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Sample records for patient samples potential

  1. A discovery study of daunorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in a sample of acute myeloid leukemia patients prioritizes P450 oxidoreductase polymorphisms as a potential risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Lubieniecka, Joanna M.; Graham, Jinko; Heffner, Daniel; Mottus, Randy; Reid, Ronald; Hogge, Donna; Grigliatti, Tom A.; Riggs, Wayne K.

    2013-01-01

    Anthracyclines are very effective chemotherapeutic agents; however, their use is hampered by the treatment-induced cardiotoxicity. Genetic variants that help define patient's sensitivity to anthracyclines will greatly improve the design of optimal chemotherapeutic regimens. However, identification of such variants is hampered by the lack of analytical approaches that address the complex, multi-genic character of anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity (AIC). Here, using a multi-SNP based approach, we examined 60 genes coding for proteins involved in drug metabolism and efflux and identified the P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene to be most strongly associated with daunorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in a population of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients (FDR adjusted p-value of 0.15). In this sample of cancer patients, variation in the POR gene is estimated to account for some 11.6% of the variability in the drop of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after daunorubicin treatment, compared to the estimated 13.2% accounted for by the cumulative dose and ethnicity. In post-hoc analysis, this association was driven by 3 SNPs—the rs2868177, rs13240755, and rs4732513—through their linear interaction with cumulative daunorubicin dose. The unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for rs2868177 and rs13240755 were estimated to be 1.89 (95% CI: 0.7435–4.819; p = 0.1756) and 3.18 (95% CI: 1.223–8.27; p = 0.01376), respectively. Although the contribution of POR variants is expected to be overestimated due to the multiple testing performed in this small pilot study, given that cumulative anthracycline dose is virtually the only factor used clinically to predict the risk of cardiotoxicity, the contribution that genetic analyses of POR can make to the assessment of this risk is worthy of follow up in future investigations. PMID:24273552

  2. PTCH 1 staining of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) samples from patients with and without multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN-1) syndrome reveals a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Buddha; Hua, Xianxin; Runske, Melissa; Bennett, Bonita; LiVolsi, Virginia; Roses, Robert; Fraker, Douglas A; Metz, David C

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are rare, indolent tumors that may occur sporadically or develop in association with well-recognized hereditary syndromes, particularly multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1). We previously demonstrated that the hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway was aberrantly up-regulated in a mouse model that phenocopies the human MEN-1 syndrome, Men1l/l;RipCre, and that inhibition of this pathway suppresses MEN-1 tumor cell proliferation. We hypothesized that the HH signaling pathway is similarly upregulated in human PNETs. We performed immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for PTCH1 in human fresh and archival PNET specimens to examine whether human sporadic and MEN-1-associated PNETs revealed similar abnormalities as in our mouse model and correlated the results with clinical and demographic factors of the study cohort. PTCH1 staining was positive in 12 of 22 PNET patients (55%). Four of 5 MEN-1 patients stained for PTCH1 (p = 0.32 as compared with sporadic disease patients). Nine of 16 patients with metastatic disease stained for PTCH1 as compared with zero of 3 with localized disease only (p = 0.21). No demographic or clinical features appeared to be predictive of PTCH 1 positivity and PTCH 1 positivity per se was not predictive of clinical outcome. PTCH1, a marker of HH pathway up regulation, is detectable in both primary and metastatic tumors in more than 50% of PNET patients. Although no clinical or demographic factors predict PTCH1 positivity and PTCH1 positivity does not predict clinical outcome, the frequency of expression alone indicates that perturbation of this pathway with agents such as Vismodegib, an inhibitor of Smoothened (SMO), should be examined in future clinical trials. PMID:25482929

  3. Geology of Potential Landing Sites for Martian Sample Returns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    This project involved the analysis of potential landing sites on Mars. As originally proposed, the project focused on landing sites from which samples might be returned to Earth. However, as the project proceeded, the emphasis shifted to missions that would not include sample return, because the Mars Exploration Program had deferred sample returns to the next decade. Subsequently, this project focused on the study of potential landing sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers.

  4. Cavernous sinus sampling in patients with Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Till; Flitsch, Jörg; van Leyen, Philine; Sauer, Nina; Aberle, Jens; Grzyska, Ulrich; Lüdecke, Dieter K

    2015-02-01

    OBJECT Correct diagnosis and precise localization of adenomas in patients with Cushing's disease are essential for avoiding unsuccessful transsphenoidal pituitary exploration. In addition to the well-established inferior petrosal sinus sampling, preoperative cavernous sinus sampling (CSS) was introduced as a potentially improved way to predict adenoma lateralization. The authors present their results with CSS in a consecutive series of patients with Cushing's disease. METHODS During 1999-2014, transsphenoidal surgeries were consecutively performed in 510 patients with Cushing's disease. For most patients, suppression of cortisol in high-dose dexamethasone tests and stimulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol after administration of corticotropin-releasing hormone were sufficient to prove the diagnosis of adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent hypercortisolism. Of the 510 patients, 67 (13%) were referred to the department of neuroradiology for CSS according to the technique of Teramoto. The indications for CSS were unclear endocrine test results or negative MRI results. Data for all patients were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS A central/peripheral gradient was found in 59 patients; lateralization to the left or right side was found in 51. For 8 patients with a central/peripheral gradient, no left/right gradient could be determined. For another 8 patients with equivocal test results, no central/peripheral gradient was found. No severe CSS-associated complications were encountered. Of the 51 patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery, the predicted lateralization was proven correct for 42 (82%). CONCLUSIONS As MRI techniques have improved, the number of potential candidates for this invasive method has decreased in the past decade. However, because detecting minute adenomas remains problematic, CSS remains a useful diagnostic tool for patients with Cushing's disease.

  5. Rapid potential decay on surface fluorinated epoxy resin samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaqiang; An, Zhenlian; Yin, Qianqian; Zheng, Feihu; Zhang, Yewen; Lei, Qingquan

    2013-04-01

    Epoxy resin samples were surface fluorinated using a F2/N2 mixture with 12.5% F2 by volume at 50 °C and 0.1 MPa for different times of 10, 30, and 60 min. Surface potential measurements at room temperature and different relative humidity levels of 20% to 60% on the surface fluorinated epoxy samples charged by corona discharge showed a low initial surface potential and a rapid potential decay, depending on the ambient humidity and fluorination time, in comparison with the charged unfluorinated epoxy sample. Surface conductivity measurements at the different relative humidity levels further indicated a higher surface conductivity of the fluorinated samples than the unfluorinated sample by over three orders of magnitude and an increase or decrease in surface conductivity with the ambient humidity or fluorination time, in accordance with the results of surface potential measurements. Attenuated total reflection infrared analyses and scanning electron microscope surface and cross section observations on the unfluorinated and surface fluorinated samples revealed substantial differences in physicochemical characteristics between the surface layers. The composition and structure characteristics of the surface layers are responsible for their intrinsic electrical properties and surface wettability, although surface morphology also influences the surface wettability.

  6. Determination of estrogenic potential in waste water without sample extraction.

    PubMed

    Avberšek, Miha; Žegura, Bojana; Filipič, Metka; Uranjek-Ževart, Nataša; Heath, Ester

    2013-09-15

    This study describes the modification of the ER-Calux assay for testing water samples without sample extraction (NE-(ER-Calux) assay). The results are compared to those obtained with ER-Calux assay and a theoretical estrogenic potential obtained by GC-MSD. For spiked tap and waste water samples there was no statistical difference between estrogenic potentials obtained by the three methods. Application of NE-(ER-Calux) to "real" influent and effluents from municipal waste water treatment plants and receiving surface waters found that the NE-(ER-Calux) assay gave higher values compared to ER-Calux assay and GC-MSD. This is explained by the presence of water soluble endocrine agonists that are usually removed during extraction. Intraday dynamics of the estrogenic potential of a WWTP influent and effluent revealed an increase in the estrogenic potential of the influent from 12.9 ng(EEQ)/L in the morning to a peak value of 40.0 ng(EEQ)/L in the afternoon. The estrogenic potential of the effluent was potential was 92-98%. Daytime estrogenic potential values varied significantly.

  7. Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaps, Charles W.; Mazziotti, David A.

    2016-04-01

    Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O ( N ) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O ( N 2 ) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O ( N ) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant.

  8. Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Heaps, Charles W; Mazziotti, David A

    2016-04-28

    Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O(N) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O(N(2)) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O(N) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant.

  9. Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Heaps, Charles W; Mazziotti, David A

    2016-04-28

    Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O(N) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O(N(2)) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O(N) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant. PMID:27131532

  10. Sample size: how many patients are necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Fayers, P. M.; Machin, D.

    1995-01-01

    The need for sample size calculations is briefly reviewed: many of the arguments against small trials are already well known, and we only cursorily repeat them in passing. Problems that arise in the estimation of sample size are then discussed, with particular reference to survival studies. However, most of the issues which we discuss are equally applicable to other types of study. Finally, prognostic factor analysis designs are discussed, since this is another area in which experience shows that far too many studies are of an inadequate size and yield misleading results. PMID:7599035

  11. [Evoked potentials in patients with secondary headaches].

    PubMed

    Iakupov, E Z; Kuznetsova, E A

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of brain evoked activity were studied in patients with most frequent variants of secondary headaches: chronic posttraumatic headaches, cervicogenic headaches and vascular headaches in patients with arterial hypertension and chronic brain ischemia. The multimodal registration of evoked potentials (EP) (short-latency brainstem auditory, visual EPs to flash stimulation and cognitive EPs - P300) revealed signs of brainstem dysfunction, decrease of visual analyzer and diminished cognitive functions in most patients with secondary headaches. Based on results obtained, we can recommend a complex therapy of chronic secondary headaches with neuroprotectors and nootropics.

  12. Optimal sampling efficiency in Monte Carlo sampling with an approximate potential

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, Joshua D; Shaw, M Sam; Sewell, Thomas D

    2009-01-01

    Building on the work of Iftimie et al., Boltzmann sampling of an approximate potential (the 'reference' system) is used to build a Markov chain in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. At the endpoints of the chain, the energy is evaluated at a higher level of approximation (the 'full' system) and a composite move encompassing all of the intervening steps is accepted on the basis of a modified Metropolis criterion. For reference system chains of sufficient length, consecutive full energies are statistically decorrelated and thus far fewer are required to build ensemble averages with a given variance. Without modifying the original algorithm, however, the maximum reference chain length is too short to decorrelate full configurations without dramatically lowering the acceptance probability of the composite move. This difficulty stems from the fact that the reference and full potentials sample different statistical distributions. By manipulating the thermodynamic variables characterizing the reference system (pressure and temperature, in this case), we maximize the average acceptance probability of composite moves, lengthening significantly the random walk between consecutive full energy evaluations. In this manner, the number of full energy evaluations needed to precisely characterize equilibrium properties is dramatically reduced. The method is applied to a model fluid, but implications for sampling high-dimensional systems with ab initio or density functional theory (DFT) potentials are discussed.

  13. Prediction of liquefaction potential based on CPT up-sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadoghi Yazdi, Javad; Kalantary, Farzin; Sadoghi Yazdi, Hadi

    2012-07-01

    Cone penetration test data has been widely used for determination of the threshold of seismically induced soil liquefaction. However, possible inaccuracies in the collected data from case histories as well as natural variability of parameters and other uncertainties associated with natural phenomenon have yet prohibited a conclusive definition for this threshold. Various classification techniques have been used to define the most reliable correlations. However, available liquefied to non-liquefied data imbalance has caused learning bias to the majority class in the learning model of the pattern recognition systems. This has adversely affected the outcome of such approaches and in order to overcome this problem Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) strategy is employed to "up sample" the minority data. In other words SVDD, which is robust against noisy samples, is used to generate virtual data points for the minority class, bearing the same characteristics as the non-virtual samples. In order to specify the most appropriate data range a sphere boundary around the main body of the data are sought through an optimization process. The data inside the obtained boundary are the target data and the ones outside it are the outliers or so-called "noise", to be neglected. This procedure reduces the issue of class intermixture in the fringe zone and produces relatively well defined class that then is fed into the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) classifier for determination of liquefaction potential. The predictions are then examined to evaluate the reliability and validation of the overall technique and compared with other prediction methods using confusion matrix. It is shown that the overall accuracy of the proposed technique is higher than all previously proposed methods and only equal to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique. Furthermore an improvement in the F-score of the non-liquefied data recognition has been achieved in relation to all previously

  14. Sampling and Decontamination Method for Culture of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Respiratory Samples of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    De Geyter, Deborah; De Schutter, Iris; Mouton, Christine; Wellemans, Isabelle; Hanssens, Laurence; Schelstraete, Petra; Malfroot, Anne; Pierard, Denis

    2013-01-01

    We confirmed that chlorhexidine decontamination yielded more nontuberculous mycobacteria than did the N-acetyl-l-cysteine-NaOH-oxalic acid procedure from respiratory samples of cystic fibrosis patients on solid cultures. However, this improved recovery is mostly balanced if the latter is combined with liquid culture. Furthermore, none of the 145 cough swabs, used to sample young children, cultured positive, suggesting that swabs are low-quality samples. PMID:24048532

  15. Xylan - A potential contaminant for lunar samples and Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, I. P.; Russell, S. S.; Boyd, S. R.; Meyer, C.; Pillinger, C. T.

    The possibility that lunar samples have been contaminated by the proprietary lubricant paint known as Xylan, which has been applied to screw threads in dry-N sample processing cabinets at NASA JSC, is considered. From a sample analysis using sealed-tube and stepped combustion, it is argued that the unexpectedly high concentration of organic materials found in EET A79001 is not due to Xylan contamination. It is considered unlikely that previous C and N analyses of lunar samples have been affected by the introduction of Xylan.

  16. Adrenal venous sampling in a patient with adrenal Cushing syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Franco, Carlos Andrés; Román-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Velez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Echeverri-Isaza, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia or the independent adrenocorticotropic hormone bilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause hypercortisolism, its diagnosis is challenging and there is no clear way to decide the best therapeutic approach. Adrenal venous sampling is commonly used to distinguish the source of hormonal production in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism. It could be a useful tool in this context because it might provide information to guide the treatment. We report the case of a patient with ACTH independent Cushing syndrome in whom the use of adrenal venous sampling with some modifications radically modified the treatment and allowed the diagnosis of a macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:26309345

  17. Adrenal venous sampling in a patient with adrenal Cushing syndrome.

    PubMed

    Builes-Montaño, Carlos Esteban; Villa-Franco, Carlos Andrés; Román-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Velez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Echeverri-Isaza, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia or the independent adrenocorticotropic hormone bilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause hypercortisolism, its diagnosis is challenging and there is no clear way to decide the best therapeutic approach. Adrenal venous sampling is commonly used to distinguish the source of hormonal production in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism. It could be a useful tool in this context because it might provide information to guide the treatment. We report the case of a patient with ACTH independent Cushing syndrome in whom the use of adrenal venous sampling with some modifications radically modified the treatment and allowed the diagnosis of a macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.

  18. Sampling and specimens: potential application of a general model in geoscience sample registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.; Habermann, T.; Duclaux, G.

    2011-12-01

    Sampling is a key element of observational science. Specimens are a particular class of sample, in which material is retrieved from its original location and used for ex-situ observations and analysis. Specimens retrieved from difficult locations (e.g. deep ocean sampling, extra-terrestrial sampling) or of rare phenomena, have special scientific value. Material from these may be distributed to multiple laboratories for observation. For maximum utility, reports from the different studies must be recognized and compared. This has been a challenge as the original specimens are often not clearly identified or existing ids are not reported. To mitigate this, the International Geologic Specimen Number (IGSN) provides universal, project-neutral identifiers for geoscience specimens, and SESAR a system for registering those identifiers. Standard descriptive information required for specimen registration was proposed during a SESAR meeting held in February 2011. The standard ISO 19156 'Observations and Measurements' (O&M) includes an information model for basic description of specimens. The specimen model was designed to accommodate a variety of scenarios in chemistry, geochemistry, field geology, and life-sciences, and is believed to be applicable to a wide variety of application domains. O&M is implemented in XML (as a GML Schema) for OGC services and we have recently developed a complementary semantic-web compatible RDF/OWL representation. The GML form is used in several services deployed through AuScope, and for water quality information in WIRADA. The model has underpinned the redevelopment of a large geochemistry database in CSIRO. Capturing the preparation chain is the particular challenge in (geo-) chemistry, so the flexible and scalable model provided by the specimen model in O&M has been critical to its success in this context. This standard model for specimen metadata appears to satisfy all SESAR requirements, so might serve as the basic schema in the SESAR

  19. Antimicrobial potentials of different solvent extracted samples from Physalis ixocarpa.

    PubMed

    Khan, Wajid; Bakht, Jehan; Shafi, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracted samples isolated from different parts of Physalis ixocarpa through disc diffusion assay using three different concentrations. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that different parts of the plant showed varying degree of inhibition against different bacteria at different concentrations. Different solvent extracted samples from the calyx showed inhibitory activity against most of the bacteria under study. Extracts from leaf and fruit samples showed activity against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae and extracts from the stem tissues were effective to control the growth of E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Crude methanolic extract from the stem and n-butanol extracted samples from fruit exhibited strong inhibitory activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae at highest concentrations. Antifungal activity was observed only in crude methanol extract from the leaf against Rhizopus stolinifer, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. PMID:27087074

  20. Beryllium Wipe Sampling (differing methods - differing exposure potentials)

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, Kent

    2005-03-09

    This research compared three wipe sampling techniques currently used to test for beryllium contamination on room and equipment surfaces in Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling without a wetting agent, with water-moistened wipe materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Analysis indicated that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed about twice as much beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes, which removed about twice as much residue as dry wipes. Criteria at 10 CFR 850.30 and .31 were established on unspecified wipe sampling method(s). The results of this study reveal a need to identify criteria-setting method and equivalency factors. As facilities change wipe sampling methods among the three compared in this study, these results may be useful for approximate correlations. Accurate decontamination decision-making depends on the selection of appropriate wetting agents for the types of residues and surfaces. Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced removal efficiency such as methanol when surface contamination includes oil mist residue.

  1. Optimal procedures for detecting analytic bias using patient samples.

    PubMed

    Smith, F A; Kroft, S H

    1997-09-01

    We recently described the performance characteristics of the exponentially adjusted moving mean (EAMM), a patient-data, moving block mean procedure, which is a generalized algorithm that unifies Bull's algorithm and the classic average of normals (AON) procedure. Herein we describe the trend EAMM (TEAMM), a continuous signal analog of the EAMM procedure related to classic trend analysis. Using computer simulation, we have compared EAMM and TEAMM over a range of biases for various sample sizes (N or equivalent smoothing factor alpha) and exponential parameters (P) under conditions of equivalent false rejection (fixed on a per patient sample basis). We found optimal pairs of N and P for each level of bias by determination of minimum mean patient samples to rejection. Overall optimal algorithms were determined through calculation of undetected lost medical utility (ULMU), a novel function that quantifies the medical damage due to analytic bias. The ULMU function was calculated based on lost test specificity in a normal population. We found that optimized TEAMM was superior to optimized EAMM for all levels of analytic bias. If these observations hold true for non-Gaussian populations, TEAMM procedures are the method of choice for detecting bias using patient samples or as an event gauge to trigger use of known-value control materials.

  2. Reactive Monte Carlo sampling with an ab initio potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiding, Jeff; Coe, Joshua D.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first application of reactive Monte Carlo in a first-principles context. The algorithm samples in a modified NVT ensemble in which the volume, temperature, and total number of atoms of a given type are held fixed, but molecular composition is allowed to evolve through stochastic variation of chemical connectivity. We discuss general features of the method, as well as techniques needed to enhance the efficiency of Boltzmann sampling. Finally, we compare the results of simulation of NH3 to those of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). We find that there are regions of state space for which RxMC sampling is much more efficient than AIMD due to the "rare-event" character of chemical reactions.

  3. Sample size calculations for clinical trials targeting tauopathies: A new potential disease target

    PubMed Central

    Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Machulda, Mary M.; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Weigand, Stephen D.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Spychalla, Anthony J.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Jack, Clifford R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Disease-modifying therapies are being developed to target tau pathology, and should, therefore, be tested in primary tauopathies. We propose that progressive apraxia of speech should be considered one such target group. In this study, we investigate potential neuroimaging and clinical outcome measures for progressive apraxia of speech and determine sample size estimates for clinical trials. We prospectively recruited 24 patients with progressive apraxia of speech who underwent two serial MRI with an interval of approximately two years. Detailed speech and language assessments included the Apraxia of Speech Rating Scale (ASRS) and Motor Speech Disorders (MSD) severity scale. Rates of ventricular expansion and rates of whole brain, striatal and midbrain atrophy were calculated. Atrophy rates across 38 cortical regions were also calculated and the regions that best differentiated patients from controls were selected. Sample size estimates required to power placebo-controlled treatment trials were calculated. The smallest sample size estimates were obtained with rates of atrophy of the precentral gyrus and supplementary motor area, with both measures requiring less than 50 subjects per arm to detect a 25% treatment effect with 80% power. These measures outperformed the other regional and global MRI measures and the clinical scales. Regional rates of cortical atrophy therefore provide the best outcome measures in progressive apraxia of speech. The small sample size estimates demonstrate feasibility for including progressive apraxia of speech in future clinical treatment trials targeting tau. PMID:26076744

  4. Cysticercus Antigens in Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Patients with Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Vaz, Adelaide José; Machado, Luis Dos Ramos; Livramento, José Antônio

    2001-01-01

    Antigens were detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis (NC) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using polyclonal sera of rabbit anti-Taenia solium cysticerci (anti-Tso) and anti- Taenia crassiceps cysticerci vesicular fluid (anti-Tcra or anti-Tcra <30 kDa). A group of NC patients (n = 174) were studied (NC), including 40 patients in different phases of the disease. ELISAs carried out with the anti-Tso, anti-Tcra, and anti-Tcra <30 kDa showed sensitivities of 81.2, 90, and 95.8% and specificities of 82, 98, and 100%, respectively. The 14- and 18-kDa low-molecular-weight peptides were only detected in CSF samples from patients with NC by immunoblotting with anti-Tso and anti-Tcra sera. Because of the importance of the diagnosis and prognosis of cysticercosis, the detection of antigens may contribute as an additional marker to the study and clarification of the parasite-host relationship. PMID:11526181

  5. A limited sampling strategy for tacrolimus in renal transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Binu S; Fleming, Denise H; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Chandy, Sujith J; Annapandian, V M; Subbanna, P K; John, George T

    2008-01-01

    AIMS To develop and validate limited sampling strategy (LSS) equations to estimate area under the curve (AUC0–12) in renal transplant patients. METHODS Twenty-nine renal transplant patients (3–6 months post transplant) who were at steady state with respect to tacrolimus kinetics were included in this study. The blood samples starting with the predose (trough) and collected at fixed time points for 12 h were analysed by microparticle enzyme immunoassay. Linear regression analysis estimated the correlations of tacrolimus concentrations at different sampling time points with the total measured AUC0–12. By applying multiple stepwise linear regression analysis, LSS equations with acceptable correlation coefficients (R2), bias and precision were identified. The predictive performance of these models was validated by the jackknife technique. RESULTS Three models were identified, all with R2 ≥ 0.907. Two point models included one with trough (C0) and 1.5 h postdose (C1.5), another with trough and 4 h postdose. Increasing the number of sampling time points to more than two increased R2 marginally (0.951 to 0.990). After jackknife validation, the two sampling time point (trough and 1.5 h postdose) model accurately predicted AUC0–12. Regression coefficient R2 = 0.951, intraclass correlation = 0.976, bias [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.53% (−2.63, 3.69) and precision (95% CI) 6.35% (4.36, 8.35). CONCLUSION The two-point LSS equation [AUC0–12 = 19.16 + (6.75.C0) + (3.33.C1.5)] can be used as a predictable and accurate measure of AUC0–12 in stable renal transplant patients prescribed prednisolone and mycophenolate. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECTTacrolimus trough concentration is being currently used for dose individualization.Limited sampling strategies (LSS) have been developed and validated for renal transplant patients.Earlier literature has suggested that measurement of tacrolimus AUC is more reliable than trough with respect to both rejection and

  6. Test evaluation of potential heatshield contamination of an outer planet probe's gas sampling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of retaining the heat shield for outer planet probes was investigated as a potential source of atmospheric sample contamination by outgassing. The onboard instruments which are affected by the concept are the pressure sensor, temperature sensor, IR detector, nephelometer, and gas sampling instruments. It was found that: (1) The retention of the charred heatshield and the baseline atmospheric sampling concepts are compatible with obtaining noncontaminated atmospheric samples. (2) Increasing the sampling tube length so that it extends beyond the viscous boundary layer eliminates contamination of the atmospheric sample. (3) The potential for contamination increases with angle of attack.

  7. Diagnostic potential of structural neuroimaging for depression from a multi-ethnic community sample

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Anjali; Zhang, Tianhao; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Doshi, Jimit; Erus, Guray; Costafreda, Sergi G.; Marangell, Lauren; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Background At present, we do not have any biological tests which can contribute towards a diagnosis of depression. Neuroimaging measures have shown some potential as biomarkers for diagnosis. However, participants have generally been from the same ethnic background while the applicability of a biomarker would require replication in individuals of diverse ethnicities. Aims We sought to examine the diagnostic potential of the structural neuroanatomy of depression in a sample of a wide ethnic diversity. Method Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained from 23 patients with major depressive disorder in an acute depressive episode (mean age: 39.8 years) and 20 matched healthy volunteers (mean age: 38.8 years). Participants were of Asian, African and Caucasian ethnicity recruited from the general community. Results Structural neuroanatomy combining white and grey matter distinguished patients from controls at the highest accuracy of 81% with the most stable pattern being at around 70%. A widespread network encompassing frontal, parietal, occipital and cerebellar regions contributed towards diagnostic classification. Conclusions These findings provide an important step in the development of potential neuroimaging-based tools for diagnosis as they demonstrate that the identification of depression is feasible within a multi-ethnic group from the community. Declaration of interests C.H.Y.F. has held recent research grants from Eli Lilly and Company and GlaxoSmithKline. L.M. is a former employee and stockholder of Eli Lilly and Company. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703783

  8. Social Cognition in a Clinical Sample of Personality Disorder Patients.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Tagle, Amparo; Costanzo, Elsa; De Achával, Delfina; Guinjoan, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition was assessed in a clinical sample of personality disorder (PD) stable patients receiving ambulatory treatment (N = 17) and healthy matched controls (N = 17) using tests of recognition of emotions in faces and eyes, in a test of social faux pas and in theory of mind (ToM) stories. Results indicated that when compared with healthy controls, individuals with PD showed a clear tendency to obtain lower scoring in tasks assessing recognition of emotion in faces (T = -2.602, p = 0.014), eyes (T = -3.593, p = 0.001), ToM stories (T = -4.706, p = 0.000), and Faux pas (T = -2.227, p = 0.035). In the present pilot study, PD individuals with a normal cognitive efficiency showed an impaired performance at social cognition assessment including emotion recognition and ToM.

  9. MicroRNAs in stool samples as potential screening biomarkers for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Yu; Sun, Yong-Wei; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Jun-Feng; Li, Jiao; Hua, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) accounts for approximately 90-95% exocrine malignant tumors of the pancreas. The high prevalence of metastasis and the difficulty of early diagnosis lead to a dismal prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in extensive biological processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of stool miRNAs as novel biomarker for PDAC screening. MiRNAs were extracted from clinical specimens which included cancer and matched adjacent benign pancreatic tissues of 30 PDAC patients, pancreatic juice of 20 from the 30 PDAC patients and 10 chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients, stool samples of the 30 PDAC patients, the 10 CP patients and 15 healthy volunteers. Relative expression of a panel of 5 dysregulated miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-196a, miR-216 and miR-217) was analyzed with qRT-PCR. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the diagnosing value of stool miRNAs in PDAC patients. The study showed that our methods of extracting and detecting miRNAs from pancreatic juice and stool specimens had high reproducibility. Compared to matched adjacent benign pancreatic tissues and pancreatic juice of CP patients, the expression of miR-21 (P = 0.0021 and P = 0.0027) as well as miR-155 (P = 0.0087 and P = 0.0067) was significantly higher and the expression of miR-216 (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0044) was significantly lower in primary tumor tissues and pancreatic juice of PDAC patients. PDAC patients had a significantly higher stool miR-21 and miR-155 (P = 0.0049 and P = 0.0112) and lower miR-216 level (P = 0.0002) compared to normal controls. The same results were obtained in the expression levels of stool miR-21, miR-155 and miR-216 between PDAC and CP patients (P = 0.0337, P = 0.0388 and P = 0.0117, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis by using stool miRNAs expression indicated that combination of miR-21 and miR-155 had best sensitivity of 93.33% while the

  10. Quantification for total demethylation potential of environmental samples utilizing the EGFP reporter gene.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yan; Wang, Xiao-li; Lv, Zhan-lu; Tysklind, Mats; Guo, Chen; Liang, Bao; Wu, Jia-bing; Yang, Yong-jian; Yang, Yi-shu; Wang, Fei-fei; Duan, Xiao-li; Ma, Jin; Wei, Yong-jie; Wang, Chun-hui; Yang, Li-xin; Zhang, Jin-liang; Shi, Xiao-ming; Wang, Xian-liang

    2016-04-01

    The demethylation potential of pollutants is arguably an innate component of their toxicity in environmental samples. A method was developed for determining the total demethylation potential of food samples (TDQ). The demethylation epigenetic toxicity was determined using the Hep G2 cell line transfected with pEGFP-C3 plasmids containing a methylated promoter of the EGFP reporter gene. The total demethylation potential of the sample extracts (the 5-AZA-CdR demethylation toxic equivalency) can be quantified within one week by using a standard curve of the 5-AZA-CdR demethylation agent. To explore the applicability of TDQ for environmental samples, 17 groundwater samples were collected from heavy polluted Kuihe river and the total demethylation potentials of the sample extracts were measured successfully. Meaningful demethylation toxic equivalencies ranging from 0.00050 to 0.01747μM were found in all groundwater sample extracts. Among 19 kinds of inorganic substance, As and Cd played important roles for individual contribution to the total demethylation epigenetic toxicity. The TDQ assay is reliable and fast for quantifying the DNA demethylation potential of environmental sample extracts, which may improve epigenetic toxicity evaluations for human risk assessment, and the consistent consuming of groundwater alongside the Kuihe river pose unexpected epigenetic health risk to the local residents. PMID:26774982

  11. 43 CFR 11.22 - Sampling of potentially injured natural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... resources. 11.22 Section 11.22 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 11.22 Sampling of potentially injured natural resources... of this part to proceed with an assessment, field sampling of natural resources should be limited...

  12. 43 CFR 11.22 - Sampling of potentially injured natural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... resources. 11.22 Section 11.22 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 11.22 Sampling of potentially injured natural resources... of this part to proceed with an assessment, field sampling of natural resources should be limited...

  13. 43 CFR 11.22 - Sampling of potentially injured natural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... resources. 11.22 Section 11.22 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 11.22 Sampling of potentially injured natural resources... of this part to proceed with an assessment, field sampling of natural resources should be limited...

  14. 43 CFR 11.22 - Sampling of potentially injured natural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... resources. 11.22 Section 11.22 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 11.22 Sampling of potentially injured natural resources... of this part to proceed with an assessment, field sampling of natural resources should be limited...

  15. 43 CFR 11.22 - Sampling of potentially injured natural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... resources. 11.22 Section 11.22 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 11.22 Sampling of potentially injured natural resources... of this part to proceed with an assessment, field sampling of natural resources should be limited...

  16. Experimental identification of potential falls in older adult hospital patients.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Aimee; Yang, James; Pati, Debajyoti; Valipoor, Shabboo

    2016-05-01

    Patient falls within hospitals have been identified as serious but largely preventable incidents, particularly among older adult patients. Previous literature has explored intrinsic factors associated with patient falls, but literature identifying possible extrinsic or situational factors related to falls is lacking. This study seeks to identify patient motions and activities along with associated environmental design factors in a patient bathroom and clinician zone setting that may lead to falls. A motion capture experiment was conducted in a laboratory setting on 27 subjects over the age of seventy using scripted tasks and mockups of the bathroom and clinician zone of a patient room. Data were post-processed using Cortex and Visual3D software. A potential fall was characterized by a set of criteria based on the jerk of the upper body׳s center of mass (COM). Results suggest that only motion-related factors, particularly turning, pushing, pulling, and grabbing, contribute most significantly to potential falls in the patient bathroom, whereas only pushing and pulling contribute significantly in the clinician zone. Future work includes identifying and changing precise environmental design factors associated with these motions for an updated patient room and performing motion capture experiments using the new setup. PMID:26920507

  17. A Limited Sampling Schedule to Estimate Individual Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Fludarabine in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Salinger, David H.; Blough, David K.; Vicini, Paolo; Anasetti, Claudio; O’Donnell, Paul V.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; McCune, Jeannine S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Fludarabine monophosphate (fludarabine) is frequently administered to patients receiving a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) in an ambulatory care setting. These patients experience significant interpatient variability in clinical outcomes, potentially due to pharmacokinetic variability in 2-fluoroadenine (F-ara-A) plasma concentrations. To test such hypotheses, patient compliance with the blood sampling should be optimized by the development of a minimally intrusive limited sampling schedule (LSS) to characterize F-ara-A pharmacokinetics. To this end, we sought to create the first F-ara-A population pharmacokinetic model and subsequently a LSS. Experimental Design A retrospective evaluation of F-ara-A pharmacokinetics was conducted after one or more doses of daily IV fludarabine in 42 adult HCT recipients. NONMEM software was used to estimate the population pharmacokinetic parameters and compute the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). Results A two compartment model best fit the data. A LSS was constructed using a simulation approach, seeking to minimize the scaled mean square error (sMSE) for the AUC for each simulated individual. The LSS times chosen were: 0.583 hour (hr), 1.5 hr, 6.5 hr and 24 hr after the start of the 30 minute fludarabine infusion. Conclusion The pharmacokinetics of F-ara-A in an individual HCT patient can be accurately estimated by obtaining 4 blood samples (using the LSS) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) Bayesian estimation. Conclusions These are essential tools for prospective pharmacodynamic studies seeking to determine if clinical outcomes are related to F-ara-A pharmacokinetics in patients receiving IV fludarabine in the ambulatory clinic. PMID:19671874

  18. Mud Volcanoes in the Martian Lowlands: Potential Windows to Fluid-Rich Samples from Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2009-01-01

    The regional setting of the Chryse-Acidalia area augurs well for a fluid-rich subsurface, accumulation of diverse rock types reflecting the wide catchment area, astrobiological prospectivity, and mud volcanism. This latter provides a mechanism for transporting samples from relatively great depth to the surface. Since mud volcanoes are not associated with extreme heat or shock pressures, materials they transport to the surface are likely to be relatively unaltered; thus such materials could contain interpretable remnants of potential martian life (e.g., organic chemical biomarkers, mineral biosignatures, or structural remains) as well as unmetamorphosed rock samples. None of the previous landings on Mars was located in an area with features identified as potential mud volcanoes (Fig. 3), but some of these features may offer targets for future missions aimed at sampling deep fluid-rich strata with potential habitable zones.

  19. Quantum grow--A quantum dynamics sampling approach for growing potential energy surfaces and nonadiabatic couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Godsi, Oded; Peskin, Uri; Collins, Michael A.

    2010-03-28

    A quantum sampling algorithm for the interpolation of diabatic potential energy matrices by the Grow method is introduced. The new procedure benefits from penetration of the wave packet into classically forbidden regions, and the accurate quantum mechanical description of nonadiabatic transitions. The increased complexity associated with running quantum dynamics is reduced by using approximate low order expansions of the nuclear wave function within a Multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree scheme during the Grow process. The sampling algorithm is formulated and applied for three representative test cases, demonstrating the recovery of analytic potentials by the interpolated ones, and the convergence of a dynamic observable.

  20. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Özgür, Abdulkadir; Serdaroğlu Beyazal, Münevver; Terzi, Suat; Coşkun, Zerrin Özergin; Dursun, Engin

    2016-10-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Although sacroiliac joint involvement is the classic sign along with the formed immune mediators, it may result in immune-mediated inner ear disease and may cause damage to the audiovestibular system. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) is a clinical reflex test used in the diagnosis of vestibular diseases and is performed by recording and evaluating the muscle potentials resulting from the stimulation of the vestibular system with different stimuli. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cervical VEMP test results in AS patients without vestibular symptoms. Thirty-three patients with AS and a control group of 30 healthy volunteers with similar demographic characteristics were evaluated in the study. VEMP wave latency, P13-N23 wave amplitude, and VEMP asymmetry ratio (VAR) values were compared between the groups. The relationship between clinical and laboratory findings of the AS patients and VEMP data were also investigated. Compared with healthy people, this study shows the response rate of patients with ankylosing spondylitis was reduced in the VEMP test, and P13-N23 wave amplitude showed a decrease in AS patients who had VEMP response (p < 0.001). There was no correlation between the clinical and laboratory findings and VEMP findings in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. The data obtained from this study suggest that AS may lead to decreased sensitivity of the vestibular system.

  1. Electrokinetic experimental study on saturated rock samples: zeta potential and surface conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Hengshan; Guan, Wei; Li, Hui

    2015-05-01

    It is important to know the electrokinetic properties of crustal rocks for interpreting the conductivity mechanisms and seismoelectric phenomena during earthquakes and seismoelectric well logging. In this study, electrokinetic experiments are conducted using a special core-holder by employing an AC lock-in technique. A series of experiments are conducted on 10 sandstone samples to measure the streaming potentials and streaming currents, and the experiments on each sample are done at six different salinities. The streaming potential coefficient and streaming current coefficient are calculated from the measured streaming potentials and streaming currents. The experimental results show that streaming potential coefficient and streaming current coefficient decrease as the salinity increases. The dependence of these two coefficients on permeability and pore radius are analysed and compared with previous works. At low salinities, the streaming potential coefficient and streaming current coefficient increase with the increasing permeability and pore radius. At high salinities, the streaming potential coefficient (streaming current coefficient) almost share a same value for 10 different samples. This conclusion indicates that the differences of rock parameters can only be well recognized at lower salinities, and the electrokinetic signals are invalid at high salinities, which offers a restrictive condition for using the amplitude of electrokinetic signals to estimate rock parameters. The zeta-potential have also been estimated through combined measurements of streaming potential and streaming current. The surface conductivity and its contribution to electrokinetic effects are determined from a comparison of zeta-potentials by two different methods, and then the validation of the Helmholz-Smoluchowski equation for a capillary tube is tested in rocks. We also compare our date with theoretical and experimental works, and set up an expression about the relationship between

  2. A Two-Stage Method to Determine Optimal Product Sampling considering Dynamic Potential Market

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhineng; Lu, Wei; Han, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops an optimization model for the diffusion effects of free samples under dynamic changes in potential market based on the characteristics of independent product and presents a two-stage method to figure out the sampling level. The impact analysis of the key factors on the sampling level shows that the increase of the external coefficient or internal coefficient has a negative influence on the sampling level. And the changing rate of the potential market has no significant influence on the sampling level whereas the repeat purchase has a positive one. Using logistic analysis and regression analysis, the global sensitivity analysis gives a whole analysis of the interaction of all parameters, which provides a two-stage method to estimate the impact of the relevant parameters in the case of inaccuracy of the parameters and to be able to construct a 95% confidence interval for the predicted sampling level. Finally, the paper provides the operational steps to improve the accuracy of the parameter estimation and an innovational way to estimate the sampling level. PMID:25821847

  3. A two-stage method to determine optimal product sampling considering dynamic potential market.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhineng; Lu, Wei; Han, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops an optimization model for the diffusion effects of free samples under dynamic changes in potential market based on the characteristics of independent product and presents a two-stage method to figure out the sampling level. The impact analysis of the key factors on the sampling level shows that the increase of the external coefficient or internal coefficient has a negative influence on the sampling level. And the changing rate of the potential market has no significant influence on the sampling level whereas the repeat purchase has a positive one. Using logistic analysis and regression analysis, the global sensitivity analysis gives a whole analysis of the interaction of all parameters, which provides a two-stage method to estimate the impact of the relevant parameters in the case of inaccuracy of the parameters and to be able to construct a 95% confidence interval for the predicted sampling level. Finally, the paper provides the operational steps to improve the accuracy of the parameter estimation and an innovational way to estimate the sampling level.

  4. Comparative evaluation of potential indicators and temporal sampling protocols for monitoring genetic erosion

    PubMed Central

    Hoban, Sean; Arntzen, Jan A; Bruford, Michael W; Godoy, José A; Rus Hoelzel, A; Segelbacher, Gernot; Vilà, Carles; Bertorelle, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Genetic biodiversity contributes to individual fitness, species' evolutionary potential, and ecosystem stability. Temporal monitoring of the genetic status and trends of wild populations' genetic diversity can provide vital data to inform policy decisions and management actions. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding which genetic metrics, temporal sampling protocols, and genetic markers are sufficiently sensitive and robust, on conservation-relevant timescales. Here, we tested six genetic metrics and various sampling protocols (number and arrangement of temporal samples) for monitoring genetic erosion following demographic decline. To do so, we utilized individual-based simulations featuring an array of different initial population sizes, types and severity of demographic decline, and DNA markers [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites] as well as decline followed by recovery. Number of alleles markedly outperformed other indicators across all situations. The type and severity of demographic decline strongly affected power, while the number and arrangement of temporal samples had small effect. Sampling 50 individuals at as few as two time points with 20 microsatellites performed well (good power), and could detect genetic erosion while 80–90% of diversity remained. This sampling and genotyping effort should often be affordable. Power increased substantially with more samples or markers, and we observe that power of 2500 SNPs was nearly equivalent to 250 microsatellites, a result of theoretical and practical interest. Our results suggest high potential for using historic collections in monitoring programs, and demonstrate the need to monitor genetic as well as other levels of biodiversity. PMID:25553062

  5. Race and Research Methods Anxiety in an Undergraduate Sample: The Potential Effects of Self-Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckberg, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores race as a potential predictor of research methods anxiety among a sample of undergraduates. While differences in academic achievement based on race and ethnicity have been well documented, few studies have examined racial differences in anxiety with regard to specific subject matter in undergraduate curricula. This exploratory…

  6. Accurate, noninvasive detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA from stool samples: potential usefulness for monitoring treatment.

    PubMed

    Shuber, Anthony P; Ascaño, Jennifer J; Boynton, Kevin A; Mitchell, Anastasia; Frierson, Henry F; El-Rifai, Wa'el; Powell, Steven M

    2002-01-01

    A novel DNA assay demonstrating sensitive and accurate detection of Helicobacter pylori from stool samples is reported. Moreover, in three individuals tested for therapeutic response, the assay showed the disappearance of H. pylori DNA during treatment. Thus, this noninvasive molecular biology-based assay has the potential to be a powerful diagnostic tool given its ability to specifically identify H. pylori DNA.

  7. A Nationwide Random Sampling Survey of Potential Complicated Grief in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizuno, Yasunao; Kishimoto, Junji; Asukai, Nozomu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of significant loss, potential complicated grief (CG), and its contributing factors, we conducted a nationwide random sampling survey of Japanese adults aged 18 or older (N = 1,343) using a self-rating Japanese-language version of the Complicated Grief Brief Screen. Among them, 37.0% experienced their most significant…

  8. Potential Drug - Drug Interactions among Medications Prescribed to Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Barna

    2014-01-01

    Context: Drug-drug interactions(DDIs) are significant but avoidable causes of iatrogenic morbidity and hospital admission. Aim: To detect potential drug-drug interactions among medications received by hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: Patients of both sex and all adult age groups, who were attending medicine out -patient department (OPD) of a tertiary care teaching rural hospital since last six months and were being prescribed antihypertensive drug/s for essential hypertension, were selected for the study. Hypertensive patient with co-morbities diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart diseases, congestive heart failure, and chronic renal diseases were also included in the study. Potential drug drug interactions were checked with medscape drug interaction software. Results: With the help of medscape drug interaction software, 71.50% prescriptions were identified having atleast one drug-drug interaction. Total 918 DDIs were found in between 58 drug pairs. 55.23% DDIs were pharmacodynamic, 4.79% pharmacokinetic type of DDIs. 32.24% DDIs were found affecting serum potassium level. 95.42% DDIs were found significant type of DDIs. Drug drug interaction between atenolol & amlodipine was the most common DDI (136) followed by metoprolol and amlodine (88) in this study. Atenolol and amlodipine ( 25.92%) was the most common drugs to cause DDIs in our study. Conclusion: We detected a significant number of drug drug interaction in hypertensive patients. These interactions were between antihypertensive agents or between hypertensive and drug for co-morbid condition. PMID:25584241

  9. Clinical Insights from Metagenomic Analysis of Sputum Samples from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Jose S.; Schmieder, Robert; Bailey, Barbara; Haynes, Matthew; Furlan, Mike; Maughan, Heather; Edwards, Robert; Rohwer, Forest; Conrad, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    As DNA sequencing becomes faster and cheaper, genomics-based approaches are being explored for their use in personalized diagnoses and treatments. Here, we provide a proof of principle for disease monitoring using personal metagenomic sequencing and traditional clinical microbiology by focusing on three adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). The CF lung is a dynamic environment that hosts a complex ecosystem composed of bacteria, viruses, and fungi that can vary in space and time. Not surprisingly, the microbiome data from the induced sputum samples we collected revealed a significant amount of species diversity not seen in routine clinical laboratory cultures. The relative abundances of several species changed as clinical treatment was altered, enabling the identification of the climax and attack communities that were proposed in an earlier work. All patient microbiomes encoded a diversity of mechanisms to resist antibiotics, consistent with the characteristics of multidrug-resistant microbial communities that are commonly observed in CF patients. The metabolic potentials of these communities differed by the health status and recovery route of each patient. Thus, this pilot study provides an example of how metagenomic data might be used with clinical assessments for the development of treatments tailored to individual patients. PMID:24478471

  10. Communication of ALS Patients by Detecting Event-Related Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanou, Naoyuki; Sakuma, Kenji; Nakashima, Kenji

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS) patients are unable to successfully communicate their desires, although their mental capacity is the same as non-affected persons. Therefore, the authors put emphasis on Event-Related Potential(ERP) which elicits the highest outcome for the target visual and hearing stimuli. P300 is one component of ERP. It is positive potential that is elicited when the subject focuses attention on stimuli that appears infrequently. In this paper, the authors focused on P200 and N200 components, in addition to P300, for their great improvement in the rate of correct judgment in the target word-specific experiment. Hence the authors propose the algorithm that specifies target words by detecting these three components. Ten healthy subjects and ALS patient underwent the experiment in which a target word out of five words, was specified by this algorithm. The rates of correct judgment in nine of ten healthy subjects were more than 90.0%. The highest rate was 99.7%. The highest rate of ALS patient was 100.0%. Through these results, the authors found the possibility that ALS patients could communicate with surrounding persons by detecting ERP(P200, N200 and P300) as their desire.

  11. Benefits, Challenges, and Potential Utility of a Gait Database for Diabetes Patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven; Boulton, Andrew; Bowling, Frank; Reeves, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Gait analysis is a useful tool in understanding movement impairments, which impact on patient well-being. The use of gait analysis in patients with diabetes has led to improvements in health care including the treatment and prevention of ulceration and development of targeted exercise interventions. The current convention when analyzing gait is to address specific complications of diabetes, controlling for potential influencing conditions within a study sample to understand the effects of the few specific complications chosen for analysis. Databases allow for the storage of data in a structured format, allowing easy access to large quantities of data in a consistent, comparable manner. A database of gait analyses of patients with diabetes has the potential to include far greater sample sizes for statistical analyses, allowing multiple influencing factors to be assessed simultaneously, and relationships identified between multiple influencing factors. However, a database of this type would encounter ethical and methodological challenges in its implementation, which are discussed. This article introduces some of the potential benefits, challenges, and utility of a gait database for diabetes patients. We highlight that, whereas the creation of a database within this clinical population would be a complex process both ethically and practically, huge potential benefits could be gained, overcoming some of the limitations faced by traditional isolated gait analysis studies.

  12. Procalcitonin Predicts Real-Time PCR Results in Blood Samples from Patients with Suspected Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Mencacci, Antonella; Leli, Christian; Cardaccia, Angela; Meucci, Marta; Moretti, Amedeo; D'Alò, Francesco; Farinelli, Senia; Pagliochini, Rita; Barcaccia, Mariella; Bistoni, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis and rapid bacterial identification are of primary importance for outcome of septic patients. SeptiFast® (SF) real-time PCR assay is of potential utility in the etiological diagnosis of sepsis, but it cannot replace blood culture (BC) for routine use in clinical laboratory. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a marker of sepsis and can predict bacteremia in septic patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PCT serum levels could predict SF results, and could help screening febrile patients in which a SF assay can improve the etiological diagnosis of sepsis. Methods From 1009 febrile patients with suspected sepsis, 1009 samples for BC, SF real-time PCR, and PCT determination were obtained simultaneously, and results were compared and statistically analysed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the area under the curve and to identify which cut-off of PCT value produced the best sensitivity to detect SF results. Results Mean PCT values of sera drawn simultaneously with samples SF positive (35.42±61.03 ng/ml) or BC positive (23.14±51.56 ng/ml) for a pathogen were statistically higher than those drawn simultaneously with SF negative (0.84±1.67 ng/ml) or BC negative (2.79±16.64 ng/ml) samples (p<0.0001). For SF, ROC analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.927 (95% confidence interval: 0.899–0.955, p<0.0001). The PCT cut-off value of 0.37 ng/ml showed a negative predictive value of 99%, reducing the number of SF assays of 53.9%, still identifying the 96.4% of the pathogens. Conclusion PCT can be used in febrile patients with suspected sepsis to predict SF positive or negative results. A cut-off value of 0.37 ng/ml can be considered for optimal sensitivity, so that, in the routine laboratory activity, SF assay should not be used for diagnosis of sepsis in an unselected patient population with a PCT value <0.37 ng/ml. PMID:23300907

  13. Needle arthroscopy of the knee with synovial biopsy sampling: technical experience in 150 patients.

    PubMed

    Baeten, D; Van den Bosch, F; Elewaut, D; Stuer, A; Veys, E M; De Keyser, F

    1999-01-01

    Needle arthroscopy is an office-based technique allowing direct visualisation of the knee cavity and selective sampling of the synovial membrane. We performed needle arthroscopy in 150 patients with synovitis of the knee (1) to evaluate the diagnostic potential in early arthritis, (2) to perform therapeutic lavage in persistent inflammatory synovitis and (3) to assess the balance between technical feasibility, safety and patient comfort on the one hand, and the relevance of the obtained macro- and microscopic information for diagnosis and research purposes on the other. After disinfection of the leg and local anaesthesia of the skin and joint, a 1.8-2.7 mm needle arthroscope was introduced into the knee. Synovial fluid was aspirated and lavage of the joint cavity was performed to allow macroscopic evaluation of hyperaemia and hypertrophy of the synovial membrane. Biopsies were taken at inflamed sites, followed by another lavage to remove blood and debris. Needle arthroscopy of the knee is a simple and easy to perform technique made particularly attractive by the local anaesthesia and the ambulatory setting. It allows good macroscopic evaluation of synovial inflammation and selective sampling of the synovial membrane. Biopsies are suitable for RNA and DNA extraction, bacterial or lymphocyte culture, and cell isolation. Because samples were sometimes too small for representative histology, we switched from a 1.8 mm to a 2.7 mm biopsy forceps with good results. In nearly all cases the arthroscopy was well tolerated. Moreover, some patients reported relief of symptoms and even improvement of mobility after lavage of the inflamed joint. No major complications were noted. It was concluded that needle arthroscopy of the knee is a simple, safe and well-tolerated technique, with promising perspectives as a diagnostic, scientific and possibly therapeutic tool in rheumatic diseases. PMID:10638766

  14. Surveying a complex potential energy landscape: Overcoming broken ergodicity using basin-sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    2013-10-01

    A new basin-sampling scheme is introduced to obtain equilibrium thermodynamic properties by combining results from global optimisation and parallel tempering calculations. Regular minimisation is used to obtain a two-dimensional density of states. A model anharmonic form is optimised using a multihistogram approach for potential energy bins corresponding to local minima, connecting the results obtained for low and high temperatures. This procedure provides accurate densities of states and thermodynamic properties for benchmark atomic clusters exhibiting broken ergodicity. It can also be used to calculate the potential energy density of local minima for distinct permutation-inversion isomers and distinct structures.

  15. Targeted or whole genome sequencing of formalin fixed tissue samples: potential applications in cancer genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yue; Cottrell, Joseph; Klotzle, Brandy; Godwin, Andrew K.; Koestler, Devin; Beyerlein, Peter; Fan, Jian-Bing; Bibikova, Marina; Chien, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Current genomic studies are limited by the poor availability of fresh-frozen tissue samples. Although formalin-fixed diagnostic samples are in abundance, they are seldom used in current genomic studies because of the concern of formalin-fixation artifacts. Better characterization of these artifacts will allow the use of archived clinical specimens in translational and clinical research studies. To provide a systematic analysis of formalin-fixation artifacts on Illumina sequencing, we generated 26 DNA sequencing data sets from 13 pairs of matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and fresh-frozen (FF) tissue samples. The results indicate high rate of concordant calls between matched FF/FFPE pairs at reference and variant positions in three commonly used sequencing approaches (whole genome, whole exome, and targeted exon sequencing). Global mismatch rates and C·G > T·A substitutions were comparable between matched FF/FFPE samples, and discordant rates were low (<0.26%) in all samples. Finally, low-pass whole genome sequencing produces similar pattern of copy number alterations between FF/FFPE pairs. The results from our studies suggest the potential use of diagnostic FFPE samples for cancer genomic studies to characterize and catalog variations in cancer genomes. PMID:26305677

  16. Targeted or whole genome sequencing of formalin fixed tissue samples: potential applications in cancer genomics.

    PubMed

    Munchel, Sarah; Hoang, Yen; Zhao, Yue; Cottrell, Joseph; Klotzle, Brandy; Godwin, Andrew K; Koestler, Devin; Beyerlein, Peter; Fan, Jian-Bing; Bibikova, Marina; Chien, Jeremy

    2015-09-22

    Current genomic studies are limited by the poor availability of fresh-frozen tissue samples. Although formalin-fixed diagnostic samples are in abundance, they are seldom used in current genomic studies because of the concern of formalin-fixation artifacts. Better characterization of these artifacts will allow the use of archived clinical specimens in translational and clinical research studies. To provide a systematic analysis of formalin-fixation artifacts on Illumina sequencing, we generated 26 DNA sequencing data sets from 13 pairs of matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and fresh-frozen (FF) tissue samples. The results indicate high rate of concordant calls between matched FF/FFPE pairs at reference and variant positions in three commonly used sequencing approaches (whole genome, whole exome, and targeted exon sequencing). Global mismatch rates and C · G > T · A substitutions were comparable between matched FF/FFPE samples, and discordant rates were low (<0.26%) in all samples. Finally, low-pass whole genome sequencing produces similar pattern of copy number alterations between FF/FFPE pairs. The results from our studies suggest the potential use of diagnostic FFPE samples for cancer genomic studies to characterize and catalog variations in cancer genomes.

  17. Targeted or whole genome sequencing of formalin fixed tissue samples: potential applications in cancer genomics.

    PubMed

    Munchel, Sarah; Hoang, Yen; Zhao, Yue; Cottrell, Joseph; Klotzle, Brandy; Godwin, Andrew K; Koestler, Devin; Beyerlein, Peter; Fan, Jian-Bing; Bibikova, Marina; Chien, Jeremy

    2015-09-22

    Current genomic studies are limited by the poor availability of fresh-frozen tissue samples. Although formalin-fixed diagnostic samples are in abundance, they are seldom used in current genomic studies because of the concern of formalin-fixation artifacts. Better characterization of these artifacts will allow the use of archived clinical specimens in translational and clinical research studies. To provide a systematic analysis of formalin-fixation artifacts on Illumina sequencing, we generated 26 DNA sequencing data sets from 13 pairs of matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and fresh-frozen (FF) tissue samples. The results indicate high rate of concordant calls between matched FF/FFPE pairs at reference and variant positions in three commonly used sequencing approaches (whole genome, whole exome, and targeted exon sequencing). Global mismatch rates and C · G > T · A substitutions were comparable between matched FF/FFPE samples, and discordant rates were low (<0.26%) in all samples. Finally, low-pass whole genome sequencing produces similar pattern of copy number alterations between FF/FFPE pairs. The results from our studies suggest the potential use of diagnostic FFPE samples for cancer genomic studies to characterize and catalog variations in cancer genomes. PMID:26305677

  18. Study of depression among a sample of hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Al Madany, Adel Mohammed; Hassan, Fawzy Hamed; Al-Nabawy, Ali Abdel Fattah; Ramadan, Mohammed Elsayed Mohammed; Ismail, Abd-Allah Ahmed Abd-Allah

    2015-04-01

    Hypertension is one of the commonest diseases worldwide. Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure, sometimes called arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition, which elevated blood pressure in the arteries. This forces the heart to work harder than normal to circulate blood via the blood vessels. Blood pressure is summarized by two measurements, systolic and diastolic, which depend on between beats (diastole). Normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100-140 mmHg systolic (top reading) high blood pressure is said to be present if it is persistently at or above 140/90 mmHg of cases are categorized as primary hypertension that means high blood pressure with no obvious underlying medical cause. Updated studies reported associations between depressive symptoms and hypertensive patients. Depression may be an independent diagnosis, it is also possible that depressive symptoms are secondary to chronic illnesses and their associated complex medication regimens, regardless of the diagnosis being primary or secondary, prior reports have demonstrated that depressive symptoms are associated with inadequate blood pressure control and complications of hypertension. PMID:26012236

  19. An investigation of potential applications of OP-SAPS: Operational sampled analog processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, E. A.; Mcvey, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of charge-coupled device (CCD) processors on future instrumentation was investigated. The CCD devices studied process sampled analog data and are referred to as OP-SAPS - operational sampled analog processors. Preliminary studies into various architectural configurations for systems composed of OP-SAPS show that they have potential in such diverse applications as pattern recognition and automatic control. It appears probable that OP-SAPS may be used to construct computing structures which can serve as special peripherals to large-scale computer complexes used in real time flight simulation. The research was limited to the following benchmark programs: (1) face recognition, (2) voice command and control, (3) terrain classification, and (4) terrain identification. A small amount of effort was spent on examining a method by which OP-SAPS may be used to decrease the limiting ground sampling distance encountered in remote sensing from satellites.

  20. Detection of JCPyV microRNA in blood and urine samples of multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Irene; Martelli, Francesco; Repice, Anna; Massacesi, Luca; Azzi, Alberta; Giannecchini, Simone

    2015-12-01

    Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) reactivation and development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a health concern in multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy. Here, the JCPyV microRNA-J1-3p and microRNA-J1-5p expressions and genomic variability were investigated in blood and urine samples of multiple sclerosis patients before and under natalizumab therapy and in healthy controls. The two JCPyV microRNAs were detected in the JCPyV-DNA-positive peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples and in the exosomes derived from plasma and urine obtained from JCPyV-DNA-positive and JCPyV-DNA-negative patients. In particular, the increased JCPyV microRNA expression in samples of multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy was consistent with the high JCPyV-DNA positivity observed in these samples. Moreover, JCPyV microRNA genomic region showed few nucleotide differences in samples obtained from blood and urine of multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls. Overall, these data suggest a potential role of the JCPyV microRNA expression in counteracting the viral reactivation to maintain JCPyV asymptomatic persistence in the host.

  1. Potential use of oral fluid samples for serological diagnosis of African swine fever.

    PubMed

    Mur, Lina; Gallardo, Carmina; Soler, Alejandro; Zimmermman, Jeffrey; Pelayo, Virginia; Nieto, Raquel; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Arias, Marisa

    2013-07-26

    African swine fever (ASF) is a complex, highly lethal, notifiable disease of swine. ASF is wide-spread in sub-Saharan Africa and East European countries and there is presently a great risk of spread to neighboring countries. Since there is no vaccine for ASF virus (ASFV), control is based on rapid and early detection of the disease via surveillance. This approach requires collecting blood samples from large number of animals. Laborious and expensive of itself, this process also presents an additional risk because ASFV is present at high concentrations in the blood. The objective of this study was to initiate studies into the potential use of oral fluid as an alternative to serum for ASF diagnosis, for latter studying its possible use in surveillance and control programs. To this end, oral fluid samples collected at different times post infection from eight pigs experimentally inoculated with an attenuated ASFV were assayed using modified protocols of the two validated serological techniques, the enzyme-immune-liked assay (ELISA) and immunoperoxidase technique (IPT). Antibodies against ASFV were detected in oral fluid samples of all animals from early post infection through the end of the experiment by ELISA and IPT. These results confirmed the presence of ASFV antibodies in swine oral fluids samples, the possibility of an oral fluid-based approach in ASF diagnosis and, potentially in ASF surveillance.

  2. Bioassay for estimating the biogenic methane-generating potential of coal samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, E.J.P.; Voytek, M.A.; Warwick, P.D.; Corum, M.D.; Cohn, A.; Bunnell, J.E.; Clark, A.C.; Orem, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Generation of secondary biogenic methane in coal beds is likely controlled by a combination of factors such as the bioavailability of coal carbon, the presence of a microbial community to convert coal carbon to methane, and an environment supporting microbial growth and methanogenesis. A set of treatments and controls was developed to bioassay the bioavailability of coal for conversion to methane under defined laboratory conditions. Treatments included adding a well-characterized consortium of bacteria and methanogens (enriched from modern wetland sediments) and providing conditions to support endemic microbial activity. The contribution of desorbed methane in the bioassays was determined in treatments with bromoethane sulfonic acid, an inhibitor of microbial methanogenesis. The bioassay compared 16 subbituminous coal samples collected from beds in Texas (TX), Wyoming (WY), and Alaska (AK), and two bituminous coal samples from Pennsylvania (PA). New biogenic methane was observed in several samples of subbituminous coal with the microbial consortium added, but endemic activity was less commonly observed. The highest methane generation [80????mol methane/g coal (56??scf/ton or 1.75??cm3/g)] was from a south TX coal sample that was collected from a non-gas-producing well. Subbituminous coals from the Powder River Basin, WY and North Slope Borough, AK contained more sorbed (original) methane than the TX coal sample and generated 0-23????mol/g (up to 16??scf/ton or 0.5??cm3/g) new biogenic methane in the bioassay. Standard indicators of thermal maturity such as burial depth, nitrogen content, and calorific value did not explain differences in biogenic methane among subbituminous coal samples. No original methane was observed in two bituminous samples from PA, nor was any new methane generated in bioassays of these samples. The bioassay offers a new tool for assessing the potential of coal for biogenic methane generation, and provides a platform for studying the

  3. [Prevention and Information for Patients Undergoing Periodontal Treatment: Potentials for Improvement from the Patients' Perspective].

    PubMed

    Klingenberg, A; Walther, W; Dörfer, C E; Szecsenyi, J

    2016-05-01

    2 334 patients from 29 dental practices took part in a written survey on their experiences with dental treatment in general as well as treatment of periodontal disease (response rate 80.8%). 72.6% of all participating patients fully agreed that they could recommend their dentist to their friends. 63.6% of patients undergoing treatment of periodontitis (N=328) rated this treatment as "excellent". However, for important aspects (prevention, patient information, treatment) potentials for improvement became obvious. 43.7% of patients treated for periodontitis were not completely satisfied with information on how this disease develops; 40.7% saw potentials for better information on preventive care (dental-hygiene, nutrition). An even higher percentage of patients actually not treated for periodontitis was interested in more information on prevention (51.4%). The results of the survey show that dentists should offer information and exercise on how to prevent periodontal desease more actively. There is a lack of research on the present state of affairs and potentials for improvement concerning treatment and prevention of periodontitis including the patients' perspective. PMID:26086539

  4. Groundwater baseline sampling programs designed to identify potential leakage from unconventional gas plays in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, B.; Humez, P.; Ing, J.; Nightingale, M.

    2014-12-01

    With the rapid expansion of natural gas exploitation from unconventional reservoirs including coalbed methane and shale gas plays, there is significant public concern about potential future contamination of shallow potable groundwater with stray gases, formation waters or chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing. In order to enable a scientifically sound assessment of potential future deterioration of freshwater resources in shallow aquifers, it is essential to first establish and understand the current baseline of groundwater quality including its dissolved or free gases. Since 2006, we have conducted monitoring programs determining the chemical and isotopic compositions of water, its dissolved constituents, and of gases obtained from shallow groundwater and formation fluids collected from coalbed methane and shale gas plays in Western Canada. For groundwater samples, we placed special emphasis on determining the sources of dissolved and free gases using isotope techniques to assess whether gases produced from shale gas plays or potentially leaking from the intermediate zone are isotopically distinct from those in shallow aquifers. Methane and ethane in free gas samples obtained from shallow aquifers (n = 24) were found to have mean δ13C values of -72.4 ‰ and -50.2 ‰, respectively. These values are markedly different from the much higher δ13C values of methane and ethane in deeper portions of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin and in shale gas plays. Therefore, it appears highly feasible to identify potential gas leakage from unconventional gas plays provided that baseline data for shallow groundwater have been determined. Repeat baseline sampling of free gas from selected wells revealed a comparatively low variability of δ13C values of methane and ethane of usually < 2 ‰ over periods of several years, suggesting that it is not necessary to conduct baseline analyses more than three times. Also, δ13C values of methane in free gas samples and

  5. Potential Celiac Patients: A Model of Celiac Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sperandeo, Maria Pia; Tosco, Antonella; Izzo, Valentina; Tucci, Francesca; Troncone, Riccardo; Auricchio, Renata; Romanos, Jihane; Trynka, Gosia; Auricchio, Salvatore; Jabri, Bana; Greco, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim Potential celiacs have the ‘celiac type’ HLA, positive anti-transglutaminase antibodies but no damage at small intestinal mucosa. Only a minority of them develops mucosal lesion. More than 40 genes were associated to Celiac Disease (CD) but we still do not know how those pathways transform a genetically predisposed individual into an affected person. The aim of the study is to explore the genetic features of Potential CD individuals. Methods 127 ‘potential’ CD patients entered the study because of positive anti-tissue transglutaminase and no mucosal lesions; about 30% of those followed for four years become frankly celiac. They were genotyped for 13 polymorphisms of ‘candidate genes’ and compared to controls and celiacs. Moreover, 60 biopsy specimens were used for expression studies. Results Potential CD bear a lighter HLA-related risk, compared to celiac (χ2 = 48.42; p value = 1×10−8). They share most of the polymorphisms of the celiacs, but the frequency of c-REL* G allele was suggestive for a difference compared to celiac (χ2 = 5.42; p value = 0.02). One marker of the KIAA1109/IL-2/IL-21 candidate region differentiated potentials from celiac (rs4374642: χ2 = 7.17, p value = 0.01). The expression of IL-21 was completely suppressed in potentials compared to celiacs (p value = 0.02) and to controls (p value = 0.02), in contrast IL-2, KIAA1109 and c-REL expression were over-expressed. Conclusions Potential CD show genetic features slightly different from celiacs. Genetic and expression markers help to differentiate this condition. Potential CD is a precious biological model of the pathways leading to the small intestinal mucosal damage in genetically predisposed individuals. PMID:21760890

  6. Views of female breast cancer patients who donated biologic samples regarding storage and use of samples for genetic research.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, K A; Janoff, J M; Harris, L N; Emmons, K M

    2006-05-01

    Although social and ethical issues related to the storage and use of biologic specimens for genetic research have been discussed extensively in the medical literature, few empiric data exist describing patients' views. This qualitative study explored the views of 26 female breast cancer patients who had consented to donate blood or tissue samples for breast cancer research. Participants generally did not expect personal benefits from research and had few unprompted concerns. Few participants had concerns about use of samples for studies not planned at the time of consent. Some participants did express concerns about insurance or employment discrimination, while others believed that current privacy protections might actually slow breast cancer research. Participants were generally more interested in receiving individual genetic test results from research studies than aggregate results. Most participants did not want individual results of uncertain clinical significance, although others believed that they should be able to receive such information. These data examined the range of participants' views regarding the storage and use of biologic samples. Further research with different and diverse patient populations is critical to establishing an appropriate balance between protecting the rights of human subjects in genetic research and allowing research to progress.

  7. Collecting Tumor Samples From Patients With Gynecological Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Borderline Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Borderline Ovarian Serous Tumor; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Childhood Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Endometrioid Stromal Sarcoma; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Malignant Mesothelioma; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Melanoma; Neoplasm of Uncertain Malignant Potential; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Paget Disease of the Vulva; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Vaginal Carcinoma; Recurrent Vulvar Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell

  8. Cyto- and genotoxic potential of water samples from polluted areas in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Alija, Avdulla J; Bajraktari, Ismet D; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Bojaxhi, Ekramije; Krenn, Margit; Asllani, Fisnik; Eckl, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    Reports on the state of the environment in Kosovo have emphasized that river and ground water quality is affected by pollution from untreated urban water as well as the waste water from the industry. One of the main contributors to this pollution is located in Obiliq (coal power plants). Prishtina-the capital city of Kosovo-is heavily influenced too. Furthermore, the pollutants combined together with those from heavy traffic are dissolved in Prishtina runoff water, which is discharged into the creek entering the river Sitnica together with urban waste water. The available data show the complex pollution with excessive quantities of nitrites, suspended materials, organic compounds, detergents, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of water samples taken at these sites was tested in primary rat hepatocytes. The results obtained indicate that water samples collected in Prishtina and Obiliq had a significant cytotoxic potential in primary rat hepatocyte cultures even when diluted to 1 %. The increased cytotoxicity, however, was not accompanied by an increased genotoxicity as measured by the percentage of micronucleated cells. Further investigations addressing the chemical composition of the samples and the identification of the toxicants responsible for the cytotoxic effects found will be carried out in a next step. PMID:27488194

  9. An analysis of scientific potential of northern Oceanus Procellarum region for sample return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Liu, J.; Li, C.

