The Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory was used to distinguish the different neuropathic pain types. A skin biopsy was conducted, and ENFs were immunostained with the antiprotein gene product 9.5, and their linear density was quantified with bright-field microscopy. No difference was found in ENF density between patients with and without neuropathic pain, nor between patients with and without ongoing burning pain. Conversely, ENF density was higher in patients with provoked pains (including mechanical dynamic allodynia) than in those without. The variable association between ENF density and symptoms of neuropathic pain supports the idea that neuropathic pain symptoms arise through distinct underlying mechanisms. The lack of relationship between ongoing burning pain and ENF density suggests that this type of pain reflects factors other than loss of nociceptive afferents. The association between ENF density and provoked pain (including mechanical dynamic allodynia) suggests that this type of pain might be mediated by spared and sensitised nociceptive afferents.
Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Pain; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific
Saulino, Michael; Kim, Philip S; Shaw, Erik
Chronic pain continues to pose substantial and growing challenges for patients, caregivers, health care professionals, and health care systems. By the time a patient with severe refractory pain sees a pain specialist for evaluation and management, that patient has likely tried and failed several nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to pain treatment. Although relegated to one of the interventions of “last resort”, intrathecal drug delivery can be useful for improving pain control, optimizing patient functionality, and minimizing the use of systemic pain medications in appropriately selected patients. Due to its clinical and logistical requirements, however, intrathecal drug delivery may fit poorly into the classic pain clinic/interventional model and may be perceived as a “critical mass” intervention that is feasible only for large practices that have specialized staff and appropriate office resources. Potentially, intrathecal drug delivery may be more readily adopted into larger practices that can commit the necessary staff and resources to support patients’ needs through the trialing, initiation, monitoring, maintenance, and troubleshooting phases of this therapy. Currently, two agents – morphine and ziconotide – are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for long-term intrathecal delivery. The efficacy and safety profiles of morphine have been assessed in long-term, open-label, and retrospective studies of >400 patients with chronic cancer and noncancer pain types. The efficacy and safety profiles of ziconotide have been assessed in three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of 457 patients, and safety has been assessed in 1,254 patients overall, with severe chronic cancer, noncancer, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pain types. Both agents are highlighted as first-line intrathecal therapy for the management of neuropathic or nociceptive pain. The purpose of this review is to discuss practical considerations
Lee, Yvonne C.; Frits, Michelle L.; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Weinblatt, Michael E.; Shadick, Nancy A.; Williams, David A.; Cui, Jing
Objective Among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, pain may be due to peripheral inflammation or other causes, such as central pain mechanisms. The objective was to use self-report measures and physical examination to identify clusters of RA patients who may have different causes of pain and different prognoses and treatment options. Methods Data were analyzed from 169 RA patients in the Brigham Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study who had pain > 0/10 and completed questionnaires on pain, fatigue and psychosocial factors. A hierarchical agglomerative clustering procedure with Ward’s method was used to obtain subgroups. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine the contribution of each variable in a cluster. General linear regression models were used to examine differences in clinical characteristics across subgroups. Discriminant analyses were performed to determine coefficients for linear combinations of variables that assigned cluster membership to individual cases. Results Three clusters best fit these data. Cluster 1 consisted of 89 individuals with low inflammation, pain, fatigue and psychosocial distress. Cluster 2 consisted of 57 individuals with minimal inflammation but high pain, fatigue and psychosocial distress. Cluster 3 consisted of 23 individuals with active inflammatory disease, manifested by high joint counts, high C-reactive protein and high pain and fatigue. Conclusion Although most patients had low levels of inflammation, pain and fatigue, 47.3% continued to report moderate to high pain and fatigue. Most of these patients had minimal signs of inflammation but high levels of fatigue, pain catastrophizing and sleep disturbance, indicative of a chronic widespread pain syndrome. PMID:24782222
Ojeda, Begoña; Salazar, Alejandro; Dueñas, María; Torres, Luís Miguel; Micó, Juan Antonio; Failde, Inmaculada
To assess the impact of chronic pain on the family environment from the patient's, relative's and caregiver's perspective, we undertook cross-sectional study on a representative sample of Spanish adults who suffered pain at least 4 days a week for ≥3 months and on relatives and caregivers of patients that fulfilled these criteria. The characteristics of pain and the perception of its impact on the family environment were assessed, using logistic regression models to reveal the variables associated with the impact of pain on the family. From a total of 1,957 subjects, 325 experienced chronic pain and 34.6% of them perceived that their pain affected their family environment. These patients recognized a stronger impact when their relatives were sad (OR = 3.61; CI:1.57, 8.27) and had modified the leisure activities because of the pain (OR = 3.62; CI:1.56, 8.38). Among the 131 relatives, 51.2% perceived that pain was affecting the family, causing changes in their leisure activities (OR = 1.17; CI:1.04, 9.94) and sleep disturbance (OR = 1.40; CI:1.32, 12.58). Of the 36 caregivers, mainly women over 50 years of age, 66.7% indicated that pain affected the family, although 72.8% were satisfied with the help they provided. Chronic pain has a very strong impact on the family, although this is perceived distinctly by patients, relatives, and caregivers. Recognizing that factors related to pain affect the family's well-being, and adopting a global approach to pain that takes into consideration the family's experiences, should improve the therapeutic response, and enhance the patient's and relative's quality of life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Xie, Peng; Qin, Bangyong; Song, Ganjun; Zhang, Yi; Cao, Song; Yu, Jin; Wu, Jianjiang; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Tijiang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yu, Tian; Zheng, Hong