    2012-12-01

    We evaluate the science potential of northern Oceanus Procellarum as a candidate site for future Chang'e sample return mission. This region is characterized by relatively young basaltic lavas, estimated at approximately 2.5-3.75 Ga [e.g., 1], thus may potentially yield information on mare evolution and cratering rate not retrievable from Apollo and Lunar samples. Mons Rümker, a large (65 km diameter) volcanic edifice centered at 40.8°N 58.1°W, consists of multiple mare domes. Previous modeling suggests low effusion rates and varied lava eruption temperatures and varied degrees of crystallization for these domes [2]. Samples from Mons Rümker would provide information on its composition, eruption style, rheological properties, and evolution. In addition, Rima Sharp (46.7°N 50.5°W), a 107 km long, approximate 1 km wide rille, winds through this region. We present stratigraphical and compositional study of northern Oceanus Procellarum based on Kaguya and Chang'e 2 multispectral and image data. We will also present analysis on elevation, rock abundance and other engineering parameters of importance to landing safety. References: [1] Heisinger et al. J. Geophys. Res., 108, E7, 1-27, 2003. [2] Wöhler et al. Lunar Planet. Sci., XXXVIII, #1091, 2007.

  10. Continuous Time Level Crossing Sampling ADC for Bio-Potential Recording Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wei; Osman, Ahmad; Kim, Dongsoo; Goldstein, Brian; Huang, Chenxi; Martini, Berin; Pieribone, Vincent A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a fixed window level crossing sampling analog to digital convertor for bio-potential recording sensors. This is the first proposed and fully implemented fixed window level crossing ADC without local DACs and clocks. The circuit is designed to reduce data size, power, and silicon area in future wireless neurophysiological sensor systems. We built a testing system to measure bio-potential signals and used it to evaluate the performance of the circuit. The bio-potential amplifier offers a gain of 53 dB within a bandwidth of 200 Hz-20 kHz. The input-referred rms noise is 2.8 µV. In the asynchronous level crossing ADC, the minimum delta resolution is 4 mV. The input signal frequency of the ADC is up to 5 kHz. The system was fabricated using the AMI 0.5 µm CMOS process. The chip size is 1.5 mm by 1.5 mm. The power consumption of the 4-channel system from a 3.3 V supply is 118.8 µW in the static state and 501.6 µW with a 240 kS/s sampling rate. The conversion efficiency is 1.6 nJ/conversion. PMID:24163640

  11. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Escherichia coli in blood samples from patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Nazareth, Nair; Magro, Fernando; Machado, Elisabete; Ribeiro, Teresa Gonçalves; Martinho, António; Rodrigues, Pedro; Alves, Rita; Macedo, Gonçalo Nuno; Gracio, Daniela; Coelho, Rosa; Abreu, Candida; Appelberg, Rui; Dias, Camila; Macedo, Guilherme; Bull, Tim; Sarmento, Amélia

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) have been implicated as primary triggers in Crohn's disease (CD). In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of MAP and E. coli (EC) DNA in peripheral blood from 202 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients at various disease periods and compared against 24 cirrhotic patients with ascites (CIR) (non-IBD controls) and 29 healthy controls (HC). MAP DNA was detected by IS900-specific nested PCR, EC DNA by malB-specific nested PCR and AIEC identity, in selected samples, by sequencing of fimH gene. CD patients with active disease showed the highest MAP DNA prevalence among IBD patients (68 %). Infliximab treatment resulted in decreased MAP detection. CIR patients had high individual and coinfection rates (75 % MAP, 88 % EC and 67 % MAP and EC), whilst HC controls had lower MAP prevalence (38 %) and EC was undetectable in this control group. EC DNA prevalence in IBD patients was highly associated with CD, and 80 % of EC from the selected samples of CD patients analyzed carried the fimH30 allele, with a mutation strongly associated with AIEC. Our results show that coinfection with MAP and AIEC is common and persistent in CD, although the high MAP and EC detection in CIR patients suggested that colonization is, at least, partially dependent on increased gut permeability. Nevertheless, facilitative mechanisms between a susceptible host and these two potential human pathogens may allow their implication in CD pathogenesis.

  12. Evaluation of potentially nonlethal sampling methods for monitoring mercury concentrations in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated three potentially nonlethal alternatives to fillet sampling for the determination of mercury (Hg) concentrations in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Fish (n = 62, 226-464 mm total length) from six sites in southern Missouri were captured by electrofishing. Blood samples (1 mL) from each fish were obtained by caudal veinipuncture with a heparinized needle and syringe. Biopsy needle (10 mm x 14 gauge; three cuts per fish; 10-20 mg total dry weight) and biopsy punch (7 mm x 5 mm in diameter, one plug per fish, 30-50 mg dry weight) samples were obtained from the area beneath the dorsal fin. Fillet samples were obtained from the opposite side of the fish. All samples were freeze-dried and analyzed for total Hg by combustion amalgamation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean relative standard deviations (RSDs) of triplicate samples were similar for all four methods (2.2-2.4%), but the range of RSDs was greater for blood (0.4-5.5%) than for the muscle methods (1.8-4.0%). Total Hg concentrations in muscle were 0.0200-0.8809 ??g/g wet weight; concentrations in plug, needle, and fillet samples from each fish were nearly identical. Blood Hg concentrations were 0.0006-0.0812 ??g/mL and were highly correlated with muscle concentrations; linear regressions between log-transformed blood and fillet Hg concentrations were linear and statistically significant (p < 0.01), and explained 91-93% of the total variation. Correlations between fillet Hg concentrations and fish size and age were weak; together they explained ???37% of the total variation, and the relations differed among sites. Overall, any of the alternative methods could provide satisfactory estimates of fillet Hg in smallmouth bass; however, both blood and plug sampling with disposable instruments were easier to perform than needle sampling. The biopsy needle was the most difficult to use, especially on smaller fish, and its relative expense necessitates reuse and, consequently, thorough cleaning

  13. Fly pupae and puparia as potential contaminants of forensic entomology samples from sites of body discovery.

    PubMed

    Archer, M S; Elgar, M A; Briggs, C A; Ranson, D L

    2006-11-01

    Fly pupae and puparia may contaminate forensic entomology samples at death scenes if they have originated not from human remains but from animal carcasses or other decomposing organic material. These contaminants may erroneously lengthen post-mortem interval estimates if no pupae or puparia are genuinely associated with the body. Three forensic entomology case studies are presented, in which contamination either occurred or was suspected. In the first case, blow fly puparia collected near the body were detected as contaminants because the species was inactive both when the body was found and when the deceased was last sighted reliably. The second case illustrates that contamination may be suspected at particularly squalid death scenes because of the likely presence of carcasses or organic material. The third case involves the presence at the body discovery site of numerous potentially contaminating animal carcasses. Soil samples were taken along transects to show that pupae and puparia were clustered around their probable sources.

  14. Dabigatran Concentration: Variability and Potential Bleeding Prediction In "Real-Life" Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Šinigoj, Petra; Malmström, Rickard E; Vene, Nina; Rönquist-Nii, Yuko; Božič-Mijovski, Mojca; Pohanka, Anton; Antovic, Jovan P; Mavri, Alenka

    2015-11-01

    Routine laboratory monitoring is currently not recommended in patients receiving dabigatran despite its considerable variation in plasma concentration. However, in certain clinical situations, measurements of the dabigatran effect may be desirable. We aimed to assess the variability of dabigatran trough and peak concentration and explore the potential relationship between dabigatran concentration and adverse events. We included 44 patients with atrial fibrillation who started treatment with dabigatran 150 mg (D150) or 110 mg (D110) twice daily. They contributed 170 trough and peak blood samples that were collected 2-4 and 6-8 weeks after dabigatran initiation. Plasma dabigatran concentration was measured by LC-MS/MS and indirectly, by selected coagulation tests. D110 patients were older (74 ± 7 versus 68 ± 6 years), had lower creatinine clearance (68 ± 21 versus 92 ± 24 mL/min) and higher CHA2 DS2 -VASc score (3.1 ± 1.3 versus 2.3 ± 0.9) compared to D150 patients (all p < 0.05), but both had similar dabigatran concentrations in both trough and peak samples. Dabigatran concentrations varied less in trough than in peak samples (17.0 ± 13.6 versus 26.6 ± 19.2%, p = 0.02). During the 12-month follow-up, 4 patients on D150 and 6 on D110 suffered minor bleeding. There was no major bleeding or thromboembolic event. Patients with bleeding had significantly higher average trough dabigatran concentrations (93 ± 36 versus 72 ± 62 μg/L, p = 0.02) than patients without bleeding, while peak dabigatran values had no predictive value. Dabigatran dose selection according to the guidelines resulted in appropriate trough concentrations with acceptable repeatability. High trough concentrations may predispose patients to the risk of minor bleeding.

  15. Communication: Newton homotopies for sampling stationary points of potential energy landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Dhagash; Chen, Tianran; Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Wales, David J.

    2014-09-01

    One of the most challenging and frequently arising problems in many areas of science is to find solutions of a system of multivariate nonlinear equations. There are several numerical methods that can find many (or all if the system is small enough) solutions but they all exhibit characteristic problems. Moreover, traditional methods can break down if the system contains singular solutions. Here, we propose an efficient implementation of Newton homotopies, which can sample a large number of the stationary points of complicated many-body potentials. We demonstrate how the procedure works by applying it to the nearest-neighbor ϕ4 model and atomic clusters.

  16. Communication: Newton homotopies for sampling stationary points of potential energy landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Dhagash; Chen, Tianran; Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Wales, David J.

    2014-09-28

    One of the most challenging and frequently arising problems in many areas of science is to find solutions of a system of multivariate nonlinear equations. There are several numerical methods that can find many (or all if the system is small enough) solutions but they all exhibit characteristic problems. Moreover, traditional methods can break down if the system contains singular solutions. Here, we propose an efficient implementation of Newton homotopies, which can sample a large number of the stationary points of complicated many-body potentials. We demonstrate how the procedure works by applying it to the nearest-neighbor ϕ{sup 4} model and atomic clusters.

  17. Exploring Contextual Factors and Patient Activation: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Sample of Patients with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie; Mortensen, Karoline; Bloodworth, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Patient activation has been considered as a "blockbuster drug of the century." Patients with mental disorders are less activated compared to patients with other chronic diseases. Low activation due to mental disorders can affect the efficiency of treatment of other comorbidities. Contextual factors are significantly associated with…

  18. UAF radiorespirometric protocol for assessing hydrocarbon mineralization potential in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Brown, E J; Resnick, S M; Rebstock, C; Luong, H V; Lindstrom, J

    1991-01-01

    Following the EXXON Valdez oil spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. The use of bioremediation to assist in oil spill cleanup operations required microbial bioassays to establish that addition of nitrogen and phosphorus would enhance biodegradation. A technique assessing 1-14C-n-hexadecane mineralization in seawater or nutrient rich sediment suspensions was used for both of these measurements. Hydrocarbon-degradation potentials were determined by measuring mineralization associated with sediment microorganisms in sediment suspended in sterilized seawater and/or marine Bushnell-Haas broth. Production of 14CO2 and CO2 was easily detectable during the first 48 hours with added hexadecane levels ranging from 10 to 500 mg/l of suspension and dependent on the biomass of hydrocarbon degraders, the hydrocarbon-oxidation potential of the biomass and nutrient availability. In addition to assessment of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of environmental samples, the radiorespirometric procedure, and concomitant measurement of microbial biomass, has utility as an indicator of hydrocarbon contamination of soils, aqueous sediments and water, and can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation treatments. PMID:1368153

  19. Vegetable cells in urinary samples of patients with bricker ileal conduit.

    PubMed

    Planinšek, Tanja; Kladnik, Aleš; Pohar-Marinšek, Ziva; Fležar, Margareta Strojan

    2014-02-01

    During routine cytopathological evaluation of urines for malignant cells we have occasionally noticed vegetable cells that were only present in patients with Bricker ileal conduit. We wanted to identify the means and sources of contamination of urinary samples from these patients. During the period between May and November 2010, 637 urinary samples were routinely evaluated for malignant cells. Among them were 13 urinary samples from Bricker ileal conduit which we rescreened. We prepared all urinary samples by membrane filtration and stained them according to Papanicolaou. Subsequently, we prepared samples from ostomy adhesives made by Coloplast and by ConvaTec which are used to secure the ostomy bag onto urostomy. We also took samples from different constituents (hydrocolloids) of ostomy adhesives. On the cytopathological review, we found vegetable cells along with intestinal mucosa cells in urinary samples of seven patients with Bricker ileal conduit. With the light microscopic examination of the samples prepared from different ostomy adhesives, we found vegetable cells only in Coloplast adhesives. In preparations of hydrocolloids, we found vegetable cells only in guar gum. They were morphologically identical to those found in urine samples of patients with Bricker ileal conduit and in Sensura and Sensura Xpro (Coloplast) ostomy adhesives. We determined that the origin of vegetable cells in urines from Bricker ileal conduit is the ostomy adhesive. The vegetable cells differ from human intestinal epithelial cells regarding size, shape, and color so it is difficult to misinterpret them as dysplastic cells.

  20. Evoked Potentials and Neuropsychological Tests Validate Positron Emission Topography (PET) Brain Metabolism in Cognitively Impaired Patients

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, Eric R.; Blum, Kenneth; Damle, Uma J.; Kerner, Mallory; Dushaj, Kristina; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Topography (PET) brain hypometabolism (HM) correlates with diminished cognitive capacity and risk of developing dementia. However, because clinical utility of PET is limited by cost, we sought to determine whether a less costly electrophysiological measure, the P300 evoked potential, in combination with neuropsychological test performance, would validate PET HM in neuropsychiatric patients. We found that patients with amnestic and non-amnestic cognitive impairment and HM (n = 43) evidenced significantly reduced P300 amplitudes, delayed latencies, and neuropsychological deficits, compared to patients with normal brain metabolism (NM; n = 187). Data from patients with missing cognitive test scores (n = 57) were removed from the final sample, and logistic regression modeling was performed on the modified sample (n = 173, p = .000004). The logistic regression modeling, based on P300 and neuropsychological measures, was used to validate membership in the HM vs. NM groups. It showed classification validation in 13/25 HM subjects (52.0%) and in 125/148 NM subjects (84.5%), correlating with total classification accuracy of 79.8%. In this paper, abnormal P300 evoked potentials coupled with cognitive test impairment validates brain metabolism and mild/moderate cognitive impairment (MCI). To this end, we cautiously propose incorporating electrophysiological and neuropsychological assessments as cost-effective brain metabolism and MCI indicators in primary care. Final interpretation of these results must await required additional studies confirming these interesting results. PMID:23526928

  1. Accelerating ab initio path integral molecular dynamics with multilevel sampling of potential surface

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Hua Y.

    2015-02-15

    A multilevel approach to sample the potential energy surface in a path integral formalism is proposed. The purpose is to reduce the required number of ab initio evaluations of energy and forces in ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (AI-PIMD) simulation, without compromising the overall accuracy. To validate the method, the internal energy and free energy of an Einstein crystal are calculated and compared with the analytical solutions. As a preliminary application, we assess the performance of the method in a realistic model—the FCC phase of dense atomic hydrogen, in which the calculated result shows that the acceleration rate is about 3 to 4-fold for a two-level implementation, and can be increased up to 10 times if extrapolation is used. With only 16 beads used for the ab initio potential sampling, this method gives a well converged internal energy. The residual error in pressure is just about 3 GPa, whereas it is about 20 GPa for a plain AI-PIMD calculation with the same number of beads. The vibrational free energy of the FCC phase of dense hydrogen at 300 K is also calculated with an AI-PIMD thermodynamic integration method, which gives a result of about 0.51 eV/proton at a density of r{sub s}=0.912.

  2. Psychrometric measurement of soil water potential: Stability of calibration and test of pressure-plate samples

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.L. ); Gee, G.W.; Heller, P.R. )

    1990-08-01

    A commercially available thermocouple psychrometer sample changer (Decagon SC-10A) was used to measure the water potential of field soils ranging in texture from sand to silty clay loam over a range of {minus}0.5 to {minus}20.0 MPa. The standard error of prediction based on regression statistics was generally between 0.04 and 0.14 MPa at {minus}5 MPa. Replacing the measuring junction of the unit changed the calibration slightly; however, it did not significantly alter measurement accuracy. Calibration curves measured throughout a year of testing are consistent and indicate no systematic drift in calibration. Most measurement uncertainty is produced by shifts in the intercept in the calibration equation rather than the slope. Both the variability in intercept and the regression error seem to be random. Measurements taken with the SC-10A show that water potential in both sand and silt loam samples removed from 1.5-MPa pressure plates was often 0.5 to 1.0 MPa greater than the 1.5-MPa applied pressure. Limited data from 0.5-MPa pressure plates show close agreement between SC-10A measurements and pressure applied to these more permeable plates.

  3. Potential biomarkers for monitoring therapeutic response in patients with CIDP.

    PubMed

    Dalakas, Marinos C

    2011-06-01

    Although the majority of patients with CIDP variably respond to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), steroids, or plasmapheresis, 30% of them are unresponsive or insufficiently responsive to these therapies. The heterogeneity in therapeutic responses necessitates the need to search for biomarkers to determine the most suitable therapy from the outset and explore the best means for monitoring disease activity. The ICE study, which led to the first FDA-approved indication for IVIg in CIDP, has shown that maintenance therapy prevents relapses and axonal loss. In this paper, the multiple actions exerted by IVIg on the immunoregulatory network of CIDP are discussed as potential predictors of response to therapies. Emerging molecular markers, promising in identifying responders to IVIg from non-responders, include modulation of FcγRIIB receptors on monocytes and genome-wide transcription studies related to inflammatory mediators, demyelination, or axonal degeneration. Skin biopsies, Peripheral Blood Lymhocytes, CSF, and sera are accessible surrogate tissues for further exploring these molecules during therapies.

  4. Schizophrenia relapse, patient considerations, and potential role of lurasidone

    PubMed Central

    Citrome, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    When treating persons with schizophrenia, delaying time to relapse is a main goal. Antipsychotic medication has been the primary treatment approach, and there are a variety of different choices available. Lurasidone is a second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic agent that is approved for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar depression. Three long-term studies of lurasidone have examined time to relapse in persons with schizophrenia, including a classic placebo-controlled randomized withdrawal study and two 12-month active comparator studies (vs risperidone and vs quetiapine extended-release). Lurasidone 40–80 mg/d evidenced superiority over placebo (number needed to treat [NNT] vs placebo for relapse, 9). Lurasidone 40–160 mg/d was noninferior to quetiapine extended-release 200–800 mg/d on the outcome of relapse, and was superior on the outcome of avoidance of hospitalization (NNT 8) and the outcome of remission (NNT 7). Lurasidone demonstrated a lower risk for long-term weight gain than the active comparators. Demonstrated differences in tolerability profiles among the different choices of antipsychotics make it possible to attempt to match up an individual patient to the best choice for such patient based on past history of tolerability, comorbidities, and personal preferences, potentially improving adherence. PMID:27563237

  5. Ultratrace Level Determination and Quantitative Analysis of Kidney Injury Biomarkers in Patient Samples Attained by Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manpreet; Alabanza, Anginelle; Gonzalez, Lorelis E.; Wang, Weiwei; Reeves, W. Brian; Hahm, Jong-in

    2016-01-01

    Determining ultratrace amounts of protein biomarkers in patient samples in a straightforward and quantitative manner is extremely important for early disease diagnosis and treatment. Here, we successfully demonstrate the novel use of zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) in the ultrasensitive and quantitative detection of two acute kidney injury (AKI)-related protein biomarkers, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8, directly from patient samples. We first validate the ZnO NRs-based IL-8 results via comparison with those obtained from using a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent method in samples from 38 individuals. We further assess the full detection capability of the ZnO NRs-based technique by quantifying TNF-α, whose levels in human urine are often below the detection limits of conventional methods. Using the ZnO NR platforms, we determine the TNF-α concentrations of all 46 patient samples tested, down to the fg/mL level. Subsequently, we screen for TNF-α levels in approximately 50 additional samples collected from different patient groups in order to demonstrate a potential use of the ZnO NRs-based assay in assessing cytokine levels useful for further clinical monitoring. Our research efforts demonstrate that ZnO NRs can be straightforwardly employed in the rapid, ultrasensitive, quantitative, and simultaneous detection of multiple AKI-related biomarkers directly in patient urine samples, providing an unparalleled detection capability beyond those of conventional analysis methods. Additional key advantages of the ZnO NRs-based approach include a fast detection speed, low-volume assay condition, multiplexing ability, and easy automation/integration capability to existing fluorescence instrumentation. Therefore, we anticipate that our ZnO NRs-based detection method will be highly beneficial for overcoming the frequent challenges in early biomarker development and treatment assessment, pertaining to the facile and ultrasensitive quantification of

  6. Ultratrace level determination and quantitative analysis of kidney injury biomarkers in patient samples attained by zinc oxide nanorods.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manpreet; Alabanza, Anginelle; Gonzalez, Lorelis E; Wang, Weiwei; Reeves, W Brian; Hahm, Jong-in

    2016-02-28

    Determining ultratrace amounts of protein biomarkers in patient samples in a straightforward and quantitative manner is extremely important for early disease diagnosis and treatment. Here, we successfully demonstrate the novel use of zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) in the ultrasensitive and quantitative detection of two acute kidney injury (AKI)-related protein biomarkers, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8, directly from patient samples. We first validate the ZnO NRs-based IL-8 results via comparison with those obtained from using a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent method in samples from 38 individuals. We further assess the full detection capability of the ZnO NRs-based technique by quantifying TNF-α, whose levels in human urine are often below the detection limits of conventional methods. Using the ZnO NR platforms, we determine the TNF-α concentrations of all 46 patient samples tested, down to the fg per mL level. Subsequently, we screen for TNF-α levels in approximately 50 additional samples collected from different patient groups in order to demonstrate a potential use of the ZnO NRs-based assay in assessing cytokine levels useful for further clinical monitoring. Our research efforts demonstrate that ZnO NRs can be straightforwardly employed in the rapid, ultrasensitive, quantitative, and simultaneous detection of multiple AKI-related biomarkers directly in patient urine samples, providing an unparalleled detection capability beyond those of conventional analysis methods. Additional key advantages of the ZnO NRs-based approach include a fast detection speed, low-volume assay condition, multiplexing ability, and easy automation/integration capability to existing fluorescence instrumentation. Therefore, we anticipate that our ZnO NRs-based detection method will be highly beneficial for overcoming the frequent challenges in early biomarker development and treatment assessment, pertaining to the facile and ultrasensitive quantification

  7. Potentially harmful microalgal distribution in an area of the NW Adriatic coastline: Sampling procedure and correlations with environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, Antonella; Ingarao, Cristina; Ercolessi, Manuela; Rocchi, Marco; Penna, Nunzio

    2006-10-01

    In this study, the trend of potentially Harmful Algal (HA) taxa (genera and species), was analysed along a coastal area of the NW Adriatic Sea on a monthly scale. The study included the use of a phytoplankton net for sample collection. The investigation was carried out in four sampling stations characterised by different ecological features. The composition of potentially HA phytoplankton taxa and their succession were related to the environmental factors. The potentially HA group abundance accounted for 8% of all the phytoplankton taxa considered. Multivariate analyses of environmental factors suggested that potentially HA taxa are sensitive to phosphate content: potential DSP-YTX (Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning-Yessotoxin) producers were positively correlated with P content ( p = 0.023), while potential ASP (Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning) producers were negatively correlated with P content ( p = 0.006). Phosphorus could be considered to be the limiting factor for phytoplankton taxa density in the NW Adriatic Sea. There was a highly positive correlation between the occurrences of potentially HA taxa and low values of salinity ( p = 0.001 for potential producers of ASP, p = 0.029 for potential DSP-YTX producers). The counting of potential HA dinoflagellates in net samples represented a more accurate estimation of potential HA abundances in the water column making it possible to concentrate a greater number of potential HA dinoflagellate cells by net sampling along the entire water column rather than by sampling only at the surface as in routine monitoring procedures.

  8. Development and maintenance of a biospecimen repository for clinical samples derived from pulmonary patients.

    PubMed

    Schwiebert, Lisa M; Estell, Kim; Meadows, Tonja; Thannickal, Victor J; Rowe, Steven; Sorscher, Eric J; Harris, W Thomas; Gaggar, Amit; Dransfield, Mark; de Andrade, Joao A

    2014-08-01

    The Pulmonary Biospecimen Repository (PBR) at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) was launched in 2009. The purpose of the UAB PBR is to provide investigators within the pulmonary community at UAB and elsewhere with clinical samples derived from multiple lung diseases, including transplant recipients, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and asthma. Cell and fluid samples isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), plasma, and serum are collected and stored; samples are assessed routinely for viability. Each sample is linked directly with the respective patient information via the Pulmonary Translational Research and Clinical Database, a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant database that includes detailed information allowing for the study of specific patient cohorts. To access samples, investigators must complete a request form, which is reviewed by the UAB PBR Steering Committee. To date, more than 800 patients have provided approximately 7,000 BAL, serum and plasma fluid, and cell samples. Over the past 4 years, nearly 800 of these samples have been distributed to investigators at UAB and elsewhere. Future plans for the UAB PBR include expanding sample collection to additional pulmonary diseases, such as mycobacterial infections, increasing the number of sample users and obtaining external funding to ensure its continued sustainability.

  9. Development and maintenance of a biospecimen repository for clinical samples derived from pulmonary patients.

    PubMed

    Schwiebert, Lisa M; Estell, Kim; Meadows, Tonja; Thannickal, Victor J; Rowe, Steven; Sorscher, Eric J; Harris, W Thomas; Gaggar, Amit; Dransfield, Mark; de Andrade, Joao A

    2014-08-01

    The Pulmonary Biospecimen Repository (PBR) at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) was launched in 2009. The purpose of the UAB PBR is to provide investigators within the pulmonary community at UAB and elsewhere with clinical samples derived from multiple lung diseases, including transplant recipients, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and asthma. Cell and fluid samples isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), plasma, and serum are collected and stored; samples are assessed routinely for viability. Each sample is linked directly with the respective patient information via the Pulmonary Translational Research and Clinical Database, a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant database that includes detailed information allowing for the study of specific patient cohorts. To access samples, investigators must complete a request form, which is reviewed by the UAB PBR Steering Committee. To date, more than 800 patients have provided approximately 7,000 BAL, serum and plasma fluid, and cell samples. Over the past 4 years, nearly 800 of these samples have been distributed to investigators at UAB and elsewhere. Future plans for the UAB PBR include expanding sample collection to additional pulmonary diseases, such as mycobacterial infections, increasing the number of sample users and obtaining external funding to ensure its continued sustainability. PMID:24889057

  10. Adaptively biased molecular dynamics: An umbrella sampling method with a time-dependent potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, Volodymyr; Karpusenka, Vadzim; Moradi, Mahmoud; Roland, Christopher; Sagui, Celeste

    We discuss an adaptively biased molecular dynamics (ABMD) method for the computation of a free energy surface for a set of reaction coordinates. The ABMD method belongs to the general category of umbrella sampling methods with an evolving biasing potential. It is characterized by a small number of control parameters and an O(t) numerical cost with simulation time t. The method naturally allows for extensions based on multiple walkers and replica exchange mechanism. The workings of the method are illustrated with a number of examples, including sugar puckering, and free energy landscapes for polymethionine and polyproline peptides, and for a short β-turn peptide. ABMD has been implemented into the latest version (Case et al., AMBER 10; University of California: San Francisco, 2008) of the AMBER software package and is freely available to the simulation community.

  11. Isolation and identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria from hospitalized patients and drinking water samples--examination of their correlation by chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Dovriki, Eleni; Gerogianni, Irini; Petinaki, Efi; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Papaioannou, Agelos; Gourgoulianis, Kostas

    2016-04-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been found to be widely dispersed in the environment and are being considered potentially pathogenic for humans and animals, while reports of their human to human transmission are absent. Water and aerosols are potential transmission modes of NTM to humans. Hospitalized patients with NTM infections were studied together with drinking water samples from their respective residence areas during 2003-2013. Cluster analysis and factor analysis were used to analyze the data matrix. A total of 367 hospitalized patients living in 30 localities in the Prefecture of Larissa were tested positive for NTM. The most frequently isolated NTM species of the 383 NTM isolates from the clinical specimens were Mycobacterium fortuitum (n = 118, 30.8 %), M. gordonae (n = 87, 22.7 %), M. peregrinum (n = 46, 12.0 %), M. chelonae (n = 11, 2.9 %), M. avium (n = 8, 2.1 %), and M. intracellulare (n = 7, 1.8 %), while 88 (23.0 %) of these isolates were not identified. It is noted that in 8 patients, M. tuberculosis was isolated simultaneously with one NTM, in 15 patients, together with two types of NTM, while in 1 patient, it was found at the same time as three different NTM. In addition, 3360 drinking water samples were collected from 30 localities and analyzed during 2010 to 2013; they were found 11.2 % NTM positive. Cluster analysis and factor analysis results confirm that NTM strains are correlated to each other in both isolated samples from patients and drinking water, while the strength of their correlation varied from weak to moderate (e.g., factor loadings ranged from 0.69 to 0.74 when all data are considered). These results provide indications that drinking water could be linked with NTM cases in humans.

  12. Main-Belt Source Regions for Potentially Hazardous Near-Earth Asteroids and Sample Return Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binzel, Richard P.; DeMeo, F. E.; Burt, B. J.; Polishook, D.; Burbine, T. H.; Moskovitz, N.; Bus, S. J.; Tokunaga, A.; Birlan, M.

    2015-11-01

    Spectroscopic and taxonomic information is now available for more than 1000 near-Earth objects (NEOs), thanks in large measure to the NASA IRTF long-term NEO spectral reconnaissance program we call the MIT-Hawaii Near-Earth Object Spectroscopic Survey (MITHNEOS) [1]. This sample comprises about 10% of the total NEO population, including Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs), and finds that all defined main-belt asteroid classes are also present within the near-Earth population. Using this largest available NEO dataset and dynamic source region models (such as [2]) we will present new results on the provenance of PHAs, source regions for each of the asteroid taxonomic classes, and pinpoint sources for major meteorite classes such as H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites. In finding these correlations, we find that source region signatures for B-, C-, and Cg-type NEOs include Jupiter family comets, further adding interest to the sampling of these classes by impending missions [3, 4]. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation Grant 0907766 and NASA Grant NNX10AG27G.[1] Tokunaga, A. et al. (2006) BAAS 38, 59.07. [2] Bottke, W.F. et al. (2002), Icarus 156, 399. [3] Lauretta, D. S. et al. (2015), MAPS 50, 834. [4] Abe, M. et al. (2012) 39th COSPAR, Abstract H0.2-7-12.

  13. A misleading false-negative result using Neisseria gonorrhoeae opa MGB multiplex PCR assay in patient's rectal sample due to partial mutations of the opa gene.

    PubMed

    Vahidnia, Ali; van Empel, Pieter Jan; Costa, Sandra; Oud, Rob T N; van der Straaten, Tahar; Bliekendaal, Harry; Spaargaren, Joke

    2015-07-01

    A 53-year-old homosexual man presented at his general practitioner (GP) practice with a suspicion of sexually transmitted infection. Initial NAAT screening was performed for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The patient was positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae both for his urine and rectal sample. The subsequent confirmation test for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by a second laboratory was only confirmed for the urine sample and the rectal sample was negative. We report a case of a potential false-negative diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae due to mutations of DNA sequence in the probe region of opa-MGB assay of the rectal sample. The patient did not suffer any discomfort as diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in his urine sample had already led to treatment by prescribing the patient with Ceftriaxone 500 mg IV dissolved in 1 ml lidocaine 2% and 4 mL saline. The patient also received a prescription for Azithromycin (2x500 mg).

  14. Potentially preventable complications of urinary tract infections, pressure areas, pneumonia, and delirium in hospitalised dementia patients: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bail, Kasia; Berry, Helen; Grealish, Laurie; Draper, Brian; Karmel, Rosemary; Gibson, Diane; Peut, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify rates of potentially preventable complications for dementia patients compared with non-dementia patients. Design Retrospective cohort design using hospital discharge data for dementia patients, case matched on sex, age, comorbidity and surgical status on a 1 : 4 ratio to non-dementia patients. Setting Public hospital discharge data from the state of New South Wales, Australia for 2006/2007. Participants 426 276 overnight hospital episodes for patients aged 50 and above (census sample). Main outcome measures Rates of preventable complications, with episode-level risk adjustment for 12 complications that are known to be sensitive to nursing care. Results Controlling for age and comorbidities, surgical dementia patients had higher rates than non-dementia patients in seven of the 12 complications: urinary tract infections, pressure ulcers, delirium, pneumonia, physiological and metabolic derangement (all at p<0.0001), sepsis and failure to rescue (at p<0.05). Medical dementia patients also had higher rates of these complications than did non-dementia patients. The highest rates and highest relative risk for dementia patients compared with non-dementia patients, in both medical and surgical populations, were found in four common complications: urinary tract infections, pressure areas, pneumonia and delirium. Conclusions Compared with non-dementia patients, hospitalised dementia patients have higher rates of potentially preventable complications that might be responsive to nursing interventions. PMID:23794540

  15. Beam studies of the segmented resistive WELL: A potential thin sampling element for digital hadron calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arazi, Lior; Davide Rocha Azevedo, Carlos; Breskin, Amos; Bressler, Shikma; Moleri, Luca; Natal da Luz, Hugo; Oliveri, Eraldo; Pitt, Michael; Rubin, Adam; Marques Ferreira dos Santos, Joaquim; Filipe Calapez de Albuquerque Veloso, João; Paul White, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    Thick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEMs) have the potential of constituting thin, robust sampling elements in Digital Hadron Calorimetry (DHCAL) at future colliders. We report on recent beam studies of new single- and double-THGEM-like structures: the multiplier is a Segmented Resistive WELL (SRWELL) - a single-faced THGEM in contact with a segmented resistive layer inductively coupled to readout pads. Several 10×10 cm2 configurations with a total thickness of 5-6 mm (excluding electronics) with 1 cm2 pads were investigated with muons and pions. The pads were coupled to a scalable readout system APV chip, APV-SRS (Raymond et al. [22]). Detection efficiencies in the 98% range were recorded with an average pad-multiplicity of ~1.1. The resistive anode resulted in efficient discharge damping, with potential drops of a few volts; the discharge probabilities were ~10-7 for muons and ~10-6 for pions, at rates of a few kHz/cm2 and for detectors in the double-stage configuration. Further optimization work and research on larger detectors are underway.

  16. Frequency of fungi in respiratory samples from Turkish cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Güngör, Ozge; Tamay, Zeynep; Güler, Nermin; Erturan, Zayre

    2013-03-01

    An increased isolation of fungi from the respiratory tract of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been reported. The prevalence of different fungi in CF patients from Turkey is not known. Our aim was to determine the frequency of fungi in the respiratory tract of Turkish CF patients. We investigated a total of 184 samples from 48 patients. Samples were inoculated on Medium B+ and CHROMagar Candida. Candida albicans was the predominant yeast isolated [30 patients (62.5%)], followed by C. parapsilosis [6 (12.5%)] and C. dubliniensis 5 (10.4%). Aspergillus fumigatus was the most common filamentous fungus [5 (10.4%)] and non-fumigatus Aspergillus species were isolated from four (8.3%) patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently detected bacterium in C. albicans positive samples (53.57%). A. fumigatus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa or S. aureus were detected together in 75% of A. fumigatus positive samples each. No statistically significant relationship was detected between growth of yeast and moulds and age, gender, the use of inhaled corticosteroids or tobramycin. No significant correlation was found between the isolation of C. albicans, A. fumigatus and P. aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia or S. aureus, and the isolation of C. albicans and Haemophilus influenzae. Other factors which may be responsible for the increased isolation of fungi in CF need to be investigated.

  17. A limited sampling strategy for the estimation of Neoral AUCs in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Meier-Kriesche, H U; Bonilla-Felix, M A; Ferris, M E; Swinford, R; Kahan, B D; Brannan, P; Portman, R J

    1999-11-01

    The improved pharmacokinetics of Neoral allows the development of an accurate estimate of the full area under the concentration time curve (AUC) from a limited sampling strategy. As no such strategy has been derived from pharmacokinetic data obtained from children on 12-hourly dosing, and as patient convenience demands shorter sampling times, we derived a limited sampling strategy from 45 AUCs obtained from 19 pediatric renal transplant patients by stepwise forward multiple regression, and prospectively tested them on a separate group of 49 AUCs obtained from 18 pediatric renal transplant patients. Full cyclosporine (CsA) AUCs were obtained from samples drawn pre dose (C0) and at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h post dose (C2, C4, C6, C8, and C12). High-precision predictions of full AUC were obtained based on the formula: AUC = 444 + 3.69 x C0 + 1.77 x C2 + 4. 1 x C4 (mean prediction error +/- SD = 0.3 +/- 6.4%, 95% confidence interval=-1.7% to 1.9%.) In conclusion, CsA exposure in pediatric renal transplant patients on 12-hourly Neoral dosing can be reliably predicted by an early time point-based limited sampling strategy in children. This formula has the advantage of obtaining trough as well as AUC from one brief, convenient sampling period. PMID:10603112

  18. Blood DNA methylation markers in potentially identified Chinese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongying; Yan, Haixiu; Zhang, Jinshu

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether blood DNA methylation is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for Chinese patients, we used genome-wide DNA methylation detection to access the blood samples of Chinese patients by Illumina Human methylation 450K arrays. Sixty potentially gene locis which had different methylated levels significantly among tumor and adjacent normal tissues would be tested in this study. A previous study was conducted in China communities and followed with 7 years. The DNA from white blood cells (WBC) from 192 patients with HCC and 215 matched controls were assayed in this study. The χ2 test was used to measure data to categorize variables and t -test was used to evaluate the different characteristics among groups. Besides, odds ratios (OR) and 95%CI was calculated for matching factors by conditional logistic regression models. We found that high methylation in WNK2 was related to increased risk of HCC, and high methylation in TPO were related to decreased risk of HCC. In our multivariable conditional logistic regression models, these results all exist. Those findings support the methylated changes of WNK2 and TPO may become a new detection index for HCC patients in clinical laboratory. However, the results should be replicated in additional prospective studies with lager samples. PMID:27592479

  19. Use of quantitative PCR to evaluate methods of bacteria sampling in periodontal patients.

    PubMed

    Masunaga, Hiroshi; Tsutae, Wataru; Oh, Hyun; Shinozuka, Naoki; Kishimoto, Noriyoshi; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2010-12-01

    Periodontal disease is associated with specific periodontal pathogens and may persist as gingivitis or progress to more severe disease. The bacteria involved in disease initiation and progression have not been identified. We used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to compare the levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, and total bacteria detected by different sampling methods. On the basis of the results of clinical examinations, 57 patients were divided into 3 groups: healthy group (group A), gingivitis group (group B), and periodontitis group (group C). Bacterial samples were collected from saliva, mouthwash, and by paper-point sampling of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and the samples were analyzed with quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA. The numbers of total bacteria in samples of GCF, saliva, and mouthwash were 10⁵ to 10⁶, 10⁸, and 10⁷, respectively, per milliliter. The number of P. gingivalis in GCF samples was lower than 10 in group A; however, in groups B and C, the values were 10³ and 10⁴, respectively, indicating that the number of P. gingivalis increased with worsening clinical status. Findings were similar in the samples of saliva and mouthwash. The numbers of T. forsythia showed a pattern similar to that of P. gingivalis in all 3 samples. These results suggest that saliva and mouthwash samples are clinically useful for bacterial testing of periodontal diseases by quantitative PCR. In addition, mouthwash sampling is more feasible and straightforward than saliva sampling.

  20. Exploring the concurrent presence of hepatitis A virus genome in serum, stool, saliva, and urine samples of hepatitis A patients.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Madhuri S; Bhalla, Shilpa; Kalrao, Vijay R; Dhongade, Ramchandra K; Chitambar, Shobha D

    2014-04-01

    The use of saliva and urine as an alternative to serum samples for detection of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM antibodies has been documented. However, these samples remain underreported or unexplored for shedding of HAV. To address this issue, paired serum, stool, saliva, and urine samples collected from hepatitis A patients were screened by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for detection of HAV RNA. HAV RNA was detected in 67.6% (44/65), 52.3% (34/65), 8.7% (5/57), and 12.3% (8/65) of the serum, stool, saliva, and urine samples, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences obtained for partial RNA polymerase region grouped HAV strains from all of the clinical samples of the study in subgenotype IIIA. Low frequency of HAV nucleic acid in saliva and urine samples indicates limited utility of these samples in genomic studies on HAV but suggests its potential for transmission and infection of hepatitis A.

  1. Chemistry Testing on Plasma Versus Serum Samples in Dialysis Patients: Clinical and Quality Improvement Implications.

    PubMed

    Carey, Roger Neill; Jani, Chinu; Johnson, Curtis; Pearce, Jim; Hui-Ng, Patricia; Lacson, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Plasma samples collected in tubes containing separator gels have replaced serum samples for most chemistry tests in many hospital and commercial laboratories. Use of plasma samples for blood tests in the dialysis population eliminates delays in sample processing while waiting for clotting to complete, laboratory technical issues associated with fibrin formation, repeat sample collection, and patient care issues caused by delay of results because of incompletely clotted specimens. Additionally, a larger volume of plasma is produced than serum for the same amount of blood collected. Plasma samples are also acceptable for most chemical tests involved in the care of patients with ESRD. This information becomes very important when United States regulatory requirements for ESRD inadvertently limit the type of sample that can be used for government reporting, quality assessment, and value-based payment initiatives. In this narrative, we summarize the renal community experience and how the subsequent resolution of the acceptability of phosphorus levels measured from serum and plasma samples may have significant implications in the country's continued development of a value-based Medicare ESRD Quality Incentive Program.

  2. Identification of Legionella from clinically diagnosed pneumonia patients and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Jahan, R; Tarafder, S; Saleh, A A; Miah, M R A

    2015-04-01

    Legionnaires' disease is a multisystem disease with life-threatening acute and severe form of pneumonia which is responsible for 2-9% pneumonia with high mortality. Eighty six respiratory tract samples and urine were collected from clinically diagnosed pneumonia patients and 12 water samples were collected from different environment. Identification of Legionella was done by culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of respiratory tract samples and environmental samples and Legionella Antigen (Ag) in urine was detected by Immunochromatographic test (ICT). Legionella was identified from 4 (4.65%) clinically diagnosed pneumonia patients of which 1(1.16%) case was culture positive, 1(1.16%) case was urine ICT positive and PCR was positive in all four cases. Of the 12 water samples tested, 4 (33.33%) samples were Legionella positive by PCR but culture results of these samples were negative. Identification of Legionella should be done by PCR in parallel with culture and urine ICT. Detection of Legionella in environmental samples is also needed to explore possible links between the water sources and disease transmission in population.

  3. Adrenal Venous Sampling in Patients With Positive Screening but Negative Confirmatory Testing for Primary Aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Umakoshi, Hironobu; Naruse, Mitsuhide; Wada, Norio; Ichijo, Takamasa; Kamemura, Kohei; Matsuda, Yuichi; Fujii, Yuichi; Kai, Tatsuya; Fukuoka, Tomikazu; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Ogo, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tomoko; Nanba, Kazutaka; Tsuiki, Mika

    2016-05-01

    Adrenal venous sampling is considered to be the most reliable diagnostic procedure to lateralize aldosterone excess in primary aldosteronism (PA). However, normative criteria have not been established partially because of a lack of data in non-PA hypertensive patients. The aim of the study was to investigate aldosterone concentration and its gradient in the adrenal vein of non-PA hypertensive patients. We retrospectively studied the results of cosyntropin-stimulated adrenal venous sampling in 40 hypertensive patients who showed positive screening testing but negative results in 2 confirmatory tests/captopril challenge test and saline infusion test. Plasma aldosterone concentration, aldosterone/cortisol ratio, its higher/lower ratio (lateralization index) in the adrenal vein with cosyntropin stimulation were measured. Median plasma aldosterone concentration in the adrenal vein was 25 819 pg/mL (range, 5154-69 920) in the higher side and 12 953 (range, 1866-36 190) pg/mL in the lower side (P<0.001). There was a significant gradient in aldosterone/cortisol ratio between the higher and the lower sides (27.2 [5.4-66.0] versus 17.3 [4.0-59.0] pg/mL per μg/dL;P<0.001) with lateralization index ranging from 1.01 to 3.87. The aldosterone lateralization gradient was between 1 to 2 in 32 patients and 2 to 4 in 8 patients. None of the patients showed lateralization index ≥4. The present study demonstrated that plasma aldosterone concentration in the adrenal veins showed significant variation and lateralization gradient even in non-PA hypertensive patients. Adrenal venous sampling aldosterone lateralization gradients between 2 and 4 should be interpreted with caution in patients with PA because these gradients can be found even in patients with negative confirmatory testing for PA. PMID:26975712

  4. Use of biosensors to screen urine samples for potentially toxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Horswell, Jacqui; Dickson, Stuart

    2003-09-01

    Forensic toxicology laboratories are often required to implicate or exclude poisoning as a factor in a death or unexplained illness. An analytical tool which enables toxicologists to screen a wide variety of common poisons would be extremely useful. In this paper, we describe the use of a bacterial biosensor for detecting the presence of commonly encountered potentially toxic chemicals in urine. The biosensor responds to any chemical that causes metabolic stress to the bacterial cell and the response is in direct proportion to the concentration of the stressor. This allows a measure of the concentration of a toxicant in urine, without knowing exactly what the toxic compound(s) may be. This affords a distinct advantage over conventional analytical techniques, which require an extensive screening program before it is even known that a toxic compound is present. This preliminary investigation has shown that this biosensor can indicate the presence, in urine, of herbicides such as glyphosate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid; the biocide pentachlorophenol; or inorganic poisons such as arsenic, mercury, and cyanide. The biosensor was also shown to be sensitive to a concentration range of these toxicants likely to be found in samples submitted for toxicological analysis.

  5. Equilibrium sampling to determine the thermodynamic potential for bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants from sediment.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Annika; MacLeod, Matthew; Wickström, Håkan; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-10-01

    Equilibrium partitioning (EqP) theory is currently the most widely used approach for linking sediment pollution by persistent hydrophobic organic chemicals to bioaccumulation. Most applications of the EqP approach assume (I) a generic relationship between organic carbon-normalized chemical concentrations in sediments and lipid-normalized concentrations in biota and (II) that bioaccumulation does not induce levels exceeding those expected from equilibrium partitioning. Here, we demonstrate that assumption I can be obviated by equilibrating a silicone sampler with chemicals in sediment, measuring chemical concentrations in the silicone, and applying lipid/silicone partition ratios to yield concentrations in lipid at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (CLip⇌Sed). Furthermore, we evaluated the validity of assumption II by comparing CLip⇌Sed of selected persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) to lipid-normalized concentrations for a range of biota from a Swedish background lake. PCBs in duck mussels, roach, eel, pikeperch, perch and pike were mostly below the equilibrium partitioning level relative to the sediment, i.e., lipid-normalized concentrations were ≤CLip⇌Sed, whereas HCB was near equilibrium between biota and sediment. Equilibrium sampling allows straightforward, sensitive and precise measurement of CLip⇌Sed. We propose CLip⇌Sed as a metric of the thermodynamic potential for bioaccumulation of persistent organic chemicals from sediment useful to prioritize management actions to remediate contaminated sites.

  6. Measurement of radon potential from soil using a special method of sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosma, Constantin; Papp, Botond; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Victor; Cindea, Ciprian; Suciu, Liviu; Apostu, Adelina

    2010-10-01

    Soil radon gas and/or its exhalation rate are used as indicators for some applications, such as uranium exploration, indoor radon concentration, seismic activity, location of subsurface faults, etc., and also in the studies where the main interest is the field verification of radon transport models. This work proposes a versatile method for the soil radon sampling using a special manner of pumping. The soil gas is passed through a column of charcoal by using passive pumping. A plastic bottle filled with water is coupled to an activated charcoal column and the flow of water through an adjustable hole made at the bottom of bottle assures a controlled gas flow from the soil. The results obtained for the activity of activated charcoal are in the range of 20-40 kBq/m3, for a depth of approximately 0.8 m. The results obtained by this method were confirmed by simultaneous measurements using LUK 3C device for soil radon measurements. Possible applications for the estimation of radon soil potential are discussed.

  7. Differentiation Potential of Urothelium from Patients with Benign Bladder Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Southgate, Jennifer; Varley, Claire L; Garthwaite, Mary AE; Hinley, Jennifer; Marsh, Fiona; Stahlschmidt, Jens; Trejdosiewicz, Ludwik K; Eardley, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Objective Benign dysfunctional bladder diseases encompass a number of poorly understood clinically-defined conditions, including interstitial cystitis (IC), idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). We developed a novel in vitro approach to test the hypothesis that failure of urothelial differentiation underlies the aetiopathology of IC, where there is evidence of compromised urinary barrier function. Materials and Methods Biopsy-derived urothelial cells from dysfunctional bladder biopsies were propagated as finite cell lines and examined for their capacity to undergo differentiation in vitro, as assessed by acquisition of a transitional cell morphology, a switch from a CK13lo/CK14hi to a CK13hi/CK14lo phenotype, expression of claudin 3, 4 and 5 proteins and induction of uroplakin gene transcription. Results 2/12 SUI cell lines showed early senescent changes in culture and were not characterised further; 1/7 IC, 1/5 IDO and a further 3 SUI cell lines displayed some evidence of senescence at passage 3. Of the IC-derived cell lines, 4/7 showed a near normal range of differentiation-associated responses, but the remainder of IC lines showed little or no response. A majority of IDO cell lines (4/5) showed a normal differentiation response, but at least 3/10 SUI cell lines showed some compromise of differentiation potential. Conclusion Our study supports the existence of a subset of IC patient in whom a failure of urothelial cytodifferentiation may contribute to the disease and provides a novel platform for investigating the cell biology of urothelium from SUI and other benign dysfunctional conditions. PMID:17537219

  8. Patient Safety Indicators: using administrative data to identify potential patient safety concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M R; Elixhauser, A; Zhan, C; Meyer, G S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop Patient Safety Indicators (PSI) to identify potential in-hospital patient safety problems for the purpose of quality improvement. DATA SOURCE/STUDY DESIGN: The data source was 2,400,000 discharge records in the 1997 New York State Inpatient Database. PSI algorithms were developed using systematic literature reviews of indicators and hand searches of the ICD-9-CM code book. The prevalence of PSI events and associations between PSI events and patient-level and hospital-level characteristics, length of stay, in-hospital mortality, and hospital charges were examined. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PSIs were developed for 12 distinct clinical situations and an overall summary measure. The 1997 event rates per 10,000 discharges varied from 1.1 for foreign bodies left during procedure to 84.7 for birth traumas. Discharge records with PSI events had twofold to threefold longer hospital stays, twofold to 20-fold higher rates of in-hospital mortality, and twofold to eightfold higher total charges than records without PSI events. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that PSI events were primarily associated with increasing age (p < .001), hospitals performing more inpatient surgery (p < .001), and hospitals with higher percentage of beds in intensive care units (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The PSIs provide an efficient and user-friendly tool to identify potential inhospital patient safety problems for targeted institution-level quality improvement efforts. Until better error-reporting systems are developed the PSIs can serve to shed light on the problem of medical errors not limited solely to mortality because of errors. PMID:16148964

  9. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Tear Samples of Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rentka, Anikó; Hársfalvi, Jolán; Berta, András; Köröskényi, Krisztina; Szekanecz, Zoltán; Szücs, Gabriella; Szodoray, Peter; Kemény-Beke, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    Background. Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease, characterized by widespread small vessel vasculopathy, immune dysregulation with production of autoantibodies, and progressive fibrosis. Changes in levels of proangiogenic cytokines had already been determined largely in serum. Our aim was to assess the levels of VEGF in human tears of patients with SSC. Patients and methods. Forty-three patients (40 female and 3 men, mean (SD) age 61 (48–74) years) with SSc and 27 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Basal tear sample collection and tear velocity investigations were carried out followed by an ophthalmological examination. Total protein concentrations and VEGF levels were determined in tear samples. Results. The average collected tear fluid volume developed 10.4 μL (1.6–31.2) in patients and 15.63 μL (3.68–34.5) in control subjects. The average total protein level was 6.9 μg/μL (1.8–12.3) in tears of patients and control tears contained an average of 4.132 μg/μL (0.1–14.1) protein. In patients with SSc the average concentration of VEGF was 4.9 pg/μL (3.5–8.1) and 6.15 pg/μL (3.84–12.3) in healthy samples. Conclusions. Total protein production was increased because of the smaller tear volume. Decreased VEGF in tear of SSc patients can be explained also by the decreased tear secretion of patients. PMID:26339137

  10. The prevalence and distribution of hypodontia in a sample of Qatari patients

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Hayder Abdalla; Al-Said, Sozan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of hypodontia in the permanent dentition in a sample of Qatari patients attending a dental center and to compare the results with the reported findings of other populations. Materials and Methods: Orthodontic files including orthopantomographs of 1000 patients (655 females and 345 males, 11–36-year-old) were examined and inspected for evidence of hypodontia. Results: The prevalence of hypodontia in the present Qatari sample was 7.8%; 6.9% was in males and 8.2% in females. Hypodontia was found more frequently in the maxilla than in the mandible. The distribution of missing teeth was noticed in the left side more than the right side. The most frequently missing teeth were the maxillary lateral incisors followed by the mandibular second premolars, maxillary second premolars, and mandibular left lateral incisor. The majority of patients with hypodontia had one or two teeth missing, but rarely more than four teeth were missing in the same patient. Bilateral missing teeth in the current study was commonly seen in the maxillary lateral incisor (14.1%) followed by mandibular second premolar (12.8%) and maxillary second premolar (6.4%). Conclusions: The prevalence of hypodontia in a sample of Qatari individuals was within the range reported in the literature for other populations. The incidence of hypodontia in the anterior segment requires multidisciplinary team approach (orthodontic and prosthodontic) to restore the esthetic and function and improve patient self-esteem. PMID:26998470

  11. [Study of a sample of alcoholic patients two years post-treatment].

    PubMed

    Avila Escribano, J J; Pérez Madruga, A; Rodríguez Treceño, M

    1994-01-01

    This survey analyzes the evolution of one sample of alcoholic patients two years after finishing treatment. Its target is to determine the percentage of patients that remain abstinent, their rate of retention, and what factors can have an influence on abstinence. In 1990, 72 alcoholic patients were treated in the Alcoholism Unit, who make up our study sample. The average age was 37.9 +/- 11.47 years old; 77.8% were diagnosed as being Alcohol-dependents and 22.2% as Alcohol-abusers; 19.4% dropped out the treatment early. In 1992 our sample of study was 53 patients (2 died and 17 refused to participate), of whom 77.7% were abstinent and 28.3% continued ingesting alcohol; the average abstinence was 22.92 +/- 8.73 months. An important finding of this study was that the diagnosis, sex, and treatment with aversives had not an influence on abstinence; however the percentage of abstinent patients in those who had attended Therapeutic Discussion Groups was significantly higher than in those who had not.

  12. [Study of a sample of alcoholic patients two years post-treatment].

    PubMed

    Avila Escribano, J J; Pérez Madruga, A; Rodríguez Treceño, M

    1994-01-01

    This survey analyzes the evolution of one sample of alcoholic patients two years after finishing treatment. Its target is to determine the percentage of patients that remain abstinent, their rate of retention, and what factors can have an influence on abstinence. In 1990, 72 alcoholic patients were treated in the Alcoholism Unit, who make up our study sample. The average age was 37.9 +/- 11.47 years old; 77.8% were diagnosed as being Alcohol-dependents and 22.2% as Alcohol-abusers; 19.4% dropped out the treatment early. In 1992 our sample of study was 53 patients (2 died and 17 refused to participate), of whom 77.7% were abstinent and 28.3% continued ingesting alcohol; the average abstinence was 22.92 +/- 8.73 months. An important finding of this study was that the diagnosis, sex, and treatment with aversives had not an influence on abstinence; however the percentage of abstinent patients in those who had attended Therapeutic Discussion Groups was significantly higher than in those who had not. PMID:8209713

  13. Using Technology to Better Characterize the Apollo Sample Suite: A Retroactive PET Analysis and Potential Model for Future Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    From 1969-1972 the Apollo missions collected 382 kg of lunar samples from six distinct locations on the Moon. Studies of the Apollo sample suite have shaped our understanding of the formation and early evolution of the Earth-Moon system, and have had important implications for studies of the other terrestrial planets (e.g., through the calibration of the crater counting record) and even the outer planets (e.g., the Nice model of the dynamical evolution of the Solar System). Despite nearly 50 years of detailed research on Apollo samples, scientists are still developing new theories about the origin and evolution of the Moon. Three areas of active research are: (1) the abundance of water (and other volatiles) in the lunar mantle, (2) the timing of the formation of the Moon and the duration of lunar magma ocean crystallization, (3) the formation of evolved lunar lithologies (e.g., granites) and implications for tertiary crustal processes on the Moon. In order to fully understand these (and many other) theories about the Moon, scientists need access to "new" lunar samples, particularly new plutonic samples. Over 100 lunar meteorites have been identified over the past 30 years, and the study of these samples has greatly aided in our understanding of the Moon. However, terrestrial alteration and the lack of geologic context limit what can be learned from the lunar meteorites. Although no "new" large plutonic samples (i.e., hand-samples) remain to be discovered in the Apollo sample collection, there are many large polymict breccias in the Apollo collection containing relatively large (approximately 1 cm or larger) previously identified plutonic clasts, as well as a large number of unclassified lithic clasts. In addition, new, previously unidentified plutonic clasts are potentially discoverable within these breccias. The question becomes how to non-destructively locate and identify new lithic clasts of interest while minimizing the contamination and physical degradation of

  14. Busulfan dosing algorithm and sampling strategy in stem cell transplantation patients

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Francine A; Piana, Chiara; Simões, Belinda P; Lanchote, Vera L; Della Pasqua, O

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this investigation was to develop a model-based dosing algorithm for busulfan and identify an optimal sampling scheme for use in routine clinical practice. Methods Clinical data from an ongoing study (n = 29) in stem cell transplantation patients were used for the purposes our analysis. A one compartment model was selected as basis for sampling optimization and subsequent evaluation of a suitable dosing algorithm. Internal and external model validation procedures were performed prior to the optimization steps using ED-optimality criteria. Using systemic exposure as parameter of interest, dosing algorithms were considered for individual patients with the scope of minimizing the deviation from target range as determined by AUC(0,6 h). Results Busulfan exposure after oral administration was best predicted after the inclusion of adjusted ideal body weight and alanine transferase as covariates on clearance. Population parameter estimates were 3.98 h–1, 48.8 l and 12.3 l h–1 for the absorption rate constant, volume of distribution and oral clearance, respectively. Inter-occasion variability was used to describe the differences between test dose and treatment. Based on simulation scenarios, a dosing algorithm was identified, which ensures target exposure values are attained after a test dose. Moreover, our findings show that a sparse sampling scheme with five samples per patient is sufficient to characterize the pharmacokinetics of busulfan in individual patients. Conclusion The use of the proposed dosing algorithm in conjunction with a sparse sampling scheme may contribute to considerable improvement in the safety and efficacy profile of patients undergoing treatment for stem cell transplantation. PMID:25819742

  15. Microbial and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile among Clinical Samples of Patients with Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Alireza; Hakimi, Faezeh; Doomanlou, Mahsa; Azadegan, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Preventing and starting early treatment of infections in patients whose immunity system is weak due to malignancies like leukemia can reduce mortality. This study aimed to determine microbial and antibiotic resistance patterns in clinical samples of patients with acute leukemia to start early treatment before the results of clinical tests are known. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the clinical samples of all patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of acute leukemia were cultured and their antibiogram was evaluated. Then, the data were analyzed by SPSS 18 based on the objectives of the study. Results: Of a total of 2,366 samples, 18.95% were reported to be positive blood samples, 22.96% were reported to be urine samples and 36% wound samples. E. coli was the most common bacteria isolated from the blood and urine cultures (34% in blood, 32% in urine culture) while Staphylococcus Aureus was the most common in the wound culture (35%). The highest level of sensitivity in the organisms with positive blood culture was to Ciprofloxacin, while in positive urine and wound culture was to Imipenem. The highest resistance in blood, urine and wound culture was to Cotrimoxazole. Conclusion: According to results obtained from this study, it is necessary to conduct appropriate studies on this issue in specific conditions in our country. The findings of this study can be used in clinics for more accurate diagnosis, more effective treatment before the results of clinical tests are known and also for prevention of infection in cancer patients. PMID:27252805

  16. Piezoresistive Membrane Surface Stress Sensors for Characterization of Breath Samples of Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Lang, Hans Peter; Loizeau, Frédéric; Hiou-Feige, Agnès; Rivals, Jean-Paul; Romero, Pedro; Akiyama, Terunobu; Gerber, Christoph; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    For many diseases, where a particular organ is affected, chemical by-products can be found in the patient's exhaled breath. Breath analysis is often done using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, but interpretation of results is difficult and time-consuming. We performed characterization of patients' exhaled breath samples by an electronic nose technique based on an array of nanomechanical membrane sensors. Each membrane is coated with a different thin polymer layer. By pumping the exhaled breath into a measurement chamber, volatile organic compounds present in patients' breath diffuse into the polymer layers and deform the membranes by changes in surface stress. The bending of the membranes is measured piezoresistively and the signals are converted into voltages. The sensor deflection pattern allows one to characterize the condition of the patient. In a clinical pilot study, we investigated breath samples from head and neck cancer patients and healthy control persons. Evaluation using principal component analysis (PCA) allowed a clear distinction between the two groups. As head and neck cancer can be completely removed by surgery, the breath of cured patients was investigated after surgery again and the results were similar to those of the healthy control group, indicating that surgery was successful. PMID:27455276

  17. Heavy Metal Content in Thoracic Tissue Samples from Patients with and without NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jessica Q; Dranikov, Alexandra; Iannucci, Anita; Wagner, Walter P; LoBello, Janine; Allen, Jeffrey; Weiss, Glen J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Environmental factors expose an individual to heavy metals that may stimulate cancer growth preclinically including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Here, we examine the prevalence of four heavy metals present in postsurgical tissues from individuals with and without NSCLC. Materials and Methods. Thoracic tissue samples from two separate sample sets were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) content. Results. In the first sample set, there was no significant measurable amount of Pb and Hg found in either NSCLC tissue or nonmalignant lung tissue samples. Cd was the most prevalent heavy metal and As was present in moderate amounts. In the second sample set, Cd was measurable across all tissue types taken from 28 NSCLC patients and significantly higher Cd was measurable in noncancer benign lung (n = 9). In the NSCLC samples, As was measurable in moderate amounts, while Hg and Pb amounts were negligible. Conclusion. Cd and As are present in lung tissues for patients with NSCLC. With existing preclinical evidence of their tumorigenecity, it is plausible that Cd and/or As may have an impact on NSCLC development. Additional studies examining the prevalence and association between smokers and nonsmokers are suggested. PMID:26316947

  18. Detection of Slit2 promoter hypermethylation in tissue and serum samples from breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ga-Eon; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Choi, Yoo Duk; Lee, Ji Shin; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Nam, Jong Hee; Choi, Chan; Park, Min Ho; Yoon, Jung Han

    2011-10-01

    Promoter hypermethylation has been shown to be a common mechanism for inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Slit2 promoter hypermethylation in both the tumor and serum samples of breast cancer patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive breast carcinoma (IBC). The methylation status of Slit2 was investigated in 210 tissue samples (15 breast with no pathological findings, 26 DCIS, and 169 IBC samples) and 123 corresponding serum samples (15 breast with no pathological findings, 26 DCIS, and 82 IBC samples) using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical staining for Slit2 was also performed using tissue microarray blocks to determine whether Slit2 promoter hypermethylation correlated with loss of Slit2 expression. Slit2 promoter hypermethylation was not detected in breast tissue and serum samples from patients with no pathological findings. DCIS or IBC showed a statistically higher frequency of Slit2 promoter hypermethylation compared to breast with no pathological findings in both the tissue and serum samples; however, there were no statistically significant differences between DCIS and IBC samples. Similar Slit2 promoter hypermethylation patterns were seen in the tissue samples and corresponding serum specimens (p < 0.001). Slit2 promoter hypermethylation was associated with loss of Slit2 expression. These results suggest that Slit2 promoter hypermethylation appears to be responsible for functionally silencing Slit2 expression. Slit2 promoter hypermethylation may be considered as a possible serum marker for early detection of breast cancer.

  19. Radial artery cannulation. Potential hazard in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Campkin, T V

    1980-10-01

    Using Allen's test, impaired ulnar artery circulation to one or both hands was detected pre-operatively in five out of ten acromegalic patients scheduled for transphenoidal hypophysectomy. Three of these patients also had symptoms of compression of the median nerve at the wrist (carpal tunnel syndrome). If ulnar flow is considered to be inadequate cannulation of a dorsalis pedis artery provides one possible alternative route for continuous measurement of the blood pressure during induced hypotension. In the three patients in this report in whom this vessel was cannulated no ischaemic complications in the foot were seen.

  20. Dipstick Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in Bacterial Cultures and Its Potential Use on Stool Samples

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Nato, Faridabano; Dartevelle, Sylvie; Sire, Jean Marie; Garin, Benoit; Thi Phuong, Lan Nguyen; Diep, Tai The; Shako, Jean Christophe; Bimet, François; Filliol, Ingrid; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Ungeheuer, Marie Noëlle; Ottone, Catherine; Sansonetti, Philippe; Germani, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Background We describe a test for rapid detection of S. dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and in stools, at the bedside of patients. Methodology/Principal Findings The test is based on the detection of S. dysenteriae 1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using serotype 1-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 15 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 10 minutes. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 1.6×106 CFU/ml and 4.9×106 CFU/ml of S. dysenteriae 1, respectively. Optimal conditions to read the test have been determined to limit the risk of ambiguous results due to appearance of a faint yellow test band in some negative samples. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and unrelated strains in culture. When tested on 328 clinical samples in India, Vietnam, Senegal and France by laboratory technicians and in Democratic Republic of Congo by a field technician, the specificity (312/316) was 98.7% (95% CI:96.6–99.6%) and the sensitivity (11/12) was 91.7% (95% CI:59.8–99.6%). Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 98.4 % of cases (323/328) in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 73.3% (95% CI:44.8–91.1%) and 99.7% (95% CI:98–100%). Conclusion The initial findings presented here for a simple dipstick-based test to diagnose S. dysenteriae 1 demonstrates its promising potential to become a powerful tool for case management and epidemiological surveys. PMID:21984895

  1. Legionella nagasakiensis sp. nov., isolated from water samples and from a patient with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Genyan; Benson, Robert F; Ratcliff, Rodney M; Brown, Ellen W; Steigerwalt, Arnold G; Thacker, W Lanier; Daneshvar, Maryam I; Morey, Roger E; Saito, Atsushi; Fields, Barry S

    2012-02-01

    A novel Legionella species was identified based on analysis of 16S rRNA and mip (macrophage infectivity potentiator) gene sequences, cellular fatty acids, isoprenoid quinones, biochemical reactions, antigens and quantitative DNA-DNA hybridization. Strain CDC-1796-JAP-E(T) was isolated from well water at the Nagasaki Municipal Medical Center, Japan. Two strains, CDC-3041-AUS-E and CDC-3558-AUS-E, were isolated from water samples during an outbreak of legionellosis in South Australia. Strain CDC-5427-OH-H was isolated from a 66-year-old female patient diagnosed with Legionnaires' disease in the US. Cells from these four strains were gram-negative, non-fluorescent, rod-shaped, and positive for alkaline phosphatase, esterase, leucine arylamidase, catalase, gelatinase, β-lactamase and tyrosine browning assay. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and mip genes revealed that the four strains formed a distinct cluster within the genus Legionella. The bacteria contained branched-chain fatty acids and quinones that are typical of members of the genus Legionella. Slide agglutination tests demonstrated no cross-reaction with 52 previously described members of the Legionellaceae. DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that DNAs from the four strains were highly related (78-84 %) but they showed 29 % relatedness to Legionella oakridgensis ATCC 33761(T) and less than 10 % to strains of other Legionella species tested. These characterizations suggest that the isolates represent a novel species, for which the name Legionella nagasakiensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is CDC-1796-JAP-E(T) ( = ATCC BAA-1557(T) = JCM 15315(T)).

  2. FAMILY ENVIRONMENT OF PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS: STUDY OF A NORTH INDIAN SAMPLE

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Preet; Gautam, Shiv

    1992-01-01

    The study aimed at finding out the relationship of family environment to schizophrenia, affective disorders and neurosis in comparison to control group matched on socio-economic status in a North Indian Sample. 600 subjects-150 schizophrenic patients, 150 patients with affective disorders, 150 neurotics, diagnosed according to ICD-9, were studied. Results (one way ANOVA) revealed that there exists a significant difference in family environment of three categories of patients with psychiatric disorders as well as in comparison to control group. Significantly low scores of cohesiveness, independence, expressiveness, active-recreational orientation and organization, control and moral religious emphasis were found in schizophrenics. Similarly in the families of patients with affective disorders there were less cohesion and control and more expressiveness, conflict, independence and moralrelegious emphasis, while the family of neurotics had low levels of cohesion, intellectual-cultural orientation, active-recreational orientation, organisation and control. PMID:21776125

  3. An evaluation of potential sampling locations in a reservoir with emphasis on conserved spatial correlation structure.

    PubMed

    Yenilmez, Firdes; Düzgün, Sebnem; Aksoy, Aysegül

    2015-01-01

    In this study, kernel density estimation (KDE) was coupled with ordinary two-dimensional kriging (OK) to reduce the number of sampling locations in measurement and kriging of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in Porsuk Dam Reservoir (PDR). Conservation of the spatial correlation structure in the DO distribution was a target. KDE was used as a tool to aid in identification of the sampling locations that would be removed from the sampling network in order to decrease the total number of samples. Accordingly, several networks were generated in which sampling locations were reduced from 65 to 10 in increments of 4 or 5 points at a time based on kernel density maps. DO variograms were constructed, and DO values in PDR were kriged. Performance of the networks in DO estimations were evaluated through various error metrics, standard error maps (SEM), and whether the spatial correlation structure was conserved or not. Results indicated that smaller number of sampling points resulted in loss of information in regard to spatial correlation structure in DO. The minimum representative sampling points for PDR was 35. Efficacy of the sampling location selection method was tested against the networks generated by experts. It was shown that the evaluation approach proposed in this study provided a better sampling network design in which the spatial correlation structure of DO was sustained for kriging. PMID:25527435

  4. Alcohol levels in cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples from patients under pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Agapejev, S; Vassilieff, I; Curi, P R

    1992-11-01

    We measured alcohol levels by the Cordebard method in 148 CSF samples from individuals who had abstained from alcohol for at least 7 days prior to the beginning of the study. Each blood sample was accompanied by a CSF sample from the same patient. CSF samples found to be normal after analysis were used as controls. Mean alcohol concentration in blood did not differ significantly between the control group and the groups with altered CSF. The group with altered CSF had statistically higher alcohol levels in CSF than in blood. CSF lactate, glucose and protein levels were not correlated with alcohol level. The results suggest the presence of endogenous alcohol in the CSF, with levels increasing in the presence of pathological processes involving the nervous system.

  5. Interaction between essential elements selenium and zinc with cadmium and mercury in samples from hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Atif; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Arain, Salma Aslam; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Naeemullah; Shezadi, Mariam; Ali, Jamshed

    2014-08-01

    The abnormal metabolism of metal ions plays an important role in health and disease conditions; hence, the studies about them have received much interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between trace and toxic elements zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg) in biological samples (scalp hair, blood, and urine) of hypertensive patients (n = 257), residents of Hyderabad, Pakistan. For comparison purpose, the biological samples of age-matched healthy controls were selected as referents. The concentrations of trace and toxic elements were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology was checked using certified reference materials and by the conventional wet acid digestion method. The recovery of all studied elements was found in the range of 96.4-99.1 % in certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cd and Hg were significantly higher in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of hypertensive patients than in referents (P < 0.001), whilst the concentrations of Zn and Se were lower in the scalp hair and blood, but higher in the urine samples of hypertensive patients. The deficiency of Zn and Se and the high exposure of toxic metals may be synergistic with risk factors associated with hypertension.

  6. Interaction between essential elements selenium and zinc with cadmium and mercury in samples from hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Atif; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Arain, Salma Aslam; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Naeemullah; Shezadi, Mariam; Ali, Jamshed

    2014-08-01

    The abnormal metabolism of metal ions plays an important role in health and disease conditions; hence, the studies about them have received much interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between trace and toxic elements zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg) in biological samples (scalp hair, blood, and urine) of hypertensive patients (n = 257), residents of Hyderabad, Pakistan. For comparison purpose, the biological samples of age-matched healthy controls were selected as referents. The concentrations of trace and toxic elements were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology was checked using certified reference materials and by the conventional wet acid digestion method. The recovery of all studied elements was found in the range of 96.4-99.1 % in certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cd and Hg were significantly higher in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of hypertensive patients than in referents (P < 0.001), whilst the concentrations of Zn and Se were lower in the scalp hair and blood, but higher in the urine samples of hypertensive patients. The deficiency of Zn and Se and the high exposure of toxic metals may be synergistic with risk factors associated with hypertension. PMID:24962640

  7. Pattern Corotation Radii from Potential-Density Phase-Shifts for 153 OSUBGS Sample Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buta, Ronald J.; Zhang, Xiaolei

    2009-06-01

    The potential-density phase-shift method is an effective new tool for investigating the structure and evolution of galaxies. In this paper, we apply the method to 153 galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey (OSUBGS) to study the general relationship between pattern corotation radii and the morphology of spiral galaxies. The analysis is based on near-infrared H-band images that have been deprojected and decomposed assuming a spherical bulge. We find that multiple pattern speeds are common in disk galaxies. By selecting those corotation radii close to or slightly larger than the bar radius as being the bar corotation (CR) radius, we find that the average and standard deviation of the ratio R = r(CR)/r(bar), is 1.20 ± 0.52 for 101 galaxies having well-defined bars. There is an indication that this ratio depends weakly on galaxy type in the sense that the average ranges from 1.03 ± 0.37 for 65 galaxies of type Sbc and earlier, to 1.50 ± 0.63 for 36 galaxies of type Sc and later. Our bar corotation radii are on average smaller than those estimated from single-pattern-speed numerical simulations, most likely because these simulations tend to find the pattern speed which generates a density response in the gas that best matches the morphology of the outer spiral structure. Although we find CR radii in most of the sample galaxies that satisfy conventional ideas about the extent of bars, we also consider the alternative interpretation that in many cases the bar CR is actually inside the bar and that the bar ends close to its outer Lindblad resonance instead of its CR. These "superfast" bars are the most controversial finding from our study. We see evidence in the phase-shift distributions for ongoing decoupling of patterns, which hints at the formation pathways of nested patterns, and which in turn further hints at the longevity of the density wave patterns in galaxies. We also examine how uncertainties in the orientation parameters of galaxies and in

  8. Identification of potential biases in the characterization sampling and analysis process

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, W.D.; Eberlein, S.J.

    1995-12-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Characterization Project is responsible for providing quality characterization data to TWRS. Documentation of sampling and analysis process errors and biases can be used to improve the process to provide that data. The sampling and analysis process consists of removing a sample from a specified waste tank, getting it to the laboratory and analyzing it to provide the data identified in the Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) and Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP). To understand the data fully, an understanding of errors or biases that can be generated during the process is necessary. Most measurement systems have the ability statistically to detect errors and biases by using standards and alternate measurement techniques. Only the laboratory analysis part of the tank sampling and analysis process at TWRS has this ability. Therefore, it is necessary to use other methods to identify and prioritize the biases involved in the process.

  9. Risk and potential risk reduction in diabetes type 2 patients in Germany.

    PubMed

    Häussler, Bertram; Berger, Ursula; Mast, Oliver; Thefeld, Wolfgang

    2005-06-01

    Avoiding serious complications such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and amputations in diabetes patients is the main interest of long-term treatment. Given the considerable prevalence of diabetes type 2 in industrialized countries this is a major public health concern as well as a burden to health care systems. The present study estimated the current risk of major complications occurring in the German diabetes type 2 population and explored the potential for further risk reduction. Risk reduction can be achieved when physiological and behavioral parameters (HbAlc, blood pressure, cholesterol level, body mass index, smoking) are set to target values recommended in guidelines. To estimate individual risk and potential risk reduction the multifactor disease model Mellibase was employed. Data were obtained from the German Health Survey of 1998, which includes a sample of 7,124 individuals representative of the German population. The survey shows a prevalence rate of 6.3% for diabetes type 2 in persons older than 35 years. The analyses reveal that the overall potential for risk reduction is moderate (e.g., the average reduction potential of the 10-year risk of stroke is 5.7%). A majority of parameter ranges found in the patient population are either already close to the recommended values (HbA1c), are not alarmingly higher than in the general population (blood pressure) or have little impact on risk reduction. In addition nonmodifiable risk factors such as duration of the illness and advanced age constrain possible improvements. However, there is a wide variation in the actual risk between individuals (e.g., the 10-year risk of stroke varies between 2.2% and 79.8%), and thus a wide variation in potential risk reduction (the risk reduction potential for stroke varies between 0% and 53.4%). Intensified treatment should therefore (a) focus on relevant subgroups of patients taking their risk reduction potential into account and (b) aim at improvement in the overall

  10. Preservation of urine samples for metabolic evaluation of stone-forming patients.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Renato Ribeiro Nogueira; Baxmann, Alessandra Calábria; Ferreira, Larissa Gorayb; Nishiura, José Luiz; Siliano, Priscila Reina; Gomes, Samirah Abreu; Moreira, Silvia Regina Silva; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2006-10-01

    Metabolic evaluation of stone-forming (SF) patients is based on the determination of calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid and other parameters in 24-h urine samples under a random diet. A reliable measurement of urinary oxalate requires the collection of urine in a receptacle containing acid preservative. However, urinary uric acid cannot be determined in the same sample under this condition. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the addition of preservatives (acid or alkali) after urine collection would not modify the results of those lithogenic parameters. Thirty-four healthy subjects (HS) were submitted to two non-consecutive collections of 24-h urine. The first sample was collected in a receptacle containing hydrochloric acid (HCl 6 N) and the second in a dry plastic container, with HCl being added as soon as the urine sample was received at the laboratory. Additionally, 34 HS and 34 SF patients collected a spot urine sample that was divided into four aliquots, one containing HCl, another containing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3 )5 g/l), and two others in which these two preservative agents were added 24 h later. Urinary oxalate, calcium, magnesium, citrate, creatinine and uric acid were determined. Urinary parameters were also evaluated in the presence of calcium oxalate or uric acid crystals. Mean values of all urinary parameters obtained from previously acidified 24-h urine samples did not differ from those where acid was added after urine collection. The same was true for spot urine samples, with the exception of urinary citrate that presented a slight albeit significant change of 5.9% between samples in HS and 3.1% in SF. Uric acid was also not different between pre- and post-alkalinized spot urine samples. The presence of crystals did not alter these results. We concluded that post-delivery acidification or alkalinization of urine samples does not modify the measured levels of urinary oxalate, calcium, magnesium, creatinine and uric acid, and that the

  11. Norovirus GII.4 Detection in Environmental Samples from Patient Rooms during Nosocomial Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Hannoun, Charles; Svensson, Lennart; Torén, Kjell; Andersson, Lars-Magnus; Westin, Johan; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is an important cause of nosocomial gastroenteric outbreaks. This 5-month study was designed to characterize NoV contamination and airborne dispersal in patient rooms during hospital outbreaks. Air vents, overbed tables, washbasins, dust, and virus traps designed to collect charged particles from the air were swabbed to investigate the possibility of NoV contamination in patient rooms during outbreaks in seven wards and in an outbreak-free ward. Symptomatic inpatients were also sampled. Nucleic acid extracts of the samples were examined for NoV RNA using genogroup I (GI) and GII real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The NoV strains were characterized by RT-PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase-N/S capsid-coding region (1,040 nucleotides [nt]). Patient strains from two outbreaks in one ward were sequenced across the RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase major capsid-coding region (2.5 kb), including the hypervariable P2 domain. In the outbreak wards, NoV GII was detected in 48 of 101 (47%) environmental swabs and 63 of 108 patients (58%); NoV genotype II.4 was sequenced from 18 environmental samples, dust (n = 8), virus traps (n = 4), surfaces (n = 6), and 56 patients. In contrast, NoV GII was detected in 2 (GII.4) of 28 (7%) environmental samples and in 2 (GII.6 and GII.4) of 17 patients in the outbreak-free ward. Sequence analyses revealed a high degree of similarity (>99.5%, 1,040 nt) between NoV GII.4 environmental and patient strains from a given ward at a given time. The strains clustered on 11 subbranches of the phylogenetic tree, with strong correlations to time and place. The high nucleotide similarity between the NoV GII.4 strains from patients and their hospital room environment provided molecular evidence of GII.4 dispersal in the air and dust; therefore, interventional cleaning studies are justified. PMID:24759712

  12. Norovirus GII.4 detection in environmental samples from patient rooms during nosocomial outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Nenonen, Nancy P; Hannoun, Charles; Svensson, Lennart; Torén, Kjell; Andersson, Lars-Magnus; Westin, Johan; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-07-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is an important cause of nosocomial gastroenteric outbreaks. This 5-month study was designed to characterize NoV contamination and airborne dispersal in patient rooms during hospital outbreaks. Air vents, overbed tables, washbasins, dust, and virus traps designed to collect charged particles from the air were swabbed to investigate the possibility of NoV contamination in patient rooms during outbreaks in seven wards and in an outbreak-free ward. Symptomatic inpatients were also sampled. Nucleic acid extracts of the samples were examined for NoV RNA using genogroup I (GI) and GII real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The NoV strains were characterized by RT-PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase-N/S capsid-coding region (1,040 nucleotides [nt]). Patient strains from two outbreaks in one ward were sequenced across the RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase major capsid-coding region (2.5 kb), including the hypervariable P2 domain. In the outbreak wards, NoV GII was detected in 48 of 101 (47%) environmental swabs and 63 of 108 patients (58%); NoV genotype II.4 was sequenced from 18 environmental samples, dust (n = 8), virus traps (n = 4), surfaces (n = 6), and 56 patients. In contrast, NoV GII was detected in 2 (GII.4) of 28 (7%) environmental samples and in 2 (GII.6 and GII.4) of 17 patients in the outbreak-free ward. Sequence analyses revealed a high degree of similarity (>99.5%, 1,040 nt) between NoV GII.4 environmental and patient strains from a given ward at a given time. The strains clustered on 11 subbranches of the phylogenetic tree, with strong correlations to time and place. The high nucleotide similarity between the NoV GII.4 strains from patients and their hospital room environment provided molecular evidence of GII.4 dispersal in the air and dust; therefore, interventional cleaning studies are justified.

  13. Total IgE detection in paired cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Bueno, E C; Vaz, A J; Machado, L d; Livramento, J A

    2000-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC), the presence of Taenia solium metacestodes in tissues, is the most frequent and severe parasitic infection of the central nervous system. We investigated the presence of total IgE by an automated chemiluminescence assay in 53 paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from patients with NC (P) and in 40 CSF samples from individuals with other neurological disorders as the control group (C). Total IgE concentration ranged from 1.2 to 6.6 IU/ml (mean = 1.4 IU/ml, standard deviation-sd = 1.1 IU/ml) in 28.3% of CSF samples from the P group, a value significantly higher than for the C group ( pound1.0 IU/ml). The serum samples from the P group showed concentrations ranging from 1. 0 to 2330.0 IU/ml (mean = 224.1 IU/ml, sd = 452.1 IU/ml), which were higher than the normal value cited by the manufacturer (<100.0 IU/ml) in 32.1% of the samples. A significant difference was observed in CSF samples from the P and C groups (p = 0.005) and in serum samples from the P group compared to the normal value (p = 0. 005), with sera showing more frequent abnormal results.

  14. Potential pitfall of DMSA scintigraphy in patients with ureteral duplication

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, F.; Snow, B.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1986-07-01

    A 5-wk-old male presented with radiographic findings of a duplicated collecting system. A (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA scan was requested to evaluate cortical function. Images obtained immediately. postinjection showed activity restricted to the upper poles; in contrast, delayed images at 4 hr showed activity in the bladder and throughout both kidneys. Catheterizing the patient drained the activity from the bladder but had little effect on the refluxed renal activity. The early (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA images were critical in making the proper interpretation. Technetium-99m DMSA is excreted into the urine and this fact needs to be considered when interpreting scans of patients with possible reflux or obstruction. When DMSA scans are obtained in pediatric patients with possible reflux, catheterization prior to the study and early images prior to the appearance of DMSA in the collecting system are recommended.

  15. Multimodal electrophysiological studies including motor evoked potentials in patients with locked-in syndrome: report of six patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bassetti, C; Mathis, J; Hess, C W

    1994-01-01

    Clinical and electrophysiological findings in six patients with locked-in syndrome are reported. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex were absent in four patients, none of whom recovered clinically. In two patients, MEPs could be obtained from the severely paretic limbs and almost full motor recovery followed. Somatosensory evoked potentials were altered in four of the patients, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials were altered in two of four patients examined, showing a clinically unsuspected tegmental involvement. The EEG showed a predominance of reactive alpha activity in all patients, documenting a preserved consciousness. It is concluded that a multimodal electrophysiological approach, in addition to clinical assessment, can be helpful in diagnosing locked-in syndrome, estimating the extension of the underlying brainstem dysfunction, and predicting functional outcome. Images PMID:7964820

  16. Disease management programs for CKD patients: the potential and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Michael V

    2009-03-01

    Disease management describes the use of a number of approaches to identify and treat patients with chronic health conditions, especially those that are expensive to treat. Disease management programs have grown rapidly in the United States in the past several years. These programs have been established for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but some have been discontinued because of the high cost of the program. Disease management programs for CKD face unique challenges. Identification of patients with CKD is hampered by incomplete use of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for CKD by physicians and the less than universal use of estimated glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine measurements to identify patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). CKD affects multiple organ systems. Thus, a comprehensive disease management program will need to manage each of these aspects of CKD. These multiple interventions likely will make a CKD disease management program more costly than similar disease management programs designed for patients with diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, or other chronic diseases. The lack of data that can be used to develop effective disease management programs in CKD makes it difficult to determine goals for the management of each organ system affected by CKD. Finally, long periods of observation will be needed to determine whether a particular disease management program is effective in not only improving patient outcomes, but also decreasing both resource use and health care dollars. This long-term observation period is contrary to how most disease management contracts are written, which usually are based on meeting goals during a 1- to 3-year period. Until these challenges are resolved, it likely will be difficult to maintain effective disease management programs for CKD.

  17. A study on determination of potentially hazardous plutonium isotopes in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2013-01-01

    Due to the lack of stable plutonium isotopes, and the high mobility as well as long half-life, plutonium is considered one of the most important radioelement in safety assessment of environmental radioactivity and nuclear waste management. A number of analytical methods have been developed over the past decades for determination of plutonium in environmental samples. The article discusses different analytical techniques and presents the results of plutonium isotopes determination by alpha spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry in environmental samples. The concentrations of plutonium isotopes in analyzed samples indicates its measurement is of great importance for environmental and safety assessment, especially in contaminated areas.

  18. Exponentially adjusted moving mean procedure for quality control. An optimized patient sample control procedure.

    PubMed

    Smith, F A; Kroft, S H

    1996-01-01

    The idea of using patient samples as the basis for control procedures elicits a continuing fascination among laboratorians, particularly in the current environment of cost restriction. Average of normals (AON) procedures, although little used, have been carefully investigated at the theoretical level. The performance characteristics of Bull's algorithm have not been thoroughly delineated, however, despite its widespread use. The authors have generalized Bull's algorithm to use variably sized batches of patient samples and a range of exponential factors. For any given batch size, there is an optimal exponential factor to maximize the overall power of error detection. The optimized exponentially adjusted moving mean (EAMM) procedure, a variant of AON and Bull's algorithm, outperforms both parent procedures. As with any AON procedure, EAMM is most useful when the ratio of population variability to analytical variability (standard deviation ratio, SDR) is low.

  19. Big data and large sample size: a cautionary note on the potential for bias.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert M; Chambers, David A; Glasgow, Russell E

    2014-08-01

    A number of commentaries have suggested that large studies are more reliable than smaller studies and there is a growing interest in the analysis of "big data" that integrates information from many thousands of persons and/or different data sources. We consider a variety of biases that are likely in the era of big data, including sampling error, measurement error, multiple comparisons errors, aggregation error, and errors associated with the systematic exclusion of information. Using examples from epidemiology, health services research, studies on determinants of health, and clinical trials, we conclude that it is necessary to exercise greater caution to be sure that big sample size does not lead to big inferential errors. Despite the advantages of big studies, large sample size can magnify the bias associated with error resulting from sampling or study design.

  20. [Refractory cardiac arrest patients in prehospital care, potential organ donors].

    PubMed

    Le Jan, Arnaud; Dupin, Aurélie; Garrigue, Bruno; Sapir, David

    2016-09-01

    Under the authority of the French Biomedicine Agency, a new care pathway integrates refractory cardiac arrest patients into a process of organ donation. It is a medical, logistical and ethical challenge for the staff of the mobile emergency services. PMID:27596502

  1. Fast patient-specific Monte Carlo brachytherapy dose calculations via the correlated sampling variance reduction technique

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Andrew; Le, Yi; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate potential of correlated sampling Monte Carlo (CMC) simulation to improve the calculation efficiency for permanent seed brachytherapy (PSB) implants without loss of accuracy. Methods: CMC was implemented within an in-house MC code family (PTRAN) and used to compute 3D dose distributions for two patient cases: a clinical PSB postimplant prostate CT imaging study and a simulated post lumpectomy breast PSB implant planned on a screening dedicated breast cone-beam CT patient exam. CMC tallies the dose difference, ΔD, between highly correlated histories in homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries. The heterogeneous geometry histories were derived from photon collisions sampled in a geometrically identical but purely homogeneous medium geometry, by altering their particle weights to correct for bias. The prostate case consisted of 78 Model-6711 125I seeds. The breast case consisted of 87 Model-200 103Pd seeds embedded around a simulated lumpectomy cavity. Systematic and random errors in CMC were unfolded using low-uncertainty uncorrelated MC (UMC) as the benchmark. CMC efficiency gains, relative to UMC, were computed for all voxels, and the mean was classified in regions that received minimum doses greater than 20%, 50%, and 90% of D90, as well as for various anatomical regions. Results: Systematic errors in CMC relative to UMC were less than 0.6% for 99% of the voxels and 0.04% for 100% of the voxels for the prostate and breast cases, respectively. For a 1 × 1 × 1 mm3 dose grid, efficiency gains were realized in all structures with 38.1- and 59.8-fold average gains within the prostate and breast clinical target volumes (CTVs), respectively. Greater than 99% of the voxels within the prostate and breast CTVs experienced an efficiency gain. Additionally, it was shown that efficiency losses were confined to low dose regions while the largest gains were located where little difference exists between the homogeneous and heterogeneous doses

  2. Radiographic Study of the Prevalence of Dens Invaginatus in a Sample Set of Turkish Dental Patients

    PubMed Central

    Çolak, Hakan; Tan, Enes; Aylıkçı, Bahadır Uğur; Uzgur, Recep; Turkal, Mustafa; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dens invaginatus in a sample of Turkish dental patients. Materials and Methods: The sample included 6, 912 panoramic radiographs from different Turkish dental patients. The ages of the patients ranged from 18 to 50 years. A tooth was considered having dens invaginatus if an infolding of a radiopaque ribbon-like structure equal in density to enamel was seen extending from the cingulum into the root canal. Maxillary and mandibular teeth were evaluated on panoramic radiographs to determine the type of dens invaginatus using Oehlers’ classification. Results: The overall incidence of patients with dens invaginatus was 0.17%. Dens invaginatus were detected in 15 teeth of a total of 192 150 teeth to give a tooth prevalence of 0.008%. Maxillary lateral incisors were most commonly affected teeth in the mouth (80% of cases), followed by maxillary canine teeth (20% of cases). The bilateral incidence of a symmetrical distribution was 25%. Conclusion: The occurrence of dens invaginatus among this Turkish population was rare. Attention should be paid to the presence of dens invaginatus and the treatment problems associated with it. PMID:22919548

  3. Compositional analysis of excavated landfill samples and the determination of residual biogas potential of the organic fraction.

    PubMed

    García, J; Davies, S; Villa, R; Gomes, D M; Coulon, F; Wagland, S T

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biogas potential of landfilled materials and to further validate the suitability of the enzymatic hydrolysis test EHT as a valuable alternative to substitute the standardised test currently in use (BMP). Both tests were applied to a range of landfill waste samples. The waste composition and volatile solids content (VS) profile together with the BMP test results showed that the biogas potential of the waste samples was directly related to their VS content, as expected. The positive correlation between the VS and the BMP test (r=0.67) suggests that the first could be used as a primary indicator of biogas potential of waste samples. Nevertheless, it should be validated against the BMP test because, occasionally, the VS content does not equate to the biogas production. This was mainly due to the paper content of the samples which also correlates positively (r=0.77) with the BMP biogas production. The EHT results showed a higher correlation with the BMP test (r=0.91) than in previous studies which used a wider mixture of enzymes containing cellulase, hemicellulase and carbohydrase. This finding positions the EHT as a quick assessing method for the biodegradability of waste samples in future sample regimes. PMID:27290632

  4. Increased immunoglobulin G production by short term cultured duodenal biopsy samples from HIV infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, T; Zippel, T; Schmidt, W; Pauli, G; Wahnschaffe, U; Chakravarti, S; Heise, W; Riecken, E; Zeitz, M; Ullrich, R

    1998-01-01

    Background—Secretory immunity is a major defence mechanism against infections at mucosal surfaces which are common in HIV infected patients. 
Aims—To analyse intestinal immunoglobulin production in HIV infection in comparison with that in saliva and serum. 
Patients and methods—Immunoglobulin G (IgG), A (IgA), and M (IgM) concentrations were determined in supernatants of short term cultured duodenal biopsy samples, serum, and saliva from HIV infected patients (n = 28) and controls (n = 14) by radial immunodiffusion. 
Results—IgG was increased in the supernatants of short term cultured biopsy samples and saliva from HIV infected patients compared with controls (p<0.01), but IgA and IgM levels were normal. In contrast, both IgG and IgA concentrations in serum were higher in HIV infected patients than in controls (p<0.002). No correlation was found between IgA produced by duodenal biopsy specimens and serum IgA. 
Conclusion—Abnormalities in mucosal immunoglobulin production in HIV infection were suprisingly small, indicating that specific secretory immunity rather than quantitative immunoglobulin production may be impaired. However, increased production of IgG could contribute to mucosal inflammation by complement activation. Our findings of normal mucosal IgA production and the lack of correlation between serum and mucosal IgA argues against an intestinal origin for the increased serum IgA levels in HIV infected patients. 

 Keywords: mucosal immunity; HIV infection; intestinal antibodies PMID:9577341

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Insomnia in a Polish Sample of Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhabenko, Nataliya; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insomnia is an important symptom in alcohol-dependent patients because it may persist despite abstinence and predispose to relapse to drinking. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical correlates of insomnia in a sample of 302 alcohol-dependent patients admitted to treatment programs in Poland. Methods Participants were mostly men (73.8%) with a mean (SD) age of 43.5 (9.7) years. Insomnia in the past 1 month was assessed using a total score of 6 or higher on the Athens Insomnia Scale. Results Insomnia affected 62.9% of patients, and delayed sleep induction was the most common subtype. Insomnia was associated in bivariate analyses with less education, inadequate finances, problem drinking at an earlier age of onset, drinking frequency and quantity, drinking-related consequences, severity of alcohol and nicotine dependence, psychiatric and physical severity, and a childhood history of sexual or physical abuse (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that mental and physical health status, severity of alcohol dependence, number of drinking days in the past 3 months, and childhood abuse were independent predictors of insomnia, explaining approximately 30 to 40% of the variance. Conclusions More than 60% of alcohol-dependent patients in a Polish sample screened positive for insomnia using a validated scale, a rate similar to those assessed with other scales in other countries. The study also showed that insomnia in alcohol-dependent patients is associated with poor physical health and childhood abuse, similar to the general population. The multifactorial nature of insomnia in alcohol-dependent patients has treatment implications. PMID:22471339

  6. Physico-chemical analysis and antimicrobial potential of Apis dorsata, Apis mellifera and Ziziphus jujube honey samples from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Hira; Dasti, Javid Iqbal; Ali, Ihsan; Ahmed, Safia; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate physico-chemical properties and antimicrobial potential of indigenous honey samples against different reference strains including Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 9027, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 13883, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Rhizopus oligosporus PCSIR1, Candida albicans ATCC 14053 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950. Methods By using standard methods samples were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties including additive effect of starch and non-peroxidase activity, antioxidative properties (phenol contents, flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity). Prior to this evaluation, complete physico-chemical properties including pH, color, ash contents, protein contents, moisture contents, hydroxymethyl furfural contents, total sugar contents, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar contents were analyzed. Results Relatively higher ash contents were found in the Siddar honey i.e. (0.590 0±0.033 6)% and small honey showed relatively higher protein contents i.e. (777.598±9.880) mg/kg. The moisture contents of tested honey samples ranged between 13.8%-16.6%, total sugar contents from 61.672%-72.420% and non-reducing sugar contents from 1.95%-3.93%. Presences of phenolic contents indicate higher antioxidant potential of these honey samples. All bacteria showed clear inhibition zones in response to tested honey samples whereas fungi and yeast showed inhibition at higher concentrations of these honey samples. For Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Aspergillus niger, overall the small honey showed the higher activity than other honey samples. Conclusion Physico-chemical analysis of honey samples confirmed good quality of honey according to the standards set by European Union Commission and Codex Alimentarius Commission

  7. Ultratrace level determination and quantitative analysis of kidney injury biomarkers in patient samples attained by zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Alabanza, Anginelle; Gonzalez, Lorelis E.; Wang, Weiwei; Reeves, W. Brian; Hahm, Jong-In

    2016-02-01

    Determining ultratrace amounts of protein biomarkers in patient samples in a straightforward and quantitative manner is extremely important for early disease diagnosis and treatment. Here, we successfully demonstrate the novel use of zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) in the ultrasensitive and quantitative detection of two acute kidney injury (AKI)-related protein biomarkers, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8, directly from patient samples. We first validate the ZnO NRs-based IL-8 results via comparison with those obtained from using a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent method in samples from 38 individuals. We further assess the full detection capability of the ZnO NRs-based technique by quantifying TNF-α, whose levels in human urine are often below the detection limits of conventional methods. Using the ZnO NR platforms, we determine the TNF-α concentrations of all 46 patient samples tested, down to the fg per mL level. Subsequently, we screen for TNF-α levels in approximately 50 additional samples collected from different patient groups in order to demonstrate a potential use of the ZnO NRs-based assay in assessing cytokine levels useful for further clinical monitoring. Our research efforts demonstrate that ZnO NRs can be straightforwardly employed in the rapid, ultrasensitive, quantitative, and simultaneous detection of multiple AKI-related biomarkers directly in patient urine samples, providing an unparalleled detection capability beyond those of conventional analysis methods. Additional key advantages of the ZnO NRs-based approach include a fast detection speed, low-volume assay condition, multiplexing ability, and easy automation/integration capability to existing fluorescence instrumentation. Therefore, we anticipate that our ZnO NRs-based detection method will be highly beneficial for overcoming the frequent challenges in early biomarker development and treatment assessment, pertaining to the facile and ultrasensitive quantification

  8. Ultratrace level determination and quantitative analysis of kidney injury biomarkers in patient samples attained by zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Alabanza, Anginelle; Gonzalez, Lorelis E.; Wang, Weiwei; Reeves, W. Brian; Hahm, Jong-In

    2016-02-01

    Determining ultratrace amounts of protein biomarkers in patient samples in a straightforward and quantitative manner is extremely important for early disease diagnosis and treatment. Here, we successfully demonstrate the novel use of zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) in the ultrasensitive and quantitative detection of two acute kidney injury (AKI)-related protein biomarkers, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8, directly from patient samples. We first validate the ZnO NRs-based IL-8 results via comparison with those obtained from using a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent method in samples from 38 individuals. We further assess the full detection capability of the ZnO NRs-based technique by quantifying TNF-α, whose levels in human urine are often below the detection limits of conventional methods. Using the ZnO NR platforms, we determine the TNF-α concentrations of all 46 patient samples tested, down to the fg per mL level. Subsequently, we screen for TNF-α levels in approximately 50 additional samples collected from different patient groups in order to demonstrate a potential use of the ZnO NRs-based assay in assessing cytokine levels useful for further clinical monitoring. Our research efforts demonstrate that ZnO NRs can be straightforwardly employed in the rapid, ultrasensitive, quantitative, and simultaneous detection of multiple AKI-related biomarkers directly in patient urine samples, providing an unparalleled detection capability beyond those of conventional analysis methods. Additional key advantages of the ZnO NRs-based approach include a fast detection speed, low-volume assay condition, multiplexing ability, and easy automation/integration capability to existing fluorescence instrumentation. Therefore, we anticipate that our ZnO NRs-based detection method will be highly beneficial for overcoming the frequent challenges in early biomarker development and treatment assessment, pertaining to the facile and ultrasensitive quantification

  9. Prognostic and diagnostic potential of local and circulating levels of pentraxin 3 in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Infante, Maurizio; Allavena, Paola; Garlanda, Cecilia; Nebuloni, Manuela; Morenghi, Emanuela; Rahal, Daoud; Roncalli, Massimo; Cavuto, Silvio; Pesce, Samantha; Monari, Marta; Valaperta, Serenella; Montanelli, Alessandro; Solomon, Daniel; Bottoni, Edoardo; Errico, Valentina; Voulaz, Emanuele; Bossi, Manuela; Chiesa, Giuseppe; Passera, Eliseo; Mantovani, Alberto; Alloisio, Marco

    2016-02-15

    There is a well-established link between inflammation and cancer of various organs, but little data are available on inflammation-associated markers of diagnostic and prognostic clinical utility in pulmonary malignancy. Blood samples were prospectively collected from 75 resectable lung cancer patients before surgery and in a cohort of 1,358 high-risk subjects. Serum levels of long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) were determined by high-sensitivity ELISA. PTX3 immunostaining was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in cancer tissue. Serum PTX3 levels in the high-risk population were not predictive of developing subsequent lung cancer or any other malignancy; however, serum PTX3 values in patients with lung cancer were significantly higher compared with cancer-free heavy smokers. With a cutoff of 4.5 ng/ml, specificity was 0.80, sensitivity 0.69, positive predictive value 0.15 and negative predictive value 0.98. The receiver operating curve (ROC) for serum PTX3 had an area under the curve (AUC) of 83.52%. Preoperative serum PTX3 levels in lung cancer patients did not correlate with patient outcome, but high interstitial expression of PTX3 in resected tumor specimens was a significant independent prognostic factor associated with shorter survival (p < 0.001). These results support the potential of serum PTX3 as a lung cancer biomarker in high-risk subjects. Furthermore, PTX3 immunohistochemistry findings support the role of local inflammatory mechanisms in determining clinical outcome and suggest that local expression of PTX3 may be of prognostic utility in lung cancer patients.

  10. Genome Analysis of Osteosarcoma Progression Samples Identifies FGFR1 Overexpression as a Potential Treatment Target and CHM as a Candidate Tumor Suppressor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Barøy, Tale; Chilamakuri, Chandra S. R.; Lorenz, Susanne; Sun, Jinchang; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Myklebost, Ola; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone, showing complex chromosomal rearrangements but with few known consistent changes. Deeper biological understanding is crucial to find new therapies to improve patient survival. We have sequenced the whole exome of two primary tumors (before and after chemotherapy), one metastatic tumor and a matched normal sample from two OS patients, to identify mutations involved in cancer biology. The metastatic samples were also RNA sequenced. By RNA sequencing we identified dysregulated expression levels of drug resistance- and apoptosis-related genes. Two fusion transcripts were identified in one patient (OS111); the first resulted in p53 inactivation by fusing the first exon of TP53 to the fifth exon of FAM45A. The second fusion joined the two first exons of FGFR1 to the second exon of ZNF343. Furthermore, FGFR1 was amplified and highly expressed, representing a potential treatment target in this patient. Whole exome sequencing revealed large intertumor heterogeneity, with surprisingly few shared mutations. Careful evaluation and validation of the data sets revealed a number of artefacts, but one recurrent mutation was validated, a nonsense mutation in CHM (patient OS106), which also was the mutation with the highest expression frequency (53%). The second patient (OS111) had wild-type CHM, but a downregulated expression level. In a panel of 71 clinical samples, we confirmed significant low expression of CHM compared to the controls (p = 0.003). Furthermore, by analyzing public datasets, we identified a significant association between low expression and poor survival in two other cancer types. Together, these results suggest CHM as a candidate tumor suppressor gene that warrants further investigation. PMID:27685995

  11. Potential toxic effects of aircraft de-icers and wastewater samples containing these compounds.

    PubMed

    Mohiley, A; Franzaring, J; Calvo, O C; Fangmeier, A

    2015-09-01

    One of the major problems of airport operation is the impact of pollution caused by runoff waters. Runoff waters at an airport may contain high concentrations of different contaminants resulting from various activities of its operation. High quantities of aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids are used annually at airports worldwide. Aircraft de-icers and anti-icers may have negative environmental impacts, but their effects on aquatic organisms are virtually unknown. In order to address this issue, aircraft de-icers, pavement de-icers and wastewater samples were obtained from a regional airport. To evaluate the toxicity of wastewater samples and aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids (ADAFs), two bio-tests were performed: the Lemna growth inhibition test according to OECD guideline 221 and the luminescent bacteria test according to ISO guideline 11348-2. In the Lemna growth inhibition test, phytotoxicity was assessed using the endpoints frond number and frond area. The luminescent bacteria test involved the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The estimates of effective concentrations (EC50) values were determined using the free software R and the "drc" library. Aquatic plants and marine bacteria showed a higher sensitivity towards ADAFs than to wastewater samples. Experiments showed that aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids and wastewater samples were relatively more toxic towards Lemna gibba L. in comparison to V. fischeri. PMID:25925142

  12. An investigation of potential applications of OP-SAPS: Operational Sampled Analog Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, E. A.; Mcvey, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    The application of OP-SAP's (operational sampled analog processors) in pattern recognition system is summarized. Areas investigated include: (1) human face recognition; (2) a high-speed programmable transversal filter system; (3) discrete word (speech) recognition; and (4) a resolution enhancement system.

  13. Potential toxic effects of aircraft de-icers and wastewater samples containing these compounds.

    PubMed

    Mohiley, A; Franzaring, J; Calvo, O C; Fangmeier, A

    2015-09-01

    One of the major problems of airport operation is the impact of pollution caused by runoff waters. Runoff waters at an airport may contain high concentrations of different contaminants resulting from various activities of its operation. High quantities of aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids are used annually at airports worldwide. Aircraft de-icers and anti-icers may have negative environmental impacts, but their effects on aquatic organisms are virtually unknown. In order to address this issue, aircraft de-icers, pavement de-icers and wastewater samples were obtained from a regional airport. To evaluate the toxicity of wastewater samples and aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids (ADAFs), two bio-tests were performed: the Lemna growth inhibition test according to OECD guideline 221 and the luminescent bacteria test according to ISO guideline 11348-2. In the Lemna growth inhibition test, phytotoxicity was assessed using the endpoints frond number and frond area. The luminescent bacteria test involved the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The estimates of effective concentrations (EC50) values were determined using the free software R and the "drc" library. Aquatic plants and marine bacteria showed a higher sensitivity towards ADAFs than to wastewater samples. Experiments showed that aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids and wastewater samples were relatively more toxic towards Lemna gibba L. in comparison to V. fischeri.

  14. Direct Molecular Diagnosis of Aspergillosis and CYP51A Profiling from Respiratory Samples of French Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanan; Garnaud, Cécile; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Thiébaut-Bertrand, Anne; Saint-Raymond, Christel; Camara, Boubou; Hamidfar, Rebecca; Cognet, Odile; Maubon, Danièle; Cornet, Muriel; Perlin, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microbiological diagnosis of aspergillosis and triazole resistance is limited by poor culture yield. To better estimate this shortcoming, we compared culture and molecular detection of A. fumigatus in respiratory samples from French patients at risk for aspergillosis. Methods: A total of 97 respiratory samples including bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL), bronchial aspirates (BA), tracheal aspirates, sputa, pleural fluids, and lung biopsy were collected from 33 patients having invasive aspergillosis (n = 12), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (n = 3), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (n = 7), or colonization (n = 11) and 28 controls. Each specimen was evaluated by culture, pan-Aspergillus qPCR, and CYP51A PCR and sequencing. Results: One A. flavus and 19 A. fumigatus with one multiazole resistant strain (5.3%) were cultured from 20 samples. Culture positivity was 62.5, 75, 42.9, and 15.8% in ABPA, CPA, IA, and colonized patients, respectively. Aspergillus detection rate was significantly higher by pan-Aspergillus qPCR than by culture in IA (90.5 vs. 42.9%; P < 0.05) and colonization group (73.7 vs. 15.8%; P < 0.05). The CYP51A PCR found one TR34/L98H along with 5 novel cyp51A mutations (4 non-synonymous and 1 promoter mutations), yet no association can be established currently between these novel mutations and azole resistance. The analysis of 11 matched pairs of BA and BAL samples found that 9/11 BA carried greater fungal load than BAL and CYP51A detection was more sensitive in BA than in BAL. Conclusion: Direct molecular detection of Aspergillus spp. and azole resistance markers are useful adjunct tools for comprehensive aspergillosis diagnosis. The observed superior diagnostic value of BAs to BAL fluids warrants more in-depth study. PMID:27524978

  15. Post-sampling mortality and non-response patterns in the English Cancer Patient Experience Survey: Implications for epidemiological studies based on surveys of cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Gary A.; Saunders, Catherine L.; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Background Surveys of the experience of cancer patients are increasingly being introduced in different countries and used in cancer epidemiology research. Sampling processes, post-sampling mortality and survey non-response can influence the representativeness of cancer patient surveys. Methods We examined predictors of post-sampling mortality and non-response among patients initially included in the sampling frame of the English Cancer Patient Experience Survey. We also compared the respondents’ diagnostic case-mix to other relevant populations of cancer patients, including incident and prevalent cases. Results Of 109,477 initially sampled cancer patients, 6273 (5.7%) died between sampling and survey mail-out. Older age and diagnosis of brain, lung and pancreatic cancer were associated with higher risk of post-sampling mortality. The overall response rate was 67% (67,713 respondents), being >70% for the most affluent patients and those diagnosed with colon or breast cancer and <50% for Asian or Black patients, those under 35 and those diagnosed with brain cancer. The diagnostic case-mix of respondents varied substantially from incident or prevalent cancer cases. Conclusions Respondents to the English Cancer Patient Experience Survey represent a population of recently treated cancer survivors. Although patient survey data can provide unique insights for improving cancer care quality, features of survey populations need to be acknowledged when analysing and interpreting findings from studies using such data. PMID:26797675

  16. A Genomic Sample Sequence of the Entomopathogenic Bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens W14: Potential Implications for Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Waterfield, Nicholas; Burland, Valerie; Perna, Nicole T.; Daborn, Phillip J.; Bowen, David; Blattner, Frederick R.

    2000-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens is a pathogenic bacterium that lives in the guts of insect-pathogenic nematodes. After invasion of an insect host by a nematode, bacteria are released from the nematode gut and help kill the insect, in which both the bacteria and the nematodes subsequently replicate. However, the bacterial virulence factors associated with this “symbiosis of pathogens” remain largely obscure. In order to identify genes encoding potential virulence factors, we performed ∼2,000 random sequencing reads from a P. luminescens W14 genomic library. We then compared the sequences obtained to sequences in existing gene databases and to the Escherichia coli K-12 genome sequence. Here we describe the different classes of potential virulence factors found. These factors include genes that putatively encode Tc insecticidal toxin complexes, Rtx-like toxins, proteases and lipases, colicin and pyocins, and various antibiotics. They also include a diverse array of secretion (e.g., type III), iron uptake, and lipopolysaccharide production systems. We speculate on the potential functions of each of these gene classes in insect infection and also examine the extent to which the invertebrate pathogen P. luminescens shares potential antivertebrate virulence factors. The implications for understanding both the biology of this insect pathogen and links between the evolution of vertebrate virulence factors and the evolution of invertebrate virulence factors are discussed. PMID:10919786

  17. Piezoresistive Membrane Surface Stress Sensors for Characterization of Breath Samples of Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Hans Peter; Loizeau, Frédéric; Hiou-Feige, Agnès; Rivals, Jean-Paul; Romero, Pedro; Akiyama, Terunobu; Gerber, Christoph; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    For many diseases, where a particular organ is affected, chemical by-products can be found in the patient’s exhaled breath. Breath analysis is often done using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, but interpretation of results is difficult and time-consuming. We performed characterization of patients’ exhaled breath samples by an electronic nose technique based on an array of nanomechanical membrane sensors. Each membrane is coated with a different thin polymer layer. By pumping the exhaled breath into a measurement chamber, volatile organic compounds present in patients’ breath diffuse into the polymer layers and deform the membranes by changes in surface stress. The bending of the membranes is measured piezoresistively and the signals are converted into voltages. The sensor deflection pattern allows one to characterize the condition of the patient. In a clinical pilot study, we investigated breath samples from head and neck cancer patients and healthy control persons. Evaluation using principal component analysis (PCA) allowed a clear distinction between the two groups. As head and neck cancer can be completely removed by surgery, the breath of cured patients was investigated after surgery again and the results were similar to those of the healthy control group, indicating that surgery was successful. PMID:27455276

  18. Coping strategies in a sample of anxiety patients: factorial analysis and associations with psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Gino; Frustaci, Alessandra; Tedeschi, Daniela; Solaroli, Silvia; Grandinetti, Paolo; Di Nicola, Marco; Janiri, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between coping styles and mental disorders has received considerable attention and instruments have been developed to assess coping strategies. The measurement by means of category systems has been criticized and a functional hierarchy of action types linked to the adaptive processes is preferred. We aimed to determine which factors may exist within the Brief-COPE (Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced – COPE – Inventory) in an Italian sample of patients with anxiety disorders; and if these factors correlate with the severity of psychopathology or with other characteristics. Methods A total sample of 148 patients was recruited. The Brief-COPE inventory, the Symptom Check List 90-Revised, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, the Zung Anxiety Status Inventory and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were administered. Results Factor analysis of the Brief-COPE yielded nine factors accounting for 65.48% of the variance. Patients scored higher on Searching Support, followed by Acceptance, Changing Perspective, and Problem Solving. Associations between measures of psychopathology and factors of coping strategies, mostly Searching support and Avoidance, were found. Conclusions Data of the present study support a nine-factor structure of the Brief-COPE that includes five broad dimensions of coping. Psychopathology was mostly related to Searching support and Avoidance factors, showing that these strategies may reflect ineffective ways of coping; Problem solving and Changing perspective could be a valid approach to moderate anxiety/depression symptoms and psychopathology in general. PMID:26356192

  19. Clinical, radiological and molecular diagnosis correlation in serum samples from patients with osteoarticular tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    García-Elorriaga, Guadalupe; Martínez-Elizondo, Olga; del Rey-Pineda, Guillermo; González-Bonilla, César

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in serum samples, in the diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis (OTB) in a setting where only clinical and imaging diagnoses determine the treatment. Methods A total of 44 consecutive serum specimens were collected from clinically suspected OTB patients, based on clinical and radiological [X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography] features. They were screened by in-house nested PCR. In addition, a few specimens were examined by Gram stain, acid-fast bacilli stain, histopathology and routine bacterial culture. A total of 39 specimens were collected from patients suffering from other bone diseases of nontuberculous origin and included as negative controls. Results Of the 44 clinically suspected OTB patients, in-house nested PCR was positive in 40 (91%) cases; PCR was negative in 38 (97%) negative controls. Sensitivity and specificity of our in-house nested PCR was 90.9% and 97.4%, respectively. The PCR report was available within 48 h. It was possible to standardize serum PCR technique and in positive cases, a good correlation was observed in terms of an adequate treatment response. Conclusions Nested PCR in serum samples is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific modality for OTB detection. PCR should be performed in addition to clinical evaluation, imaging studies, acid-fast bacilli staining, culture and histopathology diagnosis, if possible. PMID:25183281

  20. A Bayesian approach for the estimation of patient compliance based on the last sampling information.

    PubMed

    Barrière, Olivier; Li, Jun; Nekka, Fahima

    2011-06-01

    Poor adherence to a drug prescription significantly impacts on the efficacy and safety of a planned therapy. The relationship between drug intake and pharmacokinetics (PK) is only partially known. In this work, we focus on the so-called "inverse problem", concerned with the issue of retracing the patient compliance scenario using limited clinical knowledge. Using a reported Pop-PK model of imatinib, and accounting for the variability around its PK parameters, we were able to simulate a whole range of drug concentration values at a specific sampling point for a population of patients with all possible drug compliance profiles. Using a Bayesian decision rule, we developed a methodology for the determination of the associated compliance profile prior to a given sampling value. The adopted approach allows, for the first time, to quantitatively acquire knowledge about the compliance patterns having a causal effect on a given PK. Moreover, using a simulation approach, we were able to evaluate the evolution of success rate of the retracing process in terms of the considered time period before sampling as well as the model-inherited variability. In conclusion, this work allows, from a probability viewpoint, to propose a solution for this inverse problem of compliance determination. PMID:21445612

  1. Metabolomics profiling in plasma samples from glioma patients correlates with tumor phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Heimberger, Amy B.; Lu, Zhimin; Wu, Xifeng; Hodges, Tiffany R.; Song, Renduo; Shen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Tumor-based molecular biomarkers have redefined in the classification gliomas. However, the association of systemic metabolomics with glioma phenotype has not been explored yet. Methods In this study, we conducted two-step (discovery and validation) metabolomic profiling in plasma samples from 87 glioma patients. The metabolomics data were tested for correlation with glioma grade (high vs low), glioblastoma (GBM) versus malignant gliomas, and IDH mutation status. Results Five metabolites, namely uracil, arginine, lactate, cystamine, and ornithine, significantly differed between high- and low-grade glioma patients in both the discovery and validation cohorts. When the discovery and validation cohorts were combined, we identified 29 significant metabolites with 18 remaining significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Those 18 significant metabolites separated high- from low-grade glioma patients with 91.1% accuracy. In the pathway analysis, a total of 18 significantly metabolic pathways were identified. Similarly, we identified 2 and 6 metabolites that significantly differed between GBM and non-GBM, and IDH mutation positive and negative patients after multiple comparison adjusting. Those 6 significant metabolites separated IDH1 mutation positive from negative glioma patients with 94.4% accuracy. Three pathways were identified to be associated with IDH mutation status. Within arginine and proline metabolism, levels of intermediate metabolites in creatine pathway were all significantly lower in IDH mutation positive than in negative patients, suggesting an increased activity of creatine pathway in IDH mutation positive tumors. Conclusion Our findings identified metabolites and metabolic pathways that differentiated tumor phenotypes. These may be useful as host biomarker candidates to further help glioma molecular classification. PMID:26967252

  2. Adolescents with personality disorders suffer from severe psychiatric stigma: evidence from a sample of 131 patients

    PubMed Central

    Catthoor, Kirsten; Feenstra, Dine J; Hutsebaut, Joost; Schrijvers, Didier; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to assess the severity of psychiatric stigma in a sample of personality disordered adolescents in order to evaluate whether differences in stigma can be found in adolescents with different types and severity of personality disorders (PDs). Not only adults but children and adolescents with mental health problems suffer from psychiatric stigma. In contrast to the abundance of research in adult psychiatric samples, stigma in children and adolescents has hardly been investigated. Personality disordered adolescents with fragile identities and self-esteem might be especially prone to feeling stigmatized, an experience which might further shape their identity throughout this critical developmental phase. Materials and methods One hundred thirty-one adolescent patients underwent a standard assessment with Axis I and Axis II diagnostic interviews and two stigma instruments, Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and Perceived Devaluation–Discrimination Questionnaire (PDDQ). Independent sample t-tests were used to investigate differences in the mean SCQ and PDDQ total scores for patients with and without a PD. Multiple regression main effect analyses were conducted to explore the impact of the different PDs on level of stigma, as well as comorbid Axis I disorders. Age and sex were also entered in the regression models. Results and conclusions Adolescents with severe mental health problems experience a burden of stigma. Personality disordered patients experience more stigma than adolescents with other severe psychiatric Axis I disorders. Borderline PD is the strongest predictor of experiences of stigma. More severely personality disordered adolescents tend to experience the highest level of stigma. PMID:25999774

  3. Genotype identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi isolates from stool samples of HIV-infected Tunisian patients

    PubMed Central

    Chabchoub, N.; Abdelmalek, R.; Breton, J.; Kanoun, F.; Thellier, M.; Bouratbine, A.; Aoun, K.

    2012-01-01

    The microsporidian species Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a major cause of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption in patients with AIDS. Genotyping was performed on seven E. bieneusi strains for the first time in Tunisia. All the strains were isolated from stool samples of humans with immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Analysis of the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) allowed the identification of three distinct genotypes previously described in other studies. Genotypes D and B were characterized in four and two respectively. The Peruvian genotype (Peru 8) was detected in the last isolate. These results indicate a genetic diversity in E. bieneusi strains from HIV Tunisian patients and suggest the coexistence of both zoonotic and anthroponotic route of transmission. PMID:22550625

  4. Genotype identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi isolates from stool samples of HIV-infected Tunisian patients.

    PubMed

    Chabchoub, N; Abdelmalek, R; Breton, J; Kanoun, F; Thellier, M; Bouratbine, A; Aoun, K

    2012-05-01

    The microsporidian species Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a major cause of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption in patients with AIDS. Genotyping was performed on seven E. bieneusi strains for the first time in Tunisia. All the strains were isolated from stool samples of humans with immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Analysis of the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) allowed the identification of three distinct genotypes previously described in other studies. Genotypes D and B were characterized in four and two respectively. The Peruvian genotype (Peru 8) was detected in the last isolate. These results indicate a genetic diversity in E. bieneusi strains from HIV Tunisian patients and suggest the coexistence of both zoonotic and anthroponotic route of transmission.

  5. Errors in Measuring Water Potentials of Small Samples Resulting from Water Adsorption by Thermocouple Psychrometer Chambers 1

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jerry M.; Cortes, Peter M.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption of water by thermocouple psychrometer assemblies is known to cause errors in the determination of water potential. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of sample size and psychrometer chamber volume on measured water potentials of leaf discs, leaf segments, and sodium chloride solutions. Reasonable agreement was found between soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) leaf water potentials measured on 5-millimeter radius leaf discs and large leaf segments. Results indicated that while errors due to adsorption may be significant when using small volumes of tissue, if sufficient tissue is used the errors are negligible. Because of the relationship between water potential and volume in plant tissue, the errors due to adsorption were larger with turgid tissue. Large psychrometers which were sealed into the sample chamber with latex tubing appeared to adsorb more water than those sealed with flexible plastic tubing. Estimates are provided of the amounts of water adsorbed by two different psychrometer assemblies and the amount of tissue sufficient for accurate measurements of leaf water potential with these assemblies. It is also demonstrated that water adsorption problems may have generated low water potential values which in prior studies have been attributed to large cut surface area to volume ratios. PMID:16664367

  6. Can chest trauma patients provide breath sample with Lion SD-400 Alcometer?

    PubMed

    Rathinam, Sridhar; Luke, David; Nanjaiah, Prakash; Kalkat, Maninder S; Steyn, Richard S

    2009-06-01

    Various investigators have addressed the minimum lung function required to activate breathalyzers, and the impact of comorbid respiratory illness. We postulated that subjects with significant chest trauma may have difficulty in providing an adequate breathalyzer sample. A prospective self-controlled study of 20 patients who underwent thoracotomy was conducted between August 2005 and December 2005, using a Lion Alcometer SD-400. The mean age of the patients was 69.3 years (range, 37-83 years). Preoperatively, their mean forced expiratory volume was 1.97 L (range, 1.19-2.46 L), and peak expiratory flow rate was 240 L min(-1) (range, 126-520 L min(-1)). Postoperatively, mean forced expiratory volume was 1.14 L (range, 0.34-2.2 L) and peak expiratory flow rate was 179 L min(-1) (range, 36-492 L min(-1)). These decreases were highly significant. All patients activated the breathalyzer device preoperatively, but only 2 (10%) could activate it postoperatively. Extrapolating this to patients with chest injury, most may find it impossible to activate breathalyzers. PMID:19643853

  7. Multielemental analysis of samples from patients with dermatological pathologies using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J. C. A. C. R.; Canellas, C. G. L.; Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.

    2014-02-01

    Using synchrotron radiation total X-ray fluorescence (SRTXRF) technique, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in four skin lesions: seborrheic keratosis, fibroepithelial polyp, cherry angioma and dermatosis papulosa nigra. The concentrations of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb were evaluated in 62 pairs of lesions and healthy samples, each one having been collected from the same patient. The results revealed significant differences of P, Ca, K, Fe and Cu levels as well as a common trend in their variations between lesion and control samples among the skin diseases. This study revealed a powerful tool that can be useful for skin disorders research. The measurements were conducted at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS).

  8. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): sensitivity in an Italian sample of patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, M; Ferroni, L; Lombardi, L; Del Torto, E; Vista, M; Moretti, P

    1992-05-01

    The sensitivity of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was assessed in a sample of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type or vascular dementia. The MMSE identified the majority of pts with diffuse cognitive impairment but did not discriminate between the two types of dementia. If failed to detect mild deterioration or forms in which only some cognitive functions were impaired. The test is therefore not sufficient for distinguishing deteriorated from non deteriorated pts, although it is still useful in mass screening or for a quick assessment of deterioration in the course of clinical neurological examination.

  9. Clinical Significance of National Patients Sample Analysis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Length of Stay of Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Jun Yeob; Yeo, Woon Hyung; Park, Ha Young; Park, Kyung Hye; Cho, Junho; Kim, Hyunjong; Kim, Gun Bea; Park, Deuk Hyun; Yoon, Yoo Sang; Kim, Yang Weon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study considered whether there could be a change of mortality and length of stay as a result of inter-hospital transfer, clinical department, and size of hospital for patients with organophosphates and carbamates poisoning via National Patients Sample data of the year 2009, which was obtained from Health Insurance Review and Assessment Services (HIRA). The utility and representativeness of the HIRA data as the source of prognosis analysis in poisoned patients were also evaluated. Methods Organophosphate and carbamate poisoned patients' mortality and length of stay were analyzed in relation to the initial and final treating hospitals and departments, as well as the presence of inter-hospital transfers. Results Among a total of 146 cases, there were 17 mortality cases, and the mean age was 56.8 ± 19.2 years. The median length of stay was 6 days. There was no inter-hospital or inter-departmental difference in length of stay. However, it significantly increased when inter-hospital transfer occurred (transferred 11 days vs. non-transferred 6 days; p = 0.037). Overall mortality rate was 11.6%. The mortality rate significantly increased when inter-hospital transfer occurred (transferred 23.5% vs. non-transferred 7.0%; p = 0.047), but there was no statistical difference in mortality on inter-hospital and inter-department comparison at the initial treating facility. However, at the final treating facility, there was a significant difference between tertiary and general hospitals (5.1% for tertiary hospitals and 17.3% for general hospitals; p = 0.024), although there was no significant inter-departmental difference. Conclusions We demonstrated that hospital, clinical department, length of stay, and mortality could be analyzed using insurance claim data of a specific disease group. Our results also indicated that length of stay and mortality according to inter-hospital transfer could be analyzed, which was previously unknown. PMID:24523992

  10. Micronutrients, their potential effect on patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ya-Nan; Yan, Jun-Wei; Peng, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Jun-Qing; Xiao, Chang-Chun; Wang, Bing-Xiang; Wang, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Over the past years, several evidences have supported an important role of specific micronutrients, including vitamin A, vitamin D and vitamin E in immune dysfunction, vascular involvement and fibrotic changes involved in systemic sclerosis (SSc) development. In PubMed, eight clinical trials about the therapy of micronutrients on SSc patients were searched out using medical subject headings terms (SSc: "scleroderma, localized", "scleroderma, systemic", "scleroderma, diffuse" and "scleroderma, limited"; vitamins "vitamin A", "thiamin", "riboflavin", "niacin", "pantothenic acid", "vitamin B 6", "biotin", "folic acid", "vitamin B 12", "inositol", "choline", "ascorbic acid", "vitamin D", "vitamin E", "tocopherols", "vitamin K" and "vitamin P"; and minerals: "calcium", "magnesium", "potassium", "sodium", "phosphorus", "sulfur", "chlorine", "iron", "copper", "iodine", "zinc", "selenium", "manganese", "molybdenum", "cobalt", "chromium", "tin", "vanadium", "silicon", "nickel" and "fluorine"). This brief review will summarize current understanding on that for the further prospect of future studies. Though the clinical trials for the treatment of SSc with micronutrients are still in their infancy, more researches are needed to substantiate the current results and accelerate the knowledge in this field.

  11. Comparison of Gingival Crevicular Fluid Sampling Methods in Patients with Severe Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Guentsch, Arndt; Kramesberger, Martin; Sroka, Aneta; Pfister, Wolfgang; Potempa, Jan; Eick, Sigrun

    2011-01-01

    Background Analysis of samplings from periodontal pockets is important in diagnosis and therapy control of periodontitis. In this study, three different sampling techniques were compared to determine if one method can yield samples suitable for reproducible and simultaneous determination of bacterial load, cytokines, neutrophil elastase, and Arg-specific gingipains. R-gingipains are an important virulence factor of Porphyromonas gingivalis, the exact concentration of which in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) has not yet been quantified. Methods GCF was sampled from four sites per patient (each two sites one method) in 36 chronic periodontitis patients. One week later, the procedure was repeated with alternative methods. The variables that had been determined were: loads of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8, activity of neutrophil elastase and level of R-gingipains. Results The detected cytokine levels were higher using paper strips compared to paper points. Bacteria were found in similar loads from the paper strips and paper points. R-gingipains were detectable in high quantities only by washing of the periodontal pocket. The level of R-gingipains correlated with the load of P. gingivalis. Conclusion The use of paper strips is suitable for simultaneous determination of microbial and immunological parameters. Obtaining GCF by washing can be useful for special purposes. Gingipain concentration in periodontal pockets was directly determined to be up to 1.5 μM. This value indicates that most of so far identified substrates of these proteases by in vitro assays can be easily degraded in P. gingivalis infected sites. PMID:21235330

  12. [Investigation of adenovirus isolation frequency from the stool samples of patients suspected with acute flaccid paralysis].

    PubMed

    Bayrakdar, Fatma; Coşgun, Yasemin; Salman Atak, Tunca; Karademir, Hülya; Korukluoğlu, Gülay

    2016-04-01

    Although adenoviruses (AdVs) generally cause upper respiratory tract infections, conjunctivitis/epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, gastroenteritis and pneumonia, they can lead to the involvement of central nervous system. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a type of seizure, characterized by rapid and sudden onset of extreme weakness in hands and feet, including (less frequently) weakness of respiratory and swallowing, representing with decreased muscle tone, especially in children below 15-year-old. The major viral cause of AFP is polioviruses, however non-polio enteroviruses, mumps virus, rabies virus and flaviviruses can also be responsible for AFP. The data of some recent studies have pointed out the probable aetiological role of AdVs in AFP. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of AdVs from stool samples of AFP-suspected patients and their contacts. A total of 6130 stool samples from patients (age range: 0-15 years) prediagnosed as AFP (n= 3185) and their contacts (n= 2945), which were sent to our laboratory from the health care centers located at different regions of Turkey for the monitorization of poliomyelitis as part of national AFP surveillance programme, between 2000-2014, have been retrospectively evaluated in terms of adenovirus isolation frequency. Samples were analyzed according to the algorithm recommended by World Health Organization and inoculated in Hep-2, RD, and L20B cell lines for cultivation. Apart from enteroviruses, in case of the presence of characteristic cytopathic effects for AdVs observed in L20B cells were confirmed by a commercial Adeno agglutination kit (Diarlex Adeno; Orion Diagnostica, Finland). It was noted that AdVs have been isolated from 1.6% (97/6130) of the samples, and out of positive samples 76.3% (74/97) were from AFP-suspected cases, while 23.7% (23/97) were from their contacts. Accordingly the frequencies of AdVs from AFP-suspected cases and their contacts were found as 2.3% (74/3185) and 0.8% (23

  13. Potential and Challenges in Collecting Social and Behavioral Data on Adolescent Alcohol Norms: Comparing Respondent-Driven Sampling and Web-Based Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Janina; Burns, Sharyn; Zhao, Yun; Lobo, Roanna; Howat, Peter; Allsop, Steve

    2015-01-01

    RDS resulted in partially different sample characteristics to traditional RDS. This potential effect should be considered when selecting the most appropriate data collection method. PMID:26704736

  14. In vitro assessment of potential intestinal absorption of some phenolic families and carboxylic acids from commercial instant coffee samples.

    PubMed

    López-Froilán, R; Ramírez-Moreno, E; Podio, N S; Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Cámara, M; Baroni, M V; Wunderlin, D A; Sánchez-Mata, M C

    2016-06-15

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world, being a source of bioactive compounds as well as flavors. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and carboxylic acids have been studied in the samples of instant coffee commercialized in Spain. The studies about contents of food components should be complemented with either in vitro or in vivo bioaccessibility studies to know the amount of food components effectively available for functions in the human body. In this sense, a widely used in vitro model has been applied to assess the potential intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds and organic acids. The contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were higher in instant regular coffee samples than in the decaffeinated ones. Bioaccessible phenolic compounds in most analyzed samples account for 20-25% of hydroxycinnamic acids and 17-26% of flavonols. This could mean that a great part of them can remain in the gut, acting as potential in situ antioxidants. Quinic, acetic, pyroglutamic, citric and fumaric acids were identified in commercial instant coffee samples. Succinic acid was found in the coffee blend containing chicory. All carboxylic acids showed a very high bioaccessibility. Particularly, acetic acid and quinic acid were found in higher contents in the samples treated with the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal processes, compared to the original ones, which can be explained by their cleavage from chlorogenic acid during digestion. This is considered as a positive effect, since quinic acid is considered as an antioxidant inducer.

  15. Systematic comparison of nutraceuticals and antioxidant potential of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial Melissa officinalis samples.

    PubMed

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria João; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-06-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) infusions are used worldwide for digestive, analgesic and other pharmaceutical applications. Herein, the nutraceuticals production and antioxidant potential in garden cultivated, in vitro cultured and two commercial samples (bags and granulated) of lemon balm was compared. The profile of in vitro cultured lemon balm is closer of garden cultivated sample than of both commercial samples (bag or granulate). It presented the highest levels of proteins and ash, and the lowest energetic value. The most favorable n6/n3 ration, as also the highest PUFA (mostly α-linolenic acid), tocopherols (including α-, γ- and δ-isoforms) and ascorbic acid contents were also observed in this sample. Nevertheless, it was the commercial bag lemon balm that gave the highest antioxidant activity and the highest levels of phenolics and flavonoids. As far as we kwon, this is the first comparison of nutraceuticals and antioxidant potential of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial lemon balm samples. Moreover, it proved that in vitro culture might be used to stimulate vitamins production. PMID:22445737

  16. A holistic passive integrative sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential impacts of waterborne environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brumbaugh, W. G.; Cranor, W.L.; Gale, R.W.; Rastall, A.C.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Leiker, T.J.; Rostad, C. E.; Furlong, E.T.

    2004-01-01

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler is applicable for sequestering waterborne hydrophilic organic chemicals, the stabilized liquid membrane device is used to integratively sample waterborne ionic metals, and the passive integrative mercury sampler is applicable for sampling vapor phase or dissolved neutral mercury species. This suite of integrative samplers forms the basis for a new passive sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential toxicological significance of a broad spectrum of environmental contaminants. In a proof-of-concept study, three of our four passive integrative samplers were used to assess the presence of a wide variety of contaminants in the waters of a constructed wetland, and to determine the effectiveness of the constructed wetland in removing contaminants. The wetland is used for final polishing of secondary-treatment municipal wastewater and the effluent is used as a source of water for a state wildlife area. Numerous contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphate pesticides, and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g., ibuprofen, oxindole, etc.) were detected in the wastewater. Herein we summarize the results of the analysis of the field-deployed samplers and demonstrate the utility of this holistic approach.

  17. In vitro assessment of potential intestinal absorption of some phenolic families and carboxylic acids from commercial instant coffee samples.

    PubMed

    López-Froilán, R; Ramírez-Moreno, E; Podio, N S; Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Cámara, M; Baroni, M V; Wunderlin, D A; Sánchez-Mata, M C

    2016-06-15

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world, being a source of bioactive compounds as well as flavors. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and carboxylic acids have been studied in the samples of instant coffee commercialized in Spain. The studies about contents of food components should be complemented with either in vitro or in vivo bioaccessibility studies to know the amount of food components effectively available for functions in the human body. In this sense, a widely used in vitro model has been applied to assess the potential intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds and organic acids. The contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were higher in instant regular coffee samples than in the decaffeinated ones. Bioaccessible phenolic compounds in most analyzed samples account for 20-25% of hydroxycinnamic acids and 17-26% of flavonols. This could mean that a great part of them can remain in the gut, acting as potential in situ antioxidants. Quinic, acetic, pyroglutamic, citric and fumaric acids were identified in commercial instant coffee samples. Succinic acid was found in the coffee blend containing chicory. All carboxylic acids showed a very high bioaccessibility. Particularly, acetic acid and quinic acid were found in higher contents in the samples treated with the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal processes, compared to the original ones, which can be explained by their cleavage from chlorogenic acid during digestion. This is considered as a positive effect, since quinic acid is considered as an antioxidant inducer. PMID:27191052

  18. Systematic comparison of nutraceuticals and antioxidant potential of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial Melissa officinalis samples.

    PubMed

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria João; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-06-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) infusions are used worldwide for digestive, analgesic and other pharmaceutical applications. Herein, the nutraceuticals production and antioxidant potential in garden cultivated, in vitro cultured and two commercial samples (bags and granulated) of lemon balm was compared. The profile of in vitro cultured lemon balm is closer of garden cultivated sample than of both commercial samples (bag or granulate). It presented the highest levels of proteins and ash, and the lowest energetic value. The most favorable n6/n3 ration, as also the highest PUFA (mostly α-linolenic acid), tocopherols (including α-, γ- and δ-isoforms) and ascorbic acid contents were also observed in this sample. Nevertheless, it was the commercial bag lemon balm that gave the highest antioxidant activity and the highest levels of phenolics and flavonoids. As far as we kwon, this is the first comparison of nutraceuticals and antioxidant potential of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial lemon balm samples. Moreover, it proved that in vitro culture might be used to stimulate vitamins production.