Myofascial pain, presented as myofascial trigger points (MTrPs)-related pain, is a common, chronic disease involving skeletal muscle, but its underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. Previous studies have revealed that chronic pain can induce microstructural abnormalities in the cerebral gray matter. However, it remains unclear whether the brain gray matters of patients with chronic MTrPs-related pain undergo alteration. In this study, we employed the Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) technique, which is particularly sensitive to brain microstructural perturbation, to monitor the MTrPs-related microstructural alterations in brain gray matter of patients with chronic pain. Our results revealed that, in comparison with the healthy controls, patients with chronic myofascial pain exhibited microstructural abnormalities in the cerebral gray matter and these lesions were mainly distributed in the limbic system and the brain areas involved in the pain matrix. In addition, we showed that microstructural abnormalities in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) had a significant negative correlation with the course of disease and pain intensity. The results of this study demonstrated for the first time that there are microstructural abnormalities in the brain gray matter of patients with MTrPs-related chronic pain. Our findings may provide new insights into the future development of appropriate therapeutic strategies to this disease. PMID:28066193
Rantala, Maija; Kankkunen, Päivi; Kvist, Tarja; Hartikainen, Sirpa
The aim of this study is to describe current post-operative pain management practices for patients with dementia and hip fracture in Finland. Older adults with hip fracture are at high risk of under treatment for pain, especially if they also have a cognitive disorder at the stage of dementia. Previous studies have provided limited information about the quality of acute pain treatment for persons with dementia. In this study data concerning current pain management practices was collected by questionnaire from 333 nursing staff. They worked in surgical wards of seven universities and ten city-centre hospitals. The response rate to the questionnaire was 53%. The data was analysed using factor analysis and parametric methods. Half the respondents (53%) considered that post-operative pain management was sufficient for patients with dementia. Less than one third of respondent nurses reported that pain scales were in use on their unit: the most commonly used scale was VAS. The use of pain scales was significantly related to the respondents’ opinion of the sufficiency of post-operative pain management in this patient group (p<0.001). The findings can be utilised in nursing practice and research when planning suitable complementary educational interventions for nursing staff of surgical wards. Further research is needed to explain the current situation of pain management practices from the viewpoint of patients with dementia. PMID:22723810
Shin, Masahiro; Ishi, Kazuhiko; Osumi, Michihiro; Katsuhira, Junji; Chiba, Ryosuke; Haga, Nobuhiko
Thalamic pain is a central neuropathic pain disorder which occurs after stroke. Its severe chronic pain is often intractable to pharmacotherapies and affects the patients' activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (QOL). Recently, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been reported to be effective in relieving the pain of thalamic pain; however, the effect of SCS on gait performance in patients is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the gait performance before and after SCS in a case with thalamic pain. A 73-year-old male with thalamic pain participated in this study. We evaluated the gait of the patient two times: before SCS insertion and after 6 days of SCS. At the second evaluation, we measured the gait in three conditions: stimulation off, comfortable stimulation, and strong stimulation. SCS succeeded in improving the pain from 7 to 2 on an 11-point numerical rating scale. Step frequency and the velocity of gait tended to increase between pre- and poststimulation periods. There were no apparent differences in gait among the three stimulation conditions (off, comfortable, and strong) at the poststimulation period. SCS may be effective on gait in patients with thalamic pain. PMID:27579198
Koulouris, Andreas I; Banim, Paul; Hart, Andrew R
Pain affects approximately 80% of patients with pancreatic cancer, with half requiring strong opioid analgesia, namely: morphine-based drugs on step three of the WHO analgesic ladder (as opposed to the weak opioids: codeine and tramadol). The presence of pain is associated with reduced survival. This article reviews the literature regarding pain: prevalence, mechanisms, pharmacological, and endoscopic treatments and identifies areas for research to develop individualized patient pain management pathways. The online literature review was conducted through: PubMed, Clinical Key, Uptodate, and NICE Evidence. There are two principal mechanisms for pain: pancreatic duct obstruction and pancreatic neuropathy which, respectively, activate mechanical and chemical nociceptors. In pancreatic neuropathy, several histological, molecular, and immunological changes occur which correlate with pain including: transient receptor potential cation channel activation and mast cell infiltration. Current pain management is empirical rather etiology-based and is informed by the WHO analgesic ladder for first-line therapies, and then endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) in patients with resistant pain. For EUS-CPN, there is only one clinical trial reporting a benefit, which has limited generalizability. Case series report pancreatic duct stenting gives effective analgesia, but there are no clinical trials. Progress in understanding the mechanisms for pain and when this occurs in the natural history, together with assessing new therapies both pharmacological and endoscopic, will enable individualized care and may improve patients' quality of life and survival.
Rantala, Maija; Kankkunen, Päivi; Kvist, Tarja; Hartikainen, Sirpa
The aim of this study is to describe current post-operative pain management practices for patients with dementia and hip fracture in Finland. Older adults with hip fracture are at high risk of under treatment for pain, especially if they also have a cognitive disorder at the stage of dementia. Previous studies have provided limited information about the quality of acute pain treatment for persons with dementia. In this study data concerning current pain management practices was collected by questionnaire from 333 nursing staff. They worked in surgical wards of seven universities and ten city-centre hospitals. The response rate to the questionnaire was 53%. The data was analysed using factor analysis and parametric methods. Half the respondents (53%) considered that post-operative pain management was sufficient for patients with dementia. Less than one third of respondent nurses reported that pain scales were in use on their unit: the most commonly used scale was VAS. The use of pain scales was significantly related to the respondents' opinion of the sufficiency of post-operative pain management in this patient group (p<0.001). The findings can be utilised in nursing practice and research when planning suitable complementary educational interventions for nursing staff of surgical wards. Further research is needed to explain the current situation of pain management practices from the viewpoint of patients with dementia.
Shelby, Rebecca A.; Somers, Tamara J.; Keefe, Francis J; Pells, Jennifer J.; Dixon, Kim E.; Blumenthal, James A.
This study examined whether self-efficacy mediated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain and disability. Participants were 192 individuals diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knees who were overweight or obese. Multiple mediator analyses were conducted to simultaneously test self-efficacy for pain control, physical function, and emotional symptoms as mediators while controlling for demographic and medical status variables. Higher pain catastrophizing was associated with lower self-efficacy in all three domains (ps< .05). Self-efficacy for pain control fully mediated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain (β=.08, Sobel test Z=1.97, p<.05). The relationship between pain catastrophizing and physical disability was fully mediated by self-efficacy for physical function (β=.06, Sobel test Z=1.95, p=.05). Self-efficacy for emotional symptoms partially mediated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and psychological disability (β=.12, Sobel test Z=2.92, p<.05). These results indicate that higher pain catastrophizing contributed to greater pain and disability via lower domain-specific self-efficacy. Efforts to reduce pain and improve functioning in OA patients should consider addressing pain catastrophizing and domain specific self-efficacy. Pain catastrophizing may be addressed through cognitive therapy techniques and self-efficacy may be enhanced through practice of relevant skills and personal accomplishments. Perspective This paper found that higher pain catastrophizing contributed to great pain and disability via domain specific self-efficacy. These results suggest that treatment efforts to reduce pain and improve functioning in OA patients who are overweight or obese should consider addressing both pain catastrophizing and self-efficacy. PMID:18602871
Jinyi, Li; Yungui, Wang
Pain and anxiety engender major psychic problems during all phases of treatment for burn patients. Analgesic alone does not allay these problems satisfactorily in these patients. Music therapy, as an important complementary and alternative therapy, has been widely used in multiple medical fields. However, its positive effect on alleviation of pain and anxiety in burn patients is undefined. The objective of this review is to summarize the feasibility, application fields, methods, and the effectiveness of music therapy in allaying pain and anxiety of burn patients during the whole course of treatment.
Kaya, Defne; Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Callaghan, Michael
Summary Purpose: the aim of this article was to review the clinical approach of quadriceps strengthening programmes. Methods: a literature search was carried out from 1980 up to September 2011. Eligible studies were those that: (1) evaluated the patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (not healthy or asymptomatic subjects) (2) examined the effect of kinetic chain exercises (3) examined the effect of weight-bearing exercises (4) compared the effect of the combined exercises programme in the treatment of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Results and conclusion: patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome may tolerate a closed kinetic chain exercises programme better than open kinetic chain. Weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing quadriceps exercises can significantly improve subjective and clinical outcomes in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Combining treatments as an initial approach to treating patellofemoral pain but developing individualized more functional, global treatments are essential. PMID:23738270
Douglas, J T; Lowe, G D; Forbes, C D; Prentice, C R
Plasma levels of beta-thromboglobulin (BTG) and fibrinopeptide A (FPA), markers of platelet release and thrombin generation respectively, were measured in 48 patients within 3 days of admission to hospital for acute chest pain. Twenty-one patients had a confirmed myocardial infarction (MI); 15 had unstable angina without infarction; and 12 had chest pain due to noncardiac causes. FPA and BTG were also measured in 23 control hospital patients of similar age. Mean plasma BTG levels were not significantly different in the 4 groups. Mean plasma FPA levels were significantly higher in all 3 groups with acute chest pain when compared to the control subjects (p less than 0.01), but there were no significant differences between the 3 groups. Increased FPA levels in patients with acute chest pain are not specific for myocardial infarction, nor for ischaemic chest pain.
Krishnaswamy, Priyadharshini; Nair, Shoba
Background: The pain associated with cancer is highly detrimental to the quality of life of the affected individuals. It also contributes to the anxiety of the patient. There is a need for a nonpharmacological approach in addition to the pharmacological therapy for the management of the pain for a more holistic improvement in the individual. With this study, we wish to achieve this through music. Objective: To assess the effect of music therapy on pain scores and anxiety levels of cancer patients with pain. Study Design: In this quantitative study, a comparative study was done on fourteen cancer patients admitted for pain relief under the Department of Pain and Palliative Medicine, of a tertiary care hospital, having moderate to severe pain (numerical pain rating scale [NRS] – of 4 to 10). Subjects and Methods: Convenience sampling was used. Patients were allocated to test group or control group nonrandomly. The test group patients were subjected to music therapy for 20 min while the control group patients were kept occupied by talking to them for 20 min. The NRS scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional pain scores and the Hamilton anxiety rating scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional anxiety scores in the two groups. Statistics: Student's t-test was used for comparing the pre- and post-interventional data. Two sample t-test was used to compare the data obtained from the control and study groups. Results: Statistically significant reduction seen in the pain scores in the test group after music therapy (P = 0.003). No statistically significant reduction seen in the pain score in the control group (P = 0.356). There was a statistically significant reduction in the postintervention pain scores in the test group compared to the control group (P = 0.034). The reduction in anxiety levels in both groups after intervention was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Music therapy was found to lower the pain score of a patient who
Benditz, Achim; Greimel, Felix; Auer, Patrick; Zeman, Florian; Göttermann, Antje; Grifka, Joachim; Meissner, Winfried; von Kunow, Frederik
Background The number of total hip replacement surgeries has steadily increased over recent years. Reduction in postoperative pain increases patient satisfaction and enables better mobilization. Thus, pain management needs to be continuously improved. Problems are often caused not only by medical issues but also by organization and hospital structure. The present study shows how the quality of pain management can be increased by implementing a standardized pain concept and simple, consistent, benchmarking. Methods All patients included in the study had undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA). Outcome parameters were analyzed 24 hours after surgery by means of the questionnaires from the German-wide project “Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Management” (QUIPS). A pain nurse interviewed patients and continuously assessed outcome quality parameters. A multidisciplinary team of anesthetists, orthopedic surgeons, and nurses implemented a regular procedure of data analysis and internal benchmarking. The health care team was informed of any results, and suggested improvements. Every staff member involved in pain management participated in educational lessons, and a special pain nurse was trained in each ward. Results From 2014 to 2015, 367 patients were included. The mean maximal pain score 24 hours after surgery was 4.0 (±3.0) on an 11-point numeric rating scale, and patient satisfaction was 9.0 (±1.2). Over time, the maximum pain score decreased (mean 3.0, ±2.0), whereas patient satisfaction significantly increased (mean 9.8, ±0.4; p<0.05). Among 49 anonymized hospitals, our clinic stayed on first rank in terms of lowest maximum pain and patient satisfaction over the period. Conclusion Results were already acceptable at the beginning of benchmarking a standardized pain management concept. But regular benchmarking, implementation of feedback mechanisms, and staff education made the pain management concept even more successful. Multidisciplinary teamwork
Hsu, Kuo-Cheng; Chen, Li Fen; Hsiep, Pi Hsia
For burn patients, the daily dressing process causes pain and anxiety. Although drugs can relieve them, the degree of pain during dressing changes is often moderate to severe. Therefore, relevant supporting interventions, like music as an ideal intervention, could alleviate the patient's pain. This study investigated the impact of music intervention at dressing change time on burn patients' pain and anxiety. This was a prospective, randomized clinical trial; patients were randomly assigned into control (standard intervention) and experimental groups (crystal music intervention) for five consecutive days (35 patients in each group). Patients' pain and anxiety measurements were collected before, during, and after dressing changes and morphine usage was recorded. The study period was October 2014 to September 2015. There was no difference in morphine dosage for both groups. By the fourth day of music intervention, burn patients' pain before, during, and after dressing changes had significantly decreased; anxiety on the fourth day during and after dressing changes had also significantly decreased. Nurses may use ordered prescription analgesics, but if non-pharmacological interventions are increased, such as providing timely music intervention and creating a friendly, comfortable hospital environment, patients' pain and anxiety will reduce.