  19. Sampling and analyzing alveolar exhaled breath condensate in mechanically ventilated patients: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Rosanna; Corradi, Massimo; Goldoni, Matteo; Cancelliere, Laura; Pulvirenti, Simone; Fazzini, Ugo; Capuzzi, Fabio; Longhini, Federico; Mutti, Antonio; Della Corte, Francesco; Navalesi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies in spontaneously breathing subjects indicate the possibility of obtaining the alveolar fraction of exhaled breath condensate (aEBC). In critically ill mechanically ventilated patients, in whom microbial colonization of the upper airways is constant, collection of aEBC could considerably add to the ability of monitoring alveolar inflammation. We designed this study to test the feasibility of collecting aEBC in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients through a dedicated apparatus, i.e. a CO2 valve combined with a condenser placed in the expiratory limb of the ventilator circuit. We also aimed to assess the adequacy of the samples obtained by measuring different markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. We enrolled 40 mechanically ventilated patients, 20 with and 20 without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Measurements of respiratory mechanics, gas exchange and hemodynamics were obtained with a standard ventilator circuit after 30 min of aEBC collection and after inserting the dedicated collecting apparatus. Data showed that intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure, peak and plateau pressure, static compliance and airway resistance (Raw) were similar before and after adding the collecting apparatus in both ARDS and controls. Similarly, gas exchange and hemodynamic variables did not change and 30 min collection provided a median aEBC volume of 2.100 and 2.300 ml for ARDS and controls, respectively. aEBC pH showed a trend toward a slight reduction in the ARDS group of patients, as opposed to controls (7.83 (7.62-8.03) versus 7.98 (7.87-8.12), respectively, p  =  0.055)). H2O2 was higher in patients with ARDS, compared to controls (0.09 (0.06-0.12) μM versus 0.03 (0.01-0.09) μM, p  =  0.043), while no difference was found in proteins content, 8-isoprostane, 4-hydroxy-2-nonhenal. In conclusion, we demonstrate, in patients receiving controlled mechanical ventilation, that aEBC collection is feasible without

  20. Sampling and analyzing alveolar exhaled breath condensate in mechanically ventilated patients: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Rosanna; Corradi, Massimo; Goldoni, Matteo; Cancelliere, Laura; Pulvirenti, Simone; Fazzini, Ugo; Capuzzi, Fabio; Longhini, Federico; Mutti, Antonio; Della Corte, Francesco; Navalesi, Paolo

    2015-11-19

    Recent studies in spontaneously breathing subjects indicate the possibility of obtaining the alveolar fraction of exhaled breath condensate (aEBC). In critically ill mechanically ventilated patients, in whom microbial colonization of the upper airways is constant, collection of aEBC could considerably add to the ability of monitoring alveolar inflammation. We designed this study to test the feasibility of collecting aEBC in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients through a dedicated apparatus, i.e. a CO2 valve combined with a condenser placed in the expiratory limb of the ventilator circuit. We also aimed to assess the adequacy of the samples obtained by measuring different markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. We enrolled 40 mechanically ventilated patients, 20 with and 20 without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Measurements of respiratory mechanics, gas exchange and hemodynamics were obtained with a standard ventilator circuit after 30 min of aEBC collection and after inserting the dedicated collecting apparatus. Data showed that intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure, peak and plateau pressure, static compliance and airway resistance (Raw) were similar before and after adding the collecting apparatus in both ARDS and controls. Similarly, gas exchange and hemodynamic variables did not change and 30 min collection provided a median aEBC volume of 2.100 and 2.300 ml for ARDS and controls, respectively. aEBC pH showed a trend toward a slight reduction in the ARDS group of patients, as opposed to controls (7.83 (7.62-8.03) versus 7.98 (7.87-8.12), respectively, p  =  0.055)). H2O2 was higher in patients with ARDS, compared to controls (0.09 (0.06-0.12) μM versus 0.03 (0.01-0.09) μM, p  =  0.043), while no difference was found in proteins content, 8-isoprostane, 4-hydroxy-2-nonhenal. In conclusion, we demonstrate, in patients receiving controlled mechanical ventilation, that aEBC collection is feasible without

  1. Sampling the oxidative weathering products and the potentially acidic permafrost on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1988-01-01

    Large areas of Mars' surface are covered by oxidative weathering products containing ferric and sulfate ions having analogies to terrestrial gossans derived from sulfide mineralization associated with iron-rich basalts. Chemical weathering of such massive and disseminated pyrrhotite-pentlandite assemblages and host basaltic rocks in the Martian environment could have produced metastable gossaniferous phases (limonite containing poorly crystalline hydrated ferric sulfates and oxyhydroxides, clay silicates and opal). Underlying groundwater, now permafrost on Mars, may still be acidic due to incomplete buffering reactions by wall-rock alteration of unfractured host rock. Such acidic solutions stabilize temperature-sensitive complex ions and sols which flocculate to colloidal precipitates at elevated temperatures. Sampling procedures of Martian regolith will need to be designed bearing in mind that the frozen permafrost may be corrosive and be stabilizing unique complex ions and sols of Fe, Al, Mg, Ni and other minor elements.

  2. Isolation of Chlamydia Pneumoniae from Serum Samples of the Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Petyaev, Ivan M; Zigangirova, Nayilia A; Petyaev, Alexey M; Pashko, Ulia P; Didenko, Lubov V; Morgunova, Elena U; Bashmakov, Yuriy K

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited body of evidence suggests that lipopolysaccharide of C. pneumoniae as well as C. pneumoniae-specific immune complexes can be detected and isolated from human serum. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of viable elementary bodies of C.pneumoniae in serum samples of patients with acute coronary syndrome and healthy volunteers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum specimens from 26 healthy volunteers and 56 patients with acute coronary syndrome were examined subsequently by serological (C.pneumoniae-specific IgA and IgG), PCR-based and bacteriological methods. Conventional, nested and TaqMan PCR were used to detect C.pneumoniae genetic markers (ompA and 16S rRNA) in DNA from serum specimens extracted with different methods. An alternative protocol which included culturing high-speed serum sediments in HL cells and further C.pneumoniae growth evaluation with immunofluorescence analysis and TaqMan PCR was established. Pellet fraction of PCR-positive serum specimens was also examined by immunoelectron microscopy. RESULTS: Best efficiency of final PCR product recovery from serum specimens has been shown with specific C. pneumoniae primers using phenol-chloroform DNA extraction protocol. TaqMan PCR analysis revealed that human serum of patients with acute coronary syndrome may contain genetic markers of C. pneumoniae with bacterial load range from 200 to 2000 copies/ml serum. However, reliability and reproducibility of TaqMan PCR were poor for serum specimens with low bacterial copy number (<200 /ml). Combination of bacteriological, immunofluorescence and PCR- based protocols applied for the evaluating HL cells infected with serum sediments revealed that 21.0 % of the patients with acute coronary syndrome have viable forms C.pneumoniae in serum. The detection rate of C.pneumoniae in healthy volunteers was much lower (7.7%). Immunological profile of the patients did not match accurately C.pneumoniae detection rate in serum specimens. Elementary

  3. Impulsivity and risk for prescription opioid misuse in a chronic pain patient sample.

    PubMed

    Vest, Noel; Reynolds, Caleb J; Tragesser, Sarah L

    2016-09-01

    Misuse of, and addiction to, prescription opioid pain relievers is a growing concern, in both non-clinical samples and chronic pain patients receiving opioid analgesic therapy. Research is needed to identify which patients may be more prone to misuse or dependence on opioids in a chronic pain treatment setting. Based on literature showing the role of impulsivity in substance use disorders generally, we predicted that impulsivity may also be important to understanding which individuals may be at risk for opioid misuse when opioids are prescribed for pain. The present study examined associations between impulsivity facets and measures of prescription opioid misuse and symptoms. Four facets of impulsivity were examined: urgency, sensation seeking, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance. 143 patients receiving treatment for chronic pain at a regional pain clinic completed a series of questionnaires including the UPPS and measures of opioid risk and misuse. Consistent with predictions, urgency was associated with risk for future misuse (β=0.246, p<0.05), current misuse (β=0.253, p<0.01), and symptoms of current opioid use disorder (OUD; β=0.206, p<0.05). Sensation seeking was also associated with current misuse (β=0.279, p<0.01). These results suggest that identifying facets of impulsivity is important to understanding and assessing for risk of prescription opioid misuse in the context of chronic pain treatment. These data indicate that patients who react impulsively to negative mood states and cravings may be especially prone to developing aberrant use patterns when taking prescription opioids. This is the first known study to identify the role of urgency in predicting risk for OUDs in chronic pain patients. PMID:27156219

  4. Prevalence of primary hyperparathyroidism in a referred sample of fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Robert; Russell, Anthony Science

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of primary hyperparathyroidism in a referred sample of fibromyalgia patients. Consecutively, referred patients with confirmed fibromyalgia (FM group) had measurements of serum levels of vitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, total calcium, magnesium, phosphate, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and parathyroid hormone. The same measurements were also conducted in a group of patients with widespread pain (WP group) who did not meet the 2010 Modified ACR criteria for fibromyalgia and a group with localized musculoskeletal pain (MSK group). A case of primary hyperparathyroidism was defined as a subject whose results showed any of the following: (1) parathyroid hormone levels above 6.8 pmol/L; (2) an ionized calcium above 1.25 mmol/L; or (3) both elevated, in the presence of normal range creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D, phosphate, and magnesium. The mean age and the proportion of subjects who met the case definition of primary hyperparathyroidism were calculated for all groups. There were 125 subjects in the FM group, 127 in the WP group, and 138 in the MSK group. The prevalence rates of primary hyperparathyroidism were 6.4, 5.5, and 6.1%, respectively, for these groups. Comparison of these prevalence rates to published figures for general clinical and non-clinical populations reveals no differences. The prevalence of primary hyperparathyroidism in fibromyalgia patients is not different than that in other patients with WP or those with localized pain, nor is it likely different than that seen in the general population.

  5. The Proposed Mars Astrobiology Explorer - Cacher [MAX-C] Rover: First Step in a Potential Sample Return Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Beaty, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Sample return from Mars has been advocated by numerous scientific advisory panels for over 30 years, most prominently beginning with the National Research Council s [1] strategy for the exploration of the inner solar system, and most recently by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG s) Next Decade Science Analysis Group [2]. Analysis of samples here on Earth would have enormous advantages over in situ analyses in producing the data quality needed to address many of the complex scientific questions the community has posed about Mars. Instead of a small, predetermined set of analytical techniques, state of the art preparative and instrumental resources of the entire scientific community could be applied to the samples. The analytical emphasis could shift as the meaning of each result becomes better appreciated. These arguments apply both to igneous rocks and to layered sedimentary materials, either of which could contain water and other volatile constituents. In 2009 MEPAG formed the Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG) to formulate a mission concept that would address two general objectives: (1) conduct high-priority in situ science and (2) make concrete steps towards the potential return of samples to Earth. This analysis resulted in a mission concept named the Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C), which was envisioned for launch in the 2018 opportunity. After extensive discussion, this group concluded that by far the most definitive contribution to sample return by this mission would be to collect and cache, in an accessible location, a suite of compelling samples that could potentially be recovered and returned by a subsequent mission. This would have the effect of separating two of the essential functions of MSR, the acquisition of the sample collection and its delivery to martian orbit, into two missions.

  6. Using adaptive sampling and triangular meshes for the processing and inversion of potential field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foks, Nathan Leon

    The interpretation of geophysical data plays an important role in the analysis of potential field data in resource exploration industries. Two categories of interpretation techniques are discussed in this thesis; boundary detection and geophysical inversion. Fault or boundary detection is a method to interpret the locations of subsurface boundaries from measured data, while inversion is a computationally intensive method that provides 3D information about subsurface structure. My research focuses on these two aspects of interpretation techniques. First, I develop a method to aid in the interpretation of faults and boundaries from magnetic data. These processes are traditionally carried out using raster grid and image processing techniques. Instead, I use unstructured meshes of triangular facets that can extract inferred boundaries using mesh edges. Next, to address the computational issues of geophysical inversion, I develop an approach to reduce the number of data in a data set. The approach selects the data points according to a user specified proxy for its signal content. The approach is performed in the data domain and requires no modification to existing inversion codes. This technique adds to the existing suite of compressive inversion algorithms. Finally, I develop an algorithm to invert gravity data for an interfacing surface using an unstructured mesh of triangular facets. A pertinent property of unstructured meshes is their flexibility at representing oblique, or arbitrarily oriented structures. This flexibility makes unstructured meshes an ideal candidate for geometry based interface inversions. The approaches I have developed provide a suite of algorithms geared towards large-scale interpretation of potential field data, by using an unstructured representation of both the data and model parameters.

  7. Determination of NTBC in serum samples from patients with hereditary tyrosinemia type I by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cansever, M Serif; Aktuğlu-Zeybek, A Ciğdem; Erim, F Bedia

    2010-03-15

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I is a serious metabolic disorder leading to liver failure. 2-(2-Nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) is a relatively new drug which is used to prevent the accumulation of toxic metabolites in patients with hereditary tyrosinemia type I. In the present study, we have developed a new, simple, fast, and cost-effective capillary electrophoresis method for the quantitative monitoring of this drug in serum samples. Micellar electrochromatographic separation of NTBC was performed using 20 mmol/L phosphate and 40 mmol/L sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) at pH 12 as running electrolyte. Separation of NTBC was achieved in around 4 min. Reproducibilities of migration times and corrected peak areas of NTBC (as R.S.D.%) were found as 0.73 and 1.99, respectively. The detection limit was 3.17 and the quantification limit was 10.6 micromol/L for NTBC using UV detection at 278 nm. The utility of the method was demonstrated by the detection of NTBC in serum samples from patients with hereditary tyrosinemia type I using this drug.

  8. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in a Large Sample of Anxiety Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bystritsky, Alexander; Hovav, Sarit; Sherbourne, Cathy; Stein, Murray B.; Rose, Raphael D.; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Golinelli, Daniela; Sullivan, Greer; Craske, Michelle G.; Roy-Byrne, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine a large sample of patients with anxiety and the association between types of complementary and alternative treatments that were used, demographic variables, diagnostic categories, and treatment outcomes. Method Cross-sectional and longitudinal survey during the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) study that assessed this intervention against the Usual Care in a sample of patients with anxiety recruited from primary care. Interviewer-administered questionnaires via a centralized telephone survey by blinded assessment raters. The interviews were done at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months of the study. A total of 1004 adults ages 18–75 who met DSM-IV criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Panic Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, or Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. We assessed medication/herbal use, the use of any alternative therapies, and combined Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use. Results We found an extensive (43%) use of a variety of CAM treatments that is consistent with previous study results in populations with anxiety. Only a few significant demographic or interventional characteristics of CAM users were found. Users most often had a diagnosis of GAD, were older, more educated, and had two or more chronic medical conditions. CAM users who had a 50% or more drop in anxiety scores over 18 months were less likely to report continued use of alternative therapies. Conclusions The study confirms the importance of awareness of CAM use in this population for possible interference with traditional first-line treatments of these disorders, but also for finding the best integrative use for patients who require multiple treatment modalities. PMID:22304968

  9. Array CGH Analysis of Paired Blood and Tumor Samples from Patients with Sporadic Wilms Tumor

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen Crespo, María; Vallespín, Elena; Palomares-Bralo, María; Martin-Arenas, Rubén; Rueda-Arenas, Inmaculada; Silvestre de Faria, Paulo Antonio; García-Miguel, Purificación; Lapunzina, Pablo; Regla Vargas, Fernando; Seuanez, Hector N.; Martínez-Glez, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT), the most common cancer of the kidney in infants and children, has a complex etiology that is still poorly understood. Identification of genomic copy number variants (CNV) in tumor genomes provides a better understanding of cancer development which may be useful for diagnosis and therapeutic targets. In paired blood and tumor DNA samples from 14 patients with sporadic WT, analyzed by aCGH, 22% of chromosome abnormalities were novel. All constitutional alterations identified in blood were segmental (in 28.6% of patients) and were also present in the paired tumor samples. Two segmental gains (2p21 and 20q13.3) and one loss (19q13.31) present in blood had not been previously described in WT. We also describe, for the first time, a small, constitutive partial gain of 3p22.1 comprising 2 exons of CTNNB1, a gene associated to WT. Among somatic alterations, novel structural chromosomal abnormalities were found, like gain of 19p13.3 and 20p12.3, and losses of 2p16.1-p15, 4q32.5-q35.1, 4q35.2-q28.1 and 19p13.3. Candidate genes included in these regions might be constitutively (SIX3, SALL4) or somatically (NEK1, PIAS4, BMP2) operational in the development and progression of WT. To our knowledge this is the first report of CNV in paired blood and tumor samples in sporadic WT. PMID:26317783

  10. Among a German Sample of Forensic Patients, Previous Animal Abuse Mediates Between Psychopathy and Sadistic Actions.

    PubMed

    Stupperich, Alexandra; Strack, Micha

    2016-05-01

    In an attempt to explain the relationship between psychopathy and severe violent behavior, this study associates previous animal abuse, psychopathy, and sadistic acting in forensic patients. Two topics are addressed: (i) whether previous animal abuse can be identified by a patient's Psychopathy Checklist profile and (ii) whether animal abuse statistically mediates between psychopathy and sadistic acting. In a German forensic hospital, 60 patients were investigated. Animal abuse was assessed using face-to-face interviews and the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV), and sadistic acting was identified by file records.Discriminant analysis separated previous animal abuse (10/60) by high adolescent antisocial behavior, superficiality, lack of remorse, lack of empathy, and grandiosity. The mediation from psychopathy to sadistic acting (6/60) through animal abuse was found to be complete.The results, although sample size is limited and base rate of animal abuse and sadistic acting are low, fit with a model suggestive of animal abuse as a causal step toward sadistic crimes. Animal abuse correlates with callous, unemotional traits, and a development of sadistic crimes. PMID:27122409

  11. Among a German Sample of Forensic Patients, Previous Animal Abuse Mediates Between Psychopathy and Sadistic Actions.

    PubMed

    Stupperich, Alexandra; Strack, Micha

    2016-05-01

    In an attempt to explain the relationship between psychopathy and severe violent behavior, this study associates previous animal abuse, psychopathy, and sadistic acting in forensic patients. Two topics are addressed: (i) whether previous animal abuse can be identified by a patient's Psychopathy Checklist profile and (ii) whether animal abuse statistically mediates between psychopathy and sadistic acting. In a German forensic hospital, 60 patients were investigated. Animal abuse was assessed using face-to-face interviews and the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV), and sadistic acting was identified by file records.Discriminant analysis separated previous animal abuse (10/60) by high adolescent antisocial behavior, superficiality, lack of remorse, lack of empathy, and grandiosity. The mediation from psychopathy to sadistic acting (6/60) through animal abuse was found to be complete.The results, although sample size is limited and base rate of animal abuse and sadistic acting are low, fit with a model suggestive of animal abuse as a causal step toward sadistic crimes. Animal abuse correlates with callous, unemotional traits, and a development of sadistic crimes.

  12. Helium-3 inventory of lunar samples: A potential future energy resource for mankind?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murali, A. V.; Jordan, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent public concern over the safety, cost, and environmental impact of the worldwide fission reactors has focused the attention of scientists and engineers towards perfecting fusion technology because it promises a much more environmentally acceptable 'clean' energy supply. The fusion reaction D-2 + He-3 yields p(14.7 MeV) + He-4(3.6 MeV) has long been recognized as an ideal candidate for producing commercially 'safer and cleaner' fusion power. Naturally occurring He-3 is scarce on earth; however, lunar regolith is a potential ore for He-3 because the high He-3 in solar wind has been implanted in the lunar regolith for more than 4 x 10(exp 9) years, along with other volatile species. The helium abundance in lunar soils is dependent not only on the maturity of soils (I(sub S)/FeO) but also on their mineralogy. The titanium-rich (ilmenite) lunar soils are important repositories for volatiles, which may be released by heating these soils up to approximately 700 C.

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and antioxidant potential of processed samples of the wild mushroom Macrolepiota procera.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-04-15

    It was previously demonstrated that gamma irradiation was the processing technology with the highest capacity to maintain the chemical profile of fresh Macrolepiota procera wild mushroom, when compared to freeze-dried or oven-dried samples. Herein, it was aimed to evaluate gamma irradiation effects on processed samples. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of irradiated (0.5 and 1 kGy) fresh, frozen and dried samples were determined by chromatographic techniques and in vitro assays, respectively. M. procera irradiation attenuated the effects caused by oven-drying or freezing; combining freeze treatment with 0.5 kGy dose preserved total tocopherols. Rather than a conservation methodology, gamma irradiation might act as a useful adjuvant to other conservation techniques (e.g., freezing or oven-drying).

  14. Molecular analysis of faecal samples from birds to identify potential crop pests and useful biocontrol agents in natural areas.

    PubMed

    King, R A; Symondson, W O C; Thomas, R J

    2015-06-01

    Wild habitats adjoining farmland are potentially valuable sources of natural enemies, but also of pests. Here we tested the utility of birds as 'sampling devices', to identify the diversity of prey available to predators and particularly to screen for pests and natural enemies using natural ecosystems as refugia. Here we used PCR to amplify prey DNA from three sympatric songbirds foraging on small invertebrates in Phragmites reedbed ecosystems, namely the Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) and Cetti's Warbler (Cettia cetti). A recently described general invertebrate primer pair was used for the first time to analyse diets. Amplicons were cloned and sequenced, then identified by reference to the Barcoding of Life Database and to our own sequences obtained from fresh invertebrates. Forty-five distinct prey DNA sequences were obtained from 11 faecal samples, of which 39 could be identified to species or genus. Targeting three warbler species ensured that species-specific differences in prey choice broadened the range of prey taken. Amongst the prey found in reedbeds were major pests (including the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea) as well as many potentially valuable natural enemies including aphidophagous hoverflies and braconid wasps. Given the mobility of birds, this approach provides a practical way of sampling a whole habitat at once, providing growers with information on possible invasion by locally resident pests and the colonization potential of natural enemies from local natural habitats. PMID:25572526

  15. Differential expression of minimal residual disease markers in peripheral blood and bone marrow samples from high-risk neuroblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, NOBUYUKI; KOZAKI, AIKO; HARTOMO, TRI BUDI; YANAI, TOMOKO; HASEGAWA, DAIICHIRO; KAWASAKI, KEIICHIRO; KOSAKA, YOSHIYUKI; MATSUO, MASAFUMI; HIRASE, SATOSHI; MORI, TAKESHI; HAYAKAWA, AKIRA; IIJIMA, KAZUMOTO; NISHIO, HISAHIDE; NISHIMURA, NORIYUKI

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an aggressive solid tumor that leads to tumor relapse in more than half of high-risk patients. Minimal residual disease (MRD) is primarily responsible for tumor relapses and may be detected in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples. To evaluate the disease status and treatment response, a number of MRD detection protocols based on either common or distinct markers for PB and BM samples have been reported. However, the correlation between the expression of MRD markers in PB and BM samples remains elusive in the clinical samples. In the present study, the expression of 11 previously validated MRD markers (CHRNA3, CRMP1, DBH, DCX, DDC, GABRB3, GAP43, ISL1, KIF1A, PHOX2B and TH) was determined in 23 pairs of PB and BM samples collected from seven high-risk neuroblastoma patients at the same time point, and the sample was scored as MRD-positive if one of the MRD markers exceeded the normal range. Although the number of MRD-positive samples was not significantly different between PB and BM samples, the two most sensitive markers for PB samples (CRMP1 and KIF1A) were different from those for BM samples (PHOX2B and DBH). There was no statistically significant correlation between the expression of MRD markers in the PB and BM samples. These results suggest that MRD markers were differentially expressed in PB and BM samples from high-risk neuroblastoma patients. PMID:26722317

  16. A practical guide to induced pluripotent stem cell research using patient samples.

    PubMed

    Santostefano, Katherine E; Hamazaki, Takashi; Biel, Nikolett M; Jin, Shouguang; Umezawa, Akihiro; Terada, Naohiro

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 3 years ago, we assessed how patient induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) research could potentially impact human pathobiology studies in the future. Since then, the field has grown considerably with numerous technical developments, and the idea of modeling diseases 'in a dish' is becoming increasingly popular in biomedical research. Likely, it is even acceptable to include patient iPSCs as one of the standard research tools for disease mechanism studies, just like knockout mice. However, as the field matures, we acknowledge there remain many practical limitations and obstacles for their genuine application to understand diseases, and accept that it has not been as straightforward to model disorders as initially proposed. A major practical challenge has been efficient direction of iPSC differentiation into desired lineages and preparation of the large numbers of specific cell types required for study. Another even larger obstacle is the limited value of in vitro outcomes, which often do not closely represent disease conditions. To overcome the latter issue, many new approaches are underway, including three-dimensional organoid cultures from iPSCs, xenotransplantation of human cells to animal models and in vitro interaction of multiple cell types derived from isogenic iPSCs. Here we summarize the areas where patient iPSC studies have provided truly valuable information beyond existing skepticism, discuss the desired technologies to overcome current limitations and include practical guidance for how to utilize the resources. Undoubtedly, these human patient cells are an asset for experimental pathology studies. The future rests on how wisely we use them. PMID:25089770

  17. Comparative Study of Suicide Potential among Pakistani and American Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farooqi, Yasmin Nilofer

    2004-01-01

    This study compared suicide potential and suicide attempts in 50 Pakistani and 50 American psychiatric patients all of whom reported a positive history of suicide attempts during the past 1-5 years. It further explored the role of nationality, gender, diagnosis, and marital status in respondents' potential for suicide and suicide attempts. The…

  18. Clinical importance and representation of toxigenic and non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile cultivated from stool samples of hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Predrag, Stojanovic; Branislava, Kocic; Miodrag, Stojanovic; Biljana, Miljkovic – Selimovic; Suzana, Tasic; Natasa, Miladinovic – Tasic; Tatjana, Babic

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to fortify the clinical importance and representation of toxigenic and non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile isolated from stool samples of hospitalized patients. This survey included 80 hospitalized patients with diarrhea and positive findings of Clostridium difficile in stool samples, and 100 hospitalized patients with formed stool as a control group. Bacteriological examination of a stool samples was conducted using standard microbiological methods. Stool sample were inoculated directly on nutrient media for bacterial cultivation (blood agar using 5% sheep blood, Endo agar, selective Salmonella Shigella agar, Selenite-F broth, CIN agar and Skirrow’s medium), and to selective cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar (CCFA) (Biomedics, Parg qe tehnicologico, Madrid, Spain) for isolation of Clostridium difficile. Clostridium difficile toxin was detected by ELISA-ridascreen Clostridium difficile Toxin A/B (R-Biopharm AG, Germany) and ColorPAC ToxinA test (Becton Dickinson, USA). Examination of stool specimens for the presence of parasites (causing diarrhea) was done using standard methods (conventional microscopy), commercial concentration test Paraprep S Gold kit (Dia Mondial, France) and RIDA®QUICK Cryptosporidium/Giardia Combi test (R-Biopharm AG, Germany). Examination of stool specimens for the presence of fungi (causing diarrhea) was performed by standard methods. All stool samples positive for Clostridium difficile were tested for Rota, Noro, Astro and Adeno viruses by ELISA – ridascreen (R-Biopharm AG, Germany). In this research we isolated 99 Clostridium difficile strains from 116 stool samples of 80 hospitalized patients with diarrhea. The 53 (66.25%) of patients with diarrhea were positive for toxins A and B, one (1.25%) were positive for only toxin B. Non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile isolated from samples of 26 (32.5%) patients. However, other pathogenic microorganisms of intestinal tract cultivated from samples of 16 patients

  19. Clinical importance and representation of toxigenic and non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile cultivated from stool samples of hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Predrag, Stojanovic; Branislava, Kocic; Miodrag, Stojanovic; Biljana, Miljkovic-Selimovic; Suzana, Tasic; Natasa, Miladinovic-Tasic; Tatjana, Babic

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to fortify the clinical importance and representation of toxigenic and non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile isolated from stool samples of hospitalized patients. This survey included 80 hospitalized patients with diarrhea and positive findings of Clostridium difficile in stool samples, and 100 hospitalized patients with formed stool as a control group. Bacteriological examination of a stool samples was conducted using standard microbiological methods. Stool sample were inoculated directly on nutrient media for bacterial cultivation (blood agar using 5% sheep blood, Endo agar, selective Salmonella Shigella agar, Selenite-F broth, CIN agar and Skirrow's medium), and to selective cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar (CCFA) (Biomedics, Parg qe tehnicologico, Madrid, Spain) for isolation of Clostridium difficile. Clostridium difficile toxin was detected by ELISA-ridascreen Clostridium difficile Toxin A/B (R-Biopharm AG, Germany) and ColorPAC ToxinA test (Becton Dickinson, USA). Examination of stool specimens for the presence of parasites (causing diarrhea) was done using standard methods (conventional microscopy), commercial concentration test Paraprep S Gold kit (Dia Mondial, France) and RIDA(®)QUICK Cryptosporidium/Giardia Combi test (R-Biopharm AG, Germany). Examination of stool specimens for the presence of fungi (causing diarrhea) was performed by standard methods. All stool samples positive for Clostridium difficile were tested for Rota, Noro, Astro and Adeno viruses by ELISA - ridascreen (R-Biopharm AG, Germany). In this research we isolated 99 Clostridium difficile strains from 116 stool samples of 80 hospitalized patients with diarrhea. The 53 (66.25%) of patients with diarrhea were positive for toxins A and B, one (1.25%) were positive for only toxin B. Non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile isolated from samples of 26 (32.5%) patients. However, other pathogenic microorganisms of intestinal tract cultivated from samples of 16 patients

  20. Antibiotic resistance pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from urine samples of Urinary Tract Infections patients in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dania Aijaz; Wasim, Shehnaz; Essa Abdullah, Farhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Psedomonas aeruginosa and its prevalence in patients with urinary tract infections (UTI) for effective treatment in a developing country like Pakistan. Methods: This is an observational study conducted for a period of ten months which ended on December 2013 at the Dr. Essa Laboratory and Diagnostic Centre in Karachi. A total of 4668 urine samples of UTI patients were collected and standard microbiological techniques were performed to identify the organisms in urine cultures. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer technique for twenty five commonly used antimicrobials and then analyzed on SPSS version 17. Results: P. aeruginosa was isolated in 254 cultures (5.4%). The most resistant drugs included Ceclor(100%) and Cefizox (100%) followed by Amoxil/Ampicillin (99.6%), Ceflixime (99.6%), Doxycycline (99.6%), Cefuroxime (99.2%), Cephradine (99.2%), Cotrimoxazole (99.2%), Nalidixic acid (98.8%), Pipemidic acid (98.6%) and Augmentin (97.6%). Conclusion: Emerging resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are potentially linked to injudicious use of drugs leading to ineffective empirical therapy and in turn, appearance of even more resistant strains of the bacterium. Therefore, we recommend culture and sensitivity testing to determine the presence of P.aeruginosa prior to specific antimicrobial therapy. PMID:26101487

  1. Interaction potentials of anisotropic nanocrystals from the trajectory sampling of particle motion using in situ liquid phase transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Qian; Cho, Hoduk; Manthiram, Karthish; Yoshida, Mark; Ye, Xingchen; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2015-03-23

    We demonstrate a generalizable strategy to use the relative trajectories of pairs and groups of nanocrystals, and potentially other nanoscale objects, moving in solution which can now be obtained by in situ liquid phase transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the interaction potentials between nanocrystals. Such nanoscale interactions are crucial for collective behaviors and applications of synthetic nanocrystals and natural biomolecules, but have been very challenging to measure in situ at nanometer or sub-nanometer resolution. Here we use liquid phase TEM to extract the mathematical form of interaction potential between nanocrystals from their sampled trajectories. We show the power ofmore » this approach to reveal unanticipated features of nanocrystal–nanocrystal interactions by examining the anisotropic interaction potential between charged rod-shaped Au nanocrystals (Au nanorods); these Au nanorods assemble, in a tip-to-tip fashion in the liquid phase, in contrast to the well-known side-by-side arrangements commonly observed for drying-mediated assembly. These observations can be explained by a long-range and highly anisotropic electrostatic repulsion that leads to the tip-selective attachment. As a result, Au nanorods stay unassembled at a lower ionic strength, as the electrostatic repulsion is even longer-ranged. Our study not only provides a mechanistic understanding of the process by which metallic nanocrystals assemble but also demonstrates a method that can potentially quantify and elucidate a broad range of nanoscale interactions relevant to nanotechnology and biophysics.« less

  2. Interaction Potentials of Anisotropic Nanocrystals from the Trajectory Sampling of Particle Motion using in Situ Liquid Phase Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a generalizable strategy to use the relative trajectories of pairs and groups of nanocrystals, and potentially other nanoscale objects, moving in solution which can now be obtained by in situ liquid phase transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the interaction potentials between nanocrystals. Such nanoscale interactions are crucial for collective behaviors and applications of synthetic nanocrystals and natural biomolecules, but have been very challenging to measure in situ at nanometer or sub-nanometer resolution. Here we use liquid phase TEM to extract the mathematical form of interaction potential between nanocrystals from their sampled trajectories. We show the power of this approach to reveal unanticipated features of nanocrystal–nanocrystal interactions by examining the anisotropic interaction potential between charged rod-shaped Au nanocrystals (Au nanorods); these Au nanorods assemble, in a tip-to-tip fashion in the liquid phase, in contrast to the well-known side-by-side arrangements commonly observed for drying-mediated assembly. These observations can be explained by a long-range and highly anisotropic electrostatic repulsion that leads to the tip-selective attachment. As a result, Au nanorods stay unassembled at a lower ionic strength, as the electrostatic repulsion is even longer-ranged. Our study not only provides a mechanistic understanding of the process by which metallic nanocrystals assemble but also demonstrates a method that can potentially quantify and elucidate a broad range of nanoscale interactions relevant to nanotechnology and biophysics. PMID:27162944

  3. A microplate version of the SOS/umu-test for rapid detection of genotoxins and genotoxic potentials of environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Reifferscheid, G; Heil, J; Oda, Y; Zahn, R K

    1991-12-01

    The umu-microtest is a miniaturized automated short-term test version proposed for screening of umuC-dependent mutagenic potentials of chemicals relevant to environmental pollution, river water and industrial waste water. The test is based on the SOS/umu-test and has been modified in order to allow extensive testing of environmental samples. Genetically engineered Salmonella typhimurium (TA1535/pSK1002) are incubated on a microplate rotor in a sloping position for 2 h with the test samples, followed by addition of fresh culture medium to reach a 10-fold dilution of the incubation medium. 2 h later, the activity of the beta-galactosidase, which reflects umuC induction, is determined colorimetrically. The incubation of the bacteria in the presence of the test compounds as well as the assessment of beta-galactosidase activity takes place in 96-well microplates, thus enabling simultaneous screening of large numbers of samples. Data of the genotoxic potentials are available within 8 h. Computer-controlled automation is possible by using a laboratory workstation.

  4. HPV strain distribution in patients with genital warts in a female population sample

    PubMed Central

    Boda, Daniel; Neagu, Monica; Constantin, Carolina; Voinescu, Razvan Nicolae; Caruntu, Constantin; Zurac, Sabina; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Drakoulis, Nikolaos; Tsoukalas, Dimitrios; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the human cancer domain is still a subject of intensive study. In this study, we examined cervical swab samples from 713 females with genital warts, and tested the samples for high- and low-risk genital HPV. HPV genotyping was assessed using a Genotyping test that detects HPV by the amplification of target DNA using polymerase chain reaction and nucleic acid hybridization. In total, we detected 37 anogenital HPV DNA genotypes [6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 40, 42, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73 (MM9), 81, 82 (MM4), 83 (MM7), 84 (MM8), IS39 and CP6108] and investigated the incidence of these genotypes in the patients with genital warts. We found differences in the distribution of high-/low-risk strains and the incidence of high-risk strains was found to occur mainly in females under 35 years of age. The data from our study suggest that a detailed oral, rectal and genital identification of high-risk strains should be performed to visualize the entire pattern of possible triggers of carcinogenesis.

  5. Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Food Samples and Patients with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Bita; Naseri, Amin; Alebouyeh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Campylobacter infections may lead to serious conditions, including septicemia or other invasive forms of the disease, which require rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis and subsequently appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from patients and food samples. Methods: Biochemical identification was performed on 15 clinical and 30 food isolates of Campylobacter recovered onto Brucella agar containing 5% sheep blood. PCR was carried out to confirm the identity of Campylobacter spp. using primers for cadF, hipO, and asp genes of Campylobacter. To determine antibiotic sensitivity of isolates, Kirby-Bauer assay was carried out using 16 different antibiotic discs. Results: PCR assay and biochemical tests confirmed all 45 isolates as Campylobacter: 20 (44.44%) as C. jujeni, 10 (22.22%) as C. coli, and 15 (33.34%) as other Campylobacter strains. The maximum resistance was observed to cefotaxime and imipenem (each 86.49%) and the maximum sensitivity to erythromycin (48.65%). Conclusion: C. jujeni is dominant among isolates from clinical and food samples. In addition, tetracycline remains the first-line therapeutic agent against Campylobacter infections in Iran. PMID:26783018

  6. HPV strain distribution in patients with genital warts in a female population sample

    PubMed Central

    Boda, Daniel; Neagu, Monica; Constantin, Carolina; Voinescu, Razvan Nicolae; Caruntu, Constantin; Zurac, Sabina; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Drakoulis, Nikolaos; Tsoukalas, Dimitrios; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the human cancer domain is still a subject of intensive study. In this study, we examined cervical swab samples from 713 females with genital warts, and tested the samples for high- and low-risk genital HPV. HPV genotyping was assessed using a Genotyping test that detects HPV by the amplification of target DNA using polymerase chain reaction and nucleic acid hybridization. In total, we detected 37 anogenital HPV DNA genotypes [6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 40, 42, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73 (MM9), 81, 82 (MM4), 83 (MM7), 84 (MM8), IS39 and CP6108] and investigated the incidence of these genotypes in the patients with genital warts. We found differences in the distribution of high-/low-risk strains and the incidence of high-risk strains was found to occur mainly in females under 35 years of age. The data from our study suggest that a detailed oral, rectal and genital identification of high-risk strains should be performed to visualize the entire pattern of possible triggers of carcinogenesis. PMID:27602111

  7. Electrochemical detection of Pseudomonas in wound exudate samples from patients with chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Sismaet, Hunter J; Banerjee, Anirban; McNish, Sean; Choi, Yongwook; Torralba, Manolito; Lucas, Sarah; Chan, Agnes; Shanmugam, Victoria K; Goluch, Edgar D

    2016-03-01

    In clinical practice, point-of-care diagnostic testing has progressed rapidly in the last decade. For the field of wound care, there is a compelling need to develop rapid alternatives for bacterial identification in the clinical setting, where it generally takes over 24 hours to receive a positive identification. Even new molecular and biochemical identification methods require an initial incubation period of several hours to obtain a sufficient number of cells prior to performing the analysis. Here we report the use of an inexpensive, disposable electrochemical sensor to detect pyocyanin, a unique, redox-active quorum sensing molecule released by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in wound fluid from patients with chronic wounds enrolled in the WE-HEAL Study. By measuring the metabolite excreted by the cells, this electrochemical detection strategy eliminates sample preparation, takes less than a minute to complete, and requires only 7.5 μL of sample to complete the analysis. The electrochemical results were compared against 16S rRNA profiling using 454 pyrosequencing. Blind identification yielded 9 correct matches, 2 false negatives, and 3 false positives giving a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 57% for detection of Pseudomonas. Ongoing enhancement and development of this approach with a view to develop a rapid point-of-care diagnostic tool is planned. PMID:26815644

  8. Post-extrasystolic Blood Pressure Potentiation as a Risk Predictor in Cardiac Patients

    PubMed Central

    Steger, Alexander; Sinnecker, Daniel; Barthel, Petra; Müller, Alexander; Gebhardt, Josef; Schmidt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    For more than 100 years physicians have observed that heartbeats following extrasystolic beats are characterised by augmented myocardial contractility. This phenomenon was termed post-extrasystolic potentiation (PESP). In the 1970s it was first noted that PESP measured at the blood pressure level is typically pronounced in heart failure patients. Only recently, it was shown that PESP measured non-invasively as post-extrasystolic blood pressure potentiation was a strong and independent predictor of death in survivors of myocardial infarction and in patients with chronic heart failure. A similar parameter (PESPAfib) can be also assessed in patients with atrial fibrillation. PESP and PESPAfib can be understood as non-invasive parameters that indicate myocardial dysfunction. They have the potential to improve risk stratification strategies for cardiac patients. PMID:27403290

  9. Characteristics of thalamic local field potentials in patients with disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongzhi; He, Jianghong; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu Z; Stein, John F; Wang, Shouyan

    2015-08-01

    A functioning thalamus is essential for treatment of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) using deep brain stimulation (DBS). This work aims to identify the potential biomarkers related to consciousness from the thalamic deep brain local field potentials (LFPs) in DOC patients. The frequency features of central thalamic LFPs were characterized with spectral analysis. The features were further compared to those of LFPs from the ventroposterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus (VPL) in patients with pain. There are several distinct characteristics of thalamic LFPs found in patients with DOC. The most important feature is the oscillation around 10Hz which could be relevant to the existence of residual consciousness, whereas high power below 8Hz seemed to be associated with loss of consciousness. The invasive deep brain recording tool opens a unique way to explore the brain function in consciousness, awareness and alertness and clarify the potential mechanisms of thalamic stimulation in DOC.

  10. The potential for airborne dispersal of Clostridium difficile from symptomatic patients.

    PubMed

    Best, Emma L; Fawley, Warren N; Parnell, Peter; Wilcox, Mark H

    2010-06-01

    BACKGROUND. The high transmissibility and widespread environmental contamination by Clostridium difficile suggests the possibility of airborne dissemination of spores. We measured airborne and environmental C. difficile adjacent to patients with symptomatic C. difficile infection (CDI). METHODS. We conducted air sampling adjacent to 63 patients with CDI for 180 h in total and for 101 h in control settings. Environmental samples were obtained from surfaces adjacent to the patient and from communal areas of the ward. C. difficile isolates were characterized by ribotyping and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis to determine relatedness. RESULTS. Of the first 50 patients examined (each for 1 h), only 12% had positive air samples, most frequently those with active symptoms of CDI (10%, vs 2% for those with no symptoms). We intensively sampled the air around 10 patients with CDI symptoms, each for 10 h over 2 days, as well as a total of 346 surface sites. C. difficile was isolated from the air in the majority of these cases (7 of 10 patients tested) and from the surfaces around 9 of the patients; 60% of patients had both air and surface environments that were positive for C. difficile. Molecular characterization confirmed an epidemiological link between airborne dispersal, environmental contamination, and CDI cases. CONCLUSIONS. Aerosolization of C. difficile occurs commonly but sporadically in patients with symptomatic CDI. This may explain the widespread dissemination of epidemic strains. Our results emphasize the importance of single-room isolation as soon as possible after the onset of diarrhea to limit the dissemination of C. difficile.

  11. The Importance of Reference Gene Analysis of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Samples from Sarcoma Patients — An Often Underestimated Problem12

    PubMed Central

    Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Safwat, Akmal; Bærentzen, Steen; Nordsmark, Marianne; Nielsen, Ole Steen; Alsner, Jan; Sørensen, Brita S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is efficient for quantification of gene expression, but the choice of reference genes is of paramount importance as it is essential for correct interpretation of data. This is complicated by the fact that the materials often available are routinely collected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples in which the mRNA is known to be highly degraded. The purpose of this study was to investigate 22 potential reference genes in sarcoma FFPE samples and to study the variation in expression level within different samples taken from the same tumor and between different histologic types. Methods: Twenty-nine patients treated for sarcoma were enrolled. The samples encompassed 82 (FFPE) specimens. Extraction of total RNA from 7-μm FFPE sections was performed using a fully automated, bead-base RNA isolation procedure, and 22 potential reference genes were analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The stability of the genes was analyzed by RealTime Statminer. The intrasamples variation and the interclass correlation coefficients were calculated. The linear regression model was used to calculate the degradation of the mRNA over time. Results: The quality of RNA was sufficient for analysis in 84% of the samples. Recommended reference genes differed with histologic types. However, PPIA, SF3A1, and MRPL19 were stably expressed regardless of the histologic type included. The variation in ∆Cq value for samples from the same patients was similar to the variation between patients. It was possible to compensate for the time-dependent degradation of the mRNA when normalization was made using the selected reference genes. Conclusion: PPIA, SF3A1, and MRPL19 are suitable reference genes for normalization in gene expression studies of FFPE samples from sarcoma regardless of the histology. PMID:25500077

  12. Evidence for obtaining a second successive semen sample for intrauterine insemination in selected patients: results from 32 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Alejandra; Ortiz, Rita; Soto, Evelyn; Hartmann, Jonathan; Manzur, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to compare the semen parameters of two successive samples obtained within an interval of less than 60 minutes from patients planning to undergo intrauterine insemination (IUI) whose first samples exhibited low semen quality. Methods Thirty-two consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. On the day of IUI, the semen analysis of the samples initially presented by all patients met at least two of the following criteria: sperm concentration <5×106/mL, total sperm count <10×106, progressive sperm motility (a+b) in the native sample <30%, and total motile sperm count (TMSC) <4×106. A successive semen sample was obtained no more than 60 minutes after the first sample. Results Compared to the first sample, the second exhibited significantly (p<0.05) improved sperm concentration, TMSC, progressive motility, and vitality. Regarding TMSC, the most critical parameter on the day of IUI, 23 patients (71.8%) improved it, while nine (28.2%) displayed poorer outcomes. Conclusion In defined cases, requesting a second successive ejaculate on the day of insemination may result in a high percentage of cases in an improvement of the quality of the sample. PMID:27358828

  13. Microparticles in sputum of COPD patients: a potential biomarker of the disease?

    PubMed Central

    Lacedonia, Donato; Carpagnano, Giovanna Elisiana; Trotta, Teresa; Palladino, Grazia Pia; Panaro, Maria Antonietta; Zoppo, Liugi Davide; Foschino Barbaro, Maria Pia; Porro, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Background Microparticles (MPs) are small membrane vesicles of 0.1–1 µm which are released by cells following chemical, physical, and apoptotic stimuli. MPs represent more than a miniature version of the cell. Their composition and function depend not only on cellular origin, but also on stimuli. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterized by nearly irreversible lung destruction which results in airway limitation. Purpose We investigated the presence and source of MPs in sputum of COPD patients to evaluate if changes in MP number and origin may reflect the pathophysiological conditions of disease and may serve as potential biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic use. Methods Induced sputum samples were collected from 18 male subjects and liquefied with Sputasol. MPs obtained were immunolabeled for leukocyte (CD11a), granulocyte (CD66b), monocyte-macrophage (CD11b), platelets and megakaryocytic cells (CD41), endothelial cells (CD31), and red blood cells (CD235ab) and analyzed by cytofluorimetry. Results There was a negative correlation between CD31-MPs and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (R=−53, P<0.05) and CD66b-MP level was correlated with worse performance index of COPD such as the Body mass index airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE); they were negatively correlated with 6-minute walking test: 0.65 and −0.64, respectively (P<0.05). CD235ab-MPs showed a negative correlation with body mass index (R=−0.86, P<0.05), while there was a positive correlation with dyspnea index (R=0.91, P<0.05). Conclusion The main finding of this study was that MPs were detected in the sputum of patients affected by COPD. The phenotype of some of them was related to the main COPD parameters. These results suggest that MPs could be implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:27042041

  14. Local surface potential of π-conjugated nanostructures by Kelvin probe force microscopy: effect of the sampling depth.

    PubMed

    Liscio, Andrea; Palermo, Vincenzo; Fenwick, Oliver; Braun, Slawomir; Müllen, Klaus; Fahlman, Mats; Cacialli, Franco; Samorí, Paolo

    2011-03-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is usually applied to map the local surface potential of nanostructured materials at surfaces and interfaces. KPFM is commonly defined as a 'surface technique', even if this assumption is not fully justified. However, a quantification of the surface sensitivity of this technique is crucial to explore electrical properties at the nanoscale. Here a versatile 3D model is presented which provides a quantitative explanation of KPFM results, taking into account the vertical structure of the sample. The model is tested on nanostructured films obtained from two relevant semiconducting systems for field-effect transistor and solar cell applications showing different interfacial properties, i.e., poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and perylene-bis-dicarboximide (PDI). These findings are especially important since they enable quantitative determination of the local surface potential of conjugated nanostructures, and thereby pave the way towards optimization of the electronic properties of nanoscale architectures for organic electronic applications.

  15. Mars Rover proposed for 2018 to seek signs of life and to cache samples for potential return to Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Lisa; Beaty, David; Westall, Frances; Parnell, John; Poulet, François

    2010-05-01

    Mars Rover proposed for 2018 to seek signs of life and to cache samples for potential return to Earth Lisa Pratt, David Beatty, Frances Westall, John Parnell, François Poulet, and the MRR-SAG team The search for preserved evidence of life is the keystone concept for a new generation of Mars rover capable of exploring, sampling, and caching diverse suites of rocks from outcrops. The proposed mission is conceived to address two general objectives: conduct high-priority in situ science and make concrete steps towards the possible future return of samples to Earth. We propose the name Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C) to best reflect the dual purpose of the proposed mission. The scientific objective of the proposed MAX-C would require rover access to a site with high preservation potential for physical and chemical biosignatures in order to evaluate paleo-environmental conditions, characterize the potential for preservation of biosignatures, and access multiple sequences of geological units in a search for evidence of past life and/or prebiotic chemistry. Samples addressing a variety of high-priority scientific objectives should be collected, documented, and packaged in a manner suitable for possible return to Earth by a future mission. Relevant experience from study of ancient terrestrial strata, martian meteorites, and from the Mars exploration Rovers indicates that the proposed MAX-C's interpretive capability should include: meter to submillimeter texture (optical imaging), mineral identification, major element content, and organic molecular composition. Analytical data should be obtained by direct investigation of outcrops and should not entail acquisition of rock chips or powders. We propose, therefore, a set of arm-mounted instruments that would be capable of interrogating a relatively smooth, abraded surface by creating co-registered 2-D maps of visual texture, mineralogy and geochemical properties. This approach is judged to have particularly high

  16. Immunological findings in psychotic syndromes: a tertiary care hospital's CSF sample of 180 patients

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Dominique; Perlov, Evgeniy; Baumgartner, Annette; Hottenrott, Tilman; Dersch, Rick; Stich, Oliver; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Immunological mechanisms and therapy approaches in psychotic syndromes were recently supported by the discovery of autoantibody-associated limbic and non-limbic encephalitis. However, how clinical diagnostic procedures in psychiatry should be adapted to these new insights is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimmunological alterations and their association with cerebral MRI (cMRI) and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings. From 2006 to 2013, we acquired 180 CSF samples from psychotic patients. Between 2006 and 2009, CSF examinations were only performed in cases in which organic brain disease was suspected. Since then, this procedure has been integrated into our routine diagnostic workup. CSF basic diagnostics were supplemented by measuring antineuronal antibodies against intracellular synaptic antigens, antibodies against intracellular onconeural antigens, antibodies against neuronal cell surface antigens and thyroid antibodies. In addition, cMRIs and EEGs were conducted. We found white cell counts elevated in 3.4% of the cases, albumin quotient elevated in 21.8%, and protein concentration elevated in 42.2%. Evidence of intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis was found in 7.2% of the cases. Antibodies measured against neuronal cell surface antigens were positive in 3.2%. Reactivity on antibodies against intracellular onconeural antigens were detected in 3.5%. Serum thyroid antibodies were elevated in 24.7%. Abnormalities were found in 39.5% of cMRIs and in 34.3% of EEGs. The main finding of our study was the high prevalence of CSF and autoantibody abnormalities in 54.4% of psychotic patients. In combination with cMRIs and EEGs, 75.6% showed abnormal findings. Our results are discussed with regard to the concept of immunological encephalopathy. Future studies should analyze the efficacy of immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:26441585

  17. Movement-related cortical potentials in paraplegic patients: abnormal patterns and considerations for BCI-rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ren; Jiang, Ning; Vuckovic, Aleksandra; Hasan, Muhammad; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Allan, David; Fraser, Matthew; Nasseroleslami, Bahman; Conway, Bernie; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) can be promising for the motor neuro-rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. However, this shall require detailed knowledge of the abnormalities in the EEG signatures of paraplegic patients. The association of abnormalities in different subgroups of patients and their relation to the sensorimotor integration are relevant for the design, implementation and use of BCI systems in patient populations. This study explores the patterns of abnormalities of movement related cortical potentials (MRCP) during motor imagery tasks of feet and right hand in patients with paraplegia (including the subgroups with/without central neuropathic pain (CNP) and complete/incomplete injury patients) and the level of distinctiveness of abnormalities in these groups using pattern classification. The most notable observed abnormalities were the amplified execution negativity and its slower rebound in the patient group. The potential underlying mechanisms behind these changes and other minor dissimilarities in patients' subgroups, as well as the relevance to BCI applications, are discussed. The findings are of interest from a neurological perspective as well as for BCI-assisted neuro-rehabilitation and therapy.

  18. Divergent and dynamic activity of endogenous retroviruses in burn patients and their inflammatory potential.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Hoon; Rah, HyungChul; Green, Tajia; Lee, Young-Kwan; Lim, Debora; Nemzek, Jean; Wahl, Wendy; Greenhalgh, David; Cho, Kiho

    2014-04-01

    Genes constitute ~3% of the human genome, whereas human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) represent ~8%. We examined post-burn HERV expression in patients' blood cells, and the inflammatory potentials of the burn-associated HERVs were evaluated. Buffy coat cells, collected at various time points from 11 patients, were screened for the expression of eight HERV families, and we identified their divergent expression profiles depending on patient, HERV, and time point. The population of expressed HERV sequences was patient-specific, suggesting HERVs' inherent genomic polymorphisms and/or differential expression potentials depending on characteristics of patients and courses of injury response. Some HERVs were shared among the patients, while the others were divergent. Interestingly, one burn-associated HERV gag gene from a patient's genome induced IL-6, IL-1β, Ptgs-2, and iNOS. These findings demonstrate that injury stressors initiate divergent HERV responses depending on patient, HERV, and disease course and implicate HERVs as genetic elements contributing to polymorphic injury pathophysiology.

  19. Presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae strains from well water samples in Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Rocío A; Reyes-Batlle, María; Nicola, Graciela G; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Guillermo Esteban, J; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-06-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) include opportunistic pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and the genera Sappinia and Acanthamoeba. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of potentially pathogenic amoebic strains in water samples collected from wells located in the western part of Guinea-Bissau. The samples were left to precipitate for 48 hours and then the sediments were seeded on non-nutrient agar plates containing Escherichia coli spread and cultures were checked daily for the presence of FLA. Identification of FLA strains was based on the morphological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the 18S rDNA or 16S mitochondrial rDNA genes in the case of Naegleria and Balamuthia genera, respectively. In the case of positive samples of Acanthamoeba, strains were further classified at the genotype level by sequencing the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region located in the 18S rDNA gene as previously described. Sappinia sp. was not isolated during the study and thus, no molecular analysis was performed for this genus. The obtained results revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba (genotypes T3 and T4), Naegleria fowleri, and Balamuthia mandrillaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of FLA in water bodies from Guinea-Bissau and the first report on the isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from environmental sources in Africa. PMID:24934796

  20. Presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae strains from well water samples in Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Rocío A; Reyes-Batlle, María; Nicola, Graciela G; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Guillermo Esteban, J; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-06-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) include opportunistic pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and the genera Sappinia and Acanthamoeba. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of potentially pathogenic amoebic strains in water samples collected from wells located in the western part of Guinea-Bissau. The samples were left to precipitate for 48 hours and then the sediments were seeded on non-nutrient agar plates containing Escherichia coli spread and cultures were checked daily for the presence of FLA. Identification of FLA strains was based on the morphological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the 18S rDNA or 16S mitochondrial rDNA genes in the case of Naegleria and Balamuthia genera, respectively. In the case of positive samples of Acanthamoeba, strains were further classified at the genotype level by sequencing the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region located in the 18S rDNA gene as previously described. Sappinia sp. was not isolated during the study and thus, no molecular analysis was performed for this genus. The obtained results revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba (genotypes T3 and T4), Naegleria fowleri, and Balamuthia mandrillaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of FLA in water bodies from Guinea-Bissau and the first report on the isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from environmental sources in Africa.

  1. Presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae strains from well water samples in Guinea-Bissau

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Rocío A; Reyes-Batlle, María; Nicola, Graciela G; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Guillermo Esteban, J; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) include opportunistic pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and the genera Sappinia and Acanthamoeba. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of potentially pathogenic amoebic strains in water samples collected from wells located in the western part of Guinea-Bissau. The samples were left to precipitate for 48 hours and then the sediments were seeded on non-nutrient agar plates containing Escherichia coli spread and cultures were checked daily for the presence of FLA. Identification of FLA strains was based on the morphological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the 18S rDNA or 16S mitochondrial rDNA genes in the case of Naegleria and Balamuthia genera, respectively. In the case of positive samples of Acanthamoeba, strains were further classified at the genotype level by sequencing the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region located in the 18S rDNA gene as previously described. Sappinia sp. was not isolated during the study and thus, no molecular analysis was performed for this genus. The obtained results revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba (genotypes T3 and T4), Naegleria fowleri, and Balamuthia mandrillaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of FLA in water bodies from Guinea-Bissau and the first report on the isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from environmental sources in Africa. PMID:24934796

  2. Visual evoked potentials in dementia: a meta-analysis and empirical study of Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Pollock, V E; Schneider, L S; Chui, H C; Henderson, V; Zemansky, M; Sloane, R B

    1989-04-15

    A meta-analytic review of flash and pattern reversal visual evoked potential research indicates that elderly demented patients have longer P100 latencies than age-matched control subjects. In the present empirical research, patients with research diagnoses of probable Alzheimer's disease were compared with sex- and age-matched control subjects using P100 latencies of visual evoked potentials (VEP) elicited by flash and pattern reversal. As compared to control subjects, Alzheimer's disease patients showed significantly longer P100 latencies of the VEP elicited by pattern reversal; the flash P100 only marginally distinguished them. These findings are discussed within the context of VEP recording practices, patient selection, sex and age matching of control subjects, and the visual system.

  3. Using an automated recruitment process to generate an unbiased study sample of multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Miller, Deborah M; Fox, R; Atreja, A; Moore, S; Lee, J-C; Fu, A Z; Jain, A; Saupe, W; Chakraborty, S; Stadtler, M; Rudick, R A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficiency of an automated recruitment methodology developed as a component of a practical controlled trial to assess the benefits of a Web-based personal health site to guide self-management of multiple sclerosis symptoms called Mellen Center Care On-line. We describe the study's automated recruitment methodology using clinical and administrative databases and assess the comparability between subjects who completed informed consent (IC) forms, and individuals who were invited to participate but did not reply, designated as patient nonresponders (PNR). The IC and PNR groups were compared on demographics, number of physician or advanced practice nurse/physician assistant visits during the 12 months prior to the initial invitation, and level of disability as measured by the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Out of a total dynamic potential pool of 2,421 patients, 2,041 had been invited to participate, 309 had become ineligible to participate during the study, and 71 individuals remained in the pool at the end of recruitment. The IC group had a slightly greater proportion of females. Both groups were predominantly white with comparable marital status. The groups had comparable mean household income, education level, and commercial insurance. The computed mean CCI was similar between the groups. The only significant difference was that the PNR group had fewer clinic visits in the preceding 12 months. The subjects were highly representative of the target population, indicating that there was little bias in our selection process despite a constantly changing pool of eligible individuals. PMID:20064056

  4. Increased presence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in ocular fluid samples from HIV negative immunocompromised patients with uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Ongkosuwito, J.; Van der Lelij, A.; Bruinenberg, M.; Doorn, M. W.; Feron, E.; Hoyng, C.; de Keizer, R. J W; Klok, A.; Kijlstra, A.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate whether routine testing for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is necessary in the examination of a patient with uveitis.
METHODS—Intraocular EBV DNA was determined in 183 ocular fluid samples taken from patients with AIDS and uveitis, HIV negative immunocompromised uveitis, acute retinal necrosis, toxoplasma chorioretinitis, intraocular lymphoma, anterior uveitis, and miscellaneous uveitis of unknown cause. In 82 samples from this group of patients paired serum/ocular fluid analysis was performed to detect local antibody production against EBV. Controls (n=46) included ocular fluid samples taken during surgery for diabetic retinopathy, macular pucker, or cataract.
RESULTS—Serum antibody titres to EBV capsid antigen proved to be significantly increased in HIV negative immunocompromised patients with uveitis (p<0.01) compared with controls. Local antibody production revealed only three positive cases out of 82 patients tested, two results were borderline positive and one patient had uveitis caused by VZV. EBV DNA was detected in three out of 46 control ocular fluid samples. In the different uveitis groups EBV DNA was noted, but was not significantly higher than in the controls, except in six out of 11 HIV negative immunocompromised patients (p=0.0008). In four out of these six cases another infectious agent (VZV, HSV, CMV, or Toxoplasma gondii) had previously been identified as the cause of the uveitis.
CONCLUSIONS—When comparing various groups of uveitis patients, EBV DNA was found more often in HIV negative immunocompromised patients with uveitis. Testing for EBV does not have to be included in the routine management of patients with uveitis, since indications for an important role of this virus were not found in the pathogenesis of intraocular inflammation.

 Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus; intraocular fluid; polymerase chain reaction; uveitis PMID:9602620

  5. Patient-Specific Therapy via Cell-Reprogramming Technology: a Curative Potential for Patients with Diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haizhao; Wang, Xianbao; Zhang, Ruyi; Chen, Youping; Shu, Yi; Li, Huixian; Chen, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Gene therapeutics provides great opportunities for curing diabetes. Numerous attempts have been made to establish a safe and high-efficiency gene delivery strategy, but all of them are unsuccessful. To achieve an ideal transfection, a novel gene delivery strategy was presented in this research. The novel system proposed was transfection mediated by the combination of ultrasound with microbubbles and cross-linked polyethylenimines (PEIs). Ultrasound with microbubbles enhances the permeability of target cells; moreover, cross-linked PEIs enabled DNA to escape from endosomes into the cytoplasm. If the proposed method is feasible and effective, the endogenous secretion system of insulin would be re-established in patients with diabetes.

  6. Potential benefits of complementary medicine modalities in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Markell, Mariana S

    2005-07-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by the general population is common, and, although potential for harm exists, evidence is accumulating that several modalities, including acupuncture, massage, relaxation response/guided or integrative imagery, meditation, and herbal supplements, have actions that are beneficial for patients with chronic illness. Potential areas in which CAM might benefit patients with kidney disease include prolonging time of progression to kidney failure as well as treatment of concomitant problems, including arthritides, pruritus, cardiovascular risk factors, anxiety, depression, and fatigue, as well as hepatoprotection and treatment of uremic bruising. Although no systematic survey of prevalence of use has been performed in patients with chronic kidney disease and much research remains to be done so that safety and efficacy issues can be resolved, it is likely that many patients are using the services of CAM providers without the knowledge of their nephrologists. Thus, it behooves us to become conversant in these therapies so that we may hold open dialogues with our patients, discouraging potentially harmful treatments, suggesting potentially helpful ones, and monitoring them for effects, both beneficial and harmful.

  7. Effects of TGF-beta signalling inhibition with galunisertib (LY2157299) in hepatocellular carcinoma models and in ex vivo whole tumor tissue samples from patients

    PubMed Central

    Serova, Maria; Tijeras-Raballand, Annemilaï; Santos, Célia Dos; Albuquerque, Miguel; Paradis, Valerie; Neuzillet, Cindy; Benhadji, Karim A.; Raymond, Eric; Faivre, Sandrine; de Gramont, Armand

    2015-01-01

    Galunisertib (LY2157299) is a selective ATP-mimetic inhibitor of TGF-β receptor (TβR)-I activation currently under clinical investigation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Our study explored the effects of galunisertib in vitro in HCC cell lines and ex vivo on patient samples. Galunisertib was evaluated in HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7, JHH6 and SK-HEP1 cells as well as in SK-HEP1-derived cells tolerant to sorafenib (SK-Sora) and sunitinib (SK-Suni). Exogenous stimulation of all HCC cell lines with TGF-β yielded downstream activation of p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 that was potently inhibited with galunisertib treatment at micromolar concentrations. Despite limited antiproliferative effects, galunisertib yielded potent anti-invasive properties. Tumor slices from 13 patients with HCC surgically resected were exposed ex vivo to 1 μM and 10 μM galunisertib, 5 μM sorafenib or a combination of both drugs for 48 hours. Galunisertib but not sorafenib decreased p-Smad2/3 downstream TGF-β signaling. Immunohistochemistry analysis of galunisertib and sorafenib-exposed samples showed a significant decrease of the proliferative marker Ki67 and increase of the apoptotic marker caspase-3. In combination, galunisertib potentiated the effect of sorafenib efficiently by inhibiting proliferation and increasing apoptosis. Our data suggest that galunisertib may be active in patients with HCC and could potentiate the effects of sorafenib. PMID:26057634

  8. Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB): Performance in a sample of patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zgaljardic, Dennis J; Temple, Richard O

    2010-10-01

    The Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB; Stern & White, 2003) is a comprehensive test battery that assesses five cognitive domains (Attention, Language, Memory, Spatial, and Executive Functions). The purpose of the current descriptive study was to present data on the index and primary test scores from the five main NAB cognitive modules in a sample of patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) admitted to a residential postacute rehabilitation program. Twenty patients were administered all five main NAB modules upon recommendation from the NAB Screening module. The sample performed significantly worse than normal on tests that assess selective and divided attention, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, and cognitive flexibility. The largest proportion of patients performing below an established impairment cutoff (10th percentile) occurred on the Numbers and Letters, List Learning, Story Learning, Daily Living Memory, and Categories Tests. Significant performance decrements were not observed on any indices or tests from the Language or Spatial cognitive domain modules. The pattern of performance on the NAB demonstrated by the current sample is consistent with the neuropsychological profile observed in postacute patients with moderate-to-severe TBI without focal deficits (e.g., aphasia), demonstrating its relative sensitivity in this patient population. A comparison between the current study sample and a related clinical sample from the NAB standardization data is discussed.

  9. Transient Receptor Potential Channel Polymorphisms Are Associated with the Somatosensory Function in Neuropathic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Tölle, Thomas R.; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Berthele, Achim; Faltraco, Frank; Flor, Herta; Gierthmühlen, Janne; Haenisch, Sierk; Huge, Volker; Magerl, Walter; Maihöfner, Christian; Richter, Helmut; Rolke, Roman; Scherens, Andrea; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Ufer, Mike; Wasner, Gunnar; Zhu, Jihong; Cascorbi, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channels are important mediators of thermal and mechanical stimuli and play an important role in neuropathic pain. The contribution of hereditary variants in the genes of transient receptor potential channels to neuropathic pain is unknown. We investigated the frequency of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1, transient receptor potential melastin 8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and their impact on somatosensory abnormalities in neuropathic pain patients. Within the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (Deutscher Forscbungsverbund Neuropathischer Schmerz) 371 neuropathic pain patients were phenotypically characterized using standardized quantitative sensory testing. Pyrosequencing was employed to determine a total of eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms in transient receptor potential channel genes of the neuropathic pain patients and a cohort of 253 German healthy volunteers. Associations of quantitative sensory testing parameters and single nucleotide polymorphisms between and within groups and subgroups, based on sensory phenotypes, were analyzed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms frequencies did not differ between both the cohorts. However, in neuropathic pain patients transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 710G>A (rs920829, E179K) was associated with the presence of paradoxical heat sensation (p = 0.03), and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1911A>G (rs8065080, I585V) with cold hypoalgesia (p = 0.0035). Two main subgroups characterized by preserved (1) and impaired (2) sensory function were identified. In subgroup 1 transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1911A>G led to significantly less heat hyperalgesia, pinprick hyperalgesia and mechanical hypaesthesia (p = 0.006, p = 0.005 and p<0.001) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1103C>G (rs222747, M315I) to cold hypaesthesia (p = 0.002), but there was absence of associations in subgroup 2. In

  10. Mars Rover Proposed for 2018 to Seek Signs of Life and to Cache Samples for Potential Return to Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, L. M.

    2009-12-01

    The search for preserved evidence of life is the keystone concept for a new generation of Mars rover capable of exploring, sampling, and caching diverse suites of rocks from outcrops. The proposed mission is conceived to address two general objectives: conduct high-priority in situ science and make concrete steps towards the possible future return of samples to Earth. We propose the name Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C) to best reflect the dual purpose of the proposed mission. The scientific objective of the proposed MAX-C would require rover access to a site with high preservation potential for physical and chemical biosignatures in order to evaluate paleo-environmental conditions, characterize the potential for preservation of biosignatures, and access multiple sequences of geological units in a search for evidence of past life and/or prebiotic chemistry. Samples addressing a variety of high-priority scientific objectives should be collected, documented, and packaged in a manner suitable for possible return to Earth by a future mission. Relevant experience from study of ancient terrestrial strata, martian meteorites, and from the Mars Exploration Rovers indicates that the proposed MAX-C’s interpretive capability should include: meter to submillimeter texture (optical imaging), mineral identification, major element content, and organic molecular composition. Analytical data should be obtained by direct investigation of outcrops and should not entail acquisition of rock chips or powders. We propose, therefore, a set of arm-mounted instruments that would be capable of interrogating a relatively smooth, abraded surface by creating co-registered 2-D maps of visual texture, mineralogy and geochemical properties. This approach is judged to have particularly high value for evaluating potential signs of ancient microbial life likely to be manifested at relatively small scale. Scientists could use the 2-D micro-mapping data to select an outstanding set of

  11. Potential diagnostic role of renal scintigraphy in the management of patients with high anorectal malformation.

    PubMed

    Harisankar, Chidambaram Natrajan Balasubramanian; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Bhattacharya, Anish; Sunil, Hejjaji Venkataramarao; Singh, Baljinder; Rao, Katragadda Lakshmi Narasimha

    2009-01-01

    Urological problems are the leading associated anomalies in patients with anorectal malformation (ARM). In this study, we evaluated the role of scintigraphy in managing patients with high ARM. The records of infants with urologic anomalies on abdominal ultrasound and referred for scintigraphic evaluation were retrospectively analyzed. Diuretic renography in these patients was performed using (99m)Tc-diethyl triamine penta-acetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) or (99m)Tc-ethylene cysteine ((99m)Tc-EC) while cortical scintigraphy was performed with (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinate (DMSA). Whenever available, EC was preferred in children of age less than 1 year. Forty patients (38 males, 2 females) were analyzed. The mean age of the population was 25 months (range 15 days-21 years). Eighteen of the forty patients were less than 3 months of age. Twenty seven of the patients were less than one year of age. The most common renal anomaly was unilaterally non-visualized kidney affecting 15 out of the 40 patients. The visualised kidney was abnormal in 8/15 patients. Hydronephrotic changes were noticed in 12 of 40 patients of whom 2 had pelvi ureteric junction obstruction that was confirmed and treated surgically. Horse shoe kidney was present in 1 patient while 2 had an ectopic kidney. Scarring/ pyelonephritic changes were found in 7/40 patients. Five patients had already progressed to chronic renal failure at the time of scintigraphy. Only 8 patients of the 40 had bilaterally normal kidneys. In conclusion, this study suggests that urologic abnormalities often found in infants with high ARM may remain clinically silent and eventually lead to chronic renal failure. Proper evaluation by diuretic renography and cortical scintigraphy can lead to early identification of potentially treatable conditions hence reducing the likelihood of developing severe renal damage.