Vriesema, Jessica L.; Stomps, Saskia P.; van Balen, Olav L.W.B.; Cornel, Erik B.
Purpose Rigid and flexible cystoscopies are both routinely used in female patients. Literature is conflicting whether flexible cystoscopy is less painful compared to rigid cystoscopy. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether using flexible cystoscopy leads to less discomfort and pain compared to rigid cystoscopy in female patients who underwent first time cystoscopy. Materials and Methods One hundred eighty-nine female patients, who never had undergone cystoscopy, were randomized into 2 groups: 92 patients underwent rigid cystoscopy and 97 patients flexible cystoscopy. Directly after the cystoscopy procedure all patients were asked to fill out their pain experience on a 100-mm visual analogue pain scale (VAS). Results Median VAS score was significantly lower for women undergoing flexible cystoscopy (0 [0–20]) compared to rigid cystoscopy (15 [0–38], p<0.001). In addition, age was inversely associated with VAS score, indicating that younger females experienced more pain (R=−0.30, p=0.001). The use of flexible cystoscopy was associated with a decrease in VAS score and remained significant after adjustment for age, sex of urologist, performing urologist and indication (standardized β=−0.17, p=0.048). Conclusions The use of flexible cystoscopy resulted in a significantly lower pain experience compared to rigid cystoscopy. Based on patient's pain experience during cystoscopy, this study implicates to use flexible cystoscopy in female patients who undergo first time cystoscopy. PMID:28097268
Malaki, Majid; Mortazavi, Fakhr Sadat; Moazemi, Sussan; Shoaran, Maryam
Insomnia and limb pain are common problems in dialysis patients. In addition, restless leg syndrome (RLS) as a specific cause of insomnia and limb pain has been reported in many studies. The purpose of this study was to estimate incidence of insomnia and RLS as a cause of insomnia in these patients. Twenty-six patients undergoing hemodialysis were investigated for insomnia, limb pain and RLS as per the defined criteria. They were evaluated for dialysis quality, dialysis duration, hemoglobin, serum phosphorous, ionized calcium, iron and ferritin levels. These variables between patients with insomnia and those with normal sleep were evaluated by independent "t" test. Without considering the etiology or pathogenesis of insomnia, we evaluated the occurrence of insomnia and limb pain in these patients, and specifically, restless leg syndrome. Insomnia and limb pain were common in dialytic patients. 46% of patients had insomnia. 91% of sleepless group had limb pain as a persistent, annoying complaint. Limb pain was not seen in groups with a normal sleep pattern. Restless leg syndrome was found in 8% of total cases (2 out of 26) and 17% among the insomnia group (2 out of 12). In spite of high incidence of insomnia among patients undergoing regular hemodialysis, role of RLS is trivial. There is a strong relationship between hemoglobin levels and duration of renal replacement therapy to insomnia occurrence.
Merlin, Jessica S
Chronic pain is common in individuals with HIV infection. The primary goal of treatment of chronic pain is not only to improve pain but also to improve physical and emotional function. Patients with chronic pain should be assessed for concurrent psychiatric and substance use disorders, as these conditions often coexist. Treatment of chronic pain may have limited success in the absence of treatment of psychiatric disorders. Treatments for chronic pain include nonopioid pharmacologic therapies and nonpharmacologic therapies (eg, cognitive and behavioral therapy, physical therapy), and the latter option is often the most effective for improving patient function. Care must be taken when initiating or continuing treatment with opioids, and the risks and benefits of treatment with opioids should be regularly assessed. This article summarizes a presentation by Jessica S. Merlin, MD, MBA, at the IAS-USA continuing education program held in New York, New York, in March 2015.
Preston, Stephen; Petrera, Massimo; Kim, Christopher; Zywiel, Michael G; Gandhi, Rajiv
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains the treatment of choice for end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee. With an aging population, the demand for TKA continues to increase, placing a significant burden on a health care system that must function with limited resources. Although generally accepted as a successful procedure, 15-30 % of patients report persistent pain following TKA. Classically, pain generators have been divided into intra-articular and extra-articular causes. However, there remains a significant subset of patients for whom pain remains unexplained. Recent studies have questioned the role of biology (inflammation) in the persistence of pain following TKA. This article aims to serve as a review of previously identified causes of knee pain following TKA, as well as to explore the potential role of biology as a predictor of pain following knee replacement surgery.
Arneja, Amarjit S; Kotowich, Alan; Staley, Doug; Summers, Randy; Tappia, Paramjit S
Aim: To examine the effects of low-amplitude, low frequency electromagnetic field therapy (EMF) therapy in patients with persistent chronic lower back pain associated with degenerative disc disease. Design: Double-blind, randomized and placebo controlled. Intervention: EMF using a medical device resonator; control group underwent same procedures, except the device was turned off. Outcome measures: Pain reduction and mobility. Results: Improvements in overall physical health, social functioning and reduction in bodily pain were observed in the EMF group. The pain relief rating scale showed a higher level of pain relief at the target area in the EMF group. An increase in left lateral mobility was seen only in the EMF group. Conclusion: EMF treatment may be of benefit to patients with chronic nonresponsive lower back pain associated with degenerative disc disease. PMID:28031951
Gröne, Eva; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Abahji, Thomas; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Irnich, Dominik; Mussack, Thomas; Hoffmann, Ulrich; Sommer, Claudia; Lang, Philip M
Chronic ischemic pain in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a leading cause of pain in the lower extremities. A neuropathic component of chronic ischemic pain has been shown independent of coexisting diabetes. We aimed to identify a morphological correlate potentially associated with pain and sensory deficits in PAD. Forty patients with symptomatic PAD (Fontaine stages II-IV), 20 with intermittent claudication (CI), and 20 with critical limb ischemia (CLI) were enrolled; 12 volunteers served as healthy controls. All patients were examined using pain scales and questionnaires. All study participants underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST) at the distal calf and skin punch biopsy at the distal leg for determination of intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). Additionally, S100 beta serum levels were measured as a potential marker for ischemic nerve damage. Neuropathic pain questionnaires revealed slightly higher scores and more pronounced pain-induced disability in CLI patients compared to CI patients. QST showed elevated thermal and mechanical detection pain thresholds as well as dynamic mechanical allodynia, particularly in patients with advanced disease. IENFD was reduced in PAD compared to controls (P<0.05), more pronounced in the CLI subgroup (CLI: 1.3 ± 0.5 fibers/mm, CI: 2.9 ± 0.5 fibers/mm, controls: 5.3 ± 0.6 fibers/mm). In particular, increased mechanical and heat pain thresholds negatively correlated with lower IENFD. Mean S100 beta levels were in the normal range but were higher in advanced disease. Patients with chronic ischemic pain had a reduced IENFD associated with impaired sensory functions. These findings support the concept of a neuropathic component in ischemic pain.
Rahman, Anisur; Daniel, Clare; Grahame, Rodney
Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is common in patients presenting to rheumatologists and can cause a range of symptoms leading to physical and psychological distress. Chronic musculoskeletal pain in patients with JHS often responds poorly to analgesics, and a pain management approach may be helpful. Since patients with JHS often have beliefs and experiences different to those of other chronic pain patients, they could fare better in JHS-specific programmes. Here, we report on the outcomes of patients in a JHS cognitive behavioural pain management programme. Patients fulfilling the Brighton criteria for JHS, who had suffered pain for at least 3 months, were assessed by a psychologist and physiotherapist for suitability for this programme. Those accepted took part in a programme of 8 days spread over 6 weeks, delivered by a multidisciplinary team and incorporating a cognitive behavioural approach. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 1- and 5-month post-programme using validated outcome measures. Outcome measures at baseline and 1-month were available for 87 patients (96 % female, mean age 35 years). There were significant improvements in self-efficacy, pain catastrophising, depression, anxiety, frustration, impact of pain and average pain intensity (all P < 0.001). Although by 5 months all these outcomes had regressed towards pre-programme levels there remained significant improvements compared to baseline in all except average pain intensity. This open study shows that patients with JHS experienced significant benefits after attending a JHS-specific pain management programme, which were still evident 5 months later. Longer-term controlled studies are required.
Odes, Shmuel; Friger, Michael; Sergienko, Ruslan; Schwartz, Doron; Sarid, Orly; Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Singer, Terri; Chernin, Elena; Vardi, Hillel; Greenberg, Dan; Israel IBD Research Nucleus
AIM To determine whether pain has psycho-social associations in adult Crohn’s disease (CD) patients. METHODS Patients completed demographics, disease status, Patient Harvey-Bradshaw Index (P-HBI), Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ), and five socio-psychological questionnaires: Brief Symptom Inventory, Brief COPE Inventory, Family Assessment Device, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire. Pain sub-scales in P-HBI, SF-36 and SIBDQ measures were recoded into 4 identical scores for univariate and multinomial logistic regression analysis of associations with psycho-social variables. RESULTS The cohort comprised 594 patients, mean age 38.6 ± 14.8 years, women 52.5%, P-HBI 5.76 ± 5.15. P-HBI, SF-36 and SIBDQ broadly agreed in their assessment of pain intensity. More severe pain was significantly associated with female gender, low socio-economic status, unemployment, Israeli birth and smoking. Higher pain scores correlated positively with psychological stress, dysfunctional coping strategies, poor family relationships, absenteeism, presenteeism, productivity loss and activity impairment and all WPAI sub-scores. Patients exhibiting greater satisfaction with life had less pain. The regression showed increasing odds ratios for psychological stress (lowest 2.26, highest 12.17) and female gender (highest 3.19) with increasing pain. Internet-recruited patients were sicker and differed from hardcopy questionnaire patients in their associations with pain. CONCLUSION Pain measures in P-HBI, SF-36 and SIBDQ correlate with psycho-social pathology in CD. Physicians should be aware also of these relationships in approaching CD patients with pain. PMID:28246482
... pain involves any pain in or around the hip joint. You may not feel pain from your hip ... 2012:chap 48. Read More Hip fracture surgery Hip joint replacement Patient Instructions Hip fracture - discharge Hip or ...