  12. Occurrence of potentially pathogenic bacteria on the hands of hospital patients before and after the introduction of patient hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Hedin, Göran; Blomkvist, Annika; Janson, Marianne; Lindblom, Anders

    2012-10-01

    The leading cause of nosocomial infections and spread of multiresistant bacteria is considered to be the failure of healthcare workers to perform appropriate hand hygiene. The role of the hands of hospital patients in the spread of infection has received little attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of potentially pathogenic bacteria on the patients' hands. Quantitative cultures were repeatedly taken from the fingertips of patients at a rehabilitation clinic before and after an intervention in which patient hand disinfection was introduced and promoted. Before the intervention, the occurrence on the hands of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast was a common finding. The colony counts of S. aureus were often higher than the counts of other organisms. After the intervention, the level of hand contamination was lower. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05) concerning Enterobacteriaceae, both when the patients were resting and at lunch time, for enterococci and total bacterial counts at lunch time, and for yeast when they were resting. Concerning S. aureus, the difference was not statistically significant, neither while resting nor at lunch time. The role of the patients in the spread of pathogenic bacteria merits more discussion. PMID:22958288

  13. Internal quality control of prothrombin time in primary care: comparing the use of patient split samples with lyophilised control materials.

    PubMed

    Stavelin, Anne; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Sølvik, Una; Sandberg, Sverre

    2009-09-01

    Many primary care laboratories use point-of-care (POC) instruments to monitor patients on anticoagulant treatment. The internal analytical quality control of these instruments is often assessed by analysing lyophilised control materials and/or by sending patient samples to a local hospital laboratory for comparison (split sample). The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of these two models of prothrombin time quality control. The models were evaluated by power functions created by computer simulations based on empirical data from 18 primary care laboratories using the POC instruments Thrombotrack, Coagu-Chek S, or Hemochron Jr. Signature. The control rules 1(2S), 1(3S), exponential weighted moving average, and the deviation limits of +/- 10% and +/- 20% were evaluated by their probability of error detection and false rejections. The total within-lab coefficient of variation was 3.8% and 6.9% for Thrombotrack, 8.9% and 10.5% for CoaguChek S, and 9.4% and 14.8% for Hemochron Jr. Signature for the control sample measurements and the split sample measurements, respectively. The probability of error detection was higher using a lyophilised control material than a patient split sample for all three instruments, whereas the probability of false rejection was similar. A higher probability of error detection occurred when lyophilised control material was used compared with the patient split samples; therefore, lyophilised control material should be used for internal analytical quality control of prothrombin time in primary health care.

  14. [Evoked potentials and brainstem reflex activity in patients of young and middle age with chronic headache].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, E A; Iakupov, E Z

    2011-01-01

    Neurophysiological peculiarities of functional state of afferent systems, including brain evoked potentials of different modalities and brainstem reflex activity, in patients of young and middle age with chronic headaches have been studied. In young patients, there was the increased reflex activity of visual and trigeminal systems, somatosensory cortex and brainstem structures that indicated the main role of the generator of pathologically increased excitation (GPIE) of different levels in the pathogenesis of chronic pain. In patients of middle age, we observed the predominant role of conduction delay on the supraspinal level. The revealed age-related neurophysiological peculiarities determine the pathogenetic therapy of chronic headaches.

  15. Asthma as a Comorbidity in Hospitalized Patients: A Potential Missed Opportunity to Intervene.

    PubMed

    Self, Timothy H; Owens, Ryan E; Mancell, Jimmie; Nahata, Milap C

    2016-06-01

    Asthma is a frequent comorbidity in hospitalized children and adults. Patients with a history of asthma may have no breathing complaints or abnormal chest exam findings to trigger care for this comorbidity during hospitalization. Consequently, this may lead to a potential missed opportunity to discuss asthma as a comorbidity and ongoing issue to ensure its optimal management at home. Our goal is to raise awareness that such patient encounters may represent opportunities for health care professionals to optimize asthma management. Despite focusing on the present illness and limited time availability, asthma care may be improved in a time-efficient manner in these patients.

  16. Early detection of aging cartilage and osteoarthritis in mice and patient samples using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, Martin; Gottardi, Riccardo; Raiteri, Roberto; Miot, Sylvie; Martin, Ivan; Imer, Raphaël; Staufer, Urs; Raducanu, Aurelia; Düggelin, Marcel; Baschong, Werner; Daniels, A. U.; Friederich, Niklaus F.; Aszodi, Attila; Aebi, Ueli

    2009-03-01

    The pathological changes in osteoarthritis-a degenerative joint disease prevalent among older people-start at the molecular scale and spread to the higher levels of the architecture of articular cartilage to cause progressive and irreversible structural and functional damage. At present, there are no treatments to cure or attenuate the degradation of cartilage. Early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of osteoarthritis are therefore important for developing effective therapies. Here, we show that indentation-type atomic force microscopy can monitor age-related morphological and biomechanical changes in the hips of normal and osteoarthritic mice. Early damage in the cartilage of osteoarthritic patients undergoing hip or knee replacements could similarly be detected using this method. Changes due to aging and osteoarthritis are clearly depicted at the nanometre scale well before morphological changes can be observed using current diagnostic methods. Indentation-type atomic force microscopy may potentially be developed into a minimally invasive arthroscopic tool to diagnose the early onset of osteoarthritis in situ.

  17. Identification of novel genetic alterations in samples of malignant glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Milinkovic, Vedrana; Bankovic, Jasna; Rakic, Miodrag; Stankovic, Tijana; Skender-Gazibara, Milica; Ruzdijic, Sabera; Tanic, Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant human brain tumor. High level of genomic instability detected in glioma cells implies that numerous genetic alterations accumulate during glioma pathogenesis. We investigated alterations in AP-PCR DNA profiles of 30 glioma patients, and detected specific changes in 11 genes not previously associated with this disease: LHFPL3, SGCG, HTR4, ITGB1, CPS1, PROS1, GP2, KCNG2, PDE4D, KIR3DL3, and INPP5A. Further correlations revealed that 8 genes might play important role in pathogenesis of glial tumors, while changes in GP2, KCNG2 and KIR3DL3 should be considered as passenger mutations, consequence of high level of genomic instability. Identified genes have a significant role in signal transduction or cell adhesion, which are important processes for cancer development and progression. According to our results, LHFPL3 might be characteristic of primary glioblastoma, SGCG, HTR4, ITGB1, CPS1, PROS1 and INPP5A were detected predominantly in anaplastic astrocytoma, suggesting their role in progression of secondary glioblastoma, while alterations of PDE4D seem to have important role in development of both glioblastoma subtypes. Some of the identified genes showed significant association with p53, p16, and EGFR, but there was no significant correlation between loss of PTEN and any of identified genes. In conclusion our study revealed genetic alterations that were not previously associated with glioma pathogenesis and could be potentially used as molecular markers of different glioblastoma subtypes. PMID:24358143

  18. Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Method To Measure Miltefosine in Leishmaniasis Patients Using Dried Blood Spot Sample Collection

    PubMed Central

    Rosing, H.; Hillebrand, M. J. X.; Blesson, S.; Mengesha, B.; Diro, E.; Hailu, A.; Schellens, J. H. M.; Beijnen, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate future pharmacokinetic studies of combination treatments against leishmaniasis in remote regions in which the disease is endemic, a simple cheap sampling method is required for miltefosine quantification. The aims of this study were to validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify miltefosine in dried blood spot (DBS) samples and to validate its use with Ethiopian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Since hematocrit (Ht) levels are typically severely decreased in VL patients, returning to normal during treatment, the method was evaluated over a range of clinically relevant Ht values. Miltefosine was extracted from DBS samples using a simple method of pretreatment with methanol, resulting in >97% recovery. The method was validated over a calibration range of 10 to 2,000 ng/ml, and accuracy and precision were within ±11.2% and ≤7.0% (≤19.1% at the lower limit of quantification), respectively. The method was accurate and precise for blood spot volumes between 10 and 30 μl and for Ht levels of 20 to 35%, although a linear effect of Ht levels on miltefosine quantification was observed in the bioanalytical validation. DBS samples were stable for at least 162 days at 37°C. Clinical validation of the method using paired DBS and plasma samples from 16 VL patients showed a median observed DBS/plasma miltefosine concentration ratio of 0.99, with good correlation (Pearson's r = 0.946). Correcting for patient-specific Ht levels did not further improve the concordance between the sampling methods. This successfully validated method to quantify miltefosine in DBS samples was demonstrated to be a valid and practical alternative to venous blood sampling that can be applied in future miltefosine pharmacokinetic studies with leishmaniasis patients, without Ht correction. PMID:26787691

  19. Propionibacterium acnes: Disease-Causing Agent or Common Contaminant? Detection in Diverse Patient Samples by Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Friis-Nielsen, Jens; Vinner, Lasse; Hansen, Thomas Arn; Richter, Stine Raith; Fridholm, Helena; Herrera, Jose Alejandro Romero; Lund, Ole; Brunak, Søren; Izarzugaza, Jose M. G.; Mourier, Tobias; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is the most abundant bacterium on human skin, particularly in sebaceous areas. P. acnes is suggested to be an opportunistic pathogen involved in the development of diverse medical conditions but is also a proven contaminant of human clinical samples and surgical wounds. Its significance as a pathogen is consequently a matter of debate. In the present study, we investigated the presence of P. acnes DNA in 250 next-generation sequencing data sets generated from 180 samples of 20 different sample types, mostly of cancerous origin. The samples were subjected to either microbial enrichment, involving nuclease treatment to reduce the amount of host nucleic acids, or shotgun sequencing. We detected high proportions of P. acnes DNA in enriched samples, particularly skin tissue-derived and other tissue samples, with the levels being higher in enriched samples than in shotgun-sequenced samples. P. acnes reads were detected in most samples analyzed, though the proportions in most shotgun-sequenced samples were low. Our results show that P. acnes can be detected in practically all sample types when molecular methods, such as next-generation sequencing, are employed. The possibility of contamination from the patient or other sources, including laboratory reagents or environment, should therefore always be considered carefully when P. acnes is detected in clinical samples. We advocate that detection of P. acnes always be accompanied by experiments validating the association between this bacterium and any clinical condition. PMID:26818667

  20. Brain potentials in patients with music perception deficits: evidence for an early locus.

    PubMed

    Münte, T F; Schuppert, M; Johannes, S; Wieringa, B M; Kohlmetz, C; Altenmüller, E

    1998-11-01

    Twelve patients with an acute cerebrovascular accident were assigned to a group with music perception deficits (amusia, n = 6) or a group without such deficits (n = 6) on the basis of a new test-battery for music-perception skills. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded in an auditory classification task designed to elicit several components; the N1 as a correlate of initial auditory cortical processing, the P3a as an index of automatic attentional orienting, and the P3b as a measure for controlled stimulus evaluation. Patients with amusia showed a significant amplitude decrement for the P3a relative to controls and patients without amusia suggesting an impairment of early stimulus evaluation. P3b was reduced in both patient groups relative to control. These data show that amusia is quite common in unselected stroke patients and suggest deficits of generic rather than music-specific cognitive processes as the underlying cause. PMID:9853709

  1. Potential link between body dysmorphic disorder symptoms and alexithymia in an eating-disordered treatment-seeking sample.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Andrea Siân; Sullivan, Karen Anne

    2011-09-30

    This study aimed to explore the manifestation of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms in a sample of people with eating disorders and to investigate possible associations between body dysmorphia and alexithymia. Forty patients currently seeking treatment for an eating disorder completed a battery of six measures assessing alexithymia, mood, eating behaviours, weight-related body image, body dysmorphia and non-weight related body image. Significant moderate positive correlations (Pearson's r) between selected variables were found, suggesting that participants with high levels of dysmorphic concern (imagined ugliness) have more difficulty with the affective elements of alexithymia, that is, identifying and describing feelings. When depression, eating attitudes, and weight-related body image concerns were controlled for, significant moderate positive correlations between this alexithymia factor and dysmorphic concerns remained present. An independent-samples t-test between eating-disordered participants with and without symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) revealed significant group differences in difficulties identifying feelings. This pattern of results was replicated when the groups were identified on the basis of dysmorphic concerns, as opposed to BDD symptoms. This study highlights the associations between alexithymia and body dysmorphia that have not previously been demonstrated. PMID:21803428

  2. Effects of pregnancy on slow cortical potentials in migraine patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Darabaneanu, S; Kropp, P; Niederberger, U; Strenge, H; Gerber, W-D

    2008-10-01

    Increased negative amplitudes and lack of habituation of contingent negative variation (CNV) in migraine are well established and are supposed to reflect an altered cortical excitability level. Migraine attacks occur less during pregnancy but often relapse after delivery. We investigated the effect of pregnancy on slow cortical potentials and reaction time in migraine patients and healthy controls. Four groups were examined: 14 pregnant migraine patients, 12 non-pregnant migraine patients, 15 pregnant healthy women and 16 non-pregnant healthy women aged 19-38 years. Two recordings were performed in the pregnant subjects: in the 36th week of gestation and 4 weeks after delivery. The non-pregnant subjects were recorded at the same time interval of 8 weeks. Pregnant migraine patients showed significantly fewer migraine days during the third trimester of pregnancy and returned to nearly the former level 4 weeks post delivery. Non-pregnant migraine patients demonstrated a significant reduction of migraine days at the second measurement. There was no effect of pregnancy on CNV amplitudes, but there was an effect of pregnancy on the habituation coefficient and reaction time of migraine patients. Faster habituation from a higher preactivation level was found. As an explanation for the changed habituation level we favour the model of correlation between preactivation level and habituation level, the so-called law of initial value. We found a correlation between preactivation level and habituation. Our study confirms a specific effect of pregnancy on slow cortical potentials in migraine patients. PMID:18624798

  3. APPLICATION OF STIR BAR SORPTIVE EXTRACTION TO ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE AND SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN IN SOLIDS AND AQUEOUS SAMPLES FROM THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    FRYE JM; KUNKEL JM

    2009-03-05

    Stir bar sorptive extraction was applied to aqueous and solid samples for the extraction and analysis of organic compounds from the Hanford chemicals of potential concern list, as identified in the vapor data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory analyzed these compounds from vapor samples on thermal desorption tubes as part of the Hanford Site industrial hygiene vapor sampling effort.

  4. Prevalence of Enteric Protozoan Oocysts with Special Reference to Sarcocystis cruzi among Fecal Samples of Diarrheic Immunodeficient Patients in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Agholi, Mahmoud; Shahabadi, Shahrbanou Naderi; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein; Hatam, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-01

    The genus Sarcocystis is not usually considered as an important enteric pathogen in immune compromised patients. It might be expected that species for which humans are the final host (Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis suihominis as well as possibly others) would be encountered increasingly often in immunodeficient persons. This study aimed to address how to detect and differentiate Sarcocystis oocysts and/or sporocysts from enteric protozoans in the diarrheal samples of immunodeficient patients in Shiraz, Iran. Diarrheal samples of 741 immunodeficient patients with recurrent persistent or chronic diarrhea were examined by microscopy and molecular biological analysis. Oocysts-positive samples were 68 Cryptosporidium spp., 9 Cystoisospora belli (syn. Isospora belli), 2 Cyclospora cayetanensis, and 15 microsporidia (Enterocytozoon bieneusi). Sarcocystis-like sporocysts found from a woman were identified as Sarcocystis cruzi through 18S rDNA amplification and phylogenetic analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of S. cruzi from a human. PMID:27417091

  5. Role of therapeutic drug monitoring in pulmonary infections: use and potential for expanded use of dried blood spot samples.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Susan; Bolhuis, Mathieu S; Koster, Remco A; Akkerman, Onno W; van Assen, Sander; Stove, Christophe; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in men. We reviewed literature to document their pharmacological treatments, and the extent to which therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is needed during treatment. We subsequently examined potential use of dried blood spots as sample procedure for TDM. TDM was found to be an important component of clinical care for many (but not all) pulmonary infections. For gentamicin, linezolid, voriconazole and posaconazole dried blood spot methods and their use in TDM were already evident in literature. For glycopeptides, β-lactam antibiotics and fluoroquinolones it was determined that development of a dried blood spot (DBS) method could be useful. This review identifies specific antibiotics for which development of DBS methods could support the optimization of treatment of pulmonary infections.

  6. Mass spectrometry study of hemoglobin-oxaliplatin complexes in colorectal cancer patients and potential association with chemotherapeutic responses.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rupasri; Sawyer, Michael B; Li, Xing-Fang

    2006-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is the most active platinum (Pt)-containing anticancer drug for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. We report here the study of potential association of the levels of oxaliplatin-protein complexes in 19 cancer patients with treatment efficacy using size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICPMS) and nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS) techniques. Blood samples from 19 colorectal cancer patients were collected at 1 and 48 h after the first infusion of oxaliplatin. HPLC/ICPMS quantification of the oxaliplatin-protein complexes showed that the levels of Pt-protein complexes in plasma samples at 48 h were reduced by approximately 50% compared to those at 1 h, whereas those in hemolysates did not change significantly. The concentrations of hemoglobin (Hb)-oxaliplatin complexes determined by HPLC/ICPMS ranged from 3.1 to 8.7 microM. NanoESI-MS analysis of the patient hemolysates showed three distinct mass spectral profiles of the Hb-oxaliplatin complexes: (1) 1:1, (2) 1:1 with 1:2, and (3) multiple complexes of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4, corresponding to the Hb-oxaliplatin complex concentrations determined by HPLC/ICPMS. Potential association of variables including Hb-oxaliplatin complex concentrations with time to progress as the treatment efficacy indicator was analyzed using the Cox model. Multivariate analysis of the potential predictors showed that the statistically significant variables were Hb-oxaliplatin complex concentration (p = 0.02), performance status (p = 0.02), baseline neutrophil count (p = 0.05), and the site of the primary cancer (colon vs. rectal, p = 0.01). The hazard ratio for the concentration of the Hb-oxaliplatin complexes was 2.4, suggesting that the risk of cancer progression significantly increased with increasing of Hb-oxaliplatin complexes in patients. These results demonstrate that the level of the Hb-oxaliplatin complexes in

  7. Finding Alternatives to the Dogma of Power Based Sample Size Calculation: Is a Fixed Sample Size Prospective Meta-Experiment a Potential Alternative?

    PubMed Central

    Tavernier, Elsa; Trinquart, Ludovic; Giraudeau, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Sample sizes for randomized controlled trials are typically based on power calculations. They require us to specify values for parameters such as the treatment effect, which is often difficult because we lack sufficient prior information. The objective of this paper is to provide an alternative design which circumvents the need for sample size calculation. In a simulation study, we compared a meta-experiment approach to the classical approach to assess treatment efficacy. The meta-experiment approach involves use of meta-analyzed results from 3 randomized trials of fixed sample size, 100 subjects. The classical approach involves a single randomized trial with the sample size calculated on the basis of an a priori-formulated hypothesis. For the sample size calculation in the classical approach, we used observed articles to characterize errors made on the formulated hypothesis. A prospective meta-analysis of data from trials of fixed sample size provided the same precision, power and type I error rate, on average, as the classical approach. The meta-experiment approach may provide an alternative design which does not require a sample size calculation and addresses the essential need for study replication; results may have greater external validity. PMID:27362939

  8. A procedure for estimating Bacillus cereus spores in soil and stream-sediment samples - A potential exploration technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watterson, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of bacterial spores of the Bacillus cereus group in soils and stream sediments appears to be a sensitive indicator of several types of concealed mineral deposits, including vein-type gold deposits. The B. cereus assay is rapid, inexpensive, and inherently reproducible. The test, currently under investigation for its potential in mineral exploration, is recommended for use on a research basis. Among the aerobic spore-forming bacilli, only B. cereus and closely related strains produce an opaque zone in egg-yolk emulsion agar. This characteristic, also known as the Nagler of lecitho-vitellin reaction, has long been used to rapidly indentify and estimate presumptive B. cereus. The test is here adapted to permit rapid estimation of B. cereus spores in soil and stream-sediment samples. Relative standard deviation was 10.3% on counts obtained from two 40-replicate pour-plate determinations. As many as 40 samples per day can be processed. Enough procedural detail is included to permit investigation of the test in conventional geochemical laboratories using standard microbiological safety precautions. ?? 1985.

  9. Development of an Oligonucleotide Array for Direct Detection of Fungi in Sputum Samples from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bouchara, Jean-Phillippe; Hsieh, Hsin Yi; Croquefer, Sabine; Barton, Richard; Marchais, Veronique; Pihet, Marc; Chang, Tsung Chain

    2009-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common inherited genetic disease in Caucasian populations. Besides bacteria, many species of fungi may colonize the respiratory tract of these patients, sometimes leading to true respiratory infections. In this study, an oligonucleotide array capable of identifying 20 fungal species was developed to directly detect fungi in the sputum samples of CF patients. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes were designed from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the rRNA operon and immobilized on a nylon membrane. The fungal ITS regions were amplified by PCR and hybridized to the array for species identification. The array was validated by testing 182 target strains (strains which we aimed to identify) and 141 nontarget strains (135 species), and a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99.2% were obtained. The validated array was then used for direct detection of fungi in 57 sputum samples from 39 CF patients, and the results were compared to those obtained by culture. For 16 sputum samples, the results obtained by the array corresponded with those obtained by culture. For 33 samples, the array detected more fungal species than culture did, while the reverse was found for eight samples. The accuracy of the array for fungal detection in sputum samples was confirmed (or partially confirmed) in some samples by cloning and resequencing the amplified ITS fragments. The present array is a useful tool for both the simultaneous detection of multiple fungal species present in the sputa of CF patients and the identification of fungi isolated from these patients. PMID:19020057

  10. Half of 30-Day Hospital Readmissions Among HIV-Infected Patients Are Potentially Preventable

    PubMed Central

    Kitchell, Ellen; Etherton, Sarah Shelby; Duarte, Piper; Halm, Ethan A.; Jain, Mamta K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirty-day readmission rates, a widely utilized quality metric, are high among HIV-infected individuals. However, it is unknown how many 30-day readmissions are preventable, especially in HIV patients, who have been excluded from prior potentially preventable readmission analyses. We used electronic medical records to identify all readmissions within 30 days of discharge among HIV patients hospitalized at a large urban safety net hospital in 2011. Two independent reviewers assessed whether readmissions were potentially preventable using both published criteria and detailed chart review, how readmissions might have been prevented, and the phase of care deemed suboptimal (inpatient care, discharge planning, post-discharge). Of 1137 index admissions, 213 (19%) resulted in 30-day readmissions. These admissions occurred among 930 unique HIV patients, with 130 individuals (14%) experiencing 30-day readmissions. Of these 130, about half were determined to be potentially preventable using published criteria (53%) or implicit chart review (48%). Not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) greatly increased the odds of a preventable readmission (OR 5.9, CI:2.4–14.8). Most of the preventable causes of readmission were attributed to suboptimal care during the index hospitalization. Half of 30-day readmission in HIV patients are potentially preventable. Increased focus on early ART initiation, adherence counseling, management of chronic conditions, and appropriate timing of discharge may help reduce readmissions in this vulnerable population. PMID:26154066

  11. Half of 30-Day Hospital Readmissions Among HIV-Infected Patients Are Potentially Preventable.

    PubMed

    Nijhawan, Ank E; Kitchell, Ellen; Etherton, Sarah Shelby; Duarte, Piper; Halm, Ethan A; Jain, Mamta K

    2015-09-01

    Thirty-day readmission rates, a widely utilized quality metric, are high among HIV-infected individuals. However, it is unknown how many 30-day readmissions are preventable, especially in HIV patients, who have been excluded from prior potentially preventable readmission analyses. We used electronic medical records to identify all readmissions within 30 days of discharge among HIV patients hospitalized at a large urban safety net hospital in 2011. Two independent reviewers assessed whether readmissions were potentially preventable using both published criteria and detailed chart review, how readmissions might have been prevented, and the phase of care deemed suboptimal (inpatient care, discharge planning, post-discharge). Of 1137 index admissions, 213 (19%) resulted in 30-day readmissions. These admissions occurred among 930 unique HIV patients, with 130 individuals (14%) experiencing 30-day readmissions. Of these 130, about half were determined to be potentially preventable using published criteria (53%) or implicit chart review (48%). Not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) greatly increased the odds of a preventable readmission (OR 5.9, CI:2.4-14.8). Most of the preventable causes of readmission were attributed to suboptimal care during the index hospitalization. Half of 30-day readmission in HIV patients are potentially preventable. Increased focus on early ART initiation, adherence counseling, management of chronic conditions, and appropriate timing of discharge may help reduce readmissions in this vulnerable population.

  12. Firearms law raises issue of MDs' duty to predict and report potentially violent patients.

    PubMed Central

    Capen, K

    1995-01-01

    The possibility that an amendment to new firearms legislation would require physicians to report potentially violent patients raises the controversial issues of physicians' legal duty to warn and the ability of physicians and other health care professionals to predict violent behaviour. For these reasons, it will be necessary to follow carefully any proposed amendments to the legislation. PMID:7736377

  13. Blubber cortisol: a potential tool for assessing stress response in free-ranging dolphins without effects due to sampling.

    PubMed

    Kellar, Nicholas M; Catelani, Krista N; Robbins, Michelle N; Trego, Marisa L; Allen, Camryn D; Danil, Kerri; Chivers, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    When paired with dart biopsying, quantifying cortisol in blubber tissue may provide an index of relative stress levels (i.e., activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis) in free-ranging cetacean populations while minimizing the effects of the act of sampling. To validate this approach, cortisol was extracted from blubber samples collected from beach-stranded and bycaught short-beaked common dolphins using a modified blubber steroid isolation technique and measured via commercially available enzyme immunoassays. The measurements exhibited appropriate quality characteristics when analyzed via a bootstraped stepwise parallelism analysis (observed/expected = 1.03, 95%CI: 99.6 - 1.08) and showed no evidence of matrix interference with increasing sample size across typical biopsy tissue masses (75-150 mg; r(2) = 0.012, p = 0.78, slope = 0.022 ng(cortisol deviation)/ul(tissue extract added)). The relationships between blubber cortisol and eight potential cofactors namely, 1) fatality type (e.g., stranded or bycaught), 2) specimen condition (state of decomposition), 3) total body length, 4) sex, 5) sexual maturity state, 6) pregnancy status, 7) lactation state, and 8) adrenal mass, were assessed using a Bayesian generalized linear model averaging technique. Fatality type was the only factor correlated with blubber cortisol, and the magnitude of the effect size was substantial: beach-stranded individuals had on average 6.1-fold higher cortisol levels than those of bycaught individuals. Because of the difference in conditions surrounding these two fatality types, we interpret this relationship as evidence that blubber cortisol is indicative of stress response. We found no evidence of seasonal variation or a relationship between cortisol and the remaining cofactors.

  14. Blubber Cortisol: A Potential Tool for Assessing Stress Response in Free-Ranging Dolphins without Effects due to Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Kellar, Nicholas M.; Catelani, Krista N.; Robbins, Michelle N.; Trego, Marisa L.; Allen, Camryn D.; Danil, Kerri; Chivers, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    When paired with dart biopsying, quantifying cortisol in blubber tissue may provide an index of relative stress levels (i.e., activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis) in free-ranging cetacean populations while minimizing the effects of the act of sampling. To validate this approach, cortisol was extracted from blubber samples collected from beach-stranded and bycaught short-beaked common dolphins using a modified blubber steroid isolation technique and measured via commercially available enzyme immunoassays. The measurements exhibited appropriate quality characteristics when analyzed via a bootstraped stepwise parallelism analysis (observed/expected = 1.03, 95%CI: 99.6 – 1.08) and showed no evidence of matrix interference with increasing sample size across typical biopsy tissue masses (75–150mg; r2 = 0.012, p = 0.78, slope = 0.022ngcortisol deviation/ultissue extract added). The relationships between blubber cortisol and eight potential cofactors namely, 1) fatality type (e.g., stranded or bycaught), 2) specimen condition (state of decomposition), 3) total body length, 4) sex, 5) sexual maturity state, 6) pregnancy status, 7) lactation state, and 8) adrenal mass, were assessed using a Bayesian generalized linear model averaging technique. Fatality type was the only factor correlated with blubber cortisol, and the magnitude of the effect size was substantial: beach-stranded individuals had on average 6.1-fold higher cortisol levels than those of bycaught individuals. Because of the difference in conditions surrounding these two fatality types, we interpret this relationship as evidence that blubber cortisol is indicative of stress response. We found no evidence of seasonal variation or a relationship between cortisol and the remaining cofactors. PMID:25643144

  15. Whole genome sequencing reveals potential targets for therapy in patients with refractory KRAS mutated metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The outcome of patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) following first line therapy is poor, with median survival of less than one year. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate therapeutically targetable somatic events in mCRC patient samples by whole genome sequencing (WGS), so as to obtain targeted treatment strategies for individual patients. Methods Four patients were recruited, all of whom had received > 2 prior therapy regimens. Percutaneous needle biopsies of metastases were performed with whole blood collection for the extraction of constitutional DNA. One tumor was not included in this study as the quality of tumor tissue was not sufficient for further analysis. WGS was performed using Illumina paired end chemistry on HiSeq2000 sequencing systems, which yielded coverage of greater than 30X for all samples. NGS data were processed and analyzed to detect somatic genomic alterations including point mutations, indels, copy number alterations, translocations and rearrangements. Results All 3 tumor samples had KRAS mutations, while 2 tumors contained mutations in the APC gene and the PIK3CA gene. Although we did not identify a TCF7L2-VTI1A translocation, we did detect a TCF7L2 mutation in one tumor. Among the other interesting mutated genes was INPPL1, an important gene involved in PI3 kinase signaling. Functional studies demonstrated that inhibition of INPPL1 reduced growth of CRC cells, suggesting that INPPL1 may promote growth in CRC. Conclusions Our study further supports potential molecularly defined therapeutic contexts that might provide insights into treatment strategies for refractory mCRC. New insights into the role of INPPL1 in colon tumor cell growth have also been identified. Continued development of appropriate targeted agents towards specific events may be warranted to help improve outcomes in CRC. PMID:24943349

  16. Group specific PCR-detection of potential trichothecene-producing Fusarium-species in pure cultures and cereal samples.

    PubMed

    Niessen, M L; Vogel, R F

    1998-12-01

    A PCR based assay (Tox5 PCR) which analyses Fusarium species potentially producing trichothecenes was developed using a pair of primers derived from the DNA-sequence of the trichodiene synthase gene (tri5). The primer pair was tested using DNA isolated from a variety of strains representing 64 species and varieties of Fusarium as well as from other fungi, bacteria and cereals. A 658 bp PCR fragment was specifically amplified with DNA isolated from strains of species belonging to the Fusarium sections Discolor, Sporotrichiella, Arthrosporiella, Gibbosum, and "Dlaminia". PCR products obtained were sequenced. Alignment to tri5 sequences given in the literature revealed a high degree of homology. Results of the PCR developed correlated well with literature data on the trichothecene producing capabilities of the respective species. Potential trichothecene producing fusaria were detected in contaminated cereals and malts using the Tox5 PCR assay. Intensity of the signals produced were well correlated with the concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON) in samples of wheat. PMID:9924828

  17. Effect of raising body temperature on visual and somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Matthews, W B; Read, D J; Pountney, E

    1979-03-01

    The effects of raising body temperature on the visual (VEP) and somatosensory (SEP) evoked potentials were observed in normal subjects and in patients with multiple sclerosis. The amplitude of the VEP was significantly reduced to the same degree after heating in normal subjects and in patients with multiple sclerosis but there was no effect on the latency of the potential. Changes in amplitude could not be related to reduction in acuity. In contrast, the cervical SEP was greatly disorganised after heating in many patients with multiple sclerosis while the only effect in normal subjects was to reduce the latency by increasing peripheral conduction velocity. These results suggest that heat caused conduction block in demyelinated axons in the sensory pathways of the cervical spinal cord.

  18. Geriatric syndromes are potential determinants of the medication adherence status in prevalent dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chia-Ter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Geriatric syndromes (GS) exhibit high prevalence in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) under chronic dialysis irrespective of age. We sought to determine whether GS influences medication adherence in ESRD patients. Methods. A prospective cohort of chronic dialysis patients was assembled. The presence of GS components, including frailty/prefrailty, polypharmacy, and malnutrition, were ascertained through a validated questionnaire, electronic records and chart abstraction, and laboratory tests. The severity of medication non-adherence was defined using the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed targeting MMAS results and incorporating relevant clinical features and GS. Results. The prevalence of frailty/pre-frailty, polypharmacy, and hypoalbuminemia/ malnutrition among the enrolled participants was 66.7%, 94%, and 14%, respectively. The average MMAS scores in these dialysis patients were 2 ± 1.7 (range, 0–6), with only 15.7% exhibiting high medication adherence. Multiple regression analyses showed that the absence of frailty/pre-frailty (P = 0.01) were significantly associated with poorer medication adherence, while the presence of polypharmacy (P = 0.02) and lower serum albumin, a potential sign of malnutrition (P = 0.03), were associated with poor adherence in another model. Conclusion. This study is among the very few reports addressing GS and medication adherence, especially in ESRD patients. Interventions targeting frailty, polypharmacy, and malnutrition might potentially improve the medication non-adherence and symptom control in these pill-burdened patients. PMID:27326380

  19. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kolachi, Nida F; Kazi, Tasneem G; Wadhwa, Sham K; Afridi, Hassan I; Baig, Jameel A; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-08-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p>0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p<0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p<0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies.

  20. [Electric reactive potentials to events with a positive and negative coloring in patients with protracted depression].

    PubMed

    Kurnitskaia, I V; Dmitriev, A S

    1987-01-01

    The authors measured electrical reactive potentials in the posterior associative and frontal areas, originating in response to winning or losing of the serve in tennis game shown on the video which served as a model of positive and negative emotional reactions. The studied potentials consisted of four waves: P300, N600, P800 and N1000. Healthy subjects experiencing positive emotions showed a more marked negative nature of the potentials in the left posterior associative zone while negative emotions were associated with the presence of predominantly negative potentials in the right frontal area. Patients with protracted depression presented a negative shift of potentials in both right posterior associative zone and left frontal area. The results obtained indicate that protracted depression is attended by impaired topography of the cortical processes associated with positive and negative emotions. PMID:3591142

  1. Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing of Primarily Renally Cleared Medications for Older Veterans Affairs Nursing Home Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Joseph T.; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Handler, Steven M.; Weisbord, Steven; Pugh, Mary Jo; Semla, Todd; Stone, Roslyn A.; Aspinall, Sherrie L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Inappropriate prescribing of primarily renally cleared medications in older patients with kidney disease can lead to adverse outcomes. Objectives To estimate the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing of 21 primarily renally cleared medications based on 2 separate estimates of renal function and to identify factors associated with this form of suboptimal prescribing in older VA nursing home (NH) patients. Design Longitudinal study Participants Participants were 1304 patients, aged 65 years or older, admitted between January 1, 2004, and June 30, 2005, for 90 days or more to 1 of 133 VA NHs. Main Measures Potentially inappropriate prescribing of primarily renally cleared medications determined by estimating creatinine clearance using the Cock-croft Gault (CG) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations and applying explicit guidelines for contraindicated medications and dosing. Key Results The median estimated creatinine clearance via CG was 67 mL/min, whereas it was 80 mL/min/1.73m2 with the MDRD. Overall, 11.89% patients via CG and only 5.98% via MDRD had evidence of potentially inappropriate prescribing of at least 1 renally cleared medication. The most commonly involved medications were ranitidine, glyburide, gabapentin, and nitrofurantoin. Factors associated with potentially inappropriate prescribing as per the CG were age older than 85 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.42–7.43), obesity (AOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.50) and having multiple comorbidities (AOR 1.09 for each unit increase in the Charlson comorbidity index, 95% CI 1.01–1.19). Conclusions Potentially inappropriate prescribing of renally cleared medications is common in older VA NH patients. Intervention studies to improve the prescribing of primarily renally cleared medications in nursing homes are needed. PMID:21450179

  2. Therapeutic Potential of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) from Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    García-Contreras, Marta; Vera-Donoso, César David; Hernández-Andreu, José Miguel; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Oltra, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSCs) are an important source of cells for regenerative medicine. The therapeutic effect of culture-expanded adipose derived stem cells has been shown; however, optimal xeno-free culture conditions remain to be determined. Cancer patients, specifically those undergoing invasive surgery, constitute a subgroup of patients who could benefit from autologous stem cell transplantation. Although regenerative potential of their ADSCs could be affected by the disease and/or treatment, we are not aware of any study that has evaluated the therapeutic potential of ADSCs isolated from cancer patients in reference to that of ADSCs derived from healthy subjects. Here we report that ADSCs isolated from subabdominal adipose tissue of patients with urological neoplasms yielded similar growth kinetics, presented equivalent mesenchymal surface markers and showed similar differentiation potential into distinct mesodermal cell lineages: adipocytes, chondroblasts and osteoblasts than ADSCs isolated from adipose tissue of age-matched non-oncogenic participants, all under xeno-free growth culture conditions. Molecular karyotyping of patient expanded ADSCs genomes showed no disease-related alterations indicating their safety. In addition, vesicles <100 nm identified as exosomes (EXOs) which may be at least partly responsible for the attributed therapeutic paracrine effects of the ADSCs were effectively isolated from ADSCs and showed equivalent miRNA content regardless they were derived from cancer patients or non-oncogenic participants indicating that the repair capabilities of xeno-free expanded ADSCs are not compromised by patient condition and therefore their xeno-free culture expanded ADSCs should be suitable for autologous stem cell transplantation in a clinical setting. PMID:25412325

  3. Detailed Dietary Assessment in Patients with Inoperable Tumors: Potential Deficits for Nutrition Care Plans.

    PubMed

    Vidra, Nikoletta; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Schina, Evaggelia; Gioulbasanis, Ioannis

    2016-10-01

    Advanced cancer often results in reduced dietary intake; however, data on actual intake at the time of diagnosis are limited. In the present study, a detailed dietary intake assessment was performed in patients with metastatic lung and upper gastrointestinal cancer, before initiation of systemic therapy. Basic demographics and performance status (PS) were recorded. Nutritional status was evaluated through anthropometry, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and 3 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Of the 84 patients enrolled, 61.4% were protein, energy, or protein-energy undernourished, regardless of body mass index (BMI) or MNA category. No differences in energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients intakes across BMI categories were recorded. Very low consumption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), irrespective of energy intake, tumor site, BMI category, or PS was found. Suboptimal micronutrients intakes were recorded even in well-nourished and overweight/obese patients. Patients with adequate PS and better MNA score reported significantly higher intake of certain macro- and micronutrients (all P < 0.05). Most patients exhibited reduced dietary intake in terms of energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient. Very low EPA and DHA intake was recorded for the whole sample, whereas micronutrient suboptimal intakes were also prevalent in well-nourished or overweight patients. All the above should be taken into account during patients' nutritional care. PMID:27552101

  4. Diagnostic potential for gold nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to provide colorectal cancer screening using blood serum sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Duo; Feng, Shangyuan; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Yanping; Lin, Juqiang; Sun, Liqing; Chen, Rong

    2012-03-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that is capable of probing the biomolecular changes associated with diseased transformation. The objective of our study was to explore gold nanoparticle based SERS to obtain blood serum biochemical information for non-invasive colorectal cancer detection. SERS measurements were performed on two groups of blood serum samples: one group from patients (n = 38) with pathologically confirmed colorectal cancer and the other group from healthy volunteers (control subjects, n = 45). Tentative assignments of the Raman bands in the measured SERS spectra suggested interesting cancer specific biomolecular changes, including an increase in the relative amounts of nucleic acid, a decrease in the percentage of saccharide and proteins contents in the blood serum of colorectal cancer patients as compared to that of healthy subjects. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the measured SERS spectra separated the spectral features of the two groups into two distinct clusters with little overlaps. Linear discriminate analysis (LDA) based on the PCA generated features differentiated the nasopharyngeal cancer SERS spectra from normal SERS spectra with high sensitivity (97.4%) and specificity (100%). The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that gold nanoparticle based SERS serum analysis combined with PCA-LDA has tremendous potential for the non-invasive detection of colorectal cancers.

  5. Diagnostic potential for gold nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to provide colorectal cancer screening using blood serum sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Duo; Feng, Shangyuan; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Yanping; Lin, Juqiang; Sun, Liqing; Chen, Rong

    2011-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that is capable of probing the biomolecular changes associated with diseased transformation. The objective of our study was to explore gold nanoparticle based SERS to obtain blood serum biochemical information for non-invasive colorectal cancer detection. SERS measurements were performed on two groups of blood serum samples: one group from patients (n = 38) with pathologically confirmed colorectal cancer and the other group from healthy volunteers (control subjects, n = 45). Tentative assignments of the Raman bands in the measured SERS spectra suggested interesting cancer specific biomolecular changes, including an increase in the relative amounts of nucleic acid, a decrease in the percentage of saccharide and proteins contents in the blood serum of colorectal cancer patients as compared to that of healthy subjects. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the measured SERS spectra separated the spectral features of the two groups into two distinct clusters with little overlaps. Linear discriminate analysis (LDA) based on the PCA generated features differentiated the nasopharyngeal cancer SERS spectra from normal SERS spectra with high sensitivity (97.4%) and specificity (100%). The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that gold nanoparticle based SERS serum analysis combined with PCA-LDA has tremendous potential for the non-invasive detection of colorectal cancers.

  6. Event related potentials recorded in patients with locked-in syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Onofrj, M.; Thomas, A.; Paci, C.; Scesi, M.; Tombari, R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine the possibility of recording "cognitive" event related potentials (ERPs) in locked-in patients and therefore to determine whether ERPs can have a role in differential diagnosis of coma.
METHODS—ERPs to classic auditory or visual "odd ball paradigms" were recorded three to four days, seven to eight days, and 30 to 60days after admission to the intensive care unit, in four patients affected by basilar artery thrombembolism resulting in locked-in syndrome. Two patients (one 32 year old man, one 31 year old woman) could move the eyes laterally and vertically spontaneously and on command. One patient (a 39 year old man) had a "one and half syndrome", one patient (a 40 year old woman) could only elevate the left eyelid and eye. Results were compared with data from 30 age matched controls. In the last recording session a letter recognition paradigm was applied, in which ERPs were produced by the identification of letters forming a word. Results were compared with five age matched controls. Brainstem lesions extending to the pontomesencephalic junction were found on MRI and CT.
RESULTS—ERPs to the oddball paradigms were recorded in three patients in the first recording session, in all patients in the second recording session. Latency, amplitude, and topographic distribution of ERP components were inside normal limits. With the letter recognition paradigm the patients could emit a P3 component to correspond with target letters, with the same margin of error as controls.
CONCLUSION—It is possible to record ERPs in patients with locked-in syndrome shortly after the acute ischaemic lesion, and therefore to assess objectively cognitive activities. Furthermore the letter recognition paradigm could be implemented to facilitate linguistic communication with patients with locked-in syndrome.

 PMID:9416812

  7. Reduced habituation to experimental pain in migraine patients: a CO(2) laser evoked potential study.

    PubMed

    Valeriani, M; de Tommaso, M; Restuccia, D; Le Pera, D; Guido, M; Iannetti, G D; Libro, G; Truini, A; Di Trapani, G; Puca, F; Tonali, P; Cruccu, G

    2003-09-01

    The habituation to sensory stimuli of different modalities is reduced in migraine patients. However, the habituation to pain has never been evaluated. Our aim was to assess the nociceptive pathway function and the habituation to experimental pain in patients with migraine. Scalp potentials were evoked by CO(2) laser stimulation (laser evoked potentials, LEPs) of the hand and facial skin in 24 patients with migraine without aura (MO), 19 patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH), and 28 control subjects (CS). The habituation was studied by measuring the changes of LEP amplitudes across three consecutive repetitions of 30 trials each (the repetitions lasted 5 min and were separated by 5-min intervals). The slope of the regression line between LEP amplitude and number of repetitions was taken as an index of habituation. The LEPs consisted of middle-latency, low-amplitude responses (N1, contralateral temporal region, and P1, frontal region) followed by a late, high-amplitude, negative-positive complex (N2/P2, vertex). The latency and amplitude of these responses were similar in both patients and controls. While CS and CTTH patients showed a significant habituation of the N2/P2 response, in MO patients this LEP component did not develop any habituation at all after face stimulation and showed a significantly lower habituation than in CS after hand stimulation. The habituation index of the vertex N2/P2 complex exceeded the normal limits in 13 out of the 24 MO patients and in none of the 19 CTTH patients (P<0.0001; Fisher's exact test). Moreover, while the N1-P1 amplitude showed a significant habituation in CS after hand stimulation, it did not change across repetitions in MO patients. In conclusion, no functional impairment of the nociceptive pathways, including the trigeminal pathways, was found in either MO or CTTH patients. But patients with migraine had a reduced habituation, which probably reflects an abnormal excitability of the cortical areas involved in

  8. Reduced habituation to experimental pain in migraine patients: a CO(2) laser evoked potential study.

    PubMed

    Valeriani, M; de Tommaso, M; Restuccia, D; Le Pera, D; Guido, M; Iannetti, G D; Libro, G; Truini, A; Di Trapani, G; Puca, F; Tonali, P; Cruccu, G

    2003-09-01

    The habituation to sensory stimuli of different modalities is reduced in migraine patients. However, the habituation to pain has never been evaluated. Our aim was to assess the nociceptive pathway function and the habituation to experimental pain in patients with migraine. Scalp potentials were evoked by CO(2) laser stimulation (laser evoked potentials, LEPs) of the hand and facial skin in 24 patients with migraine without aura (MO), 19 patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH), and 28 control subjects (CS). The habituation was studied by measuring the changes of LEP amplitudes across three consecutive repetitions of 30 trials each (the repetitions lasted 5 min and were separated by 5-min intervals). The slope of the regression line between LEP amplitude and number of repetitions was taken as an index of habituation. The LEPs consisted of middle-latency, low-amplitude responses (N1, contralateral temporal region, and P1, frontal region) followed by a late, high-amplitude, negative-positive complex (N2/P2, vertex). The latency and amplitude of these responses were similar in both patients and controls. While CS and CTTH patients showed a significant habituation of the N2/P2 response, in MO patients this LEP component did not develop any habituation at all after face stimulation and showed a significantly lower habituation than in CS after hand stimulation. The habituation index of the vertex N2/P2 complex exceeded the normal limits in 13 out of the 24 MO patients and in none of the 19 CTTH patients (P<0.0001; Fisher's exact test). Moreover, while the N1-P1 amplitude showed a significant habituation in CS after hand stimulation, it did not change across repetitions in MO patients. In conclusion, no functional impairment of the nociceptive pathways, including the trigeminal pathways, was found in either MO or CTTH patients. But patients with migraine had a reduced habituation, which probably reflects an abnormal excitability of the cortical areas involved in

  9. Serum aminoacylase-1 is a novel biomarker with potential prognostic utility for long-term outcome in patients with delayed graft function following renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Welberry Smith, Matthew P; Zougman, Alexandre; Cairns, David A; Wilson, Michelle; Wind, Tobias; Wood, Steven L; Thompson, Douglas; Messenger, Michael P; Mooney, Andrew; Selby, Peter J; Lewington, Andrew J P; Banks, Rosamonde E

    2013-12-01

    Early identification and prognostic stratification of delayed graft function following renal transplantation has significant potential to improve outcome. Mass spectrometry analysis of serum samples, before and on day 2 post transplant from five patients with delayed graft function and five with an uncomplicated transplant, identified aminoacylase-1 (ACY-1) as a potential outcome biomarker. Following assay development, analysis of longitudinal samples from an initial validation cohort of 55 patients confirmed that the ACY-1 level on day 1 or 2 was a moderate predictor of delayed graft function, similar to serum creatinine, complementing the strongest predictor cystatin C. A further validation cohort of 194 patients confirmed this association with area under ROC curves (95% CI) for day 1 serum (138 patients) of 0.74 (0.67-0.85) for ACY-1, 0.9 (0.84-0.95) for cystatin C, and 0.93 (0.88-0.97) for both combined. Significant differences in serum ACY-1 levels were apparent between delayed, slow, and immediate graft function. Analysis of long-term follow-up for 54 patients with delayed graft function showed a highly significant association between day 1 or 3 serum ACY-1 and dialysis-free survival, mainly associated with the donor-brain-dead transplant type. Thus, proteomic analysis provides novel insights into the potential clinical utility of serum ACY-1 levels immediately post transplantation, enabling subdivision of patients with delayed graft function in terms of long-term outcome. Our study requires independent confirmation.

  10. The potential pharmacologic mechanisms of omalizumab in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tse Wen; Chen, Christina; Lin, Chien-Jen; Metz, Martin; Church, Martin K; Maurer, Marcus

    2015-02-01

    In patients given a diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), there are no obvious external triggers, and the factors that initiate the clinical symptoms of wheal, flare, and itch arise from within the patient. Most patients with CSU have an autoimmune cause: some patients produce IgE autoantibodies against autoantigens, such as thyroperoxidase or double-stranded DNA, whereas other patients make IgG autoantibodies against FcεRI, IgE, or both, which might chronically activate mast cells and basophils. In the remainder of patients with CSU, the nature of the abnormalities has not yet been identified. Accumulating evidence has shown that IgE, by binding to FcεRI on mast cells without FcεRI cross-linking, can promote the proliferation and survival of mast cells and thus maintain and expand the pool of mast cells. IgE and FcεRI engagement can also decrease the release threshold of mast cells and increase their sensitivity to various stimuli through either FcεRI or other receptors for the degranulation process. Furthermore, IgE-FcεRI engagement potentiates the ability of mast cells to store and synthesize de novo inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Administration of omalizumab, by virtue of its ability to deplete IgE, attenuates the multiple effects of IgE to maintain and enhance mast cell activities and hence reduces the ability of mast cells to manifest inflammatory mechanisms in patients with CSU.

  11. Behavioral economics holds potential to deliver better results for patients, insurers, and employers.

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, George; Asch, David A; Volpp, Kevin G

    2013-07-01

    Many programs being implemented by US employers, insurers, and health care providers use incentives to encourage patients to take better care of themselves. We critically review a range of these efforts and show that many programs, although well-meaning, are unlikely to have much impact because they require information, expertise, and self-control that few patients possess. As a result, benefits are likely to accrue disproportionately to patients who already are taking adequate care of their health. We show how these programs could be made more effective through the use of insights from behavioral economics. For example, incentive programs that offer patients small and frequent payments for behavior that would benefit the patients, such as medication adherence, can be more effective than programs with incentives that are far less visible because they are folded into a paycheck or used to reduce a monthly premium. Deploying more-nuanced insights from behavioral economics can lead to policies with the potential to increase patient engagement and deliver dividends for patients and favorable cost-effectiveness ratios for insurers, employers, and other relevant commercial entities.

  12. Behavioral economics holds potential to deliver better results for patients, insurers, and employers.

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, George; Asch, David A; Volpp, Kevin G

    2013-07-01

    Many programs being implemented by US employers, insurers, and health care providers use incentives to encourage patients to take better care of themselves. We critically review a range of these efforts and show that many programs, although well-meaning, are unlikely to have much impact because they require information, expertise, and self-control that few patients possess. As a result, benefits are likely to accrue disproportionately to patients who already are taking adequate care of their health. We show how these programs could be made more effective through the use of insights from behavioral economics. For example, incentive programs that offer patients small and frequent payments for behavior that would benefit the patients, such as medication adherence, can be more effective than programs with incentives that are far less visible because they are folded into a paycheck or used to reduce a monthly premium. Deploying more-nuanced insights from behavioral economics can lead to policies with the potential to increase patient engagement and deliver dividends for patients and favorable cost-effectiveness ratios for insurers, employers, and other relevant commercial entities. PMID:23836740

  13. The Relationship between Palatal Displacement of Upper Canines and Incisors Widths in a Syrian Sample of Patients with Uncrowded Arches.

    PubMed

    Mahaini, Luai

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study investigates mesiodistal crown size of the maxillary and mandibular incisors of patients with palatally impacted canines (PDC). Pretreatment dental casts of orthodontic patients with PDC of one or both maxillary canines (N: 33) were collected. This PDC sample was matched according to age and sex with pretreatment dental casts from unaffected orthodontic patients. For the PDC and matched control samples, maximum mesiodistal crown diameters were recorded for the four incisors on the right side only. The results showed that, on average, the mesiodistal crown diameters for the maxillary and mandibular incisors measured smaller in the PDC sample than in the control sample. These findings of statistically significant tooth-size reductions associated with PDC occurrence indicate a generalized pattern of reduced tooth size as a characteristic associated with the PDC anomaly. Further, the presence of generalized tooth-size reduction in cases with palatally displaced canines help explain why most orthodontic treatment plans for PDC patients are of the nonextraction type.

  14. Correlation of Arsenic Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Products and Biological Samples of Oral Cancer Patients and Control Consumers.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Panhwar, Abdul H; Kamboh, Muhammad A

    2015-12-01

    It has been extensively reported that chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) can lead to cancers of oral cavity. In present study, the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure via chewing/inhaling different SLT products in oral cancer patients have or/not consumed SLT products was studied. The As in different types of SLT products (gutkha, mainpuri, and snuff) and biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of different types of oral cancer patients and controls were analyzed. Both controls and oral cancer patients have same age group (ranged 30-60 years), socio-economic status, localities, and dietary habits. The concentrations of As in SLT products and biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials. The resulted data of present study indicates that the concentration of As was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients than those of controls (p<0.001). It was also observed that the values of As were two- to threefolds higher in biological samples of controls subjects, consuming SLT products as compared to those have none of these habits (p>0.01). The intake of As via consuming different SLT may have synergistic effects, in addition to other risk factors associated with oral cancer.

  15. Correlation of Arsenic Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Products and Biological Samples of Oral Cancer Patients and Control Consumers.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Panhwar, Abdul H; Kamboh, Muhammad A

    2015-12-01

    It has been extensively reported that chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) can lead to cancers of oral cavity. In present study, the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure via chewing/inhaling different SLT products in oral cancer patients have or/not consumed SLT products was studied. The As in different types of SLT products (gutkha, mainpuri, and snuff) and biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of different types of oral cancer patients and controls were analyzed. Both controls and oral cancer patients have same age group (ranged 30-60 years), socio-economic status, localities, and dietary habits. The concentrations of As in SLT products and biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials. The resulted data of present study indicates that the concentration of As was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients than those of controls (p<0.001). It was also observed that the values of As were two- to threefolds higher in biological samples of controls subjects, consuming SLT products as compared to those have none of these habits (p>0.01). The intake of As via consuming different SLT may have synergistic effects, in addition to other risk factors associated with oral cancer. PMID:25975948

  16. [Susceptibility of induced sickle in samples of heterozygous hemoglobin S patients (sickle cell trait) suffering diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Piedra, Pablo; Cervantes-Villagrana, Alberto Rafael; Ramos-Jiménez, Raúl; Presno-Bernal, José Miguel; Cervantes-Villagrana, Rodolfo Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin S is an abnormal protein that induces morphological changes in erythrocyte in low-oxygen conditions. In Mexico, it is reported that up to 13.7% of the population with mutation in one allele are considered asymptomatic (sickle cell trait). The sickle cell trait and diabetes mellitus are conditions that occur together in more than one million patients worldwide. Both diseases possibly produce microvascular changes in retinopathy and acute chest syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the induction of sickle cells in samples of diabetic patients with sickle cell trait to identify altered red cell parameters. We obtained samples of diabetic patients to determine hemoglobin A1c and S; furthermore, red blood cell biometrics data were analyzed. We found that older men with diabetes were susceptible to generate sickle cells and this correlated with reduced red blood cell count and an increase in media cell volume. In samples of women diabetes, there were no differences. We conclude that samples from patients with sickle cell trait and diabetes can cause sickle cells with high frequency in men, with lower red blood cells count and increased mean corpuscular volume as susceptibility parameters.

  17. Enhanced P1-N1 auditory evoked potential in patients with musicians' cramp.

    PubMed

    Lim, Vanessa K; Bradshaw, John L; Nicholls, Michael E R; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2005-12-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were examined in patients with musician's cramp (focal dystonia) in order to determine whether these patients have electrophysiological changes in a sensory system that is not usually associated with symptoms. All participants were professional guitarists and were required to listen to 2,000 monaurally presented stimuli (middle C, with duration of 7 ms). During one block, 250 stimuli were presented to one ear. Once a block was finished, another block was presented in the other ear; in total there were eight blocks of stimuli. During this task, EEGs from 10 scalp electrodes and one bipolar eye channel were continuously recorded. There were no significant latency or topographical differences in the electrophysiological recordings. However, there was a significant group difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude of the P1-N1a component. The patients had a larger peak-to-peak difference than controls (1.63 vs. 0.62 microV). The P1 and N1a are cortically generated potentials. Patients with focal dystonia had an increase in activity compared to controls when processing simple auditory stimuli. Such changes in electrophysiological responses may be a result of increases in excitation or lack of inhibition; alternatively the changes may represent cross-modal maladaptive plasticity from the somatosensory modality to the auditory modality. Thus, this study provides further evidence that patients with focal dystonia have alterations of the central nervous system that are not limited to their symptomatic sensory domain.

  18. Potential Cardiovascular Risk Protection of Bilirubin in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients under Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    do Sameiro-Faria, Maria; Kohlova, Michaela; Ribeiro, Sandra; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Teixeira, Laetitia; Nascimento, Henrique; Reis, Flávio; Miranda, Vasco; Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa; Quintanilha, Alexandre; Belo, Luís; Costa, Elísio; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential cardiovascular risk protection of bilirubin in hemodialysis (HD) patients. An enlarged set of studies were evaluated in 191 HD patients, including hematological study, lipid profile, iron metabolism, nutritional, inflammatory markers, and dialysis adequacy. The TA duplication screening in the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 A1 (UGT1A1) promoter region was also performed. The UGT1A1 genotype frequencies in HD patients were 49.2%, 42.4%, and 8.4% for 6/6, 6/7, and 7/7 genotypes, respectively. Although no difference was found in UGT1A1 genotype distribution between the three tertiles of bilirubin, significant differences were found with increasing bilirubin levels, namely, a decrease in platelet, leukocyte, and lymphocyte counts, transferrin, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), ox-LDL/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, apolipoprotein (Apo) A, Apo B, and interleukin-6 serum levels and a significant increased concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte count, iron, transferrin saturation, Apo A/Apo B ratio, adiponectin, and paraoxonase 1 serum levels. After adjustment for age these results remained significant. Our data suggest that higher bilirubin levels are associated with beneficial effects in HD patients, by improving lipid profile and reducing the inflammatory grade, which might contribute to increase in iron availability. These results suggest a potential cardiovascular risk protection of bilirubin in HD patients. PMID:25276769

  19. Clinical Experiments of Communication by ALS Patient Utilizing Detecting Event-Related Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanou, Naoyuki; Sakuma, Kenji; Nakashima, Kenji

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS) patients are unable to successfully communicate their desires, although their mentality is normal, and so, the necessity of Communication Aids(CA) for ALS patients is realized. Therefore, the authors are focused on Event-Related Potential(ERP) which is elicited primarily for the target by visual and auditory stimuli. P200, N200 and P300 are components of ERP. These are potentials that are elicited when the subject focuses attention on stimuli that appears infrequently. ALS patient participated in two experiments. In the first experiment, a target word out of five words on a computer display was specified. The five words were linked to an each electric appliance, allowing the ALS patient to switch on a target appliance by ERP. In the second experiment, a target word in a 5×5 matrix was specified by measure of ERP. The rows and columns of the matrix were reversed randomly. The word on a crossing point of rows and columns including the target word, was specified as the target word. The rate of correct judgment in the first and second experiments were 100% in N200 and 96% in P200. For practical use of this system, it is very important to determine suitable communication algorithms for each patient by performing these experiments evaluating the results.

  20. TEMPERATURE HISTORY AND DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF (101955) 1999 RQ 36: A POTENTIAL TARGET FOR SAMPLE RETURN FROM A PRIMITIVE ASTEROID

    SciTech Connect

    Delbo, Marco; Michel, Patrick

    2011-02-20

    It has been recently shown that near-Earth objects (NEOs) have a temperature history-due to the radiative heating by the Sun-non-trivially correlated to their present orbits. This is because the perihelion distance of NEOs varies as a consequence of dynamical mechanisms, such as resonances and close encounters with planets. Thus, it is worth investigating the temperature history of NEOs that are potential targets of space missions devoted to return samples of prebiotic organic compounds. Some of these compounds, expected to be found on NEOs of primitive composition, break up at moderate temperatures, e.g., 300-670 K. Using a model of the orbital evolution of NEOs and thermal models, we studied the temperature history of (101955) 1999 RQ{sub 36} (the primary target of the mission OSIRIS-REx, proposed in the program New Frontiers of NASA). Assuming that the same material always lies on the surface (i.e., there is no regolith turnover), our results suggest that the temperatures reached during its past evolution affected the stability of some organic compounds at the surface (e.g., there is 50% probability that the surface of 1999 RQ{sub 36} was heated at temperatures {>=}500 K). However, the temperature drops rapidly with depth: the regolith at a depth of 3-5 cm, which is not considered difficult to reach with the current designs of sampling devices, has experienced temperatures about 100 K below those at the surface. This is sufficient to protect some subsurface organics from thermal breakup.

  1. Degenerative Pathways of Lumbar Motion Segments - A Comparison in Two Samples of Patients with Persistent Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Rikke K.; Kjaer, Per; Jensen, Tue S.; Albert, Hanne; Kent, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to identify spinal pathoanatomy in people with persistent low back pain. However, the clinical relevance of spinal degenerative MRI findings remains uncertain. Although multiple MRI findings are almost always present at the same time, research into the association with clinical outcomes (such as pain) has predominantly focused on individual MRI findings. This study aimed to: (i) investigate how multiple MRI lumbar spine findings cluster together within two different samples of patients with low back pain, (ii) classify these clusters into hypothetical pathways of degeneration based on scientific knowledge of disco-vertebral degeneration, and (iii) compare these clusters and degenerative pathways between samples. Methods We performed a secondary cross-sectional analysis on two dissimilar MRI samples collected in a hospital department: (1) data from the spinal MRI reports of 4,162 low back pain patients and (2) data from an MRI research protocol of 631 low back pain patients. Latent Class Analysis was used in both samples to cluster MRI findings from lumbar motion segments. Using content analysis, each cluster was then categorised into hypothetical pathways of degeneration. Results Six clusters of MRI findings were identified in each of the two samples. The content of the clusters in the two samples displayed some differences but had the same overall pattern of MRI findings. Although the hypothetical degenerative pathways identified in the two samples were not identical, the overall pattern of increasing degeneration within the pathways was the same. Conclusions It was expected that different clusters could emerge from different samples, however, when organised into hypothetical pathways of degeneration, the overall pattern of increasing degeneration was similar and biologically plausible. This evidence of reproducibility suggests that Latent Class Analysis may provide a new approach to investigating the

  2. Evaluation of cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc status in biological samples of smokers and nonsmokers hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Afridi, H I; Kazi, T G; Kazi, N G; Jamali, M K; Arain, M B; Sirajuddin; Baig, J A; Kandhro, G A; Wadhwa, S K; Shah, A Q

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between trace and toxic elements zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of smoker and nonsmoker hypertensive patients (n=457), residents of Hyderabad, Pakistan. For the purpose of comparison, the biological samples of age-matched healthy controls were selected as referents. The concentrations of trace and toxic elements were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference materials and real samples. The recovery of all the studied elements was found to be in the range of 97.8–99.3% in certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cd, Ni and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair, blood and urine samples of both smoker and nonsmoker patients than in referents (P<0.001), whereas the concentration of Zn was lower in the scalp hair and blood, but higher in the urine samples of hypertensive patients. The deficiency of Zn and the high exposure of toxic metals as a result of tobacco smoking may be synergistic with risk factors associated with hypertension. PMID:20010608

  3. The role of public relations for image creating in health services: a sample patient satisfaction survey.

    PubMed

    Kirdar, YalçIn

    2007-01-01

    This study discusses the role of public relations for image creating in health services. Hospitals require public relations activities to distinguish them from competitors, provide bidirectional communication between the society and the hospital, and assist to create of a strong hospital image and culture. A satisfaction survey was conducted on 264 patients who have received health services at Maltepe University Hospital. The research focused on how the Hospital's examination, care, catering and physical services; doctor and nurse politeness towards patients and patient relatives, their attitudes and behaviors; examination, check-in, bedding and discharge operations; public relations activities in and out of the hospital were perceived. Another subject of the study was the degree of recommendation of patients who have been served by the hospital's health services to prospective patients seeking treatment.

  4. The role of public relations for image creating in health services: a sample patient satisfaction survey.

    PubMed

    Kirdar, YalçIn

    2007-01-01

    This study discusses the role of public relations for image creating in health services. Hospitals require public relations activities to distinguish them from competitors, provide bidirectional communication between the society and the hospital, and assist to create of a strong hospital image and culture. A satisfaction survey was conducted on 264 patients who have received health services at Maltepe University Hospital. The research focused on how the Hospital's examination, care, catering and physical services; doctor and nurse politeness towards patients and patient relatives, their attitudes and behaviors; examination, check-in, bedding and discharge operations; public relations activities in and out of the hospital were perceived. Another subject of the study was the degree of recommendation of patients who have been served by the hospital's health services to prospective patients seeking treatment. PMID:19042527

  5. Potential Risk Factors Associated With Vascular Diseases in Patients Receiving Treatment for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Joonhong; Chae, Hyojin; Lee, Gun Dong; Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jong Min; Oh, Yong-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently, the hypertension (HTN) patients undergo appropriate medical treatment, and traditional risk factors are highly controlled. Therefore, potential risk factors of atherosclerotic vascular diseases (AVD) and venous thromboembolisms (VTE) in HTN should be reconsidered. We investigated thrombophilic genetic mutations and existing biomarkers for AVD or VTE in HTN patients receiving treatment. Methods A total of 183 patients were enrolled: AVD with HTN (group A, n=45), VTE with HTN (group B, n=62), and HTN patients without any vascular diseases (group C, n=76). The lipid profile, homocysteine (Hcy) levels, D-dimers, fibrinogen, antithrombin, lupus anticoagulant, and anti-cardiolipin antibody (aCL) were evaluated. Prothrombin G20210A, Factor V G1691A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C were analyzed. Results All patients revealed wild type prothrombin G20210A and Factor V G1691A polymorphisms. The frequency of MTHFR polymorphisms was 677CT (n=84, 45.9%); 677TT (n=46, 25.1%); 1298AC (n=46, 25.1%); and 1298CC (n=2, 1.1%). The MTHFR 677TT genotype tended to increase the odds ratio (OR) to AVD events in HTN patients (OR 2.648, confidence interval 0.982-7.143, P=0.05). The group A demonstrated significantly higher Hcy levels (P=0.009), fibrinogen (P=0.004), and platelet counts (P=0.04) than group C. Group B had significantly higher levels of D-dimers (P=0.0001), platelet count (P=0.0002), and aCL (P=0.02) frequency than group C. Conclusions The MTHFR 677TT genotype and Hcy level could be potential risk factors associated with development of AVD in HTN patients receiving treatment. D-dimer and aCL might be useful to estimate the occurrence of VTE in them. PMID:26915609

  6. Cocaine and its major metabolites in plasma and urine samples from patients in an urban emergency medicine setting.

    PubMed

    Williams, R H; Maggiore, J A; Shah, S M; Erickson, T B; Negrusz, A

    2000-10-01

    In this retrospective study, we examined the levels of cocaine and its major metabolites in plasma and urine from 29 randomly selected emergency department patients (19 males and 10 females, aged 19 to 55) whose urine screened positive for benzoylecgonine using fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Levels of cocaine along with benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, and norcocaine were quantitated in EDTA plasma and urine from each patient using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Admission diagnosis and history were also obtained for each patient. In plasma, the levels were 16-130 ng/mL for cocaine (n = 3), 27-96 ng/mL for ecgonine methyl ester (n = 9), and 18-1390 ng/mL for benzoylecgonine (n = 22). Norcocaine was not detected in any of the plasma samples. In urine, the concentration ranges were 4-40,130 ng/mL for cocaine (n = 23), 36-660,500 ng/mL for ecgonine methyl ester (n = 27), and 9-2520 ng/mL for norcocaine (n = 9). All urine samples were positive for benzoylecgonine (106-3,361,000 ng/mL), and benzoylecgonine was the only metabolite present in two urine samples (at concentrations of 407 and 435 ng/mL). Two patients had plasma and urine samples positive for all analytes (except norcocaine in plasma). The patient with the highest urinary concentrations of cocaine (40,130 ng/mL), ecgonine methyl ester (660,500 ng/mL), benzoylecgonine (3,361,000 ng/mL), and norcocaine (2520 ng/mL) had a small quantity of benzoylecgonine (465 ng/mL) in plasma. No correlation was noted with patient history, admitting diagnosis or symptomatology, or plasma/urine levels of cocaine or any of its metabolites.