Kamdar, Mihir; Flanagan, Clare; Searl, Meghan; Traeger, Lara; Kvedar, Joseph; Jethwani, Kamal
Background Despite the availability of effective medications and clinical guidelines for pain management, pain control is suboptimal in a sizeable proportion of patients with cancer pain. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend a comprehensive and multimodal approach for management of cancer pain. We developed a mobile phone application, ePAL, based on clinical guidelines to empower patients for cancer pain management by prompting regular pain assessments and coaching for self-management. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a multidimensional mobile phone-based pain management application, ePAL, on controlling cancer pain and improving quality of life in patients with cancer pain being treated at an academic palliative care clinic. Methods The study will be implemented as a 2-arm randomized controlled trial with 110 adult patients with CP who own a mobile phone over a follow-up period of two months. Participants will be randomized to either the intervention group receiving ePAL and usual care or to a control group receiving only usual care. The brief pain inventory will be used to assess our primary outcome which is pain intensity. We will also evaluate the effect of the intervention on secondary outcomes which include the effect of the intervention on hospital utilization for pain crisis, quality of life, adherence to analgesic medications, barriers to pain control, anxiety and patient engagement. Instruments that will be used in evaluating secondary outcomes include the Brief Pain Inventory, Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, Barriers Questionnaire-II, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–General, Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale, and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue. The intention-to-treat approach will be used to evaluate outcomes. Our primary outcome, pain intensity, measured longitudinally over eight weeks, will be assessed by
Goesling, Jenna; Henry, Matthew J; Moser, Stephanie E; Rastogi, Mohit; Hassett, Afton L; Clauw, Daniel J; Brummett, Chad M
Depression may be a critical factor in the initiation and maintenance of opioids. This study investigated the association among opioid use, pain, and depression in patients evaluated at a university-based outpatient pain clinic. Of the 2,104 new patients included, 55.89% reported current opioid use and showed a worse phenotypic profile (eg, higher pain severity, worse physical functioning) compared with nonopioid users. In addition, more opioid users reported symptoms suggestive of depression than those not taking opioids (43.6% vs 26.8%, P < .001). In a multivariate logistic regression model, increased pain severity was associated with increased probability of taking opioids; however, this was moderated by depression (estimate = -.212, P < .001). For nondepressed patients, the predicted probabilities of opioid use increased as pain severity increased. In contrast, among patients with symptoms of depression, the probability of taking opioids did not change based on pain severity. Similarly, although increased physical function was associated with increased probability of opioid use, this was moderated by depression (estimate = .033, P = .034). Patients with symptoms of depression were more likely to be taking opioids at higher levels of functioning (Ps < .03). Perspective: This study investigated the association among opioid use, pain, and depression at a university-based outpatient pain clinic. Depression emerged as a moderator of the relationship among opioid use, pain severity, and physical functioning. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that patients may be self-medicating affective pain with opioids.
Olesen, Anne E.; Gram, Mikkel; Jonsson, Torsten; Kamp-Jensen, Michael; Andresen, Trine; Nielsen, Christian; Pozlep, Gorazd; Pfeiffer-Jensen, Mogens; Morlion, Bart; Drewes, Asbjørn M.
Opioids are increasingly used for treatment of chronic pain. However, they are only effective in a subset of patients and have multiple side effects. Thus, studies using biomarkers for response are highly warranted. The current study prospectively examined 63 opioid-naïve patients initiating opioid use for diverse types of chronic pain at five European centers. Quantitative sensory testing, electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, and assessment of pain catastrophizing were performed prior to treatment. The co-primary outcomes were change from baseline in ratings of chronic pain and quality of life after 14 days of opioid treatment. Secondary outcomes included patient’s global impression of clinical change and side effects. Logistic regression models adjusted for age and sex were used to identify biomarkers predictive for successful treatment, defined as at least a 30% reduction in average pain intensity or an improvement in quality of life of at least 10 scale points. Fifty-nine patients (94%) completed the study. The mean age was 55 ± 16 years and 69% were females. Pain reduction was predicted by cold pain intensity (OR: 0.69; P = 0.01), pain catastrophizing (OR: 0.82; P = 0.03), relative delta (OR: 0.76; P = 0.03) and beta EEG activity (OR: 1.18; P = 0.04) induced by experimental cold pain. None of the study variables were related to improvement in quality of life. For the first time, individual pain processing characteristics have been linked to opioid response in a mixed chronic pain population. This has the potential to personalize treatment of chronic pain and restrict opioid use to patients with high likelihood for response. PMID:28158269
shown to reduce pain . Amantadine is an NMDA receptor antagonist that may mitigate central sensitization. Adjuvant analgesics may lessen nociceptive ...FEB 2013 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Opioid-induced hyperalgesia--worsening pain in opioid-dependent...Report Opioid-induced hyperalgesia—worsening pain in opioid-dependent patients☆ Abstract Patients with chronic opioid use are commonly treated in the
Elliott, James M; Owen, Meriel; Bishop, Mark D; Sparks, Cheryl; Tsao, Henry; Walton, David M; Weber, Kenneth A; Wideman, Timothy H
In the multidisciplinary fields of pain medicine and rehabilitation, advancing techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are used to enhance our understanding of the pain experience. Given that such measures, in some circles, are expected to help us understand the brain in pain, future research in pain measurement is undeniably rich with possibility. However, pain remains intensely personal and represents a multifaceted experience, unique to each individual; no single measure in isolation, fMRI included, can prove or quantify its magnitude beyond the patient self-report. Physical therapists should be aware of cutting-edge advances in measuring the patient's pain experience, and they should work closely with professionals in other disciplines (eg, magnetic resonance physicists, biomedical engineers, radiologists, psychologists) to guide the exploration and development of multimodal pain measurement and management on a patient-by-patient basis. The primary purpose of this perspective article is to provide a brief overview of fMRI and inform physical therapist clinicians of the pros and cons when utilized as a measure of the patient's perception of pain. A secondary purpose is to describe current known factors that influence the quality of fMRI data and its analyses, as well as the potential for future clinical applications relevant to physical therapist practice. Lastly, the interested reader is introduced and referred to existing guidelines and recommendations for reporting fMRI research.
Heidari, Behzad; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Babaei, Mansour
Background: Several factors are associated with the development or exacerbation of pain in knee osteoarthritis (KOA). In this study, we reviewed this context based on relevant studies. Methods: Recent published studies which have addressed the relationship between pain and KOA were summarized. Results: Correlates of the clinical, demographic features, laboratory tests and abnormalities on radiographic as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the knee pain have been discussed. The results indicated that many factors such as synovitis, synovial effusion, obesity, as well as structural lesions determined by MRI or radiographic examination, serum cytokines, inflammatory markers are determinants of pain in KOA. Conclusion: This context requires further investigations for identification of additional factors which initiate pain in asymptomatic KOA PMID:27757198
Ukai, Katsuyuki; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Ozaki, Norio
Many patients with Lewy body disease complain of pain, and their pain may be associated with this disease. Recently, pain has become a focus of attention in Parkinson's disease, but there is little information regarding pain in patients who have dementia with Lewy bodies. We used pregabalin to treat three Lewy body disease patients with chronic pain that may have been related to degeneration of central neurons. All three patients responded well to pregabalin at 25-50 mg/day. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of pregabalin showing efficacy for central neuropathic pain in Parkinson's disease or Lewy body disease.