  7. Biodistribution Analysis of Oncolytic Adenoviruses in Patient Autopsy Samples Reveals Vascular Transduction of Noninjected Tumors and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Koski, Anniina; Bramante, Simona; Kipar, Anja; Oksanen, Minna; Juhila, Juuso; Vassilev, Lotta; Joensuu, Timo; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2015-01-01

    In clinical trials with oncolytic adenoviruses, there has been no mortality associated with treatment vectors. Likewise, in the Advanced Therapy Access Program (ATAP), where 290 patients were treated with 10 different viruses, no vector-related mortality was observed. However, as the patient population who received adenovirus treatments in ATAP represented heavily pretreated patients, often with very advanced disease, some patients died relatively soon after receiving their virus treatment mandating autopsy to investigate cause of death. Eleven such autopsies were performed and confirmed disease progression as the cause of death in each case. The regulatory requirement for investigating the safety of advanced therapy medical products presented a unique opportunity to study tissue samples collected as a routine part of the autopsies. Oncolytic adenoviral DNA was recovered in a wide range of tissues, including injected and noninjected tumors and various normal tissues, demonstrating the ability of the vector to disseminate through the vascular route. Furthermore, we recovered and cultured viable virus from samples of noninjected brain metastases of an intravenously treated patient, confirming that oncolytic adenovirus can reach tumors through the intravascular route. Data presented here give mechanistic insight into mode of action and biodistribution of oncolytic adenoviruses in cancer patients. PMID:26156245

  8. How the ESRD quality incentive program could potentially improve quality of life for patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Moss, Alvin H; Davison, Sara N

    2015-05-01

    For over 20 years, the quality of medical care of the Medicare ESRD Program has been a concern. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have implemented the ESRD Quality Incentive Program, which uses the principles of value-based purchasing; dialysis providers are paid for performance on predefined quality measures, with a goal of improving patient outcomes and the quality of patient care. The ESRD Quality Incentive Program measures have been criticized, because they are largely disease oriented and use easy-to-obtain laboratory-based indicators, such as Kt/V and hemoglobin, that do not reflect outcomes that are most important to patients and have had a minimal effect on survival or quality of life. A key goal of improving quality of care is to enhance quality of life, a patient-important quality measure that matters more to many patients than even survival. None of the ESRD Quality Incentive Program measures assess patient-reported quality of life. As outlined in the National Quality Strategy, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services are holding providers accountable in six priority domains, in which quality measures have been and are being developed for value-based purchasing. Three measures-patient experience and engagement, clinical care, and care coordination-are particularly relevant to quality care in the ESRD Program; the 2014 ESRD Quality Incentive Program includes six measures, none of which provide data from a patient-centered perspective. Value-based purchasing is a well intentioned step to improve care of patients on dialysis. However, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services need to implement significant change in what is measured for the ESRD Quality Incentive Program to be patient centered and aligned with patients' values, preferences, and needs. This paper provides examples of potential quality measures for patient experience and engagement, clinical care, and care coordination, which if implemented, would be much more likely to

  9. Saccular function in otosclerosis patients: bone conducted-vestibular evoked myogenic potential analysis.

    PubMed

    Amali, Amin; Mahdi, Parvane; Karimi Yazdi, Alireza; Khorsandi Ashtiyani, Mohammad Taghi; Yazdani, Nasrin; Vakili, Varasteh; Pourbakht, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular involvements have long been observed in otosclerotic patients. Among vestibular structures saccule has the closest anatomical proximity to the sclerotic foci, so it is the most prone vestibular structure to be affected during the otosclerosis process. The aim of this study was to investigate the saccular function in patients suffering from otosclerosis, by means of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP). The material consisted of 30 otosclerosis patients and 20 control subjects. All participants underwent audiometric and VEMP testing. Analysis of tests results revealed that the mean values of Air-Conducted Pure Tone Average (AC-PTA) and Bone-Conducted Pure Tone Average (BC-PTA) in patients were 45.28 ± 15.57 and 19.68 ± 10.91, respectively and calculated 4 frequencies Air Bone Gap (ABG) was 25.64 ± 9.95. The VEMP response was absent in 14 (28.57%) otosclerotic ears. A statistically significant increase in latency of the p13 was found in the affected ears (P=0.004), differences in n23 latency did not reach a statistically significant level (P=0.112). Disparities in amplitude of p13-n23 in between two study groups was statistically meaningful (P=0.009), indicating that the patients with otosclerosis had lower amplitudes. This study tends to suggest that due to the direct biotoxic effect of the materials released from the otosclerosis foci on saccular receptors, there might be a possibility of vestibular dysfunction in otosclerotic patients. PMID:24659067

  10. Event-related potentials and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis patients with fatigue.

    PubMed

    Pokryszko-Dragan, Anna; Zagrajek, Mieszko; Slotwinski, Krzysztof; Bilinska, Malgorzata; Gruszka, Ewa; Podemski, Ryszard

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate event-related potentials (ERP) and cognition in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with regard to fatigue and disease-related variables. The study comprised 86 MS patients and 40 controls. Fatigue was assessed using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS/FSS-5) and the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS/MFISmod). N200 and P300 components of auditory ERP were analyzed. Cognition was evaluated by means of Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRBNT). The results of ERP and BRBNT were compared between non-fatigued, moderately and severely fatigued MS patients and controls. P300 latency was significantly longer in the whole MS group and in the fatigued patients than in the controls. A positive correlation was found between P300 latency and MFIS/MFISmod results, independent from age and MS-related variables. The fatigued patients scored less than non-fatigued ones in tests evaluating memory, visuomotor abilities and attention. Results of these tests correlated significantly with fatigue measures, independently from MS-related variables. Fatigue in MS patients showed significant relationships with impairment within the memory and attention domains. Parameters of auditory ERP, as electrophysiological biomarkers of cognitive performance, were not independently linked to fatigue.

  11. Transcranial Motor Evoked Potentials of Lower Limbs Can Prognosticate Ambulation in Hemiplegic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in lower limbs and ambulatory outcomes of hemiplegic stroke patients. Methods Medical records of hemiplegic patients with the first ever stroke who received inpatient rehabilitation from January 2013 to May 2014 were reviewed. Patient who had diabetes, quadriplegia, bilateral lesion, brainstem lesion, severe musculoskeletal problem, and old age over 80 years were excluded. MEPs in lower limbs were measured when they were transferred to the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine. Subjects were categorized into three groups (normal, abnormal, and absent response) according to MEPs findings. Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) at initial and discharge were compared among the three groups by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Correlation was determined using a linear regression model. Results Fifty-eight hemiplegic patients were included. BBS and FAC at discharge were significantly (ANOVA, p<0.001) different according to MEPs findings. In linear regression model of BBS and FAC using stepwise selection, patients' age (p<0.01), BBS at admission (p<0.01), and MEPs (p<0.01) remained significant covariates. In regression assumption model of BBS and FAC at admission, MEPs and gender were significant covariates. Conclusion Initial MEPs of lower limbs can prognosticate the ambulatory outcomes of hemiplegic patients. PMID:27446774

  12. CD133 expression in circulating tumor cells from breast cancer patients: potential role in resistance to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Rosa; Ortega, F Gabriel; Salido, Marta; Lorente, Jose A; Rodríguez-Rivera, Maria; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Macià, Marta; Fernández, Ana; Corominas, Josep M; García-Puche, J Luis; Sánchez-Rovira, Pedro; Solé, Francesc; Serrano, M Jose

    2013-11-15

    CD133 has been associated with cell properties such as self renewal, migration and vasculogenic mimicry, potentially involved in generation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). We characterized CD133 expression in CTCs of 98 nometastatic breast cancer (BC) patients. CTCs were isolated by immunomagnetic techniques using magnetic beads labeled with a multicytokeratin(CK)-specific antibody (CK3-11D5) and CTCs and CD133 detection through immunocytochemical methods. CK(+) /CD133(+) CTCs were identified in 65% of patients at baseline and 47.8% after systemic therapy (p = 0.53). Correlation of CD133 status in CTCs with classical clinicopathological characteristics and response to therapy was performed. Her2 not amplified and low Ki-67 index were positively correlated with presence of CK(+) /CD133(+) CTCs. Before any treatment, CK(+) /CD133(+) CTCs were more frequently isolated in patients with luminal BC subtype. No statistically significant differences were found between proportion of CK(+) /CD133(+) CTCs and BC subtypes after systemic therapy, implying a relative enrichment of CK(+) /CD133(+) CTCs in triple negative and HER2-amplified tumors. While CK(+) /CTCs decreases after chemotherapy when analyzing the whole population, CK(+) /CD133(+) CTCs were enriched in post-treatment samples in nonluminal BC subtypes. These findings suggest the potential role of CD133 as a promising marker of chemoresistance in nonluminal BC patients. Further prospective studies and extensive preclinical modeling will be needed to confirm whether CD133 is a marker of resistance to chemotherapy, and its role as a target for novel anticancer therapies targeting cancer stem cells and tumor vasculature. PMID:23661576

  13. Potential drug-drug interactions in Alzheimer patients with behavioral symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pasqualetti, Giuseppe; Tognini, Sara; Calsolaro, Valeria; Polini, Antonio; Monzani, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The use of multi drug regimens among the elderly population has increased tremendously over the last decade although the benefits of medications are always accompanied by potential harm, even when prescribed at recommended doses. The elderly populations are particularly at an increased risk of adverse drug reactions considering comorbidity, poly-therapy, physiological changes affecting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs and, in some cases, poor compliance due to cognitive impairment and/or depression. In this setting, drug-drug interaction may represent a serious and even life-threatening clinical condition. Moreover, the inability to distinguish drug-induced symptoms from a definitive medical diagnosis often results in addition of yet another drug to treat the symptoms, which in turn increases drug-drug interactions. Cognitive enhancers, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, are the most widely prescribed agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, including psychotic symptoms and behavioral disorders, represent noncognitive disturbances frequently observed in AD patients. Antipsychotic drugs are at high risk of adverse events, even at modest doses, and may interfere with the progression of cognitive impairment and interact with several drugs including anti-arrhythmics and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Other medications often used in AD patients are represented by anxiolytic, like benzodiazepine, or antidepressant agents. These agents also might interfere with other concomitant drugs through both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms. In this review we focus on the most frequent drug-drug interactions, potentially harmful, in AD patients with behavioral symptoms considering both physiological and pathological changes in AD patients, and potential pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic drug interaction mechanisms.

  14. Potential drug–drug interactions in Alzheimer patients with behavioral symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualetti, Giuseppe; Tognini, Sara; Calsolaro, Valeria; Polini, Antonio; Monzani, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The use of multi drug regimens among the elderly population has increased tremendously over the last decade although the benefits of medications are always accompanied by potential harm, even when prescribed at recommended doses. The elderly populations are particularly at an increased risk of adverse drug reactions considering comorbidity, poly-therapy, physiological changes affecting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs and, in some cases, poor compliance due to cognitive impairment and/or depression. In this setting, drug–drug interaction may represent a serious and even life-threatening clinical condition. Moreover, the inability to distinguish drug-induced symptoms from a definitive medical diagnosis often results in addition of yet another drug to treat the symptoms, which in turn increases drug–drug interactions. Cognitive enhancers, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, are the most widely prescribed agents for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, including psychotic symptoms and behavioral disorders, represent noncognitive disturbances frequently observed in AD patients. Antipsychotic drugs are at high risk of adverse events, even at modest doses, and may interfere with the progression of cognitive impairment and interact with several drugs including anti-arrhythmics and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Other medications often used in AD patients are represented by anxiolytic, like benzodiazepine, or antidepressant agents. These agents also might interfere with other concomitant drugs through both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms. In this review we focus on the most frequent drug–drug interactions, potentially harmful, in AD patients with behavioral symptoms considering both physiological and pathological changes in AD patients, and potential pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic drug interaction mechanisms. PMID:26392756

  15. Social Motor Coordination in Unaffected Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients: A Potential Intermediate Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Capdevielle, Delphine; Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Schmidt, Richard C.; Salesse, Robin N.; Bardy, Benoît G.; Boulenger, Jean Philippe; Gély-Nargeot, Marie Christine; Attal, Jérôme; Raffard, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Intermediate endophenotypes emerge as an important concept in the study of schizophrenia. Although research on phenotypes mainly investigated cognitive, metabolic or neurophysiological markers so far, some authors also examined the motor behavior anomalies as a potential trait-marker of the disease. However, no research has investigated social motor coordination despite the possible importance of its anomalies in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was thus to determine whether coordination modifications previously demonstrated in schizophrenia are trait-markers that might be associated with the risk for this pathology. Interpersonal motor coordination in 27 unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and 27 healthy controls was assessed using a hand-held pendulum task to examine the presence of interpersonal coordination impairments in individuals at risk for the disorder. Measures of neurologic soft signs, clinical variables and neurocognitive functions were collected to assess the cognitive and clinical correlates of social coordination impairments in at-risk relatives. After controlling for potential confounding variables, unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients had impaired intentional interpersonal coordination compared to healthy controls while unintentional interpersonal coordination was preserved. More specifically, in intentional coordination, the unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients exhibited coordination patterns that had greater variability and in which relatives did not lead the coordination. These results show that unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients, like the patients themselves, also present deficits in intentional interpersonal coordination. For the first time, these results suggest that intentional interpersonal coordination impairments might be a potential motor intermediate endophenotype of schizophrenia opening new perspectives for early diagnosis. PMID:24106467

  16. Potential drug-drug interactions in Alzheimer patients with behavioral symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pasqualetti, Giuseppe; Tognini, Sara; Calsolaro, Valeria; Polini, Antonio; Monzani, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The use of multi drug regimens among the elderly population has increased tremendously over the last decade although the benefits of medications are always accompanied by potential harm, even when prescribed at recommended doses. The elderly populations are particularly at an increased risk of adverse drug reactions considering comorbidity, poly-therapy, physiological changes affecting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs and, in some cases, poor compliance due to cognitive impairment and/or depression. In this setting, drug-drug interaction may represent a serious and even life-threatening clinical condition. Moreover, the inability to distinguish drug-induced symptoms from a definitive medical diagnosis often results in addition of yet another drug to treat the symptoms, which in turn increases drug-drug interactions. Cognitive enhancers, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, are the most widely prescribed agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, including psychotic symptoms and behavioral disorders, represent noncognitive disturbances frequently observed in AD patients. Antipsychotic drugs are at high risk of adverse events, even at modest doses, and may interfere with the progression of cognitive impairment and interact with several drugs including anti-arrhythmics and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Other medications often used in AD patients are represented by anxiolytic, like benzodiazepine, or antidepressant agents. These agents also might interfere with other concomitant drugs through both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms. In this review we focus on the most frequent drug-drug interactions, potentially harmful, in AD patients with behavioral symptoms considering both physiological and pathological changes in AD patients, and potential pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic drug interaction mechanisms. PMID:26392756

  17. The potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of milk samples to predict energy intake and efficiency in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Berry, D P

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of animal-level and herd-level energy intake, energy balance, and feed efficiency affect day-to-day herd management strategies; information on these traits at an individual animal level is also useful in animal breeding programs. A paucity of data (especially at the individual cow level), of feed intake in particular, hinders the inclusion of such attributes in herd management decision-support tools and breeding programs. Dairy producers have access to an individual cow milk sample at least once daily during lactation, and consequently any low-cost phenotyping strategy should consider exploiting measureable properties in this biological sample, reflecting the physiological status and performance of the cow. Infrared spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with matter and it is used globally to predict milk quality parameters on routinely acquired individual cow milk samples and bulk tank samples. Thus, exploiting infrared spectroscopy in next-generation phenotyping will ensure potentially rapid application globally with a negligible additional implementation cost as the infrastructure already exists. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) analysis is already used to predict milk fat and protein concentrations, the ratio of which has been proposed as an indicator of energy balance. Milk FTIRS is also able to predict the concentration of various fatty acids in milk, the composition of which is known to change when body tissue is mobilized; that is, when the cow is in negative energy balance. Energy balance is mathematically very similar to residual energy intake (REI), a suggested measure of feed efficiency. Therefore, the prediction of energy intake, energy balance, and feed efficiency (i.e., REI) from milk FTIRS seems logical. In fact, the accuracy of predicting (i.e., correlation between predicted and actual values; root mean square error in parentheses) energy intake, energy balance, and REI from milk FTIRS in

  18. An assessment of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the analysis of cesium in liquid samples of biological origin.

    PubMed

    Metzinger, Anikó; Kovács-Széles, Eva; Almási, István; Galbács, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the development of an analytical method for the determination of cesium in biological fluid samples (human urine and blood samples) by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The developed method is based on sample presentation by liquid-to-solid conversion, enhancing the emission signal by drying the liquid into small "pockets" created in a metal support (zinc plate), and allows the analysis to be carried out on as little as 1 μL of sample volume, in a closed sample cell. Absolute detection limits on the Cs I 852.1 nm spectral line were calculated by the IUPAC 3σ method to be 6 ng in the urine sample and 27 ng in the blood serum sample. It is estimated that LIBS may be used to detect highly elevated concentration levels of Cs in fluid samples taken from people potentially exposed to surges of Cs from non-natural sources.

  19. Potential role of new anticoagulants for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Outes, Antonio; Suárez-Gea, M Luisa; Lecumberri, Ramón; Terleira-Fernández, Ana Isabel; Vargas-Castrillón, Emilio; Rocha, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), encompassing deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. Low molecular weight heparins are the preferred option for anticoagulation in cancer patients according to current clinical practice guidelines. Fondaparinux may also have a place in prevention of VTE in hospitalized cancer patients with additional risk factors and for initial treatment of VTE. Although low molecular weight heparins and fondaparinux are effective and safe, they require daily subcutaneous administration, which may be problematic for many patients, particularly if long-term treatment is needed. Studying anticoagulant therapy in oncology patients is challenging because this patient group has an increased risk of VTE and bleeding during anticoagulant therapy compared with the population without cancer. Risk factors for increased VTE and bleeding risk in these patients include concomitant treatments (surgery, chemotherapy, placement of central venous catheters, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, angiogenesis inhibitors, antiplatelet drugs), supportive therapies (ie, steroids, blood transfusion, white blood cell growth factors, and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents), and tumor-related factors (local vessel damage and invasion, abnormalities in platelet function, and number). New anticoagulants in development for prophylaxis and treatment of VTE include parenteral compounds for once-daily administration (ie, semuloparin) or once-weekly dosing (ie, idraparinux and idrabiotaparinux), as well as orally active compounds (ie, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, betrixaban). In the present review, we discuss the pharmacology of the new anticoagulants, the results of clinical trials testing these new compounds in VTE, with special emphasis on studies that included cancer patients, and their potential advantages and drawbacks compared with existing therapies. PMID:23674896

  20. Altered Hypercoagulability Factors in Patients with Chronic Chagas Disease: Potential Biomarkers of Therapeutic Response.

    PubMed

    Pinazo, Maria-Jesus; Posada, Elizabeth de Jesus; Izquierdo, Luis; Tassies, Dolors; Marques, Alexandre-Ferreira; de Lazzari, Elisa; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Muñoz, Jose; Abras, Alba; Tebar, Silvia; Gallego, Montserrat; de Almeida, Igor Correia; Reverter, Joan-Carles; Gascon, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Thromboembolic events were described in patients with Chagas disease without cardiomyopathy. We aim to confirm if there is a hypercoagulable state in these patients and to determine if there is an early normalization of hemostasis factors after antiparasitic treatment. Ninety-nine individuals from Chagas disease-endemic areas were classified in two groups: G1, with T.cruzi infection (n = 56); G2, healthy individuals (n = 43). Twenty-four hemostasis factors were measured at baseline. G1 patients treated with benznidazole were followed for 36 months, recording clinical parameters and performance of conventional serology, chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (trypomastigote-derived glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored mucins), quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and hemostasis tests every 6-month visits. Prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) were abnormally expressed in 77% and 50% of infected patients at baseline but returned to and remained at normal levels shortly after treatment in 76% and 96% of cases, respectively. Plasmin-antiplasmin complexes (PAP) were altered before treatment in 32% of G1 patients but normalized in 94% of cases several months after treatment. None of the patients with normal F1+2 values during follow-up had a positive qRT-PCR result, but 3/24 patients (13%) with normal ETP values did. In a percentage of chronic T. cruzi infected patients treated with benznidazole, altered coagulation markers returned into normal levels. F1+2, ETP and PAP could be useful markers for assessing sustained response to benznidazole. PMID:26727000

  1. Altered Hypercoagulability Factors in Patients with Chronic Chagas Disease: Potential Biomarkers of Therapeutic Response

    PubMed Central

    Pinazo, Maria-Jesus; Posada, Elizabeth de Jesus; Izquierdo, Luis; Tassies, Dolors; Marques, Alexandre-Ferreira; de Lazzari, Elisa; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Muñoz, Jose; Abras, Alba; Tebar, Silvia; Gallego, Montserrat; de Almeida, Igor Correia; Reverter, Joan-Carles; Gascon, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Thromboembolic events were described in patients with Chagas disease without cardiomyopathy. We aim to confirm if there is a hypercoagulable state in these patients and to determine if there is an early normalization of hemostasis factors after antiparasitic treatment. Ninety-nine individuals from Chagas disease-endemic areas were classified in two groups: G1, with T.cruzi infection (n = 56); G2, healthy individuals (n = 43). Twenty-four hemostasis factors were measured at baseline. G1 patients treated with benznidazole were followed for 36 months, recording clinical parameters and performance of conventional serology, chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (trypomastigote-derived glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored mucins), quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and hemostasis tests every 6-month visits. Prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) were abnormally expressed in 77% and 50% of infected patients at baseline but returned to and remained at normal levels shortly after treatment in 76% and 96% of cases, respectively. Plasmin-antiplasmin complexes (PAP) were altered before treatment in 32% of G1 patients but normalized in 94% of cases several months after treatment. None of the patients with normal F1+2 values during follow-up had a positive qRT-PCR result, but 3/24 patients (13%) with normal ETP values did. In a percentage of chronic T. cruzi infected patients treated with benznidazole, altered coagulation markers returned into normal levels. F1+2, ETP and PAP could be useful markers for assessing sustained response to benznidazole. PMID:26727000

  2. Signal averaging technique for noninvasive recording of late potentials in patients with coronary artery disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abboud, S.; Blatt, C. M.; Lown, B.; Graboys, T. B.; Sadeh, D.; Cohen, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    An advanced non invasive signal averaging technique was used to detect late potentials in two groups of patients: Group A (24 patients) with coronary artery disease (CAD) and without sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and Group B (8 patients) with CAD and sustained VT. Recorded analog data were digitized and aligned using a cross correlation function with fast Fourier transform schema, averaged and band pass filtered between 60 and 200 Hz with a non-recursive digital filter. Averaged filtered waveforms were analyzed by computer program for 3 parameters: (1) filtered QRS (fQRS) duration (2) interval between the peak of the R wave peak and the end of fQRS (R-LP) (3) RMS value of last 40 msec of fQRS (RMS). Significant change was found between Groups A and B in fQRS (101 -/+ 13 msec vs 123 -/+ 15 msec; p < .0005) and in R-LP vs 52 -/+ 11 msec vs 71-/+18 msec, p <.002). We conclude that (1) the use of a cross correlation triggering method and non-recursive digital filter enables a reliable recording of late potentials from the body surface; (2) fQRS and R-LP durations are sensitive indicators of CAD patients susceptible to VT.

  3. [Experience with flash-evoked visual potentials in unconscious patients in the neurologic intensive care station].

    PubMed

    Krieger, D; Adams, H P; Hacke, W

    1991-12-01

    Evoked potential monitoring has become a widely used procedure in the evaluation of stuporous patients on neurological intensive care units. Currently BAEP and SEP are preferentially employed. VEP monitoring is a relatively uncommon procedure, because late evoked potentials tend to be relatively unstable, varying in amplitude to a moderate extend from changes of temperature, drugs, attention and the level of consciousness. A valuable approach of VEP monitoring on intensive care units are structures of the visual system at risk in vascular disease of the vertebrobasilar system or during evaluated intracranial pressure (EIP). This study uses the data of 20 stuporous patients presenting with either intracranial mass lesions or vascular diseases of the vertebrobasilar system and 20 control persons. Light emitting diode (LED)-VEP are compared with checkerboard stimulation in control persons using the technique of cross-correlation. The comparison of the control group with patients using LED-VEP allows definition of limits for normal variation as a base for identification of significant changes. Despite methodical restrictions of LED-VEP, our results are in favour of serial studies in patients with EIP. There are no corresponding findings in LED-VEP and vascular lesions of the retrochiasmatic visual system.

  4. Inhaled ethanol potentiates the cough response to capsaicin in patients with airway sensory hyperreactivity.

    PubMed

    Millqvist, Eva; Ternesten-Hasséus, Ewa; Bende, Mats

    2008-10-01

    A suggested explanation for airway symptoms induced by chemicals and scents is sensory hyperreactivity (SHR) of airway mucosal nerves. Patients with SHR have increased cough sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin, mediated by transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. In animal experiments, some TRP receptors are potentiated by ethanol, which is why in this study, the aim was to evaluate whether a pre-inhalation of ethanol could influence the capsaicin cough response in patients with SHR. Fifteen patients with SHR and 15 healthy controls were provoked on three occasions with two concentrations of inhaled capsaicin. Before each capsaicin provocation, a pre-inhalation of saline or one of two concentrations of ethanol was given in a double-blind, randomized fashion. The participants reacted in a dose-dependent way with cough on the capsaicin inhalations. Among the patients, but not in the control group, pre-inhalation of ethanol increased the cough response dose-dependently. The results suggest that the pathophysiology of SHR is related to airway mucosal TRP receptors in the sensory nerves. In scented products, the combination of ethanol as a solvent and perfume may augment an airway reaction in sensitive individuals.

  5. Assessment of Potential Targets for Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mayur; Deogaonkar, Milind; Rezai, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting 36 million people worldwide and 5.2 million in the United States. The pathogenesis of AD is still elusive. Accumulations of abnormal proteins (beta amyloid and tau protein), inflammatory cascades, abnormal responses to oxidative stress and alteration in oxidative metabolism have been implicated in AD. There are few effective therapeutic options available for this disorder at present. Neuromodulation offers a novel treatment modality for patients with AD. The databases of Medline and PubMed were searched for various studies in English literature describing the deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with AD. Various animal and human clinical studies have shown promising initial results with bilateral DBS targeting various anatomical nodes. In this review, we attempt to highlight the pathophysiology, neural circuitry and potential neuromodulation options in patients with AD. In appropriately selected patients, DBS can potentially delay the cognitive decline, enhance memory functions and can improve the overall quality of life. However, further randomized controlled trials are required to validate the efficacy of neuromodulation and to determine the most optimal target for AD. PMID:26015813

  6. Effects of selenium and zinc status in biological samples of hepatitis C patient after herbal and pharmaceutical supplements.

    PubMed

    Kolachi, Nida F; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Kazi, Naveed G; Mughal, Moeena A; Khan, Sumaira

    2013-05-01

    The use of natural remedies and pharmacological mineral supplements for liver disease treatment has a long history. In present study, the levels of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) were determined in biological samples (serum and whole blood) of female hepatitis C patients (n = 132), age ranged 30-45 years, before and after 30 days treatment with herbal/pharmaceutical supplements. For comparative study, 128 age-matched female subjects, residing in the same residential areas and have socioeconomic status, were selected as referents. The Se and Zn in supplements, blood, and sera were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. It was observed that Zn and Se in blood and serum samples of viral hepatitis C (HCV) patients were reduced in the range of 28.6-39 % and 24-36 %, respectively, as compared to those of referents. After herbal/pharmaceutical supplementations, 20.6-25.0 and 9.15-13.2 % of Zn and 10.6-12.1 and 19.6-21.4 % of Se were enhanced in sera and blood samples of HCV patients, respectively. The resulted data indicated that the levels of Se and Zn in addition to some biochemical parameters were improved in HCV patients after herbal/pharmaceutical supplementation. The effects of both supplements were not significantly different (p > 0.05).

  7. National trends in burn and inhalation injury in burn patients: results of analysis of the nationwide inpatient sample database.

    PubMed

    Veeravagu, Anand; Yoon, Byung C; Jiang, Bowen; Carvalho, Carla M; Rincon, Fred; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Jallo, Jack; Ratliff, John K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was describe national trends in prevalence, demographics, hospital length of stay (LOS), hospital charges, and mortality for burn patients with and without inhalational injury and to compare to the National Burn Repository. Burns and inhalation injury cause considerable mortality and morbidity in the United States. There remains insufficient reporting of the demographics and outcomes surrounding such injuries. The National Inpatient Sample database, the nation's largest all-payer inpatient care data repository, was utilized to select 506,628 admissions for burns from 1988 to 2008 based on ICD-9-CM recording. The data were stratified based on the extent of injury (%TBSA) and presence or absence of inhalational injury. Inhalation injury was observed in only 2.2% of burns with <20% TBSA but 14% of burns with 80 to 99% TBSA. Burn patients with inhalation injury were more likely to expire in-hospital compared to those without (odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.7-5.0; P < .001). Other factors associated with higher mortality were African-American race, female sex, and urban practice setting. Patients treated at rural facilities and patients with hyperglycemia had lower mortality rates. Each increase in percent of TBSA of burns increased LOS by 2.5%. Patients with burns covering 50 to 59% of TBSA had the longest hospital stay at a median of 24 days (range, 17-55). The median in-hospital charge for a burn patient with inhalation injury was US$32,070, compared to US$17,600 for those without. Overall, patients who expired from burn injury accrued higher in-hospital charges (median, US$50,690 vs US$17,510). Geographically, California and New Jersey were the states with the highest charges, whereas Vermont and Maryland were states with the lowest charges. The study analysis provides a broad sampling of nationwide demographics, LOS, and in-hospital charges for patients with burns and inhalation injury.

  8. Interaction between selenium and mercury in biological samples of Pakistani myocardial infarction patients at different stages as related to controls.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Atif; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Arain, Salma Aslam; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Naeemullah

    2014-05-01

    It has been speculated that trace elements may a play role in the pathogenesis of heart diseases. In the present study, we aimed to assess the levels of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in biological samples (whole blood, urine, and scalp hair) of myocardial infarction (MI) patients of both genders (age range 45-60 years) at the first, second, and third heart attack (n = 130), hospitalized in a cardiac ward of a civil hospital of Hyderabad City (Pakistan). For comparison, healthy age-matched referent subjects (n = 61) of both genders were also selected. Se and Hg in biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to microwave acid digestion, respectively. The validity of the methodology was checked by biological certified reference materials. During this study, 78 % of the 32 registered patients of third MI attack (aged >50 years) died. The concentration of Se was decreased in scalp hair and blood samples of MI patients, while Hg was higher in all biological samples as compared to referent subjects. Se concentration was inversely associated with the risk of MI attacks in both genders. These results add to an increasing body of evidence that Se is a protective element for cardiovascular health. PMID:24643467

  9. Trefoil factor family (TFF) proteins as potential serum biomarkers in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Vocka, M; Langer, D; Petrtyl, J; Vockova, P; Hanus, T; Kalousova, M; Zima, T; Petruzelka, L

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) is composed of three secretory proteins (TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3) that play an important role in mucosal protection of gastrointestinal tract. Their overexpression in colorectal tumors seems to be associated with more aggressive disease. We collected serum samples from 79 healthy controls and 97 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer at the time of diagnosis or at progression. Serum levels of TTF1-3, CEA and CA19-9 were measured by ELISA. Serum TFF1 and TFF3 levels were significantly higher in patients with colorectal cancer compared to healthy controls (p < 0.0001). Moreover, serum levels of TFF3 correlated with extent of liver involvement in patient without pulmonary metastases and patients with higher TFF3 levels had significantly worse outcome (p < 0.0001). Compared to CEA and CA19-9, TFF3 had higher sensitivity and the same specificity. Our results indicate that TFF3 is an effective biomarker in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with higher sensitivity than CEA a CA19-9. TFF3 levels strongly correlate with extension of liver disease and seem to have prognostic value.

  10. Aspergillus PCR-Based Investigation of Fresh Tissue and Effusion Samples in Patients with Suspected Invasive Aspergillosis Enhances Diagnostic Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Reinwald, M.; Spiess, B.; Heinz, W. J.; Heussel, C. P.; Bertz, H.; Cornely, O. A.; Hahn, J.; Lehrnbecher, T.; Kiehl, M.; Laws, H. J.; Wolf, H. H.; Schwerdtfeger, R.; Schultheis, B.; Burchardt, A.; Klein, M.; Dürken, M.; Claus, B.; Schlegel, F.; Hummel, M.; Hofmann, W.-K.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is a severe complication in immunocompromised patients, diagnosing invasive fungal disease (IFD), especially invasive aspergillosis (IA), remains difficult. In certain clinical scenarios, examining tissue samples for identification of the infectious organism becomes important. As culture-based methods rarely yield results, the performance of an Aspergillus-specific nested PCR in fresh tissue or pleural effusion samples was evaluated. Fresh tissue (n = 59) and effusion (n = 47) specimens from 79 immunocompromised patients were subjected to an Aspergillus-specific PCR assay. Twenty-six patients had proven (n = 20) or probable (n = 6) IFD, according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria, while the remaining patients were classified as having either possible IFD (n = 30) or no IFD (n = 23). IA was identified as the underlying IFD in 21/26 proven/probable cases. PCR positivity was observed for 18/21 proven/probable and 6 possible IA cases; cases classified as no IA did not show positive signals. Patients with proven IFD (n = 5) with cultures positive for non-Aspergillus molds also had negative Aspergillus PCR results. Aspergillus PCR performance analysis yielded sensitivity and specificity values of 86% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65% to 95%) and 100% (95% CI, 86% to 100%), respectively, thus leading to a diagnostic odds ratio of >200. In this analysis, good diagnostic performance of the PCR assay for detection of IA was observed for tissue samples, while effusion samples showed lower sensitivity rates. PCR testing represents a complementary tool; a positive PCR result strengthens the likelihood of IA, whereas IA seems unlikely in cases with negative results but findings could indicate non-Aspergillus IFD. Thus, PCR testing of these specimens enhances the diagnostic capabilities. PMID

  11. Organic petrology of subbituminous carbonaceous shale samples from Chalaw, Kabul Province, Afghanistan: Considerations for paleoenvironment and energy resource potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, P.C.; SanFilipo, J.R.; Azizi, G.P.; Davis, P.A.; Starratt, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Neogene (?) subbituminous carbonaceous shale deposits from Chalaw, Afghanistan, were investigated through organic petrology techniques and standard coal analyses to determine paleoenvironment and potential for resource utilization. The Chalaw deposit, approximately 30. km southeast of Kabul, currently is exploited for brick making and domestic heating and cooking. Three multiple-bench channel samples of the mined bed at Chalaw were collected and evaluated. The presence of significant huminite (ranging from 0.2 to 59.0. vol.%, mineral-inclusive basis) is suggestive of a terrestrial lignin-rich precursor plant material. Measured reflectance values of 0.38-0.55% indicate subbituminous rank. This rank suggests burial depths of approximately 1500. m and maximum temperatures of approximately 50. ??C. Structured liptinite macerals generally are absent except for some fluorescing morphologies interpreted to be poorly-preserved root cork suberinite. Sponge spicule bioliths including gemmoscleres and megascleres are common. These petrographic observations, in addition to high mineral matter content (33 to >95 vol%), medium to high sulfur content (2.1-11.5. wt.%, dry basis; db), and the presence of common gastropod? shell fragments and an aragonite-needle chalk bed are consistent with, but not directly indicative of, a marginal marine or estuarine mangrove depositional environment. However, additional data are necessary to confirm this hypothesis and deposition in a freshwater environment cannot be ruled out at this time.Commercial-scale development and utilization of the Chalaw deposit as a thermal fuel resource may be possible using a fluidized bed combustion system which could accept the low-quality mine product currently produced. Samples examined herein contain high-ash yield (45-90. wt.%, db), high total moisture content (17-39. wt.%), low calorific value (980-6860. Btu/lb, m,mmf), and have poor agglomerating properties (FSI=0), consistent with fuels utilized in

  12. A new potential risk factor in patients with erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: folate deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wen-Jie; Yu, Nan; Yin, Tai-Lang; Zou, Yu-Jie; Yang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    We investigated serum folic acid (FA) levels in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and/or premature ejaculation (PE). Fasting serum samples were obtained from 42 patients with ED, 36 with PE, 25 ED patients with PE, and 30 healthy men; the mean intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was measured during a 4 weeks baseline period. Levels of sex hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, total testosterone), homocysteine (Hcys), and FA were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. The sexual functions of PE patients and normal control men were evaluated using the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE). The abridged International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire was used to gauge erectile quality for ED patients and for normal controls. Serum FA concentrations were lower in ED (7.61 ± 3.97 ng ml−1), PE (9.37 ± 3.40 ng ml−1), and ED/PE (8.84 ± 4.28 ng ml−1) patients than in healthy men (12.23 ± 5.76 ng ml−1, P < 0.05). No significant differences in sex hormone levels were found between patients with sexual dysfunction and healthy controls (P > 0.05). There were positive correlations between serum FA concentrations and CIPE scores (r = 0.530, P < 0.01), IIEF-5 scores (r = 0.589, P < 0.01), and IELT (r = 0.445, P < 0.01); negative correlations with Hcys concentrations (r = −0.487, P < 0.01) were found in all participants. These findings showed a strong relationship between serum FA levels and sexual dysfunction, possibly due to an effect of FA on the metabolism of nitric oxide, Hcys, and 5-hydroxytryptamine. PMID:25080932

  13. A new potential risk factor in patients with erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wen-Jie; Yu, Nan; Yin, Tai-Lang; Zou, Yu-Jie; Yang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    We investigated serum folic acid (FA) levels in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and/or premature ejaculation (PE). Fasting serum samples were obtained from 42 patients with ED, 36 with PE, 25 ED patients with PE, and 30 healthy men; the mean intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was measured during a 4 weeks baseline period. Levels of sex hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, total testosterone), homocysteine (Hcys), and FA were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. The sexual functions of PE patients and normal control men were evaluated using the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE). The abridged International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire was used to gauge erectile quality for ED patients and for normal controls. Serum FA concentrations were lower in ED (7.61 ± 3.97 ng ml⁻¹), PE (9.37 ± 3.40 ng ml⁻¹), and ED/PE (8.84 ± 4.28 ng ml⁻¹) patients than in healthy men (12.23 ± 5.76 ng ml -1 , P < 0.05). No significant differences in sex hormone levels were found between patients with sexual dysfunction and healthy controls (P > 0.05). There were positive correlations between serum FA concentrations and CIPE scores (r = 0.530, P < 0.01), IIEF-5 scores (r = 0.589, P < 0.01), and IELT (r = 0.445, P < 0.01); negative correlations with Hcys concentrations (r = -0.487, P < 0.01) were found in all participants. These findings showed a strong relationship between serum FA levels and sexual dysfunction, possibly due to an effect of FA on the metabolism of nitric oxide, Hcys, and 5-hydroxytryptamine.

  14. Psychiatric Stigma in Treatment-Seeking Adults with Personality Problems: Evidence from a Sample of 214 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Catthoor, Kirsten; Schrijvers, Didier; Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dineke; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatization is a major burden in adult psychiatric patients with Axis-I diagnoses, as shown consistently in most studies. Significantly fewer studies on the emergence of psychiatric stigma in adult patients with personality disorders (PDs) exist, although the resulting evidence is conclusive. Some authors consider patients with PDs at risk for severe stigmatization because of intense difficulties during interpersonal contact, even in a psychotherapeutic relationship. The aim of this study was primarily the assessment of pre-existing stigma in patients referred for intensive treatment for PDs. The study enrolled 214 patients admitted to the adult department of a highly specialized mental health care institute offering psychotherapy for patients with severe and complex personality pathology. All patients underwent a standard assessment with self-report questionnaires and a semi-structured interview to measure Axis II PDs. The stigma consciousness questionnaire and the perceived devaluation-discrimination questionnaire, both validated instruments, were used to measure perceived and actual experiences of stigma. Independent sample t-tests were used to investigate differences in the mean total stigma scores for patients both with and without a PD. One-way ANOVAs were performed to assess the differences between having a borderline PD, another PD, or no PD diagnosis. Multiple regression main effect analyses were conducted in order to explore the impact of the different PD diagnosis on the level of stigma. The mean scores across all patient groups were consistent with rather low stigma. No differences were found for patients with or without a PD diagnosis. Level of stigma in general was not associated with an accumulating number of PDs. Given the remarkable results, we would strongly recommend further investigations in the field to better understand the phenomenon of stigma in all its aspects. PMID:26217243

  15. Dielectrophoretic Microfluidic Chip Enables Single-Cell Measurements for Multidrug Resistance in Heterogeneous Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patient Samples.

    PubMed

    Khamenehfar, Avid; Gandhi, Maher K; Chen, Yuchun; Hogge, Donna E; Li, Paul C H

    2016-06-01

    The front-line treatment for adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy. However, treatment outcomes remain suboptimal with relapses frequently observed. Among the mechanisms of treatment failure is multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by the ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 drug-efflux transporters. Although genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity between leukemic blast cells is a well-recognized phenomenon, there remains minimal data on differences in MDR activity at the individual cell level. Specifically, functional assays that can distinguish the variability in MDR activity between individual leukemic blasts are lacking. Here, we outline a new dielectrophoretic (DEP) chip-based assay. This assay permits measurement of drug accumulation in single cells, termed same-single-cell analysis in the accumulation mode (SASCA-A). Initially, the assay was optimized in pretherapy samples from 20 adults with AML whose leukemic blasts had MDR activity against the anthracyline daunorubicin (DNR) tested using multiple MDR inhibitors. Parameters tested were initial drug accumulation, time to achieve signal saturation, fold-increase of DNR accumulation with MDR inhibition, ease of cell trapping, and ease of maintaining the trapped cells stationary. This enabled categorization into leukemic blast cells with MDR activity (MDR(+)) and leukemic blast cells without MDR activity (MDR(-ve)). Leukemic blasts could also be distinguished from benign white blood cells (notably these also lacked MDR activity). MDR(-ve) blasts were observed to be enriched in samples taken from patients who went on to enter complete remission (CR), whereas MDR(+) blasts were frequently observed in patients who failed to achieve CR following front-line chemotherapy. However, pronounced variability in functional MDR activity between leukemic blasts was observed, with MDR(+) cells not infrequently seen in some patients that went on to achieve CR. Next, we tested MDR activity in two

  16. Early maladaptive schemas in Finnish adult chronic pain patients and a control sample.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Tom Harri; Saariaho, Anita Sylvia; Karila, Irma Anneli; Joukamaa, Matti I

    2011-04-01

    Engel (1959) suggested that negative physical or emotional experiences in childhood predispose to the development of chronic pain. Studies have shown that physical and sexual abuse in early life is connected with chronic pain. Emotional adversities are much less studied causes contributing to the development of chronic pain and disability. Early emotional abuse, neglect, maltreatment and other adversities are deleterious childhood experiences which, according to Young's schema theory (1990), produce early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). The primary goal of this study was to examine whether early adversities were more common in chronic pain patients than in a control group. A total of 271 (53% women) first-visit chronic pain patients and 331 (86% women) control participants took part in the study. Their socio-demographic data, pain variables and pain disability were measured. To estimate EMSs the Young Schema Questionnaire was used. Chronic pain patients scored higher EMSs reflecting incapacity to perform independently, catastrophic beliefs and pessimism. The most severely disabled chronic pain patients showed an increase in all the EMSs in the Disconnection and Rejection schema domain, namely Abandonment/Instability, Mistrust/Abuse, Emotional Deprivation, Defectiveness/Shame and Social Isolation/Alienation EMSs. The results of the study suggested that chronic pain patients had suffered early emotional maltreatment. PMID:21054422

  17. Early maladaptive schemas in Finnish adult chronic pain patients and a control sample.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Tom Harri; Saariaho, Anita Sylvia; Karila, Irma Anneli; Joukamaa, Matti I

    2011-04-01

    Engel (1959) suggested that negative physical or emotional experiences in childhood predispose to the development of chronic pain. Studies have shown that physical and sexual abuse in early life is connected with chronic pain. Emotional adversities are much less studied causes contributing to the development of chronic pain and disability. Early emotional abuse, neglect, maltreatment and other adversities are deleterious childhood experiences which, according to Young's schema theory (1990), produce early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). The primary goal of this study was to examine whether early adversities were more common in chronic pain patients than in a control group. A total of 271 (53% women) first-visit chronic pain patients and 331 (86% women) control participants took part in the study. Their socio-demographic data, pain variables and pain disability were measured. To estimate EMSs the Young Schema Questionnaire was used. Chronic pain patients scored higher EMSs reflecting incapacity to perform independently, catastrophic beliefs and pessimism. The most severely disabled chronic pain patients showed an increase in all the EMSs in the Disconnection and Rejection schema domain, namely Abandonment/Instability, Mistrust/Abuse, Emotional Deprivation, Defectiveness/Shame and Social Isolation/Alienation EMSs. The results of the study suggested that chronic pain patients had suffered early emotional maltreatment.

  18. Prevalence of extracranial venous abnormalities: results from a sample of 586 multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Simka, Marian; Latacz, Pawel; Ludyga, Tomasz; Kazibudzki, Marek; Świerad, Marcin; Janas, Piotr; Piegza, Jacek

    Summary The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in an unselected cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A total of 586 patients with clinically defined MS underwent catheter venography of the internal jugular veins, brachiocephalic veins and azygos vein. The following findings were regarded as pathologic: no outflow, slowed outflow, reversal of flow direction, prestenotic dilation accompanied by impaired outflow, outflow through collaterals, intraluminal structures obstructing the vein, hypoplasia, agenesia or significant narrowing of the vein. Venous abnormalities were found in 563 patients (96.1%). Lesions in one vein were found in 43.5%, in two veins in 49.5%, and in three veins in 3.1% of patients. Venous pathologies in the right internal jugular vein were found in 64.0% of patients, in the left internal jugular vein in 81.7%, in the left brachiocephalic vein in 1.0%, and in the azygos vein in 4.9%. Venous pathologies were found to be highly associated with MS, yet the clinical relevance of this phenomenon remains to be established. PMID:22364940

  19. Prevalence of extracranial venous abnormalities: results from a sample of 586 multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Simka, M; Latacz, P; Ludyga, T; Kazibudzki, M; Swierad, M; Janas, P; Piegza, J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in an unselected cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A total of 586 patients with clinically defined MS underwent catheter venography of the internal jugular veins, brachiocephalic veins and azygos vein. The following findings were regarded as pathologic: no outflow, slowed outflow, reversal of flow direction, prestenotic dilation accompanied by impaired outflow, outflow through collaterals, intraluminal structures obstructing the vein, hypoplasia, agenesia or significant narrowing of the vein. Venous abnormalities were found in 563 patients (96.1%). Lesions in one vein were found in 43.5%, in two veins in 49.5%, and in three veins in 3.1% of patients. Venous pathologies in the right internal jugular vein were found in 64.0% of patients, in the left internal jugular vein in 81.7%, in the left brachiocephalic vein in 1.0%, and in the azygos vein in 4.9%. Venous pathologies were found to be highly associated with MS, yet the clinical relevance of this phenomenon remains to be established.

  20. Current status and future potential of somatic mutation testing from circulating free DNA in patients with solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Aung, K L; Board, R E; Ellison, G; Donald, E; Ward, T; Clack, G; Ranson, M; Hughes, A; Newman, W; Dive, C

    2010-12-01

    Genetic alterations can determine the natural history of cancer and its treatment response. With further advances in DNA sequencing technology, multiple novel genetic alterations will be discovered which could be exploited as prognostic, predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarkers in the development and use of cancer therapeutics. As such, the importance in clinical practice of efficient and robust somatic mutation testing in solid tumours cannot be overemphasized in the current era of personalized medicine. However, significant challenges remain regarding the testing of genetic biomarkers in clinical practice. Reliance on archived formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tumour, obtained from diagnostic biopsies, for testing somatic genetic alterations could restrict the scientific community in asking relevant questions about a patient's cancer biology. Problems inherent with using formalin fixed, archival tissue are well recognized and difficult to resolve. It could be argued that to achieve rapid and efficient incorporation of genetic biomarkers into clinical practice, somatic mutation testing in cancer patients should be simpler, less invasive using a readily available clinical sample, whilst maintaining robustness and reproducibility. In this regard, use of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) from plasma or serum as an alternative and/or additional source of DNA to test cancer specific genetic alterations is an attractive proposition. In light of encouraging results from recent studies, this mini review will discuss the current role and future potential of somatic mutation testing from circulating or cell free DNA derived from the blood of patients with solid tumours.

  1. Design of a protocol for obtaining genomic DNA from saliva using mouthwash: Samples taken from patients with periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Ángel Chávez; Volante, Beatriz Buentello; Hernández, María Esther Ocharán; Mendoza, Claudia Camelia Calzada; Pliego, Arturo Flores; Baptista Gonzalez, Héctor A.; Juárez, Higinio Estrada

    2016-01-01

    Background Obtaining high quality genomic DNA safely and economically is vital for diverse studies of large populations aimed at evaluating the role of genetic factors in susceptibility to disease. Aim This study was to test a protocol for the extraction of high quality genomic DNA from saliva samples obtained with mouthwash and taken from patients with periodontal disease. Methods Saliva samples were taken from 60 patients and then stored at room temperature. DNA extraction was carried out at distinct post-sampling times (10, 20 and 30 days). Evaluation of genomic DNA was performed with spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, and PCR genotyping and sequencing. Results The greatest concentration of DNA obtained was 352 μg at 10 days post-sampling, followed by 121.025 μg and 19.59 μg at 20 and 30 days, respectively. When determining the purity of DNA with the spectrophotometric ratio of 260/230, the relations of 1.20, 1.40 and 0.781 were obtained for 10, 20 and 30 days, respectively. In all samples, it was possible to amplify the product of 485 bp and the sequence of the amplicons showed 95% similarity to the reference sequence. Conclusion The present protocol represents an easy, safe and economical technique for obtaining high quality genomic DNA. PMID:27195211

  2. Final work plan : targeted groundwater sampling and monitoring well installation for potential site reclassification at Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2006-07-11

    This ''Work Plan'' outlines the scope of work for a targeted groundwater sampling investigation and monitoring well installation at Barnes, Kansas. This activity is being conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), in accordance with the intergovernmental agreement between the KDHE and the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Data resulting from the proposed work will be used to determine the hydraulic gradient near the former CCC/USDA facility, delineate the downgradient carbon tetrachloride plume, and determine additional monitoring requirements at Barnes. The overall goal is to establish criteria for monitoring leading to potential site reclassification. The proposed work will be performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Farm Service Agency of the USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance with environmental site characterization and remediation at former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities. Argonne issued a ''Master Work Plan'' (Argonne 2002) to provide general guidance for all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas. The ''Master Work Plan'', approved by the KDHE, contains the materials common to investigations at all locations in Kansas. This document must be consulted for the complete details of plans for this work associated with the former CCC/USDA facility at Barnes.

  3. Patient engagement: four case studies that highlight the potential for improved health outcomes and reduced costs.

    PubMed

    Laurance, Jeremy; Henderson, Sarah; Howitt, Peter J; Matar, Mariam; Al Kuwari, Hanan; Edgman-Levitan, Susan; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The energy of patients and members of the public worldwide who care about improving health is a huge, but still largely unrecognized and untapped, resource. The aim of patient engagement is to shift the clinical paradigm from determining "what is the matter?" to discovering "what matters to you?" This article presents four case studies from around the world that highlight the proven and potential abilities of increased patient engagement to improve health outcomes and reduce costs, while extending the reach of treatment and diagnostic programs into the community. The cases are an online mental health community in the United Kingdom, a genetic screening program in the United Arab Emirates, a World Health Organization checklist for new mothers, and a hospital-based patient engagement initiative in the United States. Evidence from these and similar endeavors suggests that closer collaboration on the part of patients, families, health care providers, health care systems, and policy makers at multiple levels could help diverse nations provide more effective and population-appropriate health care with fewer resources.

  4. Potential determinants of efficacy of mirror therapy in stroke patients – A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti, Maddalena; Morkisch, Nadine; Fritzsch, Claire; Mehnert, Jan; Steinbrink, Jens; Niedeggen, Michael; Dohle, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mirror therapy (MT) was found to improve motor function after stroke. However, there is high variability between patients regarding motor recovery. Objectives: The following pilot study was designed to identify potential factors determining this variability between patients with severe upper limb paresis, receiving MT. Methods: Eleven sub-acute stroke patients with severe upper limb paresis participated, receiving in-patient rehabilitation. After a set of pre-assessments (including measurement of brain activity at the primary motor cortex and precuneus during the mirror illusion, using near-infrared spectroscopy as described previously), four weeks of MT were applied, followed by a set of post-assessments. Discriminant group analysis for MT responders and non-responders was performed. Results: Six out of eleven patients were defined as responders and five as non-responders on the basis of their functional motor improvement. The initial motor function and the activity shift in both precunei (mirror index) were found to discriminate significantly between responders and non-responders. Conclusions: In line with earlier results, initial motor function was confirmed as crucial determinant of motor recovery. Additionally, activity response to the mirror illusion in both precunei was found to be a candidate for determination of the efficacy of MT. PMID:26409402

  5. Potential immunological consequences of pharmacological suppression of gastric acid production in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sangita; Benedict, Stephen H; Lynch, Sharon G; LeVine, Steven M

    2012-06-07

    Corticosteroids are standard treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis experiencing acute relapse. Because dyspeptic pain is a common side effect of this intervention, patients can be given a histamine receptor-2 antagonist, proton pump inhibitor or antacid to prevent or ameliorate this disturbance. Additionally, patients with multiple sclerosis may be taking these medications independent of corticosteroid treatment. Interventions for gastric disturbances can influence the activation state of the immune system, a principal mediator of pathology in multiple sclerosis. Although histamine release promotes inflammation, activation of the histamine receptor-2 can suppress a proinflammatory immune response, and blocking histamine receptor-2 with an antagonist could shift the balance more towards immune stimulation. Studies utilizing an animal model of multiple sclerosis indicate that histamine receptor-2 antagonists potentially augment disease activity in patients with multiple sclerosis. In contrast, proton pump inhibitors appear to favor immune suppression, but have not been studied in models of multiple sclerosis. Antacids, histamine receptor-2 antagonists and proton pump inhibitors also could alter the intestinal microflora, which may indirectly lead to immune stimulation. Additionally, elevated gastric pH can promote the vitamin B12 deficiency that patients with multiple sclerosis are at risk of developing. Here, we review possible roles of gastric acid inhibitors on immunopathogenic mechanisms associated with multiple sclerosis.

  6. Potential immunological consequences of pharmacological suppression of gastric acid production in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Corticosteroids are standard treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis experiencing acute relapse. Because dyspeptic pain is a common side effect of this intervention, patients can be given a histamine receptor-2 antagonist, proton pump inhibitor or antacid to prevent or ameliorate this disturbance. Additionally, patients with multiple sclerosis may be taking these medications independent of corticosteroid treatment. Interventions for gastric disturbances can influence the activation state of the immune system, a principal mediator of pathology in multiple sclerosis. Although histamine release promotes inflammation, activation of the histamine receptor-2 can suppress a proinflammatory immune response, and blocking histamine receptor-2 with an antagonist could shift the balance more towards immune stimulation. Studies utilizing an animal model of multiple sclerosis indicate that histamine receptor-2 antagonists potentially augment disease activity in patients with multiple sclerosis. In contrast, proton pump inhibitors appear to favor immune suppression, but have not been studied in models of multiple sclerosis. Antacids, histamine receptor-2 antagonists and proton pump inhibitors also could alter the intestinal microflora, which may indirectly lead to immune stimulation. Additionally, elevated gastric pH can promote the vitamin B12 deficiency that patients with multiple sclerosis are at risk of developing. Here, we review possible roles of gastric acid inhibitors on immunopathogenic mechanisms associated with multiple sclerosis. PMID:22676575

  7. New protocol to prevent TMJ reankylosis and potentially life threatening complications in triad patients.

    PubMed

    Andrade, N N; Kalra, R; Shetye, S P

    2012-12-01

    The management of patients with the triad of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis, micrognathia and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is challenging for the oral and maxillofacial surgeon because it involves achieving the desired oral opening, correction of micrognathia, and correction of the obstructed airway. Seven of the authors' triad patients, in whom only the release of ankylosis was performed, developed bradycardia and respiratory distress during postoperative jaw physiotherapy, leading to their non-compliance for active jaw physiotherapy and subsequent reankylosis. This paper suggests a new surgical protocol for the management of patients with the triad, to achieve correction of the obstructed airway, relief of the respiratory distress symptoms, correction of micrognathia and restricted mouth opening. It also provides a logical reason for the occurrence of bradycardia following ankylosis release and its potential role in TMJ reankylosis. It emphasizes that the occurrence of bradycardia in triad patients during jaw exercises is dictated by the severity of their apnea-hypopnea index and the degree of narrowing of their posterior airway space. The recognition and prevention of this by the new protocol is discussed in 7 patients.

  8. Potential role of nuclear PD-L1 expression in cell-surface vimentin positive circulating tumor cells as a prognostic marker in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Satelli, Arun; Batth, Izhar Singh; Brownlee, Zachary; Rojas, Christina; Meng, Qing H.; Kopetz, Scott; Li, Shulin

    2016-01-01

    Although circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have potential as diagnostic biomarkers for cancer, determining their prognostic role in cancer patients undergoing treatment is a challenge. We evaluated the prognostic value of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in CTCs in colorectal and prostate cancer patients undergoing treatment. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 62 metastatic colorectal cancer patients and 30 metastatic prostate cancer patients. CTCs were isolated from the samples using magnetic separation with the cell-surface vimentin(CSV)-specific 84-1 monoclonal antibody that detects epithelial-mesenchymal transitioned (EMT) CTCs. CTCs were enumerated and analyzed for PD-L1 expression using confocal microscopy. PD-L1 expression was detectable in CTCs and was localized in the membrane and/or cytoplasm and nucleus. CTC detection alone was not associated with poor progression-free or overall survival in colorectal cancer or prostate cancer patients, but nuclear PD-L1 (nPD-L1) expression in these patients was significantly associated with short survival durations. These results demonstrated that nPD-L1 has potential as a clinically relevant prognostic biomarker for colorectal and prostate cancer. Our data thus suggested that use of CTC-based models of cancer for risk assessment can improve the standard cancer staging criteria and supported the incorporation of nPD-L1 expression detection in CTCs detection in such models. PMID:27363678

  9. Trace Elements in Scalp Hair Samples from Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tamburo, Elisa; Varrica, Daniela; Dongarrà, Gaetano; Grimaldi, Luigi Maria Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have suggested a possible role of trace elements (TE) in the etiology of several neurological diseases including Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Hair analysis provides an easy tool to quantify TE in human subjects, including patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Objective To compare TE levels in scalp hair from patients with MS and healthy controls from the same geographic area (Sicily). Methods ICP-MS was used to determine the concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn) in scalp hair of 48 patients with relapsing–remitting Multiple Sclerosis compared with 51 healthy controls. Results MS patients showed a significantly lower hair concentration of aluminum and rubidium (median values: Al = 3.76 μg/g vs. 4.49 μg/g and Rb = 0.007 μg/g vs. 0.01 μg/g;) and higher hair concentration of U (median values U: 0.014 μg/g vs. 0.007 μg/g) compared to healthy controls. The percentages of MS patients showing hair elemental concentrations greater than the 95th percentile of controls were 20% for Ni, 19% for Ba and U, and 15% for Ag, Mo and Se. Conversely, the percentages of MS patients showing hair elemental concentrations lower than the 5th percentile of healthy controls were 27% for Al, 25% for Rb, 22% for Ag, 19% for Fe, and 16% for Pb. No significant association was found between levels of each TE and age, disease duration or Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score. After stratification by gender, healthy subjects did not show any significant difference in trace element levels, while MS patients showed significant differences (p<0.01) for the concentrations of Ag, Cr, Fe, Ni and Sr. No significant differences were also found, at p<0.01, in relation to the use of cigarettes, consume of water, vegetables and place of living. Conclusion The different distributions of TE in hair of MS patients compared to controls provides an additional indirect evidence of

  10. Lipogenic potential of liver from morbidly obese patients with and without non-insulin-dependent diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Barakat, H.A.; McLendon, V.D.; Carpenter, J.W.; Marks, R.H.; Legett, N.; O'Brien, K.; Caro, J.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Intra-abdominal liver biopsies were obtained during surgery from fasted obese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), obese normoglycemic controls, and lean controls. Lipid synthesis was studied in freshly isolated hepatocytes and liver homogenates from the three groups of subjects. Incorporation of 3H2O into the lipids of hepatocytes was determined in the absence and presence of insulin (0.1 mumol/L). The activities of five enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis, and the incorporation of 14C-glycerol-3-phosphate into lipids were determined in liver homogenates. Basal lipid synthesis by hepatocytes was not different in the three groups of patients. Insulin stimulated lipogenesis by 8% +/- 30% in the lean controls, 33% +/- 8% in the obese controls and 17% +/- 6% in the NIDDM patients. No significant differences in the activities of the five enzymes that are involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis among the three groups of patients were observed. Similarly, incorporation of 14C-glycerol-3-phosphate by liver homogenates, in the presence of saturating or submaximal concentrations of fatty acids, did not differ among the three groups. These results show that under the experimental conditions of this study, including the fasted state of the patients, the basal capacity of liver of NIDDM patients to synthesize fatty acids or glycerides is the same as that of liver from obese and lean controls. Thus, it is likely that an increase in fatty acid flux into a liver with normal lipogenic potential may contribute to the increased synthesis of triglycerides by the liver of these patients in vivo.

  11. Specialized proresolving lipid mediators in patients with coronary artery disease and their potential for clot remodeling.

    PubMed

    Elajami, Tarec K; Colas, Romain A; Dalli, Jesmond; Chiang, Nan; Serhan, Charles N; Welty, Francine K

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation in arterial walls leads to coronary artery disease (CAD). Because specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs; lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins) stimulate resolution of inflammation in animal models, we tested whether n-3 fatty acids impact SPM profiles in patients with CAD and promote clot remodeling. Six patients with stable CAD were randomly assigned to either treatment with daily 3.36 g Lovaza for 1 yr or without. Targeted lipid mediator-metabololipidomics showed that both groups had absence of resolvin D1 (RvD1), RvD2, RvD3, RvD5 and resolvin E1-all of which are present in healthy patients. Those not taking Lovaza had an absence of aspirin-triggered resolvin D3 (AT-RvD3) and aspirin-triggered lipoxin B4 (AT-LXB4). Lovaza treatment restored AT-RvD3 and AT-LXB4 and gave levels of RvD6 and aspirin-triggered protectin D1 (AT-PD1) twice as high (resolvin E2 ∼5 fold) as well as lower prostaglandins. Principal component analysis indicated positive relationships for patients with CAD who were receiving Lovaza with increased AT-RvD3, RvD6, AT-PD1, and AT-LXB4 SPMs identified in Lovaza-treated patients with CAD enhanced ∼50% at 1 nM macrophage uptake of blood clots. These results indicate that patients with CAD have lower levels and/or absence of specific SPMs that were restored with Lovaza; these SPMs promote macrophage phagocytosis of blood clots. Together, they suggest that low vascular SPMs may enable progression of chronic vascular inflammation predisposing to coronary atherosclerosis and to thrombosis.-Elajami, T. K., Colas, R. A., Dalli, J., Chiang, N., Serhan, C. N., Welty, F. K. Specialized proresolving lipid mediators in patients with coronary artery disease and their potential for clot remodeling. PMID:27121596

  12. Analysis of Non-Small Bowel Lesions Detected by Capsule Endoscopy in Patients with Potential Small Bowel Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Fatma Ebru; Yurekli, Oyku Tayfur; Demirezer Bolat, Aylin; Tahtacı, Mustafa; Koseoglu, Huseyin; Selvi, Eyup; Buyukasik, Naciye Semnur; Ersoy, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding cases in whom source cannot be identified after conventional upper and lower GI endoscopy are defined as potential small bowel bleeding. We aimed to search for lesions in the reach of conventional endoscopy in patients to whom video capsule endoscopy (VCE) had been applied for potential small bowel bleeding. 114 patients who had VCE evaluation for potential small bowel bleeding between January 2009 and August 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. Mean age of the patients was 55 ± 17 years. Female/male ratio is 39/75. In 58 patients (50.9%) bleeding lesion could be determined. Among these 58 patients 8 patients' lesions were in the reach of conventional endoscopes. Overall these 8 patients comprised 7% of patients in whom VCE was performed for potential small bowel bleeding. Among these 8 patients 5 had colonic lesions (4 angiodysplasia, 1 ulcerated polypoid cecal lesion), 2 had gastric lesions (1 GAVE, 1 anastomotic bleeding), and 1 patient had a bleeding lesion in the duodenal bulbus. Although capsule endoscopy is usually performed for potential small bowel bleeding gastroenterologists should always keep in mind that these patients may be suffering from bleeding from non-small bowel segments and should carefully review images captured from non-small bowel areas. PMID:27092029

  13. Genotyping of samples from German patients with ocular, cerebral and systemic toxoplasmosis reveals a predominance of Toxoplasma gondii type II.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Daland C; Maksimov, Pavlo; Hotop, Andrea; Groß, Uwe; Däubener, Walter; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Pleyer, Uwe; Conraths, Franz J; Schares, Gereon

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis transmitted from animals to humans world-wide. In order to determine Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in individuals living in Germany and to compare findings with those in animals, we analysed nine independent and unlinked genetic markers (nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) by PCR-RFLP in 83 archived T. gondii-positive DNA samples from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (n=35), toxoplasmic encephalitis (n=32), systemic toxoplasmosis after bone-marrow transplantation (n=15) and congenital toxoplasmosis (n=1). In 46 of these 83 samples the presence of T. gondii DNA was confirmed by conventional end-point PCR. Among these, 17 T. gondii-positive samples were typed at all nine loci. The majority (15/17, 88.2%) of these samples were of T. gondii type II (i.e., including both, the Apico type II and Apico type I variants). In addition, in one sample a T. gondii type II/type III allele combination and in another sample a T. gondii genotype displaying type III alleles at all markers was observed. In the remaining 11 samples, in which T. gondii could only be partially typed, exclusively type II (n=10) or type III (n=1) alleles were observed. Results of the present study suggest that the majority of patients in Germany are infected with type II T. gondii regardless of the clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis. This finding is in accord with the predominance of type II T. gondii in oocysts isolated from cats and in tissues of other intermediate hosts in Germany.

  14. Adrenal venous sampling for stratifying patients for surgery of adrenal nodules detected using dynamic contrast enhanced CT

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Kim, See Hyung; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Mi Jeong; Cho, Seung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to assess the value of adrenal venous sampling (AVS) for diagnosing primary aldosteronism (PA) subtypes in patients with a unilateral nodule detected on adrenal computed tomography (CT) and scheduled for adrenalectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS This retrospective study included 80 consecutive patients with PA undergoing CT and AVS. Different lateralization indices were assessed, and a cutoff established using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The value of CT alone versus CT with AVS for differentiating PA subtypes was compared. The adrenalectomy outcome was assessed, and predictors of cure were determined using univariate analysis. RESULTS AVS was successful in 68 patients. A cortisol-corrected aldosterone affected-to-unaffected ratio cutoff of 2.0 and affected-to-inferior vena cava ratio cutoff of 1.4 were the best lateralization indices, with accuracies of 82.5% and 80.4%, respectively. CT and AVS diagnosed 38 patients with aldosterone-producing adenomas, five patients with unilateral adrenal hyperplasia, and 25 patients with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. Of the 52 patients with a nodule detected on CT, subsequent AVS diagnosed bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in 14 patients (27%). Compared to the results of combining CT with AVS, the accuracy of CT alone for diagnosing aldosterone-producing adenomas was 71.1% (P < 0.001). The cure rate for hypertension after adrenalectomy was 39.2%, with improvement in 53.5% of patients. On univariate analysis, predictors of persistent hypertension were male gender and preoperative systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION To avoid inappropriate surgery, AVS is necessary for diagnosing unilateral nodules with aldosterone hypersecretion detected by CT. PMID:24047720

  15. Akathisia: prevalence and risk factors in a community-dwelling sample of patients with schizophrenia. Results from the FACE-SZ dataset.

    PubMed

    Berna, F; Misdrahi, D; Boyer, L; Aouizerate, B; Brunel, L; Capdevielle, D; Chereau, I; Danion, J M; Dorey, J M; Dubertret, C; Dubreucq, J; Faget, C; Gabayet, F; Lancon, C; Mallet, J; Rey, R; Passerieux, C; Schandrin, A; Schurhoff, F; Tronche, A M; Urbach, M; Vidailhet, P; Llorca, P M; Fond, G

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of akathisia in a community-dwelling sample of patients with schizophrenia, and to determine the effects of treatments and the clinical variables associated with akathisia. 372 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were systematically included in the network of FondaMental Expert Center for Schizophrenia and assessed with validated scales. Akathisia was measured with the Barnes Akathisia Scale (BAS). Ongoing psychotropic treatment was recorded. The global prevalence of akathisia (as defined by a score of 2 or more on the global akathisia subscale of the BAS) in our sample was 18.5%. Patients who received antipsychotic polytherapy were at higher risk of akathisia and this result remained significant (adjusted odd ratio=2.04, p=.025) after controlling the influence of age, gender, level of education, level of psychotic symptoms, substance use comorbidities, current administration of antidepressant, anticholinergic drugs, benzodiazepines, and daily-administered antipsychotic dose. The combination of second-generation antipsychotics was associated with a 3-fold risk of akathisia compared to second-generation antipsychotics used in monotherapy. Our results indicate that antipsychotic polytherapy should be at best avoided and suggest that monotherapy should be recommended in cases of akathisia. Long-term administration of benzodiazepines or anticholinergic drugs does not seem to be advisable in cases of akathisia, given the potential side effects of these medications.

  16. Novel pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepine compounds display significant activity against resistant chronic myeloid leukaemia cells in vitro, in ex vivo patient samples and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bright, S A; McElligott, A M; O'Connell, J W; O'Connor, L; Carroll, P; Campiani, G; Deininger, M W; Conneally, E; Lawler, M; Williams, D C; Zisterer, D M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Imatinib is a direct and potent inhibitor of the constitutively active tyrosine kinase, breakpoint cluster region-Abelson (Bcr-Abl), which is central to the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients. As such, imatinib has become the front-line treatment for CML patients. However, the recent emergence of imatinib resistance, commonly associated with point mutations within the kinase domain, has led to the search for alternative drug treatments and combination therapies for CML. Methods: In this report, we analyse the effects of representative members of the novel pro-apoptotic microtubule depolymerising pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepines or PBOX compounds on chemotherapy-refractory CML cells using a series of Bcr-Abl mutant cell lines, clinical ex vivo patient samples and an in vivo mouse model. Results: The PBOX compounds potently reduce cell viability in cells expressing the E225K and H396P mutants as well as the highly resistant T315I mutant. The PBOX compounds also induce apoptosis in primary CML samples including those resistant to imatinib. We also show for the first time, the in vivo efficacy of the pro-apoptotic PBOX compound, PBOX-6, in a CML mouse model of the T315I Bcr-Abl mutant. Conclusion: Results from this study highlight the potential of these novel series of PBOX compounds as an effective therapy against CML. PMID:20407438

  17. The cross-sectional GRAS sample: A comprehensive phenotypical data collection of schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is the collective term for an exclusively clinically diagnosed, heterogeneous group of mental disorders with still obscure biological roots. Based on the assumption that valuable information about relevant genetic and environmental disease mechanisms can be obtained by association studies on patient cohorts of ≥ 1000 patients, if performed on detailed clinical datasets and quantifiable biological readouts, we generated a new schizophrenia data base, the GRAS (Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia) data collection. GRAS is the necessary ground to study genetic causes of the schizophrenic phenotype in a 'phenotype-based genetic association study' (PGAS). This approach is different from and complementary to the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on schizophrenia. Methods For this purpose, 1085 patients were recruited between 2005 and 2010 by an invariable team of traveling investigators in a cross-sectional field study that comprised 23 German psychiatric hospitals. Additionally, chart records and discharge letters of all patients were collected. Results The corresponding dataset extracted and presented in form of an overview here, comprises biographic information, disease history, medication including side effects, and results of comprehensive cross-sectional psychopathological, neuropsychological, and neurological examinations. With >3000 data points per schizophrenic subject, this data base of living patients, who are also accessible for follow-up studies, provides a wide-ranging and standardized phenotype characterization of as yet unprecedented detail. Conclusions The GRAS data base will serve as prerequisite for PGAS, a novel approach to better understanding 'the schizophrenias' through exploring the contribution of genetic variation to the schizophrenic phenotypes. PMID:21067598

  18. The classification of the patients with pulmonary diseases using breath air samples spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yury V.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bulanova, Anna A.

    2016-08-01

    Technique of exhaled breath sampling is discussed. The procedure of wavelength auto-calibration is proposed and tested. Comparison of the experimental data with the model absorption spectra of 5% CO2 is conducted. The classification results of three study groups obtained by using support vector machine and principal component analysis methods are presented.

  19. Metagenomics Reveals Dysbiosis and a Potentially Pathogenic N. flavescens Strain in Duodenum of Adult Celiac Patients

    PubMed Central

    D'Argenio, Valeria; Casaburi, Giorgio; Precone, Vincenza; Pagliuca, Chiara; Colicchio, Roberta; Sarnataro, Daniela; Discepolo, Valentina; Kim, Sangman M; Russo, Ilaria; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Horner, David S; Chiara, Matteo; Pesole, Graziano; Salvatore, Paola; Monteleone, Giovanni; Ciacci, Carolina; Caporaso, Gregory J; Jabrì, Bana; Salvatore, Francesco; Sacchetti, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CD)-associated duodenal dysbiosis has not yet been clearly defined, and the mechanisms by which CD-associated dysbiosis could concur to CD development or exacerbation are unknown. In this study, we analyzed the duodenal microbiome of CD patients. METHODS: The microbiome was evaluated in duodenal biopsy samples of 20 adult patients with active CD, 6 CD patients on a gluten-free diet, and 15 controls by DNA sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA libraries. Bacterial species were cultured, isolated and identified by mass spectrometry. Isolated bacterial species were used to infect CaCo-2 cells, and to stimulate normal duodenal explants and cultured human and murine dendritic cells (DCs). Inflammatory markers and cytokines were evaluated by immunofluorescence and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: Proteobacteria was the most abundant and Firmicutes and Actinobacteria the least abundant phyla in the microbiome profiles of active CD patients. Members of the Neisseria genus (Betaproteobacteria class) were significantly more abundant in active CD patients than in the other two groups (P=0.03). Neisseria flavescens (CD-Nf) was the most abundant Neisseria species in active CD duodenum. Whole-genome sequencing of CD-Nf and control-Nf showed genetic diversity of the iron acquisition systems and of some hemoglobin-related genes. CD-Nf was able to escape the lysosomal compartment in CaCo-2 cells and to induce an inflammatory response in DCs and in ex-vivo mucosal explants. CONCLUSIONS: Marked dysbiosis and an abundance of a peculiar CD-Nf strain characterize the duodenal microbiome in active CD patients thus suggesting that the CD-associated microbiota could contribute to the many inflammatory signals in this disorder. PMID:27045926

  20. A Core Invasiveness Gene Signature Reflects Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition but Not Metastatic Potential in Breast Cancer Cell Lines and Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    Marsan, Melike; Van den Eynden, Gert; Limame, Ridha; Neven, Patrick; Hauspy, Jan; Van Dam, Peter A.; Vergote, Ignace; Dirix, Luc Y.; Vermeulen, Peter B.; Van Laere, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Metastases remain the primary cause of cancer-related death. The acquisition of invasive tumour cell behaviour is thought to be a cornerstone of the metastatic cascade. Therefore, gene signatures related to invasiveness could aid in stratifying patients according to their prognostic profile. In the present study we aimed at identifying an invasiveness gene signature and investigated its biological relevance in breast cancer. Methods & Results We collected a set of published gene signatures related to cell motility and invasion. Using this collection, we identified 16 genes that were represented at a higher frequency than observed by coincidence, hereafter named the core invasiveness gene signature. Principal component analysis showed that these overrepresented genes were able to segregate invasive and non-invasive breast cancer cell lines, outperforming sets of 16 randomly selected genes (all P<0.001). When applied onto additional data sets, the expression of the core invasiveness gene signature was significantly elevated in cell lines forced to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The link between core invasiveness gene expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition was also confirmed in a dataset consisting of 2420 human breast cancer samples. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that CIG expression is not associated with a shorter distant metastasis free survival interval (HR = 0.956, 95%C.I. = 0.896–1.019, P = 0.186). Discussion These data demonstrate that we have identified a set of core invasiveness genes, the expression of which is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cell lines and in human tissue samples. Despite the connection between epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasive tumour cell behaviour, we were unable to demonstrate a link between the core invasiveness gene signature and enhanced metastatic potential. PMID:24586640

  1. Medical language proficiency: A discussion of interprofessional language competencies and potential for patient risk.

    PubMed

    Hull, Melodie

    2016-02-01

    In increasingly multilingual healthcare environments worldwide, ensuring accurate, effective communication is requisite. Language proficiency is essential, particularly medical language proficiency. Medical language is a universal construct in healthcare, the shared language of health and allied health professions. It is highly evolved, career-specific, technical and cultural-bound-a language for specific purposes. Its function differs significantly from that of a standard language. Proficiency requires at minimum, a common understanding of discipline-specific jargon, abstracts, euphemisms, abbreviations; acronyms. An optimal medical language situation demands a level of competency beyond the superficial wherein one can convey or interpret deeper meanings, distinguish themes, voice opinion, and follow directions precisely. It necessitates the use of clarity, and the ability to understand both lay and formal language-characteristics not essential to standard language. Proficiency influences professional discourse and can have the potential to positively or negatively affect patient outcomes. While risks have been identified when there is language discordance between care provider and patient, almost nothing has been said about this within care teams themselves. This article will do so in anticipation that care providers, regulators, employers, and researchers will acknowledge potential language-based communication barriers and work towards resolutions. This is predicated on the fact that the growing interest in language and communication in healthcare today appears to be rested in globalization and increasingly linguistically diverse patient populations. Consideration of the linguistically diverse healthcare workforce is absent. An argument will be posited that if potential risks to patient safety exist and there are potentials for disengagement from care by patients when health providers do not speak their languages then logically these language-based issues can

  2. Medical language proficiency: A discussion of interprofessional language competencies and potential for patient risk.

    PubMed

    Hull, Melodie

    2016-02-01

    In increasingly multilingual healthcare environments worldwide, ensuring accurate, effective communication is requisite. Language proficiency is essential, particularly medical language proficiency. Medical language is a universal construct in healthcare, the shared language of health and allied health professions. It is highly evolved, career-specific, technical and cultural-bound-a language for specific purposes. Its function differs significantly from that of a standard language. Proficiency requires at minimum, a common understanding of discipline-specific jargon, abstracts, euphemisms, abbreviations; acronyms. An optimal medical language situation demands a level of competency beyond the superficial wherein one can convey or interpret deeper meanings, distinguish themes, voice opinion, and follow directions precisely. It necessitates the use of clarity, and the ability to understand both lay and formal language-characteristics not essential to standard language. Proficiency influences professional discourse and can have the potential to positively or negatively affect patient outcomes. While risks have been identified when there is language discordance between care provider and patient, almost nothing has been said about this within care teams themselves. This article will do so in anticipation that care providers, regulators, employers, and researchers will acknowledge potential language-based communication barriers and work towards resolutions. This is predicated on the fact that the growing interest in language and communication in healthcare today appears to be rested in globalization and increasingly linguistically diverse patient populations. Consideration of the linguistically diverse healthcare workforce is absent. An argument will be posited that if potential risks to patient safety exist and there are potentials for disengagement from care by patients when health providers do not speak their languages then logically these language-based issues can

  3. Identifying psychiatric patients with serotonergic dysfunctions by event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Hegerl, U; Juckel, G

    2000-04-01

    The increasing knowledge concerning anatomical structures and cellular processes underlying event-related potentials (ERP) as well as methodological advances in ERP data analysis (e.g. dipole source analysis) is beginning to bridge the gap between ERP and neurochemical aspects. Reliable indicators of the serotonin system are urgently needed because of its role in pathophysiology and as target of pharmacotherapeutic interventions in psychiatric disorders. Converging arguments from preclinical and clinical studies support the hypothesis that the loudness dependence of the auditory evoked N1/P2-response (LDAEP) is regulated by the level of central serotonergic neurotransmission. Dipole source analysis represents an important methodological advance in this context, because the two N1/P2-subcomponents, generated by the primary and secondary auditory cortex known to be differentially innervated by serotonergic fibres, can be separated. A pronounced LDAEP of primary auditory cortices is supposed to reflect low central serotonergic neurotransmission, and vice versa. LDAEP is a parameter with potential clinical value since subgroups of patients with a serotonergic dysfunction can be identified and can be treated more specifically. In depressed patients, a significant relationship between strong LDAEP, indicating low serotonergic function, and a favourable response to SSRI has been found. Additionally, there is evidence from several studies with patients with affective disorders that a strong LDAEP predicts favourable response to a preventive lithium treatment. PMID:12607207

  4. Elevated body temperature is linked to fatigue in an Italian sample of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, V M; De Meo, E; Riccitelli, G; Rocca, M A; Comi, G; Filippi, M; Sumowski, J F

    2015-11-01

    Elevated body temperature was recently reported for the first time in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) relative to healthy controls. In addition, warmer body temperature was associated with worse fatigue. These findings are highly novel, may indicate a novel pathophysiology for MS fatigue, and therefore warrant replication in a geographically separate sample. Here, we investigated body temperature and its association to fatigue in an Italian sample of 44 RRMS patients and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Consistent with our original report, we found elevated body temperature in the RRMS sample compared to healthy controls. Warmer body temperature was associated with worse fatigue, thereby supporting the notion of endogenous temperature elevations in patients with RRMS as a novel pathophysiological factor underlying fatigue. Our findings highlight a paradigm shift in our understanding of the effect of heat in RRMS, from exogenous (i.e., Uhthoff's phenomenon) to endogenous. Although randomized controlled trials of cooling treatments (i.e., aspirin, cooling garments) to reduce fatigue in RRMS have been successful, consideration of endogenously elevated body temperature as the underlying target will enhance our development of novel treatments.

  5. Detecting Potential Adverse Reactions of Sulpiride in Schizophrenic Patients by Prescription Sequence Symmetry Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Edward Chia-Cheng; Hsieh, Cheng-Yang; Kao Yang, Yea-Huei; Lin, Swu-Jane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have demonstrated sulpiride to be significantly more effective than haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine in schizophrenic treatment; however, only limited information is available on the potential risks associated with sulpiride treatment. This study attempts to provide information on the potential risks of sulpiride treatment of schizophrenia, especially with regard to unexpected adverse effects. Materials and Methods Patients with schizophrenia aged 18 and older, newly prescribed with a single antipsychotic medication from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan in the period from 2003 to 2010 were included. A within-subject comparison method, prescription sequence symmetry analysis (PSSA) was employed to efficiently identify potential causal relationships while controlling for potential selection bias. Results A total of 5,750 patients, with a mean age of 39, approximately half of whom were male, constituted the study cohort. The PSSA found that sulpiride was associated with EPS (adjusted SR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.46–2.06) and hyperprolactinemia (12.04; 1.59–91.2). In comparison, EPS caused by haloperidol has a magnitude of 1.99 when analyzed with PSSA, and hyperprolactinemia caused by amisulpride has a magnitude of 8.05, respectively. Another finding was the unexpected increase in the use of stomatological corticosteroids, emollient laxatives, dermatological preparations of corticosteroids, quinolone antibacterials, and topical products for joint and muscular pain, after initiation of sulpiride treatment. Conclusions We found sulpiride to be associated with an increased risk of EPS and hyperprolactinemia, and the potential risk could be as high as that induced by haloperidol and amisulpride, respectively. Additionally, our study provides grounds for future investigations into the associations between sulpiride and the increased use of additional drugs for managing adverse effects, including stomatological

  6. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Munck, Christian; Helby, Jens; Westergaard, Christian G.; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke; Hansen, Lars H.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma who are also tobacco smokers experience more severe asthma symptoms and smoking cessation is associated with improved asthma control. In the present study we investigated if smoking cessation in asthma patients is associated with a change in the bacterial community in the lungs, examined using induced sputum. We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity. PMID:27391160

  7. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a study in a large clinical sample of patients using a novel automated method

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rashmi; Jayatilleke, Nishamali; Broadbent, Matthew; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Foskett, Nadia; Gorrell, Genevieve; Hayes, Richard D; Jackson, Richard; Johnston, Caroline; Shetty, Hitesh; Roberts, Angus; McGuire, Philip; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify negative symptoms in the clinical records of a large sample of patients with schizophrenia using natural language processing and assess their relationship with clinical outcomes. Design Observational study using an anonymised electronic health record case register. Setting South London and Maudsley NHS Trust (SLaM), a large provider of inpatient and community mental healthcare in the UK. Participants 7678 patients with schizophrenia receiving care during 2011. Main outcome measures Hospital admission, readmission and duration of admission. Results 10 different negative symptoms were ascertained with precision statistics above 0.80. 41% of patients had 2 or more negative symptoms. Negative symptoms were associated with younger age, male gender and single marital status, and with increased likelihood of hospital admission (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.39), longer duration of admission (β-coefficient 20.5 days, 7.6–33.5), and increased likelihood of readmission following discharge (OR 1.58, 1.28 to 1.95). Conclusions Negative symptoms were common and associated with adverse clinical outcomes, consistent with evidence that these symptoms account for much of the disability associated with schizophrenia. Natural language processing provides a means of conducting research in large representative samples of patients, using data recorded during routine clinical practice. PMID:26346872

  8. Dynamic topography of pattern visual evoked potentials (PVEP) in psychogenic visual loss patients.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, A; Tabuchi, A; Matsuda, E; Yamaguchi, W

    2000-09-01

    We investigated to measure the objective visual acuity using pattern visual evoked potentials (PVEP) to help the diagnosis with psychogenic visual loss (PVL) who ranged in age from 7 to 14 years old. Pattern stimuli consisted of black and white checkerboard patterns (39, 26, 15 and 9') with a visual angle of 8 degrees and a contrast level of 15%. The pattern reversal frequency was 0.7 Hz. This resulted in an average of 100 PVEP per session. Visual acuity of 0.1 was consistent with the 39' pattern, 0.2 with the 26' pattern, 0.5 with the 15' pattern, and 1.0 with the 9' pattern. As the results, five PVL patients could measure visual acuity with this method in the present study. The PVEP is useful in evaluating the visual acuity and helped to diagnose the PVL patients. In addition we used the dynamic topography to study the difference in the results of the PVEP. The dynamic topography obtained from the results of the PVEP was analyzed. The flow type of the P100 component diverged into three types (separated type, hollow type and localized type) in the PVL patients and the normal children. The localized type was observed in 59.1% of normal children and in 56.3% of PVL patients. While the separated type was shown in 6.8% of normal children and in 8.3% of PVL patients. There were not significant differences between the PVL patients and the normal children in each type.

  9. Mycotoxin Detection in Human Samples from Patients Exposed to Environmental Molds

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Dennis G.; Bolton, Vincent E.; Guilford, Frederick T.; Straus, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if selected mycotoxins (trichothecenes, aflatoxins, and ochratoxins) could be extracted and identified in human tissue and body fluids from patients exposed to toxin producing molds in their environment. Human urine and methanol extracted tissues and sputum were examined. Trichothecenes were tested using competitive ELISA techniques. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and ochratoxin A were tested by using immunoaffinity columns and fluorometry. Test sensitivity and specificity were determined. Levels of detection for the various mycotoxins varied from 0.2 ppb for trichothecenes, 1.0 ppb for aflatoxins, and 2.0 ppb for ochratoxins. Trichothecene levels varied in urine, sputum, and tissue biopsies (lung, liver, brain) from undetectable (<0.2 ppb) to levels up to 18 ppb. Aflatoxin levels from the same types of tissues varied from 1.0 to 5.0 ppb. Ochratoxins isolated in the same type of tissues varied from 2.0 ppb to > 10.0 ppb. Negative control patients had no detectable mycotoxins in their tissues or fluids. These data show that mycotoxins can be detected in body fluids and human tissue from patients exposed to mycotoxin producing molds in the environment, and demonstrate which human tissues or fluids are the most likely to yield positive results. PMID:19468319

  10. [Comorbidity of panic disorder and alcoholism in a sample of 100 alcoholic patients].

    PubMed

    Segui, J; Salvador, L; Canet, J; Herrera, C; Aragón, C

    1994-01-01

    Among one hundred patients with alcohol dependence (DSM-III-R) studied in a drug abuse center in the "Bajo Llobregat" area (Barcelona industrial belt it was detected that 27% had life time rate of panic disorder. The age of onset of alcoholism was earlier than the one for panic disorder. In 78.8% of these patients alcoholismo appeared first. 70.4% refer worsening of the panic attacks when drinking large amounts of alcohol. Patients with Panic Disorder: a) are younger (p < 0.05); b) have attended school longer and have higher education (p < 0.01); c) have more alcoholism family history (p < 0.05); d) have more major depressive disorders (0.05) and dysthimic disorder (p < 0.01); e) Worse social functioning according to the GAS (p < 0.01); f) higher score for the Psychological disorders Scale (p < 0.001) and a lower performance at work (p < 0.001) measured by the ASI. The clinical significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:7484297

  11. Collecting and Storing Malignant, Borderline Malignant Neoplasms, and Related Samples From Young Patients With Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-13

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hairy Cell Leukemia; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Neoplasm of Uncertain Malignant Potential; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  12. Histopathological examination of nerve samples from pure neural leprosy patients: obtaining maximum information to improve diagnostic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Sérgio Luiz Gomes; Chimelli, Leila; Jardim, Márcia Rodrigues; Vital, Robson Teixeira; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Corte-Real, Suzana; Hacker, Mariana Andréa Vilas Boas; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2012-03-01

    Nerve biopsy examination is an important auxiliary procedure for diagnosing pure neural leprosy (PNL). When acid-fast bacilli (AFB) are not detected in the nerve sample, the value of other nonspecific histological alterations should be considered along with pertinent clinical, electroneuromyographical and laboratory data (the detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA with polymerase chain reaction and the detection of serum anti-phenolic glycolipid 1 antibodies) to support a possible or probable PNL diagnosis. Three hundred forty nerve samples [144 from PNL patients and 196 from patients with non-leprosy peripheral neuropathies (NLN)] were examined. Both AFB-negative and AFB-positive PNL samples had more frequent histopathological alterations (epithelioid granulomas, mononuclear infiltrates, fibrosis, perineurial and subperineurial oedema and decreased numbers of myelinated fibres) than the NLN group. Multivariate analysis revealed that independently, mononuclear infiltrate and perineurial fibrosis were more common in the PNL group and were able to correctly classify AFB-negative PNL samples. These results indicate that even in the absence of AFB, these histopathological nerve alterations may justify a PNL diagnosis when observed in conjunction with pertinent clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data.

  13. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 measurements). The detection rates of lactose malabsorption (LM) and lactose intolerance (LI) for a 4SLHBT that acquired four measurements at 0, 90, 120, and 180 min from the same data set were compared with the results of standard LHBT. RESULTS: Sixty IBS-D patients and 60 HVs were studied. The genotype in all participants was C/C-13910. LM and LI detection rates increased with lactose dose from 10 g, 20 g to 40 g in both groups (P < 0.001). 4SLHBT showed excellent diagnostic concordance with standard LHBT (97%-100%, Kappa​​ 0.815-0.942) with high sensitivity (90%-100%) and specificity (100%) at all three lactose doses in both groups. CONCLUSION: Reducing the number of measurements from 13 to 4 samples did not significantly impact on the accuracy of LHBT in health and IBS-D. 4SLHBT is a valid test for assessment of LM and LI in clinical practice. PMID:26140004

  14. Relative element levels in the paired samples of scalp hair and fingernails of patients from New Delhi.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, A; Subramanian, R

    2007-01-01

    Specific elements are bioconcentrated in human hair and nails, which have unique advantages of application in population monitoring studies thereby, recognized as biological tools for disease diagnosis and prevention. However, investigations are meager for relative element profile in hair and nails of same subjects. In this study, hair and nails were analyzed to find effects of age, sex, smoking habit, diet, urban and rural exposure gradients, occupation, and health on element levels. Scalp hair and fingernails were sampled along with a questionnaire from urban and rural subjects of New Delhi; patients of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes were identified clinically. Cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc concentrations were determined by AAS in both the samples; CRM (human hair powder) analysis showed acceptable precision and accuracy in element measurement. In comparison to controls, Cr-H and Zn-H levels were lower respectively in female hypertensive and total hypertensive subjects, whereas, Zn-N and Cu-N were lower respectively in total CHD and diabetic subjects, and hypertensive and CHD urban subjects. Cd concentrations were higher in both the samples of tobacco smoking rural subjects than that of non-smokers. Farmers had lower Pb-H than rural businessmen did. Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations were different due to rural and urban gradient but not to the influence of age, sex, and diet. Pb value was alone correlated between the paired samples. Thus, higher Cd levels in the smokers and lower Cr, Cu and Zn levels in the patients were observed.

  15. VOC Contamination in Hospital, from Stationary Sampling of a Large Panel of Compounds, in View of Healthcare Workers and Patients Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Mosqueron, Luc; Berrubé, Adèle; Mukensturm, Gaël; Buffet-Bataillon, Sylvie; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Thomas, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess, for the first time, the nature of the indoor air contamination of hospitals. Methods and Findings More than 40 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, ethers and terpenes were measured in a teaching hospital in France, from sampling in six sampling sites – reception hall, patient room, nursing care, post-anesthesia care unit, parasitology-mycology laboratory and flexible endoscope disinfection unit – in the morning and in the afternoon, during three consecutive days. Our results showed that the main compounds found in indoor air were alcohols (arithmetic means ± SD: 928±958 µg/m3 and 47.9±52.2 µg/m3 for ethanol and isopropanol, respectively), ethers (75.6±157 µg/m3 for ether) and ketones (22.6±20.6 µg/m3 for acetone). Concentrations levels of aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes and limonene were widely variable between sampling sites, due to building age and type of products used according to health activities conducted in each site. A high temporal variability was observed in concentrations of alcohols, probably due to the intensive use of alcohol-based hand rubs in all sites. Qualitative analysis of air samples led to the identification of other compounds, including siloxanes (hexamethyldisiloxane, octamethyltrisiloxane, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane), anesthetic gases (sevoflurane, desflurane), aliphatic hydrocarbons (butane), esters (ethylacetate), terpenes (camphor, α-bisabolol), aldehydes (benzaldehyde) and organic acids (benzoic acid) depending on sites. Conclusion For all compounds, concentrations measured were lower than concentrations known to be harmful in humans. However, results showed that indoor air of sampling locations contains a complex mixture of VOCs. Further multicenter studies are required to compare these results. A full understanding of the exposure of healthcare workers and patients to complex

  16. The psychometric properties of the Finnish Young Schema Questionnaire in chronic pain patients and a non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Tom; Saariaho, Anita; Karila, Irma; Joukamaa, Matti

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the latent factor structure of the Finnish Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2-extended; short form) in samples of chronic pain patients (n=271) and controls (n=331) with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The data in the total sample supported the 18-factor structure as hypothesized by Young, J. E., Klosko, J., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press. The diagonally weighted least squares estimation method gave repeatable parameter estimates in successive confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). The internal consistency of the YSQ-S2-extended was adequate to high in both samples and the groups showed equal goodness-of-fit statistics in CFA. This study consisted of the oldest population so far (mean age 47 years) and supported the use of the Finnish version of the YSQ-S2-extended in clinical practice.

  17. Episodic Sampling: Towards Energy-efficient Patient Monitoring with Wearable Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Au, Lawrence K.; Batalin, Maxim A.; Stathopoulos, Thanos; Bui, Alex A.T.; Kaiser, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency presents a critical design challenge in wireless, wearable sensor technology, mainly because of the associated diagnostic objectives required in each monitoring application. In order to maximize the operating lifetime during real-life monitoring and maintain sufficient classification accuracy, the wearable sensors require hardware support that allows dynamic power control on the sensors and wireless interfaces as well as monitoring algorithms to control these components intelligently. This paper introduces a context-aware sensing technique known as episodic sampling – a method of performing context classification only at specific time instances. Based on Additive-Increase/Multiplicative-Decrease (AIMD), episodic sampling demonstrates an energy reduction of 85 percent with a loss of only 5 percent in classification accuracy in our experiment. PMID:19964452

  18. Design of a multi-purpose titanium bottle for uncontaminated sampling of carbon monoxide and potentially of other analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, K. W.; Taylor, C. D.; Zafiriou, O. C.

    2003-03-01

    The design, construction, and performance of a non-contaminating titanium sampler for carbon monoxide (CO) are described. In light of the favorable properties of titanium and the minimal contact of O-rings with samples, this multi-purpose design is expected to excel at a broad range of other uses: sampling gases, organic compounds, some trace metals, and living and dead particles.

  19. Frequency of dementia syndromes with a potentially treatable cause in geriatric in-patients: analysis of a 1-year interval.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Marija; Wedekind, Dirk; Franz, Almuth; Gremke, Melanie; Nau, Roland

    2015-08-01

    In addition to neurodegenerative and vascular causes of dementia, in the differential diagnosis potentially reversible conditions of dementia also must be assessed. Routine laboratory parameters and neuroimaging, which are recommended for the differential diagnosis of suspected dementia by the German S3 Guideline "Dementia", were retrospectively studied in 166 geriatric patients with suspected dementia. Delirium was diagnosed in six patients (3.6%). These six patients were excluded from the study. Of the 160 remaining patients, there were 99 (59.6%) with an already known dementia. In this subgroup of patients, we found a potentially treatable cause of dementia in 18.2%. In the remaining 61 patients (36.8%), the newly diagnosed dementia syndrome was established according to ICD-10 criteria. Potentially reversible causes of the dementia syndrome were found in 19 of these patients (31.1%). The most common cause was depressive pseudodementia in eight patients followed by vitamin B12 deficiency in six patients. A significant amount of our patients showed laboratory or imaging changes suggestive of potentially reversible causes of the dementia syndrome upon admission. The results of our study indicate the importance of careful differential diagnosis of dementia based on the recommendations of guidelines. Although therapy of these potential causes is not always accompanied by a full recovery, the identification and therapy of treatable causes of cognitive deficits are possible even for general practitioners, who often are the primary contact persons of affected individuals. PMID:25716929

  20. The Event-related Potential P300 in Patients with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Titlic, Marina; Mise, Nikolina Ivica; Pintaric, Irena; Rogosic, Veljko; Vanjaka-Rogosic, Lucija; Mihalj, Mario; Jurinovic, Pavao; Katic, Ana Curkovic;; Andjelinovic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recording of event-related potentials by using oddball paradigm of auditory P300 has yielded conflicting results in migraine. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that migraine patients have reduced P300 amplitude and prolonged P300 latency, suggesting alterations of the cognitive-evaluative component. Methods: We recruited 29 migraine patients (24 females; median age 40 years) and 29 healthy age- and gender-matched participants. Participants were subjected to the same testing procedures of auditory P300 by discrimination the target auditory stimulus from the frequent stimulus, and analyzing P300 target/frequent stimulus amplitudes, and P300 target/frequent stimulus latencies. Results: Patients with migraine don’t have prolonged P300 target stimulus latency, but have a longer P300 frequent stimulus latency for 17.5ms. Out of 29 participants with migraine 8 had pathological P300 target stimulus amplitude, and 19 had pathological P300 frequent stimulus amplitude. Conclusion: People with migraine have altered the P300 which indicates the presence of cognitive dysfunction in these patients and importance of early diagnosis and intervention to preventing any deterioration in cognitive functions. PMID:26862241

  1. Auditory evoked potentials in patients with major depressive disorder measured by Emotiv system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongcui; Mo, Fongming; Zhang, Yangde; Yang, Chao; Liu, Jun; Chen, Zhencheng; Zhao, Jinfeng

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study (unpublished), Emotiv headset was validated for capturing event-related potentials (ERPs) from normal subjects. In the present follow-up study, the signal quality of Emotiv headset was tested by the accuracy rate of discriminating Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients from the normal subjects. ERPs of 22 MDD patients and 15 normal subjects were induced by an auditory oddball task and the amplitude of N1, N2 and P3 of ERP components were specifically analyzed. The features of ERPs were statistically investigated. It is found that Emotiv headset is capable of discriminating the abnormal N1, N2 and P3 components in MDD patients. Relief-F algorithm was applied to all features for feature selection. The selected features were then input to a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier with leave-one-out cross-validation to characterize the ERP features of MDD. 127 possible combinations out of the selected 7 ERP features were classified using LDA. The best classification accuracy was achieved to be 89.66%. These results suggest that MDD patients are identifiable from normal subjects by ERPs measured by Emotiv headset.

  2. The potential role of natriuretic peptide-guided management for patients hospitalized for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Alan; Xue, Yang; Greene, Stephen J; Pang, Peter S; Januzzi, James L; Piña, Ileana L; DeFilippi, Christopher; Butler, Javed

    2015-03-01

    There are >1 million hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) in the United States annually. After discharge, 25% of these patients are rehospitalized within 30 days, and 30% are dead within 1 year. To date, all trials in patients with acute HF (AHF) have failed to improve post-discharge outcomes. There remains a need for an effective objective risk stratification strategy that is capable of reliably identifying patients at heightened risk for readmission and informing discharge decision making. Natriuretic peptide (NP) levels during and after AHF hospitalization can provide valuable information regarding congestion status and chronic remodeling stress. The lack of sensitivity and inter-rater reliability of physical examination, and failure to achieve dry weight in many patients before discharge, renders the use of NP to guide therapy to prevent readmission an attractive option. NP levels can be used across the spectrum of AHF care settings, ranging from the emergency department and inpatient stay to post-discharge follow-up and chronic management. This review summarizes available data and provides an expert opinion on the potential role of NPs to reduce HF readmissions.

  3. CXCL13, CXCL10 and CXCL8 as Potential Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuini; Wu, Kaiqi; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Sufang; Gao, Zixiao; Liu, Yudan; Ni, Liyan; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Guan, Zhifang; Shi, Mei; Lu, Haikong; Lou, Yongliang; Zhou, Pingyu

    2016-01-01

    At present, diagnosis for neurosyphilis remains a major clinical challenge. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) titer of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is suboptimally sensitive to diagnose neurosyphilis, which can be negative in neurosyphilis patients, especially in asymptomatic neurosyphilis patients. In the search for biomarkers of neurosyphilis, we investigated the chemokine profile in CSF of neurosyphilis patients and found that the concentrations of CXCL13, CXCL10 and CXCL8 were selectively elevated in neurosyphilis patients and correlated with CSF protein concentration and CSF-VDRL titer. After antibiotic treatment, the concentration of these chemokines was dramatically reduced. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of CSF CXCL13, CXCL8,CXCL10 and the CSF/serum ratio of CXCL13, CXCL8,CXCL10 in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis were 0.940, 0.899, 0.915, 0.963, 0.846 and 0.926, respectively. The corresponding sensitivities/specificities of CSF CXCL13, CXCL8,CXCL10 and the CSF/serum ratio of CXCL13, CXCL8,CXCL10 in diagnosis of neurosyphilis were 85.4%/89.1%, 79%/90.1% and 79.6%/91.1%, 86.6%/99%, 79%/73.3% and 86%/92.1%, respectively. Our results suggest that the elevated concentrations of CXCL13, CXCL8, and CXCL10 or their increasing CSF/serum ratios may be potential biomarkers of neurosyphilis, particularly for asymptomatic neurosyphilis. Reduced concentration of these chemokines may indicate the prognosis of antibiotic therapy.

  4. Differential Expression of FosB Proteins and Potential Target Genes in Select Brain Regions of Addiction and Depression Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Paula A.; Turecki, Gustavo; Robison, Alfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to stress or drugs of abuse has been linked to altered gene expression throughout the body, and changes in gene expression in discrete brain regions are thought to underlie many psychiatric diseases, including major depressive disorder and drug addiction. Preclinical models of these disorders have provided evidence for mechanisms of this altered gene expression, including transcription factors, but evidence supporting a role for these factors in human patients has been slow to emerge. The transcription factor ΔFosB is induced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) of rodents in response to stress or cocaine, and its expression in these regions is thought to regulate their “top down” control of reward circuitry, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, we use biochemistry to examine the expression of the FosB family of transcription factors and their potential gene targets in PFC and HPC postmortem samples from depressed patients and cocaine addicts. We demonstrate that ΔFosB and other FosB isoforms are downregulated in the HPC but not the PFC in the brains of both depressed and addicted individuals. Further, we show that potential ΔFosB transcriptional targets, including GluA2, are also downregulated in the HPC but not PFC of cocaine addicts. Thus, we provide the first evidence of FosB gene expression in human HPC and PFC in these psychiatric disorders, and in light of recent findings demonstrating the critical role of HPC ΔFosB in rodent models of learning and memory, these data suggest that reduced ΔFosB in HPC could potentially underlie cognitive deficits accompanying chronic cocaine abuse or depression. PMID:27494187

  5. Differential Expression of FosB Proteins and Potential Target Genes in Select Brain Regions of Addiction and Depression Patients.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Paula A; Turecki, Gustavo; Robison, Alfred J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to stress or drugs of abuse has been linked to altered gene expression throughout the body, and changes in gene expression in discrete brain regions are thought to underlie many psychiatric diseases, including major depressive disorder and drug addiction. Preclinical models of these disorders have provided evidence for mechanisms of this altered gene expression, including transcription factors, but evidence supporting a role for these factors in human patients has been slow to emerge. The transcription factor ΔFosB is induced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) of rodents in response to stress or cocaine, and its expression in these regions is thought to regulate their "top down" control of reward circuitry, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, we use biochemistry to examine the expression of the FosB family of transcription factors and their potential gene targets in PFC and HPC postmortem samples from depressed patients and cocaine addicts. We demonstrate that ΔFosB and other FosB isoforms are downregulated in the HPC but not the PFC in the brains of both depressed and addicted individuals. Further, we show that potential ΔFosB transcriptional targets, including GluA2, are also downregulated in the HPC but not PFC of cocaine addicts. Thus, we provide the first evidence of FosB gene expression in human HPC and PFC in these psychiatric disorders, and in light of recent findings demonstrating the critical role of HPC ΔFosB in rodent models of learning and memory, these data suggest that reduced ΔFosB in HPC could potentially underlie cognitive deficits accompanying chronic cocaine abuse or depression. PMID:27494187

  6. Effects of glucocorticoids in potentiating diuresis in heart failure patients with diuretic resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Liu, Kunshen

    2014-09-01

    Diuretic resistance in heart failure is defined as a state in which diuretic response is diminished or lost before the therapeutic goal of relief from congestion has been reached. Diuretic resistance is very common and is associated with poor outcomes. Over the past decade, several new drugs and devices targeting decongestion and improvement in renal function in patients with heart failure have failed to show benefit in randomized clinical trials. Glucocorticoids had been used to manage diuretic resistance before the advent of loop diuretics. More recent evidence appears to confirm that glucocorticoids may also help to overcome resistance to loop diuretics. This review tries to summarize the available evidence and potential mechanisms related to glucocorticoid therapy in patients with heart failure and its effect on diuretic resistance.

  7. Analysis of apoB and apoC-II gene polymorphism in random sample and CHD patients from Moscow

    SciTech Connect

    Pogoda, T.V.; Nikonova, A.; Perova, N.V.

    1994-09-01

    We have analyzed the allele frequency distributions of the 3{prime} apoB gene minisatellite and apoC-II gene microsatellite in random sample of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. For this purpose we used the PCR technique followed by high-resolution PAGE. It was revealed that the apoB allele, harboring 30 repeats (apoB 30), as well as the apoC-II allele harboring 30 repeats (apoC-II 30), were less frequent in patients at the same time as the frequency of the apoB 32 and apoC-II 17 alleles was greater in patients. The greater frequency of apoB alleles which were larger in size than apoB 46 (defined as `long` - L) was observed in patients with high apoB levels (>160mg dl). The analysis of apoB genotype distribution showed that in a random sample the most common genotype was apoB 34,36 (a combination of the most frequent alleles in the random sample). In patients with high apoB levels, it was twice less frequent, and the most common genotype was apoB 36,L (43% versus 12% in the random sample). Analysis of data on a lipid spectrum of subjects from the random sample with different apoB and apoC-II 17 alleles were associated with atherogenic shifts in the lipid profile, at the same time as apoB 30 and apoC-II 30 alleles - with an apparently favorable lipid profile. The increment of the disease-related risk was observed for subjects with a combination of apoB 32 allele or apoB 36,L genotype with the apoC-11 17 allele. Alternatively, combination of these apoB variants with the apoC-II 30 allele resulted in decreased related risk. In conclusion, simultaneous analysis of two candidate gene variants demonstrated interaction in their influence on the lipid spectrum.

  8. False reactivity in GTI Pak Plus ELISA kits due to the presence of anti-mouse antibody in patients' samples.

    PubMed

    Leach, M F; Aubuchon, J P

    2003-01-01

    The development of commercially available ELISA kits (GTI, Inc., Waukesha, WI) that use antigens adhered to microtiter plate wells by the use of mouse monoclonal antibodies made it possible for hospital transfusion service laboratories to test for platelet- and/or HLA-specific antibodies without reliance on reference laboratories. However, human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMAs) may cause false reactions in ELISAs. We designed a study to determine the impact of HAMAs on these ELISAs. Samples from 210 patients were evaluated from January 1995 to April 2002; 79 (38%) were found to be positive for HLA- and/or platelet-specific antibodies. Thirty (38%) of these positive samples,as well as ten negative samples that served as controls, underwent HAMA neutralization/inhibition procedures before being retested by ELISA. One (10%) of the control samples was reactive after treatment. When the samples that were positive in routine testing were treated to neutralize/inhibit HAMAs, reactivity was unchanged in 20 (67%); reactivity was eliminated in eight (27%) of the samples tested. All of the specimens that showed a reduction or elimination of their reactivity after neutralization/inhibition had an initial optical density (OD) ratio < 3.0 whereas those that remained unchanged in reactivity had an OD ratio > 7.0 (p < 0.05). Reactivity present only in the treated samples was observed in three (10%) of the positive samples tested;one was additionally reactive with HLA antigen only and two with glycoprotein Ia/IIa. The presence of HAMAs should be considered when antibodies against more than one platelet-specific glycoprotein are detected and if the optical density ratio is < 3.0.

  9. Recognizing potential barriers to setting and achieving effective rehabilitation goals for patients with persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stephen G

    2016-07-01

    Although the process of goal setting in rehabilitation of individuals with persistent pain is considered a fundamental and requisite skill, it is frequently reported as a challenging element of clinical practice. Factors which may contribute to the complexity of goal setting include the potential for unrecognized shifts in cognitive function, psychological comorbidities, and the social context of both providers and patients. This review aims to describe factors which may confound the process of setting and achieving collaborative rehabilitation goals using a biopsychosocial framework and to provide recommendations to enhance goal setting effectiveness.

  10. Visual evoked potential latency and contrast sensitivity in patients with posterior chamber intraocular lens implants.

    PubMed Central

    Howe, J. W.; Mitchell, K. W.; Mahabaleswara, M.; Abdel-Khalek, M. N.

    1986-01-01

    An electrophysiological investigation of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency and contrast sensitivity was performed in a group of 13 patients who had undergone extracapsular cataract surgery with posterior chamber lens implantation. In spite of good postoperative visual acuity, abnormalities were detected in nine of the group (69%). This study suggests that, even with successfully implanted lenses, there may be a reduction in visual function which could be the result of altered transmission through the plastic lenticulus or fibrosis of the posterior lens capsule, and/or subtle changes in retinal architecture, not observed ophthalmoscopically. PMID:3801366

  11. Recognizing potential barriers to setting and achieving effective rehabilitation goals for patients with persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stephen G

    2016-07-01

    Although the process of goal setting in rehabilitation of individuals with persistent pain is considered a fundamental and requisite skill, it is frequently reported as a challenging element of clinical practice. Factors which may contribute to the complexity of goal setting include the potential for unrecognized shifts in cognitive function, psychological comorbidities, and the social context of both providers and patients. This review aims to describe factors which may confound the process of setting and achieving collaborative rehabilitation goals using a biopsychosocial framework and to provide recommendations to enhance goal setting effectiveness. PMID:27355159

  12. Potential for radioactive patient excreta in hospital trash and medical waste

    SciTech Connect

    Evdokimoff, V.; Cash, C.; Buckley, K.

    1994-02-01

    Radioactive excreta from nuclear medicine patients can enter solid waste as common trash and medical biohazardous waste. Many landfills and transfer stations now survey these waste streams with scintillation detectors which may result in rejection of a hospital`s waste. Our survey indicated that on the average either or both of Boston University Medical Center Hospital`s waste streams can contain detectable radioactive excreta on a weekly basis. To avoid potential problems, radiation detectors were installed in areas where housekeepers carting trash and medical waste must pass through to ensure no radioactivity leaves the institution. 3 refs.

  13. Potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae isolated from hospital wards with immunodeficient patients in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Lasjerdi, Zohreh; Niyyati, Maryam; Haghighi, Ali; Shahabi, Saed; Biderouni, Farid Tahvildar; Taghipour, Niloofar; Eftekhar, Mohamad; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of free-living amoebae (FLA) in immunodeficiency wards of hospitals in Tehran, Iran. A total of 70 dust and biofilm samples from wards serving transplant, pediatric (malignancies), HIV, leukemia and oncology patients of five university hospitals were collected and examined for the presence of FLA using culturing and molecular approaches. Based on the morphology of the amoebae in plate cultures, primer sets were applied for molecular identification of Acanthamoeba, vahlkampfiid amoebae and Hartmannella. Out of 70 samples, 37 (52.9%) were positive for FLA. Acanthamoeba belonged to the T4 genotype was the most prevalent isolate. Presence of the T4 genotype on medical instruments, including an oxygen mask in an isolation room of an immunodeficiency pediatric ward, should be of concern for health authorities. Acanthamoeba T5 genotypes, Hartmannella vermiformis, and Vahlkampfia avara were also present. These results highlight a clear need for greater attention to improved disinfection, especially where susceptible patients, such as those who are immune-suppressed, are served. To our knowledge, this is the first report of these FLA in immunodeficiency wards in Iran, and also the first to identify Acanthamoeba T5, Hartmannella, and Vahlkampfia in moist habitats, such as biofilms, in this country.

  14. Frequency of delta F508 in a Mexican sample of cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, L; Salcedo, M; Lezana, J L; Chávez, M; Valdez, H; Moreno, M; Carnevale, A

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the frequency of the delta F508 mutation in a cohort of 50 Mexican patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The mutation was detected by PCR mediated site directed mutagenesis. delta F508 was found in 39% of CF chromosomes, a frequency lower than that reported in Argentina and Spain. The high rate of CF cases who die undiagnosed, the ethnic origin of Mexican populations, and the limited number of cases studied could account for the low frequency of the delta F508 mutation found in this preliminary report. Images PMID:8326494

  15. Short-Term Potentiation in the Control of Pharyngeal Muscles in Obstructive Apnea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Magdy; Loewen, Andrea; Ostrowski, Michele; Hanly, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine if activation of the genioglossus (GG) muscle during obstructive apnea events involves short-term potentiation (STP) and is followed by sustained activation beyond the obstructive phase (after-discharge). Design: Physiological study. Setting: Sleep laboratory in a tertiary hospital. Participants: Twenty-one patients with obstructive apnea. Interventions: Polysomnography on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with measurement of genioglossus activity. Brief dial-downs of CPAP to induce obstructive events. Measurements and Results: Peak, phasic, and tonic genioglossus activities were measured breath-by-breath before, during, and following three-breath obstructions. Tonic but not phasic activity increased immediately following the first obstructed breath (4.9 ± 1.6 versus 3.6 ± 1.2 %GGMAX; P = 0.01) under conditions where stimuli to genioglossus activation were likely constant, strongly implicating STP in mediating recruitment of tonic activity. Both phasic and tonic activities declined slowly after relief of obstruction (after-discharge). Decay time constants were systematically shorter for phasic than for tonic activity (7.5 ± 3.8 versus 18.1 ± 8.4 sec; P < 0.001). Decay time-constant of peak activity correlated with tonic, but not phasic, recruitment. Cortical arousal near the end of obstruction resulted in a lower after-discharge (P < 0.01). Contribution of tonic activity to the increase in peak activity (6–65%Peak), as well as the decay constant (6–30 sec), varied considerably among patients. Conclusions: Short-term potentiation contributes to recruitment of the genioglossus during obstructive episodes and results in sustained tonic activity beyond the obstructive phase, thereby potentially preventing recurrence of obstruction. Wide response differences among subjects suggest that this mechanism may contribute to severity of the disorder. The after-discharge is inhibited following cortical arousal, potentially

  16. An improved survivability prognosis of breast cancer by using sampling and feature selection technique to solve imbalanced patient classification data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most critical cancers and is a major cause of cancer death among women. It is essential to know the survivability of the patients in order to ease the decision making process regarding medical treatment and financial preparation. Recently, the breast cancer data sets have been imbalanced (i.e., the number of survival patients outnumbers the number of non-survival patients) whereas the standard classifiers are not applicable for the imbalanced data sets. The methods to improve survivability prognosis of breast cancer need for study. Methods Two well-known five-year prognosis models/classifiers [i.e., logistic regression (LR) and decision tree (DT)] are constructed by combining synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) ,cost-sensitive classifier technique (CSC), under-sampling, bagging, and boosting. The feature selection method is used to select relevant variables, while the pruning technique is applied to obtain low information-burden models. These methods are applied on data obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The improvements of survivability prognosis of breast cancer are investigated based on the experimental results. Results Experimental results confirm that the DT and LR models combined with SMOTE, CSC, and under-sampling generate higher predictive performance consecutively than the original ones. Most of the time, DT and LR models combined with SMOTE and CSC use less informative burden/features when a feature selection method and a pruning technique are applied. Conclusions LR is found to have better statistical power than DT in predicting five-year survivability. CSC is superior to SMOTE, under-sampling, bagging, and boosting to improve the prognostic performance of DT and LR. PMID:24207108

  17. Immunological and histological evaluation of clinical samples from psoriasis patients treated with anti-CD6 itolizumab.

    PubMed

    Aira, Lazaro E; López-Requena, Alejandro; Fuentes, Dasha; Sánchez, Liset; Pérez, Teresita; Urquiza, Aleida; Bautista, Heber; Falcón, Leopoldina; Hernández, Patricia; Mazorra, Zaima

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a prevalence of approximately 2-3% in the general population. The majority of diagnosed patients have plaque psoriasis, and about 20% have moderate-to-severe disease. Itolizumab, a new monoclonal antibody specific for the CD6 molecule mainly expressed on T lymphocytes, has demonstrated to inhibit in vitro ligand-induced proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We assessed the immunological and histopathological effect of the antibody using clinical samples taken from 26 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis included in a clinical trial. The precursor frequency of lymphocytes activated with anti-CD2/CD3/CD28 beads, as well as the number of interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting T cells after stimulation, were measured at different time points of the study. Serum cytokine levels and anti-idiotypic antibody response to itolizumab were also evaluated. Additionally, lymphocyte infiltration and epidermis hyperplasia were studied in five patients. A significant reduction in T cell proliferation capacity and number of IFN-γ-producing T cells was found in treated patients. Serum levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor and IFN-γ showed an overall trend toward reduction. No anti-idiotypic antibody response was detected. A significant reduction in the epidermis hyperplasia was observed in analyzed patients. These results support the relevance of the CD6 molecule as a therapeutic target for the treatment of this disease.

  18. Stimulatory effect of oCRH on alpha-subunit secretion during petrosal sinus sampling in patients with Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Vignati, F; Berselli, M E; Boccardi, E; Branca, V; Loli, P

    1992-11-01

    During bilateral and simultaneous venous sampling of the inferior petrosal sinuses for preoperative localization of ACTH secreting microadenomas, alpha-subunit levels, in addition to ACTH, were determined in 9 patients with Cushing's disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible occurrence of unilateral increases of alpha-subunit in basal conditions and the alpha-subunit responsiveness to oCRH. All the patients examined showed a central to peripheral and an intersinus gradient of ACTH concentrations before and/or after oCRH stimulation. Seven patients showed a central to peripheral alpha-subunit gradient in basal conditions. Lateralization of alpha-subunit concentrations was recorded in 4 patients in basal conditions (intersinus gradient > or = 1.55) and paralleled the side with the highest ACTH concentrations. After oCRH stimulation all but one patient showed a unilateral alpha-subunit increase in blood from the inferior petrosal sinus with the highest oCRH stimulated ACTH increase. The present data confirm the occurrence of an increase of alpha-subunit concentration in response to nonspecific stimulation with exogenously administered oCRH, concurrent with an ipsilateral increase of ACTH levels. The mechanism underlying this finding is still unclear, although a paracrine effect from the corticotroph tumour on adjacent pituitary tissue seems so far the most likely explanation.

  19. Combined liposuction and excision of lipomas: long-term evaluation of a large sample of patients.

    PubMed

    Copeland-Halperin, Libby R; Pimpinella, Vincenza; Copeland, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lipomas are benign tumors of mature fat cells. They can be removed by liposuction, yet this technique is seldom employed because of concerns that removal may be incomplete and recurrence may be more frequent than after conventional excision. Objectives. We assessed the short- and long-term clinical outcomes and recurrence of combined liposuction and limited surgical excision of subcutaneous lipomas. Methods. From 2003 to 2012, 25 patients with 48 lipomas were treated with liposuction followed by direct excision through the same incision to remove residual lipomatous tissue. Initial postoperative follow-up ranged from 1 week to 3 months, and long-term outcomes, complications, and recurrence were surveyed 1 to 10 years postoperatively. Results. Lipomas on the head, neck, trunk, and extremities ranged from 1 to 15 cm in diameter. Early postoperative hematoma and seromas were managed by aspiration. Among 23 survey respondents (92%), patients were uniformly pleased with the cosmetic results; none reported recurrent lipoma. Conclusions. The combination of liposuction and excision is a safe alternative for lipoma removal; malignancy and recurrence are uncommon. Liposuction performed through a small incision provides satisfactory aesthetic results in most cases. Once reduced in size, residual lipomatous and capsular tissue can be removed without expanding the incision. These favorable outcomes support wider application of this technique in appropriate cases. PMID:25694827

  20. Combined Liposuction and Excision of Lipomas: Long-Term Evaluation of a Large Sample of Patients

    PubMed Central

    Copeland-Halperin, Libby R.; Pimpinella, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lipomas are benign tumors of mature fat cells. They can be removed by liposuction, yet this technique is seldom employed because of concerns that removal may be incomplete and recurrence may be more frequent than after conventional excision. Objectives. We assessed the short- and long-term clinical outcomes and recurrence of combined liposuction and limited surgical excision of subcutaneous lipomas. Methods. From 2003 to 2012, 25 patients with 48 lipomas were treated with liposuction followed by direct excision through the same incision to remove residual lipomatous tissue. Initial postoperative follow-up ranged from 1 week to 3 months, and long-term outcomes, complications, and recurrence were surveyed 1 to 10 years postoperatively. Results. Lipomas on the head, neck, trunk, and extremities ranged from 1 to 15 cm in diameter. Early postoperative hematoma and seromas were managed by aspiration. Among 23 survey respondents (92%), patients were uniformly pleased with the cosmetic results; none reported recurrent lipoma. Conclusions. The combination of liposuction and excision is a safe alternative for lipoma removal; malignancy and recurrence are uncommon. Liposuction performed through a small incision provides satisfactory aesthetic results in most cases. Once reduced in size, residual lipomatous and capsular tissue can be removed without expanding the incision. These favorable outcomes support wider application of this technique in appropriate cases. PMID:25694827

  1. Pathology Tissue-quantitative Mass Spectrometry Analysis to Profile Histone Post-translational Modification Patterns in Patient Samples*

    PubMed Central

    Noberini, Roberta; Uggetti, Andrea; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Minucci, Saverio

    2016-01-01

    Histone post-translational modifications (hPTMs) generate a complex combinatorial code that has been implicated with various pathologies, including cancer. Dissecting such a code in physiological and diseased states may be exploited for epigenetic biomarker discovery, but hPTM analysis in clinical samples has been hindered by technical limitations. Here, we developed a method (PAThology tissue analysis of Histones by Mass Spectrometry - PAT-H-MS) that allows to perform a comprehensive, unbiased and quantitative MS-analysis of hPTM patterns on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. In pairwise comparisons, histone extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues showed patterns similar to fresh frozen samples for 24 differentially modified peptides from histone H3. In addition, when coupled with a histone-focused version of the super-SILAC approach, this method allows the accurate quantification of modification changes among breast cancer patient samples. As an initial application of the PAThology tissue analysis of Histones by Mass Spectrometry method, we analyzed breast cancer samples, revealing significant changes in histone H3 methylation patterns among Luminal A-like and Triple Negative disease subtypes. These results pave the way for retrospective epigenetic studies that combine the power of MS-based hPTM analysis with the extensive clinical information associated with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archives. PMID:26463340

  2. Sustained Reduction of Seizures in Patients with Intractable Epilepsy after Self-Regulation Training of Slow Cortical Potentials – 10 Years After

    PubMed Central

    Strehl, Ute; Birkle, Sarah M.; Wörz, Sonja; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the reduction of seizures in patients with intractable epilepsy after self-regulation of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) was maintained almost 10 years after the end of treatment. Originally, 41 patients received training with SCP-neurofeedback. A control group of 12 patients received respiratory feedback while another group of 11 patients had their anticonvulsant medications reviewed. Nineteen patients in the experimental group participated at least in parts of the long-term follow-up, but only two patients from each control group agreed to do so. The follow-up participants completed the same seizure diaries as in the original study. Patients of the experimental group also took part in three SCP-training sessions at the follow-up evaluation. Due to the small sample size, the results of participants in the control groups were not considered in the analysis. A significant decrease in seizure frequency was found about 10 years after the end of SCP treatment. The clinical significance of this result is considered medium to high. All patients were still able to self-regulate their SCPs during the feedback condition. This success was achieved without booster sessions. This is the longest follow-up evaluation of the outcome of a psychophysiological treatment in patients with epilepsy ever reported. Reduced seizure frequency may be the result of patients continued ability to self-regulate their SCPs. Given such a long follow-up period, the possible impact of confounding variables should be taken into account. The small number of patients participating in this follow-up evaluation diminishes the ability to make causal inferences. However, the consistency and duration of improvement for patients who received SCP-feedback training suggests that such treatment may be considered as a treatment for patients with intractable epilepsy and as an adjunct to conventional therapies. PMID:25152725

  3. Dual Site Sampling Improved Detection Rates for MRSA Colonization in Patients with Cutaneous Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    May, L.; McCann, C.; Brooks, G.; Rothman, R.; Miller, L.; Jordan, J.

    2014-01-01

    Extranasal sites are common reservoirs of Staphylococcus aureus colonization, and may be relevant for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) screening and infection control strategies. The objective here was to determine whether inguinal specimens could also be screened using Xpert SA Nasal Complete assay for MRSA. Results were compared to broth enrichment culture. Among 162 consented adults seeking care in the Emergency Department for cutaneous abscesses, inguinal specimens were found positive for MRSA more often than nares specimens; 24% and 26% by PCR or culture, respectively compared to 19% each by PCR or culture. Overall, 6% of adults colonized with MRSA would have been missed by nares screening alone. Compared to culture, Xpert SA Nasal Complete assay demonstrated sensitivity and specificity of 89% and 97%, respectively for detecting nares and/or inguinal MRSA colonization. In conclusion, inguinal specimens were a more common reservoir for MRSA than nares specimens in this population of patients. PMID:24958641

  4. Usability Testing the "Personal Patient Profile-Prostate" in a Sample of African American and Hispanic Men.

    PubMed

    Wolpin, Seth; Halpenny, Barbara; Sorrentino, Erica; Stewart, Mark; McReynolds, Justin; Cvitkovic, Ivan; Chang, Peter; Berry, Donna

    2016-07-01

    Shared treatment decision making in a cancer setting requires a patient's understanding of the potential benefits and risks of each treatment option. Graphical display of risk information is one approach to improving understanding. Little is known about how patients engage with infographics in the context of health education materials and whether interactions vary with health literacy levels. We conducted an observational study, using an eye tracker device, of how men with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer visually engaged with an on-screen infographic depicting risk information in the Personal Patient Profile-Prostate. Health literacy was measured with the Short Assessment of Health Literacy-English. Gaze patterns on an exemplar screens containing infographics about survival were analyzed and explored with respect to sociodemographic and health literacy data. Acceptability of Personal Patient Profile-Prostate was measured with the Acceptability E-scale. Twenty-six English-speaking men participated, and eye tracking data were collected for 12 men on the exemplar page of risk information that we analyzed. We found preliminary evidence of visual scanning and of participants with lower literacy focusing sooner on infographics versus text. Acceptability for Personal Patient Profile-Prostate was high. These findings suggest that infographics may be of higher relative value to participants with low health literacy. Eye trackers may provide valuable information on how people visually engage with infographics and may inform development of health education materials, although care must be taken to minimize data loss.

  5. Psychological Resilience, Affective Mechanisms and Symptom Burden in a Tertiary-care Sample of Patients with Fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Samantha J; Vincent, Ann; Hassett, Afton L; Whipple, Mary O; Oh, Terry H; Benzo, Roberto P; Toussaint, Loren L

    2015-10-01

    Research demonstrates that patients with fibromyalgia who have higher positive and lower negative affect have lower symptom burden. Affect has been shown to be associated with resilience. This study examined the relationship between affect, resilience and fibromyalgia symptom burden in a clinical sample of patients with fibromyalgia. We hypothesized that (a) positive and negative affect would be associated with fibromyalgia symptom burden; (b) resilience would be associated with positive and negative affect; (c) resilience would be associated with fibromyalgia symptom burden; and (d) the connection between resilience and fibromyalgia symptom burden would be mediated by both positive and negative affect. A sample of 858 patients with fibromyalgia completed questionnaires. Mediation modelling revealed statistically significant direct effects of resilience on fibromyalgia symptom burden (β = -0.10, P < 0.001) and statistically significant indirect effects of resilience on fibromyalgia symptom burden through affect (β = -0.36, P < 0.001), suggesting that both resilience and affect influence fibromyalgia symptom burden. Our results suggest that improving affect through resiliency training could be studied as a modality for improving fibromyalgia symptom burden.

  6. [Evaluation of occurrence of Alcaligenes faecalis in clinical samples of patients of the university hospital in Bydgoszcz].

    PubMed

    Jachna-Sawicka, Katarzyna; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis is an aerobic Gram-negative, non-fermentative rod. It's saprophyte of water and soil. It may be recovered from wet places of hospital environment. It is considered as an opportunistic pathogen. The aim of this review was evaluation of occurrence in clinical samples and susceptibility to antibiotics of 72 A. faecalis strains isolated in years 2003-2008. Over 30% of strains were isolated from patients in surgical ward, 19.6% from patients in outpatient clinic and almost 14% from patients in Department of Dermatology. 70.8% of strains were isolated from purulent material samples, whereas from urine--16.7% of strains. Nearly 88% out of examined strains were grown in mixed culture together with one (26.4%), two (32.0%), three (23.6%) or four (5.6%) microorganisms. All out of strains were sensitive to piperacyline, piperacyline/tazobactam and carbapenems. Sensitivity to aztreonam was observed at 22.2% of strains and to co-trimoxazole at 57.1% of strains. PMID:19517818

  7. Candida colonization in urine samples of ICU patients: determination of etiology, antifungal susceptibility testing and evaluation of associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Singla, Nidhi; Gulati, Neelam; Kaistha, Neelam; Chander, Jagdish

    2012-08-01

    The presence of Candida in urine presents a therapeutic challenge for the physician as it is often asymptomatic, and management guidelines have not been clearly laid down on this issue. The presence of Candida in urine may represent contamination of clinical sample, actual colonization of the lower urinary tract or may be a true indicator of invasive infection of lower and/or upper urinary tract. In a clinical setting like the ICU, multiple risk factors for Candida colonization may be present in the same patient, thereby increasing the chances of candiduria, manifold. In the present study on 80 patients in ICU, high rate of Candida colonization (57.5%) was found in urine samples of ICU patients with C. tropicalis (57.3%) being the predominant species. We also isolated 8 strains of Trichosporon species, all of these presented as a mixed infection along with Candida species. Among the various risk factors studied, urinary catheterization and previous antibiotic therapy were identified as statistically significant (P value <0.05). The minimum inhibitory concentration of the isolates was determined for amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole by E-test. Most of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B. The C. parapsilosis strains did not show any drug resistance; however, resistance to fluconazole was observed 18.6, 27.27, 50 and 25% in C. tropicalis, C. albicans, C. glabrata and Trichosporon species, respectively.

  8. Is compulsive buying related to materialism, depression or temperament? Findings from a sample of treatment-seeking patients with CB.

    PubMed

    Müller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Georgiadou, Ekaterini; Möllenkamp, Maike; Voth, Eva M; Faber, Ron J; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2014-04-30

    The aim of the present work was to examine the influence of reactive and regulatory temperament on compulsive buying (CB) in a sample of 102 patients (79 women, 23 men) with clinical CB. All participants answered the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scales (BIS/BAS), and the Effortful Control subscale (ATQ-EC) of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire-Short Form. Based on previous studies demonstrating that depression and materialism are linked with CB, in addition, the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) and the Materialistic Values Scale (MVS) were administered. CBS scores were significantly correlated with the MVS, PHQ-9, and BAS scores. The findings of the hierarchical regression analysis, however, indicated that in the present sample of treatment-seeking patients the only significant association was found between CB and depression. The results highlight the prominent role of depression in CB. There is a need for longitudinal studies in order to answer the question whether depression is the cause or the consequence of CB.

  9. Potentially-toxic and essential elements profile of AH1N1 patients in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Mireya; Bautista, Edgar G.; Velázquez-González, Antonio; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, Felipe; Tzintzun, Guadalupe; García-Arreola, María Elena; Castillejos, Manuel; Hernández, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    During spring of 2009, a new influenza virus AH1N1 spread in the world causing acute respiratory illness and death, resulting in the first influenza pandemic since 1968. Blood levels of potentially-toxic and essential elements of 40 pneumonia and confirmed AH1N1 were evaluated against two different groups of controls, both not infected with the pandemic strain. Significant concentrations of potentially-toxic elements (lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, arsenic) along with deficiency of selenium or increased Zn/Cu ratios characterized AH1N1 cases under study when evaluated versus controlled cases. Deficiency of selenium is progressively observed from controls I (influenza like illness) through controls II (pneumonia) and finally pneumonia -AH1N1 infected patients. Cases with blood Se levels greater than the recommended for an optimal cut-off to activate glutathione peroxidase (12.5 μg/dL) recovered from illness and survived. Evaluation of this essential element in critical pneumonia patients at the National Institutes is under evaluation as a clinical trial. PMID:23422930

  10. Potential role of carbon nanoparticles in protection of parathyroid glands in patients with papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenbin; Zhu, Lijun; Xu, Guohui; Song, Yuntao; Li, Guojun; Zhang, Naisong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As a novel type of lymphatic tracer, carbon nanoparticles (CNs) were reported not to stain parathyroid glands (PGs) into black, so it may have a clinical potential in protection of PGs during thyroidectomy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical application and significance of CN in protection of PGs from surrounding tissues. A total of 82 consecutive patients were enrolled into this study and were divided into CN group and control group. Parathyroid function (hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia) was evaluated. The identification rates of PGs (≤2) and PGs (≥3) were 24.4% and 75.6% in the CN group and 46.3% and 53.7% in the control group, respectively. The difference in the identification rates between the 2 groups was statistically significant (P = 0.038). Pathological results revealed 3 accidental PGs resection occurred in the CN group, whereas 9 accidental PGs removal occurred in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.046). Moreover, the incidence of the patients with hypoparathyroidism was statistically significant between the 2 groups (36.6% in CN group vs 53.7% in control group, P = 0.043) at day 1, but not at day 7 (P = 0.424). CN may have a potential in protecting PGs clinically. PMID:27759629

  11. Use of amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test in respiratory samples from HIV-infected patients in Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Leonardo Bruno Paz Ferreira; Lourenço, Maria Cristina da Silva; Rolla, Valéria Cavalcanti; Veloso, Valdiléia Gonçalves; Huf, Gisele

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of the amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct (AMTD) test with reference methods for the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: This was a study of diagnostic accuracy comparing AMTD test results with those obtained by culture on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and by the BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 (BACTEC MGIT 960) system in respiratory samples analyzed at the Bioassay and Bacteriology Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. RESULTS: We analyzed respiratory samples collected from 118 patients, of whom 88 (74.4%) were male. The mean age was 36.6 ± 10.6 years. Using the AMTD test, the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, and LJ culture, we identified M. tuberculosis complex in 31.0%, 29.7%, and 27.1% of the samples, respectively. In comparison with LJ culture, the AMTD test had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 87.5%, 89.4%, 75.7%, and 95.0%, respectively, for LJ culture, whereas, in comparison with the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, it showed values of 88.6%, 92.4%, 83.8%, and 94.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The AMTD test showed good sensitivity and specificity in the population studied, enabling the laboratory detection of M. tuberculosis complex in paucibacillary respiratory specimens. PMID:24831399

  12. MicroRNA Stability in Postmortem FFPE Tissues: Quantitative Analysis Using Autoptic Samples from Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Yu; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Ochiai, Eriko; Satoh, Fumiko; Osawa, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are very short (18-24 nucleotides) nucleic acids that are expressed in a number of biological tissues and have been shown to be more resistant to extreme temperatures and pH compared to longer RNA molecules, like mRNAs. As miRNAs contribute to diverse biological process and respond to various kinds of cellular stress, their utility as diagnostic biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets has recently been explored. Here, we have evaluated the usefulness of miRNA quantification during postmortem examination of cardiac tissue from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Cardiac tissue was collected within one week of the patient's death and either frozen (19 samples) or fixed in formalin for up to three years (36 samples). RNA integrity was evaluated with an electropherogram, and it appears that longer RNAs are fragmented after death in the long-term fixed samples. Quantitative PCR was also performed for seven miRNAs and three other small RNAs in order to determine the appropriate controls for our postmortem analysis. Our data indicate that miR-191 and miR-26b are more suitable than the other types of small RNA molecules as they are stably detected after death and long-term fixation. Further, we also applied our quantitation method, using these endogenous controls, to evaluate the expression of three previously identified miRNA biomarkers, miR-1, miR-208b, and miR-499a, in formalin-fixed tissues from AMI patients. Although miR-1 and miR-208b decreased (1.4-fold) and increased (1.2-fold), respectively, in the AMI samples compared to the controls, the significance of these changes was limited by our sample size. In contrast, the relative level of miR-499a was significantly decreased in the AMI samples (2.1-fold). This study highlights the stability of miRNAs after death and long-term fixation, validating their use as reliable biomarkers for AMI during postmortem examination. PMID:26046358

  13. 18F-Fallypride binding potential in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Douglas S.; Christian, Bradley T.; Kirbas, Cemil; Chiang, Meicheng; Sidhu, Shawn; Short, Holly; Wang, Binquan; Shi, Bingzhi; Chu, King-Wai; Merrill, Brian; Buchsbaum, Monte S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Molecular imaging of dopaminergic parameters has contributed to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, expanding our understanding of pathophysiology, clinical phenomenology and treatment. Our aim in this study was to compare 18F-fallypride binding potential BPND in a group of patients with schizophrenia-spectrum illness vs. controls, with a particular focus on the cortex and thalamus. Methods We acquired 18F-fallypride positron emission tomography images on 33 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (28 with schizophrenia; 5 with schizoaffective disorder) and 18 normal controls. Twenty-four patients were absolutely neuroleptic naïve and nine were previously medicated, although only four had a lifetime neuroleptic exposure of greater than two weeks. Parametric images of 18F-fallypride BPND were calculated to compare binding across subjects. Results Decreased BPND was observed in the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus, prefrontal cortex, lateral temporal lobe and primary auditory cortex. These findings were most marked in subjects who had never previously received medication. Conclusions The regions with decreased BPND tend to match brain regions previously reported to show alterations in metabolic activity and blood flow and areas associated with the symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:20655709

  14. Longitudinal evaluation of patients with oral potentially malignant disorders using optical imaging and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Richard A.; Pierce, Mark C.; Mondrik, Sharon; Gao, Wen; Quinn, Mary K.; Bhattar, Vijayashree; Williams, Michelle D.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    Dysplastic and cancerous alterations in oral tissue can be detected noninvasively in vivo using optical techniques including autofluorescence imaging, high-resolution imaging, and spectroscopy. Interim results are presented from a longitudinal study in which optical imaging and spectroscopy were used to evaluate the progression of lesions over time in patients at high risk for development of oral cancer. Over 100 patients with oral potentially malignant disorders have been enrolled in the study to date. Areas of concern in the oral cavity are measured using widefield autofluorescence imaging and depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy during successive clinical visits. Autofluorescence intensity patterns and autofluorescence spectra are tracked over time and correlated with clinical observations. Patients whose lesions progress and who undergo surgery are also measured in the operating room immediately prior to surgery using autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy, with the addition of intraoperative high-resolution imaging to characterize nuclear size, nuclear crowding, and tissue architecture at selected sites. Optical measurements are compared to histopathology results from biopsies and surgical specimens collected from the measured sites. Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy measurements are continued during post-surgery followup visits. We examined correlations between clinical impression and optical classification over time with an average followup period of 4 months. The data collected to date suggest that multimodal optical techniques may aid in noninvasive monitoring of the progression of oral premalignant lesions, biopsy site selection, and accurate delineation of lesion extent during surgery.