Background There is evidence for augmented processing of pain and impaired endogenous pain inhibition in Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM). In order to fully understand the mechanisms involved in FM pathology, there is a need for closer investigation of endogenous pain modulation. In the present study, we compared the functional connectivity of the descending pain inhibitory network in age-matched FM patients and healthy controls (HC). We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 42 subjects; 14 healthy and 28 age-matched FM patients (2 patients per HC), during randomly presented, subjectively calibrated pressure pain stimuli. A seed-based functional connectivity analysis of brain activity was performed. The seed coordinates were based on the findings from our previous study, comparing the fMRI signal during calibrated pressure pain in FM and HC: the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and thalamus. Results FM patients required significantly less pressure (kPa) to reach calibrated pain at 50 mm on a 0–100 visual analogue scale (p < .001, two-tailed). During fMRI scanning, the rACC displayed significantly higher connectivity to the amygdala, hippocampus, and brainstem in healthy controls, compared to FM patients. There were no regions where FM patients showed higher rACC connectivity. Thalamus showed significantly higher connectivity to the orbitofrontal cortex in healthy controls but no regions showed higher thalamic connectivity in FM patients. Conclusion Patients with FM displayed less connectivity within the brain’s pain inhibitory network during calibrated pressure pain, compared to healthy controls. The present study provides brain-imaging evidence on how brain regions involved in homeostatic control of pain are less connected in FM patients. It is possible that the dysfunction of the descending pain modulatory network plays an important role in maintenance of FM pain and our results may translate into clinical implications by using the
Lin, Mu-Lien; Lin, Mu-Hung; Fen, Jun-Jeng; Lin, Wei-Tso; Lin, Chii-Wann; Chen, Po-Quang
Many treatment options for chronic low back pain are available, including varied forms of electric stimulation. But little is known about the electricity effect between electro-acupuncture and pulsed radiofrequency. The objective of this study is to assess the difference in effectiveness of pain relief between pulsed radiofrequency and electro-acupuncture. Visual analog score (VAS) pain score, the Oswestry disability index (ODI) to measure a patient's permanent functional disability, and Short form 36 (SF-36) which is a survey used in health assessment to determine the cost-effectiveness of a health treatment, were used as rating systems to measure the pain relief and functional improvement effect of pulsed radiofrequency and electro-acupuncture, based on the methodological quality of the randomized controlled trials, the relevance between the study groups, and the consistency of the outcome evaluation. First, the baseline status before therapy shows no age and gender influence in the SF-36 and VAS score but it is significant in the ODI questionnaire. From ANOVA analyses, it is apparent that radiofrequency therapy is a significant improvement over electro-acupuncture therapy after one month. But electro-acupuncture also showed functional improvement in the lumbar spine from the ODI. This study provides sufficient evidence of the superiority of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) therapy for low back pain relief compared with both electro-acupuncture (EA) therapy and the control group. But the functional improvement of the lumbar spine was proved under EA therapy only. Both therapies are related to electricity effects.
Jacobson, Bert H; Boolani, Ali; Dunklee, Guy; Shepardson, Angela; Acharya, Hom
The purpose of this study was to assess sleep quality and comfort of participants diagnosed with low back pain and stiffness following sleep on individually prescribed mattresses based on dominant sleeping positions. Subjects consisted of 27 patients (females, n=14; males, n=13; age 44.8 yrs ± SD 14.6, weight 174 lb. ± SD 39.6, height 68.3 in. ± SD 3.7) referred by chiropractic physicians for the study. For the baseline (pretest) data subjects recorded back and shoulder discomfort, sleep quality and comfort by visual analog scales (VAS) for 21 days while sleeping in their own beds. Subsequently, participants' beds were replaced by medium-firm mattresses specifically layered with foam and latex based on the participants' reported prominent sleeping position and they again rated their sleep comfort and quality daily for the following 12 weeks. Analysis yielded significant differences between pre- and post means for all variables and for back pain, we found significant (p<0.01) differences between the first posttest mean and weeks 4 and weeks 8-12, thus indicating progressive improvement in both back pain and stiffness while sleeping on the new mattresses. Additionally, the number of days per week of experiencing poor sleep and physical discomfort decreased significantly. It was concluded that sleep surfaces are related to sleep discomfort and that is indeed possible to reduce pain and discomfort and to increase sleep quality in those with chronic back pain by replacing mattresses based on sleeping position.
Choi, Hea-Kyung; Gwon, Hak-ju; Kim, Seon-Rye; Park, Chan-Seok; Cho, Byung-Jun
[Purpose] This study applied active rehabilitation therapy to muscular back strength and assessed the subjective pain degree in chronic low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental (n=8) and control (n=8). The experimental group performed two types of rehabilitation therapy programs four times per week for eight weeks. The rehabilitation program was based on the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency’s program. There were several types of stretching and strengthening. Back strength was measured using the Back Muscle Dynamometer TKK-5402. The visual analog scale score, selected to measure degrees of subjective pain, was used to assess treatment efficacy. [Results] For the experimental group, muscular back strength increased from 133.90 ± 11.84 kg before exercise to 145.59 ± 14.49 kg after exercise. In the control group, muscular back strength decreased from 133.92 ± 3.84 kg before exercise to 133.90 ± 5.81 kg after exercise. In the experimental group, the visual analog scale score for subjective pain decreased from 6.63 ± 0.52 before exercise to 5.75 ± 0.46 after exercise; in the control group, it decreased from 5.61 ± 0.52 before exercise to 5.61 ± 0.52 after exercise. [Conclusion] Active rehabilitation therapy is a positive intervention that can provide relief from back pain. PMID:27821917
Choi, Hea-Kyung; Gwon, Hak-Ju; Kim, Seon-Rye; Park, Chan-Seok; Cho, Byung-Jun
[Purpose] This study applied active rehabilitation therapy to muscular back strength and assessed the subjective pain degree in chronic low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental (n=8) and control (n=8). The experimental group performed two types of rehabilitation therapy programs four times per week for eight weeks. The rehabilitation program was based on the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency's program. There were several types of stretching and strengthening. Back strength was measured using the Back Muscle Dynamometer TKK-5402. The visual analog scale score, selected to measure degrees of subjective pain, was used to assess treatment efficacy. [Results] For the experimental group, muscular back strength increased from 133.90 ± 11.84 kg before exercise to 145.59 ± 14.49 kg after exercise. In the control group, muscular back strength decreased from 133.92 ± 3.84 kg before exercise to 133.90 ± 5.81 kg after exercise. In the experimental group, the visual analog scale score for subjective pain decreased from 6.63 ± 0.52 before exercise to 5.75 ± 0.46 after exercise; in the control group, it decreased from 5.61 ± 0.52 before exercise to 5.61 ± 0.52 after exercise. [Conclusion] Active rehabilitation therapy is a positive intervention that can provide relief from back pain.
Klapper, J; Lucas, C; Røsjø, Ø; Charlesworth, B
Clinical trials of migraine therapy often require treatment when migraine pain intensity is moderate or severe, but many physicians find this practice artificial and patients often prefer to treat while pain is mild. This randomized, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy of zolmitriptan 2.5 mg in treating migraine while pain is mild, in patients who typically experience migraine attacks that are initially mild, but progress to moderate or severe. The intent-to-treat population comprised 280 patients (138 zolmitriptan; 148 placebo), with mean MIDAS grades of 29.6 (zolmitriptan) and 27.6 (placebo). Zolmitriptan 2.5 mg provided a significantly higher pain-free rate at 2 h (43.4% vs. 18.4% placebo; P < 0.0001). Significantly fewer zolmitriptan patients reported progression of headache pain to moderate or severe intensity 2 h postdose (53.7% vs. 70.4% placebo; P < 0.01), or required further medication within 24 h (46.4% vs. 71.1% placebo; P < 0.0001). The efficacy of zolmitriptan was more pronounced in patients treating during the first 15 min following pain onset. Adverse events were reported in 31.2% of patients treated with zolmitriptan (vs. 11.3% for placebo), and the incidence was lower in patients who treated early after attack onset. Zolmitriptan provides high efficacy when treating migraine while pain is mild, with the clinical benefits being more pronounced when treating early after migraine onset.
Yunus, Muhammad B
Patients with widespread pain or fibromyalgia syndrome have many symptoms besides musculoskeletal pain: e.g. fatigue, sleep difficulties, a swollen feeling in tissues, paresthesia, cognitive dysfunction, dizziness, and symptoms of overlapping conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, headaches and restless legs syndrome. There is evidence for central sensitization in these conditions, but further studies are needed. Anxiety, stress and depression are also present in 30-45% of patients. Other factors that may contribute to symptoms include endocrine dysfunction, psychosocial distress, trauma, and disrupted sleep. Evaluation of a patient presenting with widespread pain includes history and physical examination to diagnose both fibromyalgia and associated or concomitant conditions. Fibromyalgia should be diagnosed by its own characteristic features. Some patients with otherwise typical symptoms of fibromyalgia may have as few as four to six tender points in clinical practice. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus should be evaluated for fibromyalgia, since 20-30% of them have associated fibromyalgia, requiring a different treatment approach.
Wang, Tsae-Jyy; Chang, Ching-Fen; Lou, Meei-Fang; Ao, Man-Kuan; Liu, Chiung-Chen; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne; Tung, Heng-Hsing
Effective pain management is crucial for patient recovery after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Biofeedback therapy, which encourages relaxation and helps alleviate various conditions associated with stress, may help to decrease postoperative pain in patients undergoing TKA. A quasi- experimental design was used to investigate the efficacy of a biofeedback relaxation intervention in reducing pain associated with postoperative continuous passive motion (CPM) therapy. Sixty-six patients admitted to a general hospital in Taiwan for TKA were recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received biofeedback training twice daily for 5 days, concurrent with CPM therapy, whereas the control group did not receive the biofeedback intervention. Pain was measured using a numeric rating scale before and after each CPM therapy session on postoperative days 1 through 5. The CPM-elicited pain score was calculated by subtracting the pre-CPM pain score from the post-CPM pain score. Results of repeated-measures analysis of variance showed intervention group reported significantly less pain caused by CPM than did the control group (f = 29.70, p < 0.001). The study results provide preliminary support for biofeedback relaxation, a non-invasive and non-pharmacological intervention, as a complementary treatment option for pain management in this population.
Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D; Asmundson, Gordon J G; LaChapelle, Diane L; Quine, Allisson
Considerable research suggests that health anxiety (HA) influences the response of patients with chronic pain to pain and treatment. The present investigation extends the current understanding of HA and explores whether it affects how patients respond to a common therapeutic intervention, namely instructions to reduce pain behaviour. Sixty-five patients with chronic pain completed measures of pain, anxiety and cognition following an active occupational therapy session in which they were specifically instructed either to inhibit or reduce pain behaviour, or to carry out the session as they normally would. Regression analyses revealed that those with higher levels of HA experienced greater anxiety, somatic sensations and catastrophic cognitions during therapy than those with lower levels of HA. The regression analyses also revealed a consistent trend for an interaction between HA and instructional set; when those with higher HA reduced their pain behaviour, they subsequently reported greater anxiety, and more somatic sensations and catastrophic thoughts than when they carried out the session as they normally would. In contrast, only those with lower HA had a tendency to benefit from reducing pain behaviour, reporting lower state anxiety and fewer somatic sensations during the session than those who did not reduce their pain behaviour. The results suggest that HA should be taken into consideration during treatment.
Raber, Julia Marie; Reichelt, Doris; Grüneberg-Oelker, Ute; Philipp, Konstanze; Stubbe-Dräger, Bianca; Husstedt, Ingo-W
Evaluation of the analgesic effect after a single application of the capsaicin 8 % cutaneous patch (Qutenza™) in 37 patients suffering from painful, distal symmetric polyneuropathy (PNP) for an average of 5 years. Patients ranged from 40 to 78 years of age and 22 subjects were HIV-positive. Patients were observed 4 weeks prior to 12 weeks post administration. An evaluation of the therapeutic effect of capsaicin 8 % as a dermal patch in terms of