  15. Efficacy of action potential simulation and interferential therapy in the rehabilitation of patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Eftekharsadat, Bina; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Kolahi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the main cause of pain, physical impairment and chronic disability in older people. Electrotherapeutic modalities such as interferential therapy (IFT) and action potential simulation (APS) are used for the treatment of knee OA. In this study, we aim to evaluate the therapeutic effects of APS and IFT on knee OA. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 67 patients (94% female and 6% male with mean age of 52.80 ± 8.16 years) with mild and moderate knee OA were randomly assigned to be treated with APS (n = 34) or IFT (n = 33) for 10 sessions in 4 weeks. Baseline and post-treatment Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) subscales, visual analogue scale (VAS) and timed up and go (TUG) test were measured in all patients. Results: VAS and WOMAC subscales were significantly improved after treatment in APS and IFT groups (p < 0.001 for all). TUG was also significantly improved after treatment in APS group (p < 0.001), but TUG changes in IFT was not significant (p = 0.09). There was no significant difference in VAS, TUG and WOMAC subscales values before and after treatment as well as the mean improvement in VAS, TUG and WOMAC subscales during study between groups. Conclusion: Short-term treatment with both APS and IFT could significantly reduce pain and improve physical function in patients with knee OA. PMID:26029268

  16. Advanced analysis of auditory evoked potentials in hyperthyroid patients: the effect of filtering.

    PubMed

    Güven, Ayşegül; Altınkaynak, Miray; Dolu, Nazan; Ünlühızarcı, Kürşat

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) in patients with hyperthyroidism and to compare their frequency components with those of healthy subjects. In this study the AEPs in hyperthyroidism were studied both in time and frequency domains rather than studying just in the time domain by peak scoring. This paper presents a method for filtering auditory oddball standard and target AEPs by using singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and feature extraction in the frequency domain via spectral analysis. AEPs were recorded during an auditory oddball paradigm in 25 newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and 15 healthy subjects. The signals are captured in the presence of ongoing background EEG activity so they are often contaminated by artifacts. This paper presents a method for filtering auditory odd-ball standard and target AEPs by using Singular spectrum analysis and feature extraction in frequency domain via spectral analysis. Information about the frequency composition of the signal is then used to compare normal and hyperthyroid states. While there was no significant difference either in the target or standard unfiltered signals between the hyperthyroid patients and the control group (p > 0.05), there was a significant difference in the filtered signals between the two groups (p < 0.01). In conclusion, our results revealed that SSA is an effective filtering method for AEPs. Thus, a much more objective and specific examination method was developed. PMID:25637540

  17. The Potential Roles of 18F-FDG-PET in Management of Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Yuan, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Extensive efforts have recently been devoted to developing noninvasive imaging tools capable of delineating brain tissue viability (penumbra) during acute ischemic stroke. These efforts could have profound clinical implications for identifying patients who may benefit from tPA beyond the currently approved therapeutic time window and/or patients undergoing neuroendovascular treatments. To date, the DWI/PWI MRI and perfusion CT have received the most attention for identifying ischemic penumbra. However, their routine use in clinical settings remains limited. Preclinical and clinical PET studies with [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) have consistently revealed a decreased 18F-FDG uptake in regions of presumed ischemic core. More importantly, an elevated 18F-FDG uptake in the peri-ischemic regions has been reported, potentially reflecting viable tissues. To this end, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature on the utilization of 14C-2-DG and 18F-FDG-PET in experimental as well as human stroke studies. Possible cellular mechanisms and physiological underpinnings attributed to the reported temporal and spatial uptake patterns of 18F-FDG are addressed. Given the wide availability of 18F-FDG in routine clinical settings, 18F-FDG PET may serve as an alternative, non-invasive tool to MRI and CT for the management of acute stroke patients. PMID:23762852

  18. The potential role of regenerative medicine in the management of traumatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Mahmoudreza; Hood, Brandy; Moradi, Marzieh; Atala, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Traumatic injury represents the most common cause of death in ages 1 to 44 years and a significant proportion of patients treated in hospital emergency wards each year. Unfortunately, for patients who survive their injuries, survival is not equal to complete recovery. Many traumatic injuries are difficult to treat with conventional therapy and result in permanent disability. In such situations, regenerative medicine has the potential to play an important role in recovery of function. Regenerative medicine is a field that seeks to maintain or restore function with the development of biological substitutes for diseased or damaged tissues. Several regenerative approaches are currently under investigation, with a few achieving clinical application. For example, engineered skin has gained FDA approval, and more than 20 tissue engineered skin substitutes are now commercially available. Other organ systems with promising animal models and small human series include the central and peripheral nervous systems, the musculoskeletal system, the respiratory and genitourinary tracts, and others. This paper will be a clinically oriented review of the regenerative approaches currently under investigation of special interest to those caring for traumatic patients. PMID:25618439

  19. Postural deformities: potential morbidities to cause balance problems in patients with ankylosing spondylitis?

    PubMed Central

    Çınar, Ece; Akkoç, Yeşim; Karapolat, Hale; Durusoy, Raika; Keser, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the impact of postural deformities caused by ankylosing spondylitis (AS) on balance problems. Material and Methods This study included 29 patients with AS and 21 healthy controls. For assessing exercise capacity and dynamic balance, timed up and go test, five times sit-to-stand test, gait speed, and 6-min walk test were performed. Romberg tests were used to evaluate static balance and proprioception, whereas Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), Functional Gait Assessment (FGA), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Activity Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), and functional reach test were used to assess dynamic balance and the risk of falling. Using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) scores, patients with AS were divided into two groups: those with scores 0–4 were assigned to subgroup AS1, and those with scores 5–10 were assigned to subgroup AS2. Results In the whole group of patients with AS, five times sit-to-stand test, tandem Romberg test with eyes closed, and BBS and ABC scores were significantly worse than the healthy controls (p<0.05). In the AS2 subgroup having more severe and advanced disease, five additional parameters, including timed up and go test, 6-min walk test, functional reach test, FGA, and DHI scores were also significantly worse than the healthy controls (p<0.05). Comparing the two subgroups with each other, only BBS scores were significantly worse in the AS2 subgroup than in the AS1 subgroup. Conclusion Although in clinical practice, poor balance is not a common problem in AS, possibly because of compensatory mechanisms, patients with AS have poorer static and dynamic balance than healthy subjects. Significantly worse BBS scores in the AS2 subgroup than in the AS1 subgroup may suggest the presence of more dynamic balance problems in advanced disease; however, future studies comprising larger samples are necessary to confirm this assumption.

  20. Therapeutic potential of N-acetylcysteine as an antiplatelet agent in patients with type-2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Platelet hyperaggregability is a pro-thrombotic feature of type-2 diabetes, associated with low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Clinical delivery of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a biosynthetic precursor of GSH, may help redress a GSH shortfall in platelets, thereby reducing thrombotic risk in type-2 diabetes patients. We investigated the effect of NAC in vitro, at concentrations attainable with tolerable oral dosing, on platelet GSH concentrations and aggregation propensity in blood from patients with type-2 diabetes. Methods Blood samples (n = 13) were incubated (2 h, 37°C) with NAC (10-100 micromolar) in vitro. Platelet aggregation in response to thrombin and ADP (whole blood aggregometry) was assessed, together with platelet GSH concentration (reduced and oxidized), antioxidant status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and plasma NOx (a surrogate measure of platelet-derived nitric oxide; NO). Results At therapeutically relevant concentrations (10-100 micromolar), NAC increased intraplatelet GSH levels, enhanced the antioxidant effects of platelets, and reduced ROS generation in blood from type-2 diabetes patients. Critically, NAC inhibited thrombin- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Plasma NOx was enhanced by 30 micromolar NAC. Conclusions Our results suggest that NAC reduces thrombotic propensity in type-2 diabetes patients by increasing platelet antioxidant status as a result of elevated GSH synthesis, thereby lowering platelet-derived ROS. This may increase bioavailability of protective NO in a narrow therapeutic range. Therefore, NAC might represent an alternative or additional therapy to aspirin that could reduce thrombotic risk in type-2 diabetes. PMID:21600014

  1. Pyrrole Alkaloids with Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Activity Isolated from a Goji Berry-Contaminated Commercial Sample of African Mango

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a commercial sample of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) that was later shown to be contaminated with goji berry (Lycium sp.) led to the isolation of a new pyrrole alkaloid, methyl 2-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]propanoate, 1, along with seven known compounds, 2–8. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. The new compound 1g showed hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity with an ED50 value of 16.7 μM, whereas 4-[formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoic acid (2) was active in both the hydroxyl radical-scavenging (ED50 11.9 μM) and quinone reductase-induction [CD (concentration required to double QR activity) 2.4 μM)] assays used. The isolated compounds were shown to be absent in a taxonomically authenticated African mango sample but present in three separate authentic samples of goji berry (Lycium barbarum) using LC-MS and 1H NMR fingerprinting analysis, including one sample that previously showed inhibitory activity in vivo in a rat esophageal cancer model induced with N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine. Additionally, microscopic features characteristic of goji berry were observed in the commercial African mango sample. PMID:24792835

  2. Capitated payments for mental health patients: a comparison of potential approaches in a public sector population.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Douglas L.; Rosenheck, Robert; White, William D.

    2000-03-01

    BACKGROUND: Both private and public health care systems have embraced capitated reimbursement as a method of controlling costs. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study explores the financial implications of using reimbursement models based on clinically based patient classification schemes to distribute funds for the treatment of mental health patients in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). METHODS: We identified 53700 veterans treated in VA specialty mental health outpatient clinics during the first 2 weeks of fiscal year (FY) 1991 for whom relevant clinical data were available. We calculated total utilization and costs for this sample during the remainder of FY 1991 using VA administrative databases and simulated hypothetical distributions of funds based on seven alternative capitation models. The resulting distributions of funds across service networks and facility types were compared to actual expenditures. RESULTS: Approximately 8% of overall VA budget was redistributed under a simple capitated scheme, and some individual networks and facility types experienced changes in funding of over 30%. Models based on clinical data resulted in only minor differences from average-cost reimbursement. Substantial variation in practice style was observed across Veterans Integrated Service Networks (VISNs), which was significantly associated with funding shifts under capitation. DISCUSSION: A simple capitated payment scheme would result in large changes in funding for some VISNs. Adjustments for case mix did not substantially affect patterns of redistribution. Patterns of redistribution appear to reflect large differences in practice style across VISNs. Although a capitated system will create incentives to reduce such variation, the effect of such shifts on patient well-being is unknown. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: Any capitated system will create incentives to provide a uniform standard of care. In our analyses, the capitation rate was based on the average cost per treated

  3. Camel Milk: Potential Utility as an Adjunctive Therapy to Peg-IFN/RBV in HCV-4 Infected Patients in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Walid A; Schaalan, Mona F; El-Abhar, Hanan S

    2015-01-01

    The present prospective study aims to investigate the potential therapeutic effect and the underlying mechanisms of drinking camel milk for 60 days as an adjunctive therapy to the standard treatment PEG/RBV. Twenty-five hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected Egyptian patients, with mild to moderate parenchymal affection to mild cirrhosis were enrolled in this study after proper history taking and clinical examination. Their biomarkers were evaluated before and after the addition of camel milk. The improving effect of camel milk was reflected on the marked inhibition of the serum levels of the proinflammatory markers, viz., tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, hyaluronic acid, and TGF-β1, besides PCR, AST, ALT, GGT, bilirubin, prothrombin time, INR, and alpha-fetoprotein. In addition, camel milk elevated significantly (P < 0.001) the serum levels of albumin, the antiapoptotic protein BCL-2, the total antioxidant capacity, interleukin-10, and vitamin D. In conclusion, our study revealed a regulatory function of camel milk on multiple parameters of inflammatory mediators, immunomodulators, antiapoptosis, and antioxidants, giving insight into the potential therapeutic benefit underlying the anti-HCV actions of camel milk. The limitations of the current study include the small sample size recruited and the failure to test it on cohorts with severe stages of hepatitis; like Child-Pugh stage C, and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. Potential contamination of shipboard air samples by diffusive emissions of PCBs and other organic pollutants: implications and solutions.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Rainer; Jaward, Foday M; Durham, Louise; Barber, Jonathan L; Ockenden, Wendy; Jones, Kevin C; Bruhn, Regina; Lakaschus, Soenke; Dachs, Jordi; Booij, Kees

    2004-07-15

    Air samples were taken onboard the RRS Bransfield on an Atlantic cruise from the United Kingdom to Halley, Antarctica, from October to December 1998, with the aim of establishing PCB oceanic background air concentrations and assessing their latitudinal distribution. Great care was taken to minimize pre- and post-collection contamination of the samples, which was validated through stringent QA/QC procedures. However, there is evidence that onboard contamination of the air samples occurred,following insidious, diffusive emissions on the ship. Other data (for PCBs and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs)) and examples of shipboard contamination are presented. The implications of these findings for past and future studies of global POPs distribution are discussed. Recommendations are made to help critically appraise and minimize the problems of insidious/diffusive shipboard contamination.

  5. cDNA Microarray Analysis of Serially Sampled Cervical Cancer Specimens From Patients Treated With Thermochemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Borkamo, Erling Dahl; Schem, Baard-Christian; Fluge, Oystein; Bruland, Ove; Dahl, Olav; Mella, Olav

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To elucidate changes in gene expression after treatment with regional thermochemoradiotherapy in locally advanced squamous cell cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Tru-Cut biopsy specimens were serially collected from 16 patients. Microarray gene expression levels before and 24 h after the first and second trimodality treatment sessions were compared. Pathway and network analyses were conducted by use of Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA; Ingenuity Systems, Redwood City, CA). Single gene expressions were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: We detected 53 annotated genes that were differentially expressed after trimodality treatment. Central in the three top networks detected by IPA were interferon alfa, interferon beta, and interferon gamma receptor; nuclear factor kappaB; and tumor necrosis factor, respectively. These genes encode proteins that are important in regulation cell signaling, proliferation, gene expression, and immune stimulation. Biological processes over-represented among the 53 genes were fibrosis, tumorigenesis, and immune response. Conclusions: Microarrays showed minor changes in gene expression after thermochemoradiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. We detected 53 differentially expressed genes, mainly involved in fibrosis, tumorigenesis, and immune response. A limitation with the use of serial biopsy specimens was low quality of ribonucleic acid from tumors that respond to highly effective therapy. Another 'key limitation' is timing of the post-treatment biopsy, because 24 h may be too late to adequately assess the impact of hyperthermia on gene expression.

  6. Toxoplasma-SPECIFIC IgG SUBCLASS ANTIBODY RESPONSE IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID SAMPLES FROM PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL TOXOPLASMOSIS

    PubMed Central

    NASCIMENTO, Fernanda S.; SUZUKI, Lisandra A.; BRANCO, Nilson; FRANCO, Regina M.B.; ANDRADE, Paula D.; COSTA, Sandra C.B.; PEDRO, Marcelo N.; ROSSI, Cláudio L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cerebral toxoplasmosis can be highly debilitating and occasionally fatal in persons with immune system deficiencies. In this study, we evaluated the Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG subclass antibody response in 19 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis who had a positive IgG anti-T. gondiiELISA standardized with a cyst antigen preparation. There were no significant differences between the rates of positivity and the antibody concentrations (arithmetic means of the ELISA absorbances, MEA) for IgG1 and IgG2, but the rates of positivity and MEA values for these two IgG subclasses were significantly higher than those for IgG3 and IgG4. The marked IgG2 response in CSF from patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis merits further investigation. PMID:26603234

  7. CXCL13, CXCL10 and CXCL8 as Potential Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuini; Wu, Kaiqi; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Sufang; Gao, Zixiao; Liu, Yudan; Ni, Liyan; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Guan, Zhifang; Shi, Mei; Lu, Haikong; Lou, Yongliang; Zhou, Pingyu

    2016-01-01

    At present, diagnosis for neurosyphilis remains a major clinical challenge. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) titer of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is suboptimally sensitive to diagnose neurosyphilis, which can be negative in neurosyphilis patients, especially in asymptomatic neurosyphilis patients. In the search for biomarkers of neurosyphilis, we investigated the chemokine profile in CSF of neurosyphilis patients and found that the concentrations of CXCL13, CXCL10 and CXCL8 were selectively elevated in neurosyphilis patients and correlated with CSF protein concentration and CSF-VDRL titer. After antibiotic treatment, the concentration of these chemokines was dramatically reduced. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of CSF CXCL13, CXCL8,CXCL10 and the CSF/serum ratio of CXCL13, CXCL8,CXCL10 in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis were 0.940, 0.899, 0.915, 0.963, 0.846 and 0.926, respectively. The corresponding sensitivities/specificities of CSF CXCL13, CXCL8,CXCL10 and the CSF/serum ratio of CXCL13, CXCL8,CXCL10 in diagnosis of neurosyphilis were 85.4%/89.1%, 79%/90.1% and 79.6%/91.1%, 86.6%/99%, 79%/73.3% and 86%/92.1%, respectively. Our results suggest that the elevated concentrations of CXCL13, CXCL8, and CXCL10 or their increasing CSF/serum ratios may be potential biomarkers of neurosyphilis, particularly for asymptomatic neurosyphilis. Reduced concentration of these chemokines may indicate the prognosis of antibiotic therapy. PMID:27650493

  8. CXCL13, CXCL10 and CXCL8 as Potential Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cuini; Wu, Kaiqi; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Sufang; Gao, Zixiao; Liu, Yudan; Ni, Liyan; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Guan, Zhifang; Shi, Mei; Lu, Haikong; Lou, Yongliang; Zhou, Pingyu

    2016-01-01

    At present, diagnosis for neurosyphilis remains a major clinical challenge. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) titer of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is suboptimally sensitive to diagnose neurosyphilis, which can be negative in neurosyphilis patients, especially in asymptomatic neurosyphilis patients. In the search for biomarkers of neurosyphilis, we investigated the chemokine profile in CSF of neurosyphilis patients and found that the concentrations of CXCL13, CXCL10 and CXCL8 were selectively elevated in neurosyphilis patients and correlated with CSF protein concentration and CSF-VDRL titer. After antibiotic treatment, the concentration of these chemokines was dramatically reduced. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of CSF CXCL13, CXCL8,CXCL10 and the CSF/serum ratio of CXCL13, CXCL8,CXCL10 in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis were 0.940, 0.899, 0.915, 0.963, 0.846 and 0.926, respectively. The corresponding sensitivities/specificities of CSF CXCL13, CXCL8,CXCL10 and the CSF/serum ratio of CXCL13, CXCL8,CXCL10 in diagnosis of neurosyphilis were 85.4%/89.1%, 79%/90.1% and 79.6%/91.1%, 86.6%/99%, 79%/73.3% and 86%/92.1%, respectively. Our results suggest that the elevated concentrations of CXCL13, CXCL8, and CXCL10 or their increasing CSF/serum ratios may be potential biomarkers of neurosyphilis, particularly for asymptomatic neurosyphilis. Reduced concentration of these chemokines may indicate the prognosis of antibiotic therapy. PMID:27650493

  9. The Danish National Patient Registry: a review of content, data quality, and research potential

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Morten; Schmidt, Sigrun Alba Johannesdottir; Sandegaard, Jakob Lynge; Ehrenstein, Vera; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2015-01-01

    Background The Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) is one of the world’s oldest nationwide hospital registries and is used extensively for research. Many studies have validated algorithms for identifying health events in the DNPR, but the reports are fragmented and no overview exists. Objectives To review the content, data quality, and research potential of the DNPR. Methods We examined the setting, history, aims, content, and classification systems of the DNPR. We searched PubMed and the Danish Medical Journal to create a bibliography of validation studies. We included also studies that were referenced in retrieved papers or known to us beforehand. Methodological considerations related to DNPR data were reviewed. Results During 1977–2012, the DNPR registered 8,085,603 persons, accounting for 7,268,857 inpatient, 5,953,405 outpatient, and 5,097,300 emergency department contacts. The DNPR provides nationwide longitudinal registration of detailed administrative and clinical data. It has recorded information on all patients discharged from Danish nonpsychiatric hospitals since 1977 and on psychiatric inpatients and emergency department and outpatient specialty clinic contacts since 1995. For each patient contact, one primary and optional secondary diagnoses are recorded according to the International Classification of Diseases. The DNPR provides a data source to identify diseases, examinations, certain in-hospital medical treatments, and surgical procedures. Long-term temporal trends in hospitalization and treatment rates can be studied. The positive predictive values of diseases and treatments vary widely (<15%–100%). The DNPR data are linkable at the patient level with data from other Danish administrative registries, clinical registries, randomized controlled trials, population surveys, and epidemiologic field studies – enabling researchers to reconstruct individual life and health trajectories for an entire population. Conclusion The DNPR is a valuable

  10. Copy number variants in a sample of patients with psychotic disorders: is standard screening relevant for actual clinical practice?

    PubMed Central

    Van de Kerkhof, Noortje WA; Feenstra, Ilse; van der Heijden, Frank MMA; de Leeuw, Nicole; Pfundt, Rolph; Stöber, Gerald; Egger, Jos IM; Verhoeven, Willem MA

    2012-01-01

    With the introduction of new genetic techniques such as genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization, studies on the putative genetic etiology of schizophrenia have focused on the detection of copy number variants (CNVs), ie, microdeletions and/or microduplications, that are estimated to be present in up to 3% of patients with schizophrenia. In this study, out of a sample of 100 patients with psychotic disorders, 80 were investigated by array for the presence of CNVs. The assessment of the severity of psychiatric symptoms was performed using standardized instruments and ICD-10 was applied for diagnostic classification. In three patients, a submicroscopic CNV was demonstrated, one with a loss in 1q21.1 and two with a gain in 1p13.3 and 7q11.2, respectively. The association between these or other CNVs and schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychoses and their clinical implications still remain equivocal. While the CNV affected genes may enhance the vulnerability for psychiatric disorders via effects on neuronal architecture, these insights have not resulted in major changes in clinical practice as yet. Therefore, genome-wide array analysis should presently be restricted to those patients in whom psychotic symptoms are paired with other signs, particularly dysmorphisms and intellectual impairment. PMID:22848183

  11. Violence victimization after HIV infection in a US probability sample of adult patients in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Zierler, S; Cunningham, W E; Andersen, R; Shapiro, M F; Nakazono, T; Morton, S; Crystal, S; Stein, M; Turner, B; St Clair, P; Bozzette, S A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the proportion of HIV-infected adults who have been assaulted by a partner or someone important to them since their HIV diagnosis and the extent to which they reported HIV-seropositive status as a cause of the violence. METHODS: Study participants were from a nationally representative probability sample of 2864 HIV-infected adults who were receiving medical care and were enrolled in the HIV Costs and Service Utilization Study. All interviews (91% in person, 9% by telephone) were conducted with computer-assisted personal interviewing instruments. Interviews began in January 1996 and ended 15 months later. RESULTS: Overall, 20.5% of the women, 11.5% of the men who reported having sex with men, and 7.5% of the heterosexual men reported physical harm since diagnosis, of whom nearly half reported HIV-seropositive status as a cause of violent episodes. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-related care is an appropriate setting for routine assessment of violence. Programs to cross-train staff in antiviolence agencies and HIV care facilities need to be developed for men and women with HIV infection. PMID:10667181

  12. Regenerative potential of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells harvested from high caries patient's teeth.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Ramesh; Gopal, Sushruth; Masood, Huda; Vivek, Purushottam; Deb, Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp are known to contains stem cells or dentinogenic progenitors that are responsible for dentin repair. Dental pulp Stem cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous teeth (SHED) represent a population of postnatal stem cells capable of extensive proliferation and multipotential or multilineage differentiations. This potential for tissue regeneration has become the current basis for dental pulp stem cell banking. Here, we have attempted to develop a protocol for harvesting stem cells from patients with High Caries tooth, which are most often electively discarded. We have characterized the stem cells with mesenchymal stem cell markers and have compared their potential to grow in culture, doubling times, and differentiate into different lineages, with normal bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We observed that the MSCs from dental pulp grew faster, with lower doubling time, and had equal efficiency in differentiating to various lineages, when subjected to standard directed differentiation protocols. This paper establishes that discarded High Carries Tooth can be a good source for regenerative medicine and also could be a potential source for MSCs and dental pulp MSC banking.

  13. Ecological Predictors of Disciplinary Style and Child Abuse Potential in a Hispanic and Anglo-American Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent attention to multicultural issues has sparked recognition that parenting is also a culturally construed phenomenon. The present study involved a diverse sample of 90 Anglo-American and Hispanic parents examining predictors based on distal/proximal levels as conceptualized in the ecological model. The study examined background…

  14. Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy Can Improve Esophageal Motility in Patients with Achalasia from a Large Sample Self-Control Research (66 Patients)

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shuangzhe; Linghu, Enqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) as a new approach to achalasia attracts broad attention. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the results with esophageal motility after POEM through the first large sample clinical research. Patients and Methods We have a self-control research with all patients (205 in total) who underwent POEM from 2010 to 2014 at our Digestive Endoscopic Center, 66 patients of which underwent high resolution manometry (HRM) before and after POEM in our motility laboratory. Follow-ups last for 5.6 months on average. Outcome variables analyzed included upper esophageal sphincter pressure (UESP), upper esophageal sphincter residual pressure (UESRP), lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP), lower esophageal sphincter residual pressure (LESRP) and esophageal body peristalsis. We have a statistical analysis to illustrate how POEM impacts on the change of esophageal motility. Results The symptoms related to dysphagia were relieved in 95% of patients in recent term after POEM. While HRM showed a statistically significant reduction of URSRP, LESP and LESRP (P<0.01), however, peristalsis was not consistently affected. There were 11 patients who had undergone other prior endoscopic treatment (endoscopic dilation or botulinum toxin injection) and 55 patients had not. The statistical difference (P>0.05) did not occur for these two groups on LESP and LESRP reduction. Conclusions POEM clearly relieved the symptoms related to dysphagia by lowering the pressure of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES),and other endoscopic treatment before POEM did not affect the improvement of LES pressure. These results are concluded from our short-term follow-up study, while the long-term efficacy remains to be further illustrated. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-TRC-12002204) PMID:25993648

  15. A national study of a telephone support service for patients receiving office-based buprenorphine medication-assisted treatment: study feasibility and sample description.

    PubMed

    Ruetsch, Charles; Cacciola, John; Tkacz, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    Opioid-dependent (OD) patients seeking treatment have multiple treatment options including abstinence-based and medication replacement therapies. A recent and growing addition to medication replacement therapy is buprenorphine medication-assisted treatment (B-MAT), which may be provided by certified physicians practicing in private offices. Research on OD treatment is often performed on samples of patients recruited from specialty treatment facilities, which may not generalize to B-MAT patients. Thus, B-MAT as a treatment approach has been understudied. The present research describes (a) new methods developed to facilitate sample recruitment and survey data collection from a national B-MAT patient sample and (b) a telephonic support program designed for new B-MAT patients. Results indicate that by using appropriate tools, it is feasible to conduct a clinical study of B-MAT patients, recruited at the point of service, and that telephonic patient support was an acceptable treatment adjunct.

  16. Communication: Estimating the initial biasing potential for λ-local-elevation umbrella-sampling (λ-LEUS) simulations via slow growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieler, Noah S.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2014-11-01

    In a recent article [Bieler et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3006-3022 (2014)], we introduced a combination of the λ-dynamics (λD) approach for calculating alchemical free-energy differences and of the local-elevation umbrella-sampling (LEUS) memory-based biasing method to enhance the sampling along the alchemical coordinate. The combined scheme, referred to as λ-LEUS, was applied to the perturbation of hydroquinone to benzene in water as a test system, and found to represent an improvement over thermodynamic integration (TI) in terms of sampling efficiency at equivalent accuracy. However, the preoptimization of the biasing potential required in the λ-LEUS method requires "filling up" all the basins in the potential of mean force. This introduces a non-productive pre-sampling time that is system-dependent, and generally exceeds the corresponding equilibration time in a TI calculation. In this letter, a remedy is proposed to this problem, termed the slow growth memory guessing (SGMG) approach. Instead of initializing the biasing potential to zero at the start of the preoptimization, an approximate potential of mean force is estimated from a short slow growth calculation, and its negative used to construct the initial memory. Considering the same test system as in the preceding article, it is shown that of the application of SGMG in λ-LEUS permits to reduce the preoptimization time by about a factor of four.

  17. Communication: Estimating the initial biasing potential for λ-local-elevation umbrella-sampling (λ-LEUS) simulations via slow growth

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, Noah S.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2014-11-28

    In a recent article [Bieler et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3006–3022 (2014)], we introduced a combination of the λ-dynamics (λD) approach for calculating alchemical free-energy differences and of the local-elevation umbrella-sampling (LEUS) memory-based biasing method to enhance the sampling along the alchemical coordinate. The combined scheme, referred to as λ-LEUS, was applied to the perturbation of hydroquinone to benzene in water as a test system, and found to represent an improvement over thermodynamic integration (TI) in terms of sampling efficiency at equivalent accuracy. However, the preoptimization of the biasing potential required in the λ-LEUS method requires “filling up” all the basins in the potential of mean force. This introduces a non-productive pre-sampling time that is system-dependent, and generally exceeds the corresponding equilibration time in a TI calculation. In this letter, a remedy is proposed to this problem, termed the slow growth memory guessing (SGMG) approach. Instead of initializing the biasing potential to zero at the start of the preoptimization, an approximate potential of mean force is estimated from a short slow growth calculation, and its negative used to construct the initial memory. Considering the same test system as in the preceding article, it is shown that of the application of SGMG in λ-LEUS permits to reduce the preoptimization time by about a factor of four.

  18. An Improved Transformation and Optimized Sampling Scheme for the Numerical Evaluation of Singular and Near-Singular Potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khayat, Michael A.; Wilton, Donald R.; Fink, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Simple and efficient numerical procedures using singularity cancellation methods are presented for evaluating singular and near-singular potential integrals. Four different transformations are compared and the advantages of the Radial-angular transform are demonstrated. A method is then described for optimizing this integration scheme.

  19. PTSD and Comorbid Disorders in a Representative Sample of Adolescents: The Risk Associated with Multiple Exposures to Potentially Traumatic Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Alexandra; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the impact of multiple exposures to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), including sexual victimization, physical victimization, and witnessed violence, on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid conditions (i.e., major depressive episode [MDE], and substance use [SUD]). Methods: Participants were a…

  20. Repeated Aspergillus isolation in respiratory samples from non-immunocompromised patients not selected based on clinical diagnoses: colonisation or infection?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Isolation of Aspergillus from lower respiratory samples is associated with colonisation in high percentage of cases, making it of unclear significance. This study explored factors associated with diagnosis (infection vs. colonisation), treatment (administration or not of antifungals) and prognosis (mortality) in non-transplant/non-neutropenic patients showing repeated isolation of Aspergillus from lower respiratory samples. Methods Records of adult patients (29 Spanish hospitals) presenting ≥2 respiratory cultures yielding Aspergillus were retrospectively reviewed and categorised as proven (histopathological confirmation) or probable aspergillosis (new respiratory signs/symptoms with suggestive chest imaging) or colonisation (symptoms not attributable to Aspergillus without dyspnoea exacerbation, bronchospasm or new infiltrates). Logistic regression models (step–wise) were performed using Aspergillosis (probable + proven), antifungal treatment and mortality as dependent variables. Significant (p < 0.001) models showing the highest R2 were considered. Results A total of 245 patients were identified, 139 (56.7%) with Aspergillosis. Aspergillosis was associated (R2 = 0.291) with ICU admission (OR = 2.82), congestive heart failure (OR = 2.39) and steroids pre-admission (OR = 2.19) as well as with cavitations in X-ray/CT scan (OR = 10.68), radiological worsening (OR = 5.22) and COPD exacerbations/need for O2 interaction (OR = 3.52). Antifungals were administered to 79.1% patients with Aspergillosis (100% proven, 76.8% probable) and 29.2% colonised, with 69.5% patients receiving voriconazole alone or in combination. In colonised patients, administration of antifungals was associated with ICU admission at hospitalisation (OR = 12.38). In Aspergillosis patients its administration was positively associated (R2 = 0.312) with bronchospasm (OR = 9.21) and days in ICU (OR = 1.82) and negatively with Gold III

  1. Indication to renal biopsy in DM2 patients: potential role of intrarenal resistive index.

    PubMed

    Insalaco, Monica; Zamboli, Pasquale; Floccari, Fulvio; Marrocco, Fulvio; Andrulli, Simeone; Logias, Francesco; Di Lullo, Luca; Fiorini, Fulvio; Granata, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is generally based, rather than on histological confirmation, on clinical criteria (long history of diabetes, presence of proteinuria, diabetic retinopathy or peripheral neuropathy). This clinical approach has perhaps limited utility in DM2 patients, because only 50% of them show microvascular complications in presence of nephropathy. Eco-colour-Doppler sampling of interlobular renal arteries and determination of their resistance indices (RI), was proposed in the differential diagnosis of numerous nephropathies. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether RI can be useful in discerning non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD), in order to better define indications to perform renal biopsy among proteinuric DM2 patients. All patients were submitted to: echo-colour-Doppler study of renal vessels; systematic screening for diabetic retinopathy; needle renal biopsy. RI resulted to be significantly higher in diabetic glomerulosclerosis (GSD) group as compared with NDRD group, while no significant difference was found with respect to NDRDs overlapping GSD (overlapping group). The last one showed however median RI significantly higher than isolated NDRD group. Normalized chi square Pearson for the hypothesis that RI can predict GSD resulted 0.73, while it resulted 0.43 for the hypothesis that diabetic retinopathy can predict GSD. Echo-colour-Doppler can significantly contribute, more than the other parameters proposed (nephritic or nephrotic syndrome, hematuria, diabetic retinopathy), to the identification of underlying nephropathy in DM2 subjects. In the light of our experience, it seems that the detection of RI values > 0.72 suggests the diagnosis of GSD or mixed forms, reducing the indications to renal biopsy only in presence of values < 0.72.

  2. Trajectory Options for a Potential Mars Mission Combining Orbiting Science, Relay and a Sample Return Rendezvous Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, Joseph R.; Kerridge, Stuart J.; Wilson, Roby S.

    2012-01-01

    Mars sample return is a major scientific goal of the 2011 US National Research Council Decadal Survey for Planetary Science. Toward achievement of this goal, recent architecture studies have focused on several mission concept options for the 2018/2020 Mars launch opportunities. Mars orbiters play multiple roles in these architectures such as: relay, landing site identification/selection/certification, collection of on-going or new measurements to fill knowledge gaps, and in-orbit collection and transportation of samples from Mars to Earth. This paper reviews orbiter concepts that combine these roles and describes a novel family of relay orbits optimized for surface operations support. Additionally, these roles provide an intersection of objectives for long term NASA science, human exploration, technology development and international collaboration.

  3. Computing the Free Energy Barriers for Less by Sampling with a Coarse Reference Potential while Retaining Accuracy of the Target Fine Model.

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, Nikolay V

    2014-08-12

    Proposed in this contribution is a protocol for calculating fine-physics (e.g., ab initio QM/MM) free-energy surfaces at a high level of accuracy locally (e.g., only at reactants and at the transition state for computing the activation barrier) from targeted fine-physics sampling and extensive exploratory coarse-physics sampling. The full free-energy surface is still computed but at a lower level of accuracy from coarse-physics sampling. The method is analytically derived in terms of the umbrella sampling and the free-energy perturbation methods which are combined with the thermodynamic cycle and the targeted sampling strategy of the paradynamics approach. The algorithm starts by computing low-accuracy fine-physics free-energy surfaces from the coarse-physics sampling in order to identify the reaction path and to select regions for targeted sampling. Thus, the algorithm does not rely on the coarse-physics minimum free-energy reaction path. Next, segments of high-accuracy free-energy surface are computed locally at selected regions from the targeted fine-physics sampling and are positioned relative to the coarse-physics free-energy shifts. The positioning is done by averaging the free-energy perturbations computed with multistep linear response approximation method. This method is analytically shown to provide results of the thermodynamic integration and the free-energy interpolation methods, while being extremely simple in implementation. Incorporating the metadynamics sampling to the algorithm is also briefly outlined. The application is demonstrated by calculating the B3LYP//6-31G*/MM free-energy barrier for an enzymatic reaction using a semiempirical PM6/MM reference potential. These modifications allow computing the activation free energies at a significantly reduced computational cost but at the same level of accuracy compared to computing full potential of mean force.

  4. Hemodialysis outcomes in a global sample of children and young adult hemodialysis patients: the PICCOLO MONDO cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Maria; Gibson, Keisha; Plattner, Brett; Gipson, Debbie S.; Kotanko, Peter; Marcelli, Daniele; Marelli, Cristina; Etter, Michael; Carioni, Paola; von Gersdorff, Gero; Xu, Xiaoqi; Kooman, Jeroen P.; Xiao, Qingqing; van der Sande, Frank M.; Power, Albert; Picoits-Filho, Roberto; Sylvestre, Lucimary; Westreich, Katherine; Usvyat, Len

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe the experience of pediatric and young adult hemodialysis (HD) patients from a global cohort. Methods The Pediatric Investigation and Close Collaborative Consortium for Ongoing Life Outcomes for MONitoring Dialysis Outcomes (PICCOLO MONDO) study provided de-identified electronic information of 3244 patients, ages 0–30 years from 2000 to 2012 in four regions: Asia, Europe, North America and South America. The study sample was categorized into pediatric (≤18 years old) and young adult (19–30 years old) groups based on the age at dialysis initiation. Results For those with known end-stage renal disease etiology, glomerular disease was the most common diagnosis in children and young adults. Using Europe as a reference group, North America [odds ratio (OR) 2.69; CI 1.29, 5.63] and South America (OR 4.21; CI 2.32, 7.63) had the greatest mortality among young adults. North America also had higher rates of overweight, obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hospitalizations and secondary diabetes compared with all other regions. Initial catheter use was greater for North American (86.4% in pediatric patients and 75.2% in young adults) and South America (80.6% in pediatric patients and 75.9% in young adults). Catheter use at 1-year follow-up was most common in North American children (77.3%) and young adults (62.9%). Asia had the lowest rate of catheter use. For both age groups, dialysis adequacy (equilibrated Kt/V) ranged between 1.4 and 1.5. In Asia, patients in both age groups had significantly longer treatment times than in any other region. Conclusions The PICCOLO MONDO study has provided unique baseline and 1-year follow-up information on children and young adults receiving HD around the globe. This cohort has brought to light aspects of care in these age groups that warrant further investigation. PMID:26985383

  5. Subtypes of depressive symptoms and inflammatory biomarkers: An exploratory study on a sample of HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Norcini Pala, A; Steca, P; Bagrodia, R; Helpman, L; Colangeli, V; Viale, P; Wainberg, M L

    2016-08-01

    Depressive symptoms cause major impairment and may accelerate HIV progression despite the use of antiretroviral medication. The somatic symptoms criteria for HIV infection and depression partially overlap, which can make differential diagnosis challenging. Because of chronic inflammation caused by HIV infection, HIV-positive patients may develop somatic and affective-cognitive symptoms of depression. Inflammation-related depression is primarily characterized with severe somatic symptoms such as fatigue and sleep disturbance. This study sought to explore the patterns of somatic and cognitive-affective depressive symptoms that characterize HIV-positive patients. Our specific aims were (1) to identify subtypes of depressive symptoms in a sample of HIV-positive patients; and (2) to test the subtypes' difference on inflammatory and HIV disease progression biomarkers. HIV-positive men and women (N=102) with and without depressive symptoms were randomly selected from an Italian HIV clinic. Depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), viral load (VL), CD4+, Il-6, TNF-α, and monocytes were assessed. The three subtypes formed using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) identified patients with (1) severe cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms; (2) severe/moderate somatic symptoms; and (3) absent or low depressive symptoms. The subtype with severe/moderate somatic symptoms was characterized with elevated levels of Il-6 and monocytes. No difference on HIV progression biomarkers was found. The subtypes of depressive symptoms might help differentiating depressive symptoms from HIV- and inflammatory-related somatic symptoms. When present, cognitive-affective and/or somatic symptoms cause significant impairment to patients' lives and thus warrant further assessment and treatment.

  6. Development of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS): A potential risk factor in cancer patients receiving anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Arif; Qureshi, Muhammad Saeed; Ahmad, Riaz; Manan, Abdul; Asif, Muhammad; Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan

    2014-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is characterized by hyperuricaemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalaemia, as well as hypocalcaemia due to the breakdown of tumor cells undergoing cancer therapy (chemo/radio). Therefore it is of interest to evaluate oxidative stress using selective biological markers [Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione (GSH) and Catalase (CAT)] in TLS. We report the marked differences (statistically significant with control) observed among a selected set of biomarkers of oxidative stress (MDA = 8.66±1.37; SOD = 0.15±0.11; GSH = 2.25±.77; CAT = 0.76±.57) in TLS patients in addition to other conventional biomarkers. Moreover, correlation was investigated among the parameters of oxidative stress and other circulating biomarkers of TLS. Data suggest the use of SOD, MDA, and GSH as potential diagnostic biomarker for TLS with other biomarkers. PMID:25512688

  7. Patients' Perceptions of the Causes of Their Success and Lack of Success in Achieving Their Potential in Spinal Cord Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belciug, Marian P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the patients' perception of the causes of their success and lack of success in achieving their potential in rehabilitation and their emotional reactions to the outcome of their rehabilitation. Thirty-five patients with spinal cord injury who were participating in the Rehabilitation Program at Hamilton…

  8. Heat treatment of samples improve the performance of the Nijmegen-Bethesda assay in hemophilia A patients undergoing immune tolerance induction.

    PubMed

    de Lima Montalvão, Silmara Aparecida; Tucunduva, Alini Camargo; de Almeida Sambo, Andrea Luísa; De Paula, Erich Vinicius; de Souza Medina, Samuel; Ozelo, Margareth Castro

    2015-12-01

    Nijmegen-Bethesda assay is the gold standard to assess inhibitory antibodies against factor (F) VIII. This method has some limitations, including high coefficient of variation and possible interference of residual endogenous or exogenous factor VIII. Heat-treatment of samples at 56 °C for 30 min could be a strategy to improve the sensitivity of this test. The aim of this study was to compare inhibitor quantification in hemophilia patients with and without inhibitor performed in previously heated and non-heated samples. A total of 109 analyses from 46 patients with severe hemophilia A were performed. Patients were divided into three groups: 20 patients with no history of inhibitor, recently and not recently exposed to FVIII (group I), 21 patients with history of inhibitor not exposed to FVIII (group II), and 5 patients (68 samples) undergoing an immune tolerance induction (ITI) protocol (group III). For patients with no history of inhibitor, heat-treatment did not modify the results (p=0.24). However, differences in inhibitor levels between heated and non-heated samples were observed in patients with history of inhibitor (group II, p<0.05) and in patients in ITI (group III, p<0.001). In 11 samples, inhibitor quantification shifted from negative to positive. Additionally, a longitudinal evaluation of each ITI patient showed similar trend line for the results of heated and non-heated samples. In this study, we demonstrated that heating samples increase sensitivity of Nijmegen-Bethesda assay, with no shift from negative to positive results in patients with no history of inhibitor. Furthermore, this procedure has an important role to patients undergoing an ITI protocol. PMID:26344704

  9. Older Age and Steroid Use Are Associated with Increasing Polypharmacy and Potential Medication Interactions Among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Parian, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity and polypharmacy, more prevalent among older persons, may impact the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aims of this study were to assess the frequency of polypharmacy and medication interactions within a cohort of older patients with IBD and describe IBD treatment patterns. Methods: Cohort study of 190 patients with IBD 65 years or older followed at a tertiary IBD referral center from 2006 to 2012. Data collected included demographics, IBD-specific characteristics including disease activity, and comorbidity. Medication histories were extracted from medical records, and data were used to classify polypharmacy, frequency, and severity of potential medication interactions and inappropriate medication use. Results: Older patients with IBD were prescribed an average of 9 routine medications. Severe polypharmacy (≥10 routine medications) was present in 43.2% of studied patients and associated with increasing age, greater comorbidity, and steroid use. Overall, 73.7% of patients had at least 1 potential medication interaction, including 40% of patients with potential IBD medication-associated interactions. Chronic steroids were prescribed to 40% of the older patients including 24% who were in remission or with mild disease activity. Only 39.5% of patients were on immunomodulators and 21.1% on biologics. Approximately, 35% of patients were given at least 1 Beers inappropriate medication and almost 10% were receiving chronic narcotics. Conclusions: Older patients with IBD are at increased risk for severe polypharmacy and potential major medication interactions especially with increasing comorbidity and chronic steroid use. Steroid-maintenance therapies are prevalent among the older patients with IBD with lower utilization of steroid-sparing regimens. PMID:25856768

  10. Comparative profiling of N-glycans isolated from serum samples of ovarian cancer patients and analyzed by microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Indranil; Alley, William R; Goetz, John A; Vasseur, Jacqueline A; Novotny, Milos V; Jacobson, Stephen C

    2013-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortalities for women in the United States and the most lethal gynecological cancer. Aberrant glycosylation has been linked to several human diseases, including ovarian cancer, and accurate measurement of changes in glycosylation may provide relevant diagnostic and prognostic information. In this work, we used microchip electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection to determine quantitative differences among the N-glycan profiles of control individuals and late-stage recurrent ovarian cancer patients prior to and after an experimental drug treatment that combined docetaxel and imatinib mesylate. N-Glycans were enzymatically released from 5-μL aliquots of serum samples, labeled with the anionic fluorescent tag, 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid, and analyzed on microfluidic devices. A 22-cm long separation channel, operated at 1250 V/cm, generated analysis times less than 100 s, separation efficiencies up to 8 × 10(5) plates (3.6 × 10(6) plates/m), and migration time reproducibilities better than 0.1% relative standard deviation after peak alignment. Principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed significant differences between the control and both pre- and post-treatment cancer samples and subtle differences between the pre- and post-treatment cancer samples. Area-under-the-curve (AUC) values from receiver operating characteristics (ROC) tests were used to evaluate the diagnostic merit of N-glycan peaks, and specific N-glycan peaks used in combination provided AUCs > 0.90 (highly accurate test) when the control and pretreatment cancer samples and control and post-treatment samples were compared.

  11. Classical molecular tests using urine samples as a potential screening tool for human papillomavirus detection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Marina; Camargo, Milena; Soto-De Leon, Sara C; Sanchez, Ricardo; Pineda-Peña, Andrea C; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel E; Patarroyo, Manuel A

    2013-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor associated with the development of cervical cancer (CC); however, there are other factors, such as immunosuppression caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), that favor progression of the illness. This study was thus aimed at evaluating the functionality of classical PCR-based molecular tests for the generic identification of HPV DNA (GP5+/GP6+, MY09/MY11, and pU1M/2R primers, individually or in combination) using cervical and urine samples from 194 HIV-positive women. Infected samples were tested with type-specific primers for six high-risk types (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45, and -58) and two low-risk types (HPV-6 and -11). HPV infection prevalence rates were 70.1% for the cervical samples and 63.9% for the urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent viral type in the cervical and urine samples, with higher rates of multiple infections than single infections detected in such samples. HPV DNA detection by PCR (mainly with the pU1M/2R primer set) in urine samples was positively associated with abnormal cytological findings (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/squamous intraepithelial lesions [ASCUS/SIL]). It was determined that the operative characteristics for detection of cytological abnormalities were similar for cervical and urine samples. This suggested using PCR for the detection of HPV DNA in urine samples as a potential screening strategy for CC prevention in future prevention and control programs along with currently implemented strategies for reducing the impact of the disease, i.e., urine samples are economical, are easy to collect, have wide acceptability among women, and have operative characteristics similar to those of cervical samples.

  12. Potentiation of quantitative electroencephalograms following prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Motoaki; Saeki, Takashi; Inoue, Misa; Iwanari, Hideo; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2013-01-01

    The long-lasting effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on electroencephalogram (EEG) activity are not clear. We aimed to investigate the cumulative rTMS effects on EEG and clinical outcomes in patients with major depression. Twenty-five patients with medication-resistant depression underwent 10 daily rTMS sessions over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We measured resting EEG and spectrum-power before and after the rTMS course. Clinical efficacy was evaluated with the Hamilton's Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). In an ANOVA model, including all prefrontal electrodes, post hoc analyses revealed significant time effects on the theta (F1,24 = 7.89, P = 0.010; +43%), delta (F1,24 = 6.58, P = 0.017; +26%), and alpha (F1,24 = 4.64, P = 0.042; 31%) bands without site specificity. Clinical correlations were observed between F4 alpha power increases and improvements in HAM-D retardation, F3 alpha power increases and improvements of the absolute changes in perseveration and error number on the WCST, and C3 and C4 theta power increases and improvements of the percent change in perseveration and error number on the WCST following rTMS. Consecutive prefrontal rTMS could induce long-lasting EEG potentiations beyond the aftereffects, resulting in improved cognitive and depressive symptoms.

  13. Potentiation of quantitative electroencephalograms following prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Motoaki; Saeki, Takashi; Inoue, Misa; Iwanari, Hideo; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2013-01-01

    The long-lasting effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on electroencephalogram (EEG) activity are not clear. We aimed to investigate the cumulative rTMS effects on EEG and clinical outcomes in patients with major depression. Twenty-five patients with medication-resistant depression underwent 10 daily rTMS sessions over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We measured resting EEG and spectrum-power before and after the rTMS course. Clinical efficacy was evaluated with the Hamilton's Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). In an ANOVA model, including all prefrontal electrodes, post hoc analyses revealed significant time effects on the theta (F1,24 = 7.89, P = 0.010; +43%), delta (F1,24 = 6.58, P = 0.017; +26%), and alpha (F1,24 = 4.64, P = 0.042; 31%) bands without site specificity. Clinical correlations were observed between F4 alpha power increases and improvements in HAM-D retardation, F3 alpha power increases and improvements of the absolute changes in perseveration and error number on the WCST, and C3 and C4 theta power increases and improvements of the percent change in perseveration and error number on the WCST following rTMS. Consecutive prefrontal rTMS could induce long-lasting EEG potentiations beyond the aftereffects, resulting in improved cognitive and depressive symptoms. PMID:23827366

  14. Root-cause analysis of a potentially sentinel transfusion event: lessons for improvement of patient safety.

    PubMed

    Adibi, Hossein; Khalesi, Nader; Ravaghi, Hamid; Jafari, Mahdi; Jeddian, Ali Reza

    2012-01-01

    Errors prevention and patient safety in transfusion medicine are a serious concern. Errors can occur at any step in transfusion and evaluation of their root causes can be helpful for preventive measures. Root cause analysis as a structured and systematic approach can be used for identification of underlying causes of adverse events. To specify system vulnerabilities and illustrate the potential of such an approach, we describe the root cause analysis of a case of transfusion error in emergency ward that could have been fatal. After reporting of the mentioned event, through reviewing records and interviews with the responsible personnel, the details of the incident were elaborated. Then, an expert panel meeting was held to define event timeline and the care and service delivery problems and discuss their underlying causes, safeguards and preventive measures. Root cause analysis of the mentioned event demonstrated that certain defects of the system and the ensuing errors were main causes of the event. It also points out systematic corrective actions. It can be concluded that health care organizations should endeavor to provide opportunities to discuss errors and adverse events and introduce preventive measures to find areas where resources need to be allocated to improve patient safety. PMID:23165813

  15. Prediction of the potential clinical outcomes for post-resuscitated patients after cardiac arrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sungmin; Kwon, Bojun; Yun, Il Dong; Lee, Sang Uk; Kim, Kyuseok; Kim, Joonghee

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral injuries after cardiac arrest are serious causes for morbidity. Many previous researches in the medical society have been proposed to prognosticate the functional recoveries of post-resuscitated patients after cardiac arrest, but the validity of suggested features and the automation of prognostication have not been made yet. This paper presents the automatic classification method which predicts the potential clinical outcomes of post-resuscitated patients who suffered from cardiac arrest. The global features and the local features are adapted from the researches from the medical society. The global features, which are consisted of the percentage of the partial volume under the uniformly increasing thresholds, represent the global tendency of apparent diffusion coefficient value in a DWI. The local features are localized and measured on the refined local apparent diffusion coefficient minimal points. The local features represent the ischemic change of small areas in a brain. The features are trained and classified by the random forest method, which have been widely used in the machine learning society for classification. The validity of features is automatically evaluated during the classification process. The proposed method achieved the 0.129 false-positive rate while maintaining the perfect true-positive rate. The area-under-curve of the proposed method was 0.9516, which showed the feasibility and the robustness of the proposed method.

  16. A potential mode of action for Anakinra in patients with arthrofibrosis following total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David; Coates, Jonathon; del Carpio Pons, Alicia; Horabin, Joanna; Walker, Andrew; Abdul, Nicole; Kalson, Nicholas S.; Brewster, Nigel T.; Weir, David J.; Deehan, David J.; Mann, Derek A.; Borthwick, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Arthrofibrosis is a fibroproliferative disease characterised by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components intra-articularly leading to pain and restricted range of movement. Although frequently observed following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) no therapeutic options exist. A pilot study demonstrated that intra-articular injection of Anakinra, an IL-1R antagonist, improved range of movement and pain in patients with arthrofibrosis however the mechanism of action is unknown. We hypothesise that IL-1α/β will drive an inflammatory phenotype in fibroblasts isolated from the knee, therefore identifying a potential mechanism of action for Anakinra in arthrofibrosis following TKA. Fibroblasts isolated from synovial membranes and infra-patellar fat pad of patients undergoing TKA express high levels of IL-1R1. Stimulation with IL-1α/β induced a pro-inflammatory phenotype characterised by increased secretion of GMCSF, IL-6 and IL-8. No significant difference in the inflammatory response was observed between fibroblasts isolated from synovial membrane or infra-patellar fat pad. IL-1α/β treatments induced a pro-inflammatory phenotype in fibroblasts from both synovial membrane and infra-patellar fat pad and therefore Anakinra can likely have an inhibitory effect on fibroblasts present in both tissues in vivo. It is also likely that fibroblast responses in the tissues are controlled by IL-1α/β availability and not their ability to respond to it. PMID:26553966

  17. Short-range screening potentials for classical Coulomb fluids: Reanalysis of Monte Carlo sampling and cluster model studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Yaakov

    1996-02-01

    Results for the short-range screening potentials of classical Coulomb fluids, which were significantly different from existing theory and from earlier approaches, were obtained by Ichimaru et al. by their analyses of extra long simulations. In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. E 50, 2977 (1994)], Ichimaru, Ogata, and Tsuruta (IOT) summarize these results and attempt to support them with more simulations and with cluster model studies. In this paper I present an alternative analysis of the same data, which is in contradiction with the analyses of Ichimaru et al., as portrayed by IOT. I present an analysis of general axially symmetric clusters that is different from that of IOT and provides insight into the short-range screening potentials of strongly coupled plasmas. In particular, I give an exact mathematical proof that questions the main conclusion of IOT from their cluster model studies [their Eq. (49b)].

  18. Potential drug-drug interactions in hospitalized patients with chronic heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Roblek, Tina; Trobec, Katja; Mrhar, Ales

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Polypharmacy is common in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but little is known about the prevalence and significance of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). This study evaluates DDIs in hospitalized patients. Material and methods We retrospectively screened medical charts over a 6-month period for diagnosis of chronic HF and/or COPD. Potential DDIs were evaluated using Lexi-Interact software. Results Seven hundred and seventy-eight patients were included in the study (median age 75 years, 61% men). The median number of drugs on admission and discharge was 6 (interquartile range (IQR) 4–9) and 7 (IQR 5–), respectively (p = 0.10). We recorded 6.5 ±5.7 potential DDIs per patient on admission and 7.2 ±5.6 on discharge (p = 0.2). From admission to discharge, type-C and type-X potential DDIs increased (p < 0.05 for both). Type X interactions were rare (< 1%), with the combination of a β-blocker and a β2 agonist being the most common (64%). There were significantly more type-C and type-D potential DDIs in patients with chronic HF as compared to patients with COPD (p < 0.001). Patients with concomitant chronic HF and COPD had more type-C and type-X potential DDIs when compared to those with individual disease (p < 0.005). An aldosterone antagonist and ACE inhibitor/ARB were prescribed to 3% of chronic HF patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 ml/(min × 1.73 m2). Conclusions The DDIs are common in patients with chronic HF and/or COPD, but only a few appear to be of clinical significance. The increase in potential DDIs from admission to discharge may reflect better guideline implementation rather than poor clinical practice. PMID:25395943

  19. Potentially toxic Pseudo-nitzschia species in plankton and fecal samples of Eubalaena australis from Península Valdés calving ground, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Valeria C.; Hoffmeyer, Mónica S.; Almandoz, Gastón O.; Sastre, Viviana; Degrati, Mariana

    2015-12-01

    Península Valdés (PV) in Argentina is an important calving ground for the southern right whale Eubalaena australis. However, a high mortality of calves has been observed in the last years, which could be associated with phycotoxin exposure. During a sampling program conducted late in the calving seasons of 2004, 2005 and 2010, potentially toxic species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia were observed to be an important component of the phytoplankton community and they were also found in fecal samples of two live whales and three stranded whales. In line with this, in the present study Pseudo-nitzschia australis, Pseudo-nitzschia fraudulenta, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens and the complex Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima were identified in fecal samples and phytoplankton samples by light and electron microscopy. Although no toxin analysis was carried out in the present study, our findings suggest that E. australis could be exposed to domoic acid in their calving ground.

  20. Fluorocarbon Contamination from the Drill on the Mars Science Laboratory: Potential Science Impact on Detecting Martian Organics by Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eigenbrode, J. L.; McAdam, A.; Franz, H.; Freissinet, C.; Bower, H.; Floyd, M.; Conrad, P.; Mahaffy, P.; Feldman, J.; Hurowitz, J.; Evans, J.; Anderson, M.; Jandura, L.; Brown, K.; Logan, C.; Kuhn, S.; Anderson, R.; Beegle, L.; Limonadi, D.; Rainen, R.; Umland, J.

    2013-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or trade name: Teflon by Dupont Co.) has been detected in rocks drilled during terrestrial testing of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) drilling hardware. The PTFE in sediments is a wear product of the seals used in the Drill Bit Assemblies (DBAs). It is expected that the drill assembly on the MSL flight model will also shed Teflon particles into drilled samples. One of the primary goals of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on MSL is to test for the presence of martian organics in samples. Complications introduced by the potential presence of PTFE in drilled samples to the SAM evolved gas analysis (EGA or pyrolysisquadrupole mass spectrometry, pyr-QMS) and pyrolysis- gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Pyr- GCMS) experiments was investigated.

  1. [Detection of B-lymphocyte clonality in samples of salivary gland tissue in patients with primary Sjogren syndrome].

    PubMed

    Vojvodic, D; Magic, Z; Stefanovic, D; Cikota, B; Ilic, V; Jovic, M; Tatic, V; Colic, M

    2001-01-01

    Intensive lymphoplasmocytic infiltration with atrophy of glandular tissue structures is the dominant patohistological feature found in exocrine glands of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS). The infiltrates consist of T and B lymphocyte clusters that make the structures resembling germinal centers, and numerous plasmocytes that are secreting imunoglobulines locally, including autoantibodies. By applying the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in our study we have shown the existence of dominant B cell clone in salivary glands samples of 4 out of 6 patients with SS, in the absence of clinical, routine laboratory, and patohistological signs of the lymphoma. B lymphocyte clones were detected upon the amplification of gene segment that encoded variable heavy chain immunoglobulin CDR3 region. Finding of single, dominant B lymphocyte clone could be of predictive significance, because these patients are predisposed to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) for which there is an assumption that it originates out of salivary glands from one of the clusters of proliferating B lymphocytes. PMID:11769416

  2. Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in a Clinical Sample of Patients with Internet Addiction: Hidden Comorbidity or Differential Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E.; Dreier, Michael; Müller, Kai W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Behavioral addictions and bipolar disorders have a certain probability of co-occurrence. While the presence of a manic episode has been defined as an exclusion criterion for gambling disorder, no such exclusion has been formulated for Internet addiction. Methods A clinical sample of 368 treatment seekers presenting with excessive to addictive Internet use was screened for bipolar spectrum disorders using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire. Psychopathology was assessed by the Symptom Checklist 90R and a clinical interview was administered to screen for comorbid disorders. Results Comorbid bipolar disorders were more frequent in patients meeting criteria for Internet addiction (30.9%) than among the excessive users (5.6%). This subgroup showed heightened psychopathological symptoms, including substance use disorders, affective disorders and personality disorders. Further differences were found regarding frequency of Internet use regarding social networking sites and online-pornography. Discussion Patients with Internet addiction have a heightened probability for meeting criteria of bipolar disorders. It is not possible to draw conclusions regarding the direction of this association but it is recommended to implement screening for bipolar disorders in patients presenting with Internet addiction. Conclusion Similar to gambling disorder, it might prove necessary to subsume bipolar disorders as an exclusion criterion for the future criteria of Internet addiction. PMID:26132914

  3. Effects of remote cutaneous pain on trigeminal laser-evoked potentials in migraine patients.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, Marina; Difruscolo, Olimpia; Sardaro, Michele; Libro, Giuseppe; Pecoraro, Carla; Serpino, Claudia; Lamberti, Paolo; Livrea, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate heat pain thresholds and evoked potentials following CO(2) laser thermal stimulation (laser-evoked potentials, LEPs), during remote application of capsaicin, in migraine patients vs. non-migraine healthy controls. Twelve outpatients suffering from migraine without aura were compared with 10 healthy controls. The LEPs were recorded by 6 scalp electrodes, stimulating the dorsum of the right hand and the right supraorbital zone in basal condition, during the application of 3% capsaicin on the dorsum of the left hand and after capsaicin removal. In normal subjects, the laser pain and the N2-P2 vertex complex obtained by the hand and face stimulation were significantly reduced during remote capsaicin application, with respect to pre-and post-capsaicin conditions, while in migraine LEPs and laser pain were not significantly modified during remote painful stimulation. In migraine a defective brainstem inhibiting control may coexist with cognitive factors of focalised attention to facial pain, less sensitive to distraction by a second pain. PMID:17563842

  4. Effects of remote cutaneous pain on trigeminal laser-evoked potentials in migraine patients.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, Marina; Difruscolo, Olimpia; Sardaro, Michele; Libro, Giuseppe; Pecoraro, Carla; Serpino, Claudia; Lamberti, Paolo; Livrea, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate heat pain thresholds and evoked potentials following CO(2) laser thermal stimulation (laser-evoked potentials, LEPs), during remote application of capsaicin, in migraine patients vs. non-migraine healthy controls. Twelve outpatients suffering from migraine without aura were compared with 10 healthy controls. The LEPs were recorded by 6 scalp electrodes, stimulating the dorsum of the right hand and the right supraorbital zone in basal condition, during the application of 3% capsaicin on the dorsum of the left hand and after capsaicin removal. In normal subjects, the laser pain and the N2-P2 vertex complex obtained by the hand and face stimulation were significantly reduced during remote capsaicin application, with respect to pre-and post-capsaicin conditions, while in migraine LEPs and laser pain were not significantly modified during remote painful stimulation. In migraine a defective brainstem inhibiting control may coexist with cognitive factors of focalised attention to facial pain, less sensitive to distraction by a second pain.

  5. Determination of the CYP1A-inducing potential of single substances, mixtures and extracts of samples in the micro-EROD assay with H4IIE cells.

    PubMed

    Schiwy, Andreas; Brinkmann, Markus; Thiem, Ines; Guder, Gabriele; Winkens, Kerstin; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Nüßer, Leonie; Thalmann, Beat; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Thoms, Brigitte; Hollert, Henner

    2015-11-01

    This protocol describes a quantitative and robust 96-well-plate-reader-based assay for the measurement of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity using the rat hepatoma cell line H4IIE. The assay can be used to determine the cytochrome P450 subfamily 1A (CYP1A)-inducing potential of single substances, as well as of mixtures and extracts of samples. It is based on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes (subfamily 1A) in cells after exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. One enzymatic reaction catalyzed by CYP1A is the deethylation of the exogenous substrate 7-ethoxyresorufin to the fluorescent product resorufin, which is measured as EROD activity in the assay. The CYP1A-inducing potential of a sample can be reliably quantified by comparing the EROD activity with the concentration-response curve of the standard substance 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, which can be detected at concentrations down to the picogram per liter range. A researcher familiar with the procedure can process up to 160 samples with four wells each within 3 d. The series described uses four plates with three concentrations per sample, which can be easily scaled to accommodate different sample sizes. PMID:26448361

  6. Differentiation of neuronal operations in latent components of event-related potentials in delayed match-to-sample tasks.

    PubMed

    Kropotov, Juri D; Ponomarev, Valery A

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study was to decompose ERPs into latent components associated with hypothetical processes of category discrimination, comparison to working memory and action-related operations. In five variants of the delayed match-to-sample s1-s2 task, instructions were varied for manipulation of the processes. The blind source separation was applied to the collection of ERPs. The category discrimination operation is attributed to three latent components with peak latencies of 130 to 170 ms, which are generated in different parts of the prestriate cortex. The comparison to working memory operation is attributed to a latent component that is generated in the temporal cortex and manifested in a positive deflection with a peak latency of 250 ms after s2. The category discrimination and comparison to working memory effects were dissociated spatially and temporally from attention and action selection effects. PMID:25639295

  7. Potential sample sites for South Pole-Aitken basin impact melt within the Schrödinger basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Debra; Kring, David A.

    2015-10-01

    Determining the age of the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin ranks among the highest priorities in lunar science. This datum would constrain the timing of the oldest and largest basin-forming event on the Moon, information that is essential to any evaluation of the collisional evolution of the early Solar System. To locate material that preserves the age of SPA, a geochemical model of SPA impact melt is integrated with chemical and mineralogical analyses of the lunar surface determined from orbit. Results suggest the southern wall of Schrödinger basin contains material with the mineralogical and geochemical signatures of SPA melt and, thus, represents a candidate destination for sampling material that can constrain the age of the SPA impact.

  8. Did past economic prosperity affect the health related quality of life predictors? A longitudinal study on a representative sample of Slovenian family medicine patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life (HRQOL) as an important measure of medical outcomes has been shown to be associated with demographic factors and the most common mental and chronic somatic diseases. This study’s aim was to identify factors predicting changes in HRQOL over a follow-up period in a representative sample of Slovenian family medicine patients. Methods In a longitudinal multi-centred study between 2003 and 2005, data were collected from 1118 consecutive attendees from 60 family medicine practices in Slovenia on quality of life, socio-demographic factors and the presence of mental disorders, with follow-up after 6 and 24 months. Retrospective information on chronic diseases was obtained from patients` health records. In three time-sequential multiple linear regression models, data on 601 patients (53.8%) was analysed to determine factors associated with each component score of quality of life. Results At baseline the patients were 48.58 (SE = 0.58) years of age, over half were women (386 (64.2%)) and most were Slovenian (548 (91.2%)). Quality of life was seen to improve over the two-year period. Factors significantly and consistently associated with a better mental component score of quality of life were social support, satisfactory circumstances in patients` household and absence of anxiety. Major life events in the past year and depression were shown to be risk factors for mental and physical components, while level of education, absence of long-term disability and chronic pain were identified as predictors of the physical component. Conclusions Detection and successful treatment of depression and anxiety has a potential to lead to improved quality of life in family medicine attendees; family physicians should be alert for the early onset of these conditions, knowing that symptoms of chronic pain, depression and anxiety often overlap in patients. Poorly educated patients and those lacking social support and/or satisfactory household

  9. Comparison of Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube with Culture on RGM Selective Agar for Detection of Mycobacteria in Sputum Samples from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Eltringham, Ian; Pickering, Julie; Gough, Helen; Preece, Clair L; Perry, John D

    2016-08-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an important cause of pulmonary disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A new culture medium (RGM medium) for the isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria from the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients has recently been reported. The aim of this study was to compare culture of sputum samples on RGM medium with culture using a standard automated liquid culture method. Sputum samples were obtained from 187 distinct patients with CF attending King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Each sample was decontaminated with 3% oxalic acid and inoculated into a mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) that was monitored for 42 days using the Bactec MGIT 960 instrument. Each sample was also cultured, without decontamination, onto RGM medium, which was incubated for 10 days at 30°C. Mycobacteria were isolated from 28 patients (prevalence, 15%). Mycobacteria were detected in 24 samples (86%) using the MGIT and in 23 samples (82%) using RGM medium (P = 1.00). In this setting, RGM medium showed sensitivity equivalent to that of the MGIT for isolation of NTM from the sputum of patients with CF. RGM medium offers a simple, convenient tool that can be embedded into routine culture methods, allowing the culture of all sputum samples that are submitted from patients with CF.

  10. Comparison of Mycobacterial Growth